Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Chul Young; Chun, Hoon Jai
Recently, the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy is developing rapidly. Once limited to the gastroinstestinal lumen, the endoscopic technology is now breaking the barriers and extending its boundary to peritoneal and pleural space. In 2004, Dr. Kalloo, a gastroenterologist, observed intraperitoneal organs of a pig using a conventional endoscope through the stomach wall. Since then, new endoscopic technique of intraperitoneal intervention with transluminal approach named the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery or NOTES has been introduced. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina, urethra) and entering the peritoneal lumen by means of making an incision on the luminal wall. After a series of successful experiences in animal studies, NOTES are now being tried on human subjects. There are still many obstacles to overcome, but bright future for this new technology is expected because of its proposed advantages of less pain, lower complication rate, short recovery time, and scarless access. In this review, we plan to learn about NOTES.
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has captured the interest of interventional endoscopists and may represent the next stage of evolution of minimally invasive surgery. It provides the potential for performance of incisionless operations. It is gaining momentum both in the animal laboratory and in human case reports. Developments in the field of NOTES have led to the formation of the Natural Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research (NOSCAR) in 2006. In this special issue, the current trends in NOTES in the field of hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery are featured, including NOTES cholecystectomy, hepatectomy splenectomy, pancreatic necrosectomy, and the future of NOTES. In this issue, we discuss the potential benefits of these procedures in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery. We have just started the evaluation process for this new technology. The concept of NOTES is becoming established and is enormously advantageous for the patient. Both the surgeon and gastroenterologist should contribute to developing NOTES in making use of their specialties.
Willingham, Field F; Brugge, William R
To review the current state of natural orifice surgery and examine the concerns, challenges, and opportunities presented by translumenal research. Translumenal endoscopic procedures have been the focus of extensive research. Researchers have reported natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery in a swine model in several areas involving the abdominal cavity. Diagnostic procedures have included endoscopic peritoneoscopy, liver biopsy, lymphadenectomy, and abdominal exploration. Several gynecologic procedures including tubal ligation, oophorectomy, and partial hysterectomy have been demonstrated using current commercial endoscopes. Gastrointestinal surgical procedures, including gastrojejunostomy, cholecystectomy, splenectomy, and distal pancreatectomy have been performed successfully via transgastric and/or transcolonic approaches. There have been no studies of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery procedures published in humans. While fundamental questions about the emerging technology have not been scrutinized, limitations of the large animal model will pose a challenge to the development of large randomized trials. While natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery may represent a paradigm shift and may offer significant benefits to patients, rigorous testing of the techniques is lacking and current data have been drawn from case series.
Ahn, Woojin; Dargar, Saurabh; Halic, Tansel; Lee, Jason; Li, Baichun; Pan, Junjun; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Roberts, Kurt; De, Suvranu
The first virtual-reality-based simulator for Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) is developed called the Virtual Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTESTTM). VTESTTM aims to simulate hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy procedure using a rigid scope inserted through the vaginal port. The hardware interface is designed for accurate motion tracking of the scope and laparoscopic instruments to reproduce the unique hand-eye coordination. The haptic-enabled multimodal interactive simulation includes exposing the Calot's triangle and detaching the gall bladder while performing electrosurgery. The developed VTESTTM was demonstrated and validated at NOSCAR 2013.
Rafael E. Sanchez-Salas
Full Text Available Laparoendoscopic single site surgery (LESS and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES represent novel approaches in urological surgery. To perform a review of the literature in order describe the current status of LESS and NOTES in Urology. References for this manuscript were obtained by performing a review of the available literature in PubMed from 01-01-02 to 15-05-09. Search terms included single port, single site, NOTES, LESS and single incision. A total of 412 manuscripts were initially identified. Out of these, 64 manuscripts were selected based in their urological content. The manuscript features subheadings for experimental and clinical studies, as NOTES-LESS is a new surgical technique and its future evolution will probably rely in initial verified feasibility. A subheading for reviews presents information regarding common language and consensus for the techniques. The issue of complications published in clinical series and the future needs of NOTES-LESS, are also presented.
M. J. Varas Lorenzo
Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión actual, puesta al día, y punto de vista de los autores sobre un tema sumamente novedoso y atractivo, como es la Cirugía Endoscópica Transluminal por Orificios Naturales (NOTES: Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery. La mayoría de los trabajos revisados se han realizado en animales de experimentación, pero la publicación de la colecistectomía por vía transvaginal, y la aparición de editoriales y artículos de revisión sobre el tema, nos llevan a realizar una serie de preguntas no resueltas actualmente sobre este tipo de cirugía, que representa un avance potencial para conseguir "una cirugía endoscópica sin cicatrices, sin infecciones, con mínimos requerimientos de anestesia y una inmediata recuperación".A current review and update of an exceedingly novel and appealing topic, namely natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES, is discussed, as well as the authors' viewpoint thereon. Most reviewed studies were performed in laboratory animals, but reports on transvaginal cholecystectomy and the emergence of editorials and review articles on this topic pose a number of as yet unanswered questions on this type of surgery, which represents a potential advance towards "endoscopic surgery with no scars, no infection, minimal anesthesia requirements, and immediate recovery".
Michael C Meadows
Full Text Available Michael C Meadows1,3, Ronald S Chamberlain1,2,31Department of Surgery, Saint Barnabas Medical Center, Livingston, NJ, USA; 2Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Saint George’s University, School of Medicine, West Indies, GrenadaIntroduction: The evolution of techniques for the performance of a cholecystectomy over the last 25 years has been swift. The laparoscopic approach is now the gold standard for removal of the gall bladder and is the most frequently performed minimally invasive procedure globally. Currently in its infancy stage, natural orifice transluminal endoscopy surgery, or NOTES, is purported to be the next leap forward in minimally invasive approaches. The safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of this procedure, as well as the significance of potential benefits to patients beyond current surgical approaches are yet undetermined.Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, a search engine created by the National Library of Medicine. Keywords used in the search included “natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery”, “NOTES”, “cholecystectomy”, “transcolonic”, “transvaginal”, and “transgastric”. The accumulated literature was critically analyzed and reviewed.Results: One-hundred and eighty-six cases of NOTES cholecystectomies have been published to date. Of these, 174 have been performed through a transvaginal approach. The remainder of the procedures were performed transgastrically. There are no published reports of transcolonic cholecystectomies performed in humans. Four of 186 cases (2.15% were converted to traditional laparoscopy due to intraoperative complications. No significant complications or mortalities have been reported.Conclusion: NOTES cholecystectomy appears to be a feasible procedure. However, technical, safety, and ethical issues remain relatively unresolved. Besides improved cosmesis, whether additional
Donatsky, Anders Meller; Andersen, Luise; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg
Most natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures to date rely on the hybrid technique with simultaneous laparoscopic access to protect against access-related complications and to achieve adequate triangulation for dissection. This is done at the cost of the potential benefi...
Noguera, José F; Cuadrado, Angel; Dolz, Carlos; Olea, José M; García, Juan C
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a technique still in experimental development whose safety and effectiveness call for assessment through clinical trials. In this paper we present a three-arm, noninferiority, prospective randomized clinical trial of 1 year duration comparing the vaginal and transumbilical approaches for transluminal endoscopic surgery with the conventional laparoscopic approach for elective cholecystectomy. Sixty female patients between the ages of 18 and 65 years who were eligible for elective cholecystectomy were randomized in a ratio of 1:1:1 to receive hybrid transvaginal NOTES (TV group), hybrid transumbilical NOTES (TU group) or conventional laparoscopy (CL group). The main study variable was parietal complications (wound infection, bleeding, and eventration). The analysis was by intention to treat, and losses were not replaced. Cholecystectomy was successfully performed on 94% of the patients. One patient in the TU group was reconverted to CL owing to difficulty in maneuvering the endoscope. After a minimum follow-up period of 1 year, no differences were noted in the rate of parietal complications. Postoperative pain, length of hospital stay, and time off from work were similar in the three groups. No patient developed dyspareunia. Surgical time was longer among cases in which a flexible endoscope was used (CL, 47.04 min; TV, 64.85 min; TU, 59.80 min). NOTES approaches using the flexible endoscope are not inferior in safety or effectiveness to conventional laparoscopy. The transumbilical approach with flexible endoscope is as effective and safe as the transvaginal approach and is a promising, single-incision approach.
Meining, A; Feussner, H; Swain, P
The fourth Euro-NOTES workshop took place in September 2010 and focused on enabling intensive scientific dialogue and interaction between participants to discuss the state of the practice and development of natural-orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) in Europe. Five working groups were...... collaboration and indications, robotics and platforms, and matters related to training and education. This review summarizes consensus statements of the working groups to give an overview of what has been achieved so far and what might be relevant for research related to NOTES in the near future....
Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Otani, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Joji; Fujii, Kentaro; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Ono, Shigeki; Date, Isao
The best chance of curing craniopharyngioma is achieved by microsurgical total resection; however, its location adjacent to critical structures hinders complete resection without neurologic deterioration. Unrecognized residual tumor within microscopic blind spots might result in tumor recurrences. To improve outcomes, new techniques are necessary to visualize tissue within these blind spots. We examined the success of hybrid microscopic-endoscopic neurosurgery for craniopharyngioma in a neurosurgical suite. Four children with craniopharyngiomas underwent microscopic resection. When the neurosurgeon was confident that most of the visible tumor was removed but was suspicious of residual tumor within the blind spot, he or she used an integrated endoscope-holder system to inspect and remove any residual tumor. Two ceiling monitors were mounted side by side in front of the surgeon to display both microscopic and endoscopic views and to view both monitors simultaneously. Surgery was performed in all patients via the frontobasal interhemispheric approach. Residual tumors were observed in the sella (2 patients), on the ventral surface of the chiasm and optic nerve (1 patient), and in the third ventricle (1 patient) and were resected to achieve total resection. Postoperatively, visual function was improved in 2 patients and none exhibited deterioration related to the surgery. Simultaneous microscopic and endoscopic observation with the use of dual monitors in a neurosurgical suite was ergonomically optimal for the surgeon to perform microsurgical procedures and to avoid traumatizing surrounding vessels or neural tissues. Hybrid microscopic-endoscopic neurosurgery may contribute to safe, less-invasive, and maximal resection to achieve better prognosis in children with craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ishii, Yudo; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Teramoto, Akira; Morita, Akio
In recent years, resections of midline skull base tumors have been conducted using endoscopic endonasal skull base (EESB) approaches. Nevertheless, many surgeons reported that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is still a major complication of these approaches. Here, we report the results of our 42 EESB surgeries and discuss the advantages and limits of this approach for resecting various types of tumors, and also report our technique to overcome CSF leakage. All 42 cases involved midline skull base tumors resected using the EESB technique. Dural incisions were closed using nasoseptal flaps and fascia patch inlay sutures. Total removal of the tumor was accomplished in seven pituitary adenomas (33.3%), five craniopharyngiomas (62.5%), five tuberculum sellae meningiomas (83.3%), three clival chordomas (100%), and one suprasellar ependymoma. Residual regions included the cavernous sinus, the outside of the intracranial part of the internal carotid artery, the lower lateral part of the posterior clivus, and the posterior pituitary stalk. Overall incidence of CSF leakage was 7.1%. Even though the versatility of the approach is limited, EESB surgery has many advantages compared to the transcranial approach for managing mid-line skull base lesions. To avoid CSF leakage, surgeons should have skills and techniques for complete closure, including use of the nasoseptal flap and fascia patch inlay techniques.
Educational and training aspects of new surgical techniques: experience with the endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) model in training for a natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to appendectomy.
Gillen, Sonja; Gröne, Jörn; Knödgen, Fritz; Wolf, Petra; Meyer, Michael; Friess, Helmut; Buhr, Heinz-Johannes; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Feussner, Hubertus; Lehmann, Kai S
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a new surgical concept that requires training before it is introduced into clinical practice. The endoscopic–laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity (ELITE) is a training model for NOTES interventions. The latest research has concentrated on new materials for organs with realistic optical and haptic characteristics and the possibility of high-frequency dissection. This study aimed to assess both the ELITE model in a surgical training course and the construct validity of a newly developed NOTES appendectomy scenario. The 70 attendees of the 2010 Practical Course for Visceral Surgery (Warnemuende, Germany) took part in the study and performed a NOTES appendectomy via a transsigmoidal access. The primary end point was the total time required for the appendectomy, including retrieval of the appendix. Subjective evaluation of the model was performed using a questionnaire. Subgroups were analyzed according to laparoscopic and endoscopic experience. The participants with endoscopic or laparoscopic experience completed the task significantly faster than the inexperienced participants (p = 0.009 and 0.019, respectively). Endoscopic experience was the strongest influencing factor, whereas laparoscopic experience had limited impact on the participants with previous endoscopic experience. As shown by the findings, 87.3% of the participants stated that the ELITE model was suitable for the NOTES training scenario, and 88.7% found the newly developed model anatomically realistic. This study was able to establish face and construct validity for the ELITE model with a large group of surgeons. The ELITE model seems to be well suited for the training of NOTES as a new surgical technique in an established gastrointestinal surgery skills course.
The number of medical accidents in endoscopic surgery has recently increased. Surgical complications caused by inadequate preparation or immature technique or those resulting in serious adverse outcomes may be referred to as medical accidents. The Nationwide Survey of Endoscopic Surgery showed that bile duct injury and uncontrollable bleeding were seen in 0.68% and in 0.58%, respectively, of cholecystectomy patients; interoperative and postoperative complications in 0.84% and in 3.8%, respectively, of gastric cancer surgery patients; and operative complications in 6.74% of bowel surgery patients. Some required open repair, and 49 patients died. The characteristic causes of complications in endoscopic surgery are a misunderstanding of anatomy, handling of organs outside the visual field, burn by electrocautery, and injuries caused by forceps. Bleeding that requires a laparotomy for hemostasis is also a complication. Furthermore, since the surgery is usually videorecorded, immature techniques resulting in complications are easily discovered. To decrease the frequency of accidents, education through textbooks and seminars, training using training boxes, simulators, or animals, proper selection of the surgeon depending on the difficulty of the procedure, a low threshold for conversion to laparotomy, and use of the best optical equipment and surgical instruments are important. To avoid malpractice lawsuits, informed consent obtained before surgery and proper communication after accidents are necessary.
Lindert, E.J. van; Grotenhuis, J.A.
OBJECTIVE: To describe a new endoscope shaft developed for suction-aspiration during endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. METHODS: A custom-made shaft for a Wolf endoscope (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) was developed with a height of 10 mm and a width of 5 mm, allowing an
Irion, K M; Novak, P
With the advent of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) a decade ago, the requirements for operating rooms (OR) and their equipment have been increased. Compared with conventional open surgery, the new endoscopic techniques require additional tools. Television systems, for video-assisted image acquisition and visualisation, including cameras, monitors and light systems, as well as insufflators, pumps, high-frequency units, lasers and motorised therapy units, are nowadays usually made available on carts during endoscopic surgery. In conjunction with a set of endoscopic instruments, these high-tech units allow new operating techniques to be performed. The benefit for patients has become clear in recent years; however, the technical complexity of OR has also increased considerably. To minimise this problem for the OR personnel, the MIS concept 'OR1' (Operating Room 1) was developed and implemented. OR1 is a fully functional and integrated multi-speciality surgical suite for MIS. The centrepieces of the OR1 are the Storz Communication Bus (SCB) and the advanced image and data archiving system (Aida) from Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany. Both components allow monitoring, access and networking of the MIS equipment and other OR facilities, as well as the acquisition, storage and display of image, patient and equipment data during the endoscopic procedure. A central user interface allows efficient, simplified operation and online clinical images. Due to the system integration, the handling of complex equipment is considerably simplified, logistical procedures in the OR are improved, procedure times are shorter and, particularly noteworthy, operative risk can be reduced through simplified device operation.
Full Text Available Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES is a new form of minimally invasive surgery which eliminates traditional skin incisions by accessing internal body cavities through natural orifices. In our experimental animal study, we compared the incidences intraperitoneal abscess formation , culture swab of peritoneal cavity positive for organism, intraperitoneal adhesion formation and mean adhesion score before and after lavaging the portal of entry of albino rat , i.e. transgastric and transvaginal. On vaginal route as a portal of entry into peritoneal cavity , on the 7th day , 66% rats developed abscesses , 88% rats had culture swab positive and 88% rats developed intraperitoneal adhesion (grade - 2 before any cleansing of vaginal cavity with antiseptic solution . Now after lavage with povidone iodine solution, only 11% developed abscesses , 22% were peritoneal swab culture positive and 33% had interbowel and parietal adhesion of (grade 0 - 1. On 21 st day , the complication observed was adhesion formation in pre lavage group of 66% incidence and 16% after vaginal lavage. The incidence of complications were reduced significantly after lavage with antiseptic solution as shown by p values (p<0.01 for abscess formation, p< 0.01 for culture positivity and p< 0.01 for adhesions formation. Also the mean adhesion scoring was significantly reduced (p <0.02 after vaginal lavage on the 7 th day. Gastric route as the portal of entry into the peritoneal cavity, again the same variables were compared on the 7th and the 21st day , but wash was given with antibiotic solution (Cefazolin. On the 7th day , 44% had abscesses, 77% were culture positive and 66% had adhesions (Grade 1 - 2 before gastric lavage with antibiotic solution . After wash of stomach, 11% were culture positive and 44% developed adhesions (Grade 0 - 1. Here, abscess formation (p<0.02 and mean adhesion scoring (p<0.05 were significantly reduced after stomach wash. On the 21st day
Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NAJ is a tumor with vascular component, slow growing, benign but very aggressive because of its local invasiveness. The NAJ is rare, accounting for 0.05% of all head and neck cancers. The classic triad of epistaxis, unilateral nasal obstruction and a mass in the nasopharynx suggests the diagnosis of NAJ and is then supplemented by imaging. Over the past 10 years the treatment of this disease has been discussed with the aim of designing a management protocol. Currently, surgery appears to be the best treatment of the NAJ. Other methods such as hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment modalities are now used occasionally as complementary treatments. Objective: To present the cases of this disease in the Hospital Infantil between October 2007 and August 2008. Methods: A retrospective case study of five cases of NAJ underwent surgery solely with endoscopic technique of two surgeons. Classifieds between IIA and IIIA. All patients underwent angiography with embolization of the tumor 3-4 days before surgery. Follow-up after surgery to detect recurrence. Results: There were two relapses in the following two years after surgery. Conclusion: Given the short period of patient follow-up, there were only two relapses in one year. So there is need for further action to claim that this technique has a low recurrence rate, since the recurrence is probably related to incomplete resection the initial tumor.
Donatsky, Anders Meller; Vilmann, Peter; Meisner, Søren
BACKGROUND: Human natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has mainly been based on simultaneous laparoscopic assistance (hybrid NOTES), forgoing the theoretical benefits of the NOTES technique. This is due to a lack of NOTES-specific instruments and endoscopes, making pure-NOTES...... procedures difficult and time consuming. An area where pure NOTES could be adopted at its present stage of development is minimally invasive staging of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of combining transgastric (TG) pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy...... and intraperitoneal endoscopic ultrasonography (ip-EUS) with intraluminal EUS (il-EUS) for peritoneal evaluation. METHODS: This was a feasibility and survival study where il-EUS followed by ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy was performed in 10 pigs subjected to TG pure NOTES. A score was given with regard to achieved...
Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros N
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to laparoscopy Heller myotomy (LHM). POEM is arguably the most successful clinical application of NOTES. The growth of POEM from a single center in 2008 to approximately 60 centers worldwide in 2014 with several thousand procedures having been performed attests to the success of POEM. Initial efficacy, safety and acid reflux data suggest at least equivalence of POEM to LHM, the previous gold standard for achalasia therapy. Adjunctive techniques used in the West include impedance planimetry for real-time intraprocedural luminal assessment and endoscopic suturing for challenging mucosal defect closures during POEM. The impact of POEM extends beyond the realm of esophageal motility disorders as it is rapidly popularizing endoscopic submucosal dissection in the West and spawning offshoots that use the submucosal tunnel technique for a host of new indications ranging from resection of tumors to pyloromyotomy for gastroparesis. PMID:25548473
Zorron, R; Bothe, C; Junghans, T; Pratschke, J; Benzing, C; Krenzien, F
The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the therapy of choice in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding are showing higher rates of treatment failure, reducing obesity-associated morbidity and body weight insufficiently. Moreover, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can occur refractory to medication. Therefore, a laparoscopic conversion to RYGB can be reasonable as long as specific conditions are fulfilled.Endoscopic procedures are currently being applied to revise bariatric procedures. Therapy failure following RYGB occurs in up to 20 % of cases. Transoral outlet reduction is the minimally invasive method of choice to reduce gastrojejunal anastomosis of the alimentary limb. The diameter of a gastric sleeve can be unwantedly enlarged as well; that can be reduced by placement of a longitudinal full-thickness suture.Severe hypoglycemic episodes can be present in patients following RYGB. Hypoglycemic episodes have to be diagnosed first and can be treated conventionally. Alternatively, a laparoscopic approach according to Branco-Zorron can be used for non-responders. Hypoglycemic episodes can thus be prevented and body weight reduction can be assured.Conversional and endoscopic procedures can be used in patients with treatment failure following bariatric surgery. Note that non-invasive approaches should have been applied intensively before a revisional procedure is performed.
Rafael Antonio Luengas Tello
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal endoscopic surgery has been making great progress since the seventies in the management paradigms of conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, polyp resection and diagnostic and therapeutic management of the biliary tract. The current challenge is the development of techniques that allow endoscopic treatment of emerging diseases such as cancer, morbid obesity, gastro-esophageal reflux and achalasia. This article reports on new techniques and expectations for the future in the endoscopic management of these diseases.
Videler, Ward J. M.; Wreesmann, Volkert B.; van der Meulen, Freerk W.; Knegt, Paul P.; Fokkens, Wytske J.
OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is considered to be the golden standard for surgery in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. However, there is still a small group of patients unresponsive despite repetitive surgery. Radical surgery aimed at reduction of the
Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner
Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282
Kim, Jung Hee; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Se, Young-Bem; Kim, Hey In; Lee, Seung Hoon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Yong Hwy
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has recently been introduced in pituitary surgery. We investigated outcomes and complications of endoscopic surgery in 2 referral centers in Korea. We enrolled 134 patients with acromegaly (microadenomas, n = 15; macroadenomas, n = 119) who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at Seoul National University Hospital (n = 74) and Samsung Medical Center (n = 60) between January 2009 and March 2016. Remission was defined as having a normal insulin-like growth factor-1 and a suppressed growth hormone (GH) surgery, normal pituitary function was maintained in 34 patients (25.4%). Sixty-four patients (47.7%) presented complete (n = 59, 44.0%) or incomplete (n = 5, 3.7%) recovery of pituitary function. Hypopituitarism persisted in 20 patients (14.9%) and worsened in 16 patients (11.9%). Postoperatively, transient diabetes insipidus was reported in 52 patients (38.8%) but only persisted in 2 patients (1.5%). Other postoperative complications were epistaxis (n = 2), cerebral fluid leakage (n = 4), infection (n = 1), and intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 1). Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly presented high remission rates and a low incidence of endocrine deficits and complications. Regardless of surgical techniques, invasive pituitary tumors were associated with poor outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH is generally addressed by craniotomy under general anesthesia. We report a patient whose traumatic ASDH was treated under local anesthesia by one-burr-hole endoscopic surgery. This 87-year-old woman had undergone coil embolization for a ruptured right middle-cerebral artery aneurysm and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus 5 years earlier. Upon admission, she manifested consciousness disturbance after suffering head trauma and right hemiplegia. Her Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 (E2V2M4. Computed tomography (CT demonstrated a thick, left-frontotemporal ASDH. Due to her advanced age and poor condition, we performed endoscopic surgery rather than craniotomy to evacuate the ASDH. Under local anesthesia, we made a burr hole in her left forehead and increased its size to 15 mm in diameter. After introducing a transparent sheath into the hematoma cavity with a rigid endoscope, the clot was evacuated with a suction tube. The arterial bleeding point was electrically coagulated. A postoperative CT scan confirmed the reduction of the hematoma. There was neither brain compression nor brain swelling. Her consciousness disturbance and right hemiplegia improved immediately. Endoscopic surgery may represent a viable method to address traumatic intracranial hematomas in some patients.
Fyock, Christopher J; Forsmark, Chris E; Wagh, Mihir S
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently gained great enthusiasm, but there is concern regarding the ability to endoscopically manage complications purely via natural orifices. To assess the feasibility of endoscopically managing enteral perforation during NOTES using currently available endoscopic accessories. Twelve pigs underwent transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic exploration. Full-thickness enterotomies were intentionally created to mimic accidental small bowel lacerations during NOTES. These lacerations were then closed with endoclips. In the blinded arm of the study, small bowel repair was performed by a second blinded endoscopist. Adequate closure of the laceration was confirmed with a leak test. Primary access sites were closed with endoclips or T-anchors. At necropsy, the peritoneal cavity was inspected for abscesses, bleeding, or damage to surrounding structures. The enterotomy site was examined for adequacy of closure, adhesions, or evidence of infection. Fifteen small bowel lacerations were performed in 12 animals. Successful closure was achieved in all 10 cases in the nonblinded arm. Survival animals had an uncomplicated postoperative course and all enterotomy sites were well healed without evidence of necrosis, adhesions, abscess, or bleeding at necropsy. Leak test was negative in all animals. In the blinded arm, both small intestinal lacerations could not be identified by the blinded endoscopist. Necropsy revealed open small bowel lacerations. Small intestinal injuries are difficult to localize with currently available flexible endoscopes and accessories. Endoscopic clips, however, may be adequate for closure of small bowel lacerations if the site of injury is known.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to show that endoscopic surgery is a simple and acceptable method for various problems associated with wounds, range of motion and that such surgery ensures an early return to work after treatment of nonresponding nonseptic bursitis. Methods: Thirty-two patients with nonseptic bursitis caused by repeated minor trauma that did not respond to medical treatment from 2008 to 2012 were included in this study. Radiographic [anteroposterior and lateral], ultrasound, macro and microscopic analyses of drainage liquid and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from the patients for the diagnosis. Results: The mean age was 40.8 years. Fifteen patients had prepatellar bursitis, 13 had olecranon bursitis and 4 had ankle bursitis. Two patients had a history of falling on their knee. The other patients had a history of repetitive stimulation .The mean follow up period was 2.6 years [range. 2-5 years] and no medical complications occurred after the endoscopic surgery; such as scarring, loss of sensation and infection. One recurrence in response to medical treatment was observed. Conclusion: Endoscopic bursectomy is a short and acceptable procedure with excellent results in terms of returning to work early and minimal wound related problems. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 220-223
Kavic, Michael S; Mirza, Brian; Horne, Walter; Moskowitz, Jesse B
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a development of recent origin. In 2004, Kalloo et al first described NOTES investigation in an animal model. Since then, several investigators have pursued NOTES study in animal survival and nonsurvival models. Our objectives for this project included studying NOTES intervention in a laboratory environment using large animal (swine) models and learning to do so in a safe, controlled manner. Ultimately, we intend to introduce NOTES methodology into our surgical residency training program. The expertise of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, fellowship-trained laparoendoscopic surgeon, and veterinarian along with a senior surgical resident was utilized to bring the input of several disciplines to this study. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM/COP) approved this study. A series of 5 laboratory sessions using mixed breed farm swine varying in weight from 37 kg to 43.1 kg was planned for the initial phase of NOTES introduction into our residency program. Animals were not kept alive in this investigation. All animals were anesthetized using a standard swine protocol and euthanized following guidelines issued by the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on Euthanasia. Equipment included a Fujinon EVE endoscope 0.8 cm in diameter with a suction/irrigation channel and one working channel. Initially, a US Endoscopy gastric overtube, 19.5 mm OD and 50 cm in length, was used to facilitate passage of the endoscope. However, this device was found to have insufficient length. Subsequently, commercially available 5/8" diameter clear plastic tubing, 70 cm to 80 cm in length, was adapted for use as an overtube. Standard endoscopic instruments included Boston Scientific biopsy forceps, needle-knife, papillotome, endoscopic clip applier, and Valley Lab electrosurgical unit. A Karl Storz laparoscope and tower were used for
Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Choi, Sung Il; Kang, Byung Mo; Huh, Chang; Choi, Dong Hyun; Lee, Chang Kyun
We report a pure natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES(®); American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy [Oak Brook, IL] and the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons [Los Angeles, CA]) rectosigmoidectomy in animal models using transgastric endoscopic inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) dissection and transanal rectal mobilization. Ten live animals (2 pigs weighing 35-40 kg each and 8 dogs weighing 25-30 kg each) were used. A gastrotomy was made using a needle-knife puncture and the balloon dilatation technique or following the creation of a submucosal tunnel. A circular stapler shaft was transanally inserted up to the sigmoid colon for spatial orientation and traction of the mesocolon. The IMA was endoscopically dissected using a Coagrasper™ (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) and then clipped. Endoscopic division of the sigmoid mesocolon was conducted laterally toward the marginal artery. Transanal full-thickness circumferential rectal and mesorectal dissections were performed, and a colorectal anastomosis was performed using a circular stapler with a single stapling technique. During the transanal approach, the gastrotomy was closed using four endoscopic clips. Endoscopic dissection of the IMA was successful in all cases, but minor bleedings occurred in 3 cases. The mean time from dissection and clipping to division of the IMA was 36.7 minutes (range, 25-45 minutes). The mean operation time was 180.5 minutes (range, 145-210 minutes). There were no intraoperative complications or hemodynamic instability. The mean length of the resected specimen was 11.2 cm (range, 9-17 cm). A pure NOTES approach to rectosigmoid resection using transgastric endoscopic IMA dissection is technically feasible in animal models.
