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Sample records for endosomal recycling system

  1. Retromer guides STxB and CD8-M6PR from early to recycling endosomes, EHD1 guides STxB from recycling endosome to Golgi

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    McKenzie, Jenna E.; Raisley, Brent; Zhou, Xin; Naslavsky, Naava; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Caplan, Steve; Sheff, David

    2012-01-01

    Retrograde trafficking transports proteins, lipids and toxins from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and ER. To reach the Golgi, these cargos must transit the endosomal system, consisting of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes. All cargos pass through early endosomes, but may take different routes to the Golgi. Retromer dependent cargos bypass the late endosomes to reach the Golgi. We compared how two very different retromer dependent cargos negotiate the endosomal sorting system. Shiga toxin B, bound to the external layer of the plasma membrane, and chimeric CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor, which is anchored via a transmembrane domain. Both appear to pass through the recycling endosome. Ablation of the recycling endosome diverted both of these cargos to an aberrant compartment and prevented them from reaching the Golgi. Once in the recycling endosome, Shiga toxin required EHD1 to traffic to the TGN, while the CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor was not significantly dependent on EHD1. Knockdown of retromer components left cargo in the early endosomes, suggesting that it is required for retrograde exit from this compartment. This work establishes the recycling endosome as a required step in retrograde traffic of at least these two retromer dependent cargos. Along this pathway, retromer is associated with EE to recycling endosome traffic, while EHD1 is associated with recycling endosome to TGN traffic of STxB. PMID:22540229

  2. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

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    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  3. Membrane tethering complexes in the endosomal system

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    Anne eSpang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the CORVET complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the HOPS complex. Recycling through the TGN and to the plasma membrane is facilitated by the GARP and EARP complexes, respectively. However, there are other tethering functions in the endosomal system as there are multiple pathways through which proteins can be delivered from endosomes to either the TGN or the plasma membrane. Furthermore, complexes that may be part of novel tethering complexes have been recently identified. Thus it is likely that more tethering factors exist. In this review, I will provide an overview of different tethering complexes of the endosomal system and discuss how they may provide specificity in membrane traffic.

  4. Syndapin/SDPN-1 is required for endocytic recycling and endosomal actin association in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine

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    Gleason, Adenrele M.; Nguyen, Ken C. Q.; Hall, David H.; Grant, Barth D.

    2016-01-01

    Syndapin/pascin-family F-BAR domain proteins bind directly to membrane lipids and are associated with actin dynamics at the plasma membrane. Previous reports also implicated mammalian syndapin 2 in endosome function during receptor recycling, but precise analysis of a putative recycling function for syndapin in mammalian systems is difficult because of its effects on the earlier step of endocytic uptake and potential redundancy among the three separate genes that encode mammalian syndapin isoforms. Here we analyze the endocytic transport function of the only Caenorhabditis elegans syndapin, SDPN-1. We find that SDPN-1 is a resident protein of the early and basolateral recycling endosomes in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium, and sdpn-1 deletion mutants display phenotypes indicating a block in basolateral recycling transport. sdpn-1 mutants accumulate abnormal endosomes positive for early endosome and recycling endosome markers that are normally separate, and such endosomes accumulate high levels of basolateral recycling cargo. Furthermore, we observed strong colocalization of endosomal SDPN-1 with the F-actin biosensor Lifeact and found that loss of SDPN-1 greatly reduced Lifeact accumulation on early endosomes. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence for an in vivo function of syndapin in endocytic recycling and suggest that syndapin promotes transport via endosomal fission. PMID:27630264

  5. Membrane Tethering Complexes in the Endosomal System

    OpenAIRE

    Spang, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vesicles that are generated by endocytic events at the plasma membrane are destined to early endosomes. A prerequisite for proper fusion is the tethering of two membrane entities. Tethering of vesicles to early endosomes is mediated by the class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) complex, while fusion of late endosomes with lysosomes depends on the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex. Recycling through the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and to the plasma membrane is...

  6. Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor define distinct populations of recycling endosomes.

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    Kobayashi, Hotaka; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2013-09-01

    Recycling endosomes are key platforms for endocytic recycling that return internalized molecules back to the plasma membrane. To determine how recycling endosomes perform their functions, searching for proteins and lipids that specifically localized at recycling endosomes has often been performed by colocalization analyses between candidate molecules and conventional recycling endosome markers. However, it remains unclear whether all the conventional markers have identical localizations. Here we report finding that three well-known recycling endosome markers, i.e., Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor (TfR), have different intracellular localizations in PC12 cells. The results of immunofluorescence analyses showed that the signals of endogenous Arf6, Rab11 and TfR in nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells generally differed, although there was some overlapping. Our findings provide new information about recycling endosome markers, and they highlight the heterogeneity of recycling endosomes.

  7. Unconventional secretion of tissue transglutaminase involves phospholipid-dependent delivery into recycling endosomes.

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    Evgeny A Zemskov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although endosomal compartments have been suggested to play a role in unconventional protein secretion, there is scarce experimental evidence for such involvement. Here we report that recycling endosomes are essential for externalization of cytoplasmic secretory protein tissue transglutaminase (tTG. The de novo synthesized cytoplasmic tTG does not follow the classical ER/Golgi-dependent secretion pathway, but is targeted to perinuclear recycling endosomes, and is delivered inside these vesicles prior to externalization. On its route to the cell surface tTG interacts with internalized β1 integrins inside the recycling endosomes and is secreted as a complex with recycled β1 integrins. Inactivation of recycling endosomes, blocking endosome fusion with the plasma membrane, or downregulation of Rab11 GTPase that controls outbound trafficking of perinuclear recycling endosomes, all abrogate tTG secretion. The initial recruitment of cytoplasmic tTG to recycling endosomes and subsequent externalization depend on its binding to phosphoinositides on endosomal membranes. These findings begin to unravel the unconventional mechanism of tTG secretion which utilizes the long loop of endosomal recycling pathway and indicate involvement of endosomal trafficking in non-classical protein secretion.

  8. Recycling endosomes in apical plasma membrane domain formation and epithelial cell polarity

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    Golachowska, Magdalena R.; Hoekstra, Dick; van IJzendoorn, Sven C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling endosomes have taken central stage in the intracellular sorting and polarized trafficking of apical and basolateral plasma membrane components. Molecular players in the underlying mechanisms are now emerging, including small GTPases, class V myosins and adaptor proteins. In particular,

  9. Methods of analysis of the membrane trafficking pathway from recycling endosomes to lysosomes.

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    Matsui, Takahide; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    The transferrin receptor (TfR) is responsible for iron uptake through its trafficking between the plasma membrane and recycling endosomes, and as a result it has become a well-known marker for recycling endosomes. Although the molecular basis of the TfR recycling pathway has been thoroughly investigated, the TfR degradation mechanism has been poorly understood. Exposure of cultured cells to two drugs, the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1, recently showed that TfR is not only recycled back to the plasma membrane after endocytosis but is constitutively transported to lysosomes for degradation. The results of genome-wide screening of mouse Rab small GTPases (common regulators of membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes) have indicated that Rab12 regulates TfR trafficking to lysosomes independently of the known membrane trafficking pathways, for example, the conventional endocytic pathway and recycling pathway. This chapter summarizes the methods that the authors used to analyze the membrane trafficking pathway from recycling endosomes to lysosomes that is specifically regulated by Rab12. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. GGA1 regulates signal-dependent sorting of BACE1 to recycling endosomes, which moderates Aβ production

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    Toh, Wei Hong; Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Hossain, Mohammed Iqbal; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    The diversion of the membrane-bound β-site amyloid precursor protein–(APP) cleaving enzyme (BACE1) from the endolysosomal pathway to recycling endosomes represents an important transport step in the regulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) production. However, the mechanisms that regulate endosome sorting of BACE1 are poorly understood. Here we assessed the transport of BACE1 from early to recycling endosomes and have identified essential roles for the sorting nexin 4 (SNX4)-mediated, signal-independent pathway and for a novel signal-mediated pathway. The signal-mediated pathway is regulated by the phosphorylation of the DXXLL-motif sequence DISLL in the cytoplasmic tail of BACE1. The phosphomimetic S498D BACE1 mutant was trafficked to recycling endosomes at a faster rate compared with wild-type BACE1 or the nonphosphorylatable S498A mutant. The rapid transit of BACE1 S498D from early endosomes was coupled with reduced levels of amyloid precursor protein processing and Aβ production, compared with the S498A mutant. We show that the adaptor, GGA1, and retromer are essential to mediate rapid trafficking of phosphorylated BACE1 to recycling endosomes. In addition, the BACE1 DISLL motif is phosphorylated and regulates endosomal trafficking, in primary neurons. Therefore, post-translational phosphorylation of DISLL enhances the exit of BACE1 from early endosomes, a pathway mediated by GGA1 and retromer, which is important in regulating Aβ production. PMID:29142073

  11. Integrin-linked kinase and ELMO2 modulate recycling endosomes in keratinocytes.

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    Ho, Ernest; Ivanova, Iordanka A; Dagnino, Lina

    2016-12-01

    The formation of tight cell-cell junctions is essential in the epidermis for its barrier properties. In this tissue, keratinocytes follow a differentiation program tightly associated with their movement from the innermost basal to the outer suprabasal layers, and with changes in their cell-cell adhesion profile. Intercellular adhesion in keratinocytes is mediated through cell-cell contacts, including E-cadherin-based adherens junctions. Although the mechanisms that mediate E-cadherin delivery to the plasma membrane have been widely studied in simple epithelia, this process is less well understood in the stratified epidermis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Engulfment and Cell Motility 2 (ELMO2) and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in the positioning of E-cadherin-containing recycling endosomes during establishment of cell-cell contacts in differentiating keratinocytes. We now show that induction of keratinocyte differentiation by Ca 2+ is accompanied by localization of ELMO2 and ILK to Rab4- and Rab11a-containing recycling endosomes. The positioning of long-loop Rab11a-positive endosomes at areas adjacent to cell-cell contacts is disrupted in ELMO2- or ILK-deficient keratinocytes, and is associated with impaired localization of E-cadherin to cell borders. Our studies show a previously unrecognized role for ELMO2 and ILK in modulation of endosomal positioning, which may play key roles in epidermal sheet maintenance and permeability barrier function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Basolateral Endocytic Recycling Requires RAB-10 and AMPH-1 Mediated Recruitment of RAB-5 GAP TBC-2 to Endosomes

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    Liu, Ou; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RAB-5/Rab5 is a master regulator of the early endosome, required for a myriad of coordinated activities, including the degradation and recycling of internalized cargo. Here we focused on the recycling function of the early endosome and the regulation of RAB-5 by GAP protein TBC-2 in the basolateral C. elegans intestine. We demonstrate that downstream basolateral recycling regulators, GTPase RAB-10/Rab10 and BAR domain protein AMPH-1/Amphiphysin, bind to TBC-2 and help to recruit it to endosomes. In the absence of RAB-10 or AMPH-1 binding to TBC-2, RAB-5 membrane association is abnormally high and recycling cargo is trapped in early endosomes. Furthermore, the loss of TBC-2 or AMPH-1 leads to abnormally high spatial overlap of RAB-5 and RAB-10. Taken together our results indicate that RAB-10 and AMPH-1 mediated down-regulation of RAB-5 is an important step in recycling, required for cargo exit from early endosomes and regulation of early endosome–recycling endosome interactions. PMID:26393361

  13. HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking through the Endosomal Recycling Compartment Is Required for Particle Incorporation.

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    Kirschman, Junghwa; Qi, Mingli; Ding, Lingmei; Hammonds, Jason; Dienger-Stambaugh, Krista; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Lapierre, Lynne A; Goldenring, James R; Spearman, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) encodes specific trafficking signals within its long cytoplasmic tail (CT) that regulate incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Rab11-family interacting protein 1C (FIP1C) and Rab14 are host trafficking factors required for Env particle incorporation, suggesting that Env undergoes sorting from the endosomal recycling compartment (ERC) to the site of particle assembly on the plasma membrane. We disrupted outward sorting from the ERC by expressing a C-terminal fragment of FIP1C (FIP1C 560-649 ) and examined the consequences on Env trafficking and incorporation into particles. FIP1C 560-649 reduced cell surface levels of Env and prevented its incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Remarkably, Env was trapped in an exaggerated perinuclear ERC in a CT-dependent manner. Mutation of either the Yxxϕ endocytic motif or the YW 795 motif in the CT prevented Env trapping in the ERC and restored incorporation into particles. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 Env was not retained in the ERC, while substitution of the HIV-1 CT for the SIV CT resulted in SIV Env retention in this compartment. These results provide the first direct evidence that Env traffics through the ERC and support a model whereby HIV-1 Env is specifically targeted to the ERC prior to FIP1C- and CT-dependent outward sorting to the particle assembly site on the plasma membrane. IMPORTANCE The HIV envelope protein is an essential component of the viral particle. While many aspects of envelope protein structure and function have been established, the pathway it follows in the cell prior to reaching the site of particle assembly is not well understood. The envelope protein has a very long cytoplasmic tail that interacts with the host cell trafficking machinery. Here, we utilized a truncated form of the trafficking adaptor FIP1C protein to arrest the intracellular transport of the envelope protein, demonstrating that it becomes

  14. Apical transport of influenza A virus ribonucleoprotein requires Rab11-positive recycling endosome.

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    Fumitaka Momose

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus RNA genome exists as eight-segmented ribonucleoprotein complexes containing viral RNA polymerase and nucleoprotein (vRNPs. Packaging of vRNPs and virus budding take place at the apical plasma membrane (APM. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of apical transport of newly synthesized vRNP. Transfection of fluorescent-labeled antibody and subsequent live cell imaging revealed that punctate vRNP signals moved along microtubules rapidly but intermittently in both directions, suggestive of vesicle trafficking. Using a series of Rab family protein, we demonstrated that progeny vRNP localized to recycling endosome (RE in an active/GTP-bound Rab11-dependent manner. The vRNP interacted with Rab11 through viral RNA polymerase. The localization of vRNP to RE and subsequent accumulation to the APM were impaired by overexpression of Rab binding domains (RBD of Rab11 family interacting proteins (Rab11-FIPs. Similarly, no APM accumulation was observed by overexpression of class II Rab11-FIP mutants lacking RBD. These results suggest that the progeny vRNP makes use of Rab11-dependent RE machinery for APM trafficking.

  15. Recycling endosomes in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes constitute an auxiliary intracellular trafficking pathway for newly synthesized perforin

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    Lesteberg, Kelsey E.; Orange, Jordan S.; Makedonas, George

    2018-01-01

    Background Although cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) store perforin within cytoplasmic secretory granules for immediate use, perforin is synthesized anew within hours of TCR stimulation. Previously, we observed new perforin protein at an immunologic synapse independent of secretory lysosomes; herein we aimed to determine how new perforin transits to the synapse if not via lytic granules. Results We analyzed antigen-specific human CTLs via imaging flow cytometry and high-resolution confocal microscopy, with attention to intracellular trafficking components and new perforin. The recycling endosome compartments identified by rab8, rab11a, rab4, and rab37 co-localized with new perforin, as well as the SNAREs vti1b and VAMP4. After ablating the function of the recycling endosome pathway, we observed a relative accumulation of new perforin in rab8 vesicles. Conclusions The recycling endosome pathway may serve as an auxiliary intracellular route for the delivery of new perforin to an immunologic synapse in order to perpetuate a cytotoxic response. PMID:28822075

  16. Yersinia pestis Targets the Host Endosome Recycling Pathway during the Biogenesis of the Yersinia-Containing Vacuole To Avoid Killing by Macrophages

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    Connor, Michael G.; Pulsifer, Amanda R.; Ceresa, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Yersinia pestis has evolved many strategies to evade the innate immune system. One of these strategies is the ability to survive within macrophages. Upon phagocytosis, Y. pestis prevents phagolysosome maturation and establishes a modified compartment termed the Yersinia-containing vacuole (YCV). Y. pestis actively inhibits the acidification of this compartment, and eventually, the YCV transitions from a tight-fitting vacuole into a spacious replicative vacuole. The mechanisms to generate the YCV have not been defined. However, we hypothesized that YCV biogenesis requires Y. pestis interactions with specific host factors to subvert normal vesicular trafficking. In order to identify these factors, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screen to identify host factors required for Y. pestis survival in macrophages. This screen revealed that 71 host proteins are required for intracellular survival of Y. pestis. Of particular interest was the enrichment for genes involved in endosome recycling. Moreover, we demonstrated that Y. pestis actively recruits Rab4a and Rab11b to the YCV in a type three secretion system-independent manner, indicating remodeling of the YCV by Y. pestis to resemble a recycling endosome. While recruitment of Rab4a was necessary to inhibit YCV acidification and lysosomal fusion early during infection, Rab11b appeared to contribute to later stages of YCV biogenesis. We also discovered that Y. pestis disrupts global host endocytic recycling in macrophages, possibly through sequestration of Rab11b, and this process is required for bacterial replication. These data provide the first evidence that Y. pestis targets the host endocytic recycling pathway to avoid phagolysosomal maturation and generate the YCV. PMID:29463656

  17. The Compressor Recycle System

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    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  18. Neuron specific Rab4 effector GRASP-1 coordinates membrane specialization and maturation of recycling endosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper); I. Popa (Ioana); K. Futai (Kensuke); E. Sanchez-Martinez (Emma); P. Wulf (Phebe); T. van Vlijmen (Thijs); B.R. Dortland (Bjorn); V. Oorschot (Viola); R. Govers (Robert); M. Monti (Maria); A.J.R. Heck (Albert); M. Sheng (Morgan); J. Klumperman (Judith); H. Rehmann (Holger); D. Jaarsma (Dick); L.C. Kapitein (Lukas); P. van der Sluijs

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe endosomal pathway in neuronal dendrites is essential for membrane receptor trafficking and proper synaptic function and plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms that organize specific endocytic trafficking routes are poorly understood. Here, we identify GRIP-associated protein-1

  19. The Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates cell polarity and endosomal membrane recycling in osteoclasts.

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    Steenblock, Charlotte; Heckel, Tobias; Czupalla, Cornelia; Espírito Santo, Ana Isabel; Niehage, Christian; Sztacho, Martin; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-06-27

    The initial step of bone digestion is the adhesion of osteoclasts onto bone surfaces and the assembly of podosomal belts that segregate the bone-facing ruffled membrane from other membrane domains. During bone digestion, membrane components of the ruffled border also need to be recycled after macropinocytosis of digested bone materials. How osteoclast polarity and membrane recycling are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we show that the Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates these events through its Src-dependent interaction with different actin-based protein networks. At the plasma membrane, FGD6 couples cell adhesion and actin dynamics by regulating podosome formation through the assembly of complexes comprising the Cdc42-interactor IQGAP1, the Rho GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP10, and the integrin interactors Talin-1/2 or Filamin A. On endosomes and transcytotic vesicles, FGD6 regulates retromer-dependent membrane recycling through its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASH. These results provide a mechanism by which a single Cdc42-exchange factor controlling different actin-based processes coordinates cell adhesion, cell polarity, and membrane recycling during bone degradation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. PDGF-regulated rab4-dependent recycling of alphavbeta3 integrin from early endosomes is necessary for cell adhesion and spreading.

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    Roberts, M; Barry, S; Woods, A; van der Sluijs, P; Norman, J

    2001-09-18

    It has been postulated that the regulation of integrin vesicular traffic facilitates cell migration by internalizing integrins at the rear of the cell and transporting them forward within vesicles for exocytosis at the leading edge to form new contacts with the extracellular matrix. The rab family of GTPases control key targeting events in the endo/exocytic pathway; therefore, these GTPases may be involved in the regulation of cell-matrix contact assembly. The endo/exocytic cycle of alphavbeta3 and alpha5beta1 integrins was studied using mouse 3T3 fibroblast cell lines. In serum-starved cells, internalized integrins were transported through rab4-positive, early endosomes and arrived at the rab11-positive, perinuclear recycling compartment approximately 30 min after endocytosis. From the recycling compartment, integrins were recycled to the plasma membrane in a rab11-dependent fashion. Following treatment with PDGF, alphavbeta3 integrin, but not alpha5beta1, was rapidly recycled directly back to the plasma membrane from the early endosomes via a rab4-dependent mechanism without the involvement of rab11. This rapid recycling pathway directed alphavbeta3 to numerous small puncta distributed evenly across the dorsal surface of the cell, and the integrin only became localized into focal complexes at later times following PDGF addition. Interestingly, inhibition of PDGF-stimulated alphavbeta3 recycling using dominant-negative rab4 mutants compromised cell adhesion and spreading on vitronectin (a ligand for alphavbeta3), but adhesion to fibronectin (a ligand for alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3) was unchanged. We propose that growth factor-regulated, rab4-dependent recycling of alphavbeta3 integrin from early endosomes to the plasma membrane is a critical upstream event in the assembly of cell-matrix contacts.

  1. Two novel WD40 domain–containing proteins, Ere1 and Ere2, function in the retromer-mediated endosomal recycling pathway

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    Shi, Yufeng; Stefan, Christopher J.; Rue, Sarah M.; Teis, David; Emr, Scott D.

    2011-01-01

    Regulated secretion, nutrient uptake, and responses to extracellular signals depend on cell-surface proteins that are internalized and recycled back to the plasma membrane. However, the underlying mechanisms that govern membrane protein recycling to the cell surface are not fully known. Using a chemical-genetic screen in yeast, we show that the arginine transporter Can1 is recycled back to the cell surface via two independent pathways mediated by the sorting nexins Snx4/41/42 and the retromer complex, respectively. In addition, we identify two novel WD40-domain endosomal recycling proteins, Ere1 and Ere2, that function in the retromer pathway. Ere1 is required for Can1 recycling via the retromer-mediated pathway, but it is not required for the transport of other retromer cargoes, such as Vps10 and Ftr1. Biochemical studies reveal that Ere1 physically interacts with internalized Can1. Ere2 is present in a complex containing Ere1 on endosomes and functions as a regulator of Ere1. Taken together, our results suggest that Snx4/41/42 and the retromer comprise two independent pathways for the recycling of internalized cell-surface proteins. Moreover, a complex containing the two novel proteins Ere1 and Ere2 mediates cargo-specific recognition by the retromer pathway. PMID:21880895

  2. L-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels Regulate Synaptic-Activity-Triggered Recycling Endosome Fusion in Neuronal Dendrites

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    Brian G. Hiester

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The repertoire and abundance of proteins displayed on the surface of neuronal dendrites are tuned by regulated fusion of recycling endosomes (REs with the dendritic plasma membrane. While this process is critical for neuronal function and plasticity, how synaptic activity drives RE fusion remains unexplored. We demonstrate a multistep fusion mechanism that requires Ca2+ from distinct sources. NMDA receptor Ca2+ initiates RE fusion with the plasma membrane, while L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (L-VGCCs regulate whether fused REs collapse into the membrane or reform without transferring their cargo to the cell surface. Accordingly, NMDA receptor activation triggered AMPA-type glutamate receptor trafficking to the dendritic surface in an L-VGCC-dependent manner. Conversely, potentiating L-VGCCs enhanced AMPA receptor surface expression only when NMDA receptors were also active. Thus L-VGCCs play a role in tuning activity-triggered surface expression of key synaptic proteins by gating the mode of RE fusion.

  3. The endosomal recycling of FgSnc1 by FgSnx41-FgSnx4 heterodimer is essential for polarized growth and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

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    Zheng, Wenhui; Lin, Yahong; Fang, Wenqin; Zhao, Xu; Lou, Yi; Wang, Guanghui; Zheng, Huawei; Liang, Qifu; Abubakar, Yakubu Saddeeq; Olsson, Stefan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zonghua

    2018-04-20

    Endosomal sorting machineries regulate the transport of their cargoes among intracellular compartments. However, the molecular nature of such intracellular trafficking processes in pathogenic fungal development and pathogenicity remains unclear. Here, we dissect the roles and molecular mechanisms of two sorting nexin proteins and their cargoes in endosomal recycling in Fusarium graminearum using high-resolution microscopy and high-throughput co-immunoprecipitation strategies. We show that the sorting nexins, FgSnx41 and FgSnx4, interact with each other and assemble into a functionally interdependent heterodimer through their respective BAR domains. Further analyses demonstrate that the dimer localizes to the early endosomal membrane and coordinates endosomal sorting. The small GTPase FgRab5 regulates the correct localization of FgSnx41-FgSnx4 and is consequently required for its trafficking function. The protein FgSnc1 is a cargo of FgSnx41-FgSnx4 and regulates the fusion of secreted vesicles with the fungal growing apex and plasma membrane. In the absence of FgSnx41 or FgSnx4, FgSnc1 is mis-sorted and degraded in the vacuole, and null deletion of either component causes defects in the fungal polarized growth and virulence. Overall, for the first time, our results reveal the mechanism of FgSnc1 endosomal recycling by FgSnx41-FgSnx4 heterodimer which is essential for polarized growth and pathogenicity in F. graminearum. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Specific recycling receptors are targeted to the immune synapse by the intraflagellar transport system

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    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Masi, Giulia; Onnis, Anna; Galgano, Donatella; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Pazour, Gregory J.; Baldari, Cosima T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T cell activation requires sustained signaling at the immune synapse, a specialized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) that assembles following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide. Central to sustained signaling is the continuous recruitment of TCRs to the immune synapse. These TCRs are partly mobilized from an endosomal pool by polarized recycling. We have identified IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, as a central regulator of TCR recycling to the immune synapse. Here, we have investigated the interplay of IFT20 with the Rab GTPase network that controls recycling. We found that IFT20 forms a complex with Rab5 and the TCR on early endosomes. IFT20 knockdown (IFT20KD) resulted in a block in the recycling pathway, leading to a build-up of recycling TCRs in Rab5+ endosomes. Recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), but not of CXCR4, was disrupted by IFT20 deficiency. The IFT components IFT52 and IFT57 were found to act together with IFT20 to regulate TCR and TfR recycling. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms that control TCR recycling and immune synapse assembly, and underscore the trafficking-related function of the IFT system beyond ciliogenesis. PMID:24554435

  5. Positioning of AMPA Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture

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    Marta Esteves da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lateral diffusion in the membrane and endosomal trafficking both contribute to the addition and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs at postsynaptic sites. However, the spatial coordination between these mechanisms has remained unclear, because little is known about the dynamics of AMPAR-containing endosomes. In addition, how the positioning of AMPAR-containing endosomes affects synapse organization and functioning has never been directly explored. Here, we used live-cell imaging in hippocampal neuron cultures to show that intracellular AMPARs are transported in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, which frequently enter dendritic spines and depend on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. By using chemically induced dimerization systems to recruit kinesin (KIF1C or myosin (MyosinV/VI motors to Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, we controlled their trafficking and found that induced removal of recycling endosomes from spines decreases surface AMPAR expression and PSD-95 clusters at synapses. Our data suggest a mechanistic link between endosome positioning and postsynaptic structure and composition.

  6. The functional interplay of Rab11, FIP3 and Rho proteins on the endosomal recycling pathway controls cell shape and symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; McCaffrey, Mary W; Graziani, Andrea; Alcover, Andrés

    2018-07-04

    Several families of small GTPases regulate a variety of fundamental cellular processes, encompassing growth factor signal transduction, vesicular trafficking and control of the cytoskeleton. Frequently, their action is hierarchical and complementary, but much of the detail of their functional interactions remains to be clarified. It is well established that Rab family members regulate a variety of intracellular vesicle trafficking pathways. Moreover, Rho family GTPases are pivotal for the control of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the interplay between these 2 types of GTPases has been rarely reported. We discuss here our recent findings showing that Rab11, a key regulator of endosomal recycling, and Rac1, a central actin cytoskeleton regulator involved in lamellipodium formation and cell migration, interplay on endosomes through the Rab11 effector FIP3. In the context of the rapidly reactive T lymphocytes, Rab11-Rac1 endosomal functional interplay is important to control cell shape changes and cell symmetry during lymphocyte spreading and immunological synapse formation and ultimately modulate T cell activation.

  7. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  8. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  9. Anterograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized epithelia is Rab1- and Rab8-dependent and recycling endosome-independent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A Bertuccio

    Full Text Available The intermediate conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1 targets to the basolateral (BL membrane in polarized epithelia where it plays a key role in transepithelial ion transport. However, there are no studies defining the anterograde and retrograde trafficking of KCa3.1 in polarized epithelia. Herein, we utilize Biotin Ligase Acceptor Peptide (BLAP-tagged KCa3.1 to address these trafficking steps in polarized epithelia, using MDCK, Caco-2 and FRT cells. We demonstrate that KCa3.1 is exclusively targeted to the BL membrane in these cells when grown on filter supports. Following endocytosis, KCa3.1 degradation is prevented by inhibition of lysosomal/proteosomal pathways. Further, the ubiquitylation of KCa3.1 is increased following endocytosis from the BL membrane and PR-619, a deubiquitylase inhibitor, prevents degradation, indicating KCa3.1 is targeted for degradation by ubiquitylation. We demonstrate that KCa3.1 is targeted to the BL membrane in polarized LLC-PK1 cells which lack the μ1B subunit of the AP-1 complex, indicating BL targeting of KCa3.1 is independent of μ1B. As Rabs 1, 2, 6 and 8 play roles in ER/Golgi exit and trafficking of proteins to the BL membrane, we evaluated the role of these Rabs in the trafficking of KCa3.1. In the presence of dominant negative Rab1 or Rab8, KCa3.1 cell surface expression was significantly reduced, whereas Rabs 2 and 6 had no effect. We also co-immunoprecipitated KCa3.1 with both Rab1 and Rab8. These results suggest these Rabs are necessary for the anterograde trafficking of KCa3.1. Finally, we determined whether KCa3.1 traffics directly to the BL membrane or through recycling endosomes in MDCK cells. For these studies, we used either recycling endosome ablation or dominant negative RME-1 constructs and determined that KCa3.1 is trafficked directly to the BL membrane rather than via recycling endosomes. These results are the first to describe the anterograde and retrograde trafficking of KCa3

  10. Involvement of the endosomal-lysosomal system correlates with regional pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Gábor G; Gelpi, Ellen; Ströbel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The endosomal-lysosomal system (ELS) has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine how experimental observations can be translated to human neuropathology and whether alterations of the ELS relate to neuropathologic changes...... correlate with regional pathology. Overloading of this system might impair the function of lysosomal enzymes and thus may mimic some features of lysosomal storage disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jul...

  11. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Endocytosis and Endosomal Trafficking in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez Valencia, Julio; Goodman, Kaija; Otegui, Marisa S

    2016-04-29

    Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking are essential processes in cells that control the dynamics and turnover of plasma membrane proteins, such as receptors, transporters, and cell wall biosynthetic enzymes. Plasma membrane proteins (cargo) are internalized by endocytosis through clathrin-dependent or clathrin-independent mechanism and delivered to early endosomes. From the endosomes, cargo proteins are recycled back to the plasma membrane via different pathways, which rely on small GTPases and the retromer complex. Proteins that are targeted for degradation through ubiquitination are sorted into endosomal vesicles by the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery for degradation in the vacuole. Endocytic and endosomal trafficking regulates many cellular, developmental, and physiological processes, including cellular polarization, hormone transport, metal ion homeostasis, cytokinesis, pathogen responses, and development. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that mediate the recognition and sorting of endocytic and endosomal cargos, the vesiculation processes that mediate their trafficking, and their connection to cellular and physiological responses in plants.

  13. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  14. Kinetic imaging of NPC1L1 and sterol trafficking between plasma membrane and recycling endosomes in hepatoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwig Petersen, Nicole; Færgeman, Nils J; Yu, Liqing

    2008-01-01

    fluorescent protein (NPC1L1-EGFP) and cholesterol analogues in hepatoma cells. At steady state about 42% of NPC1L1 resided in the transferrin (Tf) positive, sterol enriched endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), while time-lapse microscopy demonstrated NPC1L1 traffic between plasma membrane and ERC...... the ERC to the plasma membrane. NPC1L1-EGFP facilitated transport of fluorescent sterols from the plasma membrane to the ERC. Insulin induced translocation of vesicles containing NPC1L1 and fluorescent sterol from the ERC to the cell membrane. Upon polarization of hepatoma cells NPC1L1 resided almost...... exclusively in the canalicular membrane, where the protein is highly mobile. Our study demonstrates dynamic trafficking of NPC1L1 between cell surface and intracellular compartments and suggests that this transport is involved in NPC1L1 mediated cellular sterol uptake....

  15. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  16. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Recycling systems for BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Akio; Yamamoto, Fumiaki; Fukumoto, Ryuji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To stabilize the coolant flowing characteristics and reactor core reactivity. Constitution: The recycling system in a BWR type reactor comprises a recycling pump disposed to the outside of a reactor pressure vessel, a ring header connected to the recycling pump through main pipe ways, and a plurality of pipes branched from and connected with the ring header and connected to a plurality of jet pumps within the pressure vessel. Then, by making the diameter for the pipeways of each of the branched pipes different from each other, the effective cross-sectional area is varied to thereby average the coolant flow rate supplied to each of the jet pumps. (Seki, T.)

  18. The structure and function of presynaptic endosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jähne, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.jaehne1@stud.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rizzoli, Silvio O. [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); Helm, Martin S., E-mail: martin.helm@med.uni-goettingen.de [Department of Neuro- and Sensory Physiology, University of Göttingen Medical Center, Cluster of Excellence Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Humboldtallee 23, 37073 Göttingen (Germany); International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The function of endosomes and of endosome-like structures in the presynaptic compartment is still controversial. This is in part due to the absence of a consensus on definitions and markers for these compartments. Synaptic endosomes are sometimes seen as stable organelles, permanently present in the synapse. Alternatively, they are seen as short-lived intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling, arising from the endocytosis of large vesicles from the plasma membrane, or from homotypic fusion of small vesicles. In addition, the potential function of the endosome is largely unknown in the synapse. Some groups have proposed that the endosome is involved in the sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins, albeit others have produced data that deny this possibility. In this review, we present the existing evidence for synaptic endosomes, we discuss their potential functions, and we highlight frequent technical pitfalls in the analysis of this elusive compartment. We also sketch a roadmap to definitely determine the role of synaptic endosomes for the synaptic vesicle cycle. Finally, we propose a common definition of synaptic endosome-like structures.

  19. The structure and function of presynaptic endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jähne, Sebastian; Rizzoli, Silvio O.; Helm, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    The function of endosomes and of endosome-like structures in the presynaptic compartment is still controversial. This is in part due to the absence of a consensus on definitions and markers for these compartments. Synaptic endosomes are sometimes seen as stable organelles, permanently present in the synapse. Alternatively, they are seen as short-lived intermediates in synaptic vesicle recycling, arising from the endocytosis of large vesicles from the plasma membrane, or from homotypic fusion of small vesicles. In addition, the potential function of the endosome is largely unknown in the synapse. Some groups have proposed that the endosome is involved in the sorting of synaptic vesicle proteins, albeit others have produced data that deny this possibility. In this review, we present the existing evidence for synaptic endosomes, we discuss their potential functions, and we highlight frequent technical pitfalls in the analysis of this elusive compartment. We also sketch a roadmap to definitely determine the role of synaptic endosomes for the synaptic vesicle cycle. Finally, we propose a common definition of synaptic endosome-like structures

  20. Design study of advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Conceptual study of recycle system using molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehi, I.; Shirai, N.; Hatano, M.; Kajitani, M.; Yonezawa, S.; Kawai, T.; Kawamura, F.; Tobe, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1996-12-01

    For the purpose of developing the future nuclear fuel recycle system, the design study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system is being conducted. This report describes intermediate accomplishments in the conceptual system study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Fundamental concepts of this system is the recycle system using molten salt which intend to break through the conventional concepts of purex and pellet fuel system. Contents of studies in this period are as follows, 1)feasibility study of the process by Cd-cathode for nitride fuel, 2)application study for the molten salt of low melting point (AlCl3+organic salt), 3)research for decladding (advantage of decladding by heat treatment), 4)behavior of FPs in electrorefining (behavior of iodine and volatile FP chlorides, FPs behavior in chlorination), 5)criticality analysis in electrorefiner, 6)drawing of off-gas flow diagram, 7)drawing of process machinery concept (cathode processor, vibration packing), 8)evaluation for the amounts of the high level radioactive wastes, 9)quality of the recycle fuels (FPs contamination of recycle fuel), 10)conceptual study of in-cell handling system, 11)meaning of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. The conceptual system study will be completed in describing concepts of the system and discussing issues for the developments. (author)

  1. Biogas-centred domestic waste recycling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C L

    1983-04-01

    In fast developing suburban towns, there is an urgent need for an integrated system for waste recycling and energy and fertiliser supply on a single house basis. This is because even though toilet waste is handled by a septic tank-soak pit arrangement, kitchen and bathroom water and solid organic wastes have to be discharged outside the house. A biogas based domestic waste recycling system has been designed and constructed and has been successfully working. Some salient features of this plant are discussed here.

  2. Reorganization of the Endosomal System in Salmonella-Infected Cells: The Ultrastructure of Salmonella-Induced Tubular Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Viktoria; Liebl, David; Zhang, Yuying; Rajashekar, Roopa; Chlanda, Petr; Giesker, Katrin; Chikkaballi, Deepak; Hensel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the intracellular life of Salmonella enterica, a unique membrane-bound compartment termed Salmonella-containing vacuole, or SCV, is formed. By means of translocated effector proteins, intracellular Salmonella also induce the formation of extensive, highly dynamic membrane tubules termed Salmonella-induced filaments or SIF. Here we report the first detailed ultrastructural analyses of the SCV and SIF by electron microscopy (EM), EM tomography and live cell correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM). We found that a subset of SIF is composed of double membranes that enclose portions of host cell cytosol and cytoskeletal filaments within its inner lumen. Despite some morphological similarities, we found that the formation of SIF double membranes is independent from autophagy and requires the function of the effector proteins SseF and SseG. The lumen of SIF network is accessible to various types of endocytosed material and our CLEM analysis of double membrane SIF demonstrated that fluid phase markers accumulate only between the inner and outer membrane of these structures, a space continual with endosomal lumen. Our work reveals how manipulation of the endosomal membrane system by an intracellular pathogen results in a unique tubular membrane compartmentalization of the host cell, generating a shielded niche permissive for intracellular proliferation of Salmonella. PMID:25254663

  3. Feedwater recycling system in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Yoshiharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactor safety by preventing thermal stresses and cracks generated in structural materials due to the fluctuations in the temperature for high temperature water - low temperature water mixture near the feedwater nozzle. Method: Feedwater pipes are connected to a pressure vessel not directly but by way of a flow control valve. While the recycled water is circulated from an inlet nozzle to an outlet nozzle through a recycle pump, flow control valve and recycling pipeways, feedwater is fed from the feedwater pipes to the recycling pipeways by way of the flow control valve. More specifically, since the high temperature recycle water and the low temperature recycle water are mixed within the pipeways, the temperature fluctuations resulted from the temperature difference between the recycle water and the feedwater is reduced to prevent thermal fatigue and generation of cracks thereby securing the reactor safety. (Furukawa, Y.)

  4. Proliferation resistance assessment of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper examines the major proliferation aspects of thermal recycle systems and the extent to which technical or institutional measures could increase the difficulty or detectability of misuse of the system by would-be proliferators. It does this by examining the various activities necessary to acquire weapons-usable material using a series of assessment factors; resources required, time required, detectability. It is concluded that resistance to proliferation could be improved substantially by collecting reprocessing, conversion and fuel fabrication plants under multi national control and instituting new measures to protect fresh MOX fuel. Resistance to theft at sub-national level could be improved by co-location of sensitive facilities high levels of physical protection at plants and during transportation and possibly by adding a radiation barrier to MOX prior to shipment

  5. Ternary Systems Control with Two Recycle Steams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solar–González R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, the use of parallel control structure to improve the control behavior of plantwide de signs has been study. In this work, we consider the behavior of a plant that consists of a recycle system, a reactor and two distillation columns where the control aim is to improve the disturbance rejection capabilities of the controlled process. The idea is to change the operating conditions in both the reactor and the second distillation column in order to distribute the composition control effort in the face of fresh feed composition disturbances. To this end, a parallel control structure is proposed where the product composition is regulated by means of simultaneous feed back manipulations of the vapor boilup rate of the second column and there actor temperature. In this way, the use of the reactor temperature as a secondary control in put reduces oscillatory behavior and the vapour flowrate us age.

  6. Design study on advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Conceptual design study of recycle system using molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Y.; Kakehi, I.; Moro, T.; Higashi, T.; Tobe, K.; Kawamura, F.; Yonezawa, S.; Yoshiuji, T.

    1998-10-01

    Advanced recycle system engineering group of OEC (Oarai Engineering Center) has being carried out a design study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system using molten salt (electro-metallurgical process). This system is aiming for improvements of fuel cycle economy and reduction of environmental burden (MA recycles, Minimum of radioactive waste disposal), and also improvement of safety and nuclear non-proliferation. This report describes results of the design study that has been continued since December 1996. (1) A design concept of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system, that is a module type recycles system of pyrochemical reprocessing and fuel re-fabrication was studied. The module system has advantage in balance of Pu recycle where modules are constructed in coincidence with the construction plan of nuclear power plants, and also has flexibility for technology progress. A demonstration system, minimum size of the above module, was studies. This system has capacity of 10 tHM/y and is able to demonstrate recycle technology of MOX fuel, metal fuel and nitride fuel. (2) Each process of the system, which are pyrochemical electrorefining system, cathode processor, de-cladding system, waste disposal system, etc., were studied. In this study, capacity of an electrorefiner was discussed, and vitrification experiment of molten salt using lead-boric acid glass was conducted. (3) A hot cell system and material handling system of the demonstration system was studied. A robot driven by linear motor was studied for the handling system, and an arrangement plan of the cell system was made. Criticality analysis in the cell system and investigation of material accountancy system of the recycle plant were also made. This design study will be continued in coincidence with design study of reactor and fuel, aiming to establish the concept of FBR recycle system. (author)

  7. Molecular assemblies and membrane domains in multivesicular endosome dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falguieres, Thomas; Luyet, Pierre-Philippe; Gruenberg, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Along the degradation pathway, endosomes exhibit a characteristic multivesicular organization, resulting from the budding of vesicles into the endosomal lumen. After endocytosis and transport to early endosomes, activated signaling receptors are incorporated into these intralumenal vesicles through the action of the ESCRT machinery, a process that contributes to terminate signaling. Then, the vesicles and their protein cargo are further transported towards lysosomes for degradation. Evidence also shows that intralumenal vesicles can undergo 'back-fusion' with the late endosome limiting membrane, a route exploited by some pathogens and presumably followed by proteins and lipids that need to be recycled from within the endosomal lumen. This process depends on the late endosomal lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid and its putative effector Alix/AIP1, and is presumably coupled to the invagination of the endosomal limiting membrane at the molecular level via ESCRT proteins. In this review, we discuss the intra-endosomal transport routes in mammalian cells, and in particular the different mechanisms involved in membrane invagination, vesicle formation and fusion in a space inaccessible to proteins known to control intracellular membrane traffic.

  8. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Bhavesh; Tamboli, Adish; Wubhayavedantapuram, Nandan

    2017-11-01

    Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP) recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology) while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  9. Sustainable recycling technologies for Solar PV off-grid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Bhavesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy makers throughout the world have accepted climate change as a repercussion of fossil fuel exploitation. This has led the governments to integrate renewable energy streams in their national energy mix. PV off-grid Systems have been at the forefront of this transition because of their permanently increasing efficiency and cost effectiveness. These systems are expected to produce large amount of different waste streams at the end of their lifetime. It is important that these waste streams should be recycled because of the lack of available resources. Our study found that separate researches have been carried out to increase the efficiencies of recycling of individual PV system components but there is a lack of a comprehensive methodical research which details efficient and sustainable recycling processes for the entire PV off-grid system. This paper reviews the current and future recycling technologies for PV off-grid systems and presents a scheme of the most sustainable recycling technologies which have the potential for adoption. Full Recovery End-of-Life Photovoltaic (FRELP recycling technology can offer opportunities to sustainably recycle crystalline silicon PV modules. Electro-hydrometallurgical process & Vacuum technologies can be used for recovering lead from lead acid batteries with a high recovery rate. The metals in the WEEE can be recycled by using a combination of biometallurgical technology, vacuum metallurgical technology and other advanced metallurgical technologies (utrasonical, mechano-chemical technology while the plastic components can be effectively recycled without separation by using compatibilizers. All these advanced technologies when used in combination with each other provide sustainable recycling options for growing PV off-grid systems waste. These promising technologies still need further improvement and require proper integration techniques before implementation.

  10. Endosome-based protein trafficking and Ca2+ homeostasis in the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry eCurran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ability to dynamically regulate, traffic, retain, and recycle proteins within the cell membrane is fundamental to life and central to the normal function of the heart and cardiovascular system. In the heart, these systems are essential for the regulation of cardiac calcium, both at the level of the plasma membrane, but also at local domains of the endoplasmic reticulum, sarcoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, nucleus, and nuclear envelope. One intracellular pathway often overlooked in relation to cardiovascular calcium regulation and signaling is the endosome-based trafficking pathway. Highlighting its importance, this system and its molecular components are evolutionarily conserved across all metazoans. However, remarkably little is known of how endosome-based protein trafficking and recycling functions within mammalian cells systems, especially in the heart. The vast majority of what is known has been derived from heterologous cell systems. However, recently, more appropriate cell and animal models been developed that have allowed researchers to begin to understand how this system functions within the intact physiological environment. All excitable cells, including cardiomyocytes, depend on the proper expression and organization of multiple ion channels, pumps, exchangers, and transporters within the plasma membrane. As the endosomal system acts to regulate the expression and localization of membrane proteins, understanding the in vivo function of this system in the heart is important. This review will focus on endosome-based protein trafficking in the heart in both health and disease. Special emphasis will be given to the role played by the family of endocytic regulatory proteins, C-terminal Eps15 homology domain -containing proteins (EHDs, as recent data demonstrates that this family of proteins is essential for the proper trafficking and localization and of key proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling.

  11. Utilization of membranes for H2O recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohya, H.; Oguchi, M.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual studies of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) carried out at NAL in Japan for a water recycle system using membranes are reviewed. The system will treat water from shower room, urine, impure condensation from gas recycle system, and so on. The H2O recycle system is composed of prefilter, ultrafiltration membrane, reverse osmosis membrane, and distillator. Some results are shown for a bullet train of toilet-flushing water recycle equipment with an ultraviltration membrane module. The constant value of the permeation rate with a 4.7 square meters of module is about 70 1/h after 500th of operation. Thermovaporization with porous polytetrafluorocarbon membrane is also proposed to replce the distillator.

  12. Preliminary survey of `Green Recycling System`; Jigyo jizen chosa `green recycle system`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the construction of `Green Recycling System` which aims to change deserts to lush lands and to stabilize food supply. A cross-linked polymer produced by irradiating the gooey threads of natto (fermented soybeans) with gamma rays can absorb and hold up to 5,000 times its own weight of water. This biodegradable polymer may be used to develop seed gels and pellets to grow soybean, rice and wheat to improve the productivity of deserts and to protect threatened lands from desertification. This technology will be of great value in establishing stable supply of food resources, especially for the Middle East where deserts are expanding as well as for Africa where serious food shortage is already in place. To undertake the Green Recycling System Project, it is indispensable to develop technologies for producing PGA polymer in large quantity, mass production process of bridged PGA through radiation, chemical cross-linkers, new technologies for growing plants using water retainers, water-retaining materials for arid areas, general systems for growing plants in arid areas, and environmentally benign industrial infrastructures. 76 refs., 59 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Challenges in legislation, recycling system and technical system of waste electrical and electronic equipment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengen; Ding, Yunji; Liu, Bo; Pan, De'an; Chang, Chein-chi; Volinsky, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been one of the fastest growing waste streams worldwide. Effective and efficient management and treatment of WEEE has become a global problem. As one of the world's largest electronic products manufacturing and consumption countries, China plays a key role in the material life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment. Over the past 20 years, China has made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. Centered on the legal, recycling and technical systems, this paper reviews the progresses of WEEE recycling in China. An integrated recycling system is proposed to realize WEEE high recycling rate for future WEEE recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of life cycle inventory data for recycling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Damgaard, Anders; Jensen, Morten Bang

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews databases on material recycling (primary as well as secondary production) used in life cycle assessments (LCA) of waste management systems. A total of 366 datasets, from 1980 to 2010 and covering 14 materials, were collected from databases and reports. Totals for CO2-equivalent...... the primary production of newsprint, HDPE and glass were 238%, 443% and 452%, respectively. For steel and aluminium the differences were 1761% and 235%, respectively. There is a severe lack of data for some recycled materials; for example, only one dataset existed for secondary cardboard. The study shows...... datasets to use could not be determined from the study. However, from the gathered data, recycling in general showed lower emission of CO2 per kg material than primary production, so the recycling of materials (considered in this study) is thus beneficial in most cases....

  15. Evaluation of a Zirconium Recycle Scrubber System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bruffey, Stephanie H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A hot-cell demonstration of the zirconium recycle process is planned as part of the Materials Recovery and Waste Forms Development (MRWFD) campaign. The process treats Zircaloy® cladding recovered from used nuclear fuel with chlorine gas to recover the zirconium as volatile ZrCl4. This releases radioactive tritium trapped in the alloy, converting it to volatile tritium chloride (TCl). To meet regulatory requirements governing radioactive emissions from nuclear fuel treatment operations, the capture and retention of a portion of this TCl may be required prior to discharge of the off-gas stream to the environment. In addition to demonstrating tritium removal from a synthetic zirconium recycle off-gas stream, the recovery and quantification of tritium may refine estimates of the amount of tritium present in the Zircaloy cladding of used nuclear fuel. To support these objectives, a bubbler-type scrubber was fabricated to remove the TCl from the zirconium recycle off-gas stream. The scrubber was fabricated from glass and polymer components that are resistant to chlorine and hydrochloric acid solutions. Because of concerns that the scrubber efficiency is not quantitative, tests were performed using DCl as a stand-in to experimentally measure the scrubbing efficiency of this unit. Scrubbing efficiency was ~108% ± 3% with water as the scrubber solution. Variations were noted when 1 M NaOH scrub solution was used, values ranged from 64% to 130%. The reason for the variations is not known. It is recommended that the equipment be operated with water as the scrubbing solution. Scrubbing efficiency is estimated at 100%.

  16. Monitoring Performance of a combined water recycling system

    OpenAIRE

    Castleton, H.F.; Hathway, E.A.; Murphy, E.; Beck, S.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Global water demand is expected to outstrip supply dramatically by 2030, making water recycling an important tool for future water security. A large combined grey water and rainwater recycling system has been monitored in response to an identified knowledge gap of the in-use performance of such systems. The water saving efficiency of the system was calculated at −8ṡ5% in 2011 and –10% in 2012 compared to the predicted 36%. This was due to a lower quantity of grey water and rainwater being col...

  17. Heterotrimeric G protein subunits are located on rat liver endosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dyke Rebecca W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rat liver endosomes contain activated insulin receptors and downstream signal transduction molecules. We undertook these studies to determine whether endosomes also contain heterotrimeric G proteins that may be involved in signal transduction from G protein-coupled receptors. Results By Western blotting Gsα, Giα1,2, Giα3 and Gβ were enriched in both canalicular (CM and basolateral (BLM membranes but also readily detectable on three types of purified rat liver endosomes in the order recycling receptor compartment (RRC > compartment for uncoupling of receptor and ligand (CURL > multivesicular bodies (MVB >> purified secondary lysosomes. Western blotting with antibodies to Na, K-ATPase and to other proteins associated with plasma membranes and intracellular organelles indicated this was not due to contamination of endosome preparations by CM or BLM. Adenylate cyclase (AC was also identified on purified CM, BLM, RRC, CURL and MVB. Percoll gradient fractionation of liver postnuclear supernatants demonstrated co-occurrence of endosomes and heterotrimeric G protein subunits in fractions with little plasma membrane markers. By confocal microscopy, punctate staining for Gsα, Giα3 and Gβ corresponded to punctate areas of endocytosed Texas red-dextran in hepatocytes from control and cholera toxin-treated livers. Conclusion We conclude that heterotrimeric G protein subunits as well as AC likely traffic into hepatocytes on endosome membranes, possibly generating downstream signals spatially separate from signalling generated at the plasma membrane, analogous to the role(s of internalized insulin receptors.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ENERGY SAVING IN WASTE RECYCLING USING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio de Oliveira Simonetto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recycling is a topic of great importance in integrated waste management, evidence of this is verified in the National Policy of Solid Waste, decreed in 2010, where it is considered one of the priorities. In this article is presented a computer simulation model, since their development until its validation, which aims to support environmental managers in their decisions regarding the definition and / or maintenance of solid waste policies recycling, as well as evaluating the benefits of process in the environment (in this article we evaluated the energy savings. For the model development was considered: the rate of natural population growth (births and deaths, percentage of solid waste recycled (for each type of material, gravimetric composition of the material in the total waste generated, the amount of waste generated per inhabitant and energy savings caused by each distinct type of material. Through the model results generated, end users (environmental managers thereof may, for example, set incentives to reduce the total generation of solid waste, produce campaigns enhancing reuse and recycling and to assess the relative benefits of energy savings caused by recycling. Model validation was through analysis of future scenarios for a given municipality in southern Brazil. For modeling and system validation was used Vensim from Ventana Systems.

  19. Early to Late Endosome Trafficking Controls Secretion and Zymogen Activation in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Acinar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott W; Thomas, Diana Dh; Cooley, Michelle M; Jones, Elaina K; Falkowski, Michelle A; August, Benjamin K; Fernandez, Luis A; Gorelick, Fred S; Groblewski, Guy E

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells have an expanded apical endosomal system, the physiological and pathophysiological significance of which is still emerging. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P 2 ) is an essential phospholipid generated by PIKfyve, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI(3)P). PI(3,5)P 2 is necessary for maturation of early endosomes (EE) to late endosomes (LE). Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking enhances anterograde endosomal trafficking and secretion at the plasma membrane by default through a recycling endosome (RE) intermediate. We assessed the effects of modulating PIKfyve activity on apical trafficking and pancreatitis responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking was achieved using pharmacological inhibitors of PIKfyve, expression of dominant negative PIKfyve K1877E, or constitutively active Rab5-GTP Q79L. Anterograde endosomal trafficking was manipulated by expression of constitutively active and dominant negative Rab11a mutants. The effects of these agents on secretion, endolysosomal exocytosis of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP1), and trypsinogen activation in response to high-dose CCK-8, bile acids and cigarette toxin was determined. PIKfyve inhibition increased basal and stimulated secretion. Adenoviral overexpression of PIKfyve decreased secretion leading to cellular death. Expression of Rab5-GTP Q79L or Rab11a-GTP Q70L enhanced secretion. Conversely, dominant-negative Rab11a-GDP S25N reduced secretion. High-dose CCK inhibited endolysosomal exocytosis that was reversed by PIKfyve inhibition. PIKfyve inhibition blocked intracellular trypsin accumulation and cellular damage responses to high CCK-8, tobacco toxin, and bile salts in both rodent and human acini. These data demonstrate that EE-LE trafficking acutely controls acinar secretion and the intracellular activation of zymogens leading to the pathogenicity of acute pancreatitis.

  20. Dynamic Systems Analysis Report for Nuclear Fuel Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Dixon; Sonny Kim; David Shropshire; Steven Piet; Gretchen Matthern; Bill Halsey

    2008-12-01

    This report examines the time-dependent dynamics of transitioning from the current United States (U.S.) nuclear fuel cycle where used nuclear fuel is disposed in a repository to a closed fuel cycle where the used fuel is recycled and only fission products and waste are disposed. The report is intended to help inform policy developers, decision makers, and program managers of system-level options and constraints as they guide the formulation and implementation of advanced fuel cycle development and demonstration efforts and move toward deployment of nuclear fuel recycling infrastructure.

  1. Characterization of the Mammalian CORVET and HOPS Complexes and Their Modular Restructuring for Endosome Specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kant, Rik; Jonker, Caspar T. H.; Wijdeven, Ruud H.; Bakker, Jeroen; Janssen, Lennert; Klumperman, Judith; Neefjes, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking of cargo through the endosomal system depends on endosomal fusion events mediated by SNARE proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes. The CORVET and HOPS tethering complexes, respectively, regulate early and late endosomal tethering and have been characterized in detail

  2. Early to Late Endosome Trafficking Controls Secretion and Zymogen Activation in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Acinar CellsSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Messenger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Pancreatic acinar cells have an expanded apical endosomal system, the physiologic and pathophysiologic significance of which is still emerging. Phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5P2] is an essential phospholipid generated by phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve, which phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P. PI(3,5P2 is necessary for maturation of early endosomes (EE to late endosomes (LE. Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking enhances anterograde endosomal trafficking and secretion at the plasma membrane by default through a recycling endosome (RE intermediate. We assessed the effects of modulating PIKfyve activity on apical trafficking and pancreatitis responses in pancreatic acinar cells. Methods: Inhibition of EE to LE trafficking was achieved using pharmacologic inhibitors of PIKfyve, expression of dominant negative PIKfyve K1877E, or constitutively active Rab5-GTP Q79L. Anterograde endosomal trafficking was manipulated by expression of constitutively active and dominant negative Rab11a mutants. The effects of these agents on secretion, endolysosomal exocytosis of lysosome associated membrane protein (LAMP1, and trypsinogen activation in response to supramaximal cholecystokinin (CCK-8, bile acids, and cigarette toxin was determined. Results: PIKfyve inhibition increased basal and stimulated secretion. Adenoviral overexpression of PIKfyve decreased secretion leading to cellular death. Expression of Rab5-GTP Q79L or Rab11a-GTP Q70L enhanced secretion. Conversely, dominant-negative Rab11a-GDP S25N reduced secretion. High-dose CCK inhibited endolysosomal exocytosis that was reversed by PIKfyve inhibition. PIKfyve inhibition blocked intracellular trypsin accumulation and cellular damage responses to supramaximal CCK-8, tobacco toxin, and bile salts in both rodent and human acini. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that EE-LE trafficking acutely controls acinar secretion and the intracellular

  3. dOCRL maintains immune cell quiescence by regulating endosomal traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Del Signore

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lowe Syndrome is a developmental disorder characterized by eye, kidney, and neurological pathologies, and is caused by mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphatase OCRL. OCRL plays diverse roles in endocytic and endolysosomal trafficking, cytokinesis, and ciliogenesis, but it is unclear which of these cellular functions underlie specific patient symptoms. Here, we show that mutation of Drosophila OCRL causes cell-autonomous activation of hemocytes, which are macrophage-like cells of the innate immune system. Among many cell biological defects that we identified in docrl mutant hemocytes, we pinpointed the cause of innate immune cell activation to reduced Rab11-dependent recycling traffic and concomitantly increased Rab7-dependent late endosome traffic. Loss of docrl amplifies multiple immune-relevant signals, including Toll, Jun kinase, and STAT, and leads to Rab11-sensitive mis-sorting and excessive secretion of the Toll ligand Spåtzle. Thus, docrl regulation of endosomal traffic maintains hemocytes in a poised, but quiescent state, suggesting mechanisms by which endosomal misregulation of signaling may contribute to symptoms of Lowe syndrome.

  4. Rab9-dependent retrograde transport and endosomal sorting of the endopeptidase furin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gasnereau, Isabelle; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The endopeptidase furin and the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 are membrane proteins that recycle between the TGN and plasma membrane. TGN38 is transported by a retromer-dependent pathway from early endosomes to the TGN, whereas the intracellular transport of furin is poorly defined. Here we have identified the itinerary and transport requirements of furin. Using internalisation assays, we show that furin transits the early and late endosomes en route to the TGN. The GTPase Rab9 and the TGN golgin GCC185, components of the late endosome-to-TGN pathway, were required for efficient TGN retrieval of furin. By contrast, TGN38 trafficking was independent of Rab9 and GCC185. To identify the sorting signals for the early endosome-to-TGN pathway, the trafficking of furin–TGN38 chimeras was investigated. The diversion of furin from the Rab9-dependent late-endosome-to-TGN pathway to the retromer-dependent early-endosome-to-TGN pathway required both the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of TGN38. We present evidence to suggest that the length of the transmembrane domain is a contributing factor in endosomal sorting. Overall, these data show that furin uses the Rab9-dependent pathway from late endosomes and that retrograde transport directly from early endosomes is dependent on both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. PMID:21693586

  5. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Niwa, S.

    2001-01-01

    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO 2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO 2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO 2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO 2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO 2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO 2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO 2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO 2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  6. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France); Penoty, C. [EDF - Electricite de France (France); Froment, A. [COGEMA (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TNa12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007.

  7. New package systems for EDF recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leboucher, I.; Michels, L.; Hugon, F.C.; Penoty, C.; Froment, A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nineties, EDF (Electricite France) has been carrying out a policy towards increasing burn-up. As a consequence and to keep energetic performances of the MOX (Mixed OXide uranium and plutonium) fresh fuel assemblies at parity with UO2 fuel, the concentration in plutonium increased up to 7.1%, soon up to 8.65% and even more. To take into account the increased dose rate and the increased thermal power of these MOX fresh fuels in the transportation system, COGEMA LOGISTICS designed, manufactured and licensed the MX8 package to replace the previous packaging. Simultaneously new high-secured transport system was developed. Due to the capacity of the reactor pool, the spent fuel assemblies must be evacuated with a short cooling time and high residual power. Because of the neutron source of these future MOX spent fuel assemblies, the TN 12/2 packaging, which has been in operation since 1980's to transport UO2 or MOX spent fuel to COGEMA La Hague, from EDF, other European and Japanese NPP lacks flexibility. COGEMA LOGISTICS is designing a new cask (TN trademark 112) to transport the future EDF MOX spent fuel assemblies. The TN trademark 112 has to comply with the 1996 edition of the IAEA transport regulations and with the transport and handling equipment presently used for the transport of spent fuel in France. It can be loaded with 12 assemblies, either MOX or UO2. This paper gives a description of two packages belonging to the new generation: - one for fresh MOX fuel assemblies transportation, used on EDF's power plants for MOX reloads, - one for spent MOX fuel assemblies transportation, presently under development with a first transport planned for mid-2007

  8. Utilization of HTGR on active carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yukitaka, E-mail: yukitaka@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2014-05-01

    A new energy transformation concept based on carbon recycling, called as active carbon recycling energy system, ACRES, was proposed for a zero carbon dioxide emission process. The ACRES is driven availably by carbon dioxide free primary energy. High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) is a candidate of the energy sources for ACRES. A smart ironmaking system with ACRES (iACRES) is one of application examples. The contribution of HTGR on iACRES was discussed thermodynamically in this study. A carbon material is re-used cyclically as energy carrier media in ACRES. Carbon monoxide (CO) had higher energy densities than hydrogen and was compatible with conventional process. Thus, CO was suitable recycling media for ACRES. Efficient regeneration of CO was a key technology for ACRES. A combined system of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction was candidate. CO{sub 2} direct electrolysis was also one of the candidates. HTGR was appropriate heat source for both water and CO{sub 2} electrolysises, and CO{sub 2} hydrogen reduction. Thermodynamic energy balances were calculated for both systems with HTGR for an ironmaking system. The direct system showed relatively advantage to the combined system in the stand point of enthalpy efficiency and simplicity of the process. One or two plants of HTGR are corresponding with ACRES system for one unit of conventional blast furnace. The proposed ACRES system with HTGR was expected to form the basis of a new energy industrial process that had low CO{sub 2} emission.

  9. Adiponectin release and insulin receptor targeting share trans-Golgi-dependent endosomal trafficking routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rödiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intracellular vesicle trafficking maintains cellular structures and functions. The assembly of cargo-laden vesicles at the trans-Golgi network is initiated by the ARF family of small GTPases. Here, we demonstrate the role of the trans-Golgi localized monomeric GTPase ARFRP1 in endosomal-mediated vesicle trafficking of mature adipocytes. Methods: Control (Arfrp1flox/flox and inducible fat-specific Arfrp1 knockout (Arfrp1iAT−/− mice were metabolically characterized. In vitro experiments on mature 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse adipocytes were conducted to validate the impact of ARFRP1 on localization of adiponectin and the insulin receptor. Finally, secretion and transferrin-based uptake and recycling assays were performed with HeLa and HeLa M-C1 cells. Results: We identified the ARFRP1-based sorting machinery to be involved in vesicle trafficking relying on the endosomal compartment for cell surface delivery. Secretion of adiponectin from fat depots was selectively reduced in Arfrp1iAT−/− mice, and Arfrp1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed an accumulation of adiponectin in Rab11-positive endosomes. Plasma adiponectin deficiency of Arfrp1iAT−/− mice resulted in deteriorated hepatic insulin sensitivity, increased gluconeogenesis and elevated fasting blood glucose levels. Additionally, the insulin receptor, undergoing endocytic recycling after ligand binding, was less abundant at the plasma membrane of adipocytes lacking Arfrp1. This had detrimental effects on adipose insulin signaling, followed by insufficient suppression of basal lipolytic activity and impaired adipose tissue expansion. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adiponectin secretion and insulin receptor surface targeting utilize the same post-Golgi trafficking pathways that are essential for an appropriate systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Keywords: Adiponectin, ARFRP1, Exocytosis, Insulin receptor, trans-Golgi

  10. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M.

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  11. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  12. Simulation and optimization of continuous extractive fermentation with recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Rofiqah, Umi; Airlangga, Bramantyo

    2017-05-01

    Extractive fermentation is continuous fermentation method which is believed to be able to substitute conventional fermentation method (batch). The recovery system and ethanol refinery will be easier. Continuous process of fermentation will make the productivity increase although the unconverted sugar in continuous fermentation is still in high concentration. In order to make this process more efficient, the recycle process was used. Increasing recycle flow will enhance the probability of sugar to be re-fermented. However, this will make ethanol enter fermentation column. As a result, the accumulated ethanol will inhibit the growth of microorganism. This research aims to find optimum conditions of solvent to broth ratio (S:B) and recycle flow to fresh feed ratio in order to produce the best yield and productivity. This study employed optimization by Hooke Jeeves method using Matlab 7.8 software. The result indicated that optimum condition occured in S: B=2.615 and R: F=1.495 with yield = 50.2439 %.

  13. Erosion Corrosion and Protection of Recycle System with Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the corrosion of recycle system with seawater in rights of power plant, the erosion behavior and mechanism of erosion corrosion in this system constructed with several corrosionresistance alloys have been studied and tested in the condition of high speed fluid with a sand particles. Both special protection technologies and results, one designed by high temperature epoxy resin powder coating and another of the associating method of anode protection together with such same coating, have been discussed as well in this case.

  14. Strategies for plutonium recycle in a system of pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaver, D.E.W.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is developed to allow a utility fuel manager to determine economic strategies for recycling plutonium in a system of light water reactors. One possible plutonium recycle strategy would be self-generated recycle, in which plutonium discharged from a reactor is recycled back to that same reactor as soon as possible. Another possible strategy is to recycle all the plutonium discharged from several reactors into one reactor. Such a strategy might be advantageous if the reactor receiving the plutonium were of a type that utilized plutonium more effectively than other reactors in the system. There are several considerations which affect the economics of recycling a batch of plutonium to one reactor or cycle vs. another, or which would favor a special recycling strategy. Among these are cycle energy, length of time that plutonium is stored prior to recycle, and isotopes of the plutonium. The methodology developed is used to quantitatively illustrate the effect on recycle strategy of these parameters. The problem of choosing the plutonium recycle strategy which results in the minimum fuel cost is formulated as a mathematical programming problem. The objective function for this problem is the total discounted fuel cost for the reactor system over a specified planning period. The savings of an optimal recycle strategy over self-generated recycle would be typically one million dollars per year for a utility with several large PWRs

  15. Neurotrophin signaling endosomes; biogenesis, regulation, and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Naoya; Kuruvilla, Rejji

    2016-01-01

    In the nervous system, communication between neurons and their post-synaptic target cells is critical for the formation, refinement and maintenance of functional neuronal connections. Diffusible signals secreted by target tissues, exemplified by the family of neurotrophins, impinge on nerve terminals to influence diverse developmental events including neuronal survival and axonal growth. Key mechanisms of action of target-derived neurotrophins include the cell biological processes of endocytosis and retrograde trafficking of their Trk receptors from growth cones to cell bodies. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms underlying this endosome-mediated signaling, focusing on the instructive role of neurotrophin signaling itself in directing its own trafficking. Recent studies have linked impaired neurotrophin trafficking to neurodevelopmental disorders, highlighting the relevance of neurotrophin endosomes in human health. PMID:27327126

  16. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  17. Internal structure of magnetic endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, C.; Wilhelm, C.; Cousin, F.; Dupuis, V.; Gazeau, F.; Perzynski, R.

    2007-01-01

    The internal structure of biological vesicles filled with magnetic nanoparticles is investigated using the following complementary analyses: electronic transmission microscopy, dynamic probing by magneto-optical birefringence and structural probing by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). These magnetic vesicles are magnetic endosomes obtained via a non-specific interaction between cells and anionic magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Thanks to a magnetic purification process, they are probed at two different stages of their formation within HeLa cells: (i) adsorption of nanoparticles onto the cellular membrane and (ii) their subsequent internalisation within endosomes. Differences in the microenvironment of the magnetic nanoparticles at those two different stages are highlighted here. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles adsorbed onto cellular membranes and confined within endosomes is respectively 3 and 5 orders of magnitude slower than for isolated magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous media. Interestingly, SANS experiments show that magnetic endosomes have an internal structure close to decorated vesicles, with magnetic nanoparticles locally decorating the endosome membrane, inside their inner-sphere. These results, important for future biomedical applications, suggest that multiple fusions of decorated vesicles are the biological processes underlying the endocytosis of that kind of nanometric materials.

  18. The cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport pathway is not involved in avian metapneumovirus budding in a virus-like-particle expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yuejin; Lu, Wuxun; Harmon, Aaron; Xiang, Xiaoxiao; Deng, Qiji; Song, Minxun; Wang, Dan; Yu, Qingzhong; Li, Feng

    2011-05-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is a paramyxovirus that principally causes respiratory disease and egg production drops in turkeys and chickens. Together with its closely related human metapneumovirus (HMPV), they comprise the genus Metapneumovirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. Little is currently known about the mechanisms involved in the budding of metapneumovirus. By using AMPV as a model system, we showed that the matrix (M) protein by itself was insufficient to form virus-like-particles (VLPs). The incorporation of M into VLPs was shown to occur only when both the viral nucleoprotein (N) and the fusion (F) proteins were co-expressed. Furthermore, we provided evidence indicating that two YSKL and YAGL segments encoded within the M protein were not a functional late domain, and the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery was not involved in metapneumovirus budding, consistent with a recent observation that human respiratory syncytial virus, closely related to HMPV, uses an ESCRT-independent budding mechanism. Taken together, these results suggest that metapneumovirus budding is independent of the ESCRT pathway and the minimal budding machinery described here will aid our future understanding of metapneumovirus assembly and egress.

  19. The development and prospects of the end-of-life vehicle recycling system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-chung; Huang, Shih-han; Lian, I-wei

    2010-01-01

    Automobiles usually contain toxic substances, such as lubricants, acid solutions and coolants. Therefore, inappropriate handling of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) will result in environmental pollution. ELV parts, which include metallic and non-metallic substances, are increasingly gaining recycling value due to the recent global shortage of raw materials. Hence, the establishment of a proper recycling system for ELVs will not only reduce the impact on the environment during the recycling process, but it will also facilitate the effective reuse of recycled resources. Prior to 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan was performed by related operators in the industry. Since the publishing of the "End-of-life vehicle recycling guidelines" under the authority of the Waste Disposal Act by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in 1994, the recycling of ELVs in Taiwan has gradually become systematic. Subsequently, the Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB) of the EPA was established in 1998 to collect a Collection-Disposal-Treatment Fee (recycling fee) from responsible enterprises for recycling and related tasks. Since then, the recycling channels, processing equipment, and techniques for ELVs in Taiwan have gradually become established. This paper reviews the establishment of the ELV recycling system, analyzes the current system and its performance, and provides some recommendations for future development. The reduction of auto shredder residue (ASR) is a key factor in maximizing the resource recovery rate and recycling efficiency. The RFMB needs to provide strong economic incentives to further increase the recycling rate and to encourage the automobile industry to design and market greener cars. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CELSS experiment model and design concept of gas recycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, K.; Oguchi, M.; Kanda, S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to prolong the duration of manned missions around the Earth and to expand the human existing region from the Earth to other planets such as a Lunar Base or a manned Mars flight mission, the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) becomes an essential factor of the future technology to be developed through utilization of space station. The preliminary system engineering and integration efforts regarding CELSS have been carried out by the Japanese CELSS concept study group for clarifying the feasibility of hardware development for Space station experiments and for getting the time phased mission sets after FY 1992. The results of these studies are briefly summarized and the design and utilization methods of a Gas Recycle System for CELSS experiments are discussed.

  1. A Role for EHD4 in the Regulation of Early Endosomal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahak; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve

    2009-01-01

    All four of the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain (EHD) proteins have been implicated in the regulation of endocytic trafficking. However, the high level of amino acid sequence identity among these proteins has made it challenging to elucidate the precise function of individual EHD proteins. We demonstrate here with specific peptide antibodies that endogenous EHD4 localizes to Rab5-, early embryonic antigen 1 (EEA1)- and Arf6-containing endosomes and colocalizes with internalized transferrin in the cell periphery. Knock-down of EHD4 expression by both small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA leads to the generation of enlarged early endosomal structures that contain Rab5 and EEA1 as well as internalized transferrin or major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In addition, cargo destined for degradation, such as internalized low-density lipoprotein, also accumulates in the enlarged early endosomes in EHD4-depleted cells. Moreover, we have demonstrated that these enlarged early endosomes are enriched in levels of the activated GTP-bound Rab5. Finally, we show that endogenous EHD4 and EHD1 interact in cells, suggesting coordinated involvement in the regulation of receptor transport along the early endosome to endocytic recycling compartment axis. The results presented herein provide evidence that EHD4 is involved in the control of trafficking at the early endosome and regulates exit of cargo toward both the recycling compartment and the late endocytic pathway. PMID:18331452

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE WASTE RECYCLING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Truptimala Patanaik*; Niharika Patel; Shilpika Panda; Subhasmita Prusty

    2016-01-01

    Construction solid waste has caused serious environmental problems. Reuse, recycling and reduction of construction materials have been advocated for many years, and various methods have been investigated. There may be six type of building materials: plastic, paper, timber, metal, glass and concrete which can be reused and recycled. This paper examines the rate of reusable & recyclable concrete waste. On the other hand, the reuse of construction waste is highly essential ...

  3. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.W.; Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  4. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  6. Hydrogen Gas Recycling for Energy Efficient Ammonia Recovery in Electrochemical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, Philipp; Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Widyakristi, Laksminarastri; Heijne, ter Annemiek; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling of hydrogen gas (H2) produced at the cathode to the anode in an electrochemical system allows for energy efficient TAN (Total Ammonia Nitrogen) recovery. Using a H2 recycling electrochemical system (HRES) we achieved high TAN transport rates at low energy input. At

  7. Recycling Frank: Spontaneous emergence of homochirality in noncatalytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasson, Raphaël; Bersini, Hugues; Commeyras, Auguste

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a prebiotically relevant protometabolic pattern corresponding to an engine of deracemization by using an external energy source. The spontaneous formation of a nonracemic mixture of chiral compounds can be observed in out-of-equilibrium systems via a symmetry-breaking phenomenon. This observation is possible thanks to chirally selective autocatalytic reactions (Frank's model) [Frank, F. C. (1953) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 11, 459–463]. We show that the use of a Frank-like model in a recycled system composed of reversible chemical reactions, rather than the classical irreversible system, allows for the emergence of a synergetic autoinduction from simple reactions, without any autocatalytic or even catalytic reaction. This model is described as a theoretical framework, based on the stereoselective reactivity of preexisting chiral monomeric building blocks (polymerization, epimerization, and depolymerization) maintained out of equilibrium by a continuous energy income, via an activation reaction. It permits the self-conversion of all monomeric subunits into a single chiral configuration. Real prebiotic systems of amino acid derivatives can be described on this basis. They are shown to be able to spontaneously reach a stable nonracemic state in a few centuries. In such systems, the presence of epimerization reactions is no more destructive, but in contrast is the central driving force of the unstabilization of the racemic state. PMID:15548617

  8. The strategic role of recycling centres for environmental performance of waste management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook, Joakim; Eklund, Mats

    2010-05-01

    This paper analyses how different actors influence the sorting quality of waste at recycling centres. Users (i.e. citizens) play an essential role since they conduct the actual sorting. They have difficulties sorting many of their discarded products, leading to decreased performance of the entire waste management system of which recycling centres are a part. Several measures addressing this problem are identified such as product design, improved terminology for labelling waste and increased manning at recycling centres. A fundamental task for managers and employees is to further develop information and guidance for users, both at home and at recycling centres. Several obstacles for improvements are also discussed, including working conditions and the economy of recycling centres, as well as the routines for communication and quality assurance among actors in the recycling business. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence and Control of Legionella in Recycled Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jjemba, Patrick K.; Johnson, William; Bukhari, Zia; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Candidate Contaminant list (CCL) as an important pathogen. It is commonly encountered in recycled water and is typically associated with amoeba, notably Naegleria fowleri (also on the CCL) and Acanthamoeba sp. No legionellosis outbreak has been linked to recycled water and it is important for the industry to proactively keep things that way. A review was conducted examine the occurrence of Legionella and its protozoa symbionts in recycled water with the aim of developing a risk management strategy. The review considered the intricate ecological relationships between Legionella and protozoa, methods for detecting both symbionts, and the efficacy of various disinfectants. PMID:26140674

  10. Assessment of Food Waste Prevention and Recycling Strategies Using a Multilayer Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Helen A; Peverill, M Samantha; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge

    2015-12-15

    Food waste (FW) generates large upstream and downstream emissions to the environment and unnecessarily consumes natural resources, potentially affecting future food security. The ecological impacts of FW can be addressed by the upstream strategies of FW prevention or by downstream strategies of FW recycling, including energy and nutrient recovery. While FW recycling is often prioritized in practice, the ecological implications of the two strategies remain poorly understood from a quantitative systems perspective. Here, we develop a multilayer systems framework and scenarios to quantify the implications of food waste strategies on national biomass, energy, and phosphorus (P) cycles, using Norway as a case study. We found that (i) avoidable food waste in Norway accounts for 17% of sold food; (ii) 10% of the avoidable food waste occurs at the consumption stage, while industry and retailers account for only 7%; (iii) the theoretical potential for systems-wide net process energy savings is 16% for FW prevention and 8% for FW recycling; (iv) the theoretical potential for systems-wide P savings is 21% for FW prevention and 9% for FW recycling; (v) while FW recycling results in exclusively domestic nutrient and energy savings, FW prevention leads to domestic and international savings due to large food imports; (vi) most effective is a combination of prevention and recycling, however, FW prevention reduces the potential for FW recycling and therefore needs to be prioritized to avoid potential overcapacities for FW recycling.

  11. Human ClC-6 is a late endosomal glycoprotein that associates with detergent-resistant lipid domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Ignoul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mammalian CLC protein family comprises nine members (ClC-1 to -7 and ClC-Ka, -Kb that function either as plasma membrane chloride channels or as intracellular chloride/proton antiporters, and that sustain a broad spectrum of cellular processes, such as membrane excitability, transepithelial transport, endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. In this study we focus on human ClC-6, which is structurally most related to the late endosomal/lysomal ClC-7. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a polyclonal affinity-purified antibody directed against a unique epitope in the ClC-6 COOH-terminal tail, we show that human ClC-6, when transfected in COS-1 cells, is N-glycosylated in a region that is evolutionary poorly conserved between mammalian CLC proteins and that is located between the predicted helices K and M. Three asparagine residues (N410, N422 and N432 have been defined by mutagenesis as acceptor sites for N-glycosylation, but only two of the three sites seem to be simultaneously N-glycosylated. In a differentiated human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y, endogenous ClC-6 colocalizes with LAMP-1, a late endosomal/lysosomal marker, but not with early/recycling endosomal markers such as EEA-1 and transferrin receptor. In contrast, when transiently expressed in COS-1 or HeLa cells, human ClC-6 mainly overlaps with markers for early/recycling endosomes (transferrin receptor, EEA-1, Rab5, Rab4 and not with late endosomal/lysosomal markers (LAMP-1, Rab7. Analogously, overexpression of human ClC-6 in SH-SY5Y cells also leads to an early/recycling endosomal localization of the exogenously expressed ClC-6 protein. Finally, in transiently transfected COS-1 cells, ClC-6 copurifies with detergent-resistant membrane fractions, suggesting its partitioning in lipid rafts. Mutating a juxtamembrane string of basic amino acids (amino acids 71-75: KKGRR disturbs the association with detergent-resistant membrane fractions and also affects the segregation of ClC-6

  12. Development of hull compaction system for nuclear recycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manole, A.A.; Karkhanis, P.P.; Agarwal, Kailash; Basu, Sekhar

    2013-01-01

    India has adopted closed fuel cycle strategy for efficient management of available resources to meet long term energy requirements. Nuclear Recycle Facility (NRF) provides a vital link in three-stage Indian nuclear power programme. In a NRF for PHWR fuel cycle, reprocessing of spent fuel bundles from PHWRs is carried out using a chop-leach process where the spent fuel bundles are chopped into small pieces using a spent fuel chopper and the contents inside the zircaloy clad are dissolved using concentric nitric acid. This process generates empty zircaloy shells called 'hulls'. The present practice followed for management of hulls is to transfer them into SS drums and store these drums in underground RCC tile holes at a Waste Management Facility (WMF). This waste needs to be stored in an engineered WMF for at least 30-60 years before transferred to a final repository. The storage volumes required for this hull waste will keep increasing as the reprocessing capacity is being enhanced multi-folds. Compaction of hull waste has been employed internationally to reduce the volume required for storage. Hence indigenous development of hull compaction system was initiated by NRB to meet the future requirements. This is being achieved through a set of experiments and analysis with the available resources within the country. This paper describes the process of compaction, conceptualization of the system and benefits accrued from it. (author)

  13. Factors influencing the recycling rate under the volume-based waste fee system in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seejeen

    2018-04-01

    Since the early 2000s, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) has maintained its top-rank status for its municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling rate among OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) member countries. The volume-based waste fee system (VWF) has been considered to be the major factor contributing to the high recycling performance, and extant research has verified the positive relationship between VWF adoption and the MSW recycling rate. Nevertheless, there exists a gap in the literature, as past research has focused more on testing the positive effects of VWF rather than on investigating the determinants of recycling rates after the adoption of VWF. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the various factors that affect recycling rates under the VWF system. More specifically, using data from 16 regions in South Korea over a period of 11 years, this study empirically tests the effects of VWF pricing, the citizen cost burden ratio for the VWF system, and pro-environmental behavior related to VWF on the recycling rate. The findings indicate that economic incentives such as cost savings on VWF plastic bag purchases and reduced burden from paying VWF expenses result in higher recycling rates. The findings also demonstrate that pro-environmental behavior in the VWF context positively affects the recycling rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    An assessment is made of the proliferation resistance of thermal recycle systems. The safeguards aspects are not addressed. Three routes to the acquisition of materials for nuclear weapons are addressed namely; a deliberate political decision by a government involving the use of dedicated facilities, a deliberate political decision by government involving abuse of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and theft by a subnational group. The most sensitive parts of the reference fuel cycle and the alternative technical measures are examined to judge their relative sensitivity. This is done by examining the difference forms in which plutonium can exist in the fuel cycle. The role which different institutional arrangements can play is also evaluated. From this comparative assessment it is concluded that, taking into account the qualitative nature of the assessment, the different stages of development of the various fuel cycles, the various realizations possible in respect of the deployment of facilities within individual countries and the evolutionary nature of the technical and institutional improvements foreseeable no fuel cycle can be made completely free from abuse. Furthermore it appears that following progressive introduction of features that will improve proliferation resistance there will not be significant differences between the various fuel cycles when compared at the point in time when they are introduced into widespread use. Provided such features are developed and implemented there is no reason on proliferation grounds to prefer one cycle to another

  15. Post-Golgi anterograde transport requires GARP-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tetsuya; Fujita, Morihisa; Nakamura, Shota; Gotoh, Kazuyoshi; Motooka, Daisuke; Murakami, Yoshiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2015-01-01

    The importance of endosome-to–trans-Golgi network (TGN) retrograde transport in the anterograde transport of proteins is unclear. In this study, genome-wide screening of the factors necessary for efficient anterograde protein transport in human haploid cells identified subunits of the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex, a tethering factor involved in endosome-to-TGN transport. Knockout (KO) of each of the four GARP subunits, VPS51–VPS54, in HEK293 cells caused severely defective anterograde transport of both glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored and transmembrane proteins from the TGN. Overexpression of VAMP4, v-SNARE, in VPS54-KO cells partially restored not only endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport, but also anterograde transport of both GPI-anchored and transmembrane proteins. Further screening for genes whose overexpression normalized the VPS54-KO phenotype identified TMEM87A, encoding an uncharacterized Golgi-resident membrane protein. Overexpression of TMEM87A or its close homologue TMEM87B in VPS54-KO cells partially restored endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport and anterograde transport. Therefore GARP- and VAMP4-dependent endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport is required for recycling of molecules critical for efficient post-Golgi anterograde transport of cell-surface integral membrane proteins. In addition, TMEM87A and TMEM87B are involved in endosome-to-TGN retrograde transport. PMID:26157166

  16. Model-Based Diagnosis and Prognosis of a Water Recycling System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A water recycling system (WRS) deployed at NASA Ames Research Center’s Sustainability Base (an energy efficient office building that integrates some novel...

  17. Performance Analysis of a Solar Dryer Equipped with a Recycling Air System and Desiccant Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Aghkhani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a high energy consuming process. Solar drying is one of the most popular methods for dehydration of agricultural products. In the present study, the performance of a forced convection solar dryer equipped with recycling air system and desiccant chamber was investigated. The solar dryer is comprised of solar collector, drying chamber, silica jell desiccant chamber, air ducts, fan and measuring and controlling system. Drying rate and energy consumption in three levels of air temperature (40, 45 and 50 oC and two modes of drying (with recycling air and no-recycling with open duct system were measured and compared. The results showed that increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time and increased the energy consumption in the mode of non-recycling air system. The dryer efficiency and drying rate were better in the mode of recycling air system than open duct system. The highest dryer efficiency was obtained from drying air temperature of 50 oC and the mode of recycling air system. In general, the efficiency of solar collector and the highest efficiency of the dryer were 0.34 and 0.41, respectively.

  18. Actin polymerization in the endosomal pathway, but not on the Coxiella-containing vacuole, is essential for pathogen growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather E Miller

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium that replicates within an expansive phagolysosome-like vacuole. Fusion between the Coxiella-containing vacuole (CCV and late endosomes/multivesicular bodies requires Rab7, the HOPS tethering complex, and SNARE proteins, with actin also speculated to play a role. Here, we investigated the importance of actin in CCV fusion. Filamentous actin patches formed around the CCV membrane that were preferred sites of vesicular fusion. Accordingly, the mediators of endolysosomal fusion Rab7, VAMP7, and syntaxin 8 were concentrated in CCV actin patches. Generation of actin patches required C. burnetii type 4B secretion and host retromer function. Patches decorated with VPS29 and VPS35, components of the retromer, FAM21 and WASH, members of the WASH complex that engage the retromer, and Arp3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex that generates branched actin filaments. Depletion by siRNA of VPS35 or VPS29 reduced CCV actin patches and caused Rab7 to uniformly distribute in the CCV membrane. C. burnetii grew normally in VPS35 or VPS29 depleted cells, as well as WASH-knockout mouse embryo fibroblasts, where CCVs are devoid of actin patches. Endosome recycling to the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1 and cationic-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-M6PR, respectively, was normal in infected cells. However, siRNA knockdown of retromer resulted in aberrant trafficking of GLUT1, but not CI-M6PR, suggesting canonical retrograde trafficking is unaffected by retromer disruption. Treatment with the specific Arp2/3 inhibitor CK-666 strongly inhibited CCV formation, an effect associated with altered endosomal trafficking of transferrin receptor. Collectively, our results show that CCV actin patches generated by retromer, WASH, and Arp2/3 are dispensable for CCV biogenesis and stability. However, Arp2/3-mediated production of actin filaments required for cargo transport within the

  19. The Endosome Localized Arf-GAP AGAP1 Modulates Dendritic Spine Morphology Downstream of the Neurodevelopmental Disorder Factor Dysbindin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Arnold

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AGAP1 is an Arf1 GTPase activating protein that interacts with the vesicle-associated protein complexes adaptor protein 3 (AP-3 and Biogenesis of Lysosome Related Organelles Complex-1 (BLOC-1. Overexpression of AGAP1 in non-neuronal cells results in an accumulation of endosomal cargoes, which suggests a role in endosome-dependent traffic. In addition, AGAP1 is a candidate susceptibility gene for two neurodevelopmental disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD and schizophrenia (SZ; yet its localization and function in neurons have not been described. Here, we describe that AGAP1 localizes to axons, dendrites, dendritic spines, and synapses, colocalizing preferentially with markers of early and recycling endosomes. Functional studies reveal overexpression and down-regulation of AGAP1 affects both neuronal endosomal trafficking and dendritic spine morphology, supporting a role for AGAP1 in the recycling endosomal trafficking involved in their morphogenesis. Finally, we determined the sensitivity of AGAP1 expression to mutations in the DTNBP1 gene, which is associated with neurodevelopmental disorder, and found that AGAP1 mRNA and protein levels are selectively reduced in the null allele of the mouse orthologue of DTNBP1. We postulate that endosomal trafficking contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders affecting dendritic spine morphology, and thus excitatory synapse structure and function.

  20. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  1. Recycling the actinides, a beneficial contribution to the overall environmental footprint of nuclear energy systems - 5333

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, C.; Bourg, S.; Grandjean, S.; Boullis, B.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Actinides recycling still remains a controversial issue for many countries which do not yet have make a definite and clear choice about the back-end of their nuclear fuel cycles. In particular, recycling is often questioned about its effective impact on the overall nuclear energy sustainability. In order to address this key issue, we developed a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool, referred to as NELCAS, based on the current French nuclear energy system. Thanks to the Nuclear Safety and Transparency annual reports, detailed quantitative data were available for each of the fuel cycle plants. The whole fuel cycle from ore-mining to geological repository was considered as well as data for construction, deconstruction of any plants as well as the contribution of the transport. All the matter and energy fluxes were considered and normalised versus the electric production. Key environmental indicators as well as potential impact indicators were hence assessed and validated with comparison with the few existing LCA results. NELCAS was also used to derive other fuel cycles by correcting when necessary the relevant flux of matter and energy all along the fuel cycle. A particular focus was put on the once-through cycle with no recycling at all and the effect of the introduction of fast neutron reactors which allow actinides multi-recycling. For the very first time, it hence allows a direct and robust assessment of the effect of recycling operations on the most widely used environmental indicators. Among others, it clearly demonstrates the beneficial effect of Pu and U recycling on most of the indicators. This improvement increases with any recycling increase and is directly related to the very high contribution of the front-end operations in the overall environmental footprint. Most of the indicators are very significantly decreased with the implementation of long-term recycling strategies. This presentation will therefore detail how actinides

  2. RP-1 Polymer Identification System : Recycler of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    It has been noticed that one of the primary obstacles in recycling is the lack of sufficient means to avoid cross contamination during collection. In particular, the new method to quickly and easily identify materials has been demanded in plastic industry due to the dramatic acceleration of plastic consumption in the last forty years. SpectraCode's new technology enables the instant point-and-shoot identification of black plastics, extracting a definitive signature from most black plastics in...

  3. Design study on advanced nuclear fuel recycling system by pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, Yoshimitsu; Kakehi, Isao; Moro, Satoshi; Tobe, Kenji; Kawamura, Fumio; Higashi, Tatsuhiro; Yonezawa, Shigeaki [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Yoshiuji, Takahiro

    1998-12-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute is conducting research and development on the nuclear fuel recycling system, which will improve the economy, safety, and environmental impact of the nuclear fuel recycling system in the age of the FBR. The System Engineering Division in the O-arai Engineering Center has conducted a design study on an advanced nuclear fuel recycling system for FBRs by using pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology. The system is an economical and compact module-type system, and can be used for reprocessing oxide fuel and also new types of fuel (metal fuel and nitride fuel). This report describes the concept of this system and results of the design study. (author)

  4. Design study on advanced nuclear fuel recycling system by pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Yoshimitsu; Kakehi, Isao; Moro, Satoshi; Tobe, Kenji; Kawamura, Fumio; Higashi, Tatsuhiro; Yonezawa, Shigeaki; Yoshiuji, Takahiro

    1998-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute is conducting research and development on the nuclear fuel recycling system, which will improve the economy, safety, and environmental impact of the nuclear fuel recycling system in the age of the FBR. The System Engineering Division in the O-arai Engineering Center has conducted a design study on an advanced nuclear fuel recycling system for FBRs by using pyrometallurgical reprocessing technology. The system is an economical and compact module-type system, and can be used for reprocessing oxide fuel and also new types of fuel (metal fuel and nitride fuel). This report describes the concept of this system and results of the design study. (author)

  5. Recycling of plastic materials collected by `Duales System Deutschland (DSD)`; Werkstoffliches Recycling von Kunststoffen aus DSD-Sammlungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgaertner, D. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany); Heinz, H. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany); Hiller, W. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-01-01

    The article deals with the importance, problems and technology of plastics recycling. It gives an overview of the specific demands of plastics recyclates, the necessary process technology, and the characteristic values of materials. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird die Bedeutung, die Problematik und Technik des werkstofflichen Recyclings von Kunststoffen dargestellt. Dabei sind sowohl die spezifischen Anforderungen des Einsatzstoffes als Recyclingmaterial, die notwendige Verfahrenstechnik als auch die werkstofflichen Kennwerte in einer Uebersicht dargestellt. (orig.)

  6. Liposome Model Systems to Study the Endosomal Escape of Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Transport across Phospholipid Membranes Induced by a Proton Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Madani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Detergent-mediated reconstitution of bacteriorhodopsin (BR into large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs was investigated, and the effects were carefully characterized for every step of the procedure. LUVs were prepared by the extrusion method, and their size and stability were examined by dynamic light scattering. BR was incorporated into the LUVs using the detergent-mediated reconstitution method and octyl glucoside (OG as detergent. The result of measuring pH outside the LUVs suggested that in the presence of light, BR pumps protons from the outside to the inside of the LUVs, creating acidic pH inside the vesicles. LUVs with 20% negatively charged headgroups were used to model endosomes with BR incorporated into the membrane. The fluorescein-labeled cell-penetrating peptide penetratin was entrapped inside these BR-containing LUVs. The light-induced proton pumping activity of BR has allowed us to observe the translocation of fluorescein-labeled penetratin across the vesicle membrane.

  7. The market-incentive recycling system for waste packaging containers in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor Yunchang, Jeffrey; Chien, Y.-L.; Hsu, Esher

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new market-incentive (MI) system to recycle waste-packaging containers in Taiwan. Since most used packaging containers have no or insufficient market value, the government imposes a combined product charge and subsidy policy to provide enough economic incentive for recycling various kinds of packaging containers, such as iron, aluminum, paper, glass and plastic. Empirical results show that the new MI approach has stimulated and established the recycling market for waste-packaging containers. The new recycling system has provided 18,356 employment opportunities and generated NT$ 6.97 billion in real-production value and NT$ 3.18 billion in real GDP during the 1998 survey year. Cost-effectiveness analysis constitutes the theoretical foundation of the new scheme, whereas data used to compute empirical product charge are from two sources: marketing surveys of internal conventional costs of solid-waste collection, disposal and recycling in Taiwan, and benefit transfer of external environmental costs in the United States. The new recycling policy designed by the authors provides a reasonable solution for solid-waste management in a country with limited land resources such as Taiwan

  8. Occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling systems and sludge in aggregate industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqua, Guillaume; Spinelli, Sylvie; Gonzalez, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    Acrylamide is a hazardous substance having irritant and toxic properties as well as carcinogen, mutagen, and impaired fertility possible effects. Acrylamide might be found in the environment as a consequence of the use of polyacrylamides (PAMs) widely added as a flocculant for water treatment. Acrylamide is a monomer used to produce polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers. This reaction of polymerization can be incomplete, and acrylamide molecules can be present as traces in the commercial polymer. Thus, the use of PAMs may generate a release of acrylamide in the environment. In aggregate industries, PAM is widely involved in recycling process and water reuse (aggregate washing). Indeed, these industries consume large quantities of water. Thus, European and French regulations have favored loops of recycling of water in order to reduce water withdrawals. The main goal of this article is to study the occurrence and fate of acrylamide in water-recycling process as well as in the sludge produced by the flocculation treatment process in aggregate production plants. Moreover, to strengthen the relevance of this article, the objective is also to demonstrate if the recycling system leads to an accumulation effect in waters and sludge and if free acrylamide could be released by sludge during their storage. To reach this objective, water sampled at different steps of recycling water process has been analyzed as well as different sludge corresponding to various storage times. The obtained results reveal no accumulation effect in the water of the water-recycling system nor in the sludge.

  9. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewoud Bernardus Compeer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I MHC complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8+ T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells (APC capable of antigen cross-presentation, description of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC, there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlight DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, recycling and maturation including the sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell-surface directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  10. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06878.001 PMID:25970033

  11. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy P. M. Chong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn and cholera toxin (CT, the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity.

  12. An ER-Associated Pathway Defines Endosomal Architecture for Controlled Cargo Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marlieke L. M.; Berlin, Ilana; Wijdeven, Ruud H. M.; Janssen, Lennert; Janssen, George M. C.; Garstka, Malgorzata A.; Janssen, Hans; Mensink, Mark; van Veelen, Peter A.; Spaapen, Robbert M.; Neefjes, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Through a network of progressively maturing vesicles, the endosomal system connects the cell's interior with extracellular space. Intriguingly, this network exhibits a bilateral architecture, comprised of a relatively immobile perinuclear vesicle "cloud" and a highly dynamic peripheral contingent.