Sergey A. Karpishchenko
Full Text Available Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS is an effective and safe surgical technique, which revolutionized the surgical management of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus diseases. The intimate connection between paranasal sinuses and the orbit places the orbital content at a risk of injury during sinus surgery, especially that of ethmoid sinuses. The orbit, the optic nerve, extraocular muscles and the lacrimal drainage system could be damaged during FESS. The risk of injury correlates to anatomical variations, degree and severity of disease, previous procedure results, and surgical experience. Ophthalmic complications can vary in severity from minor ones, such as localized hematomas, to extremely dangerous, such as optic nerve injury, that could lead to complete blindness. In order to minimize the risk of such complications, it is necessary to consider probable anatomic variations of paranasal sinuses and orbit, which are to be detected by CT scan before surgery.
Go, P M
The introduction of endoscopical surgery has among other things influenced technical developments in surgery. Owing to digitalisation, major progress will be made in imaging and in the sophisticated technology sometimes called robotics. Digital storage makes the results of imaging diagnostics (e.g. the results of radiological examination) suitable for transmission via video conference systems for telediagnostic purposes. The availability of digital video technique renders possible the processing, storage and retrieval of moving images as well. During endoscopical operations use may be made of a robot arm which replaces the camera man. The arm does not grow tired and provides a stable image. The surgeon himself can operate or address the arm and it can remember fixed image positions to which it can return if ordered to do so. The next step is to carry out surgical manipulations via a robot arm. This may make operations more patient-friendly. A robot arm can also have remote control: telerobotics. At the Internet site of this journal a number of supplements to this article can be found, for instance three-dimensional (3D) illustrations (which is the purpose of the 3D spectacles enclosed with this issue) and a quiz (http:@appendix.niwi. knaw.nl).
Eichhorn, Klaus Wolfgang; Westphal, Ralf; Rilk, Markus; Last, Carsten; Bootz, Friedrich; Wahl, Friedrich; Jakob, Mark; Send, Thorsten
Having one hand occupied with the endoscope is the major disadvantage for the surgeon when it comes to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Only the other hand is free to use the surgical instruments. Tiredness or frequent instrument changes can thus lead to shaky endoscopic images. We collected the pose data (position and orientation) of the rigid 0° endoscope and all the instruments used in 16 FESS procedures with manual endoscope guidance as well as robot-assisted endoscope guidance. In combination with the DICOM CT data, we tracked the endoscope poses and workspaces using self-developed tracking markers. All surgeries were performed once with the robot and once with the surgeon holding the endoscope. Looking at the durations required, we observed a decrease in the operating time because one surgeon doing all the procedures and so a learning curve occurred what we expected. The visual inspection of the specimens showed no damages to any of the structures outside the paranasal sinuses. Robot-assisted endoscope guidance in sinus surgery is possible. Further CT data, however, are desirable for the surgical analysis of a tracker-based navigation within the anatomic borders. Our marker-based tracking of the endoscope as well as the instruments makes an automated endoscope guidance feasible. On the subjective side, we see that RASS brings a relief for the surgeon.
Singh, Rohit; Hazarika, Produl; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Balakrishnan, R; Gangwar, Navneeta; Hazarika, Manali
Nasal polyposis is often encountered in rhinology practice. Those who fail conservative management, a definitive surgery is essential to achieve sufficient ventilation and drainage of the affected sinuses by using either microdebrider or conventional instruments for functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). A prospective study was conducted on 40 cases of nasal polypi in a tertiary care hospital. 20 cases were operated by conventional endoscopic instruments and 20 using the microdebrider. The study aimed at comparing the intra operative (blood loss, duration of surgery) and post operative results (crusting, scarring, discharge, symptoms, recurrence) between the two groups using Lund-Mackay scoring system and the data was statistically analysed. There was no statistically significant difference in surgical outcome for patients when either conventional endoscopic instruments or microdebrider was used. However, there was a significant symptomatic improvement in cases undergoing microdebrider FESS. Microdebrider assisted polypectomy is precise, relatively bloodless surgery though the precision depends on the surgeon's anatomical knowledge and operative skills. Study substantiates that these instruments are helpful but not a prerequisite for successful outcomes in FESS. The study re-emphasises the utility of the microdebrider to young learning FESS surgeons.
Korzeniowski, Przemyslaw; Barrow, Alastair; Sodergren, Mikael H; Hald, Niels; Bello, Fernando
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a novel technique in minimally invasive surgery whereby a flexible endoscope is inserted via a natural orifice to gain access to the abdominal cavity, leaving no external scars. This innovative use of flexible endoscopy creates many new challenges and is associated with a steep learning curve for clinicians. We developed NOViSE-the first force-feedback-enabled virtual reality simulator for NOTES training supporting a flexible endoscope. The haptic device is custom-built, and the behaviour of the virtual flexible endoscope is based on an established theoretical framework-the Cosserat theory of elastic rods. We present the application of NOViSE to the simulation of a hybrid trans-gastric cholecystectomy procedure. Preliminary results of face, content and construct validation have previously shown that NOViSE delivers the required level of realism for training of endoscopic manipulation skills specific to NOTES. VR simulation of NOTES procedures can contribute to surgical training and improve the educational experience without putting patients at risk, raising ethical issues or requiring expensive animal or cadaver facilities. In the context of an experimental technique, NOViSE could potentially facilitate NOTES development and contribute to its wider use by keeping practitioners up to date with this novel surgical technique. NOViSE is a first prototype, and the initial results indicate that it provides promising foundations for further development.
Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N
Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.
Full Text Available A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.
Gill, Brijesh S.; Georgeson, Keith E.; Hardin, William D., Jr.
Laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery rely uniquely on high quality display of acquired images, but a multitude of problems plague the researcher who attempts to reproduce such images for educational purposes. Some of these are intrinsic limitations of current laparoscopic/endoscopic visualization systems, while others are artifacts solely of the process used to acquire and reproduce such images. Whatever the genesis of these problems, a glance at current literature will reveal the extent to which endoscopy suffers from an inability to reproduce what the surgeon sees during a procedure. The major intrinsic limitation to the acquisition of high-quality still images from laparoscopic procedures lies in the inability to couple directly a camera to the laparoscope. While many systems have this capability, this is useful mostly for otolaryngologists, who do not maintain a sterile field around their scopes. For procedures in which a sterile field must be maintained, one trial method has been to use a beam splitter to send light both to the still camera and the digital video camera. This is no solution, however, since this results in low quality still images as well as a degradation of the image that the surgeon must use to operate, something no surgeon tolerates lightly. Researchers thus must currently rely on other methods for producing images from a laparoscopic procedure. Most manufacturers provide an optional slide or print maker that provides a hardcopy output from the processed composite video signal. The results achieved from such devices are marginal, to say the least. This leaves only one avenue for possible image production, the videotape record of an endoscopic or laparoscopic operation. Video frame grabbing is at least a problem to which industry has applied considerable time and effort to solving. Our own experience with computerized enhancement of videotape frames has been very promising. Computer enhancement allows the researcher to correct several of the
Iwai, Yoshiyasu; Yoshimura, Masaki; Terada, Aiko; Yamanaka, Kazuhiro; Koshimo, Naomi
We reviewed results of the surgical outcome of pituitary tumors treated via the transsphenoidal approach between January, 1994 and January, 2010 at our institution. This data included 100 patients (124 procedures) treated through the sublabial transsphenoidal approach and 45 patients (54 procedures) treated through the endoscopic endonasal (bilateral nostrils) transsphenoidal approach performed by a single surgeon. The extent of tumor removal was significantly improved with endoscopic surgery; adjuvant gamma knife radiosurgery was needed for 65% of patients undergoing microsurgery vs. 30% for patients who had endoscopic surgery (p<0.0001). Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery had less intraoperative blood loss (mean volume: 100 mL for microsurgery patients vs. 30 mL for endoscopic surgery patients, p<0.0001), less pain, and less need for postoperative hormone replacement therapy (19% for microsurgery patients vs. 6% for endoscopic surgery patients; p<0.05). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and meningitis were experienced in one microsurgery patient (1%) and one endoscopic surgery patient (2.2%). Endoscopic surgery is a reasonable alternative to microsurgery and our experience supports the concept that an otolaryngologist/neurosurgeon team skilled in endoscopic techniques and pituitary surgery can safely make the transition from microsurgery to endoscopic surgery. (author)
Palmer, Orville; Moche, Jason A; Matthews, Stanley
Mucosal preservation is of paramount importance in the diagnosis and surgical management of the sinonasal tract. The endoscope revolutionized the practice of endoscopic nasal surgery. As a result, external sinus surgery is performed less frequently today, and more emphasis is placed on functional endoscopy and preservation of normal anatomy. Endoscopic surgery of the nose and paranasal sinus has provided improved surgical outcomes and has shortened the length of stay in hospital. It has also become a valuable teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Mohammad Javed Ali,1 Swati Singh,1 Milind N Naik,1 Swathi Kaliki,2 Tarjani Vivek Dave1 1The Institute of Dacryology, 2The Operation Eyesight Universal Institute for Eye Cancer, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India Purpose: The aims of this study were to report the preliminary experience of using telescopes, which were enabled for navigation guidance, and their utility in complex endoscopic lacrimal surgeries. Methods: Navigation enabling of the telescope was achieved by using the AxiEM™ malleable neuronavigation shunt stylet. Image-guided dacryolocalization was performed in five patients using the intraoperative image-guided StealthStation™ system in the electromagnetic mode. The “look ahead” protocol software was used to assist the surgeon in assessing the intraoperative geometric location of the endoscope and what lies ahead in real time. All patients underwent navigation-guided powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. The utility of uninterrupted navigation guidance throughout the surgery with the endoscope as the navigating tool was noted. Results: Intraoperative geometric localization of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct could be easily deciphered. Constant orientation of the lacrimal drainage system and the peri-lacrimal anatomy was possible without the need for repeated point localizations throughout the surgery. The “look ahead” features could accurately alert the surgeon of anatomical structures that exists at 5, 10 and 15 mm in front of the endoscope. Good securing of the shunt stylet with the telescope was found to be essential for constant and accurate navigation. Conclusion: Navigation-enabled endoscopes provide the surgeon with the advantage of sustained stereotactic anatomical awareness at all times during the surgery. Keywords: telescope, endoscope, image guidance, navigation, lacrimal surgery, powered endoscopic DCR
Chan, Jason Y K; Leung, Iris; Navarro-Alarcon, David; Lin, Weiyang; Li, Peng; Lee, Dennis L Y; Liu, Yun-hui; Tong, Michael C F
To evaluate the feasibility of a unique prototype foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder (FREE) in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Cadaveric study. Using human cadavers, we investigated the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of the robotic endoscope holder in performing endoscopic sinus surgery with two hands in five cadaver heads, mimicking a single nostril three-handed technique. The FREE robot is relatively easy to use. Setup was quick, taking less than 3 minutes from docking the robot at the head of the bed to visualizing the middle meatus. The unit is also relatively small, takes up little space, and currently has four degrees of freedom. The learning curve for using the foot control was short. The use of both hands was not hindered by the presence of the endoscope in the nasal cavity. The tremor filtration also aided in the smooth movement of the endoscope, with minimal collisions. The FREE endoscope holder in an ex-vivo cadaver test corroborated the feasibility of the robotic prototype, which allows for a two-handed approach to surgery equal to a single nostril three-handed technique without the holder that may reduce operating time. Further studies will be needed to evaluate its safety profile and use in other areas of endoscopic surgery. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:566-569, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Reilink, Rob; de Bruin, Gart; Franken, M.C.J.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Misra, Sarthak; Stramigioli, Stefano
In current video-assisted thoracic surgery, the endoscopic camera is operated by an assistant of the surgeon, which has several disadvantages. This paper describes a system which enables the surgeon to control the endoscopic camera without the help of an assistant. The system is controlled using
Witteman, Bart P. L.; Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Snijders, Gitte; Koek, Ger H.; Conchillo, José M.; Bouvy, Nicole D.
Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF), a novel endoscopic procedure for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), currently is under evaluation. In case of treatment failure, subsequent revisional laparoscopic antireflux surgery (rLARS) may be required. This study aimed to evaluate the
of postoperative pulmonary function and less hypoxemia with endoscopic operation. The slight modification of surgical stress responses by endoscopic surgery is in contrast to the common, though not universal, demonstration of less pain, shorter hospital stay, and less morbidity after endoscopic surgery...... operations where differences are more likely to be found. The clinical consequences of these findings in relation to all over surgical outcome remain to be defined, but effective pain treatment, stress reduction by other techniques, and provision of an active rehabilitation program with early mobilization...
Katic, N; Dupré, G
Although endoscopic surgery entered its "golden era" in the mid-1980s, it is still advancing at a tremendous pace. Novel surgical techniques and devices are continuously developed and applied, and new indications (and/or contraindications) for the use of endoscopic surgery are routinely reported in the literature and subjected to systematic assessments. Although endoscopic surgery (laparoscopy in particular) has already become established as the gold standard in human medicine, it has yet to be proven as a viable alternative to open surgery in the field of veterinary medicine. The advantages of minimally invasive surgery include better intra-operative visualization, reduced postoperative pain, reduced scar formation and increased postoperative mobility. Therefore, it is reasonable to expect that the application of this will continue to expand. Small animal reproduction, a field within the broad discipline of veterinary medicine, has already recognized and begun to reap the benefits of endoscopic surgery. Herein, we retrospectively review the most recent successful novel applications of endoscopic surgery in the small animal reproduction system to provide small animal reproductive surgeons with important knowledge to help improve their own veterinarian medical practice. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The endoscopic endonasal approach for the sellar region lesions is a novel technique and an effective surgical option. The evidence thus far has been conflicting with reports in favour and against a learning curve. We attempt to determine the learning curve associated with this approach. METHODS Retrospective and prospective data of the patients who were surgically treated for sellar region lesions between the year 2013 and 2016 was collected, 32 patients were operated by the endoscopic endonasal approach at Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bangalore. Age, sex, presenting symptoms, length of hospital stay, surgical approach, type of dissection, duration of surgery, sellar floor repair, intraoperative and postoperative complications were noted. All the procedures were performed by a single neurosurgeon. RESULTS A total of 32 patients were operated amongst which 21 patients were non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 2 were growth hormone secreting functional adenomas, 1 was an invasive pituitary adenoma, 4 were craniopharyngiomas, 2 were meningiomas, 1 was Rathke’s cleft cyst and 1 was a clival chordoma. Headache was the mode of presentation in 12 patients, 12 patients had visual deficits, 6 patients presented with hormonal disturbances amongst which 4 patients presented with features of panhypopituitarism and 2 with acromegaly. Amongst the 4 patients with panhypopituitarism, 2 also had DI, two patients presented with CSF rhinorrhoea. There was a 100% improvement in the patients who presented with visual symptoms. Gross total resection was achieved in all 4 cases of craniopharyngiomas and 13 cases of pituitary adenomas. Postoperative CSF leak was seen in 4 patients who underwent re-exploration and sellar floor repair, 9 patients had postoperative Diabetes Insipidus (DI which was transient, the incidence of DI reduced towards the end of the study. There was a 25% decrease in the operating time towards the end of
Campo, Rudi; Wattiez, Arnaud; Tanos, Vasilis; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Grimbizis, Grigoris; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara; Puga, Marco; Molinas, Roger; O'Donovan, Peter; Deprest, Jan; Van Belle, Yves; Lissens, Ann; Herrmann, Anja; Tahir, Mahmood; Benedetto, Chiara; Siebert, Igno; Rabischong, Benoit; De Wilde, Rudy Leon
In recent years, training and education in endoscopic surgery has been critically reviewed. Clinicians, both surgeons as gynaecologist who perform endoscopic surgery without proper training of the specific psychomotor skills are at higher risk to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the apprentice-tutor model has long been a successful approach for training of surgeons, recently, clinicians have recognised that endoscopic surgery requires an important training phase outside the operating theatre. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA), recognises the necessity of this structured approach and implements two separated stages in its learning strategy. In the first stage, a skill certificate on theoretical knowledge and specific practical psychomotor skills is acquired through a high stake exam; in the second stage, a clinical programme is completed to achieve surgical competence and receive the corresponding diploma. Three diplomas can be awarded: (a) the Bachelor in Endoscopy; (b) the Minimally Invasive Gynaecological Surgeon (MIGS); and (c) the Master level. The Master level is sub-divided into two separate diplomas: the Master in Laparoscopic Pelvic Surgery and the Master in Hysteroscopy. The complexity of modern surgery has increased the demands and challenges to surgical education and the quality control. This programme is based on the best available scientific evidence and it counteracts the problem of the traditional surgical apprentice tutor model. It is seen as a major step toward standardization of endoscopic surgical training in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Shilpee Bhatia; Janakiram, Trichy Narayanan; Baxi, Hina; Chinnasamy, Balamurugan
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive benign tumour which has propensity to erode the skull base. The tumour spreads along the pathways of least resistance and is in close proximity to the extracranial part of trigeminal nerve. Advancements in expanded approaches for endoscopic excision of tumours in infratemporal fossa and pterygopalatine fossa increase the vulnerability for the trigeminocardiac reflex. The manipulation of nerve and its branches during tumour dissection can lead to sensory stimulation and thus inciting the reflex. The aim of our study is to report the occurrence of trigeminocardiac reflex in endoscopic excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. To describe the occurence of trigeminocardiac reflex during endoscopic endonasal excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. We studied the occurrence of TCR in 15 patients (out of 242 primary cases and 52 revision cases) operated for endoscopic endonasal excision of JNA. The drop in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were observed and measured. To the best of our knowledge of English literature, this is the first case series reporting TCR as complication in endoscopic excision of JNA. occurence of this reflex has been mentioned in various occular, maxillofacial surgeries but its occurence during endoscopic excision of JNA has never been reported before. Manifestation of trigeminocardiac reflex during surgery can alter the course of the surgery and is a potential threat to life. It is essential for the anesthetist and surgeons to be familiar with the presentations, preventive measures and management protocols.
João Manoel Silva, Jr.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Currently, endoscopic medicine is being increasingly used, albeit not without risks. Therefore, this study evaluated the factors associated with perioperative complications in endoscopic surgery with intraoperative irrigation. Method: A cohort study of six months duration. Patients aged ≥ 18 years undergoing endoscopic surgery with the use of irrigation ﬂuids during the intraoperative period were included. Exclusion criteria were: use of diuretics, kidney failure, cognitive impairment, hyponatremia prior to surgery, pregnancy, and critically ill. The patients who presented with or without complications during the perioperative period were allocated into two groups. Complications evaluated were related to neurological, cardiovascular and renal changes, and perioperative bleeding. Results: In total, 181 patients were enrolled and 39 excluded; therefore, 142 patients met the study criteria. Patients with complications amounted to 21.8%, with higher prevalence in endoscopic prostate surgery, followed by hysteroscopy, bladder, knee, and shoulder arthroscopy (58.1%, 36.9%, 19.4%, 3.8%, 3.2% respectively. When comparing both groups, we found association with complications in univariate analysis: age, sex, smoking, heart disease, ASA, serum sodium at the end of surgery, total irrigation ﬂuid administered, TURP, and hysteroscopy. However, in multiple regression analysis for complications, only age (OR = 1.048, serum sodium (OR = 0.962, and volume of irrigation ﬂuid administered during surgery (OR = 1.001 were independent variables. Keywords: Anesthesia, Endoscopy, Hyponatremia, Postoperative Complications, Risk Assessment, Risk Factors.
Sakai, Y; Kobayashi, S; Watanabe, E; Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K
In the reconstruction of asymmetrical deformities of the facial skeleton, both an endoscope and a neuronavigator have been used. The endoscope allows the surgeon a wide view of the object on a television monitor, reduces the scarring, minimizes the undermined field, and reduces the need to work blind. The neuronavigator is a frameless computed tomographic stereotactic device that has been mainly used in neurosurgery. The device is easy to use and can offer the surgeon three-dimensional coordinates of the status during the operation. We have used this new technique in three clinical cases, two involving augmentation of the zygomatic bone on one side and one involving reduction of the frontal bone on one side. The surgical techniques we used and the versatility of both the endoscope and the neuronavigator are discussed herein based on our own experience.
Assouad, J; Fénane, H; Masmoudi, H; Giol, M; Karsenti, A; Gounant, V; Grunenwald, D
Early pain and persistent parietal disorders remains a major unresolved problem in thoracic surgery. Thoracotomy and the use of multiple ports in most Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) procedures are the major cause of this persistent pain. For the last decade, a few publications describing the use of either single incision VATS and cervical thoracic approaches have been reported without significant results in comparison with current used techniques. Intercostals compression during surgery and early after by intercostals chest tube placement, are probably the major cause of postoperative pain. Flexible endoscope is currently used in several surgeries and will take more and more importance in our daily use in thoracic surgery. Instrument flexibility allows its use through minimally invasive approaches and offers a very interesting intra-thoracic navigation. We describe here the first use in France of a flexible endoscope in thoracic surgery through a single cervical incision to perform simultaneous exploration and biopsies of the mediastinum and right pleura using the original approach of Cervical Incision Thoracic Endoscopic Surgery (CITES). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Georgalas, C.; Kania, R.; Guichard, J.-P.; Sauvaget, E.; Tran Ba Huy, P.; Herman, P.
Surgery for cholesterol granulomas involving the petrous apex has traditionally been performed via a lateral skull base approach. We present a case-series of four cholesterol granulomas treated through the endoscopic-transsphenoid approach over the last 10 years. Drainage was successful and
Sherwinter, Danny A; Eckstein, Jeremy G
A potentially less-invasive technique, transluminal surgery, may reduce or eliminate pain and decrease time to full return of activities after abdominal operations. Inguinal hernia repair is perfectly suited to the transgastric endoscopic approach and has not been previously reported. Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of transgastric bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy (BIH). Feasibility study with a nonsurvival canine model. Under general anesthesia, male mongrel dogs weighing 20 to 30 kg had a dual-channel endoscope introduced into the peritoneal cavity over a percutaneously placed guidewire. An overtube with an insufflation channel was used. Peritoneoscopy was performed, and bilateral deep and superficial inguinal rings were identified. The endoscope was removed, premounted with a 4 x 6 cm acellular human dermal implant and then readvanced intraperitoneally through the overtube. The implant was then deployed across the entire myopectineal orifice and draped over the cord structures. Bioglue was then applied endoscopically, and the implant was attached to the peritoneum. After completion of bilateral repairs, the animals were killed and necropsy performed. Five dogs underwent pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) BIH. Accurate placement and adequate myopectineal coverage was accomplished in all subjects. At necropsy no injuries to the major structures were noted but Bioglue misapplication with contamination of unintended sites did occur. Our study involved only a small number of subjects in nonsurvival experiments, and no gastric closure was used. Many of the characteristics of inguinal hernia repair are especially well suited to the transgastric approach. The repair is in line with the transgastric endoscope vector, bilateral defects are adjacent, and the IPOM technique does not require significant manipulation or novel instrumentation.
Full Text Available To verify the reliability and clinical feasibility of a self-developed navigation system based on an augmented reality technique for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery.In this study we performed a head phantom and cadaver experiment to determine the display effect and accuracy of our navigational system. We compared cadaver head-based simulated operations, the target registration error, operation time, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores of our navigation system to conventional navigation systems.The navigation system developed in this study has a novel display mode capable of fusing endoscopic images to three-dimensional (3-D virtual images. In the cadaver head experiment, the target registration error was 1.28 ± 0.45 mm, which met the accepted standards of a navigation system used for nasal endoscopic surgery. Compared with conventional navigation systems, the new system was more effective in terms of operation time and the mental workload of surgeons, which is especially important for less experienced surgeons.The self-developed augmented reality navigation system for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery appears to have advantages that outweigh those of conventional navigation systems. We conclude that this navigational system will provide rhinologists with more intuitive and more detailed imaging information, thus reducing the judgment time and mental workload of surgeons when performing complex sinus and skull base surgeries. Ultimately, this new navigational system has potential to increase the quality of surgeries. In addition, the augmented reality navigational system could be of interest to junior doctors being trained in endoscopic techniques because it could speed up their learning. However, it should be noted that the navigation system serves as an adjunct to a surgeon's skills and knowledge, not as a substitute.
Li, Liang; Yang, Jian; Chu, Yakui; Wu, Wenbo; Xue, Jin; Liang, Ping; Chen, Lei
Objective To verify the reliability and clinical feasibility of a self-developed navigation system based on an augmented reality technique for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery. Materials and Methods In this study we performed a head phantom and cadaver experiment to determine the display effect and accuracy of our navigational system. We compared cadaver head-based simulated operations, the target registration error, operation time, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores of our navigation system to conventional navigation systems. Results The navigation system developed in this study has a novel display mode capable of fusing endoscopic images to three-dimensional (3-D) virtual images. In the cadaver head experiment, the target registration error was 1.28 ± 0.45 mm, which met the accepted standards of a navigation system used for nasal endoscopic surgery. Compared with conventional navigation systems, the new system was more effective in terms of operation time and the mental workload of surgeons, which is especially important for less experienced surgeons. Conclusion The self-developed augmented reality navigation system for endoscopic sinus and skull base surgery appears to have advantages that outweigh those of conventional navigation systems. We conclude that this navigational system will provide rhinologists with more intuitive and more detailed imaging information, thus reducing the judgment time and mental workload of surgeons when performing complex sinus and skull base surgeries. Ultimately, this new navigational system has potential to increase the quality of surgeries. In addition, the augmented reality navigational system could be of interest to junior doctors being trained in endoscopic techniques because it could speed up their learning. However, it should be noted that the navigation system serves as an adjunct to a surgeon’s skills and knowledge, not as a substitute. PMID:26757365
Li, Chiao-Zhu; Li, Chiao-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-Chuan; Lin, Meng-Chi; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Liu, Feng-Chen; Chen, Yuan-Hao
The fatal type of antiphospholipid syndrome is a rare but life-threating condition. It may be triggered by surgery or infection. Endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery is a common procedure for pituitary tumor. We report a catastrophic case of a young woman died of fatal antiphospholipid syndrome following endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery. A 31-year-old woman of a history of stroke received endoscopic transnasal-transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary tumor. The whole procedure was smooth. However, the patient suffered from acute delirium on postoperative day 4. Then, her consciousness became comatose state rapidly with dilatation of pupils. Urgent magnetic resonance imaging of brain demonstrated multiple acute lacunar infarcts. The positive antiphosphoipid antibody and severe thrombocytopenia were also noted. Fatal antiphospholipid syndrome was diagnosed. Plasma exchange, corticosteroids, anticoagulant agent were prescribed. The hemodynamic condition was gradually stable. However, the consciousness was still in deep coma. The patient died of organ donation 2 months later. If patients have a history of cerebral stroke in their early life, such as a young stroke, the APS and higher risk of developing fatal APS after major surgery should be considered. The optimal management of APS remains controversial. The best treatment strategies are only early diagnosis and aggressive therapies combing of anticoagulant, corticosteroid, and plasma exchange. The intravenous immunoglobulin is prescribed for patients with refractory APS.
Yu, Huanxin; Liu, Gang
To evaluate the effectiveness of transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach for the surgery of pituitary abscess. Eighteen pathologically diagnosed pituitary abscess were resected through transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach at Tianjing Huanhu hospital between January 2000 and December 2011.Retrospective analysis was done upon clinical presentations and imaging features. There were 6 males and 12 females. The average age was 48.5 years old and the average disease course was 5.8 years. The typical clinical manifestations included headache (13 cases), pituitary dysfunction (10 cases), Diabetes Insipidus (4 cases) visual interference (8 cases) and fever (4 cases). All cases were resected by transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach with general anesthesia. The postoperative symptoms and follow-up results were recorded. All patients were followed up from 6 months to 6 years. Postoperatively, headache was recovered in 13 cases, visual was improved in 6 cases, hypopituitarism was relieved in 8 cases and polyuria was disappeared in 3 cases. One case was recurrent and cured by transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach. Transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach for the surgery of pituitary abscess is effective.
Donatsky, Anders Meller; Vilmann, Peter; Meisner, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Rosenberg, Jacob
Human natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has mainly been based on simultaneous laparoscopic assistance (hybrid NOTES), forgoing the theoretical benefits of the NOTES technique. This is due to a lack of NOTES-specific instruments and endoscopes, making pure-NOTES procedures difficult and time consuming. An area where pure NOTES could be adopted at its present stage of development is minimally invasive staging of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of combining transgastric (TG) pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy and intraperitoneal endoscopic ultrasonography (ip-EUS) with intraluminal EUS (il-EUS) for peritoneal evaluation. This was a feasibility and survival study where il-EUS followed by ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy was performed in 10 pigs subjected to TG pure NOTES. A score was given with regard to achieved visualisation of predefined anatomical structures. Survival was assessed at postoperative day (POD) 14. All animals survived until POD 14. Median total procedural time was 94 min (range 74-130 min). Median time for il-EUS, ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy was 11 min (range 7-14 min), 13 min (range 8-20 min) and 10 min (range 6-23 min). Il-EUS, ip-EUS and peritoneoscopy resulted in a score of 15/15 points (range 14-15 points), 6/9 points (range 1-8 points) and 12/13 points (range 8-13 points). TG pure-NOTES peritoneoscopy and ip-EUS combined with il-EUS is feasible and provides sufficient peritoneal evaluation. The technique could have potential for minimally invasive staging of GI cancers.