  13. Closed-Loop Supply Chain Planning Model for a Photovoltaic System Manufacturer with Internal and External Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songi Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic (PV generation system has been widely used since the late 1990s. Considering its lifespan of 20 to 30 years, many end-of-life systems will emerge in the near future. This is why recycling PV systems will be beneficial (and may even be detrimental to both the environment and the economy. Through the recycling process, hazardous by-product substances such as cadmium and lead can be treated properly. Moreover, valuable materials including indium, gallium, and tellurium can be extracted and reused for manufacturing purposes. Even though many studies have dealt with issues related to the PV system and its recycling policy, they lack significant factors regarding the recycling policy. This study analyzes and compares three real cases of manufacturer’s recycling policy, including Deutsche Solar, First Solar, and PV Cycle, from the perspective of a closed-loop supply chain. Two mathematical models are developed to help PV system manufacturers establish supply chain planning and choose suitable recycling policies in consideration of different circumstances. Furthermore, an experimental example of these models will be used to validate and conclude the significance of the models. The results from this study will show that recycling CdTe PV systems is much more efficient than recycling c-Si PV systems and that, in the case of c-Si, it is better to outsource recycling end-of-life systems and dispose of all manufacturing scrap.

  14. Eco-efficiency and control loop configuration for recycle systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munir, Muhammad Tajammal; Yu, Wei; Young, Brent P. [The University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2013-05-15

    To integrate measurements of eco-efficiency with control loop configuration has become an important topic since all industrial processes/plants are requested to increase their eco-efficiency. The exergy eco-efficiency factor, a new measure of eco-efficiency for control loop configuration, has been developed recently. The exergy eco-efficiency factor is based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy, which can be used to analyze a process in terms of its efficiency. The combination of the relative gain array (RGA), NI, CN, dynamic RGA, and the exergy eco-efficiency factor will help guide the process designer to find the optimal control design with low operating cost/eco-efficiency. In this paper, we validate the proposed exergy eco-efficiency factor for processes with recycles which are very common industrially.

  15. Eco-efficiency and control loop configuration for recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, Muhammad Tajammal; Yu, Wei; Young, Brent P.

    2013-01-01

    To integrate measurements of eco-efficiency with control loop configuration has become an important topic since all industrial processes/plants are requested to increase their eco-efficiency. The exergy eco-efficiency factor, a new measure of eco-efficiency for control loop configuration, has been developed recently. The exergy eco-efficiency factor is based on the thermodynamic concept of exergy, which can be used to analyze a process in terms of its efficiency. The combination of the relative gain array (RGA), NI, CN, dynamic RGA, and the exergy eco-efficiency factor will help guide the process designer to find the optimal control design with low operating cost/eco-efficiency. In this paper, we validate the proposed exergy eco-efficiency factor for processes with recycles which are very common industrially

  16. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  17. PIKfyve mediates the motility of late endosomes and lysosomes in neuronal dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Fuminori; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E

    2015-09-25

    The endosome/lysosome system in the nervous system is critically important for a variety of neuronal functions such as neurite outgrowth, retrograde transport, and synaptic plasticity. In neurons, the endosome/lysosome system is crucial for the activity-dependent internalization of membrane proteins and contributes to the regulation of lipid level on the plasma membrane. Although homeostasis of membrane dynamics plays important roles in the properties of central nervous systems, it has not been elucidated how endosome/lysosome system is regulated. Here, we report that phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate 5-kinase (PIKfyve) mediates the motility of late endosomes and lysosomes in neuronal dendrites. Endosomes and lysosomes are highly motile in resting neurons, however knockdown of PIKfyve led to a significant reduction in late endosomes and lysosomes motility. We also found that vesicle acidification is crucial for their motility and PIKfyve is associated with this process indirectly. These data suggest that PIKfyve mediates vesicle motility through the regulation of vesicle integrity in neurons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Replication Depends on Endosomal Cholesterol Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Ina Karen; Lee, Ji-Young; Tabata, Keisuke; Romero-Brey, Inés; Paul, David; Schult, Philipp; Lohmann, Volker; Kaderali, Lars; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    endomembrane system to produce a membranous replication organelle (RO). The underlying mechanisms are far from being elucidated fully. In this report, we provide evidence that HCV RNA replication depends on functional lipid transport along the endosomal-lysosomal pathway that is mediated by several lipid transfer proteins, such as the Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein. Pharmacological inhibition of NPC1 function reduced viral replication, impaired the transport of cholesterol to the viral replication organelle, and altered organelle morphology. Besides NPC1, our study reports the importance of additional endosomal and lysosomal lipid transfer proteins required for viral replication, thus contributing to our understanding of how HCV manipulates their function in order to generate a membranous replication organelle. These results might have implications for the biogenesis of replication organelles of other positive-strand RNA viruses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. A systems approach to the management of a contaminated metal recycle project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincock, L.; Wahnachaffe, S.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is working with private industry to recycle contaminated metal from the dismantling and decommissioning of Department of Energy sites and commercial reactors. The recycled metal could be used in many applications such as fabrication of canisters and waste boxes for the storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. Management of technical projects similar to this is difficult because these projects consist of a myriad of complex and interrelated issues ranging from technical feasibility to stakeholder acceptance. Systems Analysis provides a way to deal with many complex issues and supports effective decision making

  20. Late endosomal cholesterol accumulation leads to impaired intra-endosomal trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komla Sobo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological accumulation of cholesterol in late endosomes is observed in lysosomal storage diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C. We here analyzed the effects of cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells, or as phenocopied by the drug U18666A, on late endosomes membrane organization and dynamics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cholesterol accumulation did not lead to an increase in the raft to non-raft membrane ratio as anticipated. Strikingly, we observed a 2-3 fold increase in the size of the compartment. Most importantly, properties and dynamics of late endosomal intralumenal vesicles were altered as revealed by reduced late endosomal vacuolation induced by the mutant pore-forming toxin ASSP, reduced intoxication by the anthrax lethal toxin and inhibition of infection by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that back fusion of intralumenal vesicles with the limiting membrane of late endosomes is dramatically perturbed upon cholesterol accumulation.

  1. Design requirements and performance requirements for reactor fuel recycle manipulator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a new generation of remote handling devices for remote production work in support of reactor fuel recycle systems is discussed. These devices require greater mobility, speed and visual capability than remote handling systems used in research activities. An upgraded manipulator system proposed for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel refabrication facility is described. Design and performance criteria for the manipulators, cranes, and TV cameras in the proposed system are enumerated

  2. A Systematic Approach for the Design and Analysis of Reaction-Separation Systems with Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jimenez, Edgar Ramirez

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for a systematic model-based analysis and the results obtained from it for an integrated design and analysis of reaction-separation systems with recycle. The methodology (systematic approach) consists of three stages where stage 1 identifies the limiting values...

  3. Stability of model recycled mixed plastic waste compatibilised with a cooperative compatibilisation system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luzuriaga, S. E.; Kovářová, Jana; Fortelný, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 5 (2011), s. 751-755 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06097 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polymer recycling * reactive compatibilisation system * stabilization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.769, year: 2011

  4. Aspects to consider for optimizing a substrate culture system with drainage recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Cuervo B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, the soilless system has been implemented in the cut flowers industry, among others, due to soil limitations. The use of substrates as growing media implies to drain around 30% of the applied fertigation solution to avoid the rhizosphere salinization. The drainage solution is spilled out to the soil producing environmental hazards and it might reach the water table; although the drainage solution could be recycled or reuse, depending upon their chemical characteristics. The nutrient uptake by the plants depends upon their phenological stage and the nutrient concentration in the solution; which could lead to ion depletion or accumulation. In general, monovalent ions are withdrawn faster than divalent ones. An efficient drainage treatment involves the automation of sensing and evaluation of ion concentration and recycling the drainage solution. The system should take into account the chemical aspects in the recycled and the new solutions in order to predict the life time of the drainage solution from their EC and pH. The system must be integrated with disinfection methods to avoid the spreading of plant pathogens. This review point out the physiological and technical bases that should be taking into account in a drainage recycling system in established crops under substrates, as a tool to take decisions more efficiently.

  5. Evaluation for membrane components of water recycling system. Mizu saisei junkan system yoso no tokusei hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanemura, T; Otsubo, K; Oguchi, M [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan); Ashida, A; Hamano, N; Mitani, K [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-04-01

    The configuration of water recycling systems with membrane filters was studied to purify waste water discharged from human beings, animals and plants which is a key subsystem for closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) essential to long-term manned space activity. The filter performance test apparatus with three kinds of filters such as pre-filter, reverse osmosis membrane filter and ultra membrane filter was fabricated to conduct long-term cycling high-concentration tests using artificial urine as original waste water. As a result, since every membrane filter offered their nominal performance incompletely in high-concentration tests, it was necessary to add an NaCl removing apparatus to the system as primary treated water should be used for vegetation. It was also required to test the membrane performance preliminarily because the performance such as membrane life was different between various waste waters. 7 refs., 32 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Myosin 1g Contributes to CD44 Adhesion Protein and Lipid Rafts Recycling and Controls CD44 Capping and Cell Migration in B Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes López-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration and adhesion are critical for immune system function and involve many proteins, which must be continuously transported and recycled in the cell. Recycling of adhesion molecules requires the participation of several proteins, including actin, tubulin, and GTPases, and of membrane components such as sphingolipids and cholesterol. However, roles of actin motor proteins in adhesion molecule recycling are poorly understood. In this study, we identified myosin 1g as one of the important motor proteins that drives recycling of the adhesion protein CD44 in B lymphocytes. We demonstrate that the lack of Myo1g decreases the cell-surface levels of CD44 and of the lipid raft surrogate GM1. In cells depleted of Myo1g, the recycling of CD44 was delayed, the delay seems to be caused at the level of formation of recycling complex and entry into recycling endosomes. Moreover, a defective lipid raft recycling in Myo1g-deficient cells had an impact both on the capping of CD44 and on cell migration. Both processes required the transportation of lipid rafts to the cell surface to deliver signaling components. Furthermore, the extramembrane was essential for cell expansion and remodeling of the plasma membrane topology. Therefore, Myo1g is important during the recycling of lipid rafts to the membrane and to the accompanied proteins that regulate plasma membrane plasticity. Thus, Myosin 1g contributes to cell adhesion and cell migration through CD44 recycling in B lymphocytes.

  7. Design of mechanical arm for an automatic sorting system of recyclable cans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, Y.; Mohruni, A. S.; Burlian, F.; Yani, I.; Amran, A.

    2018-04-01

    The use of a mechanical arm for an automatic sorting system of used cans should be designed carefully. The right design will result in a high precision sorting rate and a short sorting time. The design includes first; design manipulator,second; determine link and joint specifications, and third; build mechanical systems and control systems. This study aims to design the mechanical arm as a hardware system for automatic cans sorting system. The material used for the manipulator is the aluminum plate. The manipulator is designed using 6 links and 6 join where the 6th link is the end effectorand the 6th join is the gripper. As a driving motor used servo motor, while as a microcontroller used Arduino Uno which is connected with Matlab programming language. Based on testing, a mechanical arm designed for this recyclable canned recycling system has a precision sorting rate at 93%, where the average total time required for sorting is 10.82 seconds.

  8. Enhanced Endosomal Escape by Light-Fueled Liquid-Metal Transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue; Lin, Yiliang; Chen, Zhaowei; Hu, Quanyin; Liu, Yang; Yu, Shuangjiang; Gao, Wei; Dickey, Michael D; Gu, Zhen

    2017-04-12

    Effective endosomal escape remains as the "holy grail" for endocytosis-based intracellular drug delivery. To date, most of the endosomal escape strategies rely on small molecules, cationic polymers, or pore-forming proteins, which are often limited by the systemic toxicity and lack of specificity. We describe here a light-fueled liquid-metal transformer for effective endosomal escape-facilitated cargo delivery via a chemical-mechanical process. The nanoscale transformer can be prepared by a simple approach of sonicating a low-toxicity liquid-metal. When coated with graphene quantum dots (GQDs), the resulting nanospheres demonstrate the ability to absorb and convert photoenergy to drive the simultaneous phase separation and morphological transformation of the inner liquid-metal core. The morphological transformation from nanospheres to hollow nanorods with a remarkable change of aspect ratio can physically disrupt the endosomal membrane to promote endosomal escape of payloads. This metal-based nanotransformer equipped with GQDs provides a new strategy for facilitating effective endosomal escape to achieve spatiotemporally controlled drug delivery with enhanced efficacy.

  9. Endocytosis of wheat germ agglutinin binding sites from the cell surface into a tubular endosomal network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raub, T J; Koroly, M J; Roberts, R M

    1990-04-01

    By using fluorescence and electron microscopy, the endocytic pathway encountered by cell surface components after they had bound wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) was visualized. The majority of these components are thought to consist of sialylated glycoproteins (HMWAG) that represent a subpopulation of the total cell surface proteins but most of the externally disposed plasma membrane proteins of the cell. Examination of semi-thin sections by medium- and high-voltage electron microscopy revealed the three-dimensional organization of vesicular and tubular endosomes. Binding of either fluorescein isothiocyanate-, horseradish peroxidase-, or ferritin-conjugated WGA to cells at 4 degrees C showed that the HMWAG were distributed uniformly over the cell surface. Warming of surface-labeled cells to 37 degrees C resulted in the endocytosis of WGA into peripheral endosomes via invagination of regions of both coated and uncoated membrane. The peripheral endosome appeared as isolated complexes comprising a vesicular element (300-400 nm diam.) surrounded by and continuous with tubular cisternae (45-60 nm diam.), which did not interconnect the endosomes. After 30 min or more label also became localized in a network of anastomosing tubules (45-60 nm diam.) that were located in the centrosomal region of the cell. Endocytosed WGA-HMWAG complexes did not become associated with cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, although tubular and vesicular endosomes were noted in the vicinity of the trans-Golgi region. The accumulation of WGA-HMWAG in the endosomes within the centrosomal region was inhibited when cells were incubated at 18 degrees C. None of these compartments contained acid phosphatase activity, a result that is consistent with other data that the HMWAG do not pass through lysosomes initially. The kinetics of labeling were consistent with the interpretation that recycling of most of the WGA binding surface glycoproteins occurred rapidly from early peripheral endosomes followed by the

  10. Differential endosomal sorting of a novel P2Y12 purinoreceptor mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Margaret R; Nisar, Shaista P; Cooke, Alexandra E; Emery, Elizabeth D; Mundell, Stuart J

    2013-05-01

    P2Y12 receptor internalization and recycling play an essential role in ADP-induced platelet activation. Recently, we identified a patient with a mild bleeding disorder carrying a heterozygous mutation of P2Y12 (P341A) whose P2Y12 receptor recycling was significantly compromised. Using human cell line models, we identified key proteins regulating wild-type (WT) P2Y12 recycling and investigated P2Y12 -P341A receptor traffic. Treatment with ADP resulted in delayed Rab5-dependent internalization of P341A when compared with WT P2Y12 . While WT P2Y12 rapidly recycled back to the membrane via Rab4 and Rab11 recycling pathways, limited P341A recycling was observed, which relied upon Rab11 activity. Although minimal receptor degradation was evident, P341A was localized in Rab7-positive endosomes with considerable agonist-dependent accumulation in the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Rab7 activity is known to facilitate recruitment of retromer complex proteins to endosomes to transport cargo to the TGN. Here, we identified that P341A colocalized with Vps26; depletion of which blocked limited recycling and promoted receptor degradation. This study has identified key points of divergence in the endocytic traffic of P341A versus WT-P2Y12 . Given that these pathways are retained in human platelets, this research helps define the molecular mechanisms regulating P2Y12 receptor traffic and explain the compromised receptor function in the platelets of the P2Y12 -P341A-expressing patient. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1–positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42–associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling. PMID:25775511

  12. Cholesterol Regulates Syntaxin 6 Trafficking at trans-Golgi Network Endosomal Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Reverter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of cholesterol export from late endosomes causes cellular cholesterol imbalance, including cholesterol depletion in the trans-Golgi network (TGN. Here, using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 mutant cell lines and human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts, we show that altered cholesterol levels at the TGN/endosome boundaries trigger Syntaxin 6 (Stx6 accumulation into VAMP3, transferrin, and Rab11-positive recycling endosomes (REs. This increases Stx6/VAMP3 interaction and interferes with the recycling of αVβ3 and α5β1 integrins and cell migration, possibly in a Stx6-dependent manner. In NPC1 mutant cells, restoration of cholesterol levels in the TGN, but not inhibition of VAMP3, restores the steady-state localization of Stx6 in the TGN. Furthermore, elevation of RE cholesterol is associated with increased amounts of Stx6 in RE. Hence, the fine-tuning of cholesterol levels at the TGN-RE boundaries together with a subset of cholesterol-sensitive SNARE proteins may play a regulatory role in cell migration and invasion.

  13. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  14. Control System Based on Anode Offgas Recycle for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The conflicting operation objectives between rapid load following and the fuel depletion avoidance as well as the strong interactions between the thermal and electrical parameters make the SOFC system difficult to control. This study focuses on the design of the decoupling control for the thermal and electrical characteristics of the SOFC system through anode offgas recycling (AOR. The decoupling control system can independently manipulate the thermal and electrical parameters, which interact with one another in most cases, such as stack temperatures, burner temperature, system current, and system power. Under the decoupling control scheme, the AOR is taken as a manipulation variable. The burner controller maintains the burner temperature without being affected by abrupt power change. The stack temperature controller properly coordinates with the burner temperature controller to independently modulate the stack thermal parameters. For the electrical problems, the decoupling control scheme shows its superiority over the conventional controller in alleviating rapid load following and fuel depletion avoidance. System-level simulation under a power-changing case is performed to validate the control freedom between the thermal and electrical characteristics as well as the stability, efficiency, and robustness of the novel system control scheme.

  15. Model-Based Diagnosis and Prognosis of a Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Hafiychuk, Vasyl; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2013-01-01

    A water recycling system (WRS) deployed at NASA Ames Research Center s Sustainability Base (an energy efficient office building that integrates some novel technologies developed for space applications) will serve as a testbed for long duration testing of next generation spacecraft water recycling systems for future human spaceflight missions. This system cleans graywater (waste water collected from sinks and showers) and recycles it into clean water. Like all engineered systems, the WRS is prone to standard degradation due to regular use, as well as other faults. Diagnostic and prognostic applications will be deployed on the WRS to ensure its safe, efficient, and correct operation. The diagnostic and prognostic results can be used to enable condition-based maintenance to avoid unplanned outages, and perhaps extend the useful life of the WRS. Diagnosis involves detecting when a fault occurs, isolating the root cause of the fault, and identifying the extent of damage. Prognosis involves predicting when the system will reach its end of life irrespective of whether an abnormal condition is present or not. In this paper, first, we develop a physics model of both nominal and faulty system behavior of the WRS. Then, we apply an integrated model-based diagnosis and prognosis framework to the simulation model of the WRS for several different fault scenarios to detect, isolate, and identify faults, and predict the end of life in each fault scenario, and present the experimental results.

  16. Recycling of Na in advanced life support: strategies based on crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntur, S V; Mackowiak, C; Wheeler, R M

    1999-01-01

    Sodium is an essential dietary requirement in human nutrition, but seldom holds much importance as a nutritional element for crop plants. In Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems, recycling of gases, nutrients, and water loops is required to improve system closure. If plants are to play a significant role in recycling of human wastes, Na will need to accumulate in edible tissues for return to the crew diet. If crops fail to accumulate the incoming Na into edible tissues, Na could become a threat to the hydroponic food production system by increasing the nutrient solution salinity. Vegetable crops of Chenopodiaceae such as spinach, table beet, and chard may have a high potential to supply Na to the human diet, as Na can substitute for K to a large extent in metabolic processes of these crops. Various strategies are outlined that include both genetic and environmental management aspects to optimize the Na recovery from waste streams and their resupply through the human diet in ALS.

  17. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  18. Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection Induces VAP-Dependent Endosomal Tubulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Abida; Massimi, Paola; Pim, David; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Banks, Lawrence

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans -Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation. In addition, we also show a critical requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein VAP in this process. VAP plays an essential role in actin nucleation and endosome-to-Golgi transport. Indeed, the loss of VAP results in a dramatic decrease in the level of endosomal tubulation induced by incoming HPV-16 virions. This is also accompanied by a marked reduction in virus infectivity. In VAP knockdown cells, we see that the defect in virus trafficking occurs after capsid disassembly but prior to localization at the trans -Golgi network, with the incoming virion-transduced DNA accumulating in Vps29/TGN46-positive hybrid vesicles. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that infection with HPV-16 virions induces marked alterations of endocytic transport pathways, some of which are VAP dependent and required for the endosome-to-Golgi transport of the incoming viral L2/DNA complex. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus infectious entry involves multiple interactions with the endocytic transport machinery. In this study, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a dramatic increase in endocytic tubulation. This tubulation requires ER-associated VAP, which plays a critical role in ensuring the delivery of cargoes from the endocytic compartments to the trans -Golgi network. Indeed, the loss of

  19. Waste removal systems and recycling participation in residential environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    Systems for the removal of waste are important although often overlooked elements of any residential environment. It is an old insight that when these systems are ineffective (and this is globally and historically the rule rather than the exception), human living conditions and often even human...... health are severely impaired (Pieters, 1989). More recently, resource waste and environmental hazards from waste have given rise to public and political concern as well, even when disposal systems are well managed. This concern has led to efforts to divert solid waste away from disposal and towards some...

  20. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M.; Cruz, N.F. da; Simões, P.; Marques, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios

  1. Life cycle assessment of a packaging waste recycling system in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, S.; Cabral, M. [CEG-IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Cruz, N.F. da, E-mail: nunocruz@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Simões, P. [IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Marques, R.C. [CESUR, IST, ULisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We modeled a real packaging waste recycling system. • The analysis was performed using the life cycle assessment methodology. • The 2010 situation was compared with scenarios where the materials were not recycled. • The “Baseline” scenario seems to be more beneficial to the environment. - Abstract: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used to assess the environmental impacts associated with an activity or product life cycle. It has also been applied to assess the environmental performance related to waste management activities. This study analyses the packaging waste management system of a local public authority in Portugal. The operations of selective and refuse collection, sorting, recycling, landfilling and incineration of packaging waste were considered. The packaging waste management system in operation in 2010, which we called “Baseline” scenario, was compared with two hypothetical scenarios where all the packaging waste that was selectively collected in 2010 would undergo the refuse collection system and would be sent directly to incineration (called “Incineration” scenario) or to landfill (“Landfill” scenario). Overall, the results show that the “Baseline” scenario is more environmentally sound than the hypothetical scenarios.

  2. Feasibility Study on Nitrogen-15 Enrichment and Recycling System for Innovative FR Cycle System With Nitride Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki Inoue; Kiyoshi Ono; Tsuna-aki Fujioka; Koji Sato; Takeo Asaga

    2002-01-01

    Highly-isotopically-enriched nitrogen (HE-N 2 ; 15 N abundance 99.9%) is indispensable for a nitride fueled fast reactor (FR) cycle to minimize the effect of carbon-14 ( 14 C) generated mainly by 14 N(n,p) 14 C reaction in the core on environmental burden. Thus, the development of inexpensive 15 N enrichment and recycling technology is one of the key aspects for the commercialization of a nitride fueled FR cycle. Nitrogen isotope separation by the gas adsorption technique was experimentally confirmed in order to obtain its technological perspective. A conventional pressure swing adsorption technique, which is already commercialized for recovering the nitrogen gas from multi-composition gas-mixture, would be suitable for recovering in both reprocessing and fuel fabrication to recycle the HE-N 2 gas. A couple of the nitride fuel cycle system concepts including the reprocessing and fuel fabrication process flow diagrams with the HE-N 2 gas recycling were newly designed for both aqueous and non-aqueous (pyrochemical) nitride fuel recycle plants, and also the effect of the HE-N 2 gas recycling on the economics of each concept was evaluated. (authors)

  3. Analytical applications of a recycled flow nuclear magnetic resonance system: quantitative analysis of slowly relaxing nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, D.A. Jr.; Lee, R.W.K.; Wilkins, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The utility of a recycled flow system for the efficient quantitative analysis of NMR spectra is demonstrated. Requisite conditions are first established for the quantitative flow experiment and then applied to a variety of compounds. An application of the technique to determination of the average polymer chain length for a silicone polymer by quantitative flow 29 Si NMR is also presented. 10 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  4. Proposal of a torus pumping and fuel recycling system for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinic, D.; Mack, A.; Perinic, G.; Murdoch, D.

    1995-01-01

    A universal torus pumping and fuel recycling system is proposed for all operation modes of ITER. It comprises primary cryopumps and secondary fuel separating cryopumps located inside the cryostat and a common mechanical forepump station located outside the cryostat. In this paper two different primary cryopump options are compared. The results of Monte Carlo calculations of pumping probabilities for helium show a significant difference leading to a distinct preference for the concept of a co-pumping cryopump. (orig.)

  5. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. Experiments are reported in which cultures of the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments, hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae were tested to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  6. Advanced Recyclable Media System reg-sign. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The objective of the Large-Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) is to select and demonstrate potentially beneficial technologies at the Argonne National Laboratory East's (ANL) Chicago Pile-5 (CP-5) Research Reactor. The purpose of the LSDP is to demonstrate that using innovative and improved deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) technologies from various sources can result in significant benefits, such as decreased cost and increased health and safety, as compared with baseline D and D technologies. This report describes a demonstration of the Advanced Recyclable Media System reg-sign technology which was employed by Surface Technology Systems, Inc. to remove coatings from a concrete floor. This demonstration is part of the CP-5 LSDP sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA). The Advanced Recyclable Media System reg-sign (ARMS) technology is an open blast technology which uses a soft recyclable media. The patented ARMS Engineered Blast Media consists of a fiber-reinforced polymer matrix which can be manufactured in various grades of abrasiveness. The fiber media can be remade and/or reused up to 20 times and can clean almost any surface (e.g., metal, wood, concrete, lead) and geometry including corners and the inside of air ducts

  7. Shared Urban Greywater Recycling Systems: Water Resource Savings and Economic Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter V.L. Hunt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The water industry is becoming increasingly aware of the risks associated with urban supplies not meeting demands by 2050. Greywater (GW recycling for non-potable uses (e.g., urinal and toilet flushing provides an urban water management strategy to help alleviate this risk by reducing main water demands. This paper proposes an innovative cross connected system that collects GW from residential buildings and recycles it for toilet/urinal flushing in both residential and office buildings. The capital cost (CAPEX, operational cost (OPEX and water saving potential are calculated for individual and shared residential and office buildings in an urban mixed-use regeneration area in the UK, assuming two different treatment processes; a membrane bioreactor (MBR and a vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW. The Net Present Value (NPV method was used to compare the financial performance of each considered scenario, from where it was found that a shared GW recycling system (MBR was the most economically viable option. The sensitivity of this financial model was assessed, considering four parameters (i.e., water supply and sewerage charges, discount rate(s, service life and improved technological efficiency, e.g., low flush toilets, low shower heads, etc., from where it was found that shared GW systems performed best in the long-term.

  8. A recycling model of the biokinetics of systemic tellurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giussani, Augusto

    2014-11-01

    To develop a compartmental model of the systemic biokinetics of tellurium required for calculating the internal dose and interpreting bioassay measurements after incorporation of radioactive tellurium. The compartmental model for tellurium was developed with the software SAAM II v. 2.0 (©The Epsilon Group, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA). Model parameters were determined on the basis of published retention and excretion data in humans and animals. The model consists of two blood compartments, one compartment each for liver, kidneys, thyroid, four compartments for bone tissues and a generic compartment for the soft tissues. The model predicts a rapid urinary excretion of systemic tellurium: 45% in the first 24 h and 84% after 50 d. Faecal excretion amounts to 0.4% after 3 d and 9% after 50 d. Whole body retention is 55% after one day, and 2.8% after 100 d. These values as well as the retained fractions in the single organs are reasonably consistent with the available human and animal data (studies with swine and guinea pigs). The proposed model gives a realistic description of the available biokinetic data for tellurium and will be adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for applications in internal dosimetry.

  9. ECO-WALL SYSTEMS: USING RECYCLED MATERIAL IN THE DESIGN OF COMMERCIAL INTERIOR WALL SYSTEMS FOR BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This proposal describes an interdisciplinary project involving students from several academic departments at Miami University in the design of commercial wall systems to be manufactured from recycled materials. The goal of Phase I of the project is to develop and conduct prelimi...

  10. Development of methods for the decrease in instability of recycling water of conjugated closed-circuit cooling system of HPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirov, A. A.; Chichirova, N. D.; Vlasov, S. M.; Lyapin, A. I.; Misbakhov, R. Sh.; Silov, I. Yu.; Murtazin, A. I.

    2016-10-01

    On Russian HPPs, conjugated closed-circuit cooling systems, where purge water is used as initial for water-treatment facilities, are widespread. For this reason, it is impossible to use general methods for the stabilization treatment of recycling water in order to prevent scale formation in the units of a system, namely, turbine condensers and cooling towers. In this paper, the methods for the decrease in the instability of recycling water using the methods of chemical engineering, such as stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, are suggested. The results of an industrial experiment on the implementation of stabilization treatment of recycling water by the organization of recycle are given. The experiment was carried out on Kazan CHPP-3. The flow scheme involved the recycle of chemically purified water (CPW) for the heat network make-up to the closed-circuit cooling system. The experiment was carried out at three stages with the gradual change of the consumption of the recycle, namely, 0, 50, and 100 t/h. According to the results of experiments, the reliable decrease in the rate of the sedimentation was recorded on the units of the system, namely, turbine condenser and chimney-type cooling tower. This is caused by two reasons. Firstly, this is periodic excessive concentration of recycling water due to the nonstationary character of inlet and outlet flows. Secondly, this is seasonal (particularly, in the summer period) exceeding of the evaporation coefficient. As a result of stabilization and synchronization of flows and organization of recycles, the quality of clarified and chemically purified water for the heat network make-up increases and the corrosion of iron- and copper-containing structural materials decreases. A natural decrease in temperature drop on the operating turbine condensers is mentioned.

  11. Advanced WEEE recovery and recycling management system (AWARENESS); AWARENESS-projekti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmstroem, P; Wiik, C [Technology Industries of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkomaeki, T; Tirkkonen, T [Antrea Solutions Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the AWARENESS project is to support companies in arriving at a consensus on WEEE implementation details, to start company co-operation in different product categories and to take the optimal recycling processes in use. The Internet-based information system, which will be developed during the project, is designed to meet the information needs of the producers of electronics products and to fulfil the information and reporting obligation imposed by the WEEE directive. In the AWARENESS project, there are two parallel subprojects called RecISys and SELMA, and in addition a supplementary co-operation project managed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Main focus in the SELMA subproject is to manage issues related to operational recycling and to carry out communication between companies and national authorities. The RecISys subproject will follow operational recycling processes and develop an Internet-based technical system to support producers as well as other parties and chosen processes. The co- operation project called RFID, pilots the utilisation of radiofrequency identification technique to the end-of-life products. (orig.)

  12. Final Technical Report for EE0006091: H2Pump Hydrogen Recycling System Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Rhonda [H2Pump LLC, Latham, NY (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the product readiness and to quantify the benefits and customer value proposition of H2Pump’s Hydrogen Recycling System (HRS-100™) by installing and analyzing the operation of multiple prototype 100-kg per day systems in real world customer locations. The data gathered will be used to measure reliability, demonstrate the value proposition to customers, and validate our business model. H2Pump will install, track and report multiple field demonstration systems in industrial heat treating and semi-conductor applications. The customer demonstrations will be used to develop case studies and showcase the benefits of the technology to drive market adoption.

  13. A geothermal recycling system for cooling and heating in deep mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Pingye; He, Manchao; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Na

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A geothermal recycling system for cooling and heating was presented in coal mines. • The COP of this cooling subsystem is 30% higher than that of others. • The COP is 20% higher with the parallel running of cooling and heating systems. - Abstract: In the operation of deep coal mines, cooling systems must be built (in most cases) because of the high-temperature working environment within such mines. Once the coal is mined, it is often used to supply heat for buildings and domestic hot water. In either instance, the energy consumed can create environmental pollution. As a potential solution to this problem, we present a geothermal recycling system for mines (GRSM) for parallel mine cooling and surface heating. The performance of this system is investigated based on the observed data. Compared with traditional cooling systems, the most obvious feature of this system is the removal of a cooling tower, which contributes to a 30% increase in performance. Moreover, the parallel running of cooling and heating systems can effectively recover waste heat, improving energy efficiency by 20%.

  14. Development of methane conversion improvement method by recycling of residual methane for steam reforming as a part of R and D of HTGR-hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Haga, Katsuhiro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Hino, Ryutaro; Koiso, Hiroshi.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to improve methane conversion for an HTGR-steam reforming system by recycling of residual methane. The residual methane in a product gas after steam reforming was recycled with a gas separator of polyimide membrane. Gas separation characteristics of the separator were investigated experimentally and numerically, and an experimental study on recycling system was carried out. The results showed that the recycling system improves apparent methane conversion, ratio of methane conversion to methane supply from a cylinder, from 20 to 32% compared with those without recycling. (author)

  15. Nitrogen recycling and methane production using Gracilaria tikvahiae: a closed system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habig, C.; Andrews, D.A.; Ryther, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The macroalga Gracilaria tikvahiae (Rhodophyta) was used in a closed system of materials to study methane production and nitrogen recycling. Twenty liter carboys served as digesters. The performance of these digesters mirrors results obtained with two- and four litre Gracilaria digesters with respect to optimal retention times for biogas production, methane content, and bioconversion efficiency to methane. Three groups of Gracilaria were cultivated in 850-L vaults to compare growth performance under three different enrichment treatments. These treatments consisted of an unfertilized group, a group raised on a typical commercial enrichment regime, and a group raised on the residues removed from the digester when additional substrate was loaded into the digester. The results indicate that growth of Gracilaria on the digester residue enrichment scheme is statistically similar to growth using a commercial enrichment mixture. In addition, the nitrogen content of the digester residue is described, along with nitrogen assimilation by Gracilaria and nitrogen recycling efficiencies. Both nitrogen assimilation and recycling efficiency closely parallel the ammonium content of the residue enrichment media. (Refs. 18).

  16. Conformational biosensors reveal GPCR signalling from endosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irannejad, R; Tomshine, Jin C; Tomshine, Jon R

    2013-01-01

    A long-held tenet of molecular pharmacology is that canonical signal transduction mediated by G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) coupling to heterotrimeric G proteins is confined to the plasma membrane. Evidence supporting this traditional view is based on analytical methods that provide limited...... or no subcellular resolution. It has been subsequently proposed that signalling by internalized GPCRs is restricted to G-protein-independent mechanisms such as scaffolding by arrestins, or GPCR activation elicits a discrete form of persistent G protein signalling, or that internalized GPCRs can indeed contribute...... in the early endosome membrane, and that internalized receptors contribute to the overall cellular cyclic AMP response within several minutes after agonist application. These findings provide direct support for the hypothesis that canonical GPCR signalling occurs from endosomes as well as the plasma membrane...

  17. Evaluation of concrete recycling system efficiency for ready-mix concrete plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luiz de Brito Prado; Figueiredo, Antonio Domingues de

    2016-10-01

    The volume of waste generated annually in concrete plants is quite large and has important environmental and economic consequences. The use of fresh concrete recyclers is an interesting way for the reuse of aggregates and water in new concrete production. This paper presents a study carried out for over one year by one of the largest ready-mix concrete producers in Brazil. This study focused on the evaluation of two recyclers with distinct material separation systems, herein referred to as drum-type and rotary sieve-type equipment. They were evaluated through characterization and monitoring test programs to verify the behaviour of recovered materials (aggregates, water, and slurry). The applicability of the recovered materials (water and aggregates) was also evaluated in the laboratory and at an industrial scale. The results obtained with the two types of recyclers used were equivalent and showed no significant differences. The only exception was in terms of workability. The drum-type recycler generated fewer cases that required increased pumping pressure. The analysis concluded that the use of untreated slurry is unfeasible because of its intense negative effects on the strength and workability of concrete. The reclaimed water, pre-treated to ensure that its density is less than 1.03g/cm(3), can be used on an industrial scale without causing any harm to the concrete. The use of recovered aggregates consequently induces an increase in water demand and cement consumption to ensure the workability conditions of concrete that is proportional to the concrete strength level. Therefore, the viability of their use is restricted to concretes with characteristic strengths lower than 25MPa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation about the ecotown-enterprise for establishing recycling system of non-radioactive waste arising from power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hironaga, Michihiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuo; Ozaki, Yukio; Yamamoto, Kimio

    2004-01-01

    About 95% of demolition wastes generated by decommissioning nuclear power plants are below the clearance level, i.e., the wastes can be dealt with as industrial wastes. On that case, rational processing, disposal, and reuse are expectable. However, even if the demolition waste is below a clearance level, it seems to be difficult to be immediately accepted in general society with the demolition wastes. Therefore, it is important to establish the technology for an effective recycle system of demolition wastes, and to reuse demolition wastes as much as possible, resulting in recognition of the value by the society. On the other hand, as for recycling of industrial waste, the recycling enterprise is promoted in the domestic self-governing body in response to the 'eco-town enterprise' which is recommended by the government. This report investigates the system and subjects of a 'eco-town enterprise' for recycling demolition wastes. (author)

  19. Joint investigation of working conditions, environmental and system performance at recycling centres--development of instruments and their usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engkvist, I-L; Eklund, J; Krook, J; Björkman, M; Sundin, E; Svensson, R; Eklund, M

    2010-05-01

    Recycling is a new and developing industry, which has only been researched to a limited extent. This article describes the development and use of instruments for data collection within a multidisciplinary research programme "Recycling centres in Sweden - working conditions, environmental and system performance". The overall purpose of the programme was to form a basis for improving the function of recycling centres with respect to these three perspectives and the disciplines of: ergonomics, safety, external environment, and production systems. A total of 10 instruments were developed for collecting data from employees, managers and visitors at recycling centres, including one instrument for observing visitors. Validation tests were performed in several steps. This, along with the quality of the collected data, and experience from the data collection, showed that the instruments and methodology used were valid and suitable for their purpose. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DURABILITY OF GREEN CONCRETE WITH TERNARY CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEM CONTAINING RECYCLED AGGREGATE CONCRETE AND TIRE RUBBER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJID MATOUQ ASSAS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All over the world billions of tires are being discarded and buried representing a serious ecological threat. Up to now a small part is recycled and millions of tires are just stockpiled, landfilled or buried. This paper presents results about the properties and the durability of green concrete contains recycled concrete as a coarse aggregate with partial replacement of sand by tire rubber wastes for pavement use. Ternary cementious system, Silica fume, Fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust are used as partial replacement of cement by weight. Each one replaced 10% of cement weight to give a total replacement of 30%. The durability performance was assessed by means of water absorption, chloride ion permeability at 28 and 90 days, and resistance to sulphuric acid attack at 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. Also to the compression behaviors for the tested specimens at 7, 14, 28 and 90 days were detected. The results show the existence of ternary cementitious system, silica fly ash and Cement Kiln Dust minimizes the strength loss associated to the use of rubber waste. In this way, up to 10% rubber content and 30% ternary cementious system an adequate strength class value (30 MPa, as required for a wide range of common structural uses, can be reached both through natural aggregate concrete and recycled aggregate concrete. Results also show that, it is possible to use rubber waste up to 15% and still maintain a high resistance to acid attack. The mixes with 10%silica fume, 10% fly ash and 10% Cement Kiln Dust show a higher resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix independently of the rubber waste content. The mixes with rubber waste and ternary cementious system was a lower resistance to sulphuric acid attack than the reference mix.

  1. Improved energy performance of ammonia recycling system using floating condensing temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Wei; Meng, Zhuo; Sun, Yize; Zhong, Qianwen; Zhu, Helei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic models for the compressor and evaporative condenser were developed. • An evaluation index was proposed to determine the optimal set point. • An algorithm was presented to compute the optimal set point. • Strategies for operating ammonia recycling system were proposed. - Abstract: Aiming at reducing the energy-consumption of ammonia recycling system, we presented floating condensing temperature control to maximize the coefficient of performance (COP) of the system. Firstly, thermodynamic models for the compressor and evaporative condenser were developed respectively. Then, an evaluation index and a solution scheme were proposed to determine the optimal set point of condensing temperature and the corresponding compressor speed. It is found that the system COP can be maximized by controlling the compressor speed to adjust the set point based on any given operating conditions. When the wet-bulb temperature is 22 °C, the system COP could be improved by 19.2–27.6% under floating condensing temperature control.

  2. Preliminary study on direct recycling of spent PWR fuel in PWR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waris, Abdul; Nuha; Novitriana; Kurniadi, Rizal; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary study on direct recycling of PWR spent fuel to support SUPEL (Straight Utilization of sPEnt LWR fuel in LWR system) scenario has been conducted. Several spent PWR fuel compositions in loaded PWR fuel has been evaluated to obtain the criticality of reactor. The reactor can achieve it criticality for U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel is at least 4.0 a% with the minimum fraction of the spent fuel in the core is 15.0 %. The neutron spectra become harder with the escalating of U-235 enrichment in the loaded fresh fuel as well as the amount of the spent fuel in the core.

  3. Microwave Schottky diagnostic systems for the Fermilab Tevatron, Recycler, and CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph J. Pasquinelli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A means for noninvasive measurement of transverse and longitudinal characteristics of bunched beams in synchrotrons has been developed based on high sensitivity slotted waveguide pickups. The pickups allow for bandwidths exceeding hundreds of MHz while maintaining good beam sensitivity characteristics. Wide bandwidth is essential to allow bunch-by-bunch measurements by means of a fast gate. The Schottky detector system is installed and successfully commissioned in the Fermilab Tevatron, Recycler and CERN LHC synchrotrons. Measurement capabilities include tune, chromaticity, and momentum spread of single or multiple beam bunches in any combination. With appropriate calibrations, emittance can also be measured by integrating the area under the incoherent tune sidebands.

  4. Feed-forward control of a solid oxide fuel cell system with anode offgas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Maxime; Brandenburger, Ralf; Friede, Wolfgang; Lapicque, François; Limbeck, Uwe; da Silva, Pedro

    2015-05-01

    In this work a combined heat and power unit (CHP unit) based on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology is analysed. This unit has a special feature: the anode offgas is partially recycled to the anode inlet. Thus it is possible to increase the electrical efficiency and the system can be operated without external water feeding. A feed-forward control concept which allows secure operating conditions of the CHP unit as well as a maximization of its electrical efficiency is introduced and validated experimentally. The control algorithm requires a limited number of measurement values and few deterministic relations for its description.

  5. Study of recycling exhaust gas energy of hybrid pneumatic power system with CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. David; Quang, Khong Vu; Tseng, K.-T.

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid pneumatic power system (HPPS) is integrated by an internal combustion engine (ICE), a high efficiency turbine, an air compressor and an energy merger pipe, which can not only recycle and store exhaust gas energy but also convert it into useful mechanical energy. Moreover, it can make the ICE operate in its optimal state of maximum efficiency; and thus, it can be considered an effective solution to improve greatly the exhaust emissions and increase the overall energy efficiency of the HPPS. However, in this system, the flow energy merger of both high pressure compressed air flow and high temperature exhaust gas flow of the ICE greatly depends on the merging capability of the energy merger pipe. If the compressed air pressure (P air ) at the air inlet is too high, smooth transmission and mixture of the exhaust gas flow are prevented, which will interfere with the operation condition of the ICE. This shortcoming is mostly omitted in the previous studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the level of P air and the contraction of cross-section area (CSA) at the merging position on the flow energy merger and determine their optimum adjustments for a better merging process by using computation fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, the CFD model was validated on the basis of the experimental data, including the temperature and static pressure of the merger flow at the outlet of the energy merger pipe. It was found that the simulation results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The simulation results show that exhaust gas recycling efficiency and merger flow energy are significantly dependent on the optimum adjustment of the CSA for changes in P air . Under these optimum adjustments, the exhaust gas recycling efficiency can reach about 83%. These results will be valuable bases to research and design the energy merger pipe of the HPPS.

  6. Development Of Nutrient And Water Recycling Capabilities In Algae Biofuels Production Systems. Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Tryg [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Spierling, Ruth [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Poole, Kyle [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Blackwell, Shelley [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Crowe, Braden [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Hutton, Matt [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Lehr, Corinne [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2018-01-25

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate methods of recycling of water and nutrients for algal biofuels production. Recycling was accomplished both internal to the system and, in a broader sense, through import and reuse of municipal wastewater. Such an integrated system with wastewater input had not been demonstrated previously, and the performance was unknown, particularly in terms of influence of recycling on algal productivity and the practical extent of nutrient recovery from biomass residuals. Through long-term laboratory and pilot research, the project resulted in the following: 1. Bench-scale pretreatment of algal biomass did not sufficiently increase methane yield of nutrient solubilization during anaerobic digestion to warrant incorporation of pre-treatment into the pilot plant. The trial pretreatments were high-pressure orifice homogenization, sonication, and two types of heat treatment. 2. Solubilization of biomass particulate nutrients by lab anaerobic digesters ranged from 20% to nearly 60% for N and 40-65% for P. Subsequent aerobic degradation of the anaerobically digested biomass simulated raceways receiving whole digestate and resulted in an additional 20-55% N solubilization and additional 20% P solubilization. 3. Comparisons of laboratory and pilot digesters showed that laboratory units were reasonable proxies for pilot-scale. 4. Pilot-scale anaerobic digesters were designed, installed, and operated to digest algal biomass. Nutrient re-solubilization by the digesters was monitored and whole digestate was successfully used as a fertilizer in pilot algae raceways. 5. Unheated, unmixed digesters achieved greater methane yield and nutrient solubilization than heated, mixed digesters, presumably due to longer the solids residence times in unmixed digesters. The unmixed, unheated pilot digesters yielded 0.16 LCH4/g volatile solids (VS) introduced with 0.15 g VS/L-d organic loading and 16oC average temperature. A

  7. Evaluation of a common commercial surfactant in a water recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, T.; Jackson, A.; Rainwater, K.; Pickering, S.

    2002-01-01

    The fate of a common commercial surfactant was investigated in the biological reactors of a water recycle system. A NO 2 - reducing packed-bed bioreactor was employed to evaluate degradation of surfactant present in a typical greywater stream. The research was conducted to determine if an alternative commercial surfactant could be used in a biological water recycle system proposed for space travel in place of the current surfactant. The commercial soap used in the research was Pert Plus for Kids (PPK), which contains sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) as the active surfactant. Experiments included a combination of microcosm studies as well as a continuous-flow packed-bed bioreactor. The hydraulic retention time of the packed-bed bioreactor was varied through changes in flow rate to yield different steady-state values for NO 2 -N, TOC, and COD. Steady-state values will allow the determination of the bacterial kinetic parameters. Initial results suggest that the commercial surfactant may be difficult to treat in the time frame of typical biological systems. NO 2 - reduction was favorable in the packed-bed reactor, but TOC removal rates did not correspond to the NO 2 - removal. It is theorized that, due to its high K oc value (1200), SLES has an affinity to absorb to the media contained in the bed, which in turn allows for adsorption of the surfactant. Future research will include development of an isotherm model to characterize the adsorption rates and correlate them to surfactant removal. (author)

  8. Apparatus and method for removing solvent from carbon dioxide in resin recycling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two-step resin recycling system and method solvent that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material. The system and method includes one or more solvent wash vessels to expose resin particles to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles in the one or more solvent wash vessels to substantially remove contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is provided to separate the solvent from the resin particles after removal from the one or more solvent wash vessels. The resin particles are next exposed to carbon dioxide in a closed loop carbon dioxide system. The closed loop system includes a carbon dioxide vessel where the carbon dioxide is exposed to the resin, substantially removing any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation. A separation vessel is also provided to separate the solvent from the solvent laden carbon dioxide. Both the carbon dioxide and the solvent are reused after separation in the separation vessel.

  9. The Endosome-associated Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP8 Regulates BACE1 Enzyme Ubiquitination and Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Eniola Funmilayo Aduke; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-07-22

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-β, the toxic peptide that accumulates in the brain of subjects affected by Alzheimer disease. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that that depletion of the trafficking molecule Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding protein 3 (GGA3) results in increased BACE1 levels and activity because of impaired lysosomal degradation. We also determined that GGA3 regulation of BACE1 levels requires its ability to bind ubiquitin. Accordingly, we reported that BACE1 is ubiquitinated at lysine 501 and that lack of ubiquitination at lysine 501 produces BACE1 stabilization. Ubiquitin conjugation is a reversible process mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes. The ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8), an endosome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, regulates the ubiquitination, trafficking, and lysosomal degradation of several plasma membrane proteins. Here, we report that RNAi-mediated depletion of USP8 reduced levels of both ectopically expressed and endogenous BACE1 in H4 human neuroglioma cells. Moreover, USP8 depletion increased BACE1 ubiquitination, promoted BACE1 accumulation in the early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes, and decreased levels of BACE1 in the recycling endosomes. We also found that decreased BACE1 protein levels were accompanied by a decrease in BACE1-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage and amyloid-β levels. Our findings demonstrate that USP8 plays a key role in the trafficking and degradation of BACE1 by deubiquitinating lysine 501. These studies suggest that therapies able to accelerate BACE1 degradation (e.g. by increasing BACE1 ubiquitination) may represent a potential treatment for Alzheimer disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. The Endosome-associated Deubiquitinating Enzyme USP8 Regulates BACE1 Enzyme Ubiquitination and Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Eniola Funmilayo Aduke; Tesco, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    The β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of amyloid-β, the toxic peptide that accumulates in the brain of subjects affected by Alzheimer disease. Our previous studies have shown that BACE1 is degraded via the lysosomal pathway and that that depletion of the trafficking molecule Golgi-localized γ-ear-containing ARF-binding protein 3 (GGA3) results in increased BACE1 levels and activity because of impaired lysosomal degradation. We also determined that GGA3 regulation of BACE1 levels requires its ability to bind ubiquitin. Accordingly, we reported that BACE1 is ubiquitinated at lysine 501 and that lack of ubiquitination at lysine 501 produces BACE1 stabilization. Ubiquitin conjugation is a reversible process mediated by deubiquitinating enzymes. The ubiquitin-specific peptidase 8 (USP8), an endosome-associated deubiquitinating enzyme, regulates the ubiquitination, trafficking, and lysosomal degradation of several plasma membrane proteins. Here, we report that RNAi-mediated depletion of USP8 reduced levels of both ectopically expressed and endogenous BACE1 in H4 human neuroglioma cells. Moreover, USP8 depletion increased BACE1 ubiquitination, promoted BACE1 accumulation in the early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes, and decreased levels of BACE1 in the recycling endosomes. We also found that decreased BACE1 protein levels were accompanied by a decrease in BACE1-mediated amyloid precursor protein cleavage and amyloid-β levels. Our findings demonstrate that USP8 plays a key role in the trafficking and degradation of BACE1 by deubiquitinating lysine 501. These studies suggest that therapies able to accelerate BACE1 degradation (e.g. by increasing BACE1 ubiquitination) may represent a potential treatment for Alzheimer disease. PMID:27302062

  11. Analysis of transition to fuel cycle system with continuous recycling in fast and thermal reactors - 5060

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passereini, S.; Feng, B.; Fei, T.; Kim, T.K.; Taiwo, T.A.; Brown, N.R.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-01

    A recent Evaluation and Screening study of nuclear fuel cycle options identified a few groups of options as most promising. One of these most promising Evaluation Groups (EGs) is characterized by the continuous recycling of uranium (U) and transuranics (TRU) with natural uranium feed in both fast and thermal critical reactors. This evaluation group, designated as EG30, is represented by an example fuel cycle option that employs a two-technology, two-stage fuel cycle system. The first stage involves the continuous recycling of co-extracted U/TRU in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) with metallic fuel and breeding ratio greater than 1. The second stage involves the use of the surplus TRU in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in Pressurized Water Reactors that are MOX-capable (MOX-PWRs). This paper presents and discusses preliminary fuel cycle analysis results from the fuel cycle codes VISION and DYMOND for the transition to this fuel cycle option from the current once-through cycle in the United States (U.S.) that consists of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) that only use conventional UO 2 fuel. The analyses in this paper are applicable for a constant 100 GWe capacity, roughly the size of the U.S. nuclear fleet. Two main strategies for the transition to EG30 were analyzed: 1) deploying both SFRs and MOX-PWRs in parallel or 2) deploying them in series with the SFR fleet first. With an estimated retirement schedule for the existing LWRs, an assumed reactor lifetime of 60 years, and no growth, the nuclear system fully transitions to the new fuel cycle within 100 years for both strategies without SFR fuel shortages. Compared to the once-through cycle, transition to the SFR/MOX-PWR fleet with continuous recycle was shown to offer significant reductions in uranium consumption and waste disposal requirements. In addition, these initial calculations revealed a few notable modeling and strategy questions regarding how recycled resources are allocated, reactors that can switch between

  12. An integrated decision support system for wastewater nutrient recovery and recycling to agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, E. D.; Bomeisl, L.; Cornbrooks, P.; Mo, W.

    2017-12-01

    Nutrient recovery and recycling has become a key research topic within the wastewater engineering and nutrient management communities. Several technologies now exist that can effectively capture nutrients from wastewater, and innovation in this area continues to be an important research pursuit. However, practical nutrient recycling solutions require more than capable nutrient capture technologies. We also need to understand the role that wastewater nutrient recovery and recycling can play within broader nutrient management schemes at the landscape level, including important interactions at the nexus of food, energy, and water. We are developing an integrated decision support system that combines wastewater treatment data, agricultural data, spatial nutrient balance modeling, life cycle assessment, stakeholder knowledge, and multi-criteria decision making. Our goals are to: (1) help guide design decisions related to the implementation of sustainable nutrient recovery technology, (2) support innovations in watershed nutrient management that operate at the interface of the built environment and agriculture, and (3) aid efforts to protect aquatic ecosystems while supporting human welfare in a circular nutrient economy. These goals will be realized partly through the assessment of plausible alternative scenarios for the future. In this presentation, we will describe the tool and focus on nutrient balance results for the New England region. These results illustrate that both centralized and decentralized wastewater nutrient recovery schemes have potential to transform nutrient flows in many New England watersheds, diverting wastewater N and P away from aquatic ecosystems and toward local or regional agricultural soils where they can offset a substantial percentage of imported fertilizer. We will also highlight feasibility criteria and next steps to integrate stakeholder knowledge, economics, and life cycle assessment into the tool.

  13. Carbon dioxide reduction in a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell for a carbon recycling energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipu, Arnoldus Lambertus, E-mail: dipu.a.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ujisawa, Yutaka [Nippon Steel and Sumitomo Metal Corporation, 16-1, Sunayama, Kamisu, Ibaraki 314-0255 (Japan); Ryu, Junichi; Kato, Yukitaka [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-22, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    A new energy transformation system based on carbon recycling is proposed called the active carbon recycling energy system (ACRES). A high-temperature gas reactor was used as the main energy source for ACRES. An experimental study based on the ACRES concept of carbon monoxide (CO) regeneration via high-temperature reduction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was carried out using a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell employing Ni-LSM cermet|YSZ|YSZ-LSM as the cathode|electrolyte|anode. The current density increased with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration at the cathode, which was attributed to a decrease in cathode activation and concentration overpotential. Current density, as well as the CO and oxygen (O{sub 2}) production rates, increased with increasing operating temperature. The highest CO and O{sub 2} production rates of 1.24 and 0.64 μmol/min cm{sup 2}, respectively, were measured at 900 °C. Based on the electrolytic characteristics of the cell, the scale of a combined ACRES CO{sub 2} electrolysis/iron production facility was estimated.

  14. Transverse digital damper system for the Fermilab anti-proton recycler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, N.; Crisp, J.; Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A transverse damping system is used in the Recycler at Fermilab to damp beam instabilities which arise from large beam intensities with electron cooling. Initial tests of electron cooling demonstrated beam loss due to transverse beam motion when the beam was cooled past the beam density threshold. The transverse damper system consists of two horizontal and two vertical pickups whose signals are amplified and passed into an analog hybrid to generate a difference signal from each pickup. The difference signals are input to a custom digital damper board which digitizes the analog signals at 212mhz, performs digital processing of the signals inside a large Altera Stratix II FPGA, then provides analog output at 212mhz via digital to analog converters. The digital damper output is sent to amplifiers which drive one horizontal and one vertical kicker. An initial prototype digital damper board has been successfully used in the Recycler for over six months. Currently, work is underway to replace the prototype board with an upgraded VME version

  15. Advances in nuclear fuel technology. 3. Development of advanced nuclear fuel recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arie, Kazuo; Abe, Tomoyuki; Arai, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    Fast breeder reactor (FBR) cycle technology has a technical characteristics flexibly easy to apply to diverse fuel compositions such as plutonium, minor actinides, and so on and fuel configurations. By using this characteristics, various feasibilities on effective application of uranium resources based on breeding of uranium of plutonium for original mission of FBR, contribution to radioactive wastes problems based on amounts reduction of transuranium elements (TRU) in high level radioactive wastes, upgrading of nuclear diffusion resistance, extremely upgrading of economical efficiency, and so on. In this paper, were introduced from these viewpoints, on practice strategy survey study on FBR cycle performed by cooperation of the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) with electric business companies and so on, and on technical development on advanced nuclear fuel recycle systems carried out at the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and so on. Here were explained under a vision on new type of fuels such as nitride fuels, metal fuels, and so on as well as oxide fuels, a new recycle system making possible to use actinides except uranium and plutonium, an 'advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology', containing improvement of conventional wet Purex method reprocessing technology, fuel manufacturing technology, and so on. (G.K.)

  16. Realizing the world economic, environmental and non-proliferation benefits of the ALMR actinide recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) Actinide Recycle System has enormous potential to: positively impact the global environment; extend currently known energy resources; and assist developing/undeveloped countries' energy resource access. A global vision of the benefits of developing and deploying this system, including the role of highly developed countries is presented. In this vision, the ALMR System is heavily used, in conjunction with light water reactors (LWRs), in highly developed countries thus displacing fossil fuel demand in those economies, and making them more available for developing/undeveloped countries. In addition, LWRs in developing countries can further reduce global fossil fuel demand. This vision provides quality of life and standard of living improvements in these developing/undeveloped economies, which should lead to more political stability. (author)

  17. IL4/PGE2 induction of an enlarged early endosomal compartment in mouse macrophages is Rab5-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainszelbaum, Marisa J.; Proctor, Brandon M.; Pontow, Suzanne E.; Stahl, Philip D.; Barbieri, M. Alejandro

    2006-01-01

    The endosomal compartment and the plasma membrane form a complex partnership that controls signal transduction and trafficking of different molecules. The specificity and functionality of the early endocytic pathway are regulated by a growing number of Rab GTPases, particularly Rab5. In this study, we demonstrate that IL4 (a Th-2 cytokine) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) synergistically induce Rab5 and several Rab effector proteins, including Rin1 and EEA1, and promote the formation of an enlarged early endocytic (EEE) compartment. Endosome enlargement is linked to a substantial induction of the mannose receptor (MR), a well-characterized macrophage endocytic receptor. Both MR levels and MR-mediated endocytosis are enhanced approximately 7-fold. Fluid-phase endocytosis is also elevated in treated cells. Light microscopy and fractionation studies reveal that MR colocalizes predominantly with Rab5a and partially with Rab11, an endosomal recycling pathway marker. Using retroviral expression of Rab5a:S34N, a dominant negative mutant, and siRNA Rab5a silencing, we demonstrate that Rab5a is essential for the large endosome phenotype and for localization of MR in these structures. We speculate that the EEE is maintained by activated Rab5, and that the EEE phenotype is part of some macrophage developmental program such as cell fusion, a characteristic of IL4-stimulated cells

  18. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  19. Optimisation of petroleum refinery water network systems retrofit incorporating reuse, regeneration and recycle strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khor, Cheng Seong; Shah, Nilay [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mahadzir, Shuhaimi [Universiti Teknologi Petronas (Malaysia); Elkamel, Ali [University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    Increasingly strict environmental regulations have given rise to higher requirements for operating efficiency and optimization and water has become a vital resource in the refining process and allied industries. Due to this high demand for water, plants may be exposed to supply interruptions and shortages in the future. Major concerns in the petroleum refining industry are the scarcity of fresh water supply and increasingly rigid rules on wastewater discharge, which have resulted from concerns over the environmental impact. This paper presents the efforts made to develop an optimization framework for design of petroleum refinery water network systems and retrofitting that incorporates reuse, regeneration, and recycling strategies. This framework includes the complementary advantage of water pinch analysis (WPA). Water minimization strategies were incorporated as first postulates in a superstructural representation that includes all feasible flow-sheet options for taking advantage of water reuse, regeneration and recycling opportunities. Additionally, a post-optimization analysis was carried out to evaluate the repeated treatment processes required to identify the most efficient retrofit option.

  20. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Nitinol 60 for the International Space Station Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation of Nitinol 60 was performed because this alloy is considered a candidate bearing material for the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), specifically in the Urine Processing Assembly of the International Space Station. An SCC evaluation that preceded this one during the 2013-2014 timeframe included various alloys: Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, titanium (Ti) commercially pure (CP), Ti 6Al-4V, extra-low interstitial (ELI) Ti 6Al-4V, and Cronidur 30. In that evaluation, most specimens were exposed for a year. The results of that evaluation were published in NASA/TM-2015-218206, entitled "Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System,"1 available at the NASA Scientific and Technical Information program web page: http://www.sti.nasa.gov. Nitinol 60 was added to the test program in 2014.

  1. Recyclable hydrogen storage system composed of ammonia and alkali metal hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hikaru [Department of Quantum Matter, AdSM, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Miyaoka, Hiroki; Hino, Satoshi [Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Nakanishi, Haruyuki [Higashi-Fuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200 Misyuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan); Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu [Department of Quantum Matter, AdSM, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) reacts with alkali metal hydrides MH (M = Li, Na, and K) in an exothermic reaction to release hydrogen (H{sub 2}) at room temperature, resulting that alkali metal amides (MNH{sub 2}) which are formed as by-products. In this work, hydrogen desorption properties of these systems and the condition for the recycle from MNH{sub 2} back to MH were investigated systematically. For the hydrogen desorption reaction, the reactivities of MH with NH{sub 3} were better following the atomic number of M on the periodic table, Li < Na < K. It was confirmed that the hydrogen absorption reaction of all the systems proceeded under 0.5 MPa of H{sub 2} flow condition below 300 C. (author)

  2. Differences in Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System in Northwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishment of a water recycling system known as the wetland-reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to store subirriga...

  3. Modeling and Optimization of Recycled Water Systems to Augment Urban Groundwater Recharge through Underutilized Stormwater Spreading Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan L; Luthy, Richard G

    2017-10-17

    Infrastructure systems that use stormwater and recycled water to augment groundwater recharge through spreading basins represent cost-effective opportunities to diversify urban water supplies. However, technical questions remain about how these types of managed aquifer recharge systems should be designed; furthermore, existing planning tools are insufficient for performing robust design comparisons. Addressing this need, we present a model for identifying the best-case design and operation schedule for systems that deliver recycled water to underutilized stormwater spreading basins. Resulting systems are optimal with respect to life cycle costs and water deliveries. Through a case study of Los Angeles, California, we illustrate how delivering recycled water to spreading basins could be optimally implemented. Results illustrate trade-offs between centralized and decentralized configurations. For example, while a centralized Hyperion system could deliver more recycled water to the Hansen Spreading Grounds, this system incurs approximately twice the conveyance cost of a decentralized Tillman system (mean of 44% vs 22% of unit life cycle costs). Compared to existing methods, our model allows for more comprehensive and precise analyses of cost, water volume, and energy trade-offs among different design scenarios. This model can inform decisions about spreading basin operation policies and the development of new water supplies.

  4. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  5. Human subjects concerns in ground based ECLSS testing - Managing uncertainty in closely recycled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, William J.; Janik, Daniel S.; Thomas, L. Dale

    1990-01-01

    U.S. space missions have to this point used water either made on board or carried from earth and discarded after use. For Space Station Freedom, long duration life support will include air and water recycling using a series of physical-chemical subsystems. The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designed for this application must be tested extensively at all stages of hardware maturity. Human test subjects are required to conduct some of these tests, and the risks associated with the use of development hardware must be addressed. Federal guidelines for protection of human subjects require careful consideration of risks and potential benefits by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) before and during testing. This paper reviews the ethical principles guiding this consideration, details the problems and uncertainties inherent in current hardware testing, and presents an incremental approach to risk assessment for ECLSS testing.

  6. A novel reverse-osmosis wash water recycle system for manned space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. J.; Babcock, W. C.; Barss, R. P.; Andrews, T. A.; Lachapelle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    The preliminary development of a wash water recycle system utilizing an inside-skinned hollow-fiber membrane is described. This module configuration is based on tube-side feed and is highly resistant to fouling with a minimum of pretreatment. During an ongoing research program for NASA, these modules were operated on actual wash waters with no significant fouling for a period of 40 days. Due to the tube-side-feed flow in these hollow-fiber membranes, the fibers themselves become the pressure vessels, allowing the development of extremely lightweight membrane modules. During the NASA research program, a pre-prototype membrane module capable of processing 6 gallons per day of wash water at 97 percent recovery was developed that can be dry-stored and that weighs 120 g.

  7. Experimental study on reduced moderation BWR with Advanced Recycle System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraiwa, K.; Yoshioka, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Akiba, M.; Yamaoka, M.; Abe, N.; Mimatsu, J.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental study has been done for reduced-moderation spectrum boiling water reactor named BARS (BWR with Advanced Recycle System). The critical assembly experiment for triangular tight uranium lattice has been done in TOSHIBA critical assembly (NCA). Experimental method based on modified conversion ratio was adopted to evaluate the void reactivity effect. Void fraction was simulated by formed polystyrene in this experiment. The measured void coefficient for tight uranium lattice agreed with calculation. The thermal hydraulic test study has been done to study the coolability of BARS lattice. Visual test and high-pressure thermal hydraulic test have been done as the thermal hydraulic test. Visual test has indicated the flow behavior for BARS lattice is same as that of current BWR. The high-pressure thermal hydraulic test has indicated the applicability of modified Arai's correlation to the BARS lattice. (authors)

  8. Design and optimization of a combined fuel reforming and solid oxide fuel cell system with anode off-gas recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae Seok; Chung, J.N.; Chen, Yen-Cho

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this work, an analytical, parametric study is performed to evaluate the feasibility and performance of a combined fuel reforming and SOFC system. → Specifically the effects of adding the anode off-gas recycling and recirculation components and the CO 2 absorbent unit are investigated. → The AOG recycle ratio increases with increasing S/C ratio and the addition of AOG recycle eliminates the need for external water consumption. → The key finding is that for the SOFC operating at 900 deg. C with the steam to carbon ratio at 5 and no AOG recirculation, the system efficiency peaks. - Abstract: An energy conversion and management concept for a combined system of a solid oxide fuel cell coupled with a fuel reforming device is developed and analyzed by a thermodynamic and electrochemical model. The model is verified by an experiment and then used to evaluate the overall system performance and to further suggest an optimal design strategy. The unique feature of the system is the inclusion of the anode off-gas recycle that eliminates the need of external water consumption for practical applications. The system performance is evaluated as a function of the steam to carbon ratio, fuel cell temperature, anode off gas recycle ratio and CO 2 adsorption percentage. For most of the operating conditions investigated, the system efficiency starts at around 70% and then monotonically decreases to the average of 50% at the peak power density before dropping down to zero at the limiting current density point. From an engineering application point of view, the proposed combined fuel reforming and SOFC system with a range of efficiency between 50% and 70% is considered very attractive. It is suggested that the optimal system is the one where the SOFC operates around 900 deg. C with S/C ratio higher than 3, maximum CO 2 capture, and minimum AOG recirculation.

  9. A production-theory-based framework for analysing recycling systems in the e-waste sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Modern approaches in the production theory of business and management economics propose that objects (e.g. materials) be divided into good, bad or neutral. In transformation processes such as occur in production or recycling this makes it possible to distinguish stringently between the economic revenue of a process and the economic and ecological expenditures for it. This approach can be transferred to entire systems of processes in order to determine the system revenue and the system expenditure. Material flow nets or graphs are used for this purpose. In complex material flow systems it becomes possible to calculate not only the costs, but also the direct and indirect environmental impacts of an individual process or a system revenue (for example a product or the elimination of waste) consistently. The approach permits a stringent analysis as well as different analysis perspectives of a material flow system. It is particularly suitable for closed-loop economic systems in which material backflows occur. With the aid of an example developed jointly with Hewlett Packard Europe, the paper outlines how this approach can be employed in the field of e-waste management

  10. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D of nonmetallic material recycling promotion technology (demonstration test and research, total system technology); 2000 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jissho shiken kenkyu, total system gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on advanced recycling technology for aluminum and base metal/rare metal based materials, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. In the research of aluminum recycling technology, on a continuous fractional crystallization process and a purification by zinc removal process, the existing facilities for each demonstrated that they could simulate an aluminum scrap melting process capacity of 1,000 t/month, with a series of initial conditions determined. In the research of total system technology, combined test facilities were completed in which a purification process and a melt cleaning process were integrated. In the research of the recycling technology for base metal/rare metal based materials, a test was carried out by demonstrative facilities, with the aim of establishing copper regeneration technology in which high grade copper is produced using metal/resin based scraps such as shredder dust of automobiles as the materials. In structuring the total system technology, a preliminary survey and environmental load measures were carried out toward the practicability of a comprehensive copper metal collection recycling system. (NEDO)

  11. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinobe, J.R.; Gebresenbet, G.; Niwagaba, C.B.; Vinnerås, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities

  12. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinobe, J.R., E-mail: joel.kinobe@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Gebresenbet, G. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Niwagaba, C.B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities.

  13. Actinide recycling by pyro process for future nuclear fuel cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, T.

    2001-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical technology is one of the potential devices for the future nuclear fuel cycle. Not only economic advantage but also environmental safety and strong resistance for proliferation are required. So as to satisfy the requirements, actinide recycling applicable to LWR and FBR cycles by pyro-process has been developed over a ten-year period at the CRIEPI. The main technology is electrorefining for U and Pu separation and reductive extraction for TRU separation, which can be applied on oxide fuels through reduction process as well as metal fuels. The application of this technology for separation of TRU in HLLW through chlorination could contribute to the improvement of public acceptance with regard to geologic disposal. The main achievements are summarised as follows: - Elemental technologies such as electrorefining, reductive extraction, injection casting and salt waste treatment and solidification have been successfully developed with lots of experiments. - Fuel dissolution into molten salt and uranium recovery on solid cathode for electrorefining has been demonstrated at an engineering scale facility in Argonne National Laboratory using spent fuels and at the CRIEPI through uranium tests. - Single element tests using actinides showed Li reduction to be technically feasible; the subjects of technical feasibility on multi-element systems and on effective recycle of Li by electrolysis of Li 2 O remain to be addressed. - Concerning the treatment of HLLW for actinide separation, the conversion to chlorides through oxides has also been established through uranium tests. - It is confirmed that more than 99% of TRU nuclides can be recovered from high-level liquid waste by TRU tests. - Through these studies, the process flowsheets for reprocessing of metal and oxide fuels and for partitioning of TRU separation have been established. The subjects to be emphasised for further development are classified into three categories: process development (demonstration

  14. Chimeric forms of furin and TGN38 are transported with the plasma membrane in the trans-Golgi network via distinct endosomal pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, W G; Maxfield, F R

    1999-07-26

    Furin and TGN38 are menbrane proteins that cycle between the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network (TGN), each maintaining a predominant distribution in the TGN. We have used chimeric proteins with an extracellular Tac domain and the cytoplasmic domain of TGN38 or furin to study the trafficking of these proteins in endosomes. Previously, we demonstrated that the postendocytic trafficking of Tac-TGN38 to the TGN is via the endocytic recycling pathway (Ghosh, R.N.,W.G. Mallet,T.T. Soe,T.E.McGraw, and F.R. Maxfield.1998.J. Cell Biol.142:923-936). Here we show that internalized Tac-furin is delivered to the TGN through late endosomes, bypassing the endocytic recycling compartment. The transport of Tac-furin from late endosomes to the TGN appears to proceed via an efficient, single-pass mechanism. Delivery of Tac-furin but not Tac-TGN38 to the TGN is blocked by nocodazole, and the two pathways are also differentially affected by wortmannin. These studies demonstrate the existence of two independentpathways for endosomal transport of proteins to the TGN from the plasma membrane.

  15. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  16. Thicker three-dimensional tissue from a "symbiotic recycling system" combining mammalian cells and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Yuji; Kagawa, Yuki; Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Okano, Teruo

    2017-01-31

    In this paper, we report an in vitro co-culture system that combines mammalian cells and algae, Chlorococcum littorale, to create a three-dimensional (3-D) tissue. While the C2C12 mouse myoblasts and rat cardiac cells consumed oxygen actively, intense oxygen production was accounted for by the algae even in the co-culture system. Although cell metabolism within thicker cardiac cell-layered tissues showed anaerobic respiration, the introduction of innovative co-cultivation partially changed the metabolism to aerobic respiration. Moreover, the amount of glucose consumption and lactate production in the cardiac tissues and the amount of ammonia in the culture media decreased significantly when co-cultivated with algae. In the cardiac tissues devoid of algae, delamination was observed histologically, and the release of creatine kinase (CK) from the tissues showed severe cardiac cell damage. On the other hand, the layered cell tissues with algae were observed to be in a good histological condition, with less than one-fifth decline in CK release. The co-cultivation with algae improved the culture condition of the thicker tissues, resulting in the formation of 160 μm-thick cardiac tissues. Thus, the present study proposes the possibility of creating an in vitro "symbiotic recycling system" composed of mammalian cells and algae.

  17. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr; Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr; Afonichkin, Valery

    2008-01-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF 3 ) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the 7 Li,Na,Be/F and 7 Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  18. Main Experimental Results of ISTC-1606 for Recycling and Transmutation in Molten Salt Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, Victor; Feynberg, Olga; Merzlyakov, Aleksandr; Surenkov, Aleksandr [Russian Research Center - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov sq. 1, Moscow, RF, 123182 (Russian Federation); Subbotin, Vladimir; Zakirov, Raul; Toropov, Andrey; Panov, Aleksandr [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, Valery [Institute of High-Temperature Electrochemistry, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    To examine and demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactors (MSR) to reduce long lived waste toxicity and to produce efficiently electricity in closed fuel cycle, some national and international studies were initiated last years. In this paper main focus is placed on experimental evaluation of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter (MOSART) system fuelled with different compositions of plutonium plus minor actinide trifluoride (AnF{sub 3}) from LWR spent nuclear fuel without U-Th support. This paper summarizes main experimental results of ISTC-1606 related to physical and chemical properties of fuel salt, container materials for fuel circuit, and fuel salt clean up of MOSART system. As result of ISTC-1606 studies claim is made, that the {sup 7}Li,Na,Be/F and {sup 7}Li,Be/F solvents selected for primary system appear to resolve main reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials compatibility, fuel salt clean up and safety problems as applied to the MOSART concept development. The created experimental facilities and the database on properties of fuel salt mixtures and container materials are used for a choice and improvement fuel salts and coolants for new applications of this high temperature technology for sustainable nuclear power development. (authors)

  19. Design of a continuous emissions monitoring system at a manufacturing facility recycling hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlow, G.; Bartman, C.D.; Renfroe, J.

    1991-01-01

    In March 1988, Marine Shale Processors, Inc. (MSP) initiated a project to incorporate a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) at its manufacturing facility in Amelia, Louisiana, which recycles hazardous material into light-weight, general purpose aggregate. The stimuli for the project were: To quantify stack gas emissions for the purpose of risk assessment; To use the data generated for process control and evaluation purposes; and, MSP's commitment to advance the science of continuous monitoring of stack gas emissions. In order to successfully respond to these goals, MSP sought a system which could monitor combustion products such as NOx, SO 2 , HCl and CO 2 , as well as speciated organic compounds. Several analytical technologies and sampling system designs were reviewed to determine the best fit to satisfy the requirements. A process mass spectrometer and a heated sample extraction subsystem were selected for the project. The purpose of this paper is to review the available analytical technologies for CEMS and sample extraction subsystems and to describe the CEMS now installed at MSP

  20. Neutronics of a sub-critical system burning non-recycled LWR waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, J.; Tucek, K.; Gudowski, W.; Sanders, C.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated neutronic properties of a subcritical system designed for transmutation of non-recycled TRU discharges from commercial light water reactors. Burnable absorbers (BA) and depleted uranium in variable concentrations are introduced in order to maximize fission to absorption ratios, and to minimize power peaking as well as reactivity losses. The use of nitride fuel raises linear power ratings to 60-110 kW/m while keeping fuel center line temperatures below 1400 K after gap closure. A comparatively small power peaking of 1.5 at a subcriticality level of 0.97 allows for a total core power of 1200 MWth with a corresponding proton beam power of 20 MW at BOL. Core averaged fission to absorption ratios for Np and Am as high as 0.5 are achieved using 10 B enriched B 4 C as BA. Hence, both Pu and minor actinide inventories are reduced during burnup in the here proposed system, mitigating swelling problems arising due to high-activity in MA-based fuels. Disadvantages following BA introduction, such as increase of void coefficients and decrease of negative doppler feedback in conjunction with small values of β eff , are addressed by setting the BOL subcriticality level to 0.97. (author)

  1. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV) Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Peter; Fleet, Jack E H; Riseley, Anthony S; Janeva, Elena; Marcella, Anastasia S; Farinea, Chiara; Kuptsova, Maria; Conde Pueyo, Núria; Howe, Christopher J; Bombelli, Paolo; Parker, Brenda M

    2018-04-17

    Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 , which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 . The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 ). The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  2. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bateson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana. We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle−1·day−1, which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  3. Recyclable Nonfunctionalized Paper-Based Ultralow-Cost Wearable Health Monitoring System

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.; Mishra, Kush; Lau, Kirklann; Aguirre-Pablo, Andres A.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A wearable health monitor using low-cost and recyclable paper continuously supervises and assesses body vital conditions simultaneously and in real time, such as blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and skin hydration. The affordability

  4. An Inside Job: How Endosomal Na+/H+ Exchangers Link to Autism and Neurological Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan C. Kondapalli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autism imposes a major impediment to childhood development and a huge emotional and financial burden on society. In recent years, there has been rapidly accumulating genetic evidence that links the eNHE, a subset of Na+/H+ exchangers that localize to intracellular vesicles, to a variety of neurological conditions including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, intellectual disability and epilepsy. By providing a leak pathway for protons pumped by the V-ATPase, eNHE determine luminal pH and regulate cation (Na+, K+ content in early and recycling endosomal compartments. Loss-of-function mutations in eNHE cause hyperacidification of endosomal lumen, as a result of imbalance in pump and leak pathways. Two isoforms, NHE6 and NHE9 are highly expressed in brain, including hippocampus and cortex. Here, we summarize evidence for the importance of luminal cation content and pH on processing, delivery and fate of cargo and on the surface expression and function of membrane receptors and neurotransmitter transporters, drawing upon insights from model organisms and mammalian cells. These studies lead to cellular models of eNHE activity in pre- and post-synaptic neurons and astrocytes, where they could impact synapse development and plasticity. The study of eNHE has provided new insight on the mechanism of autism and other debilitating neurological disorders and opened up new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Huntingtin coordinates the dynein-mediated dynamic positioning of endosomes and lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviston, Juliane P.; Zajac, Allison L.; Tokito, Mariko; Holzbaur, Erika L.F.

    2011-01-01

    Huntingtin (Htt) is a membrane-associated scaffolding protein that interacts with microtubule motors as well as actin-associated adaptor molecules. We examined a role for Htt in the dynein-mediated intracellular trafficking of endosomes and lysosomes. In HeLa cells depleted of either Htt or dynein, early, recycling, and late endosomes (LE)/lysosomes all become dispersed. Despite altered organelle localization, kinetic assays indicate only minor defects in intracellular trafficking. Expression of full-length Htt is required to restore organelle localization in Htt-depleted cells, supporting a role for Htt as a scaffold that promotes functional interactions along its length. In dynein-depleted cells, LE/lysosomes accumulate in tight patches near the cortex, apparently enmeshed by cortactin-positive actin filaments; Latrunculin B-treatment disperses these patches. Peripheral LE/lysosomes in dynein-depleted cells no longer colocalize with microtubules. Htt may be required for this off-loading, as the loss of microtubule association is not seen in Htt-depleted cells or in cells depleted of both dynein and Htt. Inhibition of kinesin-1 relocalizes peripheral LE/lysosomes induced by Htt depletion but not by dynein depletion, consistent with their detachment from microtubules upon dynein knockdown. Together, these data support a model of Htt as a facilitator of dynein-mediated trafficking that may regulate the cytoskeletal association of dynamic organelles. PMID:21169558

  6. CED-10/Rac1 regulates endocytic recycling through the RAB-5 GAP TBC-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Sun

    Full Text Available Rac1 is a founding member of the Rho-GTPase family and a key regulator of membrane remodeling. In the context of apoptotic cell corpse engulfment, CED-10/Rac1 acts with its bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor, CED-5/Dock180-CED-12/ELMO, in an evolutionarily conserved pathway to promote phagocytosis. Here we show that in the context of the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium CED-10/Rac1, CED-5/Dock180, and CED-12/ELMO promote basolateral recycling. Furthermore, we show that CED-10 binds to the RAB-5 GTPase activating protein TBC-2, that CED-10 contributes to recruitment of TBC-2 to endosomes, and that recycling cargo is trapped in recycling endosomes in ced-12, ced-10, and tbc-2 mutants. Expression of GTPase defective RAB-5(Q78L also traps recycling cargo. Our results indicate that down-regulation of early endosome regulator RAB-5/Rab5 by a CED-5, CED-12, CED-10, TBC-2 cascade is an important step in the transport of cargo through the basolateral recycling endosome for delivery to the plasma membrane.

  7. Comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle via activated sludge, microalgae and combination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Jinli; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-07-01

    Algal-bacterial synergistic cultivation could be an optional wastewater treatment technology in temperate areas. In this study, a locally screened vigorous Chlorella strain was characterized and then it was used in a comparative study of wastewater treatment and nutrient recycle assessment via activated sludge (AS), microalgae and their combination systems. Chlorella sp. cultured with AS in light showed the best performance, in which case the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TP were 87.3%, 99.2% and 83.9%, respectively, within a short period of 1day. Algal-bacterial combination in light had the best settleability. Chlorella sp. contained biomass, could be processed to feed, fertilizer or fuel due to the improved quality (higher C/H/N) compared with sludge. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that two types of rhizobacteria, namely, Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium hauense were enriched in sludge when cultured with algae in light, serving as the basics for artificial consortium construction for improved wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

  9. Cleaning device for recycling pump motor cooling system in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Kenjiro; Kondo, Takahisa; Shindo, Kenjiro; Akimoto, Jun.

    1996-01-01

    The cleaning device of the present invention comprises a cleaning water supply pump, a filter for filtering the cleaning water and a cap member for isolating the inside of a motor casing from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. A motor in the motor casing and a pump in the reactor pressure vessel are removed, the cap member is attached to the upper end of the motor casing to isolate the inside of the motor casing from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. If the cleaning water supply pump is operated in this state, the cleaning water flows from a returning pipeline for cooling water circulation, connected to the motor casing to supply pipelines through a heat exchange and is discharged. The discharged water passes through a filter and is sent again, as the cleaning water, to the cleaning water supply pump. With such procedures, the recycling pump motor cooling system in the BWR type reactor can be cleaned without disposing a cyclone separator and irrespective of presence or absence of reactor coolants in the reactor pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  10. Recycling as a strategy against rare earth element criticality: a systemic evaluation of the potential yield of NdFeB magnet recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Jelle H; Kleijn, René; Yang, Yongxiang

    2013-09-17

    End-of-life recycling is promoted by OECD countries as a promising strategy in the current global supply crisis surrounding rare earth elements (REEs) so that dependence on China, the dominant supplier, can be decreased. So far the feasibility and potential yield of REE recycling has not been systematically evaluated. This paper estimates the annual waste flows of neodymium and dysprosium from permanent magnets, the main deployment of these critical REEs, during the 2011-2030 period. The estimates focus on three key permanent magnet waste flows: wind turbines, hybrid and electric vehicles, and hard disk drives (HDDs) in personal computers (PCs). This is a good indication of the end-of-life recycling of neodymium and dysprosium maximum potential yield. Results show that for some time to come, waste flows from permanent magnets will remain small relative to the rapidly growing global REE demand. Policymakers therefore need to be aware that during the next decade recycling is unlikely to substantially contribute to global REE supply security. In the long term, waste flows will increase sharply and will meet a substantial part of the total demand for these metals. Future REE recycling efforts should, therefore, focus on the development of recycling technology and infrastructure.

  11. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  12. Plant growth and mineral recycle trade-offs in different scenarios for a CELSS. [Closed Ecological Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Spitze, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    Data for hydroponic plant growth in a manned system test is combined with nutritional recommendations to suport trade-off calculations for closed and partially closed life support system scenarios. Published data are used as guidelines for the masses of mineral nutrients needed for higher plant production. The results of calculations based on various scenarios are presented for various combinations of plant growth chamber utilization and fraction of mineral recycle. Estimates are made of the masses of material needed to meet human nutritional requirements in the various scenarios. It appears that food production from a plant growth chamber with mineral recycle is favorable to reduction of the total launch weight in missions exceeding 3 years.

  13. A methodology for calculating the levelized cost of electricity in nuclear power systems with fuel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Roo, Guillaume; Parsons, John E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show how the traditional definition of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) can be extended to alternative nuclear fuel cycles in which elements of the fuel are recycled. In particular, we define the LCOE for a cycle with full actinide recycling in fast reactors in which elements of the fuel are reused an indefinite number of times. To our knowledge, ours is the first LCOE formula for this cycle. Others have approached the task of evaluating this cycle using an 'equilibrium cost' concept that is different from a levelized cost. We also show how the LCOE implies a unique price for the recycled elements. This price reflects the ultimate cost of waste disposal postponed through the recycling, as well as other costs in the cycle. We demonstrate the methodology by estimating the LCOE for three classic nuclear fuel cycles: (i) the traditional Once-Through Cycle, (ii) a Twice-Through Cycle, and (iii) a Fast Reactor Recycle. Given our chosen input parameters, we show that the 'equilibrium cost' is typically larger than the levelized cost, and we explain why.

  14. Evaluation of Spent Fuel Recycling Scenario using Pyro-SFR related System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Kyo; Kim, Sang Ji; Kim, Young Jin

    2014-01-01

    It is needed to validate whether the recycling scenario connecting pyro-processing and sodium-cooled fast reactor(SFR) is promising or not. The latest technologies of pyro-processing are applied to SFR and the recycling scenario is evaluated through the SFR's performance analysis. The analyzed SFR is KALIMER-600 TRU burner which purpose is to transmute transuranics (TRU). National policy of CANDU SF management has not been decided yet. However, the stored quantity of this SF is large enough not to be neglected. So this study includes additionally the recycling scenario of CANDU SF. Adopting the mass ratio of TRU and RE recovered in pyro-processing is 4 to 1 on PWR SF recycling, the sodium void reactivity is higher than design basis of metal fuel. So the current pyro-processing technology is may not be acceptable. If pyro-processing technology of CANDU SF is assumed to be the same as PWR's case, CANDU recycling scenario is acceptable. Transmutation performance is worse than PWR's, while the sodium void reactivity is within design limit

  15. Hydrogen Purification and Recycling for an Integrated Oxygen Recovery System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Greenwood, Zachary; Wall, Terry; Miller, Lee; Wheeler, Ray

    2016-01-01

    The United States Atmosphere Revitalization life support system on the International Space Station (ISS) performs several services for the crew including oxygen generation, trace contaminant control, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal, and oxygen recovery. Oxygen recovery is performed using a Sabatier reactor developed by Hamilton Sundstrand, wherein CO2 is reduced with hydrogen in a catalytic reactor to produce methane and water. The water product is purified in the Water Purification Assembly and recycled to the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) to provide O2 to the crew. This architecture results in a theoretical maximum oxygen recovery from CO2 of approximately 54% due to the loss of reactant hydrogen in Sabatier-produced methane that is currently vented outside of ISS. Plasma Methane Pyrolysis technology (PPA), developed by Umpqua Research Company, provides the capability to further close the Atmosphere Revitalization oxygen loop by recovering hydrogen from Sabatier-produced methane. A key aspect of this technology approach is to purify the hydrogen from the PPA product stream which includes acetylene, unreacted methane and byproduct water and carbon monoxide. In 2015, four sub-scale hydrogen separation systems were delivered to NASA for evaluation. These included two electrolysis single-cell hydrogen purification cell stacks developed by Sustainable Innovations, LLC, a sorbent-based hydrogen purification unit using microwave power for sorbent regeneration developed by Umpqua Research Company, and a LaNi4.6Sn0.4 metal hydride produced by Hydrogen Consultants, Inc. Here we report the results of these evaluations, discuss potential architecture options, and propose future work.

  16. Cold in-place recycling characterization framework for single or multiple component binder systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Benjamin C.

    Cold in-place recycling (CIR) is a pavement rehabilitation technique which has gained momentum in recent years. This momentum is due partly to its economic and sustainability characteristics, which has led to CIR market expansion. When pavement network deterioration is considered alongside increasing material costs, it is not beyond reason to expect demands on CIR to continue to increase. Historically, single component binder (SCB) systems, those with one stabilization binder (or two if the secondary binder dosage is 1% or less), have dominated the CIR market and could be considered the general state of practice. Common stabilization binders are either bituminous or cementitious. Two example SCB systems would be: 1) 3% portland cement, or 2) 3% asphalt emulsion with 1% hydrated lime. While traditional SCB systems have demonstrated positive economic and sustainability impacts, this dissertation focuses on multiple component binder (MCB) systems (bituminous and cementitious combined) which exhibit the potential to provide better overall economics and performance. Use of MCBs has the potential to alleviate SCB issues to some extent (e.g. cracking with cementitious SCBs, rutting with bituminous SCBs). Furthermore, to fairly represent both binders in an MCB system a universal design method which can accommodate multiple binder types is needed. The main objectives of this dissertation are to develop a universal CIR design framework and, using this framework, characterize multiple SCB and MCB systems. Approximately 1500 CIR specimens were tested herein along with approximately 300 asphalt concrete specimens which serve as a reference data set for CIR characterization. A case study of a high-traffic Mississippi CIR project which included cement SCB and emulsion SCB sections is also presented to support laboratory efforts. Individual components needed to comprise a universal design framework, such as curing protocols, were developed. SCB and MCB characterization indicated

  17. Palladium Nanoparticle-Loaded Cellulose Paper: A Highly Efficient, Robust, and Recyclable Self-Assembled Composite Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangchao; Kaefer, Katharina; Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Vaz, Belén; Cartmell, Samantha E; Bouleghlimat, Azzedine; Buurma, Niklaas J; Yate, Luis; de Lera, Ángel R; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel strategy based on the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on filter paper for development of a catalytic system with high efficiency and recyclability. Oleylamine-capped Pd nanoparticles, dispersed in an organic solvent, strongly adsorb on cellulose filter paper, which shows a great ability to wick fluids due to its microfiber structure. Strong van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions between the particles and the substrate lead to nanoparticle immobilization, with no desorption upon further immersion in any solvent. The prepared Pd NP-loaded paper substrates were tested for several model reactions such as the oxidative homocoupling of arylboronic acids, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, and nitro-to-amine reduction, and they display efficient catalytic activity and excellent recyclability and reusability. This approach of using NP-loaded paper substrates as reusable catalysts is expected to open doors for new types of catalytic support for practical applications.

  18. Extracellular anti-angiogenic proteins augment an endosomal protein trafficking pathway to reach mitochondria and execute apoptosis in HUVECs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Qiu, Tao; Wu, Jiajie; Yang, Yang; Wright, Graham D; Wu, Min; Ge, Ruowen

    2018-03-09

    Classic endocytosis destinations include the recycling endosome returning to the plasma membrane or the late endosome (LE) merging with lysosomes for cargo degradation. However, the anti-angiogenic proteins angiostatin and isthmin, are endocytosed and trafficked to mitochondria (Mito) to execute apoptosis of endothelial cells. How these extracellular proteins reach mitochondria remains a mystery. Through confocal and super-resolution fluorescent microscopy, we demonstrate that angiostatin and isthmin are trafficked to mitochondria through the interaction between LE and Mito. Using purified organelles, the LE-Mito interaction is confirmed through in vitro lipid-fusion assay, as well as single vesicle total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy. LE-Mito interaction enables the transfer of not only lipids but also proteins from LE to Mito. Angiostatin and isthmin augment this endosomal protein trafficking pathway and make use of it to reach mitochondria to execute apoptosis. Cell fractionation and biochemical analysis identified that the cytosolic scaffold protein Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) associated with LE and the t-SNARE protein synaptosome-associated protein 25 kDa (SNAP25) associated with Mito form an interaction complex to facilitate LE-Mito interaction. Proximity ligation assay coupled with fluorescent microscopy showed that both NHERF1 and SNAP25 are located at the contacting face between LE and Mito. RNAi knockdown of either NHERF1 or SNAP25 suppressed not only the mitochondrial trafficking of angiostatin and isthmin but also their anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic functions. Hence, this study reveals a previously unrealized endosomal protein trafficking pathway from LE to Mito that allows extracellular proteins to reach mitochondria and execute apoptosis.

  19. Inclusion of products of physicochemical oxidation of organic wastes in matter recycling of biological-technical life support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Kudenko, Yurii; Trifonov, Sergei; Ushakova, Sofya

    Inclusion of products of human and plant wastes' `wet' incineration in 22 medium using alter-nating current into matter recycling of biological-technical life support system (BTLSS) has been considered. Fluid and gaseous components have been shown to be the products of such processing. In particular, the final product contained all necessary for plant cultivation nitrogen forms: NO2, NO3, NH4+. As the base solution included urine than NH4+ form dominated. At human solid wastes' mineralization NO2 NH4+ were registered in approximately equal amount. Comparative analysis of mineral composition of oxidized human wastes' and standard Knop solutions has been carried out. On the grounds of that analysis the dilution methods of solutions prepared with addition of oxidized human wastes for their further use for plant irrigation have been suggested. Reasonable levels of wheat productivity cultivated at use of given solutions have been obtained. CO2, N2 and O2 have been determined to be the main gas components of the gas admixture emitted within the given process. These gases easily integrate in matter recycling process of closed ecosystem. The data of plants' cultivation feasibility in the atmosphere obtained after closing of gas loop including physicochemical facility and vegetation chamber with plants-representatives of LSS phototrophic unit has been received. Conclusion of advance research on creation of matter recycling process in the integrated physical-chemical-biological model system has been drawn.

  20. Cholesterol transfer at endosomal-organelle membrane contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Neale D; Zhao, Kexin

    2018-06-01

    Cholesterol is delivered to the limiting membrane of late endosomes by Niemann-Pick Type C1 and C2 proteins. This review summarizes recent evidence that cholesterol transfer from endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles is mediated by lipid-binding proteins that localize to membrane contact sites (MCS). LDL-cholesterol in the late endosomal/lysosomes is exported to the plasma membrane, where most cholesterol resides, and the endoplasmic reticulum, which harbors the regulatory complexes and enzymes that control the synthesis and esterification of cholesterol. A major advance in dissecting these cholesterol transport pathways was identification of frequent and dynamic MCS between endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes and plasma membrane. Positioned at these MCS are members of the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related lipid-transfer family of lipid transfer proteins that bridge the opposing membranes and directly or indirectly mediate cholesterol transfer. OSBP-related protein 1L (ORP1L), ORP5 and ORP6 mediate cholesterol transfer to the endoplasmic reticulum that regulates cholesterol homeostasis. ORP1L and STARD3 also move cholesterol from the endoplasmic reticulum-to-late endosomal/lysosomes under low-cholesterol conditions to facilitate intraluminal vesicle formation. Cholesterol transport also occurs at MCS with peroxisomes and possibly the plasma membrane. Frequent contacts between organelles and the endo-lysosomal vesicles are sites for bidirectional transfer of cholesterol.

  1. Recyclable Nonfunctionalized Paper-Based Ultralow-Cost Wearable Health Monitoring System

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2017-02-15

    A wearable health monitor using low-cost and recyclable paper continuously supervises and assesses body vital conditions simultaneously and in real time, such as blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and skin hydration. The affordability and high performance of the integrated “Paper Watch” provide an unprecedented flexible and portable approach for advanced personalized healthcare on the go.

  2. Solid earth as a recycling systems and the lateral growth of Precambrian North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veizer, J.

    1988-01-01

    If plotted on mass vs time diagrams, geologic entities (for example, continental and oceanic crust, sediments, and mineral resources) display an exponential (power law) relationship, with entity per unit time increasing toward the present. This relationship is consistent with the concept of recycling and can be simulated mathematically. The approach is based on the plate tectonic theory and considers area-age or mass-age distributions of crystalline basement and sediments for major global tectonic realms. Each tectonic realm is characterized by a specific lifespan, which is an inverse function of its recycling rate. The estimated average half-area of half-mass ages are given. The corresponding parameters for continental crust are 690 Ma for K/Ar, and approximately 1200 Ma for Rb/Sr and U-Th/Pb dating pairs. Tectonic diversity preserved in the geologic record is therefore a function of time, with oceanic tectonic realms, because of their rapid recycling, underrepresented in the rocks older than approximately 300 Ma. The Sm/Nd isotopic systematic of sediments suggest that, for a near steady-state post-Archean sedimentary mass, recycling is approximately 90 + or - 5 percent cannibalistic. This yields an estimated upper limit on crust-mantle exchange via sediment subduction of approximately 1.1 + or - 0.5 x 10 g a(sup -1) considerably less than demanded by isotopic constraints. The discrepancy may indicate the existence of additional loci, such as orogenic belts, for significant crust-mantle interaction

  3. P3 DESIGN OF A NATIONAL ELECTRONICS PRODUCT REUSE AND RECYCLING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material and resource conservation are critical to sustainability; and, the ability to efficiently and effectively recover old products for reuse and recycle is an essential element in these conservation efforts. In California alone, it has been estimated that 10,000 computers a...