Mamelak, Adam N; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien H; Cooper, Odelia; Melmed, Shlomo
The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery using a single-surgeon technique as an alternative to the more commonly employed two-surgeon, three-hand method. Three hundred consecutive endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures performed over a 5 year period from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed. All procedures were performed via a binasal approach utilizing a single surgeon two handed technique with a pneumatic endoscope holder. Expanded enodnansal cases were excluded. Surgical technique, biochemical and surgical outcomes, and complications were analyzed. 276 patients underwent 300 consecutive surgeries with a mean follow-up period of 37 ± 22 months. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) was the most common pathology (n = 152), followed by growth hormone secreting tumors (n = 41) and Rathke's cleft cysts (n = 30). Initial gross total cyst drainage based on radiologic criteria was obtained in 28 cases of Rathke's cleft cyst, with 5 recurrences. For NFPA and other pathologies (n = 173) gross total resection was obtained in 137 cases, with a 92% concordance rate between observed and expected extent of resection. For functional adenoma, remission rates were 30/41 (73%) for GH-secreting, 12/12 (100%) for ACTH-secreting, and 8/17 (47%) for prolactin-secreting tumors. Post-operative complications included transient (11%) and permanent (1.4%) diabetes insipidus, hyponatremia (13%), and new anterior pituitary hormonal deficits (1.4%). CSF leak occurred in 42 cases (15%), and four patients required surgical repair. Two carotid artery injuries occurred, both early in the series. Epistaxis and other rhinological complications were noted in 10% of patients, most of which were minor and diminished as surgical experience increased. Fully endoscopic single surgeon transsphenoidal surgery utilizing a binasal approach and a pneumatic endoscope holder yields outcomes comparable to those reported with a two-surgeon method. Endoscopic outcomes
Mizutani, Taro; Tadauchi, Akimitsu; Arinobe, Manabu; Narita, Yuji; Kato, Ryuji; Niwa, Yasumasa; Ohmiya, Naoki; Itoh, Akihiro; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Honda, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Minoru; Goto, Hidemi
Recently, novel endoscopic surgery, including endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), was developed to resect a large superficial gastrointestinal cancer. However, circumferential endoscopic surgery in the esophagus can lead to esophageal stricture that affects the patient's quality of life. This major complication is caused by scar formation, and develops during the two weeks after endoscopic surgery. We hypothesized that local administration of a controlled release anti-scarring agent can prevent esophageal stricture after endoscopic surgery. The aims of this study were to develop an endoscopically injectable anti-scarring drug delivery system, and to verify the efficacy of our strategy to prevent esophageal stricture. We focused on 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) as an anti-scarring agent, which has already been shown to be effective not only for treatment of cancers, but also for treatment of hypertrophic skin scars. 5-FU was encapsulated by liposome, and then mixed with injectable 2% atelocollagen (5FLC: 5FU-liposome-collagen) to achieve sustained release. An in vitro 5-FU releasing test from 5FLC was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Inhibition of cell proliferation was investigated using normal human dermal fibroblast cells (NHDF) with 5FLC. In addition, a canine esophageal mucosal resection was carried out, and 5FLC was endoscopically injected into the ulcer immediately after the operation, and compared with a similar specimen injected with saline as a control. 5-FU was gradually released from 5FLC for more than 2 weeks in vitro. The solution of 5-FU released from 5FLC inhibited NHDF proliferation more effectively than 5-FU alone. In the canine model, no findings of stricture were observed in the 5FLC-treated dog at 4 weeks after the operation and no vomiting occurred. In contrast, marked esophageal strictures were observed with repeated vomiting in the control group. Submucosal fibrosis was markedly reduced histologically in the 5FLC
Poshataev, V K; Shimansky, V N; Tanyashin, S V; Karnaukhov, V V
During the period of 2010-2012, 33 patients with cerebellopontine angle tumors were operated on at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Moscow, Russia) using different types of endoscopic assistance. All patients were operated on via the retrosigmoid suboccipital approach in semi-sitting and prone positions. 30° and 70° endoscopes were used during the surgery. Endoscopic assistance allowed us to increase the completeness of tumor removal and to reduce the risk of postoperative complications by retaining the anatomic integrity of cranial nerves and vascular structures in the base of the posterior cranial fossa. These benefits made it possible to maintain and improve quality of life in patients with CPA tumors in the postoperative period.
V N Azizyan
Full Text Available Over the past century pituitary surgery has undergone multiple revolutions in surgical technique and technological advancements that have resulted in what is now recognized as modern transsphenoidal surgery. Although the procedure is well established in the current neurosurgical literature, the historical maze that led to its development continues to be of interest because it allows us to appreciate better the unique contributions made by the pioneers of the technique as well as the innovative spirit that continues to fuel neurosurgery.
Ochalski, Pawel; Chivukula, Srinivas; Shin, Samuel; Prevedello, Daniel; Engh, Johnathan
Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional open surgical management strategies offer limited benefit except for the most superficial hemorrhages in select patients. Recent reports suggest that endoscopic approaches may improve outcomes, particularly for deep subcortical hemorrhages. However, the management of these patients remains controversial. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic port surgery to identify characteristics that may predict acceptable outcomes. We completed a retrospective chart and imaging review of patients who underwent endoscopic port surgery for evacuation of spontaneous ICH at a single center. Data were gathered regarding patient demographics, hemorrhage locations, operative findings, and clinical outcomes. From 2007 to 2011, 18 patients underwent evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas using an endoscopic port. The mean age in years was 62 years (range, 43-84 years). Six of 18 patients (33%) died before discharge, and 2 others (11%) died after at least 1 month of survival. Of 12 initial survivors, all were discharged to a rehabilitation or nursing facility. Complete hematoma evacuation was achieved in 7 of 18 patients, with the remaining 11 having a partial evacuation. The patients who died (n = 6) before discharge were statistically more likely to have a left-sided hemorrhage, partial evacuation, or older age than the survivors; death at least 1 month after evacuation was additionally associated with greater preoperative hematoma volumes. Our series demonstrates that endoscopic port surgery for acute intracerebral hematoma evacuation has the ability to achieve significant decompression of large and deep-seated hematomas. Patient age, extent of evacuation, laterality, and preoperative hematoma volume appear to influence patient outcome. Most overall outcomes remain poor. Future studies are necessary to determine if surgical evacuation is in fact superior to best
Tomasko, Jonathan M.; Mathew, Abraham; Moyer, Matthew T.; Haluck, Randy S.; Pauli, Eric M.
Background and Objectives: Bowel distention from luminal gas insufflation reduces the peritoneal operative domain during natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures, increases the risk for iatrogenic injury, and leads to postoperative patient discomfort. Methods: A prototype duodenal occlusion device was placed in the duodenum before NOTES in 28 female pigs. The occlusion balloon was inflated and left in place during the procedure, and small bowel distension was subject...
Lü, Xiaofei; Han, Demin; Zhou, Bing; Ding, Bin
In order to pay our attention to the perioperative treatment before nasal endoscopic surgery. Three patients with asthma accompanied chronic sinusitis were analyzed systemically, who had undergone acute attacks of asthma introduced by anesthesia. Anesthetic drugs and instruments can lead to acute attacks of asthma, because sinusitis with asthma means allergic airway inflammation, broncho-hyperreactivity and lower compensatory pulmonary function. Then all of the 3 cases had missed the preoperative treatment. Anesthetic drugs and instruments can lead to acute attacks of asthma. The perioperative treatment before nasal endoscopic surgery is very important for the prevention of the occurrences of this severe complication. Except emergency, the operation should be can celled for avoiding the acute attack of asthma introduced by anesthesia.
Fomichev, Dmitry; Kalinin, Pavel; Kutin, Maxim; Sharipov, Oleg
The endoscopic extended transsphenoidal approach for suprasellar craniopharyngiomas may be a really alternative to the transcranial approach in many cases. The authors present their experience with this technique in 136 patients with craniopharyngiomas. From the past 7 years 204 patients with different purely supradiaphragmatic tumors underwent removal by extended endoscopic transsphenoidal transtuberculum transplanum approach. Most of the patients (136) had craniopharyngiomas (suprasellar, intra-extraventricular). The patients were analyzed according to age, sex, tumor size, growth and tumor structure, and clinical symptoms. Twenty-five patients had undergone a previous surgery. The mean follow-up was 42 months (range, 4-120 months). The operation is always performed with the bilateral endoscopic endonasal anterior extended transsphenoidal approach. A gross-total removal was completed in 72%. Improvement of vision or absence of visual deterioration after operation was observed in 89% of patients; 11% had worsening vision after surgery. Endocrine dysfunction did not improve after surgery, new hypotalamopituitary dysfunction (anterior pituitary dysfunction or diabetes insipidus) or worsening of it was observed in 42.6%. Other main complications included transient new mental disorder in 11%, temporary neurological postoperative deficits in 3.7%, bacterial meningitis in 16%, cerebrospinal fluid leaks in 8.8%. The recurrence rate was 20% and the lethality was 5.8%. Resection of suprasellar craniopharyngiomas using the extended endoscopic approach is a more effective and less traumatic technology, able to provide resection of the tumor along with high quality of life after surgery, and relatively rare postoperative complications and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Researchers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory worked with the brain surgeon who directs the Skull Base Institute in Los Angeles to create the first endoscope fit for brain surgery and capable of producing 3D video images. It is also the first to be able to steer its lens back and forth. These improvements to visibility are expected to improve safety, speeding patient recovery and reducing medical costs.
Wolf, Amparo; Coros, Alexandra; Bierer, Joel; Goncalves, Sandy; Cooper, Paul; Van Uum, Stan; Lee, Donald H; Proulx, Alain; Nicolle, David; Fraser, J Alexander; Rotenberg, Brian W; Duggal, Neil
OBJECTIVE Endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas has been reported to improve vision function in up to 80%-90% of patients with visual impairment due to these adenomas. It is unclear how these reported rates translate into improvement in visual outcomes and general health as perceived by the patients. The authors evaluated self-assessed health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) and vision-related QOL (VR-QOL) in patients before and after endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. METHODS The authors prospectively collected data from 50 patients who underwent endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. This cohort included 32 patients (64%) with visual impairment preoperatively. Twenty-seven patients (54%) had pituitary dysfunction, including 17 (34%) with hormone-producing tumors. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey preoperatively and 6 weeks and 6 months after surgery. RESULTS Patients with preoperative visual impairment reported a significant impact of this condition on VR-QOL preoperatively, including general vision, near activities, and peripheral vision; they also noted vision-specific impacts on mental health, role difficulties, dependency, and driving. After endoscopic resection of adenomas, patients reported improvement across all these categories 6 weeks postoperatively, and this improvement was maintained by 6 months postoperatively. Patients with preoperative pituitary dysfunction, including hormone-producing tumors, perceived their general health and physical function as poorer, with some of these patients reporting improvement in perceived general health after the endoscopic surgery. All patients noted that their ability to work or perform activities of daily living was transiently reduced 6 weeks postoperatively, followed by significant improvement by 6 months after the surgery. CONCLUSIONS Both VR-QOL and patient's perceptions of their ability to do work and
Wolfsberger, Stefan; Neubauer, André; Bühler, Katja; Wegenkittl, Rainer; Czech, Thomas; Gentzsch, Stephan; Böcher-Schwarz, Hans-Gerd; Knosp, Engelbert
Virtual endoscopy (vE) is the navigation of a camera through a virtual anatomical space that is computationally reconstructed from radiological image data. Inside this three-dimensional space, arbitrary movements and adaptations of viewing parameters are possible. Thereby, vE can be used for noninvasive diagnostic purposes and for simulation of surgical tasks. This article describes the development of an advanced system of vE for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery and its application to teaching, training, and in the routine clinical setting. The vE system was applied to a series of 35 patients with pituitary pathology (32 adenomas, three Rathke's cleft cysts) operated endoscopically via the transsphenoidal route at the Department of Neurosurgery of the Medical University Vienna between 2004 and 2006. The virtual endoscopic images correlated well with the intraoperative view. For the transsphenoidal approach, vE improved intraoperative orientation by depicting anatomical landmarks and variations. For planning a safe and tailored opening of the sellar floor, transparent visualization of the pituitary adenoma and the normal gland in relation to the internal carotid arteries was useful. According to our experience, vE can be a valuable tool for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for training purposes and preoperative planning. For the novice, it can act as a simulator for endoscopic anatomy and for training surgical tasks. For the experienced pituitary surgeon, vE can depict the individual patient's anatomy, and may, therefore, improve intraoperative orientation. By prospectively visualizing unpredictable anatomical variations, vE may increase the safety of this surgical procedure.
Aryan, Saritha; Thakar, Sumit; Hegde, A S
Infarction in the artery of Percheron territory is a rare phenomenon in which occlusion of an unpaired perforating artery arising from the P1 segment on one side results in infarcts in the bilateral paramedian thalami with or without midbrain infarcts. We describe the case of a 40-year-old male who developed this complication following re-exploratory trans-sphenoidal surgery for a pituitary adenoma. In this first report of its kind in endoscopic pituitary surgery, the pathogenesis and clinico-radiological features of this rare vascular event are discussed.
Freeman, Lynetta J; Rahmani, Emad Y; Sherman, Stuart; Chiorean, Michael V; Selzer, Don J; Constable, Peter D; Snyder, Paul W
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) represents a potentially less-invasive alternative to conventional or laparoscopic surgery. Our purpose was to develop a canine oophorectomy model for prospective evaluation of intraoperative complications, surgical stress, and postoperative pain and recovery with NOTES. Feasibility study. Academic preclinical research. Ten healthy female dogs. NOTES procedures were performed through gastric access with an electrocautery snare to resect and retrieve the ovaries. The gastrotomy was closed with prototype T-fasteners. Operative time; complications; postoperative pain scores, and nociceptive threshold; surgical stress markers (interleukin-6 [IL-6], C-reactive protein); systemic stress parameters (cortisol, glucose); necropsy evaluation at 10 to 14 days. The mean operative time was 154 minutes (SD +/- 58 minutes) and no animals died as a result of complications from the procedure. The primary difficulty was incomplete ovarian excision and conversion to an open procedure in 1 dog. Serum glucose concentrations increased after surgery and remained elevated for at least 36 hours. The serum cortisol concentration was transiently increased from baseline at 2 hours after surgery. The serum IL-6 concentration peaked at 2 hours after surgery and returned to the baseline value by 18 hours. The serum C-reactive protein concentration increased significantly from baseline, peaked at 12 hours after surgery, and then slowly declined toward baseline but remained elevated at 72 hours after surgery. Nociceptive threshold measurements indicated increased sensitivity to pain for 2 to 24 hours after surgery. At necropsy, surgical sites were healing uneventfully with no significant damage to surrounding organs, no significant growth on bacterial cultures, and no evidence of peritonitis. Small number of animals, single center. The NOTES approach to oophorectomy in dogs appears to be a reasonable alternative to traditional surgery
Gondim, Jackson A; Almeida, João Paulo; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne F; Gomes, Erika; Schops, Michele; Mota, Jose Italo
With the increase in the average life expectancy, medical care of elderly patients with symptomatic pituitary adenoma (PA) will continue to grow. Little information exists in the literature about the surgical treatment of these patients. The aim of this study was to present the results of a single pituitary center in the surgical treatment of PAs in patients > 70 years of age. In this retrospective study, 55 consecutive elderly patients (age ≥ 70 years) with nonfunctioning PAs underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at the General Hospital of Fortaleza, Brazil, between May 2000 and December 2012. The clinical and radiological results in this group were compared with 2 groups of younger patients: surgery for treatment of PAs. The mean follow-up period was 50 months (range 12-144 months). The most common symptoms were visual impairment in 38 (69%) patients, headache in 16 (29%) patients, and complete ophthalmoplegia in 6 (10.9%). Elderly patients presented a higher incidence of ophthalmoplegia (p = 0.032) and a lower frequency of pituitary apoplexy before surgery (p transsphenoidal surgery for elderly patients with PAs may be associated with higher complication rates, especially secondary to early transitory complications, when compared with surgery performed in younger patients. Although the worst preoperative clinical status might be observed in this group, age alone is not associated with a worst final prognosis after endoscopic removal of nonfunctioning PAs.
Byron F Santos; Eric S Hungness
Since the first description of the concept of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), a substantial number of clinical NOTES reports have appeared in the literature. This editorial reviews the available human data addressing research questions originally proposed by the white paper, including determining the optimal method of access for NOTES, developing safe methods of lumenal closure, suturing and anastomotic devices,advanced multitasking platforms, addressing the risk of infection, managing complications, addressing challengeswith visualization, and training for NOTES procedures.An analysis of the literature reveals that so far transvaginal access and closure appear to be the most feasible techniques for NOTES, with a limited, but growing transgastric, transrectal, and transesophageal NOTES experience in humans. The theoretically increased risk of infection as a result of NOTES procedures has not been substantiated in transvaginal and transgastric procedures so far. Development of suturing and anastomotic devices and advanced platforms for NOTES has progressed slowly,with limited clinical data on their use so far. Data on the optimal management and incidence of intraoperative complications remain sparse, although possible factorscontributing to complications are discussed. Finally, this editorial discusses the likely direction of future NOTES development and its possible role in clinical practice.
Goudakos, J. K.; Markou, K. D.; Georgalas, C.
Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal surgery has been increasingly replacing microscopic surgery as the state of the art trans-sphenoidal approach. To assess the efficacy and safety of pure endoscopic approach in comparison with microscopic approach in pituitary surgery. Literature review and meta-analysis.
Donatsky, Anders Meller
The objective was to investigate whether transgastric Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) could be implemented safely in clinical practice. The experimental studies proved ultrasonography guided access through the stomach to be feasible and safe without iatrogenic complications......-abdominal abscess formation as a result of contamination from the access route was still present. To reduce this contamination, mouthwash with chlorhexidine was effective in a human randomised study. The same study also found significant higher bacterial load in the stomach of patients using proton pump inhibitor...
Székely, G; Bajka, M; Brechbühler, C; Dual, J; Enzler, R; Haller, U; Hug, J; Hutter, R; Ironmonger, N; Kauer, M; Meier, V; Niederer, P; Rhomberg, A; Schmid, P; Schweitzer, G; Thaler, M; Vuskovic, V; Tröster, G
Virtual reality (VR) based surgical simulator systems offer very elegant possibilities to both enrich and enhance traditional education in endoscopic surgery. However, while a wide range of VR simulator systems have been proposed and realized in the past few years, most of these systems are far from able to provide a reasonably realistic surgical environment. We explore the basic approaches to the current limits of realism and ultimately seek to extend these based on our description and analysis of the most important components of a VR-based endoscopic simulator. The feasibility of the proposed techniques is demonstrated on a first modular prototype system implementing the basic algorithms for VR-training in gynaecologic laparoscopy.
Girish P Datar
Full Text Available Introduction: Lumbar disc prolapse is most common between 30 and 50 years of age and is associated with severe disability and pain. It commonly occurs at L4/5 and L5/S1. Transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is an emerging technique for treatment of degenerative disc disease. Literature has shown clinical outcomes, comparable to classical open and micro lumbar discectomy. Central disc herniations in lumbar spine pose technical challenge for transforaminal endoscopic decompression due to its location. Existing techniques to access central herniations and ventral epidural space have trajectory related challenges due to the proximity of the retroperitoneal space and abdominal organs and technically difficult for the less experienced surgeon. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients – 19 males and 11 females – with central, multifocal, central-paracentral disc herniations in the lumbar spine operated in 2015 and 2016 were considered in this study. All patients underwent selective endoscopic discectomy under monitored care anesthesia and local anesthesia with modification of the classical technique, medialization of annulotomy, undercutting the nonarticular part of superior articular process (foraminotomy and use of articulating and long jaw instruments either alone or in combination. Results: In all the thirty patients, we were able to achieve adequate decompression with neurological recovery. All patients improved in their neurological status. Postoperatively, visual analog scale dropped from 7.8 to 1.8 and ODI dropped from 73.46% to 32. 90% of the patients reported excellent and good results. One patient had recurrent herniation and was treated with transforaminal surgery. One patient had persistent back pain and reported poor outcome. Three patients underwent medial branch block for facet joint pain followed by medial branch rhizotomy and reported excellent and good results. Conclusion: Transforaminal endoscopic spine surgery with modifications
Y R Yadav
Full Text Available Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoid surgery (EETS is increasingly used for pituitary lesions. Pre-operative CT and MRI scans and peroperative endoscopic visualization can provide useful anatomical information. EETS is indicated in sellar, suprasellar, intraventricular, retro-infundibular, and invasive tumors. Recurrent and residual lesions, pituitary apoplexy and empty sella syndrome can be managed by EETS. Modern neuronavigation techniques, ultrasonic aspirators, ultrasonic bone curette can add to the safety. The binostril approach provides a wider working area. High definition camera is much superior to three-chip camera. Most of the recent reports favor EETS in terms of safety, quality of life and tumor resection, hospital stay, better endocrinological, and visual outcome as compared to the microscopic technique. Nasal symptoms, blood loss, operating time are less in EETS. Various naso-septal flaps and other techniques of CSF leak repair could help reduce complications. Complications can be further reduced after achieving the learning curve, good understanding of limitations with proper patient selection. Use of neuronavigation, proper post-operative care of endocrine function, establishing pituitary center of excellence and more focused residency and endoscopic fellowship training could improve results. The faster and safe transition from microscopic to EETS can be done by the team concept of neurosurgeon/otolaryngologist, attending hands on cadaveric dissection, practice on models, and observation of live surgeries. Conversion to a microscopic or endoscopic-assisted approach may be required in selected patients. Multi-modality treatment could be required in giant and invasive tumors. EETS appears to be a better surgical option in most pituitary adenoma.
Lehmann, Kai S; Ritz, Jörg P; Wibmer, Andreas; Gellert, Klaus; Zornig, Carsten; Burghardt, Jens; Büsing, Martin; Runkel, Norbert; Kohlhaw, Kay; Albrecht, Roland; Kirchner, Tom G; Arlt, Georg; Mall, Julian W; Butters, Michael; Bulian, Dirk R; Bretschneider, Jörgen; Holmer, Christoph; Buhr, Heinz J
To analyze patient outcome in the first 14 months of the German natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) registry (GNR). NOTES is a new surgical concept, which permits scarless intra-abdominal operations through natural orifices, such as the mouth, vagina, rectum, or urethra. The GNR was established as a nationwide outcome database to allow the monitoring and safe introduction of this technique in Germany. The GNR was designed as a voluntary database with online access. All surgeons in Germany who performed NOTES procedures were requested to participate in the registry. The GNR recorded demographical and therapy data as well as data on the postoperative course. A total of 572 target organs were operated in 551 patients. Cholecystectomies accounted for 85.3% of all NOTES procedures. All procedures were performed in female patients using transvaginal hybrid technique. Complications occurred in 3.1% of all patients, conversions to laparoscopy or open surgery in 4.9%. In cholecystectomies, institutional case volume, obesity, and age had substantial effect on conversion rate, operation length, and length of hospital stay, but no effect on complications. Despite the fact that NOTES has just recently been introduced, the technique has already gained considerable clinical application. Transvaginal hybrid NOTES cholecystectomy is a practicable and safe alternative to laparoscopic resection even in obese or older patients.
Freeman, Lynetta J; Rahmani, Emad Y; Al-Haddad, Mohammad; Sherman, Stuart; Chiorean, Michael V; Selzer, Don J; Snyder, Paul W; Constable, Peter D
Few studies are available to compare the potential benefits of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approaches to traditional surgery. To compare complications, surgical stress, and postoperative pain. Prospective study in dogs. Research laboratory. Thirty dogs. Oophorectomy procedures were performed via NOTES and laparoscopic and traditional open surgery. Operative time, pain scores, systemic stress parameters (cortisol, glucose), surgical stress markers (interleukin 6, C-reactive protein), 3-day observation. Median operative times were 76, 44, and 35 minutes for the NOTES, laparoscopic, and open procedures, respectively, with the NOTES procedure being significantly longer than the other 2 procedures. All ovaries were completely excised, and all the animals survived without complications. The NOTES animals had greater increases in serum cortisol concentrations at 2 hours but no statistically significant differences in glucose concentrations compared with the other groups. Serum interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein concentrations were significantly increased at specific times compared with baseline in the NOTES group, but not in the open or laparoscopic surgery groups. Based on the cumulative pain score and nociceptive thresholds, the animals in the NOTES group demonstrated less evidence of pain. Small sample size, limited follow-up. Although the NOTES oophorectomy procedures took approximately twice as long and there may be more evidence of tissue damage as judged by increases in serum cortisol and interleukin 6 concentrations, the dogs in the NOTES group had lower pain scores, especially when compared with animals undergoing open surgery. Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Steele, Toby O; Gill, Amarbir; Tollefson, Travis T
Characterize indications, perioperative considerations, clinical outcomes and complications for concurrent endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and rhinoplasty. Chronic rhinosinusitis and septal deviation with or without inferior turbinate hypertrophy independently impair patient-reported quality of life. Guidelines implore surgeons to include endoscopy to accurately evaluate patient symptoms. Complication rates parallel those of either surgery (ESS and rhinoplasty) alone and are not increased when performed concurrently. Operative time is generally longer for joint surgeries. Patient satisfaction rates are high. Concurrent functional and/or cosmetic rhinoplasty and ESS is a safe endeavor to perform in a single operative setting and most outcomes data suggest excellent patient outcomes. Additional studies that include patient-reported outcome measures are needed.
Komatsu, Fuminari; Imai, Masaaki; Shigematsu, Hideaki; Aoki, Rie; Oda, Shinri; Shimoda, Masami; Matsumae, Mitsunori
The authors' initial experience with the endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area is reported. Fully endoscopic surgery using the extradural space via a supraorbital keyhole was performed for tumors in or around the temporal pole, including temporal pole cavernous angioma, sphenoid ridge meningioma, and cavernous sinus pituitary adenoma, mainly using 4-mm, 0° and 30° endoscopes and single-shaft instruments. After making a supraorbital keyhole, a 4-mm, 30° endoscope was advanced into the extradural space of the anterior cranial fossa during lifting of the dura mater. Following identification of the sphenoid ridge, orbital roof, and anterior clinoid process, the bone lateral to the orbital roof was drilled off until the dura mater of the anterior aspect of the temporal lobe was exposed. The dura mater of the temporal lobe was incised and opened, exposing the temporal pole under a 4-mm, 0° endoscope. Tumors in or around the temporal pole were safely removed under a superb view through the extradural corridor. The endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach was technically feasible and safe. The anterior trajectory to the temporal pole using the extradural space under endoscopy provided excellent visibility, allowing minimally invasive surgery. Further surgical experience and development of specialized instruments would promote this approach as an alternative surgical option.
Autorino, Riccardo; Stein, Robert J; Lima, Estevão; Damiano, Rocco; Khanna, Rakesh; Haber, Georges-Pascal; White, Michael A; Kaouk, Jihad H
Objective of this study is to provide an evidence-based analysis of the current status and future perspectives of scarless urological surgery. A PubMed search has been performed for all relevant urological literature regarding natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS). In addition, experience with LESS and NOTES at our own institution has been considered. All clinical and investigative reports for LESS and NOTES procedures in the urological literature have been considered. A wide variety of clinical procedures in urology have been successfully completed by using LESS techniques. Thus far, experience with NOTES has largely been investigational, although early clinical reports are emerging. Further development of instrumentation and platforms is necessary for both techniques to become more widely adopted throughout the urological community.