  4. Feasibility of recycling thorium in a fusion-fission hybrid/PWR symbiotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephs, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the economic impact of high levels of radioactivity in the thorium fuel cycle. The sources of this radioactivity and means of calculating the radioactive levels at various stages in the fuel cycle are discussed and estimates of expected levels are given. The feasibility of various methods of recycling thorium is discussed. These methods include direct recycle, recycle after storage for 14 years to allow radioactivity to decrease, shortening irradiation times to limit radioactivity build up, and the use of the window in time immediately after reprocessing where radioactivity levels are diminished. An economic comparison is made for the first two methods together with the throwaway option where thorium is not recycled using a mass energy flow model developed for a CTHR (Commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor), a fusion fission hybrid reactor which serves as fuel producer for several PWR reactors. The storage option is found to be most favorable; however, even this option represents a significant economic impact due to radioactivity of 0.074 mills/kW-h which amounts to $4 x 10 9 over a 30 year period assuming a 200 gigawatt supply of electrical power

  5. Recycling temperature elevation device and temperature control method for control rod driving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Hajime.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for and a method of controlling a recycling temperature control device for control rod drives (CRD) of a nuclear power plant, which can prevent occurrence of cavitation and keep the amount of cooling water to be transferred to a water source transfer pipeline thereby improving maintenanciability, operationability and reliability. Namely, a supply pipeline supplies cooling water required for the control rod drives from a water source. A CRD pump elevates the pressure of the cooling water. A recycling pipeline is branched from the downstream of the CRD pump of the supply pipeline and connected to the supply pipeline at the upstream of the CRD pump. A first pressure element and a restricting valve disposed at the upstream thereof are connected to the upstream of the CRD pump and the water source transfer pipeline. The water source transfer pipeline is branched from the recycling pipeline and connected to the water source. A second pressure element is disposed to a recycling pipeline at the downstream of the branched point from the water source transfer pipeline. (I.S.)

  6. Molecular determinants of the interaction between Doa1 and Hse1 involved in endosomal sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungsu; Shin, Donghyuk; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Sangho

    2014-03-28

    Yeast Doa1/Ufd3 is an adaptor protein for Cdc48 (p97 in mammal), an AAA type ATPase associated with endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation pathway and endosomal sorting into multivesicular bodies. Doa1 functions in the endosomal sorting by its association with Hse1, a component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) system. The association of Doa1 with Hse1 was previously reported to be mediated between PFU domain of Doa1 and SH3 of Hse1. However, it remains unclear which residues are specifically involved in the interaction. Here we report that Doa1/PFU interacts with Hse1/SH3 with a moderate affinity of 5 μM. Asn-438 of Doa1/PFU and Trp-254 of Hse1/SH3 are found to be critical in the interaction while Phe-434, implicated in ubiquitin binding via a hydrophobic interaction, is not. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements combined with molecular docking and biochemical analysis yield the solution structure of the Doa1/PFU:Hse1/SH3 complex. Taken together, our results suggest that hydrogen bonding is a major determinant in the interaction of Doa1/PFU with Hse1/SH3. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE EFFECT OF THE SLUDGE RECYCLE RATIO IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF AMOL'S INDUSTRIAL PARK WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHAR HOSSEINI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An activated sludge aeration tank and a sedimentation basin were used to treat Amol’s industrial park effluents originating from all industrial units. A continuous system was implemented and the kinetic parameters were measured.The parameters such as rate constant, substrate utilization rate constant, yield and decay coefficient were 2.12 d-1, 232.4 mg l-1, 0.33 g/g of substrate and 0.096 d−1, respectively. The hydraulic retention times (HRT were in the range of 9 to 27 h. The sludge recycle ratios in the range from 0.3 to 1 were considered. The COD removal, SVI and DO were determined and the optimal values were obtained. It was observed that at HRT of 16 h and the sludge recycle ratio of 0.85, the COD removal and SVI were 95 and 85 %, respectively. The sludge recycle ratio greater than 0.85 had no significant effect on the COD removal.

  8. Comparison of aerobically-treated and untreated crop residue as a source of recycled nutrients in a recirculating hydroponic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Garland, J. L.; Strayer, R. F.; Finger, B. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the growth of potato plants on nutrients recycled from inedible potato biomass. Plants were grown for 105 days in recirculating, thin-film hydroponic systems containing four separate nutrient solution treatments: (1) modified half-strength Hoagland's (control), 2) liquid effluent from a bioreactor containing inedible potato biomass, 3) filtered (0.2 micrometer) effluent, and 4) the water soluble fraction of inedible potato biomass (leachate). Approximately 50% of the total nutrient requirement in treatments 2-4 were provided (recycled) from the potato biomass. Leachate had an inhibitory effect on leaf conductance, photosynthetic rate, and growth (50% reduction in plant height and 60% reduction in tuber yield). Plants grown on bioreactor effluent (filtered or unfiltered) were similar to the control plants. These results indicated that rapidly degraded, water soluble organic material contained in the inedible biomass, i.e., material in leachate, brought about phytotoxicity in the hydroponic culture of potato. Recalcitrant, water soluble organic material accumulated in all nutrient recycling treatments (650% increase after 105 days), but no increase in rhizosphere microbial numbers was observed.

  9. Apolipoprotein E Regulates Amyloid Formation within Endosomes of Pigment Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume van Niel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of toxic amyloid oligomers is a key feature in the pathogenesis of amyloid-related diseases. Formation of mature amyloid fibrils is one defense mechanism to neutralize toxic prefibrillar oligomers. This mechanism is notably influenced by apolipoprotein E variants. Cells that produce mature amyloid fibrils to serve physiological functions must exploit specific mechanisms to avoid potential accumulation of toxic species. Pigment cells have tuned their endosomes to maximize the formation of functional amyloid from the protein PMEL. Here, we show that ApoE is associated with intraluminal vesicles (ILV within endosomes and remain associated with ILVs when they are secreted as exosomes. ApoE functions in the ESCRT-independent sorting mechanism of PMEL onto ILVs and regulates the endosomal formation of PMEL amyloid fibrils in vitro and in vivo. This process secures the physiological formation of amyloid fibrils by exploiting ILVs as amyloid nucleating platforms.

  10. Can laboratory and pilot recycling trials predict adhesive removal in commercial recycling systems? : results from the USPS environmentally benign stamp project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Daniel Seiter; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Donald Donermeyer

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the US Postal Service (USPS) Environmentally Benign Stamp Program is to develop stamp laminates, i.e., face paper, adhesive and siliconized liner, that do not cause difficulties in recycling mills. The criterion for success, and the USPS definition of benignity, is the avoidance of process and product quality hardships when such PSA laminates are...

  11. Nitrogen evolution within the Earth's atmosphere-mantle system assessed by recycling in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Ananya; Li, Yuan; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of nitrogen (N) across Earth's history requires a comprehensive understanding of N's behaviour in the Earth's mantle - a massive reservoir of this volatile element. Investigation of terrestrial N systematics also requires assessment of its evolution in the Earth's atmosphere, especially to constrain the N content of the Archaean atmosphere, which potentially impacted water retention on the post-accretion Earth, potentially causing enough warming of surface temperatures for liquid water to exist. We estimated the proportion of recycled N in the Earth's mantle today, the isotopic composition of the primitive mantle, and the N content of the Archaean atmosphere based on the recycling rates of N in modern-day subduction zones. We have constrained recycling rates in modern-day subduction zones by focusing on the mechanism and efficiency of N transfer from the subducting slab to the sub-arc mantle by both aqueous fluids and slab partial melts. We also address the transfer of N by aqueous fluids as per the model of Li and Keppler (2014). For slab partial melts, we constrained the transfer of N in two ways - firstly, by an experimental study of the solubility limit of N in melt (which provides an upper estimate of N uptake by slab partial melts) and, secondly, by the partitioning of N between the slab and its partial melt. Globally, 45-74% of N introduced into the mantle by subduction enters the deep mantle past the arc magmatism filter, after taking into account the loss of N from the mantle by degassing at mid-ocean ridges, ocean islands and back-arcs. Although the majority of the N in the present-day mantle remains of primordial origin, our results point to a significant, albeit minor proportion of mantle N that is of recycled origin (17 ± 8% or 12 ± 5% of N in the present-day mantle has undergone recycling assuming that modern-style subduction was initiated 4 or 3 billion years ago, respectively). This proportion of recycled N is enough to

  12. On the rentability of regional return and recycling systems for large household equipment in Spain; Zur Wirtschaftlichkeit regionaler Ruecknahme- und Recyclingsysteme fuer Haushaltsgrossgeraete in Spanien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiruga Dios, D.A.

    2006-07-01

    This article deals with an approach of strategic planning for recycling systems for old electronic equipment. The concept is built on a 2-phase mode. In the first phase, the authors scrutinize the Spanish communities to find out if they are suitable to be locations for recycling plants. Doing this, they apply economical, infrastructural and environment-related criteria which are relevant from the entrepreneurial point of view. The application of a multicriterial decision-making method (PROMETHEE) allows to select locations suitable for recycling plants. The second step takes into consideration the interdependencies between the preselected potential locations by applying a Warehouse Location Model. Thus an optimal recycling system with several locations is determined.

  13. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  14. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-01-01

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds’ escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds’ cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier. PMID:26123532

  15. Rapid endosomal escape of prickly nanodiamonds: implications for gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhiqin; Miu, Kaikei; Lung, Pingsai; Zhang, Silu; Zhao, Saisai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Lin, Ge; Li, Quan

    2015-06-30

    The prickly nanodiamonds easily entered cells via endocytosis followed by unique intracellular translocation characteristics—quick endosomal escape followed by stable residence in cytoplasm. Endosomal membrane rupturing is identified as the major route of nanodiamonds' escaping the vesicle confinement and to the cytoplasm. Little cytotoxicity is observed to associate with the nanodiamonds' cytosolic release. Such features enable its application for gene delivery, which requires both effective cellular uptake and cytosolic release of the gene. Taking green fluorescent protein gene as an example, we demonstrate the successful cytosolic delivery and expression of such a gene using the prickly nanodiamonds as carrier.

  16. Control of oxygen impurity and hydrogen recycling in the compact helical system (CHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, N.; Okamura, S.; Aoki, T.; Yamada, H.; Tsuzuki, K.; Matsuoka, K.; Iguchi, H.; Hosokawa, M.; Kaneko, O.; Kubo, S.; Morita, S.; Nishimura, K.; Sagara, A.; Shoji, T.; Takahashi, C.; Takeiri, Y.; Takita, Y.; Amemiya, H.; Okazaki, K.; Oyama, Y.; Shimizu, K.; Yano, K.

    1990-01-01

    In order to reduce oxygen impurity and hydrogen recycling, ECR discharge cleaning with hydrogen, glow discharge with helium, and titanium gettering have been applied. The ECR discharge cleaning was found to be effective in reducing oxygen impurities in ECRH discharges. However, it was not sufficiently effective to give a wide operational density range in NBI heated discharges. Titanium gettering is essential for this purpose, and controllable discharges have been achieved in the density range 1-10x10 19 m -3 , with discharge length more than 850 ms with the aid of titanium gettering. Both helium-glow discharge and Ti gettering are useful to control hydrogen recycling even with a stainless steel wall. (orig.)

  17. EFFECT OF RECYCLE TIRE ISOLATOR AS EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE SYSTEM FOR LOW RISE BUILDINGS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOW WEI JIE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of Recycle Tire Isolator (RTI as earthquake resistance system for low rise buildings in Malaysia. Most of the earthquake’s victims are due to the collapse of poorly designed concrete and masonry buildings. Therefore, an economical but reliable RTI is introduced to solve the problem in most of the developing countries such as Malaysia. This study focuses on the effect of RTI-5 (5 layers RTI in protecting three stories buildings. The vertical displacement of RTI-5 was determined through static compression test. The maximum vertical displacement of RTI-5 was obtained when the specimen was monotonically loaded to failure. Finite element analysis was carried out by using ANSYS V16.0 to model the RTI-5 and the results obtained were compared to the experimental results. The dynamic stiffness and damping ratio of RTI-5 were investigated through dynamic test. The behaviour of various thickness of RTI were examined and compared with Rubber Bearing (RB and Scrap Tire Rubber Pad (STRP.Total displacement of three stories buildings on fixed base and on base isolation were determined. The results from static compression test and finite element analysis showed that RTI-5 could sustain a vertical load of 380 kN with vertical deformation of 12.5 mm. It has been verified by finite element analysis (FEA where both of the results achieved close agreement in terms of vertical deformation. RTI-5 and STRP have similar vertical stiffness due to the employment of same material in fabrication. However, rubber bearing is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the present of embedded steel plates. Besides, RTI-4 is stiffer than RTI-5 due to the number of layers are lesser in RTI-4. The results of dynamic test shown that RTI-5 has higher damping ratio than RTI-4. In overall, total deformation at the top floor of the three stories building is reduced by 83% via implementation of RTI in the base of the building. It has been proven

  18. Economic potential of fuel recycling options: A lifecycle cost analysis of future nuclear system transition in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Ruxing; Choi, Sungyeol; Il Ko, Won; Kim, Sungki

    2017-01-01

    In today's profit-driven market, how best to pursue advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies while maintaining the cost competitiveness of nuclear electricity is of crucial importance to determine the implementation of spent fuel reprocessing and recycling in China. In this study, a comprehensive techno-economic analysis is undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of ongoing national projects and the technical compatibility with China's future fuel cycle transition. We investigated the dynamic impacts of technical and economic uncertainties in the lifecycle of a nuclear system. The electricity generation costs associated with four potential fuel cycle transition scenarios were simulated by probabilistic and deterministic approaches and then compared in detail. The results showed that the total cost of a once-through system is lowest compared those of other advanced systems involving reprocessing and recycling. However, thanks to the consequential uncertainties caused by the further progress toward technology maturity, the economic potential of fuel recycling options was proven through a probabilistic uncertainty analysis. Furthermore, it is recommended that a compulsory executive of closed fuel cycle policy would pose some investment risk in the near term, though the execution of a series of R&D initiatives with a flexible roadmap would be valuable in the long run. - Highlights: • Real-time economic performance of the four scenarios of China's nuclear fuel cycle system transition until 2100. • Systematic assessments of techno-economic feasibility for ongoing national reprocessing projects. • Investigation the cost impact on nuclear electricity generation caused by uncertainties through probabilistic analysis. • Recommendation for sustainable implementation of fuel cycle R&D initiative ingrate with flexible roadmap in the long run.

  19. Development of the Technologies for Stabilization Treatment of the Water of the Recycling Cooling Systems at Thermal Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, S. M.; Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Vlasova, A. Yu.; Filimonova, A. A.; Prosvirnina, D. V.

    2018-02-01

    A turbine-condensate cooling system is one of the less stable and most hard-to-control systems of maintaining optimal water chemistry. A laboratory recycling cooling water test facility, UVO-0.3, was developed for physical simulation of innovative zero-discharge water chemistry conditions and improvement of technological flowcharts of stabilization treatment of the initial and circulating water of the recycling cooling systems at thermal power plants. Experiments were conducted in the UVO-0.3 facility to investigate the processes that occur in the recycling water supply system and master new technologies of stabilization of the initial and circulating water. It is shown that, when using untreated initial water, scaling cannot be prevented even under low concentration levels. The main reason for the activation of scale depositing is the desorption of carbon dioxide that results in alkalization of the circulating water and, as a consequence, a displacement of the chemical reaction equilibrium towards the formation of slightly soluble hardness ions. Some techniques, viz., liming and alkalization of the initial water and the by-pass treatment of the circulating water, are considered. New engineering solutions have been developed for reducing the amount of scale-forming substances in the initial and circulating water. The best results were obtained by pretreating the initial water with alkalizing agents and simultaneously bypassing and treating part of the circulating water. The obtained experimental data underlie the process flowcharts of stabilization treatment of the initial and circulating TPP water that ensure scale-free and noncorrosive operation and meet the corresponding environmental requirements. Under the bypassing, the specific rates of the agents and the residual hardness are reduced compared with the conventional pretreatment.

  20. Comparison and Evaluation of Large-Scale and On-Site Recycling Systems for Food Waste via Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Hee Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-benefit of on-site food waste recycling system using Life-Cycle Cost analysis, and to compare with large-scale treatment system. For accurate evaluation, the cost-benefit analysis was conducted with respect to local governments and residents, and qualitative environmental improvement effects were quantified. As for the local governments, analysis results showed that, when large-scale treatment system was replaced with on-site recycling system, there was significant cost reduction from the initial stage depending on reduction of investment, maintenance, and food wastewater treatment costs. As for the residents, it was found that the cost incurred from using the on-site recycling system was larger than the cost of using large-scale treatment system due to the cost of producing and installing the on-site treatment facilities at the initial stage. However, analysis showed that with continuous benefits such as greenhouse gas emission reduction, compost utilization, and food wastewater reduction, cost reduction would be obtained after 6 years of operating the on-site recycling system. Therefore, it was recommended for local governments and residents to consider introducing an on-site food waste recycling system if they are to replace an old treatment system or need to establish a new one.

  1. System Design Description and Requirements for Modeling the Off-Gas Systems for Fuel Recycling Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daryl R. Haefner; Jack D. Law; Troy J. Tranter

    2010-08-01

    This document provides descriptions of the off-gases evolved during spent nuclear fuel processing and the systems used to capture the gases of concern. Two reprocessing techniques are discussed, namely aqueous separations and electrochemical (pyrochemical) processing. The unit operations associated with each process are described in enough detail so that computer models to mimic their behavior can be developed. The document also lists the general requirements for the desired computer models.

  2. Biomechanics and Thermodynamics of Nanoparticle Interactions with Plasma and Endosomal Membrane Lipids in Cellular Uptake and Endosomal Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To be effective for cytoplasmic delivery of therapeutics, nanoparticles (NPs) taken up via endocytic pathways must efficiently transport across the cell membrane and subsequently escape from the secondary endosomes. We hypothesized that the biomechanical and thermodynamic interactions of NPs with plasma and endosomal membrane lipids are involved in these processes. Using model plasma and endosomal lipid membranes, we compared the interactions of cationic NPs composed of poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) modified with the dichain surfactant didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) or the single-chain surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) vs anionic unmodified NPs of similar size. We validated our hypothesis in doxorubicin-sensitive (MCF-7, with relatively fluid membranes) and resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR, with rigid membranes). Despite their cationic surface charges, DMAB- and CTAB-modified NPs showed different patterns of biophysical interaction: DMAB-modified NPs induced bending of the model plasma membrane, whereas CTAB-modified NPs condensed the membrane, thereby resisted bending. Unmodified NPs showed no effects on bending. DMAB-modified NPs also induced thermodynamic instability of the model endosomal membrane, whereas CTAB-modified and unmodified NPs had no effect. Since bending of the plasma membrane and destabilization of the endosomal membrane are critical biophysical processes in NP cellular uptake and endosomal escape, respectively, we tested these NPs for cellular uptake and drug efficacy. Confocal imaging showed that in both sensitive and resistant cells DMAB-modified NPs exhibited greater cellular uptake and escape from endosomes than CTAB-modified or unmodified NPs. Further, paclitaxel-loaded DMAB-modified NPs induced greater cytotoxicity even in resistant cells than CTAB-modified or unmodified NPs or drug in solution, demonstrating the potential of DMAB-modified NPs to overcome the transport barrier in resistant cells. In

  3. Actin-Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27)-Retromer Complex Mediates Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Recycling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C.; Xiao, Kunhong; Bowman, Shanna L.; Mamonova, Tatyana; Zhang, Qiangmin; Bisello, Alessandro; Sneddon, W. Bruce; Ardura, Juan A.; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Friedman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    The G protein-coupled parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) regulates mineral-ion homeostasis and bone remodeling. Upon parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation, the PTHR internalizes into early endosomes and subsequently traffics to the retromer complex, a sorting platform on early endosomes that promotes recycling of surface receptors. The C terminus of the PTHR contains a type I PDZ ligand that binds PDZ domain-containing proteins. Mass spectrometry identified sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) in isolated endosomes as a PTHR binding partner. PTH treatment enriched endosomal PTHR. SNX27 contains a PDZ domain and serves as a cargo selector for the retromer complex. VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 retromer subunits were isolated with PTHR in endosomes from cells stimulated with PTH. Molecular dynamics and protein binding studies establish that PTHR and SNX27 interactions depend on the PDZ recognition motif in PTHR and the PDZ domain of SNX27. Depletion of either SNX27 or VPS35 or actin depolymerization decreased the rate of PTHR recycling following agonist stimulation. Mutating the PDZ ligand of PTHR abolished the interaction with SNX27 but did not affect the overall rate of recycling, suggesting that PTHR may directly engage the retromer complex. Coimmunoprecipitation and overlay experiments show that both intact and mutated PTHR bind retromer through the VPS26 protomer and sequentially assemble a ternary complex with PTHR and SNX27. SNX27-independent recycling may involve N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, which binds both PDZ intact and mutant PTHRs. We conclude that PTHR recycles rapidly through at least two pathways, one involving the ASRT complex of actin, SNX27, and retromer and another possibly involving N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. PMID:27008860

  4. The p25 Subunit of the Dynactin Complex is Required for Dynein-Early Endosome Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    early endosome movement. In filamentous hyphae , dynein powers the minus end–directed movement of early endosomes (Steinberg and Schuster 2011...observed in time-lapse sequences (Video 1; Abenza et al., 2009). In still images, early endosomes were seen to distribute along the hyphae (Fig. 2 A...nuclear distribution along elongated hyphae and also for the microtubule minus end–directed movement of early endosomes away from the tip (Morris

  5. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  6. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives

  7. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Structural Basis for Endosomal Targeting by the Bro1 Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewon; Sitaraman, Sujatha; Hierro, Aitor; Beach, Bridgette M.; Odorizzi, Greg; Hurley, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Proteins delivered to the lysosome or the yeast vacuole via late endosomes are sorted by the ESCRT complexes and by associated proteins, including Alix and its yeast homolog Bro1. Alix, Bro1, and several other late endosomal proteins share a conserved 160 residue Bro1 domain whose boundaries, structure, and function have not been characterized. The crystal structure of the Bro1 domain of Bro1 reveals a folded core of 367 residues. The extended Bro1 domain is necessary and sufficient for binding to the ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 and for the recruitment of Bro1 to late endosomes. The structure resembles a boomerang with its concave face filled in and contains a triple tetratricopeptide repeat domain as a substructure. Snf7 binds to a conserved hydrophobic patch on Bro1 that is required for protein complex formation and for the protein-sorting function of Bro1. These results define a conserved mechanism whereby Bro1 domain-containing proteins are targeted to endosomes by Snf7 and its orthologs. PMID:15935782

  9. Report on evaluation of research and development of resources recycling/reutilization systems. Phase 2; Shigen saisei riyo gijutsu system no kenkyu kaihatsu (dainiki) ni kansuru hyoka hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-08-01

    Described herein are the final evaluation results obtained by the 7-year R and D project, beginning in the FY 1976, established by the national project system for developing the techniques for treating urban solid wastes. This project has developed a semi-wet type selective crushing/sorting unit for sorting the wastes, and established the elementary techniques for recycling the wastes into various products, e.g., compost, pulp, combustible gases, aggregates, methane gas, or fuel oil. Two types of total treating systems, in which these elementary techniques are integrated, have been developed; one is to recover materials and the other energy. They can comprehensively, efficiently treat the wastes, adapting themselves to various situations. Pyrolysis which discharges reduced quantities of flue gases is adopted. Waste water is treated, mainly by biological treatment which is supported by the conventional methods, e.g., coagulation and adsorption. The cost estimation results indicate that the total system developed by this project can compare favorably with the conventional incineration system under general conditions, at a capacity of 300 t/d or more, when taking into consideration the secondary effects brought by the recycling/reutilization. This system is commercially feasible, when it meets with local characteristics, e.g., garbage collecting systems, market values of recycled resources, treatment/disposal conditions, and natural and social environments. This project has sufficiently achieved the original objectives. (NEDO)

  10. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  11. Densifying the city: urban recycle as a strategic system to refurbish the built environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorino Belpoliti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persisting economic crisis and the necessity for more sustainable construction processes imply the need for innovative strategies to reuse the existing building stock. Retrofit and recycling plans are already active for whole city districts, adopting the urban densification strategy to reduce the consumption of resources, promoting the functional, technological, and energy refurbishment of the existing city districts The study introduces considerations and tools to increase the efficiency of retrofit action onto abandoned and degraded area through the improvement of their energy and environmental performances. 

  12. Reverse logistics system planning for recycling computers hardware: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januri, Siti Sarah; Zulkipli, Faridah; Zahari, Siti Meriam; Shamsuri, Siti Hajar

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes modeling and simulation of reverse logistics networks for collection of used computers in one of the company in Selangor. The study focuses on design of reverse logistics network for used computers recycling operation. Simulation modeling, presented in this work allows the user to analyze the future performance of the network and to understand the complex relationship between the parties involved. The findings from the simulation suggest that the model calculates processing time and resource utilization in a predictable manner. In this study, the simulation model was developed by using Arena simulation package.

  13. Gαs regulates Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor-mediated cyclic AMP generation at Rab5 endosomal compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S; Bele, Shilpak; Zhu, Zhimeng; Chakravarthi, N R; DiMarchi, Richard D; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2017-10-01

    Upon activation, G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) associate with heterotrimeric G proteins at the plasma membrane to initiate second messenger signaling. Subsequently, the activated receptor experiences desensitization, internalization, and recycling back to the plasma membrane, or it undergoes lysosomal degradation. Recent reports highlight specific cases of persistent cyclic AMP generation by internalized GPCRs, although the functional significance and mechanistic details remain to be defined. Cyclic AMP generation from internalized Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor (GLP-1R) has previously been reported from our laboratory. This study aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanism by which internalized GLP-R supports sustained cyclic AMP generation upon receptor activation in pancreatic beta cells. We studied the time course of cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation with particular emphasis on defining the location where cyclic AMP is generated. Detection involved a novel GLP-1 conjugate coupled with immunofluorescence using specific endosomal markers. Finally, we employed co-immunoprecipitation as well as immunofluorescence to assess the protein-protein interactions that regulate GLP-1R mediated cyclic AMP generation at endosomes. Our data reveal that prolonged association of G protein α subunit Gαs with activated GLP-1R contributed to sustained cyclic AMP generation at Rab 5 endosomal compartment. The findings provide the mechanism of endosomal cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation. We identified the specific compartment that serves as an organizing center to generate endosomal cyclic AMP by internalized activated receptor complex. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitivity enhancement of 13C nuclei in 2D J-resolved NMR spectroscopy using a recycled-flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, S.T.K.; Lee, R.W.K.; Wilkins, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recycled-flow nuclear magnetic resonance for sensitivity enhancement in 1/2 spin nuclei has been reported previously, achieving several-fold signal enhancement. The success of the method depends upon premagnetization of nuclei prior to flowing into the detector region, obviating the need for delays following data acquisition to allow spin-lattice relaxation and reduce experiment time. The actual gains of sensitivity enhancement for 13 C- 1 H 2D J-resolved NMR using a recycled-flow method are evaluated. Possible enhancements for two types of J-resolved measurements, namely, one-bond 13 C- 1 H and long range J-resolved spectroscopy, are estimated using a simple Carr-Purcell spin-echo approach to quantify the 13 C signals. The pulse sequence is simply 90 0 -t /sub 1/2/-180 0 -t/sub 1/2/-AT-t/sub d/, where t/sub 1/2/ is half the evolution time, AT is the acquisition time, and t/sub d/ the experiment repetition time. In a static 2D NMR experiment, t/sub d/ usually must be the same order of the longest spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1 ) of nuclei. Quantitative measurements using a recycled-flow system indicate t/dub d/ can be reduced to a fraction of T 1 ; hence significant time savings can be achieved. Time-savings of between 2 and 25 can be anticipated for 2D spectroscopy under flow measurement conditions used in the present study. Other types of 2D NMR spectroscopy (autocorrelation and double quantum NMR) are discussed

  15. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinobe, J R; Gebresenbet, G; Niwagaba, C B; Vinnerås, B

    2015-08-01

    The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Foulant characteristics comparison in recycling cooling water system makeup by municipal reclaimed water and surface water in power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Xu; Jing, Wang; Yajun, Zhang; Jie, Wang; Shuai, Si

    2015-01-01

    Due to water shortage, municipal reclaimed water rather than surface water was replenished into recycling cooling water system in power plants in some cities in China. In order to understand the effects of the measure on carbon steel corrosion, characteristics of two kinds of foulant produced in different systems were studied in the paper. Differences between municipal reclaimed water and surface water were analyzed firstly. Then, the weight and the morphology of two kinds of foulant were compared. Moreover, other characteristics including the total number of bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria, iron bacteria, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), protein (PN), and polysaccharide (PS) in foulant were analyzed. Based on results, it could be concluded that microbial and corrosive risk would be increased when the system replenished by municipal reclaimed water instead of surface water.

  17. Recycling Flight Hardware Components and Systems to Reduce Next Generation Research Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wlat

    2011-01-01

    With the recent 'new direction' put forth by President Obama identifying NASA's new focus in research rather than continuing on a path to return to the Moon and Mars, the focus of work at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) may be changing dramatically. Research opportunities within the micro-gravity community potentially stands at the threshold of resurgence when the new direction of the agency takes hold for the next generation of experimenters. This presentation defines a strategy for recycling flight experiment components or part numbers, in order to reduce research project costs, not just in component selection and fabrication, but in expediting qualification of hardware for flight. A key component of the strategy is effective communication of relevant flight hardware information and available flight hardware components to researchers, with the goal of 'short circuiting' the design process for flight experiments

  18. Application of Decomposition Methodology to Solve Integrated Process Design and Controller Design Problems for Reactor-Separator-Recycle System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd.Hamid, Mohd-Kamaruddin; Sin, Gürkan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) for a reactor-separator-recycle (RSR) system and evaluates a decomposition methodology to solve the IPDC problem. Accordingly, the IPDC problem is solved by decomposing it into four hierarchical stages: (i) pre...... the design of a RSR system involving consecutive reactions, A B -> C and shown to provide effective solutions that satisfy design, control and cost criteria. The advantage of the proposed methodology is that it is systematic, makes use of thermodynamic-process knowledge and provides valuable insights......-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection and verification. The methodology makes use of thermodynamic-process insights and the reverse design approach to arrive at the final process-controller design decisions. The developed methodology is illustrated through...

  19. On-chip microfluidic systems for determination of L-glutamate based on enzymatic recycling of substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laiwattanapaisal, W.; Yakovleva, J.; Bengtsson, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Two microfluidic systems have been developed for specific analysis of L-glutamate in food based on substrate recycling fluorescence detection. L-glutamate dehydrogenase and a novel enzyme, D-phenylglycine aminotransferase, were covalently immobilized on (i) the surface of silicon microchips....... The reaction was accompanied by reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to NADH, which was monitored by fluorescence detection (epsilon(ex)=340 nm, epsilon(em)=460 nm). First, the microchip-based system, L-glutamate was detected within a range of 3.1-50.0 mM. Second, to be automatically......). In the case of SIA, the beads were introduced and removed from the microchip automatically. The immobilized beads could be stored in a 20% glycerol and 0.5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid solution maintained at a pH of 7.0 using a phosphate buffer for at least 15 days with 72% of the activity remaining...

  20. [Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    A critical requirement in DOE's efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP's ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities

  1. Promyelocytic leukemia bodies tether to early endosomes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palibrk, Vuk; Lång, Emma; Lång, Anna; Schink, Kay Oliver; Rowe, Alexander D; Bøe, Stig Ove

    2014-01-01

    During mitosis the nuclear envelope breaks down, leading to potential interactions between cytoplasmic and nuclear components. PML bodies are nuclear structures with tumor suppressor and antiviral functions. Early endosomes, on the other hand, are cytoplasmic vesicles involved in transport and growth factor signaling. Here we demonstrate that PML bodies form stable interactions with early endosomes immediately following entry into mitosis. The 2 compartments remain stably associated throughout mitosis and dissociate in the cytoplasm of newly divided daughter cells. We also show that a minor subset of PML bodies becomes anchored to the mitotic spindle poles during cell division. The study demonstrates a stable mitosis-specific interaction between a cytoplasmic and a nuclear compartment.

  2. Production of proteinase A by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a cell-recycling fermentation system: Experiments and computer simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, S.; Biedermann, K.; Emborg, Claus

    1996-01-01

    experimentally and by computer simulations. Experiments and simulations showed that cell mass and product concentration were enhanced by high ratios of recycling. Additional simulations showed that the proteinase A concentration decreased drastically at high dilution rates and the optimal volumetric...... productivities were at high dilution rates just below washout and at high ratios of recycling. Cell-recycling fermentation gave much higher volumetric productivities and stable product concentrations in contrast to simple continuous fermentation....

  3. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  4. Enhancing endosomal escape of transduced proteins by photochemical internalisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Mellert

    Full Text Available Induced internalisation of functional proteins into cultured cells has become an important aspect in a rising number of in vitro and in vivo assays. The endo-lysosomal entrapment of the transduced proteins remains the major problem in all transduction protocols. In this study we compared the efficiency, cytotoxicity and protein targeting of different commercially available transduction reagents by transducing a well-studied fluorescently labelled protein (Atto488-bovine serum albumin into cultured human sarcoma cells. The amount of internalised protein and toxicity differed between the different reagents, but the percentage of transduced cells was consistently high. Furthermore, in all protocols the signals of the transduced Atto488-BSA were predominantly punctual consistent with an endosomal localisation. To overcome the endosomal entrapment, the transduction protocols were combined with a photochemical internalisation (PCI treatment. Using this combination revealed that an endosomal disruption is highly effective in cell penetrating peptide (CPP mediated transduction, whereas lipid-mediated transductions lead to a lower signal spreading throughout the cytosol. No change in the signal distribution could be achieved in treatments using non-lipid polymers as a transduction reagent. Therefore, the combination of protein transduction protocols based on CPPs with the endosomolytic treatment PCI can facilitate protein transduction experiments in vitro.

  5. Enhancing endosomal escape of transduced proteins by photochemical internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellert, Kevin; Lamla, Markus; Scheffzek, Klaus; Wittig, Rainer; Kaufmann, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Induced internalisation of functional proteins into cultured cells has become an important aspect in a rising number of in vitro and in vivo assays. The endo-lysosomal entrapment of the transduced proteins remains the major problem in all transduction protocols. In this study we compared the efficiency, cytotoxicity and protein targeting of different commercially available transduction reagents by transducing a well-studied fluorescently labelled protein (Atto488-bovine serum albumin) into cultured human sarcoma cells. The amount of internalised protein and toxicity differed between the different reagents, but the percentage of transduced cells was consistently high. Furthermore, in all protocols the signals of the transduced Atto488-BSA were predominantly punctual consistent with an endosomal localisation. To overcome the endosomal entrapment, the transduction protocols were combined with a photochemical internalisation (PCI) treatment. Using this combination revealed that an endosomal disruption is highly effective in cell penetrating peptide (CPP) mediated transduction, whereas lipid-mediated transductions lead to a lower signal spreading throughout the cytosol. No change in the signal distribution could be achieved in treatments using non-lipid polymers as a transduction reagent. Therefore, the combination of protein transduction protocols based on CPPs with the endosomolytic treatment PCI can facilitate protein transduction experiments in vitro.

  6. Electron Transfer Reactivity Patterns at Chemically Modified Electrodes: Fundamentals and Application to the Optimization of Redox Recycling Amplification Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergren, Adam Johan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Electroanalytical chemistry is often utilized in chemical analysis and Fundamental studies. Important advances have been made in these areas since the advent of chemically modified electrodes: the coating of an electrode with a chemical film in order to impart desirable, and ideally, predictable properties. These procedures enable the exploitation of unique reactivity patterns. This dissertation presents studies that investigate novel reaction mechanisms at self-assembled monolayers on gold. In particular, a unique electrochemical current amplification scheme is detailed that relies on a selective electrode to enable a reactivity pattern that results in regeneration of the analyte (redox recycling). This regenerating reaction can occur up to 250 times for each analyte molecule, leading to a notable enhancement in the observed current. The requirements of electrode selectivity and the resulting amplification and detection limit improvements are described with respect to the heterogeneous and homogeneous electron transfer rates that characterize the system. These studies revealed that the heterogeneous electrolysis of the analyte should ideally be electrochemically reversible, while that for the regenerating agent should be held to a low level. Moreover, the homogeneous reaction that recycles the analyte should occur at a rapid rate. The physical selectivity mechanism is also detailed with respect to the properties of the electrode and redox probes utilized. It is shown that partitioning of the analyte into/onto the adlayer leads to the extraordinary selectivity of the alkanethiolate monolayer modified electrode. Collectively, these studies enable a thorough understanding of the complex electrode mechanism required for successful redox recycling amplification systems, Finally, in a separate (but related) study, the effect of the akyl chain length on the heterogeneous electron transfer behavior of solution-based redox probes is reported, where an odd-even oscillation

  7. Protein complexes and cholesterol in the control of late endosomal dynamicsCholesterol and multi-protein complexes in the control of late endosomal dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Rik Henricus Nicolaas van der

    2013-01-01

    Late endosomal transport is disrupted in several diseases such as Niemann-Pick type C, ARC syndrome and Alzheimer’s disease. This thesis describes the regulation of late endosomal dynamics by cholesterol and multi-protein complexes. We find that cholesterol acts as a cellular tomtom that steers the

  8. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  9. Recycling systems and material flows from the viewpoint of thermal waste treatment; Kreislaufwirtschaft- und Stoffstrombetrachtungen aus Sicht der thermischen Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnke, B. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Mast, P.G. [Tauw Umwelt GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Material stream analysis can serve as a basis for decisions on which materials should be kept in circulation, and in what quantity, and which materials it is better to remove from the recycling system and dispose of as waste. Wastes destined for disposal are mostly transferred to waste treatment plants and landfills. The role of thermal treatment as part of the disposal system is to destroy or decompose organic pollutants contained in the waste, concentrate and remove inorganic pollutants, make the heat arising during the treatment process available for use as energy, and make the greatest possible physical use of the treatment residues. The present paper reviews the current regulations for the promotion of recycling and investigates selected material streams and the fate of these materials. In connection with the residue quality of household waste incineration slag as a thermal waste treatment product it also considers the influence of waste management measures on wastes destined for disposal. [Deutsch] Stoffstrombetrachtungen koennen als Grundlage fuer Entscheidungen dienen, welche Stoffe in welchem Umfang im Kreislauf verbleiben oder wieder integriert werden sollten und welche besser als Abfall zur Beseitigung aus dem Kreislaufsystem auszuschleusen sind. Fuer Abfaelle zur Beseitigung wird diese Aufgabe i.d.R. von thermischen Abfallbehandlungsanlagen und Deponien uebernommen. Im Rahmen der Entsorgung kommt der thermischen Behandlung dabei die Aufgabe zu, die im Abfall zur Beseitigung enthaltenen organischen Schadstoffe zu zerstoeren oder abzubauen, anorganische Schadstoffe aufzukonzentrieren und auszuschleusen, die bei dem Behandlungsprozess entstehende Waerme einer weitgehenden Energienutzung zuzufuehren und die Rueckstaende aus der Behandlung so weit wie moeglich stofflich zu verwerten. Nachfolgend sollen insbesondere die Regelungen zur Unterstuetzung der Kreislaufwirtschaft, ausgewaehlte Stofffluesse und der Verbleib dieser Stoffe und Materialien und der

  10. Comparison of the efficiencies of attached- versus suspended-growth SBR systems in the treatment of recycled paper mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mohd Hafizuddin; Sheikh Abdullah, Siti Rozaimah; Abu Hasan, Hassimi; Abd Rahim, Reehan Adnee

    2015-11-01

    The complexity of residual toxic organics from biologically treated effluents of pulp and paper mills is a serious concern. To date, it has been difficult to choose the best treatment technique because each of the available options has advantages and drawbacks. In this study, two different treatment techniques using laboratory-scale aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were tested with the same real recycled paper mill effluent to evaluate their treatment efficiencies. Two attached-growth SBRs using granular activated carbon (GAC) with and without additional biomass and a suspended-growth SBR were used in the treatment of real recycled paper mill effluent at a chemical oxygen demand (COD) level in the range of 800-1300 mg/L, a fixed hydraulic retention time of 24 h and a COD:N:P ratio of approximately 100:5:1. The efficiency of this biological treatment process was studied over a 300-day period. The six most important wastewater quality parameters, namely, chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, ammonia (expressed as NH3-N), phosphorus (expressed as PO4(3)-P), colour, and suspended solids (SS), were measured to compare the different treatment techniques. It was determined that these processes were able to almost completely and simultaneously eliminate COD (99%) and turbidity (99%); the removals of NH3-N (90-100%), PO4(3)-P (66-78%), colour (63-91%), and SS (97-99%) were also sufficient. The overall performance results confirmed that an attached-growth SBR system using additional biomass on GAC is a promising configuration for wastewater treatment in terms of performance efficiency and process stability under fluctuations of organic load. Hence, this hybrid system is recommended for the treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Serotonin Transporter Undergoes Constitutive Internalization and Is Primarily Sorted to Late Endosomes and Lysosomal Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Troels; Bay, Tina; Eriksen, Jacob; Gether, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in regulating serotonin signaling by mediating reuptake of serotonin from the extracellular space. The molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling SERT levels in the membrane remain poorly understood. To study trafficking of the surface resident SERT, two functional epitope-tagged variants were generated. Fusion of a FLAG-tagged one-transmembrane segment protein Tac to the SERT N terminus generated a transporter with an extracellular epitope suited for trafficking studies (TacSERT). Likewise, a construct with an extracellular antibody epitope was generated by introducing an HA (hemagglutinin) tag in the extracellular loop 2 of SERT (HA-SERT). By using TacSERT and HA-SERT in antibody-based internalization assays, we show that SERT undergoes constitutive internalization in a dynamin-dependent manner. Confocal images of constitutively internalized SERT demonstrated that SERT primarily co-localized with the late endosomal/lysosomal marker Rab7, whereas little co-localization was observed with the Rab11, a marker of the “long loop” recycling pathway. This sorting pattern was distinct from that of a prototypical recycling membrane protein, the β2-adrenergic receptor. Furthermore, internalized SERT co-localized with the lysosomal marker LysoTracker and not with transferrin. The sorting pattern was further confirmed by visualizing internalization of SERT using the fluorescent cocaine analog JHC1-64 and by reversible and pulse-chase biotinylation assays showing evidence for lysosomal degradation of the internalized transporter. Finally, we found that SERT internalized in response to stimulation with 12-myristate 13-acetate co-localized primarily with Rab7- and LysoTracker-positive compartments. We conclude that SERT is constitutively internalized and that the internalized transporter is sorted mainly to degradation. PMID:24973209

  12. Eps homology domain endosomal transport proteins differentially localize to the neuromuscular junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mate Suzanne E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recycling of endosomes is important for trafficking and maintenance of proteins at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. We have previously shown high expression of the endocytic recycling regulator Eps15 homology domain-containing (EHD1 proteinin the Torpedo californica electric organ, a model tissue for investigating a cholinergic synapse. In this study, we investigated the localization of EHD1 and its paralogs EHD2, EHD3, and EHD4 in mouse skeletal muscle, and assessed the morphological changes in EHD1−/− NMJs. Methods Localization of the candidate NMJ protein EHD1 was assessed by confocal microscopy analysis of whole-mount mouse skeletal muscle fibers after direct gene transfer and immunolabeling. The potential function of EHD1 was assessed by specific force measurement and α-bungarotoxin-based endplate morphology mapping in EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle. Results Endogenous EHD1 localized to primary synaptic clefts of murine NMJ, and this localization was confirmed by expression of recombinant green fluorescent protein labeled-EHD1 in murine skeletal muscle in vivo. EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle had normal histology and NMJ morphology, and normal specific force generation during muscle contraction. The EHD 1–4 proteins showed differential localization in skeletal muscle: EHD2 to muscle vasculature, EHD3 to perisynaptic regions, and EHD4 to perinuclear regions and to primary synaptic clefts, but at lower levels than EHD1. Additionally, specific antibodies raised against mammalian EHD1-4 recognized proteins of the expected mass in the T. californica electric organ. Finally, we found that EHD4 expression was more abundant in EHD1−/− mouse skeletal muscle than in wild-type skeletal muscle. Conclusion EHD1 and EHD4 localize to the primary synaptic clefts of the NMJ. Lack of obvious defects in NMJ structure and muscle function in EHD1−/− muscle may be due to functional compensation by other EHD paralogs.

  13. Recycling domains in plant cell morphogenesis: small GTPase effectors, plasma membrane signalling and the exocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárský, Viktor; Potocký, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The Rho/Rop small GTPase regulatory module is central for initiating exocytotically ACDs (active cortical domains) in plant cell cortex, and a growing array of Rop regulators and effectors are being discovered in plants. Structural membrane phospholipids are important constituents of cells as well as signals, and phospholipid-modifying enzymes are well known effectors of small GTPases. We have shown that PLDs (phospholipases D) and their product, PA (phosphatidic acid), belong to the regulators of the secretory pathway in plants. We have also shown that specific NOXs (NADPH oxidases) producing ROS (reactive oxygen species) are involved in cell growth as exemplified by pollen tubes and root hairs. Most plant cells exhibit several distinct plasma membrane domains (ACDs), established and maintained by endocytosis/exocytosis-driven membrane protein recycling. We proposed recently the concept of a 'recycling domain' (RD), uniting the ACD and the connected endosomal recycling compartment (endosome), as a dynamic spatiotemporal entity. We have described a putative GTPase-effector complex exocyst involved in exocytic vesicle tethering in plants. Owing to the multiplicity of its Exo70 subunits, this complex, along with many RabA GTPases (putative recycling endosome organizers), may belong to core regulators of RD organization in plants.

  14. Key drivers of the e-waste recycling system: Assessing and modelling e-waste processing in the informal sector in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streicher-Porte, Martin; Widmer, Rolf; Jain, Amit; Bader, Hans-Peter; Scheidegger, Ruth; Kytzia, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    The management and recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment WEEE was assessed in the city of Delhi, India. In order to do this, the personal computer was defined as the tracer for which a model was designed. The model depicts the entire life cycle of the tracer, from production through sale and consumption-including reuse and refurbishment-to the material recovery in the mainly informal recycling industry. The field work included interviews with the relevant stakeholders, transect walks and literature study, which was followed by a software-supported material flow analysis (MFA) of the whole life cycle chain of the tracer item. In addition to the MFA, several economic aspects of the recycling system were investigated. The study revealed that the life span of a personal computer has considerable influence upon the system, most notably in the following two aspects: (i) a prolonged life span creates value by means of refurbishing and upgrading activities, and (ii) it slows down the flow rate of the whole system. This is one of the simplest ways of preventing an uncontrolled increase in environmentally hazardous emissions by the recycling sector. The material recovery of the system is mainly driven by the precious metal content of personal computers. A first estimate showed that precious metal recovery contributes to over 80% of the personal computer materials' market value, despite the small quantity of them found in computers

  15. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  16. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  17. E-Waste Recycling Systems and Sound Circulative Economies in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis of Systems in Japan, South Korea, China and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-cheol Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to review and compare E-waste management systems operating in East Asian countries in efforts to identify future challenges facing the circulative economies in the region. The first topic of this paper is cost sharing (physical and financial as applied to the various stakeholders, including producers, consumers, local governments and recyclers, in the E-waste management systems. The second topic is the environmental and economical impacts of these E-waste management systems on recycling technology, trans-boundary movement of E-wastes and Design for Environment (DfE. The final topic is the possibility for international cooperation in the region in terms of E-waste management systems. The authors’ preliminary result is that the E-waste management systems operating in these East Asian countries have contributed to extended producer responsibility and DfE to some extent, but many challenges remain in their improvement through proper cost sharing among the stakeholders. It is also clear that the cross-border transfer of E-wastes cannot be resolved by one nation alone, and thus international cooperation will be indispensable in finding a suitable solution.

  18. Imaging endosomes and autophagosomes in whole mammalian cells using correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-soft X-ray microscopy (cryo-CLXM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, Elizabeth M.H.; Razi, Minoo; Weston, Anne; Guttmann, Peter; Werner, Stephan; Henzler, Katja; Schneider, Gerd; Tooze, Sharon A.; Collinson, Lucy M.

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-soft X-ray tomography (cryo-SXT) is a powerful imaging technique that can extract ultrastructural information from whole, unstained mammalian cells as close to the living state as possible. Subcellular organelles including the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and mitochondria have been identified by morphology alone, due to the similarity in contrast to transmission electron micrographs. In this study, we used cryo-SXT to image endosomes and autophagosomes, organelles that are particularly susceptible to chemical fixation artefacts during sample preparation for electron microscopy. We used two approaches to identify these compartments. For early and recycling endosomes, which are accessible to externally-loaded markers, we used an anti-transferrin receptor antibody conjugated to 10 nm gold particles. For autophagosomes, which are not accessible to externally-applied markers, we developed a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT workflow (cryo-CLXM) to localise GFP-LC3 and RFP-Atg9. We used a stand-alone cryo-fluorescence stage in the home laboratory to localise the cloned fluorophores, followed by cryo-soft X-ray tomography at the synchrotron to analyse cellular ultrastructure. We mapped the 3D ultrastructure of the endocytic and autophagic structures, and discovered clusters of omegasomes arising from ‘hotspots’ on the ER. Thus, immunogold markers and cryo-CLXM can be used to analyse cellular processes that are inaccessible using other imaging modalities. - Highlights: • We image whole, unstained mammalian cells using cryo-soft X-ray tomography. • Endosomes are identified using a gold marker for the transferrin receptor. • A new workflow for correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-SXT is used to locate early autophagosomes. • Interactions between endosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and forming autophagosomes are mapped in 3D. • Multiple omegasomes are shown to form at ‘hotspots’ on the endoplasmic reticulum

  19. Online gas composition estimation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with anode off-gas recycle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, B.; Vrečko, D.; Juričić, Ð.; Pohjoranta, A.; Pianese, C.