Berker, Mustafa; Aghayev, Kamran; Yücel, Taşkın; Hazer, Derya Burcu; Onerci, Metin
Dural opening and closures are major steps in endoscopic pituitary surgery. Restoring the normal anatomy at the end of the procedure creates a natural barrier between the intrasellar compartment and the sinonasal cavity. In this study, we present a relatively simple dural opening and closure technique for endoscopic pituitary surgery. This technique provides a better alternative to the use of a more complex nasoseptal flap or the multilevel closure with artificial materials as it restores the normal anatomy after the tumor removal and provides a better physiological barrier between the sinonasal cavity and the intrasellar compartment. Incision is performed in circular or horseshoe fashion leaving a small peduncle, and then the dura is reflected. Of the 733 endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures in 667 patients conducted between January 2006 and May 2012, we used this described technique in 50 cases (7.4%). In these 50 cases with dural flap, there was no postoperative CSF leakage. Intraoperative CSF leakage was observed in 135 (20.2%) of the 667 patients. In 15 (11.1%) of these 135 patients we used the dural flap technique accompanied with fat and/or fascia lata support. There was no postoperative leakage in these patients. In the remaining 120 (89.9%) patients who had intraoperative CSF leakage, we used fat and/or fascia lata for the reconstruction of the sella floor. But we observed postoperative CSF leakage in 12 (10%) of the 120 patients without the dural flap which were reoperated. The dural flap technique we employ has several advantages. First of all, it allows optimal physiological reconstruction after the surgery. Secondly, the bridge between the flap and the main dura helps maintain the vascular supply, which in turn can radically shorten the healing time. Thirdly, this technique is obviously a better alternative to the time consuming and expensive multilevel closures with tissue sealants and artificial grafts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All
Chang, Victoria C; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Swain, C Paul; Bergs, Richard; Paramo, Juan; Hogg, Deborah C; Fernandez, Raul; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Scott, Daniel J
The influence of endoscopic video camera (VC) image quality on surgical performance has not been studied. Flexible endoscopes are used as substitutes for laparoscopes in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), but their optics are originally designed for intralumenal use. Manipulable wired or wireless independent VCs might offer advantages for NOTES but are still under development. To measure the optical characteristics of 4 VC systems and to compare their impact on the performance of surgical suturing tasks. VC systems included a laparoscope (Storz 10 mm), a flexible endoscope (Olympus GIF 160), and 2 prototype deployable cameras (magnetic anchoring and guidance system [MAGS] Camera and PillCam). In a randomized fashion, the 4 systems were evaluated regarding standardized optical characteristics and surgical manipulations of previously validated ex vivo (fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery model) and in vivo (live porcine Nissen model) tasks; objective metrics (time and errors/precision) and combined surgeon (n = 2) performance were recorded. Subtle differences were detected for color tests, and field of view was variable (65°-115°). Suitable resolution was detected up to 10 cm for the laparoscope and MAGS camera but only at closer distances for the endoscope and PillCam. Compared with the laparoscope, surgical suturing performances were modestly lower for the MAGS camera and significantly lower for the endoscope (ex vivo) and PillCam (ex vivo and in vivo). This study documented distinct differences in VC systems that may be used for NOTES in terms of both optical characteristics and surgical performance. Additional work is warranted to optimize cameras for NOTES. Deployable systems may be especially well suited for this purpose.
Sharipov, O I; Kutin, M A; Kalinin, P L; Fomichev, D V; Lukshin, V A; Kurnosov, A B
Doppler ultrasound (DUS) has been widely used in neurosurgical practice to diagnose various cerebrovascular diseases. This technique is used in transsphenoidal surgery to identify the localization of intracranial arteries when making an approach or during tumor resection. To identify the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and/or basilar artery during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, we used a combined device on the basis of a click line curette («Karl Storz») and a 16 MHz Doppler probe (Lassamed). The technique was used in 51 patients during both standard transsphenoidal surgery (23 cases) and transsphenoidal tumor resection through an extended approach (28 cases). Doppler ultrasound was used in different situations: to determine a trajectory of the endonasal transsphenoidal approach in the absence of the normal anatomical landmarks (16 cases), to define the limits of safe resection of a tumor located in the laterosellar region (7), and to implement an extended transsphenoidal endoscopic approach (28). Intraoperative Doppler ultrasound enabled identification of the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery in 45 cases and the basilar artery in 2 cases; a blood vessel was not found in 4 cases. Injury to the cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery was observed only in 1 case. The use of the described combined device in transsphenoidal surgery turned Doppler ultrasound into an important and useful technique for visualization of the ICA within the tumor stroma as well as in the case of the changed skull base anatomy. Its use facilitates manipulations in a deep and narrow wound and enables inspection of the entire surface of the operative field in various planes, thereby surgery becomes safer due to the possibility of maximum investigation of the operative field.
Wood, Stephanie G; Panait, Lucian; Duffy, Andrew J; Bell, Robert L; Roberts, Kurt E
To review the complications encountered in our facility and in previously published studies of transvaginal (TV) natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) to date. TV NOTES is currently observed with critical eyes from the surgical community, despite encouraging data to suggest improved short-term recovery and pain. All TV NOTES procedures performed in female patients between 18 and 65 years of age were included. The median follow-up was 90 days. The TV appendectomies and ventral hernia repairs were pure NOTES, through a SILS port in the vagina, whereas TV cholecystectomies were hybrid procedures with the addition of a 5-mm port in the umbilicus. A total of 102 TV NOTES procedures, including 72 TV cholecystectomies, 24 TV appendectomies, and 6 TV ventral hernia repairs, were performed. The average age was 37 years old and body mass index was 29 kg/m. Three major and 7 minor complications occurred. The first major complication was a rectal injury during a TV access port insertion. The second major complication was an omental vessel bleed after a TV cholecystectomy. The third complication was an intra-abdominal abscess after a TV appendectomy. Seven minor complications were urinary retention (4), transient brachial plexus injury, dislodgement of an intrauterine device, and vaginal granulation tissue. As techniques in TV surgery are adopted, inevitably, complications may occur due to the inherent learning curve. Laparoscopic instruments, although adaptable to TV approaches, have yet to be optimized. A high index of suspicion is necessary to identify complications and optimize outcomes for patients.
Wang, L; Yin, H L; Meng, Q
In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out . Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter
Wang, L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Yin, H L [Chinese-German Institute of Automatic Control Engineering, Tongji University (China); Meng, Q [Shanghai University of Electric Power (China)
In recent two decades, more and more research on the endoscopic surgery has been carried out . Most of the work focuses on the development of the robot in the field of robotics and the navigation of the surgery tools based on computer graphics. But the tracking and locating of the EndoWrist is also a very important aspect. This paper deals with the the tracking algorithm of the EndoWrist's pose (position and orientation). The linear tracking of the position is handled by the Kalman Filter. The quaternion-based nonlinear orientation tracking is implemented with the Extended Kalman Filter. The most innovative point of this paper is the parameterization of the motion model of the Extended Kalman Filter.
Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Ng, Enders Kwok Wai; Chock, Alana; Swanstrom, Lee; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Chiu, Philip Wai Yan
Patient and physician perceptions of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) have been reported for the Western population. However, whether Asian-Chinese patients share the same perspectives as compared to the Western population is unknown. This was a cross-sectional survey carried out in the surgical outpatient's clinic at the Prince of Wales Hospital between June and September 2011. Patients were provided with an information leaflet and asked to complete a questionnaire regarding their perceptions of and preferences for NOTES cholecystectomy. Female patients attending the clinic were given an additional questionnaire regarding attitudes towards transvaginal surgery. Two hundred patients were recruited to complete the questionnaire(s) and the male to female ratio was 1:1. One hundred and fourteen patients (57%) preferred to undergo NOTES cholecystectomy for cosmetic reasons (P=0.009). Oral and anal routes were both acceptable for NOTES accesses in males and females. Forty-one percent of the female patients would consider transvaginal NOTES. Of these patients, significantly more patients indicated that the reason for choosing transvaginal NOTES was to minimize the risk of hernia (P=0.016) and to reduce pain associated with the procedure (P=0.017). The risk of complications (84.5%) and the cost of the procedure (58%) were considered the most important aspects when choosing a surgical approach by Asian-Chinese patients. Asian-Chinese preferred NOTES mainly for cosmetic reasons. However, the transvaginal route was less acceptable to females. Significant differences in patient perception on NOTES were observed between Asian-Chinese and Western patients. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Friedrich, D T; Sommer, F; Scheithauer, M O; Greve, J; Hoffmann, T K; Schuler, P J
Objective Advanced transnasal sinus and skull base surgery remains a challenging discipline for head and neck surgeons. Restricted access and space for instrumentation can impede advanced interventions. Thus, we present the combination of an innovative robotic endoscope guidance system and a specific endoscope with adjustable viewing angle to facilitate transnasal surgery in a human cadaver model. Materials and Methods The applicability of the robotic endoscope guidance system with custom foot pedal controller was tested for advanced transnasal surgery on a fresh frozen human cadaver head. Visualization was enabled using a commercially available endoscope with adjustable viewing angle (15-90 degrees). Results Visualization and instrumentation of all paranasal sinuses, including the anterior and middle skull base, were feasible with the presented setup. Controlling the robotic endoscope guidance system was effectively precise, and the adjustable endoscope lens extended the view in the surgical field without the common change of fixed viewing angle endoscopes. Conclusion The combination of a robotic endoscope guidance system and an advanced endoscope with adjustable viewing angle enables bimanual surgery in transnasal interventions of the paranasal sinuses and the anterior skull base in a human cadaver model. The adjustable lens allows for the abandonment of fixed-angle endoscopes, saving time and resources, without reducing the quality of imaging.
Topuz, Muhammet Fatih; Sarı, Murat; Binnetoglu, Adem; Dogrul, Ramazan; Bugdaycı, Onur; Şeker, Aşkın
The aim of the study was to analyze whether the measurement of changes in the anatomical position and volume of middle concha, the volume changes in the area between the middle concha and lamina papyracea, the evaluation of opacification in major paranasal sinuses, and osteomeatal complex occlusion in cases with middle concha by out-fracture technique during endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach is a minimally invasive surgery, and also to find out whether these changes lead to the development of tendency to rhinosinusitis. It was a retrospective clinical study. Forty-five cases, between 2013 and 2015, planned for endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery due to hypophyseal pathology at the Neurosurgery Departments of Marmara University Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. The patients were evaluated for the changes in the anatomy of the middle concha and the effects of these changes to paranasal sinuses by paranasal computed tomographies were studied at the preoperative second week and postoperative 12 month. The Lund-Mackay scoring system was used for the evaluation of opacification in the five major paranasal sinuses and occlusion of the osteomeatal complex in the pre- and postoperative period. The Lund-Mackay scoring system was used to analyze the paranasal computed tomography of the patients at the preoperative 2 weeks and postoperative first year. According to the Lund-Mackay scoring system, no significant difference was detected between the preoperative and postoperative opacification of paranasal sinuses (p > 0.05). Besides, there was also no significant difference between the preoperative and postoperative osteomeatal complex occlusion (p > 0.05). Considering the distance between middle concha and lamina papyracea following the out-fracture of the middle concha, a significant lateralization of 0.5 mm between the preoperative and postoperative period was observed (p transsphenoidal surgery causes some variations in the structures of
For the treatment of pituitary tumors, microscopic transsphenoidal surgery has been considered the “gold standard” since the late 1960s. Over the last two decades, however, a worldwide shift towards endoscopic endonasal surgery is in progress for many reasons. These include a wide panoramic view, improved illumination, an ability to look around anatomical corners using angled tip and, in addition, application to the extended approaches for parasellar tumors. Both endoscopic and microscopic approaches appear equally effective for nonfunctioning adenomas without significant suprasellar or lateral extensions, whereas the endoscopic approach may improve outcomes associated with the extent of resection and postoperative complications for larger tumors. Despite many theoretical benefits in the endoscopic surgery, remission rates of functioning adenomas do not substantially differ between the approaches in experienced hands. The endoscopic approach is a valid alternative to the microscopic approach for adenomas. The benefits will be more appreciated in the extended surgery for parasellar tumors. PMID:28239067
Son, Jaebum; Cho, Chang Nho; Kim, Kwang Gi; Chang, Tae Young; Jung, Hyunchul; Kim, Sung Chun; Kim, Min-Tae; Yang, Nari; Kim, Tae-Yun; Sohn, Dae Kyung
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging surgical technique. We aimed to design, create, and evaluate a new semi-automatic snake robot for NOTES. The snake robot employs the characteristics of both a manual endoscope and a multi-segment snake robot. This robot is inserted and retracted manually, like a classical endoscope, while its shape is controlled using embedded robot technology. The feasibility of a prototype robot for NOTES was evaluated in animals and human cadavers. The transverse stiffness and maneuverability of the snake robot appeared satisfactory. It could be advanced through the anus as far as the peritoneal cavity without any injury to adjacent organs. Preclinical tests showed that the device could navigate the peritoneal cavity. The snake robot has advantages of high transverse force and intuitive control. This new robot may be clinically superior to conventional tools for transanal NOTES.
D'Hoore, André; Wolthuis, Albert M.; Mizrahi, Hagar; Parker, Mike; Bemelman, Willem A.; Wara, Pål
Single incision laparoscopic surgery resection of colon is feasible, but so far evidence of benefit compared to standard laparoscopic technique is lacking. In addition to robot-controlled camera, there is only one robot system on the market capable of performing laparoscopic surgery. The da Vinci
Shah Shagun B
Full Text Available Endoscopic Endonasal Trans-sphenoid Surgery (EETS aided by avant-garde neuro-navigation techniques, ultrasonic aspirators and bone curettes has come of age. Endoscopic surgery supersedes conventional microscopic approach due to better visualization, avoidance of craniotomy, brain retraction and undue neurovascular manipulation with less morbidity, blood loss and improved safety. Anaesthetic techniques must be tailored to cater for such advances in surgery.
Haerle, Stephan K; Daly, Michael J; Chan, Harley H L; Vescan, Allan; Kucharczyk, Walter; Irish, Jonathan C
Skull base surgery (SBS) involves operative tasks in close proximity to critical structures in a complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy. The aim was to investigate the value of virtual planning (VP) based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for surgical planning in SBS and to compare the effects of virtual planning with 3D contours between the expert and the surgeon in training. Retrospective analysis. Twelve patients with manually segmented anatomical structures based on preoperative MRI were evaluated by eight surgeons in a randomized order using a validated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire. Multivariate analysis revealed significant reduction of workload when using VP (PNASA-TLX differences (P.05). Preoperative anatomical segmentation with virtual surgical planning using contours in endoscopic SBS significantly reduces the workload for the expert and the surgeon in training. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Aslam, S.; Ali, M.; Ahmed, A.; Asghar, A.; Aslam, S.
To analyze the efficacy of FESS in patients with recurrent nasal polyposis in terms of relief of nasal obstruction, improvement in sense of smell and to assess recurrence of disease. Study Design: Descriptive case series. Materials and Method: All patients who underwent FESS (Functional endoscopic sinus surgery) for recurrent nasal polyposis from June 2008 to June 2010 with an average follow up of 06 month were included. Clinical symptoms including nasal obstruction and olfactory disturbance were evaluated using VAS system pre and postoperatively. Preoperatively computed tomography scan was done in all cases to assess extent of disease and surgical anatomy. Results: Following FESS 96% of total patients demonstrated statistically significant improvement in relieving nasal obstruction after 6 months follow up, however improvement in sense of smell was seen in 44% of patients. Recurrence was seen in only 3 (6%) cases at 3rd and 6th month follow up. Conclusion: Functional endoscopy sinus surgery of recurrent nasal polyposis is an effective method of surgery with significant improvement of symptom of nasal obstruction and olfaction with minimal recurrence at 6 month in our centre. Our results were compatible with results attained internationally. (author)
Koutourousiou, Maria; Gardner, Paul A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Paluzzi, Alessandro; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H
Giant pituitary adenomas (> 4 cm in maximum diameter) represent a significant surgical challenge. Endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been introduced as a treatment option for these tumors. The authors present the results of EES for giant adenomas and analyze the advantages and limitations of this technique. The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical files and imaging studies of 54 patients with giant pituitary adenomas who underwent EES and studied the factors affecting surgical outcome. Preoperative visual impairment was present in 45 patients (83%) and partial or complete pituitary deficiency in 28 cases (52%), and 7 patients (13%) presented with apoplexy. Near-total resection (> 90%) was achieved in 36 patients (66.7%). Vision was improved or normalized in 36 cases (80%) and worsened in 2 cases due to apoplexy of residual tumor. Significant factors that limited the degree of resection were a multilobular configuration of the adenoma (p = 0.002) and extension to the middle fossa (p = 0.045). Cavernous sinus invasion, tumor size, and intraventricular or posterior fossa extension did not influence the surgical outcome. Complications included apoplexy of residual adenoma (3.7%), permanent diabetes insipidus (9.6%), new pituitary insufficiency (16.7%), and CSF leak (16.7%, which was reduced to 7.4% in recent years). Fourteen patients underwent radiation therapy after EES for residual mass or, in a later stage, for recurrence, and 10 with functional pituitary adenomas received medical treatment. During a mean follow-up of 37.9 months (range 1-114 months), 7 patients were reoperated on for tumor recurrence. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Endoscopic endonasal surgery provides effective initial management of giant pituitary adenomas with favorable results compared with traditional microscopic transsphenoidal and transcranial approaches.
Schreckinger, Matthew; Walker, Blake; Knepper, Jordan; Hornyak, Mark; Hong, David; Kim, Jung-Min; Folbe, Adam; Guthikonda, Murali; Mittal, Sandeep; Szerlip, Nicholas J
Diabetes insipidus (DI) after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) can lead to increased morbidity, longer hospital stays, and increased medication requirements. Predicting which patients are at high risk for developing DI can help direct services to ensure adequate care and follow-up. The objective of this study was to review our institution's experience with ETSS and determine which clinical/laboratory variables are associated with DI in this patient population. The authors wanted to see if there was an easily determined single value that would help predict which patients develop DI. This represents the largest North American series of this type. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients who had undergone ETSS for resection of sellar and parasellar pathology between 2006 and 2011. We examined patient and tumor characteristics and their relationship to postoperative DI. Out of 172 endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries, there were 15 cases of transient DI (8.7%) and 14 cases of permanent DI (8.1%). Statistically significant predictors of postoperative DI (p 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin. An increase in serum sodium of ≥2.5 mmol/L is a positive marker of development of DI with 80% specificity, and a postoperative serum sodium of ≥145 mmol/L is a positive indicator with 98% specificity. Identifying perioperative risk factors and objective indicators of DI after ETSS will help physicians care for patients postoperatively. In this large series, we demonstrated that there were multiple perioperative risk factors for the development of DI. These findings, which are consistent with other reports from microscopic surgical series, will help identify patients at risk for diabetes insipidus, aid in planning treatment algorithms, and increase vigilance in high risk patients.
Yoshizumi, F; Yasuda, K; Kawaguchi, K; Suzuki, K; Shiraishi, N; Kitano, S
Safe peritoneal access and gastric closure are the most important concerns in the clinical application of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). We aimed to clarify the feasibility of a submucosal tunnel technique using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for transgastric peritoneal access and subsequent closure for NOTES. Seven female pigs, each weighing about 40 kg were included in the study. The following procedures were performed: (i) after injection of normal saline into the submucosa, the mucosa was cut with a flex knife; (ii) the submucosal layer was dissected using an insulation-tipped electrosurgical knife to make a narrow longitudinal 50-mm submucosal tunnel; (iii) a small incision was made at the end of the tunnel and enlarged with a dilation balloon. After transgastric peritoneoscopy, the mucosal incision site was closed with clips. The following outcome measures were used: (a) evaluation of the technical feasibility of making a submucosal tunnel; (b) clinical monitoring for 7 days; (c) follow-up endoscopy and necropsy; and (d) peritoneal fluid culture. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic peritoneoscopy with a submucosal tunnel was successfully carried out in all pigs. The pigs recovered well, without signs of peritonitis. Follow-up endoscopy showed healing of mucosal incision sites without open defects. Necropsy revealed no findings of peritonitis, confirming completeness of gastric closure; there was a thin scar in one pig and adhesion of the omentum in six pigs. Peritoneal fluid culture demonstrated no bacterial growth. The submucosal tunnel technique is feasible and effective for transgastric peritoneal access and closure.
Conclusion: Endoscopic harvest of the radial artery is technically demanding, but excellent results can be achieved. The endoscopic approach can provide suitable conduits in a less invasive way than the open harvest technique.
Voorbrood, C E H; Burgmans, J P J; Clevers, G J; Davids, P H P; Verleisdonk, E J M M; Schouten, N; van Dalen, T
One-stop surgery offers patients diagnostic work-up and subsequent surgical treatment on the same day. In the present study, patient satisfaction and efficiency from an institutional perspective were evaluated in patients who were referred for one-stop endoscopic inguinal hernia repair. In a high-volume inguinal hernia clinic, all consecutive patients referred for one-stop surgical treatment, were registered prospectively. An instructed secretary screened patients for eligibility for the one-stop option when the appointment was made. Totally extraperitoneal hernia repair under general anaesthesia was the preferred operative technique. Patient's satisfaction, successful day surgery and institutional efficiency were evaluated. Between January 2010 and January 2012 a total of 349 patients (17 % of all patients in the hernia clinic) were referred for one-stop hernia repair. Mean age was 47.5 years and 96.3 % were males. Three hundred thirty-six patients underwent hernia surgery on the same day (96.3 %). In thirteen patients (3.7 %) no operative repair was done on the day of presentation due to an incorrect diagnosis (n = 7), a watchful waiting policy for asymptomatic hernia (n = 3), rescheduling due to a large scrotal hernia, and there were two "no shows". Following hernia repair 97 % of the patients were discharged on the same day, while ten patients required hospitalization. Based on the questionnaires the main satisfaction score among patients was 9.0 (8.89-9.17 95 % CI) on a scale ranging from 0 to 10. One-stop hernia surgery is feasible and satisfactory from an institutional as well as from a patient's perspective.
White, Ian; Buchberg, Brian; Tsikitis, V Liana; Herzig, Daniel O; Vetto, John T; Lu, Kim C
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of death in the USA. The need for screening colonoscopies, and thus adequately trained endoscopists, particularly in rural areas, is on the rise. Recent increases in required endoscopic cases for surgical resident graduation by the Surgery Residency Review Committee (RRC) further emphasize the need for more effective endoscopic training during residency to determine if a virtual reality colonoscopy simulator enhances surgical resident endoscopic education by detecting improvement in colonoscopy skills before and after 6 weeks of formal clinical endoscopic training. We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected surgery resident data on an endoscopy simulator. Residents performed four different clinical scenarios on the endoscopic simulator before and after a 6-week endoscopic training course. Data were collected over a 5-year period from 94 different residents performing a total of 795 colonoscopic simulation scenarios. Main outcome measures included time to cecal intubation, "red out" time, and severity of simulated patient discomfort (mild, moderate, severe, extreme) during colonoscopy scenarios. Average time to intubation of the cecum was 6.8 min for those residents who had not undergone endoscopic training versus 4.4 min for those who had undergone endoscopic training (p Virtual reality endoscopic simulation is an effective tool for both augmenting surgical resident endoscopy cancer education and measuring improvement in resident performance after formal clinical endoscopic training.
Karaman, Emin; Isildak, Huseyin; Haciyev, Yusuf; Kaytaz, Asim; Enver, Ozgun
Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are anomalous communications between the carotid arterial system and the venous cavernous sinus. They can arise because of spontaneous or trauma causes. Most caroticocavernous fistulas are of spontaneous origin and unknown etiology. Spontaneous CCF may also be associated with cavernous sinus pathology such as arteriosclerotic changes of the arterial wall, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Traumatic CCFs may occur after either blunt or penetrating head trauma. Their clinical presentation is related to their size and to the type of venous drainage, which can lead to a variety of symptoms, such as visual loss, proptosis, bruit, chemosis, cranial nerve impairment, intracranial hemorrhage (rare), and so on. Treatment by endovascular transarterial embolization with electrolytically detachable coils is a very effective method for CCF with good outcomes. Carotid-cavernous fistulas have been rarely reported after craniofacial surgery and are uncommon pathologies in otolaryngology practice. In this study, we report a 40-year-old woman with CCF secondary to blunt trauma of functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Nishioka, Hiroshi; Fukuhara, Noriaki; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Yamada, Shozo
Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) is a safe and effective treatment for many suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, including those with third-ventricle involvement. Craniopharyngioma entirely within the third ventricle (purely intraventricular type), however, is generally regarded unsuitable for treatment with EETS. Three patients underwent total removal of a purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma with inferior extension via EETS by direct incision of the bulging, stretched ventricular floor and fine dissection from the ventricular wall. In 2 patients with an anteriorly displaced chiasm, the space between the chiasm and pituitary stalk created a wide corridor to the ventricle, whereas in the third case, in which the infrachiasmal space was somewhat narrowed, partial sacrifice of the pituitary gland was necessary to obtain sufficient space. Despite preservation of the stalk in 2 patients, hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus developed after surgery. There was no other complication including obesity. Selected patients with purely intraventricular craniopharyngioma can be treated effectively and safely with EETS. Those with inferior extension in the interpeduncular fossa and anterior displacement of the chiasm may be suitable candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuo, Chao-Hung; Yen, Yu-Shu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Peng-Yuan; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich
Giant pituitary adenoma (>4 cm) remains challenging because the optimal surgical approach is uncertain. Consecutive patients with giant pituitary adenoma who underwent endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETTS) as the first and primary treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were tumor diameter ≥4 cm in at least 1 direction, and tumor volume ≥10 cm(3). Exclusion criteria were follow-ups surgery. Residual and recurrent tumors (n = 30) were managed with 1 of the following: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS), reoperation (redo ETTS), both GKRS and ETTS, medication, conventional radiotherapy, or none. At last follow-up, most of the patients had favorable outcomes, including 8 (21.1%) who were cured and 29 (76.3%) who had a stable residual condition without progression. Only 1 (2.6%) had late recurrence at 66 months after GKRS. The overall progression-free rate was 97.4%, with few complications. In this series of giant pituitary adenoma, primary (ie, the first) ETTS yielded complete resection and cure in 21.1%. Along with adjuvant therapies, including GKRS, most patients (97.4%) were stable and free of disease progression. Therefore, primary ETTS appeared to be an effective surgical approach for giant pituitary adenoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yilmaz, E.; Afsarlar, E.; Karaman, I.
To describe Single Incision Pediatric Endoscopic Surgery (SIPES) performed on children with various diagnoses, emphasizing its advantages. Study Design: An observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from January 2011 to November 2014. Methodology: A review of patient charts was conducted in which SIPES was preferred as the surgical procedure. Patient demographics, operative details, operative time, clinical outcomes, postoperative pain and cosmesis were analyzed. Results: SIPES was performed on 45 patients (21 girls, 24 boys). Thirty-three appendectomies, 5 varicocelectomies, 3 oophorectomies, 2 ovarian and one paratubal cyst excision, and one fallopian tube excision were performed. All except one procedures were performed through our standard 2cm umbilical vertical or smile incision. In 18 cases, abdominal irrigation/aspiration was easily performed through the existing larger incision, as is done with open surgical technique. None of the patients had early postoperative shoulder/back pain since complete disinflation of CO/sub 2/ could be ensured. All of the patients/parents were satisfied with the cosmesis. Conclusion: SIPES has the advantages of limiting the surgical scar to within the umbilicus and providing easy disinflation of CO/sub 2/, allowing intraabdominal cleaning and extraction of large volume tissue samples through a single large umbilical incision. (author)
Ai, L K; Wu, X; Wang, J N; Li, J; Wu, Y; Zhou, J; Song, W X; Guo, R L
Objective: Strabismus with diplopia is the main orbital complication of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). This study was to analyze clinical findings, treatment and outcomes of such cases. Methods: Retrospective case series. Twenty-three cases were divided into 3 groups based on the disease severity: group A, partial transection of the medial rectus muscle, group B, complete transection of the medical rectus, group C, transection of the medial rectus combined with the other orbital injuries. Complete ophthalmology examinations, including eye alignment, eye motility, force duction test, force generation test, general eye exam, and medical imaging (orbital CT or MRI), were performed for each case. The treatment included botulinum toxin (Botox) injection to the lateral rectus muscle, transposition of the vertical rectus muscle, and orbital surgery if needed. Results: In group A with Botox injection, all the cases achieved single vision in primary position, but still remained some adduction weakness. In group B treated by vertical transposition surgery combined with Botox, 22% of the cases got single vision in primary gaze. In group C, even with more efforts of treatment, the cases with orbital injury can only get cosmetic improvement, and diplopia and adduction dysfunction were found in most cases. Conclusions: Due to the variety of the complications of FESS, force duction test is a crucial exam to detect the direction and severity of synechia in the orbit, which will give solid information to surgery approach as well as prognosis. Botox injection at early stage will minimize the contraction of antagonist lateral rectus, helping to postpone the transposition surgery which may cause anterior segment ischemia when performed right after the medial rectus transection injury. Botox may even reduce the synechia by minimizing the scarring process. Partial vertical rectus transposition combined with muscle resection may effectively correct the eye misalignment in
Broersen, Leonie H A; Biermasz, Nienke R; van Furth, Wouter R; de Vries, Friso; Verstegen, Marco J T; Dekkers, Olaf M; Pereira, Alberto M
Systematic review and meta-analysis comparing endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing's disease regarding surgical outcomes (remission, recurrence, and mortality) and complication rates. To stratify the results by tumor size. Nine electronic databases were searched in February 2017 to identify potentially relevant articles. Cohort studies assessing surgical outcomes or complication rates after endoscopic or microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for Cushing's disease were eligible. Pooled proportions were reported including 95% confidence intervals. We included 97 articles with 6695 patients in total (5711 microscopically and 984 endoscopically operated). Overall, remission was achieved in 5177 patients (80%), with no clear difference between both techniques. Recurrence was around 10% and short term mortality surgery (12.9 vs. 4.0%), whereas transient diabetes insipidus occurred less often (11.3 vs. 21.7%). For microadenomas, results were comparable between both techniques. For macroadenomas, the percentage of patients in remission was higher after endoscopic surgery (76.3 vs. 59.9%), and the percentage recurrence lower after endoscopic surgery (1.5 vs. 17.0%). Endoscopic surgery for patients with Cushing's disease reaches comparable results for microadenomas, and probably better results for macroadenomas than microscopic surgery. This is present despite the presumed learning curve of the newer endoscopic technique, although confounding cannot be excluded. Based on this study, endoscopic surgery may thus be considered the current standard of care. Microscopic surgery can be used based on neurosurgeon's preference. Endocrinologists and neurosurgeons in pituitary centers performing the microscopic technique should at least consider referring Cushing's disease patients with a macroadenoma.