    2017-03-01

    Degradation and poisoning of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks are continuously shortening the lifespan of SOFC systems. Poisoning mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, form a coating layer, hence rapidly decreasing the efficiency of the fuel cells. Gas composition of inlet gases is known to have great impact on the rate of coke formation. Therefore, monitoring of these variables can be of great benefit for overall management of SOFCs. Although measuring the gas composition of the gas stream is feasible, it is too costly for commercial applications. This paper proposes three distinct approaches for the design of gas composition estimators of an SOFC system in anode off-gas recycle configuration which are (i.) accurate, and (ii.) easy to implement on a programmable logic controller. Firstly, a classical approach is briefly revisited and problems related to implementation complexity are discussed. Secondly, the model is simplified and adapted for easy implementation. Further, an alternative data-driven approach for gas composition estimation is developed. Finally, a hybrid estimator employing experimental data and 1st-principles is proposed. Despite the structural simplicity of the estimators, the experimental validation shows a high precision for all of the approaches. Experimental validation is performed on a 10 kW SOFC system.

  20. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  1. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  2. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  3. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  4. Energetic conditions of effective recycling of composite castings

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jackowski

    2009-01-01

    The most reasonable way of recycling the metal composite materials consists in separation of the components. In case of the composites with saturated reinforcement it is the only recycling method. The process of separation of the components always undergoes in the presence of an additional liquid phase called a recycling medium. In a three-phase system including the material of composite reinforcement – liquid composite matrix – liquid recycling medium, an important role for the recycling pro...

  5. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  6. Strategies for the Activation and Release of the Membranolytic Peptide Melittin from Liposomes Using Endosomal pH as a Trigger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Blenke, E.; Sleszynska, M.; Evers, M. J W; Storm, G.; Martin, N. I.; Mastrobattista, E.

    2017-01-01

    Endosomolytic peptides are often coupled to drug delivery systems to enhance endosomal escape, which is crucial for the delivery of macromolecular drugs that are vulnerable to degradation in the endolysosomal pathway. Melittin is a 26 amino acid peptide derived from bee venom that has a very high

  7. Recycling and Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bányai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the notion that for environmental and legislative reasons improvements The national environmental policies and practice, including recycling strategies, are desirable and in many cases might be economically beneficial has been gaining ground. Although according to recent surveys the state of the environment in Hungary is in line with average values of the European Union, the main challenge for the country is to achieve sustainability in economic, environmental and technological terms. With a view to accession to the European Union, a harmonisation strategy must be worked out and implemented. This harmonisation strategy includes not only legislative aspects, but also social, technological, financial and logistic considerations.Because of the high logistic costs of achieving closed loop recycling systems, the author focuses on logistic aspects and tasks of the improvement phases and concentrates on the possibilities of networking and co-operation. The paper describes some possible alternative solutions for co-operative recycling processes, to improve the following logistic parameters: delivery times, accuracy of supply, running times, utilization of capacities, stock quantities, flexibility, transparency of the system, high forwarding capability, quality of product. The logistic aspects of co-operation will be analysed from the viewpoint of a closed loop economy.

  8. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  9. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  10. Intracellular Transport of Vaccinia Virus in HeLa Cells Requires WASH-VPEF/FAM21-Retromer Complexes and Recycling Molecules Rab11 and Rab22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Jye-Chian; Chu, Li-Wei; Lo, Yung-Tsun; Lee, Sue-Ping; Chen, Tzu-Jung; Huang, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaccinia virus, the prototype of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae, infects a wide range of cell lines and animals. Vaccinia mature virus particles of the WR strain reportedly enter HeLa cells through fluid-phase endocytosis. However, the intracellular trafficking process of the vaccinia mature virus between cellular uptake and membrane fusion remains unknown. We used live imaging of single virus particles with a combination of various cellular vesicle markers, to track fluorescent vaccinia mature virus particle movement in cells. Furthermore, we performed functional interference assays to perturb distinct vesicle trafficking processes in order to delineate the specific route undertaken by vaccinia mature virus prior to membrane fusion and virus core uncoating in cells. Our results showed that vaccinia virus traffics to early endosomes, where recycling endosome markers Rab11 and Rab22 are recruited to participate in subsequent virus trafficking prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we identified WASH-VPEF/FAM21-retromer complexes that mediate endosome fission and sorting of virus-containing vesicles prior to virus core uncoating in the cytoplasm. IMPORTANCE Vaccinia mature virions of the WR strain enter HeLa cells through fluid phase endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that virus-containing vesicles are internalized into phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate positive macropinosomes, which are then fused with Rab5-positive early endosomes. However, the subsequent process of sorting the virion-containing vesicles prior to membrane fusion remains unclear. We dissected the intracellular trafficking pathway of vaccinia mature virions in cells up to virus core uncoating in cytoplasm. We show that vaccinia mature virions first travel to early endosomes. Subsequent trafficking events require the important endosome-tethered protein VPEF/FAM21, which recruits WASH and retromer protein complexes to the endosome. There, the complex

  11. Effect of diphtheria toxin T-domain on endosomal pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Labyntsev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A key step in the mode of cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin (DT is the transfer of its catalytic domain (Cd from endosomes into the cytosol. The main activity in this process is performed by the transport domain (Td, but the molecular mechanism of its action remains unknown. We have previously shown that Td can have some influence on the endosomal transport of DT. The aim of this work was to study the effect of diphtheria toxin on the toxin compartmentalization in the intracellular transporting pathway and endosomal pH. We used recombinant fragments of DT, which differed only by the presence of Td in their structure, fused with fluorescent proteins. It was shown that the toxin fragment with Td moved slower by the pathway early-late endosomes-lysosomes, and had a slightly different pattern of colocalization with endosomal markers than DT fragment without Td. In addition, endosomes containing DT fragments with Td had a constant pH of about 6.5 from the 10th to 50th minute of observation, for the same time endosomes containing DT fragments without Td demons­trated a decrease in pH from 6.3 to 5.5. These results indicate that Td inhibits acidification of endosomal medium. One of possible explanations for this may be the effect of the ion channel formed by the T-domain on the process of the endosomal acidification. This property of Td may not only inhibit maturation of endosomes but also inhibit activation of endosomal pH-dependent proteases, and this promotes successful transport of Cd into the cell cytosol.

  12. Predictive model for the Dutch post-consumer plastic packaging recycling system and implications for the circular economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Marieke T; Thoden van Velzen, Eggo U; Augustinus, Antje; Soethoudt, Han; De Meester, Steven; Ragaert, Kim

    2018-01-01

    The Dutch post-consumer plastic packaging recycling network has been described in detail (both on the level of packaging types and of materials) from the household potential to the polymeric composition of the recycled milled goods. The compositional analyses of 173 different samples of post-consumer plastic packaging from different locations in the network were combined to indicatively describe the complete network with material flow analysis, data reconciliation techniques and process technological parameters. The derived potential of post-consumer plastic packages in the Netherlands in 2014 amounted to 341 Gg net (or 20.2 kg net.cap -1 .a -1 ). The complete recycling network produced 75.2 Gg milled goods, 28.1 Gg side products and 16.7 Gg process waste. Hence the net recycling chain yield for post-consumer plastic packages equalled 30%. The end-of-life fates for 35 different plastic packaging types were resolved. Additionally, the polymeric compositions of the milled goods and the recovered masses were derived with this model. These compositions were compared with experimentally determined polymeric compositions of recycled milled goods, which confirmed that the model predicts these compositions reasonably well. Also the modelled recovered masses corresponded reasonably well with those measured experimentally. The model clarified the origin of polymeric contaminants in recycled plastics, either sorting faults or packaging components, which gives directions for future improvement measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Small Molecules for Early Endosome-Specific Patch Clamping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Chang; Butz, Elisabeth S; Chao, Yu-Kai; Grishchuk, Yulia; Becker, Lars; Heller, Stefan; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2017-07-20

    To resolve the subcellular distribution of endolysosomal ion channels, we have established a novel experimental approach to selectively patch clamp Rab5 positive early endosomes (EE) versus Rab7/LAMP1-positive late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY). To functionally characterize ion channels in endolysosomal membranes with the patch-clamp technique, it is important to develop techniques to selectively enlarge the respective organelles. We found here that two small molecules, wortmannin and latrunculin B, enlarge Rab5-positive EE when combined but not Rab7-, LAMP1-, or Rab11 (RE)-positive vesicles. The two compounds act rapidly, specifically, and are readily applicable in contrast to genetic approaches or previously used compounds such as vacuolin, which enlarges EE, RE, and LE/LY. We apply this approach here to measure currents mediated by TRPML channels, in particular TRPML3, which we found to be functionally active in both EE and LE/LY in overexpressing cells as well as in endogenously expressing CD11b+ lung-tissue macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteolytic processing of epidermal growth factor within endosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, R.M.; Savage, C.R. Jr.; Poretz, R.D.; Schaudies, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have reported previously that EGF enters 3 biochemically distinct non-lysosomal intracellular compartments prior to detection within lysosomes. Earlier studies have demonstrated that EGF is processes by sequential removal of 1, 4 and 1 aminoacyl residues at the C-terminus. The final form, which lacks the 6 residues, accumulates in secondary lysosomes. After subcellular fractionation of fibroblasts exposed to 125 I-EGF, ligand is detected with 3 non-lysosomal endocytic compartments and is fully processed prior to entrance into secondary lysosome. Following internalization, EGF enters an early endosomal compartment (E 1 ). The composition of the ligand (60%, -1 form; 40%, native form) represents an enhancement of the -1 form relative to that on the plasma membrane following the 90 min, 0 0 binding period. The proportion of different EGF forms in E 1 remains constant through the 2 min pulse and chase periods up to 30 min. However, in the ultimate endosomal compartment, E 4 , the proportion of the -6 form increases from 25% at 15 min to greater than 75% in 30 min, with a concomitant decrease of the -1 and -5 forms. Secondary lysosomes contain an EGF composition similar to that found in E 4 at 30 min. Accordingly, it appears that EGF is processed to the -6 form following passage through E 1 and during its tenure in E 4

  15. Applicability of a septic tank/engineered wetland coupled system in the treatment and recycling of wastewater from a small community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuligwe, Stephen E

    2005-01-01

    A septic tank (ST)/engineered wetland coupled system used to treat and recycle wastewater from a small community in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania was monitored to assess its performance. The engineered wetland system (EWS) had two parallel units each with two serial beds packed with different sizes of media and vegetated differently. The larger-sized medium bed was upstream and was planted with Phragmites (reeds) and the smaller-sized medium bed was downstream and was planted with Typha (cattails). The ST/EWS coupled system was able to remove ammonia by an average of 60%, nitrate by 71%, sulfate by 55%, chemical oxygen demand by 91%, and fecal coliform as well as total coliform by almost 100%. The effluent from the ST/EWS coupled system is used for irrigation. Notably, users of the recycled irrigation water do not harbor any negative feelings about it. This study demonstrates that it is possible to treat and recycle domestic wastewater using ST/ EWS coupled systems. The study also brings attention to the fact that an ST/EWS coupled system has operation and maintenance (O&M) needs that must be fulfilled for its effectiveness and acceptability. These include removal of unwanted weeds, harvesting of wetland plants when the EWS becomes unappealingly bushy, and routine repair.

  16. Decoupling internalization, acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion during phagocytosis of InlA coated beads in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D Blanchette

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple method to measure and decouple particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA, a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated phagocytosis. We were able to independently measure the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads with antibody quenching, a pH sensitive dye and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate an additional, real-time method for tracking bead binding, internalization and phagosomal acidification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using this method, we found that the time scales for internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion ranged from 23-32 min, 3-4 min and 74-120 min, respectively, for MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Both the static and real-time methods developed here are expected to be readily and broadly applicable, as they simply

  17. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  18. Recycling of packing plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintenreiter-Koegl, S.

    2001-05-01

    The ordinance on the avoidance of packaging waste was a serious intervention in the public and private waste management in Austria. Above all the high expenses for an overall packaging waste collection and the recycling of packaging plastics were criticized. The landfill ordinance comes into force in 2004 and this means another major change in the Austrian waste management system. In the course of this change the overall collection and the recycling and recovery of waste streams, especially of the high caloric plastics waste, have to be discussed again. The goal of this work was on the one hand to develop and adapt the hydrocracking process for the recovery of mixed plastics waste and to show a possible application in Austria. On the other hand the work shows the technical, ecological and economical conditions for packaging plastics recycling and recovery in order to find optimum applications for the processes and to examine their contribution to a sustainable development. A hydrocracking test plant for the processing of mixed plastic wastes was built and had been running for about three years. The tests were carried out successfully and the suitability of the technology for the recovery of packaging plastics could be shown. Results show at least a 35 % yield of fuel. The hydrocracking technology is quite common in the oil industries and therefore an integration on a refinery site is suggested. (author)

  19. Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-03-01

    (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles

  20. ERASMUS: Food Contact Safe Plastics Recycler and 3D Printer System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the goals of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) from 2012 is to 'utilize the ISS for developing the systems and protocols...

  1. ERASMUS: Food Contact Safe Plastics Recycler and 3D Printer System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key goal of the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) from 2012 is to utilize the ISS for developing the systems and protocols necessary to...

  2. Two barcodes encoded by the type-1 PDZ and by phospho-Ser312 regulate retromer/WASH-mediated sorting of the ß1-adrenergic receptor from endosomes to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooh, Mohammed M; Bahouth, Suleiman W

    2017-01-01

    Recycling of the majority of agonist-internalized GPCR is dependent on a type I-PDZ "barcode" in their C-tail. The recycling of wild-type (WT) ß 1 -AR is also dependent on its default "type-1 PDZ barcode", but trafficking of the ß 1 -AR is inhibited when PKA or its substrate serine at position 312 (Ser 312 ) are inactivated. We tested the hypothesis that phospho-Ser 312 provided a second barcode for ß 1 -AR sorting from endosomes to the plasma membrane by determining the role of retromer/WASH complexes in ß 1 -AR trafficking. Recycling of WT ß 1 -AR or WT ß 2 -AR was dependent on targeting the retromer to endosomal membranes via SNX3 and rab7a, and on complexing the retromer to the WASH pentamer via the C-tail of FAM21 (FAM21 C ). These maneuvers however, did not inhibit the recycling of a phospho-Ser 312 ß 1 -AR mimic ((S312D) ß 1 -AR). Knockdown of the trans-acting PDZ protein sorting nexin27 (SNX27) inhibited the recycling of WT ß 1 -AR and WT ß 2 -AR, but had no effect on (S312D) ß 1 -AR∆PDZ or on phosphorylation of WT ß 1 -AR by PKA at Ser 312 . However, depletion of FKBP15, a FAM21 C -binding endosomal protein, selectively inhibited WT ß 1 -AR but not ß 2 -AR recycling, suggesting divergence might exist in GPCR trafficking roadmaps. These results indicate that two barcodes are involved in sorting WT ß 1 -AR out of early endosomes. The first and antecedent "barcode" was the "type-1 PDZ", followed by a second reversible "phospho-Ser 312 " verification "barcode". This organization allows tight regulation of ß 1 -AR density to signaling intensity in conditions associated with aberrant ß 1 -AR signaling such as in hypertension and heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mouse polyomavirus enters early endosomes, requires their acidic pH for productive infection, and meets transferrin cargo in rab11-positive endosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liebl, D.; Difato, F.; Horníková, L.; Mannová, P.; Štokrová, Jitka; Forstová, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 9 (2006), s. 4610-4622 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/03/0593; GA MŠk(CZ) LC545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Polyomavirus internalization and trafficking * Early endosomes * Dependence of infection on endosomal pH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.341, year: 2006

  4. Analysis of occludin trafficking, demonstrating continuous endocytosis, degradation, recycling and biosynthetic secretory trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Fletcher

    Full Text Available Tight junctions (TJs link adjacent cells and are critical for maintenance of apical-basolateral polarity in epithelial monolayers. The TJ protein occludin functions in disparate processes, including wound healing and Hepatitis C Virus infection. Little is known about steady-state occludin trafficking into and out of the plasma membrane. Therefore, we determined the mechanisms responsible for occludin turnover in confluent Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK epithelial monolayers. Using various biotin-based trafficking assays we observed continuous and rapid endocytosis of plasma membrane localised occludin (the majority internalised within 30 minutes. By 120 minutes a significant reduction in internalised occludin was observed. Inhibition of lysosomal function attenuated the reduction in occludin signal post-endocytosis and promoted co-localisation with the late endocytic system. Using a similar method we demonstrated that ∼20% of internalised occludin was transported back to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, significant co-localisation between internalised occludin and recycling endosomal compartments was observed. We then quantified the extent to which occludin synthesis and transport to the plasma membrane contributes to plasma membrane occludin homeostasis, identifying inhibition of protein synthesis led to decreased plasma membrane localised occludin. Significant co-localisation between occludin and the biosynthetic secretory pathway was demonstrated. Thus, under steady-state conditions occludin undergoes turnover via a continuous cycle of endocytosis, recycling and degradation, with degradation compensated for by biosynthetic exocytic trafficking. We developed a mathematical model to describe the endocytosis, recycling and degradation of occludin, utilising experimental data to provide quantitative estimates for the rates of these processes.

  5. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, V; Krishnan, K S; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-05-12

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defective endosomal degradation in mutant alleles of dor results from a failure of Golgi-derived vesicles to fuse with morphologically arrested Rab7-positive large sized endosomes, which are, however, normally acidified and mature with wild-type kinetics. This locates the site of Dor function to fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the large Rab7-positive endocytic compartments. In contrast, endosomal degradation is not considerably affected in car1 mutant; fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles and maturation of large sized endosomes is normal. However, removal of Dor from small sized Car-positive endosomes is slowed, and subsequent fusion with tubular lysosomes is abolished. Overexpression of Dor in car1 mutant aggravates this defect, implicating Car in the removal of Dor from endosomes. This suggests that, in addition to an independent role in fusion with tubular lysosomes, the Sec1p homologue, Car, regulates Dor function.

  6. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  7. An Essential Role of Hrs/Vps27 in Endosomal Cholesterol Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Du

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT plays a crucial role in the degradation of ubiquitinated endosomal membrane proteins. Here, we report that Hrs, a key protein of the ESCRT-0 complex, is required for the transport of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol from endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum. This function of Hrs in cholesterol transport is distinct from its previously defined role in lysosomal sorting and downregulation of membrane receptors via the ESCRT pathway. In line with this, knocking down other ESCRT proteins does not cause prominent endosomal cholesterol accumulation. Importantly, the localization and biochemical properties of key cholesterol-sorting proteins, NPC1 and NPC2, appear to be unchanged upon Hrs knockdown. Our data identify Hrs as a regulator of endosomal cholesterol trafficking and provide additional insights into the budding of intralumenal vesicles.

  8. Retrogradely Transported TrkA Endosomes Signal Locally within Dendrites to Maintain Sympathetic Neuron Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M. Lehigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons require NGF from their target fields for survival, axonal target innervation, dendritic growth and formation, and maintenance of synaptic inputs from preganglionic neurons. Target-derived NGF signals are propagated retrogradely, from distal axons to somata of sympathetic neurons via TrkA signaling endosomes. We report that a subset of TrkA endosomes that are transported from distal axons to cell bodies translocate into dendrites, where they are signaling competent and move bidirectionally, in close proximity to synaptic protein clusters. Using a strategy for spatially confined inhibition of TrkA kinase activity, we found that distal-axon-derived TrkA signaling endosomes are necessary within sympathetic neuron dendrites for maintenance of synapses. Thus, TrkA signaling endosomes have unique functions in different cellular compartments. Moreover, target-derived NGF mediates circuit formation and synapse maintenance through TrkA endosome signaling within dendrites to promote aggregation of postsynaptic protein complexes.

  9. Decoupling Internalization, Acidification and Phagosmal-Endosomal/Iysosomal Phagocytosis of Internalin A coated Beads in epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchette, C D; Woo, Y; Thomas, C; Shen, N; Sulchek, T A; Hiddessen, A L

    2008-12-22

    Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established, and in several cases, it was treated as a one-step process. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells, such as epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple and novel method to decouple and accurately measure particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA), a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated internalization. We achieved independent measurements of the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads) with antibody quenching, pH sensitive dyes and endosomal/lysosomal dyes, as follows: the rate of InlA bead internalization was measured via antibody quenching of a pH independent dye (Alexa488) conjugated to InlA-beads, the rate at which phagosomes containing internalized InlA beads became acidified was measured using a pH dependent dye (FITC) conjugated to the beads and the rate of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was measured using a combination of unlabeled InlA-beads and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we also exploited the phagosomal acidification

  10. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared wi...

  11. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-linked protein SIMPLE functions with the ESCRT machinery in endosomal trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Samuel M.; Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in small integral membrane protein of lysosome/late endosome (SIMPLE) cause autosomal dominant, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 1C. The cellular function of SIMPLE is unknown and the pathogenic mechanism of SIMPLE mutations remains elusive. Here, we report that SIMPLE interacted and colocalized with endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) components STAM1, Hrs, and TSG101 on early endosomes and functioned with the ESCRT machinery in the control of endosome-to...

  12. A plant culture system for producing food and recycling materials with sweetpotato in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Yano, Sachiko; Hirai, Hiroaki

    2016-07-01

    The long term human life support in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food, atmospheric O2 and clean water produced by plants. Therefore, the bio-regenerative life support system such as space farming with scheduling of crop production, obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate, converting atmospheric CO2 to O2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space. We are developing a sweetpotato culture system for producing tuberous roots as a high-calorie food and fresh edible leaves and stems as a nutritive functional vegetable food in space. In this study, we investigated the ability of food production, CO2 to O2 conversion through photosynthesis, and clean water production through transpiration in the sweetpotato production system. The biomass of edible parts in the whole plant was almost 100%. The proportion of the top (leaves and stems) and tuberous roots was strongly affected by environmental variables even when the total biomass production was mostly the same. The production of biomass and clean water was controllable especially by light, atmospheric CO2 and moisture and gas regimes in the root zone. It was confirmed that sweetpotato can be utilized for the vegetable crop as well as the root crop allowing a little waste and is a promising functional crop for supporting long-duration human activity in space.

  13. Optimisation of accelerators and vulcanising systems on thermal stability of natural rubber/recycled ethylene–propylene–diene-monomer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabil, H.; Ismail, H.; Azura, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accelerator types and vulcanising systems were optimised in NR/R-EPDM blends. • Two methods of thermal analysis namely thermal ageing and TGA were employed. • EV and peroxide provided superior thermal stability due to stable –S–S and –C–C– linkages. • Crosslinking of the blends is a major concern on the retained properties of the blends. • A CBS-vulcanised using EV system is highly recommended for NR/R-EPDM blends. - Abstract: The present paper concerns the thermal stability of natural rubber/recycled ethylene–propylene–diene-monomer (NR/R-EPDM) blends. The blends were prepared using various accelerators and vulcanising systems. Four types of accelerators were selected, i.e., N-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazyl-sulphonamide (TBBS), N-cyclohexyl-benzothiazyl-sulphenamide (CBS), tetramethylthiuram disulphide (TMTD) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazol (MBT). Subsequently, semi-efficient vulcanisation (semi-EV), efficient vulcanisation (EV), peroxide and mixed sulphur/peroxide vulcanising systems (semi-EV/Peroxide and EV/Peroxide) were observed in the latter study. Two methods of thermal analysis namely, thermo-oxidative ageing and thermogravimetric analysis were conducted. The results indicated that TMTD and MBT-vulcanised blends showed slightly higher thermal stability than that of CBS and TBBS vulcanised blends however, CBS-vulcanised blends exhibited satisfactory overall mechanical and thermal stability in comparison to the other accelerators used. In the case of optimisation of vulcanising systems, semi-EV showed the highest un-aged tensile strength when compared against semi-EV/Peroxide, EV, EV/Peroxide and peroxide vulcanising systems, respectively. However, EV, EV/Peroxide and peroxide vulcanising systems provided slightly higher thermal stability, due to the blends consisted of more stable monosulphidic and carbon–carbon linkages in the vulcanised network. The activation energies of degradation of the blends were determined by applying

  14. Recycling of epidermal growth factor-receptor complexes in A431 cells: Identification of dual pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkin, A.; Krolenko, S.; Kudrjavtceva, N.; Lazebnik, J.; Teslenko, L.; Soderquist, A.M.; Nikolsky, N.

    1991-01-01

    The intracellular sorting of EGF-receptor complexes (EGF-RC) has been studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Recycling of EGF was found to occur rapidly after internalization at 37 degrees C. The initial rate of EGF recycling was reduced at 18 degrees C. A significant pool of internalized EGF was incapable of recycling at 18 degrees C but began to recycle when cells were warmed to 37 degrees C. The relative rate of EGF outflow at 37 degrees C from cells exposed to an 18 degrees C temperature block was slower (t1/2 approximately 20 min) than the rate from cells not exposed to a temperature block (t1/2 approximately 5-7 min). These data suggest that there might be both short- and long-time cycles of EGF recycling in A431 cells. Examination of the intracellular EGF-RC dissociation and dynamics of short- and long-time recycling indicated that EGF recycled as EGF-RC. Moreover, EGF receptors that were covalently labeled with a photoactivatable derivative of 125 I-EGF recycled via the long-time pathway at a rate similar to that of 125 I-EGF. Since EGF-RC degradation was also blocked at 18 degrees C, we propose that sorting to the lysosomal and long-time recycling pathway may occur after a highly temperature-sensitive step, presumably in the late endosomes

  15. Environmental monitoring of selected pesticides and organic chemicals in urban stormwater recycling systems using passive sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Gonzalez, Dennis; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Gallen, Christie

    2014-03-01

    Water recycling via aquifers has become a valuable tool to augment urban water supplies in many countries. This study reports the first use of passive samplers for monitoring of organic micropollutants in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Five different configurations of passive samplers were deployed in a stormwater treatment wetland, groundwater monitoring wells and a recovery tank to capture a range of polar and non-polar micropollutants present in the system. The passive samplers were analysed for a suite of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals. As a result, 17 pesticides and pesticide degradation products, 5 PAHs and 8 other organic chemicals including flame retardants and fragrances were detected in urban stormwater recharging Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR) system. Of the pesticides detected, diuron, metolachlor and chlorpyrifos were generally detected at the highest concentrations in one or more passive samplers, whereas chlorpyrifos, diuron, metolachlor, simazine, galaxolide and triallate were detected in multiple samplers. Fluorene was the PAH detected at the highest concentration and the flame retardant Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate was the chemical detected in the greatest abundance at all sites. The passive samplers showed different efficiencies for capture of micropollutants with the Empore disc samplers giving the most reliable results. The results indicate generally low levels of organic micropollutants in the stormwater, as the contaminants detected were present at very low ng/L levels, generally two to four orders of magnitude below the drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011). The efficiency of attenuation of these organic micropollutants during MAR was difficult to determine due to variations in the source water concentrations. Comparisons were made between different samplers, to give a field-based calibration where existing lab-based calibrations were

  16. Resource Efficient Metal and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.; van Schaik, Antoinette

    Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Materials, Water, Sludges, Emissions, Land); Economic Feasibility (BAT & Recycling Systems Simulation / Digitalization, Product vis-à-vis Material Centric Recycling); and Social — Licence to Operate (Legislation, consumer, policy, theft, manual labour.). In order to realize this primary production has to be linked systemically with typical actors in the recycling chain such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Recyclers & Collection, Physical separation specialists as well as process metallurgical operations that produce high value metals, compounds and products that recycle back to products. This is best done with deep knowledge of multi-physics, technology, product & system design, process control, market, life cycle management, policy, to name a few. The combination of these will be discussed as Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Recycling (DfR) applications.

  17. Influence of oxygen on NADH recycling and oxidative stress resistance systems in Lactobacillus panis PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Sun; Korber, Darren R; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-01-31

    Lactobacillus panis strain PM1 is an obligatory heterofermentative and aerotolerant microorganism that also produces 1,3-propanediol from glycerol. This study investigated the metabolic responses of L. panis PM1 to oxidative stress under aerobic conditions. Growth under aerobic culture triggered an early entrance of L. panis PM1 into the stationary phase along with marked changes in end-product profiles. A ten-fold higher concentration of hydrogen peroxide was accumulated during aerobic culture compared to microaerobic culture. This H2O2 level was sufficient for the complete inhibition of L. panis PM1 cell growth, along with a significant reduction in end-products typically found during anaerobic growth. In silico analysis revealed that L. panis possessed two genes for NADH oxidase and NADH peroxidase, but their expression levels were not significantly affected by the presence of oxygen. Specific activities for these two enzymes were observed in crude extracts from L. panis PM1. Enzyme assays demonstrated that the majority of the H2O2 in the culture media was the product of NADH: H2O2 oxidase which was constitutively-active under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions; whereas, NADH peroxidase was positively-activated by the presence of oxygen and had a long induction time in contrast to NADH oxidase. These observations indicated that a coupled NADH oxidase - NADH peroxidase system was the main oxidative stress resistance mechanism in L. panis PM1, and was regulated by oxygen availability. Under aerobic conditions, NADH is mainly reoxidized by the NADH oxidase - peroxidase system rather than through the production of ethanol (or 1,3-propanediol or succinic acid production if glycerol or citric acid is available). This system helped L. panis PM1 directly use oxygen in its energy metabolism by producing extra ATP in contrast to homofermentative lactobacilli.

  18. Development of a pneumatic transfer system for HTGR recycle fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, J.E.; Johnson, D.R.

    1978-02-01

    In support of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) Fuel Refabrication Development Program, an experimental pneumatic transfer system was constructed to determine the feasibility of pneumatically conveying pyrocarbon-coated fuel particles of Triso and Biso designs. Tests were conducted with these particles in each of their nonpyrophoric forms to determine pressure drops, particle velocities, and gas flow requirements during pneumatic transfer as well as to evaluate particle wear and breakage. Results indicated that the material can be pneumatically conveyed at low pressures without excessive damage to the particles or their coatings

  19. Stress Corrosion Evaluation of Various Metallic Materials for the International Space Station Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P. D.

    2015-01-01

    A stress corrosion evaluation was performed on Inconel 625, Hastelloy C276, titanium commercially pure (TiCP), Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-4V extra low interstitial, and Cronidur 30 steel as a consequence of a change in formulation of the pretreatment for processing the urine in the International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Urine Processing Assembly from a sulfuric acid-based to a phosphoric acid-based solution. The first five listed were found resistant to stress corrosion in the pretreatment and brine. However, some of the Cronidur 30 specimens experienced reduction in load-carrying ability.

  20. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off......%. Furthermore, it is founded that for the case with methanol, ethanol and DME then at high utilization factors, low anode recirculation is recommended while at low utilization factors, high anode recirculation is recommended. If the plant is fed by biogas from biomass gasification then for each utilization...

  1. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuible, Matthew; Abella, Jasmine V; Feldhammer, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dephosphorylation and endocytic down-regulation are distinct processes that together control the signaling output of a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). PTP1B can directly dephosphorylate several RTKs, but it can also promote activation of downstream pathways through largely unknown...... mechanisms. These positive signaling functions likely contribute to the tumor-promoting effect of PTP1B in mouse cancer models. Here, we have identified STAM2, an endosomal protein involved in sorting activated RTKs for lysosomal degradation, as a substrate of PTP1B. PTP1B interacts with STAM2 at defined...... phosphotyrosine sites, and knockdown of PTP1B expression augments STAM2 phosphorylation. Intriguingly, manipulating the expression and phosphorylation state of STAM2 did not have a general effect on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EGF receptor trafficking, degradation, or signaling. Instead, phosphorylated...

  2. Reuse of the Reflective Light and the Recycle Heat Energy in Concentrated Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chien Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A complex solar unit with microcrystalline silicon solar cells placed around the centered GaAs triple junction solar cell has been proposed and carried out. With the same illumination area and intensity, the total resultant power shows that the excess microcrystalline silicon solar cells increase the total output power by 13.2% by absorbing the reflective light from the surface of optical collimators. Furthermore, reusing the residual heat energy generated from the above-mentioned mechanism helps to increase the output power by around 14.1%. This mechanism provides a simple method to enhance the utility rate of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV system. Such concept can be further applied to the aerospace industry and the development of more efficient CPV solar energy applications.

  3. Assessment of the Anticipated Environmental Footprint of Future Nuclear Energy Systems. Evidence of the Beneficial Effect of Extensive Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Serp

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this early 21st century, our societies have to face a tremendous and increasing energy need while mitigating the global climate change and preserving the environment. Addressing this challenge requires an energy transition from the current fossil energy-based system to a carbon-free energy production system, based on a relevant energy mix combining renewables and nuclear energy. However, such an energy transition will only occur if it is accepted by the population. Powerful and reliable tools, such as life cycle assessments (LCA, aiming at assessing the respective merits of the different energy mix for most of the environmental impact indicators are therefore mandatory for supporting a risk-informed decision-process at the societal level. Before studying the deployment of a given energy mix, a prerequisite is to perform LCAs on each of the components of the mix. This paper addresses two potential nuclear energy components: a nuclear fuel cycle based on the Generation III European Pressurized Reactors (EPR and a nuclear fuel cycle based on the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR. The basis of this study relies on the previous work done on the current French nuclear fuel cycle using the bespoke NELCAS tool specifically developed for studying nuclear fuel cycle environmental impacts. Our study highlights that the EPR already brings a limited improvement to the current fuel cycle thanks to a higher efficiency of the energy transformation and a higher burn-up of the nuclear fuel (−20% on most of the chosen indicators whereas the introduction of the GEN IV fast reactors will bring a significant breakthrough by suppressing the current front-end of the fuel cycle thanks to the use of depleted uranium instead of natural enriched uranium (this leads to a decrease of the impact from 17% on water consumption and withdrawal and up to 96% on SOx emissions. The specific case of the radioactive waste is also studied, showing that only the partitioning

  4. Concept and optimization of burning and transmutation reactor in nuclear fuel recycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsodi; Mulyanto; Kitamoto, Asashi.

    1994-01-01

    Basic concept of B/T reactor, not only produces thermal energy but also performs burning and/or transmutation of MA and long-lived FPs, was introduced here based on numerical computation model. The advantage of nuclear reaction by thermal or fast neutron was combined conceptually with each other in order to maximize the overall B/T rate obtained by a composite system of fast and thermal reactor. According to the mass balance analysis of B/T reactors with P-T treatment, fast reactor hardened neutron energy may be effective for MA burning. Furthermore, a high flux reactor operated by fast or thermal neutron could be different from a reactor with high B/T rate or high capacity for loading of MA and/or long-lived FPs. The purpose of this study is to make clear the concept and the performance of fast and thermal B/T reactor designed under high neutron utilization for HLW disposal. (author)

  5. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  6. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  7. Poly(Ionic Liquid: A New Phase in a Thermoregulated Phase Separated Catalysis and Catalyst Recycling System of Transition Metal-Mediated ATRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ionic liquids (PILs have become the frontier domains in separation science because of the special properties of ionic liquids as well as their corresponding polymers. Considering their function in separation, we designed and synthesized a thermoregulated PIL. That is, this kind of PIL could separate with an organic phase which dissolves the monomers at ambient temperature. When heated to the reaction temperature, they become a homogeneous phase, and they separate again when the temperature falls to the ambient temperature after polymerization. Based on this, a thermoregulated phase separated catalysis (TPSC system for Cu-based atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was constructed. The copper catalyst (CuBr2 used here is easily separated and recycled in situ just by changing the temperature in this system. Moreover, even when the catalyst had been recycled five times, the controllability over resultant polymers is still satisfying. Finally, only 1~2 ppm metal catalyst was left in the polymer solution phase, which indicates the really high recycling efficiency.

  8. Análise do desempenho de sistema de controle de processos com reciclo = Performance analysis of the control system of recycle processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mário de Matos Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade de economia de energia, as leis ambientais e a qualidade dos produtos tem exigido processos mais integrados. Uma forma de integração de processos é via reciclo de massa. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se a investigação da influência do reciclo demassa, no desempenho de diferentes estruturas de sistemas de controle e a sua relação com indicadores de controlabilidade e resiliência. Conclui-se que o reciclo e a estrutura influenciam no desempenho do sistema de controle e que esta influência pode ser previstapor indicadores de controlabilidade e resiliência.The need for greater energy savings, stringent environmental laws and product quality have all demanded better process integration. One path for process integration is through the mass recycle process. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of mass recycle in the performance of different control system structures, and its relation with controllability and resiliency indicators. We conclude that both recycle and structure influence in theperformance of the control system, and this influence can be foreseen by controllability and resiliency indicators.

  9. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and recycle water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensing and controls for power-recycling of TAMA300

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, K

    2002-01-01

    Power recycling will soon be implemented on TAMA300. This paper gives motivation for the TAMA recycling experiment, discusses the planned length sensing/control system and considerations for the lock acquisition process.

  11. Design of an integrated system to recycle Zircaloy cladding using a hydride–milling–dehydride process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Randy, E-mail: rkelley@pitt.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, 236 Engineering and Science Building, University of Pittsburgh – Johnstown, Johnstown, PA 15904 (United States); McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A and M University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, 327 Zachry Engineering Center, 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Dehydriding zirconium hydride was studied at relatively low temperatures (<800 °C). • High vacuum pressures decrease dehydriding temperatures. • Specialized equipment was designed, built and demonstrated to process zirconium. • The process hydrided–milled–dehydrided zirconium metal to a fine metal powder. • Two powder samples were analyzed and proved the operation of the machine. -- Abstract: A hydride–dehydride process was evaluated to recover a portion of spent nuclear fuel cladding; a zirconium alloy (Zircaloy), as a metal powder that may be used for advanced nuclear fuel applications. The investigation was part of a broader study that sought to determine the viability of recovering components of used nuclear fuel to for a metal matrix cermet for transuranic burning. The zirconium powder process begins with the conversion of Zircaloy cladding hulls into a brittle zirconium hydride, which is easily pulverized into a powder. The dehydriding process removes hydrogen by heating the powder in a vacuum, resulting in a zirconium metal powder. In support of this, a specialized piece of equipment was designed to demonstrate the entire zirconium conversion process to transform Zircaloy tubes into metal powder without intermediate handling. This was accomplished by building a milling system that rotates inside of controlled atmosphere chamber with an internal heater. The hydriding process was accomplished using an argon–5% hydrogen atmosphere at 500 °C. The process variables for the dehydriding process were determined using a thermogavimetric analysis (TGA) method. It was determined that a rough vacuum (∼0.001 bar) and 800 °C were sufficient to decompose the zirconium hydride. Zirconium metal powder was created using different milling times: 45 min (coarse powder) and 12 h (fine powder). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the process produced a zirconium metal. Additionally, visual observations of the samples silvery

  12. Operational Performance Characterization of a Heat Pump System Utilizing Recycled Water as Heat Sink and Heat Source in a Cool and Dry Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piljae Im

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater leaving from homes and businesses contains abundant low-grade energy, which can be utilized through heat pump technology to heat and cool buildings. Although the energy in the wastewater has been successfully utilized to condition buildings in other countries, it is barely utilized in the United States, until recently. In 2013, the Denver Museum of Nature & Science at Denver, the United States implemented a unique heat pump system that utilizes recycled wastewater from a municipal water system to cool and heat its 13,000 m2 new addition. This recycled water heat pump (RWHP system uses seven 105 kW (cooling capacity modular water-to-water heat pumps (WWHPs. Each WWHP uses R-410A refrigerant, has two compressors, and can independently provide either 52 °C hot water (HW or 7 °C chilled water (CHW to the building. This paper presents performance characterization results of this RWHP system based on the measured data from December 2014 through August 2015. The annual energy consumption of the RWHP system was also calculated and compared with that of a baseline Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC system which meets the minimum energy efficiencies that are allowed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE 90.1-2013. The performance analysis results indicate that recycled water temperatures were favorable for effective operation of heat pumps. As a result, on an annual basis, the RWHP system avoided 50% of source energy consumption (resulting from reduction in natural gas consumption although electricity consumption was increased slightly, reduced CO2 emissions by 41%, and saved 34% in energy costs as compared with the baseline system.

  13. Stochastic acidification, activation of hemagglutinin and escape of influenza viruses from an endosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagache, Thibault; Sieben, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Herrmann, Andreas; Holcman, David

    2017-06-01

    Influenza viruses enter the cell inside an endosome. During the endosomal journey, acidification triggers a conformational change of the virus spike protein hemagglutinin (HA) that results in escape of the viral genome from the endosome into the cytoplasm. It is still unclear how the interplay between acidification and HA conformation changes affects the kinetics of the viral endosomal escape. We develop here a stochastic model to estimate the change of conformation of HAs inside the endosome nanodomain. Using a Markov process, we model the arrival of protons to HA binding sites and compute the kinetics of their accumulation. We compute the Mean First Passage Time (MFPT) of the number of HA bound sites to a threshold, which is used to estimate the HA activation rate for a given pH concentration. The present analysis reveals that HA proton binding sites possess a high chemical barrier, ensuring a stability of the spike protein at sub-acidic pH. We predict that activating more than 3 adjacent HAs is necessary to trigger endosomal fusion and this configuration prevents premature release of viruses from early endosomes

  14. ER network homeostasis is critical for plant endosome streaming and endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Lai, YaShiuan; Slabaugh, Erin; Mannino, Nicole; Buono, Rafael A; Otegui, Marisa S; Brandizzi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells internalize cargo at the plasma membrane via endocytosis, a vital process that is accomplished through a complex network of endosomal organelles. In mammalian cells, the ER is in close association with endosomes and regulates their fission. Nonetheless, the physiological role of such interaction on endocytosis is yet unexplored. Here, we probed the existence of ER–endosome association in plant cells and assayed its physiological role in endocytosis. Through live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies, we established that endosomes are extensively associated with the plant ER, supporting conservation of interaction between heterotypic organelles in evolutionarily distant kingdoms. Furthermore, by analyzing ER–endosome dynamics in genetic backgrounds with defects in ER structure and movement, we also established that the ER network integrity is necessary for homeostasis of the distribution and streaming of various endosome populations as well as for efficient endocytosis. These results support a novel model that endocytosis homeostasis depends on a spatiotemporal control of the endosome dynamics dictated by the ER membrane network. PMID:27462431

  15. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  16. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  17. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  18. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  19. A flow injection analysis system for monitoring silver (I) ion and iodine residuals in recycled water from recovery systems used for spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, Jill P.; Emmert, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A device for on-line monitoring of the water disinfectants silver (I) ion or iodine in recycled water is presented. Simply change the reagents and the sample loop volume to switch between silver ion and iodine configurations. -- Highlights: •Automated FIA device for monitoring Ag + or I 2 residuals in recycled drinking water. •Method detection limits of Ag + of 52 μg L −1 and I 2 of 2 μg L −1 . •Mean % recoveries for Ag + of 104 ± 1% and for I 2 of 96.2 ± 0.1%. •% relative standard deviation estimates for Ag + of 1.4% and for I 2 of 5.7%. •Bias measurements agreed to 11.3 μg L −1 for Ag + and to 27.3 μg L −1 for I 2 . -- Abstract: A laboratory-built flow injection analyzer is reported for monitoring the drinking water disinfectants silver (I) ion and iodine in water produced from NASA's water recovery system. This analyzer uses spectrophotometric detection with a custom made 10 cm optical flow cell. Optimization and interference studies are discussed for the silver (I) ion configuration. Subsequent results using the silver (I) configuration with minor modifications and alternative reagents gave promising results for iodine determinations as well. The estimated MDL values for Ag + and I 2 are 52 μg L −1 Ag + and 2 μg L −1 I 2 ; the mean percent recoveries were 104% and 96.2% for Ag + and I 2 respectfully; and percent relative standard deviations were estimated at 1.4% for Ag + and 5.7% for I 2 . The agreement of this potentially multifunctional analyzer to reference methods for each respective water disinfectant is measured using Bland–Altman analysis as well as more traditional estimates

  20. Recycling technologies for sewarage systems. Reuse of water, heat, and sludge in Tokyo; Gesuido wo meguru risaikuru gijutsu. Tokyoto ni okeru mizu/netsu/odei no sairiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mino, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-03-10

    The recycling technology employed in Tokyo were reported. It will be useful for developing and introducing the recycling technology for water, heat, and sludge in the sewage treatment. Among various kinds of recycling technology, one of the most peculiar technology is the district heating and cooling system using the heat of sewage. The Japan`s first practical plant which uses the untreated sewage as the heat source was installed and is now operating in Korakuen pump station. In the station, the energy contained in the sewage is recovered by a heat exchanger. The heat pump produces warm water of 45{degree}C and cold water of 7{degree}C as well. Both are supplied to the area near by through the heat source supply pipeline. The Nanbu sludge plant has a sludge-resourcing plant, in which the sludge is converted into fuel, metro-bricks, and light-weight granules, as well as a conventional sludge treatment plant carrying out the concentration, dehydration, and incineration of sludge. The Ochiai sewage treatment plant reuses water after cleaning. The clean water is used as for the service water in addition to being discharged into the river stream. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. HIV-1 Nef binds with human GCC185 protein and regulates mannose 6 phosphate receptor recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kaur, Supinder; Nazir, Aamir; Tripathi, Raj Kamal, E-mail: rajkamalcdri@gmail.com

    2016-05-20

    HIV-1 Nef modulates cellular function that enhances viral replication in vivo which culminate into AIDS pathogenesis. With no enzymatic activity, Nef regulates cellular function through host protein interaction. Interestingly, trans-cellular introduction of recombinant Nef protein in Caenorhabditis elegans results in AIDS like pathogenesis which might share common pathophysiology because the gene sequence of C. elegans and humans share considerable homology. Therefore employing C. elegans based initial screen complemented with sequence based homology search we identified GCC185 as novel host protein interacting with HIV-1 Nef. The detailed molecular characterization revealed N-terminal EEEE{sub 65} acidic domain of Nef as key region for interaction. GCC185 is a tethering protein that binds with Rab9 transport vesicles. Our results show that Nef-GCC185 interaction disrupts Rab9 interaction resulting in delocalization of CI-MPR (cation independent Mannose 6 phosphate receptor) resulting in elevated secretion of hexosaminidase. In agreement with this, our studies identified novel host GCC185 protein that interacts with Nef EEEE65 acidic domain interfering GCC185-Rab9 vesicle membrane fusion responsible for retrograde vesicular transport of CI-MPR from late endosomes to TGN. In light of existing report suggesting critical role of Nef-GCC185 interaction reveals valuable mechanistic insights affecting specific protein transport pathway in docking of late endosome derived Rab9 bearing transport vesicle at TGN elucidating role of Nef during viral pathogenesis. -- Highlights: •Nef, an accessory protein of HIV-1 interacts with host factor and culminates into AIDS pathogenesis. •Using Caenorhabditis elegans based screen system, novel Nef interacting cellular protein GCC185 was identified. •Molecular characterization of Nef and human protein GCC185 revealed Nef EEEE{sub 65} key region interacted with full length GCC185. •Nef impeded the GCC185-Rab 9 interaction and

  2. Recycling of plastic packaging material from separate collection from the dual system Germany. Current LCA results compared to disposal in thermal waste incineration plants; Werkstoffliche Verwertung von Verpackungskunststoffen aus der Getrenntsammlung Dualer Systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyde, Michael; Gerke, Gilian; Muehle, Sarah [Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft und Rohstoffe (DKR) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Due to the implementation of the European waste framework directive into German law it is discussed which contribution waste incineration makes to resource protection and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A number of players question if it is still contemporary to adhere to recycling as a priority. The following article compares today's recycling of separately collection of plastics waste from the German packaging recovery system and the disposal in thermal waste treatment plants under ecological aspects. The separate collected of packaging waste materials is a prerequisite of high quality recycling. If this were to be abandoned and - hypothetically - this waste stream would be disposed in thermal waste treatment plants in Germany, significant drawbacks in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy demand would arise. This is shown in a study conducted by the Institute fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung (ifeu) in Heidelberg. Further it could be proved that there is still optimization potential in the recycling market that has been developed over the last two decades in Germany. However, to max this potential significantly depends on stable political framework requirements. The following article underlines that recycling and high quality energy recovery cause remarkable savings of CO{sub 2}-emissions and energy. (orig.)

  3. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  4. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  5. The Field Shower Wastewater Recycling System: Development of a Program of Instruction and Preliminary Analysis of Its Potential Health Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    U.S. Army forces in the European, Korean, and Viet Nam Theaters. Recycling shower water in areas such as those described above is not necessary and...project. Signature Figure 3. Bather affidavit. 0. Contaminants Army field conditions do not restrict the types of cosmetic and health care products a...other toiletries used in the showering process * Topically applied cosmetic and health care products, such as antiperspirants, aftershave lotions

  6. Erythroid cell mitochondria receive endosomal iron by a "kiss-and-run" mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Amel; Roshan, Tariq M; Kahawita, Tanya M; Mason, Anne B; Sheftel, Alex D; Ponka, Prem

    2016-12-01

    In erythroid cells, more than 90% of transferrin-derived iron enters mitochondria where ferrochelatase inserts Fe 2+ into protoporphyrin IX. However, the path of iron from endosomes to mitochondrial ferrochelatase remains elusive. The prevailing opinion is that, after its export from endosomes, the redox-active metal spreads into the cytosol and mysteriously finds its way into mitochondria through passive diffusion. In contrast, this study supports the hypothesis that the highly efficient transport of iron toward ferrochelatase in erythroid cells requires a direct interaction between transferrin-endosomes and mitochondria (the "kiss-and-run" hypothesis). Using a novel method (flow sub-cytometry), we analyze lysates of reticulocytes after labeling these organelles with different fluorophores. We have identified a double-labeled population definitively representing endosomes interacting with mitochondria, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. Moreover, we conclude that this endosome-mitochondrion association is reversible, since a "chase" with unlabeled holotransferrin causes a time-dependent decrease in the size of the double-labeled population. Importantly, the dissociation of endosomes from mitochondria does not occur in the absence of holotransferrin. Additionally, mutated recombinant holotransferrin, that cannot release iron, significantly decreases the uptake of 59 Fe by reticulocytes and diminishes 59 Fe incorporation into heme. This suggests that endosomes, which are unable to provide iron to mitochondria, cause a "traffic jam" leading to decreased endocytosis of holotransferrin. Altogether, our results suggest that a molecular mechanism exists to coordinate the iron status of endosomal transferrin with its trafficking. Besides its contribution to the field of iron metabolism, this study provides evidence for a new intracellular trafficking pathway of organelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. deep-orange and carnation define distinct stages in late endosomal biogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, V.; Krishnan, K.S.; Mayor, Satyajit

    2003-01-01

    Endosomal degradation is severely impaired in primary hemocytes from larvae of eye color mutants of Drosophila. Using high resolution imaging and immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells, products of eye color genes, deep-orange (dor) and carnation (car), are localized to large multivesicular Rab7-positive late endosomes containing Golgi-derived enzymes. These structures mature into small sized Dor-negative, Car-positive structures, which subsequently fuse to form tubular lysosomes. Defec...

  8. Odin (ANKS1A modulates EGF receptor recycling and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefei Tong

    Full Text Available The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable.

  9. Antigen processing and remodeling of the endosomal pathway: requirements for antigen cross-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compeer, Ewoud Bernardus; Flinsenberg, Thijs Willem Hendrik; van der Grein, Susanna Geertje; Boes, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen as peptide/class I major histocompatibility complex complexes plays a central role in the elicitation of CD8(+) T cell clones that mediate anti-viral and anti-tumor immune responses. While it has been clear that there are specific subsets of professional antigen presenting cells capable of antigen cross-presentation, identification of mechanisms involved is still ongoing. Especially amongst dendritic cells (DC), there are specialized subsets that are highly proficient at antigen cross-presentation. We here present a focused survey on the cell biological processes in the endosomal pathway that support antigen cross-presentation. This review highlights DC-intrinsic mechanisms that facilitate the cross-presentation of endocytosed antigen, including receptor-mediated uptake, maturation-induced endosomal sorting of membrane proteins, dynamic remodeling of endosomal structures and cell surface-directed endosomal trafficking. We will conclude with the description of pathogen-induced deviation of endosomal processing, and discuss how immune evasion strategies pertaining endosomal trafficking may preclude antigen cross-presentation.

  10. Overexpression of Rab22a hampers the transport between endosomes and the Golgi apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesa, Rosana; Magadan, Javier; Barbieri, Alejandro; Lopez, Cecilia; Stahl, Philip D.; Mayorga, Luis S.

    2005-01-01

    The transport and sorting of soluble and membrane-associated macromolecules arriving at endosomal compartments require a complex set of Rab proteins. Rab22a has been localized to the endocytic compartment; however, very little is known about the function of Rab22a and inconsistent results have been reported in studies performed in different cell lines. To characterize the function of Rab22a in endocytic transport, the wild-type protein (Rab22a WT), a hydrolysis-deficient mutant (Rab22a Q64L), and a mutant with reduced affinity for GTP (Rab22a S19N) were expressed in CHO cells. None of the three Rab22a constructs affected the transport of rhodamine-dextran to lysosomes, the digestion of internalized proteins, or the lysosomal localization of cathepsin D. In contrast with the mild effect of Rab22a on the endosome-lysosome route, cells expressing Rab22a WT and Rab22a Q64L presented a strong delay in the retrograde transport of cholera toxin from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. Moreover, these cells accumulated the cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor in endosomes. These observations indicate that Rab22a can affect the trafficking from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus probably by promoting fusion among endosomes and impairing the proper segregation of membrane domains required for targeting to the trans-Golgi network (TGN)

  11. Efficiency gain of solid oxide fuel cell systems by using anode offgas recycle - Results for a small scale propane driven unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Oelze, Jana; Lindermeir, Andreas; Spitta, Christian; Steffen, Michael; Küster, Torben; Chen, Shaofei; Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard

    The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation.

  12. A Highly Efficient Method for Synthesis of Bisarylmethylidenes of Cyclic Ketones in [BMIm]Cl/NaOH System as New and Recyclable Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Javanshir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazoliumchloride[BMIm]Cl/sodium hydroxide system, was employed as a catalyst for the fast and one-pot crossed aldol-condensation of various aromatic aldehydes and cyclic ketones, to produce a variety of substituted α,α'-bis(benzylidene-cycloalkanones under neat conditions. This process is simple, efficient and environmentally benign and proceeds in high yield and short reaction times. The ionic liquid can be recycled for subsequent reactions without any appreciable loss of efficiency.

  13. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  14. The ESCRT regulator Did2 maintains the balance between long-distance endosomal transport and endocytic trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Haag

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In highly polarised cells, like fungal hyphae, early endosomes function in both endocytosis as well as long-distance transport of various cargo including mRNA and protein complexes. However, knowledge on the crosstalk between these seemingly different trafficking processes is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates endosomal transport in fungal hyphae of Ustilago maydis. Loss of Did2 results in defective vacuolar targeting, less processive long-distance transport and abnormal shuttling of early endosomes. Importantly, the late endosomal protein Rab7 and vacuolar protease Prc1 exhibit increased shuttling on these aberrant endosomes suggesting defects in endosomal maturation and identity. Consistently, molecular motors fail to attach efficiently explaining the disturbed processive movement. Furthermore, the endosomal mRNP linker protein Upa1 is hardly present on endosomes resulting in defects in long-distance mRNA transport. In conclusion, the ESCRT regulator Did2 coordinates precise maturation of endosomes and thus provides the correct membrane identity for efficient endosomal long-distance transport.

  15. Aggregation of endosomal-vacuolar compartments in the Aovps24-deleted strain in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Akinori; Shoji, Jun-ya; Kikuma, Takashi; Arioka, Manabu; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we found that deletion of Aovps24, an ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS24, that encodes an ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport)-III component required for late endosomal function results in fragmented and aggregated vacuoles. Although defective late endosomal function is likely responsible for this phenotype, critical lack of our knowledge on late endosomes in filamentous fungi prevented us from further characterization. In this study, we identified late endosomes of Aspergillus oryzae, by expressing a series of fusion proteins of fluorescent proteins with orthologs of late endosomal proteins. Using these fusion proteins as markers, we observed late endosomes in the wild type strain and the Aovps24 disruptant and demonstrated that late endosomes are aberrantly aggregated in the Aovps24 disruptant. Moreover, we revealed that the aggregated late endosomes have features of vacuoles as well. As deletion of another ESCRT-III component-encoding gene, Aovps2, resulted in similar phenotypes to that in the Aovps24 disruptant, phenotypes of the Aovps24 disruptant are probably due to defective late endosomal function

  16. MOX recycling-an industrial reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, G.D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reprocessing and plutonium recycling have now attained industrial maturity in France and Europe. Specifically, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is fabricated and used in light water reactors (LWRs) in satisfactory operating conditions. The utilities and the fuel cycle industry experience no technical difficulties, and European recycling programs are growing steadily, from 18 reactors in operation today up to 50 expected around the year 2000, putting the system reprocessing-recycling in coherence: 25 t of plutonium will then be used each year to produce the electricity equivalence of 25 millions tons of oil. Plutonium recycling in MOX fuel in current LWRs proves to be technically safe and economically competitive and meets natural resource savings and environmental protection objectives. And recycling responds properly to the nonproliferation concerns. Such an industrial experience gives a unique reference for weapons plutonium disposition through MOX use in reactors

  17. Genetic reconstitution of the human Adenovirus type 2 temperature-sensitive 1 mutant defective in endosomal escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastaldelli Michele

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Adenoviruses infect the upper and lower respiratory tracts, the urinary and digestive tracts, lymphoid systems and heart, and give rise to epidemic conjunctivitis. More than 51 human serotypes have been identified to-date, and classified into 6 species A-F. The species C Adenoviruses Ad2 and Ad5 (Ad2/5 cause upper and lower respiratory disease, but how viral structure relates to the selection of particular infectious uptake pathways is not known. An adenovirus mutant, Ad2-ts1 had been isolated upon chemical mutagenesis in the past, and shown to have unprocessed capsid proteins. Ad2-ts1 fails to package the viral protease L3/p23, and Ad2-ts1 virions do not efficiently escape from endosomes. It had been suggested that the C22187T point mutation leading to the substitution of the conserved proline 137 to leucine (P137L in the L3/p23 protease was at least in part responsible for this phenotype. To clarify if the C22187T mutation is necessary and sufficient for the Ad2-ts1 phenotype, we sequenced the genes encoding the structural proteins of Ad2-ts1, and confirmed that the Ad2-ts1 DNA carries the point mutation C22187T. Introduction of C22187T to the wild-type Ad2 genome in a bacterial artificial chromosome (Ad2-BAC gave Ad2-BAC46 virions with the full Ad2-ts1 phenotype. Reversion of Ad2-BAC46 gave wild-type Ad2 particles indicating that P137L is necessary and sufficient for the Ad2-ts1 phenotype. The kinetics of Ad2-ts1 uptake into cells were comparable to Ad2 suggesting similar endocytic uptake mechanisms. Surprisingly, infectious Ad2 or Ad5 but not Ad2-ts1 uptake required CALM (clathrin assembly lymphoid myeloid protein, which controls clathrin-mediated endocytosis and membrane transport between endosomes and the trans-Golgi-network. The data show that no other mutations than P137L in the viral protease are necessary to give rise to particles that are defective in capsid processing and endosomal escape. This provides a basis for

  18. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  19. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  20. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  1. Self-excising Cre/mutant lox marker recycling system for multiple gene integrations and consecutive gene deletions in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Silai; Ban, Akihiko; Ebara, Naoki; Mizutani, Osamu; Tanaka, Mizuki; Shintani, Takahiro; Gomi, Katsuya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a self-excising Cre/loxP-mediated marker recycling system with mutated lox sequences to introduce a number of biosynthetic genes into Aspergillus oryzae. To construct the self-excising marker cassette, both the selectable marker, the Aspergillus nidulans adeA gene, and the Cre recombinase gene (cre), conditionally expressed by the xylanase-encoding gene promoter, were designed to be located between the mutant lox sequences, lox66 and lox71. However, construction of the plasmid failed, possibly owing to a slight expression of cre downstream of the fungal gene promoter in Escherichia coli. Hence, to avoid the excision of the cassette in E. coli, a 71-bp intron of the A. oryzae xynG2 gene was inserted into the cre gene. The A. oryzae adeA deletion mutant was transformed with the resulting plasmid in the presence of glucose, and the transformants were cultured in medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source. PCR analysis of genomic DNA from resultant colonies revealed the excision of both the marker and Cre expression construct, indicating that the self-excising marker cassette was efficient at removing the selectable marker. Using the marker recycling system, hyperproduction of kojic acid could be achieved in A. oryzae by the introduction of two genes that encode oxidoreductase and transporter. Furthermore, we also constructed an alternative marker recycling cassette bearing the A. nidulans pyrithiamine resistant gene (ptrA) as a dominant selectable marker. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  3. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  4. A flow injection analysis system for monitoring silver (I) ion and iodine residuals in recycled water from recovery systems used for spaceflight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Jill P.; Emmert, Gary L., E-mail: gemmert@memphis.edu

    2013-08-20

    Graphical abstract: A device for on-line monitoring of the water disinfectants silver (I) ion or iodine in recycled water is presented. Simply change the reagents and the sample loop volume to switch between silver ion and iodine configurations. -- Highlights: •Automated FIA device for monitoring Ag{sup +} or I{sub 2} residuals in recycled drinking water. •Method detection limits of Ag{sup +} of 52 μg L{sup −1} and I{sub 2} of 2 μg L{sup −1}. •Mean % recoveries for Ag{sup +} of 104 ± 1% and for I{sub 2} of 96.2 ± 0.1%. •% relative standard deviation estimates for Ag{sup +} of 1.4% and for I{sub 2} of 5.7%. •Bias measurements agreed to 11.3 μg L{sup −1} for Ag{sup +} and to 27.3 μg L{sup −1} for I{sub 2}. -- Abstract: A laboratory-built flow injection analyzer is reported for monitoring the drinking water disinfectants silver (I) ion and iodine in water produced from NASA's water recovery system. This analyzer uses spectrophotometric detection with a custom made 10 cm optical flow cell. Optimization and interference studies are discussed for the silver (I) ion configuration. Subsequent results using the silver (I) configuration with minor modifications and alternative reagents gave promising results for iodine determinations as well. The estimated MDL values for Ag{sup +} and I{sub 2} are 52 μg L{sup −1} Ag{sup +} and 2 μg L{sup −1} I{sub 2}; the mean percent recoveries were 104% and 96.2% for Ag{sup +} and I{sub 2} respectfully; and percent relative standard deviations were estimated at 1.4% for Ag{sup +} and 5.7% for I{sub 2}. The agreement of this potentially multifunctional analyzer to reference methods for each respective water disinfectant is measured using Bland–Altman analysis as well as more traditional estimates.

  5. A recyclable ionic liquid-oxomolybdenum(vi) catalytic system for the oxidative desulfurization of model and real diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julião, Diana; Gomes, Ana C; Pillinger, Martyn; Valença, Rita; Ribeiro, Jorge C; Gonçalves, Isabel S; Balula, Salete S

    2016-10-14

    The oxidative desulfurization of model and real diesel has been studied using the complex [MoO2Cl2(4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine)] as (pre)catalyst, aq. H2O2 as oxidant, and an ionic liquid as extraction solvent. Under moderate conditions (50 °C) and short reaction times (desulfurization and ECODS steps, 76% sulfur removal was achieved for a real diesel (Sinitial = 2300 ppm). For both the model and real diesels, the catalyst/IL phase could be easily recycled and reused with no loss of desulfurization efficiency.

  6. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (at sign 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate

  7. Recycling behaviour in healthcare: waste handling at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Joachim; Nunes, Katia R A

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the motivational factors for environmental behaviour in general, presenting a case study on recycling disposable plastics in hospitals. Results show that 90% of over 600 employees from six analysed hospitals in Germany reported that the recycling of disposable plastics on the wards makes sense from an environmental and economic point of view. The case study reports an assessment of recycling attitudes and problems of hospital staff, mainly nurses. Employees in eco-certified hospitals were much more satisfied and reported fewer problems with the recycling system. The gender effect was significant only for saving energy, while age correlated with nearly all reported pro-environmental behaviour at home. At work, the mere introduction of a recycling system was insufficient to achieve good recycling results. Based on the study findings, recommendations are given aimed at improving the safety and sustainability of the recycling system.

  8. Smart DNA vectors based on cyclodextrin polymers: compaction and endosomal release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintgens, Véronique; Leborgne, Christian; Baconnais, Sonia; Burckbuchler, Virginie; Le Cam, Eric; Scherman, Daniel; Kichler, Antoine; Amiel, Catherine

    2012-02-01

    Neutral β-cyclodextrin polymers (polyβCD) associated with cationic adamantyl derivatives (Ada) can be used to deliver plasmid DNA into cells. In absence of an endosomolytic agent, transfection efficiency remains low because most complexes are trapped in the endosomal compartment. We asked whether addition of an imidazole-modified Ada can increase efficiency of polyβCD/cationic Ada-based delivery system. We synthesized two adamantyl derivatives: Ada5, which has a spacer arm between the Ada moiety and a bi-cationic polar head group, and Ada6, which presents an imidazole group. Strength of association between polyβCD and Ada derivatives was evaluated by fluorimetric titration. Gel mobility shift assay, zeta potential, and dark field transmission electron microscopy experiments demonstrated the system allowed for efficient DNA compaction. In vitro transfection experiments performed on HepG2 and HEK293 cells revealed the quaternary system polyβCD/Ada5/Ada6/DNA has efficiency comparable to cationic lipid DOTAP. We successfully designed fine-tuned DNA vectors based on cyclodextrin polymers combined with two new adamantyl derivatives, leading to significant transfection associated with low toxicity.

  9. Socio-Spatial Factors Affecting Household Recycling in Townhouses in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques du Toit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Although social factors affecting recycling have been widely researched, the effect of spatial and physical factors posed by medium-density housing, such as townhouses, is less understood. Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the relative effect of three sets of factors on household recycling in townhouses are examined, including ‘attitude’ (about recycling, ‘subjective norm’ (social pressure, and ‘perceived behaviour control’ (ability to recycle. A questionnaire survey of 300 households was conducted in Equestria, an enclosed middle-income residential estate consisting of several townhouse complexes. Confirmatory factor analysis verified the three factor measurement model for recycling participation. Both recyclers and non-recyclers showed positive attitudes toward recycling and felt social pressure to recycle. Non-recyclers, however, felt significantly less able to recycle. Most recyclers as well as non-recyclers indicated that certain proposals for increasing recycling may cause them to recycle more, in particular a system through which the management agency arranges access for a recycling company to collect recyclables from strategically located collection points inside the complex. Urban planning and design recommendations for facilitating recycling in townhouses are discussed.

  10. A Highly Stable and Magnetically Recyclable Nanocatalyst System: Mesoporous Silica Spheres Embedded with FeCo/Graphitic Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles and Pt Nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da Jeong; Li, Yan; Kim, Yun Jin; Hur, Nam Hwi; Seo, Won Seok

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a highly stable and magnetically recyclable nanocatalyst system for alkene hydrogenation. The materials are composed of mesoporous silica spheres (MSS) embedded with FeCo/graphitic shell (FeCo/GC) magnetic nanoparticles and Pt nanocatalysts (Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS). The Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS have superparamagnetism at room temperature and show type IV isotherm typical for mesoporous silica, thereby ensuring a large enough inner space (surface area of 235.3 m(2)  g(-1), pore volume of 0.165 cm(3)  g(-1), and pore diameter of 2.8 nm) to undergo catalytic reactions. We have shown that the Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS system readily converts cyclohexene into cyclohexane, which is the only product isolated and Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS can be seperated very quickly by an external magnetic field after the catalytic reaction is finished. We have demonstrated that the recycled Pt-FeCo/GC@MSS can be reused further for the same hydrogenation reaction at least four times without loss in the initial catalytic activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  12. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  13. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  14. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-01-01

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06041.001 PMID:25985087

  15. Vps33b pathogenic mutations preferentially affect VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornieri, Karine; Zlatic, Stephanie A; Mullin, Ariana P; Werner, Erica; Harrison, Robert; L'hernault, Steven W; Faundez, Victor

    2013-12-20

    Mutations in Vps33 isoforms cause pigment dilution in mice (Vps33a, buff) and Drosophila (car) and the neurogenic arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome in humans (ARC1, VPS33B). The later disease is also caused by mutations in VIPAS39, (Vps33b interacting protein, apical-basolateral polarity regulator, SPE-39 homolog; ARC2), a protein that interacts with the HOmotypic fusion and Protein Sorting (HOPS) complex, a tether necessary for endosome-lysosome traffic. These syndromes offer insight into fundamental endosome traffic processes unique to metazoans. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these mutant phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here we investigate interactions of wild-type and disease-causing mutations in VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b by yeast two hybrid, immunoprecipitation and quantitative fluorescent microscopy. We find that although few mutations prevent interaction between VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b, some mutants fragment VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes, but all mutants alter the subcellular localization of Vps33b to VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes. Our data suggest that the ARC syndrome may result through impaired VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b-dependent endosomal maturation or fusion.

  16. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-05-18

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes.

  17. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2015-06-17

    Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w) xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL), (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases) and a crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  18. A Novel Aqueous Two Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Xylitol for the Purification of Lipase from Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Seeds and Recycling of Phase Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Amid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipase is one of the more important enzymes used in various industries such as the food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, and pulp and paper sectors. A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of surfactant and xylitol was employed for the first time to purify lipase from Cucurbita moschata. The influence of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, and the composition of the surfactant/xylitol mixtures on the partitioning behavior and recovery of lipase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of system pH and crude load on the degree of purification and yield of the purified lipase were studied. The results indicated that the lipase was partitioned into the top surfactant rich phase while the impurities partitioned into the bottom xylitol-rich phase using an aqueous two phase system composed of 24% (w/w Triton X-100 and 20% (w/w xylitol, at 56.2% of tie line length (TLL, (TTL is one of the important parameters in this study and it is determined from a bimodal curve in which the tie-line connects two nodes on the bimodal, that represent concentration of phase components in the top and bottom phases and a crude load of 25% (w/w at pH 8.0. Recovery and recycling of components was also measured in each successive step process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the proposed method with a high purification factor of 16.4 and yield of 97.4% while over 97% of the phase components were also recovered and recycled. This study demonstrated that the proposed novel aqueous two phase system method is more efficient and economical than the traditional aqueous two phase system method for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme lipase.

  19. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Strategies for the Activation and Release of the Membranolytic Peptide Melittin from Liposomes Using Endosomal pH as a Trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Blenke, E; Sleszynska, M; Evers, M J W; Storm, G; Martin, N I; Mastrobattista, E

    2017-02-15

    Endosomolytic peptides are often coupled to drug delivery systems to enhance endosomal escape, which is crucial for the delivery of macromolecular drugs that are vulnerable to degradation in the endolysosomal pathway. Melittin is a 26 amino acid peptide derived from bee venom that has a very high membranolytic activity. However, such lytic peptides also impose a significant safety risk when applied in vivo as they often have similar activity against red blood cells and other nontarget cell membranes. Our aim is to control the membrane-disrupting capacity of these peptides in time and space by physically constraining them to a nanocarrier surface in such a way that they only become activated when delivered inside acidic endosomes. To this end, a variety of chemical approaches for the coupling of lytic peptides to liposomes via functionalized PEG-lipids were explored, including maleimide-thiol chemistry, click-chemistry, and aldehyde-hydrazide chemistry. The latter enables reversible conjugation via a hydrazone bond, allowing for release of the peptide under endosomal conditions. By carefully choosing the conjugation site and by using a pH activated analog of the melittin peptide, lytic activity toward a model membrane is completely inhibited at physiological pH. At endosomal pH the activity is restored by hydrolysis of the acid-labile hydrazone bond, releasing the peptide in its most active, free form. Furthermore, using an analogue containing a nonhydrolyzable bond as a control, it was shown that the activity observed can be completely attributed to release of the peptide, validating dynamic covalent conjugation as a suitable strategy to maintain safety during circulation.

  1. The small G protein Arl5 contributes to endosome-to-Golgi traffic by aiding the recruitment of the GARP complex to the Golgi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Rosa-Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The small G proteins of the Arf family play critical roles in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton organization. However, the function of some members of the family remains poorly understood including Arl5 which is widely conserved in eukaryotes. Humans have two closely related Arl5 paralogues (Arl5a and Arl5b, and both Arl5a and Arl5b localize to the trans-Golgi with Arl5b being involved in retrograde traffic from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus. To investigate the function of Arl5, we have used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system. We find that the single Arl5 orthologue in Drosophila also localizes to the trans-Golgi, but flies lacking the Arl5 gene are viable and fertile. By using both liposome and column based affinity chromatography methods we find that Arl5 interacts with the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP complex that acts in the tethering of vesicles moving from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN. In Drosophila tissues the GARP complex is partially displaced from the Golgi when Arl5 is absent, and the late endosomal compartment is enlarged. In addition, in HeLa cells GARP also becomes cytosolic upon depletion of Arl5b. These phenotypes are consistent with a role in endosome-to-Golgi traffic, but are less severe than loss of GARP itself. Thus it appears that Arl5 is one of the factors that directs the recruitment of the GARP complex to the trans-Golgi, and this function is conserved in both flies and humans.

  2. Endosomal sorting complexes required for ESCRTing cells toward death during neurogenesis, neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Zenia; Chakrabarti, Oishee

    2018-03-25

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins help in the recognition, sorting and degradation of ubiquitinated cargoes from the cell surface, long-lived proteins or aggregates, and aged organelles present in the cytosol. These proteins take part in the endo-lysosomal system of degradation. The ESCRT proteins also play an integral role in cytokinesis, viral budding and mRNA transport. Many neurodegenerative diseases are caused by toxic accumulation of cargo in the cell, which causes stress and ultimately leads to neuronal death. This accumulation of cargo occurs because of defects in the endo-lysosomal degradative pathway-loss of function of ESCRTs has been implicated in this mechanism. ESCRTs also take part in many survival processes, lack of which can culminate in neuronal cell death. While the role played by the ESCRT proteins in maintaining healthy neurons is known, their role in neurodegenerative diseases is still poorly understood. In this review, we highlight the importance of ESCRTs in maintaining healthy neurons and then suggest how perturbations in many of the survival mechanisms governed by these proteins could eventually lead to cell death; quite often these correlations are not so obviously laid out. Extensive neuronal death eventually culminates in neurodegeneration. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Peroxisomes, lipid droplets, and endoplasmic reticulum "hitchhike" on motile early endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Sofia C; Schuster, Martin; Bielska, Ewa; Dagdas, Gulay; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Meadows, Ben R A; Schrader, Michael; Steinberg, Gero

    2015-12-07

    Intracellular transport is mediated by molecular motors that bind cargo to be transported along the cytoskeleton. Here, we report, for the first time, that peroxisomes (POs), lipid droplets (LDs), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rely on early endosomes (EEs) for intracellular movement in a fungal model system. We show that POs undergo kinesin-3- and dynein-dependent transport along microtubules. Surprisingly, kinesin-3 does not colocalize with POs. Instead, the motor moves EEs that drag the POs through the cell. PO motility is abolished when EE motility is blocked in various mutants. Most LD and ER motility also depends on EE motility, whereas mitochondria move independently of EEs. Covisualization studies show that EE-mediated ER motility is not required for PO or LD movement, suggesting that the organelles interact with EEs independently. In the absence of EE motility, POs and LDs cluster at the growing tip, whereas ER is partially retracted to subapical regions. Collectively, our results show that moving EEs interact transiently with other organelles, thereby mediating their directed transport and distribution in the cell. © 2015 Guimaraes et al.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor A-stimulated signaling from endosomes in primary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a multifunctional cytokine that stimulates blood vessel sprouting, vascular repair, and regeneration. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) and stimulates intracellular signaling leading to changes in vascular physiology. An important aspect of this phenomenon is the spatiotemporal coordination of VEGFR trafficking and intracellular signaling to ensure that VEGFR residence in different organelles is linked to downstream cellular outputs. Here, we describe a series of assays to evaluate the effects of VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling from intracellular compartments such as the endosome-lysosome system. These assays include the initial isolation and characterization of primary human endothelial cells, performing reverse genetics for analyzing protein function; methods used to study receptor trafficking, signaling, and proteolysis; and assays used to measure changes in cell migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Each of these assays has been exemplified with studies performed in our laboratories. In conclusion, we describe necessary techniques for studying the role of VEGF-A in endothelial cell function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  6. Thermoresponsive pegylated bubble liposome nanovectors for efficient siRNA delivery via endosomal escape

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod; Martins, Patricia; Croissant, Jonas G.; Patil, Sachin; Omar, Haneen; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy.A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing.The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation. This was confirmed by confocal bioimaging and gene silencing reaching up to 90% and further demonstrated by the protein inhibition of both target genes.The thermoresponsiveness of ammonium bicarbonate containing liposomes enabled the rapid endosomal escape of the particles and resulted in an efficient gene silencing.

  7. Cell polarity and patterning by PIN trafficking through early endosomal compartments in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tanaka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available PIN-FORMED (PIN proteins localize asymmetrically at the plasma membrane and mediate intercellular polar transport of the plant hormone auxin that is crucial for a multitude of developmental processes in plants. PIN localization is under extensive control by environmental or developmental cues, but mechanisms regulating PIN localization are not fully understood. Here we show that early endosomal components ARF GEF BEN1 and newly identified Sec1/Munc18 family protein BEN2 are involved in distinct steps of early endosomal trafficking. BEN1 and BEN2 are collectively required for polar PIN localization, for their dynamic repolarization, and consequently for auxin activity gradient formation and auxin-related developmental processes including embryonic patterning, organogenesis, and vasculature venation patterning. These results show that early endosomal trafficking is crucial for cell polarity and auxin-dependent regulation of plant architecture.

  8. Thermoresponsive pegylated bubble liposome nanovectors for efficient siRNA delivery via endosomal escape

    KAUST Repository

    Alamoudi, Kholod

    2017-05-19

    Improving the delivery of siRNA into cancer cells via bubble liposomes. Designing a thermoresponsive pegylated liposome through the introduction of ammonium bicarbonate salt into liposomes so as to control their endosomal escape for gene therapy.A sub-200 nm nanovector was fully characterized and examined for cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, endosomal escape and gene silencing.The siRNA-liposomes were internalized into cancer cells within 5 min and then released siRNAs in the cytosol prior to lysosomal degradation upon external temperature elevation. This was confirmed by confocal bioimaging and gene silencing reaching up to 90% and further demonstrated by the protein inhibition of both target genes.The thermoresponsiveness of ammonium bicarbonate containing liposomes enabled the rapid endosomal escape of the particles and resulted in an efficient gene silencing.

  9. TLR signals induce phagosomal MHC-I delivery from the endosomal recycling compartment to allow cross-presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nair-Gupta, Priyanka; Baccarini, Alessia; Tung, Navpreet; Seyffer, Fabian; Florey, Oliver; Huang, Yunjie; Banerjee, Meenakshi; Overholtzer, Michael; Roche, Paul A.; Tampé, Robert; Brown, Brian D.; Amsen, Derk; Whiteheart, Sidney W.; Blander, J. Magarian

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pathway for MHC class I (MHC-I) presentation in dendritic cells enables cross-presentation of peptides derived from phagocytosed microbes, infected cells, or tumor cells to CD8 T cells. How these peptides intersect with MHC-I molecules remains poorly

  10. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling via heterotrimeric G proteins from endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetanova, Nikoleta G; Irannejad, Roshanak; von Zastrow, Mark

    2015-03-13

    Some G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in addition to activating heterotrimeric G proteins in the plasma membrane, appear to elicit a "second wave" of G protein activation after ligand-induced internalization. We briefly summarize evidence supporting this view and then discuss what is presently known about the functional significance of GPCR-G protein activation in endosomes. Endosomal activation can shape the cellular response temporally by prolonging its overall duration, and may shape the response spatially by moving the location of intracellular second messenger production relative to effectors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  12. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  13. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  14. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  15. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  16. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  17. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  18. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  19. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  20. Nuclear reactor recyclation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Yukio; Chuma, Kazuto

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the unevenness for the coolant flow rate even when abnormality occurs to one of recycling pumps. Constitution: A plurality of jet pumps disposed at an interval around the reactor core are divided circumferentially into two sets, and a pipeway is disposed to the outside of each pair including recycling pumps corresponding to each of the sets. The pipeway is connected to the recycling inlet of the jet pump by way of a manifold. The discharge portion of the recycling pumps of the loop pipeway are connected with each other by way of communication pipes, and a normally closed valve is disposed to the communication pipe and the normally closed valve of the communication pipe is opened upon detecting abnormality for one of the recycling pumps. Thus, if either one of the pair of recycling pumps shows abnormal state, coolants flows from the other of pipeway to the outside of the loop pipeway and coolants are supplied from all the jet pumps to the reactor core portion and, accordingly, the not-uniform flow rate can be prevented to eliminate undesired effect on the reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  2. Using a set of strategic indicator systems as a decision-making support implement for establishing a recycling-oriented society. A Taiwanese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I-Cheng; Lu, Li-Teh; Lin, Shiann-Shan

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND, SCOPE AND AIMS: To realize the vision of sustainable development (SD) originating from the 'only one earth' philosophy, and to integrate the conceptions of ecology and sustainability into the planning and decision-making criteria of urban growth management, the establishment of a recycling-oriented society (ROS) is essential. However, before the above intention can be achieved, it is indispensable to develop a system of strategic indicators for supporting a radical reformation of the urban development plan. Therefore, this study, based on the conception of the new urban development pattern ROS, attempted to carefully choose a sample city in Taiwan for launching a preliminary case study, and furthermore designed and proposed a concise and strategy-oriented assessment indicator system termed ROSAIS. ROSAIS, on the one hand, can act as a compass for understanding resource using efficiency and recycling status during city development and, on the other hand, can serve as an implement supporting decision-making for ROS construction. According to the definition and spirit of ROS, the structure of ROSAIS should clearly represent the relationship between resources and environment in human activities. The eco-efficiency indicator system (EEIS) and environmental symbiosis indicator system (ESIS) can be considered two key subindicator systems, and are the necessary components of ROSAIS. EEIS chooses the dominant production sectors in urban economic activities to calculate their eco-efficiency (EE). Separately, for obtaining a consensus regarding the framework of ESIS, the questionnaire approaches and expert consultation, together with the research experience and foundation of current relevant studies and indicator systems, are applied when crucial resource and environmental issues and respective indicators are selected. The calculation results of EEIS in this case study indicated that among the three dominant production activities (agricultural, fishery, and animal

  3. Gαs regulates Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor-mediated cyclic AMP generation at Rab5 endosomal compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan Babu Girada

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The findings provide the mechanism of endosomal cyclic AMP generation following GLP-1R activation. We identified the specific compartment that serves as an organizing center to generate endosomal cyclic AMP by internalized activated receptor complex.

  4. Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia

  5. Continuous cell recycle fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R K; Hill, G A; MacDonald, D G

    1991-10-01

    A cell recycle fermentor using a cross-flow membrane filter has been operated for extended periods. Productivities as high as 70 g/l/h were obtained at a cell concentration of 120 g/l and a product concentration of 70 g/l. The experimental results were then fitted to previously derived biokinetic models (Warren et al., 1990) for a continuous stirred tank fermentor. A good fit for growth rate was found and the cell yield was shown to decrease with product concentration. The product yield, however, was found to remain nearly constant at all cell, substrate and product concentrations. These biokinetics, along with a previous model for the membrane filter (Warren et al., 1991) were then used in a simulalation to estimate the costs of producing ethanol in a large scale system. This simulation was optimized using a variant of the steepest descent method from which a fermentor inlet substrate concentration of 150 g/l and a net cost of $CAN 253.5/1000 L ethanol were projected. From a sensitivity analysis, the yield parameters were found to have the greatest effect on ethanol net cost of the fermentor parameters, while the operating costs and the profit was found to be most sensitive to the wheat raw material cost and to the dried grains by-product value. 55 refs., 11 tabs., 7figs.

  6. Molten salt actinide recycler and transforming system without and with Th–U support: Fuel cycle flexibility and key material properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Feynberg, O.; Gnidoi, I.; Merzlyakov, A.; Surenkov, A.; Uglov, V.; Zagnitko, A.; Subbotin, V.; Sannikov, I.; Toropov, A.; Afonichkin, V.; Bovet, A.; Khokhlov, V.; Shishkin, V.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Lizin, A.; Osipenko, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine feasibility of MOSART system without and with U–Th support. • We experimentally studied key material properties to prove MOSART flowsheet. • MOSART potential as the system with flexible fuel cycle scenarios is emphasized. • MOSART can operate with different TRU loadings in transmuter or even breeder modes. - Abstract: A study is under progress to examine the feasibility of MOlten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transforming (MOSART) system without and with U–Th support fuelled with different compositions of transuranic elements (TRU) trifluorides from spent LWR fuel. New design options with homogeneous core and fuel salt with high enough solubility for transuranic elements trifluorides are being examined because of new goals. The paper has the main objective of presenting the fuel cycle flexibility of the MOSART system while accounting technical constrains and experimental data received in this study. A brief description is given of the experimental results on key physical and chemical properties of fuel salt and combined materials compatibility to satisfy MOSART system requirements

  7. Recycle flow rate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Susumu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Oka, Yoko.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To attain stable low hydraulic power operation with no abnormal changes in the reactor water level by smoothly varying the speed control for the recycling pump for regulating the reactor core flowrate in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In a recycling control system equipped with an internal pump having a response characteristic higher by ten and several times or more than that of prior pump, a previously programed recycling run-back signal is inputted to a speed regulator upon load interruption of the electric generator to thereby control the operation of the internal pump driving motor such that the speed is decreased rapidly at the initial state and smoothly thereafter. The run-back singal is passed through a primary delay circuit so that the interruption of the motor operation does not directly performed by the signal interruption upon failure. As the result, the amount of void produced is also made smooth and the reactor water level varies smoothly as well, whereby the reactor power can be reduced with a sufficient margin. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Used Battery Collection and Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, G.; Wiaux, J.P.; Wolsky, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution

  9. Natural Modulators of Endosomal Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Psoriatic Skin Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Yang Lai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that can be initiated by excessive activation of endosomal toll-like receptors (TLRs, particularly TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9. Therefore, inhibitors of endosomal TLR activation are being investigated for their ability to treat this disease. The currently approved biological drugs adalimumab, etanercept, infliximab, ustekinumab, ixekizumab, and secukizumab are antibodies against effector cytokines that participate in the initiation and development of psoriasis. Several immune modulatory oligonucleotides and small molecular weight compounds, including IMO-3100, IMO-8400, and CPG-52364, that block the interaction between endosomal TLRs and their ligands are under clinical investigation for their effectiveness in the treatment of psoriasis. In addition, several chemical compounds, including AS-2444697, PF-05387252, PF-05388169, PF-06650833, ML120B, and PHA-408, can inhibit TLR signaling. Although these compounds have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity in animal models, their therapeutic potential for the treatment of psoriasis has not yet been tested. Recent studies demonstrated that natural compounds derived from plants, fungi, and bacteria, including mustard seed, Antrodia cinnamomea extract, curcumin, resveratrol, thiostrepton, azithromycin, and andrographolide, inhibited psoriasis-like inflammation induced by the TLR7 agonist imiquimod in animal models. These natural modulators employ different mechanisms to inhibit endosomal TLR activation and are administered via different routes. Therefore, they represent candidate psoriasis drugs and might lead to the development of new treatment options.

  10. TLR2 ligands induce NF-κB activation from endosomal compartments of human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim J Brandt

    Full Text Available Localization of Toll-like receptors (TLR in subcellular organelles is a major strategy to regulate innate immune responses. While TLR4, a cell-surface receptor, signals from both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, less is known about the functional role of endosomal trafficking upon TLR2 signaling. Here we show that the bacterial TLR2 ligands Pam3CSK4 and LTA activate NF-κB-dependent signaling from endosomal compartments in human monocytes and in a NF-κB sensitive reporter cell line, despite the expression of TLR2 at the cell surface. Further analyses indicate that TLR2-induced NF-κB activation is controlled by a clathrin/dynamin-dependent endocytosis mechanism, in which CD14 serves as an important upstream regulator. These findings establish that internalization of cell-surface TLR2 into endosomal compartments is required for NF-κB activation. These observations further demonstrate the need of endocytosis in the activation and regulation of TLR2-dependent signaling pathways.

  11. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M.; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion. PMID:24743596

  12. Molecular basis for SNX-BAR-mediated assembly of distinct endosomal sorting tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Weering, Jan R.T.; Sessions, Richard B.; Traer, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    that dimerization is achieved in part through neutralization of charged residues in the hydrophobic BAR-dimerization interface. Membrane remodelling also requires functional amphipathic helices, predicted to be present in all SNX-BARs, and the formation of high order SNX-BAR oligomers through selective 'tip...... and organizes the tubular endosomal network....

  13. Snapin-regulated late endosomal transport is critical for efficient autophagy-lysosomal function in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Lu, Li; Tian, Jin-Hua; Zhu, Yi-Bing; Qiao, Haifa; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2010-10-06

    Neuron maintenance and survival require late endocytic transport from distal processes to the soma where lysosomes are predominantly localized. Here, we report a role for Snapin in attaching dynein to late endosomes through its intermediate chain (DIC). snapin(-/-) neurons exhibit aberrant accumulation of immature lysosomes, clustering and impaired retrograde transport of late endosomes along processes, reduced lysosomal proteolysis due to impaired delivery of internalized proteins and hydrolase precursors from late endosomes to lysosomes, and impaired clearance of autolysosomes, combined with reduced neuron viability and neurodegeneration. The phenotypes are rescued by expressing the snapin transgene, but not the DIC-binding-defective Snapin-L99K mutant. Snapin overexpression in wild-type neurons enhances late endocytic transport and lysosomal function, whereas expressing the mutant defective in Snapin-DIC coupling shows a dominant-negative effect. Altogether, our study highlights new mechanistic insights into how Snapin-DIC coordinates retrograde transport and late endosomal-lysosomal trafficking critical for autophagy-lysosomal function, and thus neuronal homeostasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endosomal gene expression: a new indicator for prostate cancer patient prognosis?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnson, Ian R D

    2015-11-10

    Prostate cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in men, but a method for accurate prognosis in these patients is yet to be developed. The recent discovery of altered endosomal biogenesis in prostate cancer has identified a fundamental change in the cell biology of this cancer, which holds great promise for the identification of novel biomarkers that can predict disease outcomes. Here we have identified significantly altered expression of endosomal genes in prostate cancer compared to non-malignant tissue in mRNA microarrays and confirmed these findings by qRT-PCR on fresh-frozen tissue. Importantly, we identified endosomal gene expression patterns that were predictive of patient outcomes. Two endosomal tri-gene signatures were identified from a previously published microarray cohort and had a significant capacity to stratify patient outcomes. The expression of APPL1, RAB5A, EEA1, PDCD6IP, NOX4 and SORT1 were altered in malignant patient tissue, when compared to indolent and normal prostate tissue. These findings support the initiation of a case-control study using larger cohorts of prostate tissue, with documented patient outcomes, to determine if different combinations of these new biomarkers can accurately predict disease status and clinical progression in prostate cancer patients.

  15. Rab11-FIP3 Regulation of Lck Endosomal Traffic Controls TCR Signal Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; Del Río-Iñiguez, Iratxe; Vázquez-Chávez, Elena; Lasserre, Rémi; Agüera-González, Sonia; Cuche, Céline; McCaffrey, Mary W; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2017-04-01

    The role of endosomes in receptor signal transduction is a long-standing question, which remains largely unanswered. The T cell Ag receptor and various components of its proximal signaling machinery are associated with distinct endosomal compartments, but how endosomal traffic affects T cell signaling remains ill-defined. In this article, we demonstrate in human T cells that the subcellular localization and function of the protein tyrosine kinase Lck depends on the Rab11 effector FIP3 (Rab11 family interacting protein-3). FIP3 overexpression or silencing and its ability to interact with Rab11 modify Lck subcellular localization and its delivery to the immunological synapse. Importantly, FIP3-dependent Lck localization controls early TCR signaling events, such as tyrosine phosphorylation of TCRζ, ZAP70, and LAT and intracellular calcium concentration, as well as IL-2 gene expression. Interestingly, FIP3 controls both steady-state and poststimulation phosphotyrosine and calcium levels. Finally, our findings indicate that FIP3 modulates TCR-CD3 cell surface expression via the regulation of steady-state Lck-mediated TCRζ phosphorylation, which in turn controls TCRζ protein levels. This may influence long-term T cell activation in response to TCR-CD3 stimulation. Therefore, our data underscore the importance of finely regulated endosomal traffic in TCR signal transduction and T cell activation leading to IL-2 production. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  16. Comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ashfaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparative analysis of old, recycled and new PV modules. It is possible to recycle even very old products by modern standard processes in a value-conserving manner. About 90% of the materials recovered from solar panels can be recycled into useful products. Carbon emission and energy cost are low in manufacturing recycled SPV. Modules can be manufactured with recycled materials and reinstalled in systems as a full quality product with today’s technology good for another 25–30 years. Analysis of all the models of PV module is done with the help of MATLAB. This helps in comparison and proves the effectiveness of the recycled PV module based systems.

  17. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  18. Modeling of a thermally integrated 10 kWe planar solid oxide fuel cell system with anode offgas recycling and internal reforming by discretization in flow direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Stefanie; Segarra, Ana Gallet; Horstmann, Peter; Carré, Maxime; Bessler, Wolfgang G.; Lapicque, François; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Combined heat and power production (CHP) based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) is a very promising technology to achieve high electrical efficiency to cover power demand by decentralized production. This paper presents a dynamic quasi 2D model of an SOFC system which consists of stack and balance of plant and includes thermal coupling between the single components. The model is implemented in Modelica® and validated with experimental data for the stack UI-characteristic and the thermal behavior. The good agreement between experimental and simulation results demonstrates the validity of the model. Different operating conditions and system configurations are tested, increasing the net electrical efficiency to 57% by implementing an anode offgas recycle rate of 65%. A sensitivity analysis of characteristic values of the system like fuel utilization, oxygen-to-carbon ratio and electrical efficiency for different natural gas compositions is carried out. The result shows that a control strategy adapted to variable natural gas composition and its energy content should be developed in order to optimize the operation of the system.

  19. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  20. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  1. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  2. The V-ATPase a2-subunit as a putative endosomal pH-sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshansky, V

    2007-11-01

    V-ATPase (vesicular H(+)-ATPase)-driven intravesicular acidification is crucial for vesicular trafficking. Defects in vesicular acidification and trafficking have recently been recognized as essential determinants of various human diseases. An important role of endosomal acidification in receptor-ligand dissociation and in activation of lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes is well established. However, the molecular mechanisms by which luminal pH information is transmitted to the cytosolic small GTPases that control trafficking events such as budding, coat formation and fusion are unknown. Here, we discuss our recent discovery that endosomal V-ATPase is a pH-sensor regulating the degradative pathway. According to our model, V-ATPase is responsible for: (i) the generation of a pH gradient between vesicular membranes; (ii) sensing of intravesicular pH; and (iii) transmitting this information to the cytosolic side of the membrane. We also propose the hypothetical molecular mechanism involved in function of the V-ATPase a2-subunit as a putative pH-sensor. Based on extensive experimental evidence on the crucial role of histidine residues in the function of PSPs (pH-sensing proteins) in eukaryotic cells, we hypothesize that pH-sensitive histidine residues within the intra-endosomal loops and/or C-terminal luminal tail of the a2-subunit could also be involved in the pH-sensing function of V-ATPase. However, in order to identify putative pH-sensitive histidine residues and to test this hypothesis, it is absolutely essential that we increase our understanding of the folding and transmembrane topology of the a-subunit isoforms of V-ATPase. Thus the crucial role of intra-endosomal histidine residues in pH-dependent conformational changes of the V-ATPase a2-isoform, its interaction with cytosolic small GTPases and ultimately in its acidification-dependent regulation of the endosomal/lysosomal protein degradative pathway remain to be determined.

  3. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1) Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhap, Sushant K; Faith, Dennis; Qian, David Z; Shabbeer, Shabana; Galloway, Nathan L; Pili, Roberto; Denmeade, Samuel R; DeMarzo, Angelo M; Carducci, Michael A

    2007-09-05

    Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1) increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  4. The N-Myc down regulated Gene1 (NDRG1 Is a Rab4a effector involved in vesicular recycling of E-cadherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant K Kachhap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell to cell adhesion is mediated by adhesion molecules present on the cell surface. Downregulation of molecules that form the adhesion complex is a characteristic of metastatic cancer cells. Downregulation of the N-myc down regulated gene1 (NDRG1 increases prostate and breast metastasis. The exact function of NDRG1 is not known. Here by using live cell confocal microscopy and in vitro reconstitution, we report that NDRG1 is involved in recycling the adhesion molecule E-cadherin thereby stabilizing it. Evidence is provided that NDRG1 recruits on recycling endosomes in the Trans Golgi network by binding to phosphotidylinositol 4-phosphate and interacts with membrane bound Rab4aGTPase. NDRG1 specifically interacts with constitutively active Rab4aQ67L mutant protein and not with GDP-bound Rab4aS22N mutant proving NDRG1 as a novel Rab4a effector. Transferrin recycling experiments reveals NDRG1 colocalizes with transferrin during the recycling phase. NDRG1 alters the kinetics of transferrin recycling in cells. NDRG1 knockdown cells show a delay in recycling transferrin, conversely NDRG1 overexpressing cells reveal an increase in rate of transferrin recycling. This novel finding of NDRG1 as a recycling protein involved with recycling of E-cadherin will aid in understanding NDRG1 role as a metastasis suppressor protein.