Fahey, Natalie; Patel, Vimal; Rosseau, Gail
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has become the most commonly performed surgical procedure for pituitary tumor removal. As such, there are many patient-oriented educational materials on the technique available online for members of the public who desire to learn more about the surgery. It has been recommended that educational resources be written to the national average reading level, which in the United States is between sixth and seventh grade. This study assesses the reading level of the educational materials currently available online for endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery and determines whether these resources are written at a suitable comprehension level for most readers. Sixteen patient educational resources describing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery were identified online and assessed using 4 standard readability assessments. Patient educational resources written for endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery are written far above the recommended reading level of sixth grade. The online educational resources written for patients about endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery are above the recommended reading level for patient education materials. Further revisions to simplify these resources on endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery are needed to ensure that most patients can comprehend this important material and make informed decisions about their health care. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I
The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity.
Ahmed A Eldaba
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TA on the intra-operative bleeding during the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS in children. Methods: A total of 100 children recruited to undergo FESS were randomized into two groups. Group I: Was given just after induction, intra-venous 25 mg/kg TA diluted in 10 ml of normal saline. Group II: Was given 10 ml of normal saline. Non-invasive blood pressure, heart rate, and quality of the surgical field were estimated every 15 min. Volume of bleeding and duration of the surgical procedure were recorded. Results: Surgical field quality after 15 min revealed that seven patients in group I had minimal bleeding versus no one in group II, P=0.006. Meanwhile, 35 patients in group I had mild bleeding versus 26 patients in group II, P=0.064. Higher number of patients in group II than in group I had moderate bleeding, P=0006. Also, at 30 min, revealed that 10 patients in group I had minimal bleeding versus one patient in group II, P=0.004. Meanwhile, 37 patients in group I had mild bleeding versus 28 patients in group II, P=0.059. Higher number of patients in group II than in group I had moderate bleeding, P<0001. Duration of the surgeries and volume of bleeding were significantly less in tranexamic group than the placebo group, P<0.0001. Conclusion: Single intra-venous bolus dose of tranexamic in children during the FESS improves quality of surgical field, reduces intra-operative bleeding, and duration of surgery.
Sayyed Mostafa Hashemi
Conclusions: This study showed no benefits for topical amphotericin B solution over normal saline. It might be better to retreat to the traditional normal saline nasal douching following functional endoscopic sinus surgery in the treatment of polyposis.
hemangiomas, and one simple cyst), five were malignant in five patients (five hepatocarcinoma ). and four patients had an uncertain preoperative diagnosis...In the first three cases [ hepatocarcinoma (HCO of segment II, hydatid cyst of segment VI. and hemangioma of segment II], we used the Kellyclasia...HCC HCC HCC HCC HCC Hemangiomab l-’NH vs adenoma FNH vs adenoma FNH vs adenoma FHN. focal nodular hyperplasia; HCC, hepatocarcinoma 1
Sataa, Sallami; Benzarti, Aida; Ben Jemaa, Abdelmajid
The importance of minimally invasive surgery in urology has constantly increased in the last 20 years. Endoscopic resection of prostate and bladder tumors is actually a gold standard with many advantages for patients. To analyze the problems related to the ergonomic conditions faced by urologist during video endoscopic surgery by review of the recent literature. All evidence-based experimental ergonomic studies conducted in the fields of urology endoscopic surgery and applied ergonomics for other professions working with a display were identified by PubMed searches. Data from ergonomic studies were evaluated in terms of efficiency as well as comfort and safety aspects. Constraint postures for urologists are described and ergonomic requirements for optimal positions are discussed. The ergonomics of urological endoscopic surgery place urologists at risk for potential injury. The amount of neck flexion or extension, the amount of shoulder girdle adduction or abduction used, and stability of the upper extremities during surgery; which are maintained in a prolonged static posture; are the main risk factors. All these constraints may lead to muscle and joint fatigue, pain, and eventual musculoskeletal injury. Moreover, these issues may impact surgical accuracy. Urologist posture, operating period, training are important ergonomic factor during video surgery to prevent musculoskeletal disorders.
Edem, Idara J; Banton, Beverly; Bernstein, Mark; Lwu, Shelly; Vescan, Allan; Gentilli, Fred; Zadeh, Gelareh
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment option for patients with pituitary tumours, but no study has explored patients' perceptions before and after this surgery. The authors in this study aim to explore patients' perceptions on endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. Using qualitative research methodology, two semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants who were adults aged > 18 undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for the resection of a pituitary tumour between December 2008 and June 2011. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The resulting data was analyzed using a modified thematic analysis. Seven overarching themes were identified: (1) Patients had a positive surgical experience; (2) patients were satisfied with the results of the procedure; (3) patients were initially surprised that neurosurgery could be performed endonasally; (4) patients expected a cure and to feel better after the surgery; (5) many patients feared that something might go wrong during the surgery; (6) patients were psychologically prepared for the surgery; (7) most patients reported receiving adequate pre-op and post-op information. This is the first qualitative study reporting on patients' perceptions before and after an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, which is increasingly used as a standard surgical approach for patients with pituitary tumours. Patients report a positive perception and general satisfaction with the endoscopic transsphenoidal surgical experience. However, there is still room for improvement in post-surgical care. Overall, patients' perceptions can help improve the delivery of comprehensive care to future patients undergoing pituitary tumour surgery.
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Even a small amount of bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery can corrupt the endoscopic field and complicate the procedure. Various techniques, including induced hypotension, can minimize bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical vision quality, haemodynamic parameters, postoperative pain, and other effects of magnesium, a hypotensive agent, with that of dexmedetomidine, which was initially developed for short-term sedation in the intensive care unit but also is an alpha 2 agonist sedative. Method: 60 patients between the ages of 18 and 45 years were divided into either the magnesium group (Group M or the dexmedetomidine group (Group D. In Group M, magnesium sulphate was given at a pre-induction loading dose of 50 mg kg−1 over 10 min and maintained at 15 mg kg−1 h−1; in Group D, dexmedetomidine was given at 1 mcg kg−1 10 min before induction and maintained at 0.6 mcg kg−1 h−1. Intraoperatively, the haemodynamic and respiratory parameters and 6-point intraoperative surgical field evaluation scale were recorded. During the postoperative period, an 11-point numerical pain scale, the Ramsay sedation scale, the nausea/vomiting scale, the adverse effects profile, and itching parameters were noted. Results: Group D showed a significant decrease in intraoperative surgical field evaluation scale scale score and heart rate. The average operation time was 50 min, and Group M had a higher number of prolonged surgeries. No significant difference was found in the other parameters. Conclusions: Due to its reduction of bleeding and heart rate in endoscopic sinus surgery and its positive impacts on the duration of surgery, we consider dexmedetomidine to be a good alternative to magnesium.
Full Text Available The endoscopic treatment of cancerous and precancerous lesions in the gastrointestinal (GI tract has experienced major breakthroughs in the past years. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR is a simple and efficient method for the treatment of most benign lesions in the GI tract. However, with the introduction of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD and endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR, the scope of lesions eligible for endoscopic treatment has been widened significantly even in the colon. These methods are now being used routinely not just for the treatment of benign lesions but also in the curative en bloc resection of early colorectal cancers. The quick, efficient, and noninvasive character of these endoscopic procedures make them not just an alternative to surgery but, in many cases, the methods of choice for the treatment of most early colon cancers and some rectal cancers.
Full Text Available The development of endoscopic ear surgery techniques promises to change the way we approach ear surgery. In this review paper, we explore the current evidence, seek to determine the advantages of endoscopic ear surgery, and see if these advantages are both measureable and meaningful. The wide field of view of the endoscope allows the surgeon to better visualize the various recesses of the middle ear cleft. Endoscopes make it possible to address the target pathology transcanal, while minimizing dissection or normal tissue done purely for exposure, leading to the evolution of minimally-invasive ear surgery and reducing morbidity. When used in chronic ear surgery, endoscopy appears to have the potential to significantly reduce cholesteatoma recidivism rates. Using endoscopes as an adjunct can increase the surgeon's confidence in total cholesteatoma removal. By doing so, endoscopes reduce the need to reopen the mastoid during second-look surgery, help preserve the canal wall, or even change post-cholesteatoma follow-up protocols by channeling more patients away from a planned second-look.
von Renteln, Daniel; Schmidt, Arthur; Vassiliou, Melina C; Gieselmann, Maria; Caca, Karel
Secure endoscopic closure of transgastric natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) access is of paramount importance. The over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system has previously been shown to be effective for NOTES gastrotomy closure. To compare OTSC gastrotomy closure with surgical closure. Randomized, controlled animal study. Animal facility laboratory. Thirty-six female domestic pigs. Gastrotomies were created by using a needle-knife and an 18-mm balloon. The animals were subsequently randomized to either open surgical repair with interrupted sutures or endoscopic repair with 12-mm OTSCs. In addition, pressurized leak tests were performed in ex vivo specimens of 18-mm scalpel incisions closed with suture (n = 14) and of intact stomachs (n = 10). The mean time for endoscopic closure was 9.8 minutes (range 3-22, SD 5.5). No complications occurred during either type of gastrotomy closure. At necropsy, examination of all OTSC and surgical closures demonstrated complete sealing of gastrotomy sites without evidence of injury to adjacent organs. Pressurized leak tests showed a mean burst pressure of 83 mm Hg (range 30-140, SD 27) for OTSC closures and 67 mm Hg (range 30-130, SD 27.7) for surgical sutures. Ex vivo hand-sewn sutures of 18-mm gastrotomies (n = 14) exhibited a mean burst pressure of 65 mm Hg (range 20-140, SD 31) and intact ex vivo stomachs (n = 10) had a mean burst pressure of 126 mm Hg (range 90-170, SD 28). The burst pressure of ex vivo intact stomachs was significantly higher compared with OTSC closures (P < .01), in vivo surgical closures (P < .01), and ex vivo hand-sewn closures (P < .01). There was a trend toward higher burst pressures in the OTSC closures compared with surgical closures (P = .063) and ex vivo hand-sewn closures (P = .094). In vivo surgical closures demonstrated similar burst pressures compared with ex vivo hand-sewn closures (P = .848). Nonsurvival setting. Endoscopic closure by using the OTSC system is comparable to
Yuichiro Yoneoka, MD, PhD
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, ours is the only case of a dermoid cyst anchored to the anterior optic chiasma, which was visually confirmed under endoscopic observation. After surgery, the patient presented a transient impairment of the visual field, which was not evident at four month follow-up. It will contribute to a similar case, in which surgeons hesitate to make an incision in the optic chiasm. A subtotal excision should be considered in cases of dermoid cysts anchored to the anterior optic chiasm, because all the previously reported cases of suprasellar dermoid cysts are young people or those who have a relatively long life expectancy.
Zoli, Matteo; Milanese, Laura; Bonfatti, Rocco; Faustini-Fustini, Marco; Marucci, Gianluca; Tallini, Giovanni; Zenesini, Corrado; Sturiale, Carmelo; Frank, Giorgio; Pasquini, Ernesto; Mazzatenta, Diego
OBJECTIVE In the past decade, the role of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has relevantly evolved for skull base tumors. In this study, the authors review their surgical experience with using an EEA in the treatment of clival chordomas, which are deep and infiltrative skull base lesions, and they highlight the advantages and limitations of this ventral approach. METHODS All consecutive cases of chordoma treated with an EEA between 1998 and 2015 at a single institution are included in this study. Preoperative assessment consisted of neuroimaging (MRI and CT with angiography sequences) and endocrinological, neurological, and ophthalmological evaluations, which were repeated 3 months after surgery and annually thereafter. Postoperative adjuvant therapies were considered. RESULTS Sixty-five patients (male/female ratio 1:0.9) were included in this study. The median age was 48 years (range 9-80 years). Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 47 cases (58.7%). On univariate analysis, primary procedures (p = 0.001), location in the superior or middle third of the clivus (p = 0.043), extradural location (p = 0.035), and histology of conventional chordomas (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher rate of GTR. The complication rate was 15.1%, and there were no perioperative deaths. Most complications did not result in permanent sequelae and included 2 CSF leaks (2.5%), 5 transient cranial nerve VI palsies (6.2%), and 2 internal carotid artery injuries (2.5%), which were treated with coil occlusion of the internal carotid artery without neurological deficits. Three patients (3.8%) presented with complications resulting in permanent neurological deficits due to a postoperative hematoma (1.2%) causing a hemiparesis, and 2 permanent ophthalmoplegias (2.5%). Seventeen patients (26.2%) have died of tumor progression over the course of follow-up (median 52 months, range 7-159 months). Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis, the survival rate was 77% at 5 years and 57% at 10
Boguslawska-Staniaszczyk, R.; Krzeski, A.; Mastalerski, J.
Computed tomography is the most useful method in the endoscopic surgery of the nose and paranasal sinuses. CT examination is necessary for planing and the extent of the surgery. In this publication the method of CT examination and radiological anatomy of the nose and paranasal sinuses is described. (author)
van Dongen, Koen Willem
Endoscopic surgery demands different specific psychomotor skills than open surgery. Virtual reality simulation training has the potential to be a valuable tool in training these skills, because simulation provides the opportunity to train psychomotor skills in a safe environment. In addition to
Hajy Mohammadi F
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effect of clonidine as a premedication on endoscopic sinus surgery bleeding."nMethods and Materials: during a randomized double blind clinical trial we compared two groups of patients who scheduled for endoscopic sinus surgery for polypectomy and etmoidectomy. 216 patients randomly assigned in two groups.In first group 2 hours befor surgery a 0.2mg tablet of clonidine orally adminestered to patients and in second group a 100 mg tablet of vit Bj(with same size and color- as"nplacebowas adminestered to patients. The amount of bleeding measured in two groups."nResults: mean bleeding volume in clonidine group was 113+76 ml and in control group was 211 + 113 ml. There was a significant statistical difference between two groups (pO.0001."nConclusion: Clonidine as premedication can reduce bleeding of endoscopic sinus surgery significantly.
Esquenazi, Yoshua; Essayed, Walid I; Singh, Harminder; Mauer, Elizabeth; Ahmed, Mudassir; Christos, Paul J; Schwartz, Theodore H
Surgery for recurrent/residual pituitary adenomas is increasingly being performed through endoscopic surgery. Whether this new technology has altered the indications and outcomes of surgery is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to compare the indications and outcomes between microscopic and endoscopic approaches. A PubMed search was conducted (1985-2015) to identify surgical series of endoscopic endonasal and microscopic transsphenoidal resection of residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas. Data were extracted regarding tumor characteristics, surgical treatment, extent of resection, endocrine remission, visual outcome, and complications. Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. A total of 292 patients were in the endoscopic group, and 648 patients were in the microscopic group. Endoscopic cases were more likely nonfunctional (P < 0.001) macroadenomas (P < 0.001) with higher rates of cavernous sinus invasion (P = 0.012). The pooled rate of gross total tumor resection was 53.5% for the endoscopic group and 46.6% for the microscopic group. Endocrine remission was achieved in 53.0% and 46.7% of patients, and visual improvement occurred in 73.2% and 49.6% for the endoscopic and microscopic groups. Cerebrospinal fluid leak and pituitary insufficiency were higher in the endoscopic group. This meta-analysis indicates that the use of the endoscope to reoperate on residual or recurrent adenomas has only led to modest increases in resection rates. However, larger more complex cases are being tackled, so direct comparisons are misleading. The most dramatic change has been in visual improvement along with modest increases in risk. Reoperation for recurrent or residual adenomas is a safe and effective treatment option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tun, Gloria; Bullas, Dominic; Bannaga, Ayman; Said, Elmuhtady M.
Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure that offers an alternative treatment for high-risk patients with sigmoid volvulus or intestinal pseudo-obstruction who have tried conventional treatment options without success or those who are unfit for surgery. The procedure acts as an irrigation or decompressing channel and provides colonic ?fixation? to the anterior abdominal wall. The risk of complications highlights the importance of informed consent fo...
Tun, Gloria; Bullas, Dominic; Bannaga, Ayman; Said, Elmuhtady M
Percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) is a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure that offers an alternative treatment for high-risk patients with sigmoid volvulus or intestinal pseudo-obstruction who have tried conventional treatment options without success or those who are unfit for surgery. The procedure acts as an irrigation or decompressing channel and provides colonic 'fixation' to the anterior abdominal wall. The risk of complications highlights the importance of informed consent for patients and relatives.
Miyamoto, Wataru; Takao, Masato; Yasui, Youichi; Miki, Shinya; Matsushita, Takashi
Recently, surgical treatment of a symptomatic unicameral cyst of the proximal femur has been achieved with less invasive procedures than traditional open curettage with an autologous bone graft. In this article we introduce endoscopic surgery for a symptomatic unicameral cyst of the proximal femur. The presented technique, which includes minimally invasive endoscopic curettage of the cyst and injection of a bone substitute, not only minimizes muscle damage around the femur but also enables sufficient curettage of the fibrous membrane in the cyst wall and the bony septum through direct detailed visualization by an endoscope. Furthermore, sufficient initial strength after curettage can be obtained by injecting calcium phosphate cement as a bone substitute.
Wong, Brian J.; Lee, Jon P.; Dugan, F. Markoe; MacArthur, Carol J.
Since the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), the procedure has undergone rapid change with evolution keeping pace with technological advances. The advent of low cost charge coupled device 9CCD) cameras revolutionized the practice and instruction of FESS. Video-based FESS has allowed for documentation of the surgical procedure as well as interactive instruction during surgery. Presently, the technical requirements of video-based FESS include the addition of one or more television monitors positioned strategically in the operating room. Thought video monitors have greatly enhanced surgical endoscopy by re- involving nurses and assistants in the actual mechanics of surgery, video monitors require the operating surgeon to be focused on the screen instead of the patient. In this study, we describe the use of a new low-cost liquid crystal display (LCD) based device that functions as a monitor but is mounted on the head on a visor (PT-O1, O1 Products, Westlake Village, CA). This study illustrates the application of these HMD devices to FESS operations. The same surgeon performed the operation in each patient. In one nasal fossa, surgery was performed using conventional video FESS methods. The contralateral side was operated on while wearing the head mounted video display. The device had adequate resolution for the purposes of FESS. No adverse effects were noted intraoperatively. The results on the patients ipsalateral and contralateral sides were similar. The visor did eliminated significant torsion of the surgeon's neck during the operation, while at the same time permitted simultaneous viewing of both the patient and the intranasal surgical field.
Rogers, A; Bunting, M; Atherstone, A
With the increasingly litigious nature of medical practice, accurate documentation is critical. This is particularly true for operative procedures, and medical councils have identified this and published guidelines to aid surgeons. However, these remain a frequently cited weakness in their defence in medico-legal cases. This study assessed the accuracy of operative notes in a general surgery unit in order to improve our practice. An audit of 100 consecutive operative notes was performed, and notes were assessed using the Royal College of Surgeons guidelines. The quality of note-taking of trainees was compared with that of consultant surgeons. A series of operation note pro formas was designed in response to the findings. Of the notes, 66% were completed by trainees. The vast majority of notes had no diagram to demonstrate the surgical findings or illustrate the actions. Specialist surgeons were more likely to describe the actions accurately, but less likely to describe wound closure methods or dressings used. They were also less likely to complete adequate postoperative orders. This study identifies key areas of weakness in our operative note-keeping. Pro formas should be introduced and made available for commonly performed procedures, and diagrams should be used wherever possible.
A COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT DOSES OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE INFUSION DURING MAINTENANCE OF GENERAL ANAESTHESIA IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING SPINE SURGERIES, FUNCTIONAL ENDOSCOPIC SINUS SURGERY AND MIDDLE EAR SURGERIES
Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study is undertaken to compare the hemodynamic effects and reduction in the doses of volatile anaesthetics and muscle relaxants using two different doses of dexmedetomidine infusion during maintenance of anaesthesia in spine, functional endoscopic sinus surgery and middle ear surgeries. METHODS Sixty patients are randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 each. After shifting to the operation theatre baseline vitals were recorded. Anesthesia induced with thiopentone sodium and intubation done with the help of succinylcholine and maintained with oxygen, nitrous oxide and isoflurane. After 1 min of intubation, maintenance infusion of dexmedetomidine (0.4 mcg/kg/hr and 0.7 mcg/kg/hr for patients allotted in 2 separate groups was started and stopped 15 min before end of surgery. Hemodynamic parameters and any reduction in the doses of volatile anaesthetics and muscle relaxants was noted. RESULTS Dexmedetomidine infusion (0.4 mcg/kg/hr and 0.7 mcg/kg/hr in both groups reduced the requirements of muscle relaxants and volatile anaesthetics. Hemodynamic stability was better in the group receiving 0.4 mcg/kg/hr. Patients receiving 0.7 mcg/kg/hr had higher incidence of hypotension, bradycardia and delayed emergence from anaesthesia. CONCLUSION Dexmedetomidine infusion at 0.4 mcg/kg/hr during maintenance of anaesthesia in spine surgery, FESS and middle ear surgery would be good option to reduce the requirements of volatile anaesthetics, muscle relaxants and for better hemodynamic stability. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: Primary Objective To compare and evaluate the hemodynamic effects and reduction in requirements of volatile anaesthetics and muscle relaxants with two different doses of dexmedetomidine infusion during maintenance of general anaesthesia in patients undergoing spine, FESS and middle ear surgeries.
Laws, Edward R; Barkhoudarian, Garni
As interest and enthusiasm for the use of the endoscope in transsphenoidal anterior skull base and pituitary surgery increases, neurosurgeons are increasingly adopting endoscopic technology and associated novel concepts. Often this involves a transition from the standard operating microscope as the main means of visualization to the operating endoscope (2D or 3D) during surgery. The authors' experience with this transition is described, including the rationale, advantages and disadvantages of the two surgical techniques. The successful use of endoscopic surgery for a large variety of pathological problems involving the anterior skull base and the pituitary region is presented. Perceived advantages for the patient and the surgeon are described, as is the occasional need for transition back to the microscopic approach. The endoscopic approach and its allied technology are here to stay. They are useful and occasionally preferable methods for treating a variety of suitable lesions involving the anterior skull base. The importance of incorporating the basic principles of skull base surgery is emphasized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wagenmakers, M.A.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Lindert, E.J. van; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.
BACKGROUND: No data on results of repeated transsphenoidal surgery via the endoscopic technique for patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing's disease are available. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We retrospectively evaluated the remission rates and complications of repeated transsphenoidal surgery via
Lubbe, D; Semple, P
To demonstrate the importance of pre-operative ear, nose and throat assessment in patients undergoing endoscopic, transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumours. Literature pertaining to the pre-operative otorhinolaryngological assessment and management of patients undergoing endoscopic anterior skull base surgery is sparse. We describe two cases from our series of 59 patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary surgery. The first case involved a young male patient with a large pituitary macroadenoma. His main complaint was visual impairment. He had no previous history of sinonasal pathology and did not complain of any nasal symptoms during the pre-operative neurosurgical assessment. At the time of surgery, a purulent nasal discharge was seen emanating from both middle meati. Surgery was abandoned due to the risk of post-operative meningitis, and postponed until the patient's chronic rhinosinusitis was optimally managed. The second patient was a 47-year-old woman with a large pituitary macroadenoma, who presented to the neurosurgical department with a main complaint of diplopia. She too gave no history of previous nasal problems, and she underwent uneventful surgery using the endoscopic, transnasal approach. Two weeks after surgery, she presented to the emergency unit with severe epistaxis. A previous diagnosis of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia was discovered, and further surgical and medical intervention was required before the epistaxis was finally controlled. Pre-operative otorhinolaryngological assessment is essential prior to endoscopic pituitary or anterior skull base surgery. A thorough otorhinolaryngological history will determine whether any co-morbid diseases exist which could affect the surgical field. Nasal anatomy can be assessed via nasal endoscopy and sinusitis excluded. Computed tomography imaging is a valuable aid to decisions regarding additional procedures needed to optimise access to the pituitary fossa.
Schijven, M. P.; Schout, B. M. A.; Dolmans, V. E. M. G.; Hendrikx, A. J. M.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.
BACKGROUND: Specific training in endoscopic skills and procedures has become a necessity for profession with embedded endoscopic techniques in their surgical palette. Previous research indicates endoscopic skills training to be inadequate, both from subjective (resident interviews) and objective
Varshney, Rickul; Frenkiel, Saul; Nguyen, Lily H P; Young, Meredith; Del Maestro, Rolando; Zeitouni, Anthony; Tewfik, Marc A
The technical challenges of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) and the high risk of complications support the development of alternative modalities to train residents in these procedures. Virtual reality simulation is becoming a useful tool for training the skills necessary for minimally invasive surgery; however, there are currently no ESS virtual reality simulators available with valid evidence supporting their use in resident education. Our aim was to develop a new rhinology simulator, as well as to define potential performance metrics for trainee assessment. The McGill simulator for endoscopic sinus surgery (MSESS), a new sinus surgery virtual reality simulator with haptic feedback, was developed (a collaboration between the McGill University Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, the Montreal Neurologic Institute Simulation Lab, and the National Research Council of Canada). A panel of experts in education, performance assessment, rhinology, and skull base surgery convened to identify core technical abilities that would need to be taught by the simulator, as well as performance metrics to be developed and captured. The MSESS allows the user to perform basic sinus surgery skills, such as an ethmoidectomy and sphenoidotomy, through the use of endoscopic tools in a virtual nasal model. The performance metrics were developed by an expert panel and include measurements of safety, quality, and efficiency of the procedure. The MSESS incorporates novel technological advancements to create a realistic platform for trainees. To our knowledge, this is the first simulator to combine novel tools such as the endonasal wash and elaborate anatomic deformity with advanced performance metrics for ESS.
Hirose, K; Aoki, T; Furukawa, T; Fukushima, S; Niioka, H; Deguchi, S; Hashimoto, M
Label-free visualization of nerves and nervous plexuses will improve the preservation of neurological functions in nerve-sparing robot-assisted surgery. We have developed a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) rigid endoscope to distinguish nerves from other tissues during surgery. The developed endoscope, which has a tube with a diameter of 12 mm and a length of 270 mm, achieved 0.91% image distortion and 8.6% non-uniformity of CARS intensity in the whole field of view (650 μm diameter). We demonstrated CARS imaging of a rat sciatic nerve and visualization of the fine structure of nerve fibers.
Verdaasdonk, E G G; Stassen, L P S; van Wijk, R P J; Dankelman, J
Psychomotor skills for endoscopic surgery can be trained with virtual reality simulators. Distributed training is more effective than massed training, but it is unclear whether distributed training over several days is more effective than distributed training within 1 day. This study aimed to determine which of these two options is the most effective for training endoscopic psychomotor skills. Students with no endoscopic experience were randomly assigned either to distributed training on 3 consecutive days (group A, n = 10) or distributed training within 1 day (group B, n = 10). For this study the SIMENDO virtual reality simulator for endoscopic skills was used. The training involved 12 repetitions of three different exercises (drop balls, needle manipulation, 30 degree endoscope) in differently distributed training schedules. All the participants performed a posttraining test (posttest) for the trained tasks 7 days after the training. The parameters measured were time, nontarget environment collisions, and instrument path length. There were no significant differences between the groups in the first training session for all the parameters. In the posttest, group A (training over several days) performed 18.7% faster than group B (training on 1 day) (p = 0.013). The collision and path length scores for group A did not differ significantly from the scores for group B. The distributed group trained over several days was faster, with the same number of errors and the same instrument path length used. Psychomotor skill training for endoscopic surgery distributed over several days is superior to training on 1 day.
Jiang, Rong-San; Lu, Fung-Jou; Liang, Kai-Li; Shiao, Jiun-Yi; Su, Mao-Chang; Hsin, Chung-Han; Chen, Wen-Kang
The olfactory loss in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis has been measured by different methods. However, the results have been variable and it is not clear whether functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) significantly improves olfactory function. This study was performed to evaluate the influences of FESS on olfactory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis using three different types of olfactory tests. Seventy patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were administered the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a single staircase phenyl ethyl alcohol odor detection threshold test (STT), and a short-term odor memory/discrimination test a day before and 6 months after FESS. A questionnaire inquiring about the patients' self-perception of olfactory function was administered also. Independent ratings of the severity of chronic rhinosinusitis before FESS were established from CT scans. Fifty-two (74.3%) of the patients reported that their olfactory function was impaired before surgery, and 68.6% of the patients reported impaired olfactory function after surgery, a difference that was not significant. No meaningful changes in any of the olfactory test scores were noted 6 or more months after FESS. Preoperatively, small correlations between CT scores and the symptom scores (r = 0.278; p = 0.024), threshold scores (r = -0.27; p = 0.031), and UPSIT scores (r = -0.36; p = 0.003) were observed. In patients with severe rhinosinusitis, FESS had little impact on the ability to smell, regardless of the method for assessing smell function. Subtle associations between olfactory function and the severity of chronic rhinosinusitis determined by CT were observed, however, preoperatively. The olfactory test measures were correlated with one another both pre- and postoperatively.
Thoranaghatte, Ramesh; Garcia, Jaime; Caversaccio, Marco; Widmer, Daniel; Gonzalez Ballester, Miguel A; Nolte, Lutz-P; Zheng, Guoyan
In this paper we present a landmark-based augmented reality (AR) endoscope system for endoscopic paranasal and transnasal surgeries along with fast and automatic calibration and registration procedures for the endoscope. Preoperatively the surgeon selects natural landmarks or can define new landmarks in CT volume. These landmarks are overlaid, after proper registration of preoperative CT to the patient, on the endoscopic video stream. The specified name of the landmark, along with selected colour and its distance from the endoscope tip, is also augmented. The endoscope optics are calibrated and registered by fast and automatic methods. Accuracy of the system is evaluated in a metallic grid and cadaver set-up. Root mean square (RMS) error of the system is 0.8 mm in a controlled laboratory set-up (metallic grid) and was 2.25 mm during cadaver studies. A novel landmark-based AR endoscope system is implemented and its accuracy is evaluated. Augmented landmarks will help the surgeon to orientate and navigate the surgical field. Studies prove the capability of the system for the proposed application. Further clinical studies are planned in near future. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Babu, Harish; Ortega, Alicia; Nuno, Miriam; Dehghan, Aaron; Schweitzer, Aaron; Bonert, H Vivien; Carmichael, John D; Cooper, Odelia; Melmed, Shlomo; Mamelak, Adam N
Long-term remission rates from endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly and their relationship to prognostic indicators of disease aggressiveness are not well documented. To investigate long-term remission rates in patients with acromegaly after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, and correlate this with molecular and radiographic markers of disease aggressiveness. We identified all patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly from 2005 to 2013 at Cedars-Sinai Pituitary Center. Hormonal remission was established by normal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, basal serum growth hormone <2.5 ng/mL, and growth hormone suppression to <1 ng/mL following oral glucose tolerance test. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed at 3 months after surgery, and then as indicated. IGF-1 was measured at 3 months and then at least annually. We evaluated tumor granularity, nuclear expression of p21, Ki67 index, and extent of cavernous sinus invasion, and correlated these with remission status. Fifty-eight patients that underwent surgery had follow-up from 38 to 98 months (mean 64 ± 32.2 months). There were 21 microadenomas and 37 macroadenomas. Three months after surgery 40 of 58 patients (69%) were in biochemical remission. Four additional patients were in remission at 6 months after surgery, and 1 patient had recurrence within the first year after surgery. At last follow-up, 43 of 44 (74.1%) of patients remained in remission. Cavernous sinus invasion by tumor predicted failure to achieve remission. Prognostic markers of disease aggressiveness other than cavernous sinus invasion did not correlate with surgical outcome. Long-term remission after surgery alone was achieved in 74% of patients, indicating long-term efficacy of endoscopic surgery. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Lee, Jih-Chin; Lai, Wen-Sen; Ju, Da-Tong; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Yang, Jinn-Moon
During endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), intra-operative bleeding can significantly compromise visualization of the surgical field. The diode laser that provides good hemostatic and vaporization effects and excellent photocoagulation has been successfully applied in endoscopic surgery with several advantages. The current retrospective study demonstrates the feasibility of diode laser-combined endoscopic sinus surgery on sphenoidotomy. The patients who went through endoscopic transphenoidal pituitary surgery were enrolled. During the operation, the quality of the surgical field was assessed and graded by the operating surgeon using the scale proposed by Boezaart. The mean operation time was 37.80 ± 10.90 minutes. The mean score on the quality of surgical field was 1.95. A positive correlation between the lower surgical field quality score and the shorter surgical time was found with statistical significance (P diode laser-assisted sphenoidotomy is a reliable and safe approach of pituitary gland surgery with minimal invasiveness. It is found that application of diode laser significantly improved quality of surgical field and shortened operation time. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
van Dongen, K. W.; van der Wal, W. A.; Borel Rinkes, I. H. M.; Schijven, M. P.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.
INTRODUCTION: Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been developed to train basic endoscopic surgical skills outside of the operating room. An important issue is how to create optimal conditions for integration of these types of simulators into the surgical training curriculum. The willingness of
Hanson, M; Patel, P M; Betz, C; Olson, S; Panizza, B; Wallwork, B
To assess nasal morbidity resulting from nasoseptal flap use in the repair of skull base defects in endoscopic anterior skull base surgery. Thirty-six patients awaiting endoscopic anterior skull base surgery were prospectively recruited. A nasoseptal flap was used for reconstruction in all cases. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and 90 days post-operatively via the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 questionnaire and visual analogue scales for nasal obstruction, pain, secretions and smell; endoscopic examination findings and mucociliary clearance times were also recorded. Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20 questionnaire data and visual analogue scale scores for pain, smell and secretions showed no significant differences between pre- and post-operative outcomes, with visual analogue scale scores for nasal obstruction actually showing a significant improvement (p = 0.0007). A significant deterioration for both flap and non-flap sides was demonstrated post-operatively on endoscopic examination (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02 respectively). Whilst elevation of a nasoseptal flap in endoscopic surgery of the anterior skull base engendered significant clinical deterioration on examination post-operatively, quality of life outcomes showed that no such deterioration was subjectively experienced by the patient. In fact, there was significant nasal airway improvement following nasoseptal flap reconstruction.
Kim, Jung Hee; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Hong, A Ram; Kim, Yoon Ji; Kim, Yong Hwy
The outcomes of recent endoscopic surgery of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are controversial when compared with traditional microscopic surgery. We aimed to assess the outcomes of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries performed by 1 surgeon with 7 years of experience and elucidate the predictive factors for surgical outcomes for NFPAs. We included 331 patients (155 men and 176 women) with clinical NFPAs who underwent transsphenoidal surgery because of visual symptoms by a single surgeon in Seoul National University Hospital from March 2010 to May 2016. We assessed the tumor removal rate, hormonal outcomes, visual outcomes, and complications. The gross total resection rate of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for NFPAs by a single surgeon was 74.9%. Cavernous sinus invasion, a high Knosp grade, large tumor size, previous surgery, and lack of surgical experience in the neurosurgeon elevated the risk for residual tumors. Visual deficits were improved in 73.4% of the patients, which was associated with tumor size, preoperative visual impairment score, previous radiation, and surgical experience. Hormonal status was improved in 15.4% and aggravated in 32.9% after surgery. There were no predictors for hormonal recovery. Transient diabetes insipidus (DI) was the most common complication (9.1%), and among these patients, 3.0% had persistent DI. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery by a well-experienced surgeon was an effective and safe treatment for NFPAs, but the hormonal outcomes were not changed compared with previous reports of microscopic surgery. Large tumor size and cavernous sinus invasion were still the barriers for achieving total resection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yi Yuen; Srirathan, Vinothan; Tirr, Erica; Kearney, Tara; Gnanalingham, Kanna K
The endoscopic approach for pituitary tumors is a recent innovation and is said to reduce the nasal trauma associated with transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The authors assessed the temporal changes in the rhinological symptoms following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions, using the General Nasal Patient Inventory (GNPI). The GNPI was administered to 88 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at 3 time points (presurgery, 3-6 months postsurgery, and at final follow-up). The total GNPI score and the scores for the individual GNPI questions were calculated and differences between groups were assessed once before surgery, several months after surgery, and at final follow-up. Of a maximum possible score of 135, the mean GNPI score at 3-6 months postsurgery was only 12.9 ± 12 and was not significantly different from the preoperative score (10.4 ± 13) or final follow-up score (10.3 ± 10). Patients with functioning tumors had higher GNPI scores than those with nonfunctioning tumors for each of these time points (p surgery, with partial recovery (nasal sores and bleeding) or complete recovery (nasal blockage, painful sinuses, and unpleasant nasal smell) by final follow-up (p transsphenoidal surgery is a well-tolerated minimally invasive procedure for pituitary fossa lesions. Overall patient-assessed nasal symptoms do not change, but some individual symptoms may show a mild worsening or overall improvement.
field quality was better, whereas SSFQ was obviously lower in group Ⅱ(P＜0.05. The HR at the time of T0 to T3, and the MAP, E, and NE at the time of T0 and T3 in group Ⅱwere obviously lower compared with group Ⅰ(P＜0.05. The results of blood gas analysis and lactic acid, and the time of regaining consciousness and extubation showed no statistical diﬀerence between the two groups (P＞0.05. Moreover, the incidence rates of nose distending pain, headache, delirium, and shivering were obviously lower in group Ⅱ(P＜0.05. However, the incidence rate of bradycardia needing intervention was higher in group Ⅱthan in group Ⅰ. No severe cardiovascular emergency was noted in the two groups. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine can reduce the dose of anesthetic drugs, improve the cardiovascular stability during the perioperative period, accelerate the time to recovery of consciousness, and is safe and eﬀective in assisting controlled hypotension during endoscopic sinus surgery.
Awad, Zaid; Taghi, Ali; Sethukumar, Priya; Tolley, Neil S
To demonstrate construct validity of the ovine model as a tool for training in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Prospective, cross-sectional evaluation study. Over 18 consecutive months, trainees and experts were evaluated in their ability to perform a range of tasks (based on previous face validation and descriptive studies conducted by the same group) relating to ESS on the sheep-head model. Anonymized randomized video recordings of the above were assessed by two independent and blinded assessors. A validated assessment tool utilizing a five-point Likert scale was employed. Construct validity was calculated by comparing scores across training levels and experts using mean and interquartile range of global and task-specific scores. Subgroup analysis of the intermediate group ascertained previous experience. Nonparametric descriptive statistics were used, and analysis was carried out using SPSS version 21 (IBM, Armonk, NY). Reliability of the assessment tool was confirmed. The model discriminated well between different levels of expertise in global and task-specific scores. A positive correlation was noted between year in training and both global and task-specific scores (P variable, and the number of ESS procedures performed under supervision had the highest impact on performance. This study describes an alternative model for ESS training and assessment. It is also the first to demonstrate construct validity of the sheep-head model for ESS training. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
E. N. Novozhilova
Full Text Available 2 The paper describes the first experience in using robotic CO laser at the Department of Head and Neck Tumors, Moscow City Cancer Hospital Sixty-Two. With advances in endoscopic techniques and anesthesiology, there have been new possibilities of usingdirect (rigid larygoscopy in conjunction with laser systems.The Lumеnis laser assembly consists of three interconnected components: a videocamera, an operating microscope, and directly CO laser. It includes a computer system that sets a program to perform an operation.The heart of the laser system is a scanning Digital Acu Blade micromanipulator. This unique assembly makes itpossible to control the area and depth of incision, to cut intricate shapes in relation to the surface anatomy, and to precisely control ablation and hemostasis. The effect of tissue carbonization during surgery is minimal at the expense of the physical characteristics and different modes of radiation. It is noted that this system allows organ-sparing treatment in cancer patients and their prompt rehabilitation after surgical interventions.
Gorgun, Emre; Benlice, Cigdem; Abbas, Maher A; Steele, Scott
Need for colon sparing interventions for premalignant lesions not amenable to conventional endoscopic excision has stimulated interest in advanced endoscopic approaches. The aim of this study was to report a single institution's experience with these techniques. A retrospective review was conducted of a prospectively collected database of all patients referred between 2011 and 2015 for colorectal resection of benign appearing deemed endoscopically unresectable by conventional endoscopic techniques. Patients were counseled for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) with possible combined endoscopic-laparoscopic surgery (CELS) or alternatively colorectal resection if unable to resect endoscopically or suspicion for cancer. Lesion characteristic, resection rate, complications, and outcomes were evaluated. 110 patients were analyzed [mean age 64 years, female gender 55 (50%), median body mass index 29.4 kg/m 2 ]. Indications for interventions were large polyp median endoscopic size 3 cm (range 1.5-6.5) and/or difficult location [cecum (34.9%), ascending colon (22.7%), transverse colon (14.5%), hepatic flexure (11.8%), descending colon (6.3%), sigmoid colon (3.6%), rectum (3.6%), and splenic flexure (2.6%)]. Lesion morphology was sessile (N = 98, 93%) and pedunculated (N = 12, 7%). Successful endoscopic resection rate was 88.2% (N = 97): ESD in 69 patients and CELS in 28 patients. Complication rate was 11.8% (13/110) [delayed bleeding (N = 4), perforation (N = 3), organ-space surgical site infection (SSI) (N = 2), superficial SSI (N = 1), and postoperative ileus (N = 3)]. Out of 110 patients, 13 patients (11.8%) required colectomy for technical failure (7 patients) or carcinoma (6 patients). During a median follow-up of 16 months (range 6-41 months), 2 patients had adenoma recurrence. Advanced endoscopic surgery appears to be a safe and effective alternative to colectomy for patients with complex premalignant lesions deemed
Patients' medical records, operative notes, and neural tube database records were used to complete a structured questionnaire. The difference in ... likely after 6 months. Keywords: obstructive hydrocephalus; endoscopic third ventriculostomy; ventriculoperitoneal shunt; children; paediatric surgery; neurosurgery; Ethiopia ...
Martínek, J.; Ryska, O.; Filípková, T.; Doležel, R.; Juhás, Štefan; Motlík, Jan; Holubová, Monika; Nosek, V.; Rotnáglová, B.; Zavoral, M.; Ryska, M.
Roč. 18, č. 27 (2012), s. 3558-3564 ISSN 1007-9327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery * Laparoscopy * Ovariectomy Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 2.547, year: 2012
Pundir, V.; Pundir, J.; Georgalas, C.; Fokkens, W. J.
Background: The role of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is not clearly defined. The aim of our study is to systematically review the existing evidence on the role of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing ESS. Methodology: Systematic search of MEDLINE (1950 -
Pundir, Vishal; Pundir, Jyotsna; Lancaster, Gillian; Baer, Simon; Kirkland, Paul; Cornet, Marjolein; Lourijsen, E. S.; Georgalas, Christos; Fokkens, W. J.
The aim of our study is to systematically review the existing evidence on the role of corticosteroids in patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Systematic search of MEDLINE (1950- 2014), EMBASE (1980-2014), metaRegister, Cochrane Library and ISI conference proceedings was
Hougaard, Helene Tarri; Qvist, Niels
Volvulus is an axial twist of any part of the gastrointestinal tract along its mesentery. If it goes unattended, it will cause bowel obstruction and bowel ischaemia with gangrene and perforation. The primary treatment is endoscopic desufflation, but the place for elective surgery is controversial....... Volvulus is a rare condition in Western Europe and North America that most often affects elderly of either gender....
The boundaries in minimally invasive techniques are continually being pushed further. Recent years have brought new and exciting changes with the advent of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. With the evolution of this field of surgery come challenges in the development of new instruments and the actual steps of the procedure. Included in these challenges is the idea of developing a proficiency-based curriculum for training.
Full Text Available Objective: To compare sleep-related outcomes in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS patients following base of tongue resection via robotic surgery and endoscopic midline glossectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective study. A total of 114 robotic and 37 endoscopic midline glossectomy surgeries were performed between July 2010 and April 2015 as part of single or multilevel surgery. Patients were excluded for indications other than sleep apnea or if complete sleep studies were not obtained. Thus, 45 robotic and 16 endoscopic surgeries were included in the analysis. Results: In the robotic surgery group there were statistically significant improvements in AHI [(44.4Â Â±Â 22.6 events/hâ(14.0Â Â±Â 3.0 events/h, PÂ <Â 0.001] Epworth Sleepiness Scale (12.3Â Â±Â 4.6 to 4.5Â Â±Â 2.9, PÂ <Â 0.001, and O2 nadir (82.0%Â Â±Â 6.1% to 85.0%Â Â±Â 5.4%, PÂ <Â 0.001. In the endoscopic group there were also improvements in AHI (48.7Â Â±Â 30.2 to 27.4Â Â±Â 31.9, PÂ =Â 0.06, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (12.6Â Â±Â 5.5 to 8.3Â Â±Â 4.5, PÂ =Â 0.08, and O2 nadir (80.2%Â Â±Â 8.6% to 82.7%Â Â±Â 6.5%, PÂ =Â 0.4. Surgical success rate was 75.6% and 56.3% in the robotic and endoscopic groups, respectively. Greater volume of tissue removed was predictive of surgical success in the robotic cases (10.3 vs. 8.6Â ml, PÂ =Â 0.02. Conclusions: Both robotic surgery and endoscopic techniques for tongue base reduction improve objective measures of sleep apnea. Greater success rates may be achieved with robotic surgery compared to traditional methods. Keywords: Sleep surgery, Transoral robotic surgery, TORS, Midline glossectomy, Partial glossectomy, Posterior glossectomy
Wu, Jian-Jun; Chen, Hui-Zhen; Zheng, Changkun
The most common causes of pain following lumbar spinal fusions are residual herniation, or foraminal fibrosis and foraminal stenosis that is ignored, untreated, or undertreated. The original surgeon may advise his patient that nothing more can be done in his opinion that the nerve was visually decompressed by the original surgery. Post-operative imaging or electrophysiological assessment may be inadequate to explain all the reasons for residual or recurrent symptoms. Treatment of failed lumbar spinal fusions by repeat traditional open revision surgery usually incorporates more extensive decompression causing increased instability and back pain. The authors, having limited their practice to endoscopic surgery over the last 10 years, report on their experience gained during that period to relieve pain by transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic revision of lumbar spinal fusions. To assess the effectiveness of transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy and foraminoplasty in patients with pain after lumbar spinal fusion. Retrospective study. Inpatient surgery center. Sixteen consecutive patients with pain after lumbar spinal fusions presenting with back and leg pain that had supporting imaging diagnosis of foraminal stenosis and/or residual/recurrent disc herniation, or whose pain complaint was supported by relief from diagnostic and therapeutic injections, were offered percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminoplasty over a repeat open procedure. Each patient sought consultation following a transient successful, partially successful or unsuccessful open lumbar spinal fusions treatment for disc herniation or spinal stenosis. Endoscopic foraminoplasty was also performed to either decompress the bony foramen in the case of foraminal stenosis, or to allow for endoscopic visual examination of the affected traversing and exiting nerve roots in the axilla. The average follow-up time was 30.3 months, minimum 12 months. Outcome data at each visit
Full Text Available Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS is the current trend in surgery. Compared to traditional surgery, MIS can substantially decrease recovery time and expenses needed by patients after surgeries, reduce pain during surgical procedures, and is highly regarded by physicians and patients. An endoscope is widely used in the diagnosis and treatments of various medical disciplines, such as hysteroscopy, laparoscopy, and colonoscopy, and have been adopted by many branches of medicine. However, the limited image field of MIS is often the most difficult obstacles faced by surgeons and medical students, especially to less experienced physicians and difficult surgical procedures; the limited field of view of endoscopic imaging does not provide a whole picture of the surgery area, making the procedures difficult and full of uncertainty. In light of this problem, we proposed a "Panoramic Wireless Endoscope System design", hoping to provide physicians with a wide field of view of the endoscopic image. We combine images captured from two parallel-mounted endoscope lenses into a single, wide-angle image, giving physicians a wider field of view and easier access to the surgical area. In addition, we developed a wireless transmission system so the image can be transmitted to various display platforms, eliminating the needs for excessive cabling on surgical tools and enable physicians to better operate on the patient. Finally, our system allows surgical assistants a better view of the operation process, and enables other physicians and nurses to remotely observe the process. Our experiment results have shown that we can increase the image to 152% of its original size. We used the PandaBoard ES platform with an ARM9 processor and 1G of onboard RAM, and continuously implementing animal trials to verify the reliability of our system.
Matikainen, Markku; Hermunen, Heikki; Paajanen, Hannu
Athletic pubalgia is typically associated with male athletes participating in contact sports and less frequently with females. Endoscopic surgery may fully treat the patient with athletic pubalgia. To perform an outcomes analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic surgery in female patients with athletic pubalgia. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifteen physically active female patients (mean age, 37 years) with athletic pubalgia were treated surgically via placement of total extraperitoneal endoscopic polypropylene mesh behind the injured groin area. The presence of preoperative bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis seen on MRI was graded from 0 to 3 and correlated with pain scores after surgery. The outcome measures were pre- and postoperative pain scores and recovery to daily activity between 1 and 12 months after surgery. Results were compared with previously published scores from male athletes (n = 30). With the exception of lower body mass index, the females with (n = 8) and without (n = 7) pubic BME had similar patient characteristics to the corresponding males. Mean inguinal pain scores (0-10) before surgical treatment were greater in females than males (during exercise, 7.8 ± 1.1 vs 6.9 ± 1.1; P = .0131). One month after surgery, mean pain scores for females were still greater compared with males (2.9 ± 1.7 vs 1.3 ± 1.6; P = .0034). Compared with female athletes with normal MRI, pubic BME was related to increased mean preoperative pain scores (8.13 ± 0.99 vs 6.43 ± 1.2; P = .0122). After 1 year, surgical outcomes were excellent or good in 47% of women. Endoscopic surgery was helpful in half of the females with athletic pubalgia in this study. The presence of pubic BME may predict slightly prolonged recovery from surgery.
Chinezu, Rares; Fomekong, Franklin; Lasolle, Héllène; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Raverot, Gerald; Jouanneau, Emmanuel
The population older than 80 years of age (very elderly) is increasing, and the management of these patients with pituitary surgery is controversial. To determine the prevalence of pituitary tumors in elderly patients and to determine the safety of endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas in patients aged older than 80 years. This retrospective study included elderly (65-75 years old) and very elderly consecutive patients operated between 2007 and 2015 for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Tumor characteristics, comorbidities, pre- and postoperative visual and endocrinologic status, and postoperative complications were compared. Of the total 623 operated patients, 307 had nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Twenty-three percent (n = 143) of all patients were aged older than 65 years, whereas 2.56% (n = 16) were aged older than 80 years. Gonadotroph and nonimmunoreactive tumors occurred in 81% of patients aged older than 65 years. The study groups were Group A, comprising 15 patients aged older than 80 years, and Group B, comprising 49 patients aged 65-75 years. No presurgical statistical differences were noted between the 2 groups. Complete tumor resection was achieved in 53.3% of Group A and 73.5% of Group B. Postsurgical visual status improved significantly in Group A than in Group B (P = 0.0012). No deaths occurred, and no group differences were noted in the postoperative complications. Age exceeding 80 years is not by itself a predictor of worse clinical outcome of endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery for nonfunctioning adenomas. Emphasis should be placed on visual pathway decompression for the quality of life in very old people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Al Kadah, Basel; Piccoli, Micaela; Mullineris, Barbara; Colli, Giovanni; Janssen, Martin; Siemer, Stephan; Schick, Bernhard
Endoscopic surgery for treatment of thyroid and parathyroid pathologies is increasingly gaining attention. The da Vinci system has already been widely used in different fields of medicine and quite recently in thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Herein, we report about modifications of the transaxillary approach in endoscopic surgery of thyroid and parathyroid gland pathologies using the da Vinci system. 16 patients suffering from struma nodosa in 14 cases and parathyroid adenomas in two cases were treated using the da Vinci system at the ENT Department of Homburg/Saar University and in cooperation with the Department of General Surgery in New Sant'Agostino Hospital, Modena/Italy. Two different retractors, endoscopic preparation of the access and three different incision modalities were used. The endoscopic preparation of the access allowed us to have a better view during preparation and reduced surgical time compared to the use of a headlamp. To introduce the da Vinci instruments at the end of the access preparation, the skin incisions were over the axilla with one incision in eight patients, two incisions in four patients and three incisions in a further four patients. The two and three skin incisions modality allowed introduction of the da Vinci instruments without arm conflicts. The use of a new retractor (Modena retractor) compared to a self-developed retractor made it easier during the endoscopic preparation of the access and the reposition of the retractor. The scar was hidden in the axilla and independent of the incisions selected, the cosmetic findings were judged by the patients to be excellent. The neurovascular structures such as inferior laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve and vessels, as well as the different pathologies, were clearly 3D visualized in all 16 cases. No paralysis of the vocal cord was observed. All patients had a benign pathology in their histological examination. The endoscopic surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid gland can be
Donatelli, Gianfranco; Fuks, David; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Pourcher, Guillaume; Perniceni, Thierry; Dumont, Jean-Loup; Tuszynski, Thierry; Vergeau, Bertrand Marie; Meduri, Bruno; Gayet, Brice
Post-operative collections are a recognized source of morbidity after abdominal surgery. Percutaneous drainage is currently considered the standard treatment but not all collections are accessible using this method. Since the adoption of EUS, endoscopic transmural drainage has become an attractive option in the management of such complications. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy, safety and modalities of endoscopic transmural drainage in the treatment of post-operative collections. Data of all patients referred to our dedicated multidisciplinary facility from 2014 to 2017 for endoscopic drainage of symptomatic post-operative collections after failure of percutaneous drainage or when it was deemed impossible, were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-two patients (17 males and 15 females) with a median age of 53 years old (range 31-74) were included. Collections resulted from pancreatic (n = 10), colorectal (n = 6), bariatric (n = 5), and other type of surgery (n = 11). Collection size was less than 5 cm in diameter in 10 (31%), between 5 and 10 cm in 17 (53%) ,and more than 10 cm in 5 (16%) patients. The median time from surgery to endoscopic drainage was 38 days (range 6-360). Eight (25%) patients underwent endoscopic guided drainage whereas 24 (75%) patients underwent EUS-guided drainage. Technical success was 100% and clinical success was achieved in 30 (93.4%) after a mean follow-up of 13.5 months (1.2-24.8). Overall complication was 12.5% including four patients who bled following trans-gastric drainage treated with conservative therapy. The present series suggests that endoscopic transmural drainage represents an interesting alternative in the treatment of post-operative collection when percutaneous drainage is not possible or fails.
Ozturan, Orhan; Yenigun, Alper; Aksoy, Fadlullah; Ertas, Burak
Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) is increasingly a preferred technique in otologic society. It offers excellent visualization of the anatomical structures directly and behind the corners with variable angled telescopes. It also provides reduced operative morbidity due to being able to perform surgical interventions with less invasive approaches. Operative preparation and setup time and cost of endoscopy system are less expensive compared with surgical microscopes. On the other hand, the main disadvantage of EES is that the surgery has to be performed with 1 single hand. It is certainly restrictive for an ear surgeon who has been operating with 2 hands under otologic microscopic views for years and certainly requires a learning period and perseverance. Holding the endoscope by a second surgeon is not executable because of insufficient surgical space.Endoscope/camera holders have been developed for those who need the comfort and convenience afforded by double-handed microscopic ear surgery. An ideal endoscope holder should be easy-to-set up, easily controlled, providing a variety of angled views, allowing the surgeon to operate with 2 hands and, budget-friendly. In this article, a commercially available 11-inch magic arm camera holder is proposed by the authors to be used in EES due to its versatile, convenient, and budget-friendly features. It allows 2-handed EES through existing technology and is affordable for surgeons looking for a low-cost and practical solution.
Christian, Eisha; Harris, Brianna; Wrobel, Bozena; Zada, Gabriel
Endoscopic endonasal surgery relies heavily on specialized operative instrumentation and optimization of endocrinological and other critical adjunctive intraoperative factors. Several studies and worldwide initiatives have previously established that intraoperative and perioperative surgical checklists can minimize the incidence of and prevent adverse events. The aim of this article was to outline some of the most common considerations in the perioperative and intraoperative preparation for endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. The authors implemented and prospectively evaluated a customized checklist at their institution in 25 endoscopic endonasal operations for a variety of sellar and skull base pathological entities. Although no major errors were detected, near misses pertaining primarily to missing components of surgical equipment or instruments were identified in 9 cases (36%). The considerations in the checklist provided in this article can serve as a basic template for further customization by centers performing endoscopic endonasal surgery, where their application may reduce the incidence of adverse or preventable errors associated with surgical treatment of sellar and skull base lesions.
Li, M.; Wu, H.; Wei, S.
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new style of Laparoscope and Endoscope Cooperative gallbladderpreserving Surgery (LECS), an improved method of minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, China, from January 2009 to July 2013. Methodology: Clinical data of patients subjected to LECS and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) was analysed. The inclusion criteria were normal size clear gallbladder bile with total volume (FV) of the gallbladder = 15 - 25 ml, the Residual Volume (RV) = 5 ml, and the Emptying Figure (EF) > 75 percentage, with polyps diagnosed definitively by B-type ultrasonic imaging or CT desirous of preserving gallbladder. Exclusion criteria were a history of midsection surgery, serious diseases of any organ, hepatic injury, or coagulation disturbance. Mean hospital stay and complications were also noted. Independent sample t-test, the frequency comparison used chi-square test (N > 5), and Fisher's exact test (N < 5) were used for statistical test. Results: The mean hospital stay after LECS was 3.50 ± 0.31 days, and 3.50 ± 0.31 days for the LC group. The mean age in LC and LECS group was 50 ± 25.4 and 44 ± 12.1 years, respectively. Complications after operation in the LECS were indigestion and diarrhea; LC group had indigestion (9.33 percentage), diarrhea (10.67 percentage), and gastroesophageal reflux (6.6.7 percentage). In the 3 months follow-up after discharging from the hospital, no patient had recurrence of any gallbladder disease; at 1 year follow-up, 1 patient (1.28 percentage) developed cholesterol crystals; at 3-year follow-up, 3 cases (3.84 percentage) were found to have recurring polyps (2-4 pieces), and 2 (2.56 percentage) patients developed cholesterol crystals. Conclusion: Minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy which used a CHIAO
Jayarao, Mayur; Devaiah, Anand K; Chin, Lawrence S
This study sought to report on the utility and safety of the flexible-fiber CO2 laser in endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. A retrospective chart review identified 16 patients who underwent laser-assisted transsphenoidal surgery. All tumor pathology types were considered. Results were assessed based on hormone status, tumor size, pathology, complications, and resection rates. Sixteen pituitary lesions (pituitary adenomas, 12; Rathke cleft cyst, 2; pituitary cyst and craniopharyngioma, 1 each) with an average size of 22.7 mm were identified by radiographic and pathologic criteria. All patients underwent flexible-fiber CO2 laser-assisted endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. Of the adenomas, 8 were nonsecreting and 4 were secreting (3 prolactinomas and 1 ACTH secreting). Gross total resection was achieved in 7 of 16 patients (43.75%) with hormone remission in all patients (100%) after a mean follow-up of 19.3 months. Postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients (18.75%): 2 patients developed transient diabetes insipidus (DI) and 1 developed a CSF leak requiring surgical repair. Five patients (31.25%) underwent postoperative radiation to the residual lesions. We found that CO2-laser-assisted endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for sellar tumors is a minimally invasive approach using a tool that is quick and effective at cutting and coagulation. The surgery has a low rate of complication, and no laser-related complications were encountered. The laser fiber allows the surgeon to safely cut and coagulate without the line-of-sight problems encountered with conventional CO2 lasers. Further studies are recommended to further define its role in endoscopic endonasal sellar surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nadeau, Valerie J.; Elson, Daniel S.; Hanna, George B.; Neil, Mark A. A.