  5. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  6. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  7. Mox fuels recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will firstly emphasis that the first recycling of plutonium is already an industrial reality in France thanks to the high degree of performance of La Hague and MELOX COGEMA's plants. Secondly, recycling of spent Mixed OXide fuel, as a complete MOX fuel cycle, will be demonstrated through the ability of the existing plants and services which have been designed to proceed with such fuels. Each step of the MOX fuel cycle concept will be presented: transportation, reception and storage at La Hague and steps of spent MOX fuel reprocessing. (author)

  8. The late endosome/lysosome-anchored p18-mTORC1 pathway controls terminal maturation of lysosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Nada, Shigeyuki; Mori, Shunsuke; Soma-Nagae, Taeko; Oneyama, Chitose [Department of Oncogene Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Okada, Masato, E-mail: okadam@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Oncogene Research, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p18 is a membrane adaptor that anchors mTORC1 to late endosomes/lysosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the role of the p18-mTORC1 pathway in lysosome biogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of p18 causes accumulation of intact late endosomes by arresting lysosome maturation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mTORC1 activity with rapamycin phenocopies the defects of p18 loss. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the terminal maturation of lysosomes. -- Abstract: The late endosome/lysosome membrane adaptor p18 (or LAMTOR1) serves as an anchor for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is required for its activation on lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes severe defects in cell growth as well as endosome dynamics, including membrane protein transport and lysosome biogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects on lysosome biogenesis remain unknown. Here, we show that the p18-mTORC1 pathway is crucial for terminal maturation of lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes aberrant intracellular distribution and abnormal sizes of late endosomes/lysosomes and an accumulation of late endosome specific components, including Rab7, RagC, and LAMP1; this suggests that intact late endosomes accumulate in the absence of p18. These defects are phenocopied by inhibiting mTORC1 activity with rapamycin. Loss of p18 also suppresses the integration of late endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the defective degradation of tracer proteins. These results suggest that the p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the late stages of lysosomal maturation, potentially in late endosome-lysosome fusion, which is required for processing of various macromolecules.

  9. Report on achievements in fiscal 1998. Research and development of a technology to promote non-ferrous metal based material recycling. (Research on component technologies and a total system); 1998 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kenkyu kaihatsu yoso gijutsu kenkyu, total system kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is intended to research and develop a high level aluminum recycling technology to realize the 'product to product' philosophy to return different aluminum scraps into the original materials, while attempting to develop and unify the aluminum recycling technologies and promote utilization of LNG. This fiscal year has studied the following methods as the component technology research: (1) an inclusion removing method, (2) a crystal sorting method, (3) a vacuum distillation method, and (4) a semi-melting method. The studies on (1), (2) and (3) were performed on identification of basic data and systematization to determine the life and facility specifications, with the full-swing demonstration tests being waited to start in fiscal 1999. The research and development on the item (4) was determined technologically feasible although additional discussions are required on the engineering aspect for practical application. The component technology study thereon will be finished with the current fiscal year. For the demonstration tests among the studies on total system technologies, the crystal sorting method and the vacuum distillation method had the achievements obtained in the research of the component technologies reflected directly to the facility design and fabrication. There has been no large-scale facility fabrication for the inclusion removing method and effective utilization of ash remaining in dross, and the researches were performed as scheduled. (NEDO)

  10. A Novel Aqueous Micellar Two-Phase System Composed of Surfactant and Sorbitol for Purification of Pectinase Enzyme from Psidium guajava and Recycling Phase Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. PMID:25756051

  11. A novel aqueous micellar two-phase system composed of surfactant and sorbitol for purification of pectinase enzyme from Psidium guajava and recycling phase components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Hussin, Muhaini

    2015-01-01

    A novel aqueous two-phase system composed of a surfactant and sorbitol was employed for the first time to purify pectinase from Psidium guajava. The influences of different parameters, including the type and concentration of the surfactant and the concentration and composition of the surfactant/sorbitol ratio, on the partitioning behavior and recovery of pectinase were investigated. Moreover, the effects of system pH and the crude load on purification fold and the yield of purified pectinase were studied. The experimental results indicated that the pectinase was partitioned into surfactant-rich top phase, and the impurities were partitioned into the sorbitol-rich bottom phase with the novel method involving an ATPS composed of 26% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 23% (w/w) sorbitol at 54.2% of the TLL crude load of 20% (w/w) at pH 6.0. The enzyme was successfully recovered by this method with a high purification factor of 15.2 and a yield of 98.3%, whereas the phase components were also recovered and recycled at rates above 96%. This study demonstrated that this novel ATPS method can be used as an efficient and economical alternative to the traditional ATPS for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme.

  12. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the FBRR is to require (PWSs) to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the state Primacy Agency to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control.

  13. Overview of HTGR fuel recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of HTGR fuel recycle is presented, with emphasis placed on reprocessing and fuel kernel refabrication. Overall recycle operations include (1) shipment and storage, (2) reprocessing, (3) refabrication, (4) waste handling, and (5) accountability and safeguards

  14. A Study on the Future Issues Regarding the Small Home Appliance Recycling Law -Based on Comparison with the Other Recycling-Related Laws-

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 寛

    2014-01-01

    The Small Home Appliance Recycling Law was enacted in August 2012 and took effect in April 2013 for the purpose of collecting and recycling valuable metals included in used small home appliances such as mobile phones. This Law serves as a promotion scheme, which encourages parties concerned to join the system on a voluntary basis and implements recycling based on the current situation in each region under the cooperation among parties, unlike the Home Appliance Recycling Law enacted in 1998 t...

  15. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  16. [Phase transfer catalyzed bioconversion of penicillin G to 6-APA by immobilized penicillin acylase in recyclable aqueous two-phase systems with light/pH sensitive copolymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ke-ming; Cao, Xue-jun; Su, Jin; Ma, Li; Zhuang, Ying-ping; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Si-liang

    2008-03-01

    Immobilized penicillin acylase was used for bioconversion of penicillin PG into 6-APA in aqueous two-phase systems consisting of a light-sensitive polymer PNBC and a pH-sensitive polymer PADB. Partition coefficients of 6-APA was found to be about 5.78 in the presence of 1% NaCl. Enzyme kinetics showed that the reaction reached equilibrium at roughly 7 h. The 6-APA mole yields were 85.3% (pH 7.8, 20 degrees C), with about 20% increment as compared with the reaction of single aqueous phase buffer. The partition coefficient of PG (Na) varied scarcely, while that of the product, 6-APA and phenylacetic acid (PA) significantly varied due to Donnan effect of the phase systems and hydrophobicity of the products. The variation of the partition coefficients of the products also affected the bioconversion yield of the products. In the aqueous two-phase systems, the substrate, PG, the products of 6-APA and PA were biased in the top phase, while immobilized penicillin acylase at completely partitioned at the bottom. The substrate and PG entered the bottom phase, where it was catalyzed into 6-APA and PA and entered the top phase. Inhibition of the substrate and products was removed to result in improvement of the product yield, and the immobilized enzyme showed higher efficiency than the immobilized cells and occupied smaller volume. Compared with the free enzyme, immobilized enzyme had greater stability, longer life-time, and was completely partitioned in the bottom phase and recycle. Bioconversion in two-phase systems using immobilized penicillin acylase showed outstanding advantage. The light-sensitive copolymer forming aqueous two-phase systems could be recovered by laser radiation at 488 nm or filtered 450 nm light, while pH-sensitive polymer PADB could be recovered at the isoelectric point (pH 4.1). The recovery of the two copolymers was between 95% and 99%.

  17. Life cycle energy and GHG emissions of PET recycling: Change-oriented effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Li; Nieuwlaar, Evert; Worrell, Ernst; Patel, Martin K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The demand of PET bottles has increased rapidly in the past decades. The purpose of this study is to understand the environmental impact of PET recycling system, in which used bottles are recycled into both fibre and bottles, and to compare the recycling system with single-use PET. Methods:

  18. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  19. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  20. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  1. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  2. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  3. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: nowack@empa.ch

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Recycling is one of the likely end-of-life fates of nanoproducts. • We assessed the material flows of four nanomaterials in the Swiss recycling system. • After recycling, most nanomaterials will flow to landfills or incineration plants. • Recycled construction waste, plastics and textiles may contain nanomaterials. - Abstract: The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO{sub 2}, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs.

  4. Flows of engineered nanomaterials through the recycling process in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Sun, Tianyin; Nowack, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Recycling is one of the likely end-of-life fates of nanoproducts. • We assessed the material flows of four nanomaterials in the Swiss recycling system. • After recycling, most nanomaterials will flow to landfills or incineration plants. • Recycled construction waste, plastics and textiles may contain nanomaterials. - Abstract: The use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in diverse applications has increased during the last years and this will likely continue in the near future. As the number of applications increase, more and more waste with nanomaterials will be generated. A portion of this waste will enter the recycling system, for example, in electronic products, textiles and construction materials. The fate of these materials during and after the waste management and recycling operations is poorly understood. The aim of this work is to model the flows of nano-TiO 2 , nano-ZnO, nano-Ag and CNT in the recycling system in Switzerland. The basis for this study is published information on the ENMs flows on the Swiss system. We developed a method to assess their flow after recycling. To incorporate the uncertainties inherent to the limited information available, we applied a probabilistic material flow analysis approach. The results show that the recycling processes does not result in significant further propagation of nanomaterials into new products. Instead, the largest proportion will flow as waste that can subsequently be properly handled in incineration plants or landfills. Smaller fractions of ENMs will be eliminated or end up in materials that are sent abroad to undergo further recovery processes. Only a reduced amount of ENMs will flow back to the productive process of the economy in a limited number of sectors. Overall, the results suggest that risk assessment during recycling should focus on occupational exposure, release of ENMs in landfills and incineration plants, and toxicity assessment in a small number of recycled inputs

  5. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  6. Multimodal network design for sustainable household plastic recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Groot, J.J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This research studies a plastic recycling system from a reverse logistics angle and investigates the potential benefits of a multimodality strategy to the network design of plastic recycling. This research aims to quantify the impact of multimodality on the network, to provide decision

  7. Integrated Three-Voltage-Booster DC-DC Converter to Achieve High Voltage Gain with Leakage-Energy Recycling for PV or Fuel-Cell Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated three-voltage-booster DC-DC (direct current to direct current converter is proposed to achieve high voltage gain for renewable-energy generation systems. The proposed converter integrates three voltage-boosters into one power stage, which is composed of an active switch, a coupled-inductor, five diodes, and five capacitors. As compared with conventional high step-up converters, it has a lower component count. In addition, the features of leakage-energy recycling and switching loss reduction can be accomplished for conversion efficiency improvement. While the active switch is turned off, the converter can inherently clamp the voltage across power switch and suppress voltage spikes. Moreover, the reverse-recovery currents of all diodes can be alleviated by leakage inductance. A 200 W prototype operating at 100 kHz switching frequency with 36 V input and 400 V output is implemented to verify the theoretical analysis and to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter.

  8. A tale of five cities: Using recycling frameworks to analyse inclusive recycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Anne; Simpson, Michael

    2015-11-01

    'Recycling' is a source of much confusion, particularly when comparing solid waste systems in high-income countries with those in low- and middle-income countries. Few analysts can explain why the performance and structure of recycling appears to be so different in rich countries from poor ones, nor why well-meaning efforts to implement recycling so often fail. The analysis of policy drivers, and the Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) framework, come close to an explanation.This article builds on these earlier works, focusing in on five cities profiled in the 2010 UN-Habitat publication (Scheinberg A, Wilson DC and Rodic L (2010) Solid Waste Management in the World's Cities. UN-Habitat's Third Global Report on the State of Water and Sanitation in the World's Cities. Newcastle-on-Tyne, UK: Earthscan Publications). Data from these cities and others provides the basis for developing a new tool to analyse inclusive recycling performance. The points of departure are the institutional and economic relationships between the service chain, the public obligation to remove waste, pollution, and other forms of disvalue, and the value chain, a system of private enterprises trading valuable materials and providing markets for recyclables. The methodological innovation is to use flows of materials and money as indicators of institutional relationships, and is an extension of process flow diagramming.The authors are using the term 'recycling framework analysis' to describe this new form of institutional analysis. The diagrams increase our understanding of the factors that contribute to high-performance inclusive recycling. By focusing on institutional relationships, the article seeks to improve analysis, planning, and ultimately, outcomes, of recycling interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such as off-site disposal or on-site storage. Recognizing the strategic implications of recycling, this paper outlines the criteria used at Fernald to make recycle decisions and highlights several of Fernald's current recycling initiatives

  10. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be taken and where it is then processed in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. The project started in the end of year 1995. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis of existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and results analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions. In the year 1996 the main stage was development of system components; especially crushing. Results of running slow-speed big crushers were collected, analysed and the main development details determined. Additionally, particle size distribution from different crushing methods were analyzed using also primary and secondary crushing. Development of a heavy-duty 2-rotor ECO-Crusher and a crushing screen was started. Regarding to the development of the REF-system, different alternatives have been analyzed and possible demonstration places have been searched. The first multi-crushing line will be demonstrated in Sweden. (orig.)

  11. LMTK1 regulates dendritic formation by regulating movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tetsuya; Urushibara, Tomoki; Yoshioka, Nozomu; Saito, Taro; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tomomura, Mineko; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi

    2014-06-01

    Neurons extend two types of neurites-axons and dendrites-that differ in structure and function. Although it is well understood that the cytoskeleton plays a pivotal role in neurite differentiation and extension, the mechanisms by which membrane components are supplied to growing axons or dendrites is largely unknown. We previously reported that the membrane supply to axons is regulated by lemur kinase 1 (LMTK1) through Rab11A-positive endosomes. Here we investigate the role of LMTK1 in dendrite formation. Down-regulation of LMTK1 increases dendrite growth and branching of cerebral cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo. LMTK1 knockout significantly enhances the prevalence, velocity, and run length of anterograde movement of Rab11A-positive endosomes to levels similar to those expressing constitutively active Rab11A-Q70L. Rab11A-positive endosome dynamics also increases in the cell body and growth cone of LMTK1-deficient neurons. Moreover, a nonphosphorylatable LMTK1 mutant (Ser34Ala, a Cdk5 phosphorylation site) dramatically promotes dendrite growth. Thus LMTK1 negatively controls dendritic formation by regulating Rab11A-positive endosomal trafficking in a Cdk5-dependent manner, indicating the Cdk5-LMTK1-Rab11A pathway as a regulatory mechanism of dendrite development as well as axon outgrowth. © 2014 Takano et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  12. Endosomal protein sorting and autophagy genes contribute to the regulation of yeast life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Valter D; Nislow, Corey; Fabrizio, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Accumulating evidence from various organisms points to a role for autophagy in the regulation of life span. By performing a genome-wide screen to identify novel life span determinants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have obtained further insights into the autophagy-related and -unrelated degradation processes that may be important for preventing cellular senescence. The generation of multivesicular bodies and their fusion with the vacuole in the endosomal pathway emerged as novel cell functions involved in yeast chronological survival and longevity extension.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-Bisphosphate-Rich Membrane Domains in Endosomes and Lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Sho; Tatematsu, Tsuyako; Cheng, Jinglei; Matsumoto, Jun; Akano, Takuya; Fujimoto, Toyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2 ) has critical functions in endosomes and lysosomes. We developed a method to define nanoscale distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 using freeze-fracture electron microscopy. GST-ATG18-4×FLAG was used to label PtdIns(3,5)P2 and its binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) was blocked by an excess of the p40(phox) PX domain. In yeast exposed to hyperosmotic stress, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was concentrated in intramembrane particle (IMP)-deficient domains in the vacuolar membrane, which made close contact with adjacent membranes. The IMP-deficient domain was also enriched with PtdIns(3)P, but was deficient in Vph1p, a liquid-disordered domain marker. In yeast lacking either PtdIns(3,5)P2 or its effector, Atg18p, the IMP-deficient, PtdIns(3)P-rich membranes were folded tightly to make abnormal tubular structures, thus showing where the vacuolar fragmentation process is arrested when PtdIns(3,5)P2 metabolism is defective. In HeLa cells, PtdIns(3,5)P2 was significantly enriched in the vesicular domain of RAB5- and RAB7-positive endosome/lysosomes of the tubulo-vesicular morphology. This biased distribution of PtdIns(3,5)P2 was also observed using fluorescence microscopy, which further showed enrichment of a retromer component, VPS35, in the tubular domain. This is the first report to show segregation of PtdIns(3,5)P2 -rich and -deficient domains in endosome/lysosomes, which should be important for endosome/lysosome functionality. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fiscal 2000 report on results. Development of technology for intermediate processing system for recycling mixed waste plastics; 2000 nendo kongo haipra saishohinka no tame no chukan shori system gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted concerning intermediate processing technology for recycling mixed waste plastics, a technology for processing household waste plastics such as plastic containers and packaging into plastic pellets of suitable grain sizes, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. In the development of the element technologies, an air clutch structure was added that generates rotor slip when foreign matters were engaged, thereby unnecessitating pre-sorting work for locating and removing metallic foreign matters. Addition of an air separator and a sieving machine also helped to achieve a useful-plastics recovery rate of 75% or more in the PVC separation equipment. In the operation of a demonstration plant, a continuous operation was carried out in a three-shift 24-hour system for five days, with the data obtained. Further, waste plastics to which the Containers and Packaging Recycling Law was applicable were treated, resulting in the processing capacity of 0.51 t/h and the production capacity of 0.38 t/h, which both exceeded the target. In the evaluation of the intermediate processing system, the cost of waste plastics treatment turned out to be about 50,000 yen per ton in the case of a plant having a processing capacity of 6,000 tons per year and about 30,000 yen per ton in the case of a plant of 24,000 tons per year. (NEDO)

  15. PERCEPTION AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS COMMUNITY SYSTEMS REDUCE, REUSE AND RECYCLE (3R IN WASTE MANAGEMENT IN DILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose de Assis Moniz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Garbage or refuse is part of the object that is seen is not used, not used, disliked, or should be discarded in such a way so as not to interfere with survival. In general garbage from human activities but which are not biologically and are generally solid. System 3R is one of the efficient ways to carry out waste management in Dili because this way people can cultivate their garbage properly. This study aims to (1 describe the public perception of the 3R system in the city of Dili, (2 Describe the attitude of society towards the 3R system in the city of Dili, (3 to analyze the relationship between perceptions and attitudes in waste management 3R. The study was designed as a descriptive study, with an ecological approach. Data were collected using observation method, method of mutilation of documents, and interviews, and then analyzed by using qualitative descriptive analysis untu first and second formulation of the problem as well as a quantitative descriptive to the third problem. The results showed (1 the public perception of the 3R system in Dili medium category with, (2 public attitudes to the 3R system in Dili enough category with, (3 there is a positive relationship between perception and the attitude of the public in waste management with the value. The suggestions put forward, namely (1 Society of Dili to always constantly updating knowledge related to the 3R system problems in the management of solid waste. (2 The government, especially local government and city sanitation department Dili to always provide training and dissemination to the public of Dili related to the 3R program in waste management in the city of Dili.

  16. The late endosome/lysosome-anchored p18-mTORC1 pathway controls terminal maturation of lysosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yusuke; Nada, Shigeyuki; Mori, Shunsuke; Soma-Nagae, Taeko; Oneyama, Chitose; Okada, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► p18 is a membrane adaptor that anchors mTORC1 to late endosomes/lysosomes. ► We examine the role of the p18-mTORC1 pathway in lysosome biogenesis. ► The loss of p18 causes accumulation of intact late endosomes by arresting lysosome maturation. ► Inhibition of mTORC1 activity with rapamycin phenocopies the defects of p18 loss. ► The p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the terminal maturation of lysosomes. -- Abstract: The late endosome/lysosome membrane adaptor p18 (or LAMTOR1) serves as an anchor for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and is required for its activation on lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes severe defects in cell growth as well as endosome dynamics, including membrane protein transport and lysosome biogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects on lysosome biogenesis remain unknown. Here, we show that the p18-mTORC1 pathway is crucial for terminal maturation of lysosomes. The loss of p18 causes aberrant intracellular distribution and abnormal sizes of late endosomes/lysosomes and an accumulation of late endosome specific components, including Rab7, RagC, and LAMP1; this suggests that intact late endosomes accumulate in the absence of p18. These defects are phenocopied by inhibiting mTORC1 activity with rapamycin. Loss of p18 also suppresses the integration of late endosomes and lysosomes, resulting in the defective degradation of tracer proteins. These results suggest that the p18-mTORC1 pathway plays crucial roles in the late stages of lysosomal maturation, potentially in late endosome–lysosome fusion, which is required for processing of various macromolecules.

  17. ABMA, a small molecule that inhibits intracellular toxins and pathogens by interfering with late endosomal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Pons, Valérie; Goudet, Amélie; Panigai, Laetitia; Fischer, Annette; Herweg, Jo-Ana; Kali, Sabrina; Davey, Robert A; Laporte, Jérôme; Bouclier, Céline; Yousfi, Rahima; Aubenque, Céline; Merer, Goulven; Gobbo, Emilie; Lopez, Roman; Gillet, Cynthia; Cojean, Sandrine; Popoff, Michel R; Clayette, Pascal; Le Grand, Roger; Boulogne, Claire; Tordo, Noël; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Loiseau, Philippe M; Rudel, Thomas; Sauvaire, Didier; Cintrat, Jean-Christophe; Gillet, Daniel; Barbier, Julien

    2017-11-14

    Intracellular pathogenic microorganisms and toxins exploit host cell mechanisms to enter, exert their deleterious effects as well as hijack host nutrition for their development. A potential approach to treat multiple pathogen infections and that should not induce drug resistance is the use of small molecules that target host components. We identified the compound 1-adamantyl (5-bromo-2-methoxybenzyl) amine (ABMA) from a cell-based high throughput screening for its capacity to protect human cells and mice against ricin toxin without toxicity. This compound efficiently protects cells against various toxins and pathogens including viruses, intracellular bacteria and parasite. ABMA provokes Rab7-positive late endosomal compartment accumulation in mammalian cells without affecting other organelles (early endosomes, lysosomes, the Golgi apparatus, the endoplasmic reticulum or the nucleus). As the mechanism of action of ABMA is restricted to host-endosomal compartments, it reduces cell infection by pathogens that depend on this pathway to invade cells. ABMA may represent a novel class of broad-spectrum compounds with therapeutic potential against diverse severe infectious diseases.

  18. Role of the AP-5 adaptor protein complex in late endosome-to-Golgi retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hirst

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The AP-5 adaptor protein complex is presumed to function in membrane traffic, but so far nothing is known about its pathway or its cargo. We have used CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out the AP-5 ζ subunit gene, AP5Z1, in HeLa cells, and then analysed the phenotype by subcellular fractionation profiling and quantitative mass spectrometry. The retromer complex had an altered steady-state distribution in the knockout cells, and several Golgi proteins, including GOLIM4 and GOLM1, were depleted from vesicle-enriched fractions. Immunolocalisation showed that loss of AP-5 led to impaired retrieval of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CIMPR, GOLIM4, and GOLM1 from endosomes back to the Golgi region. Knocking down the retromer complex exacerbated this phenotype. Both the CIMPR and sortilin interacted with the AP-5-associated protein SPG15 in pull-down assays, and we propose that sortilin may act as a link between Golgi proteins and the AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 complex. Together, our findings suggest that AP-5 functions in a novel sorting step out of late endosomes, acting as a backup pathway for retromer. This provides a mechanistic explanation for why mutations in AP-5/SPG11/SPG15 cause cells to accumulate aberrant endolysosomes, and highlights the role of endosome/lysosome dysfunction in the pathology of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Augmenting the Efficacy of Immunotoxins and Other Targeted Protein Toxins by Endosomal Escape Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Fuchs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The toxic moiety of almost all protein-based targeted toxins must enter the cytosol of the target cell to mediate its fatal effect. Although more than 500 targeted toxins have been investigated in the past decades, no antibody-targeted protein toxin has been approved for tumor therapeutic applications by the authorities to date. Missing efficacy can be attributed in many cases to insufficient endosomal escape and therefore subsequent lysosomal degradation of the endocytosed toxins. To overcome this drawback, many strategies have been described to weaken the membrane integrity of endosomes. This comprises the use of lysosomotropic amines, carboxylic ionophores, calcium channel antagonists, various cell-penetrating peptides of viral, bacterial, plant, animal, human and synthetic origin, other organic molecules and light-induced techniques. Although the efficacy of the targeted toxins was typically augmented in cell culture hundred or thousand fold, in exceptional cases more than million fold, the combination of several substances harbors new problems including additional side effects, loss of target specificity, difficulties to determine the therapeutic window and cell type-dependent variations. This review critically scrutinizes the chances and challenges of endosomal escape enhancers and their potential role in future developments.

  20. Integration of two RAB5 groups during endosomal transport in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebine, Kazuo; Choi, Seung-won; Ichinose, Sakura; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko

    2018-01-01

    RAB5 is a key regulator of endosomal functions in eukaryotic cells. Plants possess two different RAB5 groups, canonical and plant-unique types, which act via unknown counteracting mechanisms. Here, we identified an effector molecule of the plant-unique RAB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana, ARA6, which we designated PLANT-UNIQUE RAB5 EFFECTOR 2 (PUF2). Preferential colocalization with canonical RAB5 on endosomes and genetic interaction analysis indicated that PUF2 coordinates vacuolar transport with canonical RAB5, although PUF2 was identified as an effector of ARA6. Competitive binding of PUF2 with GTP-bound ARA6 and GDP-bound canonical RAB5, together interacting with the shared activating factor VPS9a, showed that ARA6 negatively regulates canonical RAB5-mediated vacuolar transport by titrating PUF2 and VPS9a. These results suggest a unique and unprecedented function for a RAB effector involving the integration of two RAB groups to orchestrate endosomal trafficking in plant cells. PMID:29749929

  1. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A; Kurki, T; Wrang, T [BMH Wood Technology Oy, Rauma (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be dumped to be handled in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. One drawback of present handling systems is the fact that most of them are more or less inapplicable for handling plastic materials, especially thin plastic films and sheets. Reducing plastic waste into a particle size of 50 mm required by modern fluidized bed boilers has proved to be very difficult. An essential part of this project is the development of waste material screening after primary and/or secondary crushing. The idea is to separate plastic particles larger than the maximum allowable size from the crushed material and then feed them to a separate low-capacity plastic crusher. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis on existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions

  2. Development of a system for receiving, crushing and screening recycled fuel (REF) material; Kierraetyspolttoaineen vastaanotto-, murskaus- ja seulontajaerjestelmaen kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, A.; Kurki, T.; Wrang, T. [BMH Wood Technology Oy, Rauma (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a system to which source sorted combustible industrial, office and municipal waste material can be dumped to be handled in such way that it can be burnt in modern fluidized bed and circulating bed boilers. One drawback of present handling systems is the fact that most of them are more or less inapplicable for handling plastic materials, especially thin plastic films and sheets. Reducing plastic waste into a particle size of 50 mm required by modern fluidized bed boilers has proved to be very difficult. An essential part of this project is the development of waste material screening after primary and/or secondary crushing. The idea is to separate plastic particles larger than the maximum allowable size from the crushed material and then feed them to a separate low-capacity plastic crusher. The main stages of the project are: (1) Study and analysis on existing technology and equipment, (2) Development of system components, (3) Development of the system, (4) Building a pilot/demonstration plant, (5) Tests and analysis and (6) Decisions on further actions

  3. Recycling wastewater offers solution to scarcity | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The scheme hinged on developing a simple household treatment system that ... water to be circulated to drip irrigation systems that very sparingly irrigate fruit trees, ... construction can be approved if greywater recycling is not part of the design.

  4. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    involves several steps to prepare the samples mechanically and/or chemically for final analysis. Not all sample preparation methods are equally well suited for specific waste characterization purposes. The correctness of results and practical feasibility of sample preparation was strongly affected...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions....... The results for parameters associated with organic matter confirmed the idea of cross-contaminated recyclables in residual waste, whereas the results for heavy metals and trace elements were more complex. For many fractions rather high metal contents were found to be intrinsic properties of the recyclables...

  5. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  6. First-Generation Antipsychotic Haloperidol Alters the Functionality of the Late Endosomal/Lysosomal Compartment in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Barrio, Luis C; Lerma, Milagros; de la Peña, Gema; Serna, Jorge; Pastor, Oscar; Lasunción, Miguel A; Busto, Rebeca

    2016-03-18

    First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs, respectively), have the ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and also to interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking, interfering with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes/lysosomes. In the present work, we examined the effects of FGA haloperidol on the functionality of late endosomes/lysosomes in vitro. In HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells incubated in the presence of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanineperchlorate (DiI)-LDL, treatment with haloperidol caused the enlargement of organelles positive for late endosome markers lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) and LBPA (lysobisphosphatidic acid), which also showed increased content of both free-cholesterol and DiI derived from LDL. This indicates the accumulation of LDL-lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment caused by haloperidol. In contrast, LDL traffic through early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus appeared to be unaffected by the antipsychotic as the distribution of both early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) and coatomer subunit β (β-COP) were not perturbed. Notably, treatment with haloperidol significantly increased the lysosomal pH and decreased the activities of lysosomal protease and β-d-galactosidase in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that the alkalinization of the lysosomes' internal milieu induced by haloperidol affects lysosomal functionality.

  7. First-Generation Antipsychotic Haloperidol Alters the Functionality of the Late Endosomal/Lysosomal Compartment in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Canfrán-Duque

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs, respectively, have the ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and also to interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking, interfering with low-density lipoprotein (LDL-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes/lysosomes. In the present work, we examined the effects of FGA haloperidol on the functionality of late endosomes/lysosomes in vitro. In HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells incubated in the presence of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanineperchlorate (DiI-LDL, treatment with haloperidol caused the enlargement of organelles positive for late endosome markers lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2 and LBPA (lysobisphosphatidic acid, which also showed increased content of both free-cholesterol and DiI derived from LDL. This indicates the accumulation of LDL-lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment caused by haloperidol. In contrast, LDL traffic through early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus appeared to be unaffected by the antipsychotic as the distribution of both early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1 and coatomer subunit β (β-COP were not perturbed. Notably, treatment with haloperidol significantly increased the lysosomal pH and decreased the activities of lysosomal protease and β-d-galactosidase in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that the alkalinization of the lysosomes’ internal milieu induced by haloperidol affects lysosomal functionality.

  8. First-Generation Antipsychotic Haloperidol Alters the Functionality of the Late Endosomal/Lysosomal Compartment in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Barrio, Luis C.; Lerma, Milagros; de la Peña, Gema; Serna, Jorge; Pastor, Oscar; Lasunción, Miguel A.; Busto, Rebeca

    2016-01-01

    First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs, respectively), have the ability to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis and also to interrupt the intracellular cholesterol trafficking, interfering with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol egress from late endosomes/lysosomes. In the present work, we examined the effects of FGA haloperidol on the functionality of late endosomes/lysosomes in vitro. In HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells incubated in the presence of 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanineperchlorate (DiI)-LDL, treatment with haloperidol caused the enlargement of organelles positive for late endosome markers lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP-2) and LBPA (lysobisphosphatidic acid), which also showed increased content of both free-cholesterol and DiI derived from LDL. This indicates the accumulation of LDL-lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment caused by haloperidol. In contrast, LDL traffic through early endosomes and the Golgi apparatus appeared to be unaffected by the antipsychotic as the distribution of both early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) and coatomer subunit β (β-COP) were not perturbed. Notably, treatment with haloperidol significantly increased the lysosomal pH and decreased the activities of lysosomal protease and β-d-galactosidase in a dose-dependent manner. We conclude that the alkalinization of the lysosomes’ internal milieu induced by haloperidol affects lysosomal functionality. PMID:26999125

  9. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyar, A. Ebru; Üstün, Sevcan

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PE...

  10. Plutonium recycling in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youinou, G.; Girieud, R.; Guigon, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two concepts of 100% MOX PWR cores are presented. They are designed such as to minimize the consequences of the introduction of Pu on the core control. The first one has a high moderation ratio and the second one utilizes an enriched uranium support. The important design parameters as well as their capabilities to multi recycle Pu are discussed. We conclude with the potential interest of the two concepts. (author)

  11. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  12. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  13. Investigating the influence of lithologic heterogeneity on gas hydrate formation and methane recycling at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone in channelized systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigle, Hugh; Nole, Michael; Cook, Ann; Malinverno, Alberto

    2017-12-14

    In marine environments, gas hydrate preferentially accumulates in coarse-grained sediments. At the meso- to micro-scale, however, hydrate distribution in these coarse-grained units is often heterogeneous. We employ a methane hydrate reservoir simulator coupling heat and mass transfer as well as capillary effects to investigate how capillary controls on methane solubility affect gas and hydrate accumulations in reservoirs characterized by graded bedding and alternating sequences of coarse-grained sands and fine-grained silt and clay. Simulations bury a channelized reservoir unit encased in homogeneous, fine-grained material characterized by small pores (150 nm) and low permeability (~1 md in the absence of hydrate). Pore sizes within each reservoir bed between vary between coarse sand and fine silt. Sands have a median pore size of 35 microns and a lognormal pore size distribution. We also investigate how the amount of labile organic carbon (LOC) affects hydrate growth due to microbial methanogenesis within the sediments. In a diffusion-dominated system, methane movies into reservoir layers along spatial gradients in dissolved methane concentration. Hydrate grows in such a way as to minimize these concentration gradients by accumulating slower in finer-grained reservoir layers and faster in coarser-grained layers. Channelized, fining-upwards sediment bodies accumulate hydrate first along their outer surfaces and thence inward from top to bottom. If LOC is present in thin beds within the channel, higher saturations of hydrate will be distributed more homogeneously throughout the unit. When buried beneath the GHSZ, gas recycling can occur only if enough hydrate is present to form a connected gas phase upon dissociation. Simulations indicate that this is difficult to achieve for diffusion-dominated systems, especially those with thick GHSZs and/or small amounts of LOC. However, capillary-driven fracturing behavior may be more prevalent in settings with thick GHSZs.

  14. Economics and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butlin, J A

    1977-06-01

    The current state of recycling technology could appear to be a question of supply and demand, first for storage, disposal, and reclamation facilities, and secondly, for reclaimed materials. If supply and demand are to be relied upon as an environmental policy tool, several conditions need to exist within the economy: supply data for storage and disposal facilities should reflect the full social cost of their use for this purpose relative to any other; demand data for the use of storage facilities must reflect the full social benefit of having waste go through one channel rather than some other; demand for and supply of reclaimed materials for recycling must reflect the full costs and benefits of rechanneling them back into production or consumption; and the markets for products competitive to recycled raw materials (mainly virgin raw materials) should reflect full social costs and benefits, as should the markets for the alternative uses of storage and disposal facilities. If these conditions are met (in addition to a few technical ones), then the problem of waste management will not arise. (MCW)

  15. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  16. The sorting protein PACS-2 promotes ErbB signalling by regulating recycling of the metalloproteinase ADAM17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah Louise; Samsøe-Petersen, Jacob; Petersen, Camilla Hansson

    2015-01-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAM17 activates ErbB signalling by releasing ligands from the cell surface, a key step underlying epithelial development, growth and tumour progression. However, mechanisms acutely controlling ADAM17 cell-surface availability to modulate the extent of ErbB ligand release....... PACS-2 co-localizes with ADAM17 on early endosomes and PACS-2 knockdown decreases the recycling and stability of internalized ADAM17. Hence, PACS-2 sustains ADAM17 cell-surface activity by diverting ADAM17 away from degradative pathways. Interestingly, Pacs2-deficient mice display significantly reduced...

  17. Solid waste characterization and recycling potential for a university campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo de Vega, Carolina; Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Ramirez Barreto, Ma. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. For these systems to be successful, the first step is to carry out waste characterization studies. In this paper are reported the results of a waste characterization study performed in the Campus Mexicali I of the Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC). The aim of this study was to set the basis for implementation of a recovery, reduction and recycling waste management program at the campus. It was found that the campus Mexicali I produces 1 ton of solid wastes per day; more than 65% of these wastes are recyclable or potentially recyclable. These results showed that a program for segregation and recycling is feasible on a University Campus. The study also showed that the local market for recyclable waste, under present conditions - number of recycling companies and amounts of recyclables accepted - can absorb all of these wastes. Some alternatives for the potentially recyclables wastes are discussed. Finally some strategies that could be used to reduce waste at the source are discussed as well

  18. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... instance, because substantial automotive recycling systems are already in place for the primary purpose of... (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... currently under consideration that would generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from...

  19. Primary Copper Smelter and Refinery as a Recycling Plant—A System Integrated Approach to Estimate Secondary Raw Material Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Forsén

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary production of sulfide concentrates includes smelting to copper matte or blister copper, conversion of matte to blister copper, and refining to copper. Smelting, converting, and fire-refining can use a limited amount of secondary materials. Molten copper can effectively dissolve many metals, from valuable noble metals to harmful impurities such as bismuth. However, some of the impurity metals in copper are valuable in other applications. In this paper, we outline the main material flows in copper smelting and electrorefining and describe how minor metals can be recovered from secondary raw materials using copper as a carrier material. We will use a system integrated approach to define the factors that affect the recovery of different metals and copper quality. Metals typical in copper production are used as examples, like noble metals, As, Bi, Se, and Te, including metals in the EU critical raw materials list like PGM and Sb.

  20. Hydroponic Crop Production using Recycled Nutrients from Inedible Crop Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Jay L.; Mackowiak, Cheryl L.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The coupling of plant growth and waste recycling systems is an important step toward the development of bioregenerative life support systems. This research examined the effectiveness of two alternative methods for recycling nutrients from the inedible fraction (residue) of candidate crops in a bioregenerative system as follows: (1) extraction in water, or leaching, and (2) combustion at 550 C, with subsequent reconstitution of the ash in acid. The effectiveness of the different methods was evaluated by (1) comparing the percent recovery of nutrients, and (2) measuring short- and long-term plant growth in hydroponic solutions, based on recycled nutrients.

  1. Assessment studies on plutonium recycle in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This paper describes the CANDU reactor system in detail and goes on to explore the potential for using the system with plutonium recycle fuelling to improve fuel utilisation and to meet the long-term challenge of economic supplies of nuclear fuel. The paper includes comments on costs and non-proliferation aspects. It concludes that: recycle fuelling is feasible with little modification to the reactor design and no degradation of safety, and could offer over 50% savings in uranium requirements. However, recycle fuelling costs do not appear competitive with natural uranium in the CANDU system under current economic conditions

  2. GGA3 mediates TrkA endocytic recycling to promote sustained Akt phosphorylation and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lavigne, Pierre; Lavoie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although TrkA postendocytic sorting significantly influences neuronal cell survival and differentiation, the molecular mechanism underlying TrkA receptor sorting in the recycling or degradation pathways remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Golgi-localized, γ adaptin-ear–containing ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3 (GGA3) interacts directly with the TrkA cytoplasmic tail through an internal DXXLL motif and mediates the functional recycling of TrkA to the plasma membrane. We find that GGA3 depletion by siRNA delays TrkA recycling, accelerates TrkA degradation, attenuates sustained NGF-induced Akt activation, and reduces cell survival. We also show that GGA3’s effect on TrkA recycling is dependent on the activation of Arf6. This work identifies GGA3 as a key player in a novel DXXLL-mediated endosomal sorting machinery that targets TrkA to the plasma membrane, where it prolongs the activation of Akt signaling and survival responses. PMID:26446845

  3. The endo-lysosomal system of brain endothelial cells is influenced by astrocytes in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toth, Andrea E; Siupka, Piotr; P Augustine, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes......, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes. We used primary porcine BEC in monoculture....... Altogether, our data pin-point unique features of BEC trafficking network, essentially mapping the endo-lysosomal system of in vitro BBB models. Consequently, our findings constitute a valuable basis for planning the optimal route across the BBB when advancing drug delivery to the brain....

  4. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  5. Safeguards and nonproliferation aspects of a dry fuel recycling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory undertook an independent assessment of the proliferation potentials and safeguardability of a dry fuel recycling technology, whereby spent pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuels are used to fuel canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. Objectives of this study included (1) the evaluation of presently available technologies that may be useful to safeguard technology options for dry fuel recycling (2) and identification of near-term and long-term research needs to develop process-specific safeguards requirements. The primary conclusion of this assessment is that like all other fuel cycle alternatives proposed in the past, the dry fuel recycle entails prolfferation risks and that there are no absolute technical fixes to eliminate such risks. This study further concludes that the proliferation risks of dry fuel recycling options are relatively minimal and presently known safeguards systems and technologies can be modified and/or adapted to meet the requirements of safeguarding such fuel recycle facilities

  6. The plutonium recycle for PWR reactors from brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the material requirements of the nuclear fuel cycle with plutonium recycle. The study starts with the calculation of a reference reactor and has flexibility to evaluate the demand under two alternatives of nuclear fuel cycle for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR): Without plutonium recycle; and with plutonium recycle. Calculations of the reference reactor have been carried out with the CELL-CORE codes. Variations in the material requirements were studied considering changes in the installed nuclear capacity of PWR reactors, the capacity factor of these reactors, and the introduction of fast breeders. Recycling plutonium produced inside the system can reach economies of about 5% U 3 O 8 and 6% separative work units if recycle is assumed only after the fifth operation cycle of the thermal reactors. (author)

  7. Recycled Coarse Aggregate Produced by Pulsed Discharge in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namihira, Takao; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Nakashima, Kazuyuki; Murakami, Akira; Kuroki, Kaori; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Tomoda, Yuichi; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Ohtsu, Masayasu

    In Japan, the recycling ratio of concrete scraps has been kept over 98 % after the Law for the Recycling of Construction Materials was enforced in 2000. In the present, most of concrete scraps were recycled as the Lower Subbase Course Material. On the other hand, it is predicted to be difficult to keep this higher recycling ratio in the near future because concrete scraps increase rapidly and would reach to over 3 times of present situation in 2010. In addition, the demand of concrete scraps as the Lower Subbase Course Material has been decreased. Therefore, new way to reuse concrete scraps must be developed. Concrete scraps normally consist of 70 % of coarse aggregate, 19 % of water and 11 % of cement. To obtain the higher recycling ratio, the higher recycling ratio of coarse aggregate is desired. In this paper, a new method for recycling coarse aggregate from concrete scraps has been developed and demonstrated. The system includes a Marx generator and a point to hemisphere mesh electrode immersed in water. In the demonstration, the test piece of concrete scrap was located between the electrodes and was treated by the pulsed discharge. After discharge treatment of test piece, the recycling coarse aggregates were evaluated under JIS and TS and had enough quality for utilization as the coarse aggregate.

  8. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  9. Lysosomal and endosomal heterogeneity in the liver: A comparison of the intracellular pathways of endocytosis in rat liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, G.M.; Tolleshaug, H.; Gjoen, T.; Berg, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air-filled albumin microspheres, asialoorosomucoid and formaldehyde-treated serum albumin are selectively taken up by endocytosis in rat liver Kupffer cells, parenchymal cells and endothelial cells, respectively. Intracellular transport and degradation of endocytosed material were studied by subcellular fractionation in sucrose and Nycodenz gradients after intravenous injection of the ligand. By using ligands labeled with 125I-tyramine-cellobiose, the subcellular distribution of labeled degradation products can be studied because they are trapped at the site of formation. The results show that the kinetics of intracellular transport are different in hepatic parenchymal, endothelial and Kupffer cells. In endothelial cells, the ligand is associated with two types of endosomes during the first minutes after internalization and then is transferred rapidly to the lysosomes. In parenchymal cells, 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-asialoorosomucoid was located in a relatively slowly sedimenting vesicle during the first minute after internalization and subsequently in denser endosomes. Degradation of 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-asialoorosomucoid in parenchymal cells started later than that of 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-formaldehyde-treated serum albumin in endothelial cells. Furthermore, the ligand seemed to be transferred relatively slowly from endosomes to lysosomes, and most of the undegraded ligand was in the endosomes. The rate-limiting step of proteolysis in parenchymal cells is probably the transport from endosomes to lysosomes. In Kupffer cells, most 125I-tyramine-cellobiose-microspheres are found as undegraded material in very dense endosomes up to 3 hr after injection. After 20 hr, most of the ligand is degraded in lysosomes distributed at a lower density than the endosomes in Nycodenz and sucrose gradients

  10. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  11. Environmental aspects of recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, R.; Van Gemert, F.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced recycling options were studied. Emphasis was on the production of high-level waste. All other impacts, e.g. emissions, were considered to be of minor importance, since from a technical point of view they can be limited to any desired extent. An objective was to gather data from the industry and to use them in a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of several fuel cycle options. It was necessary to complete our data set with literature data. At the end of our project we could benefit from the results of several Expert Working Groups of OECD/NEA. Detailed information was available for the once-through fuel cycle (OFC) and the fuel cycle with mono recycling of MOX. For the other more advanced fuel cycle options information was of a more qualitative nature. The established set of data was sufficient to conduct a streamlined LCA with focus on waste production for final disposal. Some remarks should be made before comparing the various fuel cycle options studied. The first relates to plutonium that contributes to more than 90% of the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel for more than 1000 centuries. Large concern for transmutation of minor actinides will disproportional if plutonium itself is not eliminated. The second remark is that the fission products contribute potentially very little to the radiotoxicity especially when some long-lived radionuclides after separation are imprisoned in stable matrices to prevent them to be carried by underground water. From all nuclear fuel cycles considered, the MIX cycle in LWRs, with recycling of plutonium and minor actinides has the lowest minor actinides production (0.018 kg/TW e h) and the plutonium production is also quite low (0.06 kg/TW e h). The MIX cycle without minor actinides recycling performs a little better with respect to plutonium production (0.04 kg/TW e h) but has a relatively high minor actinides production (8.7 kg/TW e h). Another conclusion is that burning of minor actinides in fast reactors (MA 0.28 kg/TW e h, Pu 0

  12. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-08-16

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  13. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  14. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  15. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  16. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  17. Structure and Function of Vps15 in the Endosomal G Protein Signaling Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heenan, Erin J.; Vanhooke, Janeen L.; Temple, Brenda R.; Betts, Laurie; Sondek, John E.; Dohlman, Henrik G.; (UNC)

    2009-09-11

    G protein-coupled receptors mediate cellular responses to a wide variety of stimuli, including taste, light, and neurotransmitters. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, activation of the pheromone pathway triggers events leading to mating. The view had long been held that the G protein-mediated signal occurs principally at the plasma membrane. Recently, it has been shown that the G protein {alpha} subunit Gpa1 can promote signaling at endosomes and requires two components of the sole phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in yeast, Vps15 and Vps34. Vps15 contains multiple WD repeats and also binds to Gpa1 preferentially in the GDP-bound state; these observations led us to hypothesize that Vps15 may function as a G protein {beta} subunit at the endosome. Here we show an X-ray crystal structure of the Vps15 WD domain that reveals a seven-bladed propeller resembling that of typical G{beta} subunits. We show further that the WD domain is sufficient to bind Gpa1 as well as to Atg14, a potential G{gamma} protein that exists in a complex with Vps15. The Vps15 kinase domain together with the intermediate domain (linking the kinase and WD domains) also contributes to Gpa1 binding and is necessary for Vps15 to sustain G protein signaling. These findings reveal that the Vps15 G{beta}-like domain serves as a scaffold to assemble Gpa1 and Atg14, whereas the kinase and intermediate domains are required for proper signaling at the endosome.

  18. Structural Studies of Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 8 Capsid Transitions Associated with Endosomal Trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun-Joo; Gurda, Brittney L.; McKenna, Robert; Potter, Mark; Byrne, Barry; Salganik, Maxim; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis (Florida)

    2012-09-17

    The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) parvoviruses enter host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis, and infection depends on processing in the early to late endosome as well as in the lysosome prior to nuclear entry for replication. However, the mechanisms of capsid endosomal processing, including the effects of low pH, are poorly understood. To gain insight into the structural transitions required for this essential step in infection, the crystal structures of empty and green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene-packaged adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) have been determined at pH values of 6.0, 5.5, and 4.0 and then at pH 7.5 after incubation at pH 4.0, mimicking the conditions encountered during endocytic trafficking. While the capsid viral protein (VP) topologies of all the structures were similar, significant amino acid side chain conformational rearrangements were observed on (i) the interior surface of the capsid under the icosahedral 3-fold axis near ordered nucleic acid density that was lost concomitant with the conformational change as pH was reduced and (ii) the exterior capsid surface close to the icosahedral 2-fold depression. The 3-fold change is consistent with DNA release from an ordering interaction on the inside surface of the capsid at low pH values and suggests transitions that likely trigger the capsid for genome uncoating. The surface change results in disruption of VP-VP interface interactions and a decrease in buried surface area between VP monomers. This disruption points to capsid destabilization which may (i) release VP1 amino acids for its phospholipase A2 function for endosomal escape and nuclear localization signals for nuclear targeting and (ii) trigger genome uncoating.

  19. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  20. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... detrimental to their recycling. Finally, a material flow analysis (MFA) approach revealed the potential for accumulation and spreading of contaminants in material recycling, on the example of the European paper cycle. Assessment of potential mitigation measures indicated that prevention of chemical use...