A white light source, based on illumination of a yellow phosphor with a fibre-coupled blue-violet diode laser, has been designed and built for use in endoscopic surgery. This narrow light probe can be integrated into a standard laparoscope or inserted into the patient separately via a needle. We present a Monte Carlo model of light scattering and phosphorescence within the phosphor/silicone matrix at the probe tip, and measurements of the colour, intensity, and uniformity of the illumination. Images obtained under illumination with this light source are also presented, demonstrating the improvement in illumination quality over existing endoscopic light sources. This new approach to endoscopic lighting has the advantages of compact design, improved ergonomics, and more uniform illumination in comparison with current technologies.
Tosaka, Masahiko; Nagaki, Tomohito; Honda, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Katsumasa; Yoshimoto, Yuhei
Intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) is a reliable method for the detection of residual tumour, but previous single-slice low-resolution computed tomography (CT) without coronal or sagittal reconstructions was not of adequate quality for clinical use. The present study evaluated the results of multi-slice iCT-assisted endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary macroadenoma. This retrospective study included 30 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent pituitary macroadenoma with supradiaphragmatic extension who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery using iCT (eTSS+iCT group), and control 30 consecutive patients who underwent conventional endoscope-assisted transsphenoidal surgery (cTSS group). The tumour volume was calculated by multiplying the tumour area by the slice thickness. Visual acuity and visual field were estimated by the visual impairment score (VIS). The resection extent, (preoperative tumour volume - postoperative residual tumour volume)/preoperative tumour volume, was 98.9% (median) in the eTSS+iCT group and 91.7% in the cTSS group, and had significant difference between the groups (P = 0.04). Greater than 95 and >90% removal rates were significantly higher in the eTSS+iCT group than in the cTSS group (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). However, improvement in VIS showed no significant difference between the groups. The rate of complications also showed no significant difference. Multi-slice iCT-assisted endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery may improve the resection extent of pituitary macroadenoma. Multi-slice iCT may have advantages over intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging in less expensive, short acquisition time, and that special protection against magnetic fields is not needed.
Ross, Peter D; Steven, Richard; Zhang, Dong; Li, Heng; Abel, Eric W
This study was undertaken to introduce and establish the value of the Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Otolaryngology Surgery Trainer (DEPOST) as a customisable, objective real-time scoring system for trainee assessment. The construct validity of the system was assessed by comparing the performance of experienced otolaryngologists with that of otolaryngology trainees, junior doctors and medical students. Forty two subjects (13 Consultants, 8 senior trainees, 13 junior trainees and 8 junior doctors/medical students) completed a single test on DEPOST. The test involved using a 30° rigid endoscope and a probe with position sensor, to identify a series of lights in a complex 3-dimensional model. The system scored subjects for time, success rate, and economy of movement (distance travelled). An analysis of variance and correlation analysis were used for the data analysis, with statistical significance set at 0.05. Increasing experience led to significantly improved performance with the DEPOST (p < 0.01). Senior trainees' results were significantly better than those of consultant otolaryngologists in success rate and time (p < 0.05 & p < 0.05). Consultants were the most efficient in their movement (p = 0.051) CONCLUSIONS: The system provides an accurate and customisable assessment of endoscopic skill in otolaryngologists. The DEPOST system has construct validity, with master surgeons and senior trainees completing the tasks more accurately without sacrificing execution time, success rate or efficiency of movement.
Little, Andrew S; Kelly, Daniel; Milligan, John; Griffiths, Chester; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L; Rosseau, Gail; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Otto, Bradley A; Jahnke, Heidi; Chaloner, Charlene; Jelinek, Kathryn L; Chapple, Kristina; White, William L
Despite the increasing application of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary lesions, the prognostic factors that are associated with sinonasal quality of life (QOL) and nasal morbidity are not well understood. The authors examine the predictors of sinonasal QOL and nasal morbidity in patients undergoing fully endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. An exploratory post hoc analysis was conducted of patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary surgery and were enrolled in a prospective multicenter QOL study. End points of the study included patient-reported sinonasal QOL and objective nasal endoscopy findings. Multivariate models were developed to determine the patient and surgical factors that correlated with QOL at 2 weeks through 6 months after surgery. This study is a retrospective review of a subgroup of patients studied in the clinical trial "Rhinological Outcomes in Endonasal Pituitary Surgery" (clinical trial no. NCT01504399, clinicaltrials.gov ). Data from 100 patients who underwent fully endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery were included. Predictors of a lower postoperative sinonasal QOL at 2 weeks were use of nasal splints (p = 0.039) and female sex at the trend level (p = 0.061); at 3 months, predictors of lower QOL were the presence of sinusitis (p = 0.025), advancing age (p = 0.044), and use of absorbable nasal packing (p = 0.014). Health status (multidimensional QOL) was also predictive at 2 weeks (p = 0.001) and 3 months (p surgery. The mean time (± SEM) to absence of nasal crusting was 16.3 ± 2.1 weeks, mucopurulence was 6.2 ± 1.1 weeks, and synechia was 4.4 ± 0.5 weeks. Use of absorbable nasal packing was associated with more severe mucopurulence. Sinonasal QOL following endoscopic pituitary surgery reaches a nadir at 2 weeks and recovers by 3 months postoperatively. Use of absorbable packing and nasal splints, while used in a minority of patients, negatively correlates with early sinonasal QOL. Sinonasal QOL and overall health status are
Rosenberg, L B; Stredney, D
Virtual reality can be described as a convincingly realistic and naturally interactive simulation in which the user is given a first person illusion of being immersed within a computer generated environment While virtual reality systems offer great potential to reduce the cost and increase the quality of medical training, many technical challenges must be overcome before such simulation platforms offer effective alternatives to more traditional training means. A primary challenge in developing effective virtual reality systems is designing the human interface hardware which allows rich sensory information to be presented to users in natural ways. When simulating a given manual procedure, task specific human interface requirements dictate task specific human interface hardware. The following paper explores the design of human interface hardware that satisfies the task specific requirements of virtual reality simulation of Endoscopic surgical procedures. Design parameters were derived through direct cadaver studies and interviews with surgeons. Final hardware design is presented.
Igarashi, Tatsuo; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Naya, Yukio
Endourology and laparoscopic surgery are evolving in accordance with developments in instrumentation and progress in surgical technique. Recent advances in computer and image-processing technology have enabled novel images to be created from conventional endoscopic and laparoscopic video images. Such technology harbors the potential to advance endourology and laparoscopic surgery by adding new value and function to the endoscope. The panoramic and three-dimensional images created by computer processing are two outstanding features that can address the shortcomings of conventional endoscopy and laparoscopy, such as narrow field of view, lack of depth cue, and discontinuous information. The wide panoramic images show an anatomical map' of the abdominal cavity and hollow organs with high brightness and resolution, as the images are collected from video images taken in a close-up manner. To assist in laparoscopic surgery, especially in suturing, a three-dimensional movie can be obtained by enhancing movement parallax using a conventional monocular laparoscope. In tubular organs such as the prostatic urethra, reconstruction of three-dimensional structure can be achieved, implying the possibility of a liquid dynamic model for assessing local urethral resistance in urination. Computer-based processing of endoscopic images will establish new tools for endourology and laparoscopic surgery in the near future. (author)
Ricardo Landini Lutaif Dolci
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The large increase in the number of transnasal endoscopic skull base surgeries is a consequence of greater knowledge of the anatomic region, the development of specific materials and instruments, and especially the use of the nasoseptal flap as a barrier between the sinus tract (contaminated cavity and the subarachnoid space (sterile area, reducing the high risk of contamination. Objective: To assess the otorhinolaryngologic complications in patients undergoing endoscopic surgery of the skull base, in which a nasoseptal flap was used. Methods: This was a retrospective study that included patients who underwent endoscopic skull base surgery with creation of a nasoseptal flap, assessing for the presence of the following post-surgical complications: cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, mucocele formation, nasal synechia, septal perforation (prior to posterior septectomy, internal nasal valve failure, epistaxis, and olfactory alterations. Results: The study assessed 41 patients undergoing surgery. Of these, 35 had pituitary adenomas (macro- or micro-adenomas; sellar and suprasellar extension, three had meningiomas (two tuberculum sellae and one olfactory groove, two had craniopharyngiomas, and one had an intracranial abscess. The complications were cerebrospinal fluid leak (three patients; 7.3%, meningitis (three patients; 7.3%, nasal fossa synechia (eight patients; 19.5%, internal nasal valve failure (six patients; 14.6%, and complaints of worsening of the sense of smell (16 patients; 39%. The olfactory test showed anosmia or hyposmia in ten patients (24.3%. No patient had mucocele, epistaxis, or septal perforation. Conclusion: The use of the nasoseptal flap has revolutionized endoscopic skull base surgery, making the procedures more effective and with lower morbidity compared to the traditional route. However, although mainly transient nasal morbidities were observed, in some cases, permanent hyposmia and anosmia resulted
Nikolaos V Chrysanthos
Full Text Available Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastric tube are less common than adenocarcinomas. Topography includes stomach, small intestine, Vater ampulla, and gross intestine. They are graded as neuroendocrine tumors grade I and II (NETs GI and GII and neuroendocrine carcinomas GIII based on Ki-67 index and mitotic count.  Endoscopic treatment for GI NETs ≤1 cm that does not extend beyond the submucosal layer and does not demonstrate lymph node metastasis is recommended. Tumors ≥2 cm, with lymph node metastasis, are indicated for surgical treatment. The treatment strategy for tumors between 10 and 20 mm in size remains controversial.  We present a rare case of a 60-year-old male patient with end-stage renal failure who underwent a screening pretransplantation endoscopic control. Colonoscopy had no pathological findings. Gastroscopy reveals an abnormal mucosa in the anterior upper part of the duodenal bulb that was described as a micronodular mucosa and a central nodule of 6 mm with erythematous mucosa. Histology of the micronodular mucosa reveals a heterotopic gastric mucosa and a small hyperplastic polyp. Biopsies from the nodule reveal a carcinoid tumor (NET GI. Immunohistochemistry: Positive chromogranin levels, low mitotic index (1/10 HPF, and Ki-67 index 2 cm and those of the duodenal bulb with histological extensions and the lack of assessing depth invasion.
Chen, Xiaojun; Cheng, Jun; Gu, Xin; Sun, Yi; Politis, Constantinus
Preoperative planning is of great importance for transforaminal endoscopic techniques applied in percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy. In this study, a modular preoperative planning software for transforaminal endoscopic surgery was developed and demonstrated. The path searching method is based on collision detection, and the oriented bounding box was constructed for the anatomical models. Then, image reformatting algorithms were developed for multiplanar reconstruction which provides detailed anatomical information surrounding the virtual planned path. Finally, multithread technique was implemented to realize the steady-state condition of the software. A preoperative planning software for transforaminal endoscopic surgery (TE-Guider) was developed; seven cases of patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations were planned preoperatively using TE-Guider. The distances to the midlines and the direction of the optimal paths were exported, and each result was in line with the empirical value. TE-Guider provides an efficient and cost-effective way to search the ideal path and entry point for the puncture. However, more clinical cases will be conducted to demonstrate its feasibility and reliability.
Berlucchi, Marco; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Vincenzi, Andrea; Morra, Bruno; Pasquini, Ernesto
Nasal packings can aid in control of postoperative bleeding and healing following functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), but traditional non-resorbable stents have several inherent drawbacks. We performed a randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial to assess efficacy of resorbable nasal packing in patients undergoing FESS for chronic rhinosinusitis. A total of 66 patients for 88 nasal cavities were randomized to receive either hyaluronan resorbable packing (MeroGel) or standard non-resorbable nasal dressing after FESS. All underwent preoperative rhinoscopy, CT of sinuses, and, after surgery, were reassessed by rhinoscopy at 2, 4, and 12 weeks in blinded fashion. A total of 44 nasal cavities (MeroGel-group) received resorbable packing, whereas the remaining 44 were packed with non-resorbable nasal dressing. At follow-up endoscopic visit, the presence of nasal synechia was evaluated as primary outcome. Moreover, the tolerability and surgical handling properties of MeroGel and its comfort were assessed by surgeons and patients. Preoperative severity of rhinosinusitis was similar in both groups. No significant adverse events were observed in all patients. Follow-up endoscopy showed a lower proportion of nasal adhesions in MeroGel-group at both 4 (P = 0.041) and 12 weeks (P appearance of nasal mucosa of nasal cavities after FESS was observed in the MeroGel-group. Tolerability and surgical handling properties of MeroGel were positively rated by clinicians and the overall patient judged comfort of MeroGel was favorable. In conclusion, MeroGel can be considered a valid alternative to standard non-resorbable nasal dressings. It is safe, well-accepted, well-tolerated, and has significant advantage of being resorbable. Moreover, it may favor improved healing in patients undergoing FESS and reduce formation of adhesions.
Error, Marc; Ashby, Shaelene; Orlandi, Richard R; Alt, Jeremiah A
Objective To determine if the introduction of a systematic preoperative sinus computed tomography (CT) checklist improves identification of critical anatomic variations in sinus anatomy among patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery. Study Design Single-blinded prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods Otolaryngology residents were asked to identify critical surgical sinus anatomy on preoperative CT scans before and after introduction of a systematic approach to reviewing sinus CT scans. The percentage of correctly identified structures was documented and compared with a 2-sample t test. Results A total of 57 scans were reviewed: 28 preimplementation and 29 postimplementation. Implementation of the sinus CT checklist improved identification of critical sinus anatomy from 24% to 84% correct ( P identification of sinus anatomic variants, including those not directly included in the systematic review implemented. Conclusion The implementation of a preoperative endoscopic sinus surgery radiographic checklist improves identification of critical anatomic sinus variations in a training population.
Khademi, B.; Gandomi, B.; Chohedri, A.H.; Eghadami, H.
The technique of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has been widely accepted and applied to inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses with internationally reported results of this technique having been very good. Our objective was to find out outcome after FESS at our centre. Two hundred patients who had undergone FESS during a two year period with an average follow-up period of eleven months were evaluated subjectively regarding the outcome of their endoscopic sinus surgery. An overall subjective improvement of about 94% was documented, with improvement in specific symptoms such as headache, nasal congestion, change in sense of smell, nasal discharge and recurrent infections ranging from 52% to 97%. Our center reports a subjective improvement of symptoms following FESS compatible with results attained internationally. (author)
Zhou, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Wei; Ke, Zhao-Yang; Zhang, Bo
Chitosan dressing might be promising to promote the recovery following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). However, the results remain controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the influence of chitosan dressing on ESS. PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of chitosan dressing on endoscopic sinus surgery were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were synechia and hemostasis. Meta-analysis was performed using random-effect model. Four RCTs involving 268 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall following ESS, compared with control intervention, chitosan dressing significantly reduced synechia (RR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.13-0.49; P chitosan dressing could significantly decrease edema and improve hemostasis, but had no effect on granulations, mucosal edema, crusting and infection.
Kuikka, L; Hermunen, H; Paajanen, H
Athletic pubalgia (sportsman's hernia) is often repaired by surgery. The presence of pubic bone marrow edema (BME) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may effect on the outcome of surgery. Surgical treatment of 30 patients with athletic pubalgia was performed by placement of totally extraperitoneal endoscopic mesh behind the painful groin area. The presence of pre-operative BME was graded from 0 to 3 using MRI and correlated to post-operative pain scores and recovery to sports activity 2 years after operation. The operated athletes participated in our previous prospective randomized study. The athletes with (n = 21) or without (n = 9) pubic BME had similar patients' characteristics and pain scores before surgery. Periostic and intraosseous edema at symphysis pubis was related to increase of post-operative pain scores only at 3 months after surgery (P = 0.03) but not to long-term recovery. Two years after surgery, three athletes in the BME group and three in the normal MRI group needed occasionally pain medication for chronic groin pain, and 87% were playing at the same level as before surgery. This study indicates that the presence of pubic BME had no remarkable long-term effect on recovery from endoscopic surgical treatment of athletic pubalgia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Prgomet, Drago; Bačić, Antun; Prstačić, Ratko; Janjanin, Saša
Endoscopic CO 2 laser surgery (ELS) is a widely accepted treatment modality for early laryngeal cancer. Commonly re- ported advantages of ELS are good oncologic results with low incidence of complications. Although less common if com- pared with open procedures, complications following ELS can be very serious, even with lethal outcome. They can range from intraoperative endotracheal tube fire accidents to early and late postoperative sequels that require intensive medical treatment, blood tra...
Khan, Inamullah; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad
Surgical techniques for resection of pituitary tumours have come a long way since it was first introduced in late 18th century. Nowadays, most pituitary surgeries are performed through trans-nasal trans-sphenoidal approach either using a microscope, or an endoscope. Herein the authors review the literature and compare these two instruments with regards to their outcomes when used for resection of pituitary tumours. .
Frakes, James T
In the preceding article of this two-part polemic on the advisability of a corporate partner in the endoscopic ambulatory surgery center (EASC), the advantages of such a partner were discussed and criteria given for judging its performance. Alternatives to the corporate partner were discussed. In that article, the corporate partnership in the EASC is a positive development yielding many benefits and few disadvantages to the physicians and the center. In this article, the balance tilts the other way.
Dolci, Ricardo Landini Lutaif; Todeschini, Alexandre Bossi; Santos, Américo Rubens Leite Dos; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto
One of the main concerns in endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base has been the high incidence and morbidity associated with cerebrospinal fluid leaks. The introduction and routine use of vascularized flaps allowed a marked decrease in this complication followed by a great expansion in the indications and techniques used in endoscopic endonasal approaches, extending to defects from huge tumours and previously inaccessible areas of the skull base. Describe the technique of performing endoscopic double flap multi-layered reconstruction of the anterior skull base without craniotomy. Step by step description of the endoscopic double flap technique (nasoseptal and pericranial vascularized flaps and fascia lata free graft) as used and illustrated in two patients with an olfactory groove meningioma who underwent an endoscopic approach. Both patients achieved a gross total resection: subsequent reconstruction of the anterior skull base was performed with the nasoseptal and pericranial flaps onlay and a fascia lata free graft inlay. Both patients showed an excellent recovery, no signs of cerebrospinal fluid leak, meningitis, flap necrosis, chronic meningeal or sinonasal inflammation or cerebral herniation having developed. This endoscopic double flap technique we have described is a viable, versatile and safe option for anterior skull base reconstructions, decreasing the incidence of complications in endoscopic endonasal approaches. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Yu, Hongbo; Jiao, Feifei; Li, Biao; Zhang, Lei; Shen, Steve Guofang; Wang, Xudong
Mandibular condylar osteochondroma (OC) results in asymmetric prognathism with facial morphologic and functional disturbance. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of endoscope-assisted conservative condylectomy combined with simultaneous orthognathic surgery in the treatment of condylar OC. Thirteen patients with OC of the mandibular condyle were enrolled in this study. With the aid of endoscope, condylar OC resection and conservative condylectomy were carried out via intraoral approach. A direct vision of the magnified and illuminated operative field was realized. Simultaneous orthognathic surgery was used to correct facial asymmetry and malocclusion. All patients healed uneventfully. No facial nerve injury and salivary fistula occurred. Facial symmetry and morphology were greatly improved, and stable occlusion was obtained in all cases. The patients showed no signs of recurrence and temporomandibular joint ankylosis in the 16 to 54 months of follow-up. Endoscope-assisted tumor resection and condylectomy combined with simultaneous orthognathic surgery provide us a valuable option in the treatment of mandibular condylar OC.
Sánchez-Gómez, Serafín; Herrero-Salado, Tomás F; Maza-Solano, Juan M; Ropero-Romero, Francisco; González-García, Jaime; Ambrosiani-Fernández, Jesús
The high variability of sinonasal anatomy requires the best knowledge of its three-dimensional (3D) conformation to perform surgery more safely and efficiently. The aim of the study was to validate the utility of Osirix® and stereolithography in improving endoscopic sinonasal surgery planning. Osirix® was used as a viewer and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) 3D imaging manager to improve planning for 114 sinonasal endoscopic operations with polyposis (86) and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) (28). Stereolithography rapid prototyping was used for 7 frontoethmoidal mucoceles. Using Osirix® and stereolithography, a greater number of anatomical structures were identified and this was done faster, with a statistically-significant clinical-radiological correlation (Pvirtual reality, allows surgeons to perform endoscopic sinonasal surgery with greater confidence and in less time than using 2D images. Residents also achieve surgical competence faster, more safely and with fewer complications. This beneficial impact is increased when the surgical team has stereolithography rapid prototyping in more complex cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.
Shkarubo, A N; Ogurtsova, A A; Moshchev, D A; Lubnin, A Yu; Andreev, D N; Koval', K V; Chernov, I V
Intraoperative identification of the cranial nerves is a useful technique in removal of skull base tumors through the endoscopic endonasal approach. Searching through the scientific literature found one pilot study on the use of triggered electromyography (t-EMG) for identification of the VIth nerve in endonasal endoscopic surgery of skull base tumors (D. San-Juan, et al, 2014). The study objective was to prevent iatrogenic injuries to the cranial nerves without reducing the completeness of tumor tissue resection. In 2014, 5 patients were operated on using the endoscopic endonasal approach. Surgeries were performed for large skull base chordomas (2 cases) and trigeminal nerve neurinomas located in the cavernous sinus (3). Intraoperatively, identification of the cranial nerves was performed by triggered electromyography using a bipolar electrode (except 1 case of chordoma where a monopolar electrode was used). Evaluation of the functional activity of the cranial nerves was carried out both preoperatively and postoperatively. Tumor resection was total in 4 out of 5 cases and subtotal (chordoma) in 1 case. Intraoperatively, the IIIrd (2 patients), Vth (2), and VIth (4) cranial nerves were identified. No deterioration in the function of the intraoperatively identified nerves was observed in the postoperative period. In one case, no responses from the VIth nerve on the right (in the cavernous sinus region) were intraoperatively obtained, and deep paresis (up to plegia) of the nerve-innervated muscles developed in the postoperative period. The nerve function was not impaired before surgery. The t-EMG technique is promising and requires further research.
Magno, Priscilla; Khashab, Mouen A.; Mas, Manuel; Giday, Samuel A.; Buscaglia, Jonathan M.; Shin, Eun Ji; Dray, Xavier; Kalloo, Anthony N.
Background. NOTES techniques allow transesophageal access to the mediastinum. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of transesophageal biopsy of thoracic vertebrae. Methods. Nonsurvival experiments on four 50-kg porcine animals were performed. Transesophageal access to the mediastinum was attained using submucosal tunneling technique. Results. The posterior mediastinum was successfully accessed and navigated in all animals. Vertebral bodies and intervertebral spaces were easily ...
Li, Aijun; Liu, Weisheng; Cao, Peicheng; Zheng, Yuehua; Bu, Zhenfu; Zhou, Tao
Inconsistent findings have been reported regarding the efficacy and safety of endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma. This study aimed to assess the benefits and shortcomings of these surgical methods in patients with pituitary adenoma. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched, as well as proceedings of major meetings. Eligible studies with a retrospective or prospective design that evaluated endoscopic versus microscopic methods in patients with pituitary adenoma were included. Primary outcomes included gross tumor removal, cerebrospinal fluid leak, diabetes insipidus, and other complications. Overall, 23 studies (4 prospective and 19 retrospective) assessing 2272 patients with pituitary adenoma were included in the final analysis. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was associated with a higher incidence of gross tumor removal (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.08; P = 0.009) than those with microscopic transsphenoidal surgery. In addition, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery had no significant effect on the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak, compared with microscopic transsphenoidal surgery. Furthermore, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery was associated with a 22% reduction in risk of diabetes insipidus compared with microscopic transsphenoidal surgery, but the difference was not statistically significant. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery significantly reduced the risk of septal perforation (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.78; P = 0.014) and was not associated with the risk of meningitis, epistaxis, hematoma, hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, total mortality, and recurrence. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is associated with higher gross tumor removal and lower incidence of septal perforation in patients with pituitary adenoma. Future large-scale prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these findings
Davies, Benjamin M; Tirr, Erica; Wang, Yi Yuen; Gnanalingham, Kanna K
Object Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery is the commonest approach to pituitary tumors. One disadvantage of this approach is the development of early postoperative nasal symptoms. Our aim was to clarify the peak onset of these symptoms and their temporal evolution. Methods The General Nasal Patient Inventory (GNPI) was administered to 56 patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumors preoperatively and at 1 day, 3 days, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 to 12 months postoperatively. Most patients underwent surgery for pituitary adenomas ( N = 49; 88%) and through a uninostril approach ( N = 55; 98%). Total GNPI (0-135) and scores for the 45 individual components were compared. Results GNPI scores peaked at 1 to 3 days postoperatively, with rapid reduction to baseline by 2 weeks and below baseline by 6 to 12 months postsurgery ( p surgery ( p transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is common, but transient, more so in the functioning subgroup. Nasal symptoms improve below baseline by 6 to 12 months, without the need for specific long-term postoperative interventions in the vast majority of patients.
L.C.M. da Rocha
Full Text Available Obesity is a serious disorder in almost the entire world. It is an important risk factor for a series of conditions that affect and threaten health. Currently, bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity, and in addition to the resulting weight loss, it reduces morbidity in this population. There has been a significant increase in the number of obese patients operated on. Despite the success of bariatric surgery, an important group of patients still present with major postoperative complications. In order for endoscopy to effectively contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of complications deriving from obesity surgery, the gastroenterologist must be aware of the particularities involved in bariatric surgery. The present article is a review of the resulting anatomic aspects of the main surgical techniques employed, the most common postoperative symptoms, the potential complications, and the possibilities that endoscopic diagnosis and treatment offer. Endoscopy is a growing and continuously evolving method in the treatment of bariatric surgery complications. The aim of this review is to contribute to the preparation of gastroenterologists so they can offer adequate endoscopic diagnosis and treatment to this high-risk population.
Eseonu, Chikezie I; ReFaey, Karim; Pamias-Portalatin, Eva; Asensio, Javier; Garcia, Oscar; Boahene, Kofi D; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo
Variations on the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach present unique surgical techniques that have unique effects on surgical outcomes, extent of resection (EOR), and anatomical complications. To analyze the learning curve and perioperative outcomes of the 3-hand endoscopic endonasal mononostril transsphenoidal technique. Prospective case series and retrospective data analysis of patients who were treated with the 3-hand transsphenoidal technique between January 2007 and May 2015 by a single neurosurgeon. Patient characteristics, preoperative presentation, tumor characteristics, operative times, learning curve, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Volumetric EOR was evaluated, and a logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictors of EOR. Two hundred seventy-five patients underwent an endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery using the 3-hand technique. One hundred eighteen patients in the early group had surgery between 2007 and 2010, while 157 patients in the late group had surgery between 2011 and 2015. Operative time was significantly shorter in the late group (161.6 min) compared to the early group (211.3 min, P = .001). Both cohorts had similar EOR (early group 84.6% vs late group 85.5%, P = .846) and postoperative outcomes. The learning curve showed that it took 54 cases to achieve operative proficiency with the 3-handed technique. Multivariate modeling suggested that prior resections and preoperative tumor size are important predictors for EOR. We describe a 3-hand, mononostril endoscopic transsphenoidal technique performed by a single neurosurgeon that has minimal anatomic distortion and postoperative complications. During the learning curve of this technique, operative time can significantly decrease, while EOR, postoperative outcomes, and complications are not jeopardized. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Sarkar, Sauradeep; Rajaratnam, Simon; Chacko, Geeta; Chacko, Ari George
To describe outcomes and complications in patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly using the 2010 consensus criteria for biochemical remission. Retrospective review of 113 treatment naïve patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery with the endoscopic (n=66) and the endonasal microscopic technique (n=47). Cure was defined if the age and sex-adjusted IGF-1 level was normal and either the basal GH was transsphenoidal surgery did not differ significantly overall (28.8% versus 36.2%). On univariate analysis, a preoperative GH level Transsphenoidal surgery remains the first line of treatment for patients with acromegaly, but invasive adenomas will frequently require adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thawani, Jayesh P; Ramayya, Ashwin G; Abdullah, Kalil G; Hudgins, Eric; Vaughan, Kerry; Piazza, Matthew; Madsen, Peter J; Buch, Vivek; Sean Grady, M
Simulated practice may improve resident performance in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Using the NeuroTouch haptic simulation platform, we evaluated resident performance and assessed the effect of simulation training on performance in the operating room. First- (N=3) and second- (N=3) year residents were assessed using six measures of proficiency. Using a visual analog scale, the senior author scored subjects. After the first session, subjects with lower scores were provided with simulation training. A second simulation served as a task-learning control. Residents were evaluated in the operating room over six months by the senior author-who was blinded to the trained/untrained identities-using the same parameters. A nonparametric bootstrap testing method was used for the analysis (Matlab v. 2014a). Simulation training was associated with an increase in performance scores in the operating room averaged over all measures (p=0.0045). This is the first study to evaluate the training utility of an endoscopic endonasal surgical task using a virtual reality haptic simulator. The data suggest that haptic simulation training in endoscopic neurosurgery may contribute to improvements in operative performance. Limitations include a small number of subjects and adjudication bias-although the trained/untrained identity of subjects was blinded. Further study using the proposed methods may better describe the relationship between simulated training and operative performance in endoscopic Neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hirayama, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Umegaki, Masao; Kagawa, Naoki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki
Existing training methods for neuroendoscopic surgery have mainly emphasized the acquisition of anatomical knowledge and procedures for operating an endoscope and instruments. For laparoscopic surgery, various training systems have been developed to teach handling of an endoscope as well as the manipulation of instruments for speedy and precise endoscopic performance using both hands. In endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES), especially using a binostril approach to the skull base and intradural lesions, the learning of more meticulous manipulation of instruments is mandatory, and it may be necessary to develop another type of training method for acquiring psychomotor skills for EES. Authors of the present study developed an inexpensive, portable personal trainer using a webcam and objectively evaluated its utility. Twenty-five neurosurgeons volunteered for this study and were divided into 2 groups, a novice group (19 neurosurgeons) and an experienced group (6 neurosurgeons). Before and after the exercises of set tasks with a webcam box trainer, the basic endoscopic skills of each participant were objectively assessed using the virtual reality simulator (LapSim) while executing 2 virtual tasks: grasping and instrument navigation. Scores for the following 11 performance variables were recorded: instrument time, instrument misses, instrument path length, and instrument angular path (all of which were measured in both hands), as well as tissue damage, max damage, and finally overall score. Instrument time was indicated as movement speed; instrument path length and instrument angular path as movement efficiency; and instrument misses, tissue damage, and max damage as movement precision. In the novice group, movement speed and efficiency were significantly improved after the training. In the experienced group, significant improvement was not shown in the majority of virtual tasks. Before the training, significantly greater movement speed and efficiency were demonstrated in
Hasegawa, Yuzo; Saeki, Naokatsu; Murai, Hisayuki; Horiguchi, Kentaro; Hanazawa, Toyoyuki; Okamoto, Miyoshi; Yanagawa, Noriyuki
The endoscope is a new and highly useful instrument for transphenoidal surgery (TSS), and is generally used because of its minimally invasiveness. In addition, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgey (eTSS) has a potential for more radical tumor removal at the pituitary and the parasellar regions by wider visualization and more powerful illumination. To operate these regions safely, we need to know nasal and skull base anatomy under the endoscope which looks different from images under a microscope. In this paper, we demonstrated nasal and skull base anatomy with multi-detector computed tomography, which was performed in 23 recent patients with pituitary and parasellar legions. In the nasal legion, deviation of nasal septum and deviation of sphenoid ostium are important for endonasal approach of eTSS, and often determine the difficulty of surgery in the nasal cavity. Our study showed that deviation of nasal septum was seen in 26% of patients. Deviation of sphenoid ostium was 5.5±1.5 mm from the midline. The anatomy of sphenoid sinus plays a key role in our determination of the safety of a bony opening of the sella. In addition to sellar, presellar, and concha types, carotid prominence and optic prominence are important to determine the midline orientation. Development of carotid prominence was significantly related to the extent of lateral pneumatization of sphenoid sinus (P=0.0016). Reconstructed 3D-image of sphenoid sinus was very useful in visual understanding skull base anatomy. (author)
Full Text Available Yi Ni Koh,1,2 Shu Fen Ho,2 Letchumanan Pathma,3 Harvinder Singh,3 Embong Zunaina1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia Abstract: There are various causes that can lead to compressive optic neuropathy. We present here orbital apex cyst as an unusual cause of compressive optic neuropathy in a 49-year-old male. He presented with 2 weeks painless loss of vision in the left eye with left-sided headache. He had had left functional endoscopic sinus surgery for left nasal polyps 4 years earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and orbit revealed a left discrete orbital nodule, possibly orbital cyst or mucocele, which was compressing on the left optic nerve. Left eye vision improved markedly from hand movement to 6/36 pinhole 6/18 after initiation of intravenous dexamethasone. A subsequent endoscopic endonasal left optic nerve decompression found the orbital nodule lesion to be an orbital cyst. Marsupialization was performed instead of excision, as the cyst ruptured intraoperatively. Postoperative vision improved to 6/7.5 with normal optic nerve function postoperatively. Possible cause of orbital apex cyst is discussed. Keywords: orbital cyst, compressive optic neuropathy, functional endoscopic sinus surgery
Rai, Devinder; Munjal, Manish; Rai, Varun
Although the use of image guidance surgery (IGS) is standard practice in developed countries, it has not been in use in Indian Otolaryngology ever since its clinical inception in 1994. Some clinically interesting applications, relevant indications, practical tips and results in the Indian context are presented. Usage technique and data presentation. Indications based on AAO-HNS 2002 guidelines seem valid, and though the accuracy parameters remain still guarded, in line with the best technology available, based on the evidences of scattered reports and expert opinions, the use of navigation can be recommended as state of the art. IGS provides reliable information to a sinus surgeon in difficult circumstances. Its adaptation fortunately does not require a significant learning curve as it does not change the methodology of the surgical procedure. It can be an excellent teaching tool, but its use does not replace proper surgical training.
Santos, Byron F; Auyang, Edward D; Hungness, Eric S; Desai, Kush R; Chan, Edward S; van Beek, Darren B; Wang, Edward C; Soper, Nathaniel J
Extraction of a gallbladder through an endoscopic overtube during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) transgastric cholecystectomy avoids potential injury to the esophagus. This study examined the rate of successful gallbladder specimen extraction through an overtube and hypothesized that preoperative ultrasound findings could predict successful specimen passage. Gallbladder specimens from patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were measured, and an attempt was made to pull the specimens through a commercially available overtube with an inner diameter of 16.7-mm. A radiologist blinded to the outcomes reviewed the available preoperative ultrasound measurements from these patients. Ultrasound dimensions including gallbladder length, width, and depth; wall thickness; common bile duct diameter; and size of the largest gallstone (LGS) were recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether ultrasound findings and patient characteristics (age, body mass index [BMI], and sex) could predict the ability of a specimen to pass through the overtube. Of 57 patients, 44 (77%) who had preoperative ultrasounds available for electronic review were included in the final analysis. Gallstones were present in 35 (79%) of these 44 patients. Intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 18 (41%) of the 44 patients, and 16 (36%) of the 44 gallbladders could be extracted through the overtube. Measurement of LGS was possible for 23 patients, and indeterminate gallstone size (IGS) was determined for 12 patients. The rate for passage of perforated versus intact gallbladders was similar (40% vs. 23%; p = 0.054). The LGS (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.33; p = 0.021) and IGS (OR, 22.97; 95% CI, 1.99-265.63; p = 0.025) predicted failed passage on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The passage rate was 80% for LGS smaller than 10 mm or no stones present, 18% for LGS 10 mm or larger, and 8% for
Borg, Anouk; Kirkman, Matthew A; Choi, David
Endoscopic skull base surgery is becoming more popular as an approach to the anterior skull base for tumors and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulae. It offers the advantages of better cosmesis and improved quality of life after surgery. We reviewed the complication rates reported in the literature. A literature search was performed in the electronic database Ovid MEDLINE (1950 to August 25, 2015) with the search item "([Anterior] AND Skull base surgery) AND endoscopic." We identified 82 relevant studies that included 7460 cases. An average overall complication rate of 17.1% (range 0%-68.0%) and a mortality rate of 0.4% (0%-10.0%) were demonstrated in a total of 82 studies that included 7460 cases. The average CSF leak rate for all studies was 8.9% (0%-40.0%) with meningiomas and clival lesions having the greatest CSF leak rates. The most frequent benign pathology encountered was pituitary adenomas (n = 3720, 49.8% of all cases) and the most frequent malignant tumor was esthesioneuroblastoma (n = 120, 1.6% of all cases). Studies that included only CSF fistula repairs had a lower average total complication rate (12.9%) but a greater rate of meningitis compared with studies that reported mixed pathology (2.4% vs. 1.3%). A trend towards a lower total complication rate with increasing study size was observed. The endoscopic approach is an increasingly accepted technique for anterior skull base tumor surgery and is associated with acceptable complication rates. Increasing experience with this technique can decrease rates of complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Crespin, Oscar M; Okrainec, Allan; Kwong, Andrea V; Habaz, Ilay; Jimenez, Maria Carolina; Szasz, Peter; Weiss, Ethan; Gonzalez, Cecilia G; Mosko, Jeffrey D; Liu, Louis W C; Swanstrom, Lee L; Perretta, Silvana; Shlomovitz, Eran
The fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery (FLS) training box is a validated tool, already accessible to surgical trainees to hone their laparoscopic skills. We aim to investigate the feasibility of adapting the FLS box for the practice and assessment of endoscopic skills. This would allow for a highly available, reusable, low-cost, mechanical trainer. The design and development process was based on a user-centered design, which is a combination of the design thinking method and cognitive task analysis. The process comprises four phases: empathy, cognitive, prototyping/adaptation, and end user testing. The underlying idea was to utilize as many of the existing components of FLS training to maintain simplicity and cost effectiveness while allowing for the practice of clinically relevant endoscopic skills. A sample size of 18 participants was calculated to be sufficient to detect performance differences between experts and trainees using a two tailed t test with alpha set at 0.05, standard deviation of 5.5, and a power of 80%. Adaptation to the FLS box included two fundamental attachments: a front panel with an insertion point for an endoscope and a shaft which provides additional support and limits movement of the scope. The panel also allows for mounting of retroflexion tasks. Six endoscopic tasks inspired by FLS were designed (two of which utilize existing FLS components). Pilot testing with 38 participants showed high user's satisfaction and demonstrated that the trainer was robust and reliable. Task performance times was able to discriminate between trainees and experts for all six tasks. A mechanical, reusable, low-cost adaptation of the FLS training box for endoscopic skills is feasible and has high user satisfaction. Preliminary testing shows that the simulator is able to discriminate between trainees and experts. Following further validation, this adaptation may act as a supplement to the FES program.
Karakas, E; Anuwong, A; Ketwong, K; Kounnamas, A; Schopf, S; Klein, G
More than 10 years ago various research groups in Germany first reported the possibility of transoral surgery of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. These were developed and evaluated within the framework of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). While development of these innovative and new techniques that enabled surgery without visible scars did not become well accepted in Europe and America, it led to an optimized transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy vestibular approach (TOETVA), which was implemented particularly in Asia. We report the preparation, step-by-step implementation, and first promising results for TOETVA of an international surgical cooperation. A Thai-Austrian-German cooperation was started in June 2017. Between June and November 2017 the first 10 TOETVA procedures were performed in female and male patient(s) presenting with single thyroid nodules, sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism and solitary parathyroid adenoma or thyroglossal duct cysts. The TOETVA technique was performed using 3 laparoscopic ports inserted at the oral vestibule and a CO 2 insufflation pressure at 6-8 mm Hg. Each surgery was performed using laparoscopic instruments and ultrasonic or bipolar devices. Surgical outcome, complications and conversions to an open technique were recorded. Of the patients six presented with single thyroid nodules, two patients had multinodular goitre with scintigraphically cold nodules and multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue, one patient suffered from sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism with a left sided parathyroid adenoma and one patient suffered from a thyroglossal duct cyst. No conversion to conventional open surgery was necessary. Average tumor size was 3.1 cm (range 1-4 cm). There was no relevant loss of blood or subsequent bleeding. No temporary or permanent hoarseness or mental nerve injury occurred, while transient hypoparathyroidism was evident after successful parathyroid resection. Of the patients five
Takiguchi, S; Sekimoto, M; Yasui, M; Miyata, H; Fujiwara, Y; Yasuda, T; Yano, M; Monden, M
We devised a new method incorporating cyber visual training whereby novices in endoscopic surgery are instructed via repetition of a video-recorded procedure. We then conducted a study designed to investigate the impact of this cyber visual training on the mastery of intracorporeal knot-tying as an endoscopic technique. For the cyber visual training a 10-min video of the same procedure was replayed at normal, slow, and rapid speeds or presented in a series of still images. The training was undertaken by 36 medical students and 1st year trainee doctors who had had no experience of endoscopic surgery. They were divided into three groups, each of all received the same introductory lecture. Group A was only given training with the instructor for 15 min. Group B trained with the instructor for 15 min and was allowed self-training for 10 min. Group C viewed the cyber video beforehand and then underwent training with the instructor for 15 min. For all participants, the time required to complete a knot-tying task was measured and the level of endoscopic skill before and after the training was assessed using a virtual reality system the minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR), in terms of the following three parameters: time, errors, and efficiency of hand movements. The Steel-Dwass test was used to evaluate the differences among the three groups in task performance. Group C completed the knot-tying task faster than group A (p = 0.0375), but there were significant differences between groups A and B and groups B and C. There were no significant differences in the parameters assessed using the MIST-VR. Our new concept of cyber visual training is effective for mastering the knot-tying technique. This type of training should be widely applicable to other procedures, such as dissection, clipping, and hemostasis.
had emergency surgery, with gangrenous bowel noted in 43 (72%) ... of any stable patient with clinical and radiological features ... peritonitis, underwent repeat rigid sigmoidoscopy. ... endoscopic detorsion was successful in all six cases.
Li, Youzhong; Wu, Weijing; Xiao, Zian; Peng, Anquan
Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is a complex disease caused by a variety of pathological factors, and trauma is one of the main factors/causes. Clinical data of 17 cases of traumatic OAS treated by nasal endoscopic surgery in our department from January 2002 to April 2009 were gathered and reviewed. Among them, the six patients presented with OAS after injury to the lateral wall of orbital apex. Seven other patients exhibited OAS after injury to the medial wall of orbital apex, two displayed OAS after zygomatic trauma, while OAS manifested in the other two patients with craniocerebral trauma 3 days after they had decompressive craniotomy--of them, one was blind in both eyes. In the 17 cases, 6 patients were without light sensation, 1 was blind in both eyes; the sight-chart index of eight patients was 0.1, that of three other patients was 0.1-0.2. Fifteen patients displayed eyeball movement disturbance (disorder) and cornea sensory disturbance (disorder), two were with the eyeball abducent disturbance. After the nasal endoscopic surgeries for OAS performed on the 17, the sight of the most patients was restored in varying degrees. The sight of nine patients was between 0.2 and 0.3, that of two patients was between 0.1 and 0.2, that of the other two patients was 0.1, and that of four patients remained unchanged. The eyeball movement and the cornea esthesia in 15 patients recovered from the surgeries, one patient recovered with good eyeball adducent movement and the cornea esthesia but with eyeball abducent disturbance, the other patient did not make a recovery from the eyeball immobility, cornea anesthesia and ptosis. A follow-up lasting 2 months to 2 years suggested that the 16 patients had stable recovery from the surgeries. Satisfactory results could be achieved in the treatment of traumatic OAS by nasal endoscopic surgery. From objective assessment of the therapeutic effects of traumatic OAS, it can be concluded that if a patient is diagnosed with fractures of the
Bae, Sam Y; Korniski, Ronald J; Shearn, Michael; Manohara, Harish M; Shahinian, Hrayr
High-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging (stereo imaging) by endoscopes in minimally invasive surgery, especially in space-constrained applications such as brain surgery, is one of the most desired capabilities. Such capability exists at larger than 4-mm overall diameters. We report the development of a stereo imaging endoscope of 4-mm maximum diameter, called Multiangle, Rear-Viewing Endoscopic Tool (MARVEL) that uses a single-lens system with complementary multibandpass filter (CMBF) technology to achieve 3-D imaging. In addition, the system is endowed with the capability to pan from side-to-side over an angle of [Formula: see text], which is another unique aspect of MARVEL for such a class of endoscopes. The design and construction of a single-lens, CMBF aperture camera with integrated illumination to generate 3-D images, and the actuation mechanism built into it is summarized.
Hendrix, Philipp; Senger, Sebastian; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Simgen, Andreas; Linsler, Stefan; Oertel, Joachim
To report a technique for endoscopic cystoventriculostomy guided by preoperative navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and tractography in a patient with a large speech eloquent arachnoid cyst. A 74-year old woman presented with a seizure and subsequent persistent anomic aphasia from a progressive left-sided parietal arachnoid cyst. An endoscopic cystoventriculostomy and endoscope-assisted ventricle catheter placement were performed. Surgery was guided by preoperative nTMS and tractography to avoid eloquent language, motor, and visual pathways. Preoperative nTMS motor and language mapping were used to guide tractography of motor and language white matter tracts. The ideal locations of entry point and cystoventriculostomy as well as trajectory for stent-placement were determined preoperatively with a pseudo-3-dimensional model visualizing eloquent language, motor, and visual cortical and subcortical information. The early postoperative course was uneventful. At her 3-month follow-up visit, her language impairments had completely recovered. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated complete collapse of the arachnoid cyst. The combination of nTMS and tractography supports the identification of a safe trajectory for cystoventriculostomy in eloquent arachnoid cysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mao, Yamin; Jiang, Shixin; Ye, Jinzuo; An, Yu; Yang, Xin; Chi, Chongwei; Tian, Jie
For clinical surgery, it is still a challenge to objectively determine tumor margins during surgery. With the development of medical imaging technology, fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) method can provide real-time intraoperative tumor margin information. Furthermore, surgical navigation system based on FMI technology plays an important role for the aid of surgeons' precise tumor margin decision. However, detection depth is the most limitation exists in the FMI technique and the method convenient for either macro superficial detection or micro deep tissue detection is needed. In this study, we combined advantages of both open surgery and endoscopic imaging systems with FMI technology. Indocyanine green (ICG) experiments were performed to confirm the feasibility of fluorescence detection in our system. Then, the ICG signal was photographed in the detection area with our system. When the system connected with endoscope lens, the minimum quantity of ICG detected by our system was 0.195 ug. For aspect of C mount lens, the sensitivity of ICG detection with our system was 0.195ug. Our experiments results proved that it was feasible to detect fluorescence images with this combination method. Our system shows great potential in the clinical applications of precise dissection of various tumors
Starke, Robert M; Reames, Davis L; Chen, Ching-Jen; Laws, Edward R; Jane, John A
The efficacy of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETS) for Cushing disease has not been clearly established. To assess efficacy of a pure endoscopic approach for treatment of Cushing disease and determine predictors of remission. A prospectively acquired database of 61 patients undergoing ETS was reviewed. Remission was defined as postoperative morning serum cortisol of Cushing [100%], macroadenomas [87%]). At 2- to 3-month evaluations, 45 of 49 patients (91.8%) were in remission. Fifty patients were followed for at least 12 months (mean, 28 months; range, 12-72). Forty-two (84%) achieved remission from a single ETS. In these patients, there was no significant difference in remission rates between microadenomas (93%), magnetic resonance imaging-negative (70%), and macroadenomas (77%). Patients with history of previous surgery (n = 14, 23%) were 9 times less likely to achieve follow-up remission (P = .021). In-house cortisol level of Cushing disease provides high rates of remission with low rates of complications regardless of size. Although patients with a history of previous surgery are less likely to achieve remission, the majority can still achieve remission following treatment.
Akin, Safak; Isikay, Ilkay; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Yucel, Taskin; Gurlek, Alper; Berker, Mustafa
We report herein a retrospective analysis of the results of 142 consecutive prolactinoma cases operated upon using an endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach over a period of 6 years. Medical records of 142 cases were analysed with respect to indications for surgery, duration of hospital stay, early remission rates, failures and recurrence rates during a median follow-up of 36 months. On the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, 19 patients (13.4 %) had microadenoma, 113 (79.6 %) had macroadenoma, and the remaining 10 (7.0 %) had giant adenomas. Cavernous sinus invasion was identified in 25 patients by MRI and confirmed during surgery. Atypical adenoma was diagnosed in 16 patients. Sparsely granulated prolactin adenoma was identified in 99 patients (69.7 %). Our results demonstrate that male sex and higher preoperative prolactin levels are independent factors predicting persistent disease. The post-surgical complications are as follows: 2.8 % patients had meningitis, 2.1 % patients had postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and 2.1 % patients had panhypopituitarism. At the end of follow-up, 74.6 % patients went into remission. During follow-up period, five patients who had initial remission developed recurrence. Our series together with literature data suggest that an endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal approach in the treatment of proloctinomas has a favourable rate of remission. According to the findings of this study, endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal surgery might be an appropriate therapy choice for patients with prolactinoma who could not have been managed with recommended therapeutic modalities.
Varshney, Rickul; Frenkiel, Saul; Nguyen, Lily H P; Young, Meredith; Del Maestro, Rolando; Zeitouni, Anthony; Saad, Elias; Funnell, W Robert J; Tewfik, Marc A
Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is a technically challenging procedure, associated with a significant risk of complications. Virtual reality simulation has demonstrated benefit in many disciplines as an important educational tool for surgical training. Within the field of rhinology, there is a lack of ESS simulators with appropriate validity evidence supporting their integration into residency education. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the acceptability, perceived realism and benefit of the McGill Simulator for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (MSESS) among medical students, otolaryngology residents and faculty, and to present evidence supporting its ability to differentiate users based on their level of training through the performance metrics. 10 medical students, 10 junior residents, 10 senior residents and 3 expert sinus surgeons performed anterior ethmoidectomies, posterior ethmoidectomies and wide sphenoidotomies on the MSESS. Performance metrics related to quality (e.g. percentage of tissue removed), efficiency (e.g. time, path length, bimanual dexterity, etc.) and safety (e.g. contact with no-go zones, maximum applied force, etc.) were calculated. All users completed a post-simulation questionnaire related to realism, usefulness and perceived benefits of training on the MSESS. The MSESS was found to be realistic and useful for training surgical skills with scores of 7.97 ± 0.29 and 8.57 ± 0.69, respectively on a 10-point rating scale. Most students and residents (29/30) believed that it should be incorporated into their curriculum. There were significant differences between novice surgeons (10 medical students and 10 junior residents) and senior surgeons (10 senior residents and 3 sinus surgeons) in performance metrics related to quality (p education. This simulator may be a potential resource to help fill the void in endoscopic sinus surgery training.
Hompes, R; Rauh, S M; Hagen, M E; Mortensen, N J
Single-port platforms are increasingly being used for transanal surgery and may be associated with a shorter learning curve than transanal endoscopic microsurgery. However, these procedures remain technically challenging, and robotic technology could overcome some of the limitations and increase intraluminal manoeuvrability. An initial experimental experience with transanal endoscopic da Vinci(®) surgery (TEdS) using a glove port on human cadavers is reported. After initial dry laboratory experiments, the feasibility of TEdS and ideal set-up were further evaluated in human cadavers. For transanal access a glove port was constructed on-table by using a circular anal dilator, a standard wound retractor and a surgical glove. A da Vinci(®) Si HD system was used in combination with the glove port for transanal endoscopic resections. It was possible to perform all necessary tasks to complete a full-thickness excision and closure of the rectal wall, with cadavers in both prone and supine positions. The stable magnified view, combined with the EndoWrist(®) technology of the robotic instruments, made every task straightforward. Intraluminal manoeuvrability could be improved further by intersecting the robotic instruments. The glove port proved to be very reliable and the inherent flexibility of the glove facilitated docking of the robotic arms in a narrow confined space. Using a reliable and universally available glove port, TEdS was feasible and a preferred set-up was determined. Further clinical trials will be necessary to assess the safety and efficacy of this technique. Copyright © 2012 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Barrett, Thomas F; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Padormo, Francesco; Pawha, Puneet S; Delman, Bradley N; Shrivastava, Raj K; Balchandani, Priti
Background Successful endoscopic endonasal surgery for the resection of skull base tumors is reliant on preoperative imaging to delineate pathology from the surrounding anatomy. The increased signal-to-noise ratio afforded by 7T MRI can be used to increase spatial and contrast resolution, which may lend itself to improved imaging of skull base. In this study, we apply a 7T imaging protocol to patients with skull base tumors and compare the images to clinical standard of care. Methods Images were acquired at 7T on 11 patients with skull base lesions. Two neuroradiologists evaluated clinical 1.5T, 3T, and 7T scans for detection of intracavernous cranial nerves and ICA branches. Detection rates were compared. Images were utilized for surgical planning and uploaded to a neuronavigation platform and used to guide surgery. Results Image analysis yielded improved detection rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7T. 7T images were successfully incorporated into preoperative planning and intraoperative neuronavigation. Conclusion Our study represents the first application of 7T MRI to the full neurosurgical workflow for endoscopic endonasal surgery. We detected higher rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7T MRI compared to 3T and 1.5 T, and found that integration of 7T into surgical planning and guidance was feasible. These results suggest a potential for 7T MRI to reduce surgical complications. Future studies comparing standardized 7T, 3T, and 1.5 T MRI protocols in a larger number of patients are warranted to determine the relative benefit of 7T MRI for endonasal endoscopic surgical efficacy. PMID:28359922
Barrett, Thomas F; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Padormo, Francesco; Pawha, Puneet S; Delman, Bradley N; Shrivastava, Raj K; Balchandani, Priti
Successful endoscopic endonasal surgery for the resection of skull base tumors is reliant on preoperative imaging to delineate pathology from the surrounding anatomy. The increased signal-to-noise ratio afforded by 7-T MRI can be used to increase spatial and contrast resolution, which may lend itself to improved imaging of the skull base. In this study, we apply a 7-T imaging protocol to patients with skull base tumors and compare the images with clinical standard of care. Images were acquired at 7 T on 11 patients with skull base lesions. Two neuroradiologists evaluated clinical 1.5-, 3-, and 7-T scans for detection of intracavernous cranial nerves and internal carotid artery (ICA) branches. Detection rates were compared. Images were used for surgical planning and uploaded to a neuronavigation platform and used to guide surgery. Image analysis yielded improved detection rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7 T. The 7-T images were successfully incorporated into preoperative planning and intraoperative neuronavigation. Our study represents the first application of 7-T MRI to the full neurosurgical workflow for endoscopic endonasal surgery. We detected higher rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7-T MRI compared with 3- and 1.5-T MRI, and found that integration of 7 T into surgical planning and guidance was feasible. These results suggest a potential for 7-T MRI to reduce surgical complications. Future studies comparing standardized 7-, 3-, and 1.5-T MRI protocols in a larger number of patients are warranted to determine the relative benefit of 7-T MRI for endonasal endoscopic surgical efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Innami, Ken; Takao, Masato; Miyamoto, Wataru; Abe, Satoshi; Nishi, Hideaki; Matsushita, Takashi
Open curettage with bone graft has been the traditional surgical treatment for symptomatic unicameral calcaneal bone cyst. Endoscopic procedures have recently provided less invasive techniques with shorter postoperative morbidity. The authors' endoscopic procedure is effective for young athletes with symptomatic calcaneal bone cyst. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Of 16 young athletes with symptomatic calcaneal bone cyst, 13 underwent endoscopic curettage and percutaneous injection of bone substitute under the new method. Three patients were excluded because of short-term follow-up, less than 24 months. For the remaining 10 patients, with a mean preoperative 3-dimensional size of 23 × 31 × 35 mm as calculated by computed tomography, clinical evaluation was made with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale just before surgery and at the most recent follow-up (mean, 36.2 months; range, 24-51 months), and radiologic assessment was performed at the most recent follow-up, to discover any recurrence or pathologic fracture. Furthermore, the 10 patients-all of whom returned to sports activities-were asked how long it took to return to initial sports activity level after surgery. Mean ankle-hindfoot scale score improved from preoperative 78.7 ± 4.7 points (range, 74-87) to postoperative 98.0 ± 4.2 points (range, 90-100) (P < .001). Pain and functional scores significantly improved after surgery (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). Radiologic assessment at most recent follow-up revealed no recurrence or pathologic fracture, with retention of injected calcium phosphate cement in all cases. All patients could return to their initial levels of sports activities within 8 weeks after surgery (mean period, 7.1 weeks; range, 4-8 weeks), which was quite early as compared with past reports. Endoscopic curettage and injection of bone substitute appears to be an excellent option for young athletes with symptomatic calcaneal bone cyst for early return
Agliullin, Arthur F.; Gusev, Valery F.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Samigullin, Rustem R.; Akul'shin, Alexander, Iv.; Bagapov, Nail N.
The program of courses is recommended for the experts working in endoscopy area, surgery, diagnostics, to developers of optical, optoelectronic and electronic equipment, and also for students and the post-graduate students of telecommunication high schools in addition trained on specializations of biomedical engineering. It urged to help the future researcher, engineer and doctor to understand mechanisms of images formation and display, to understand more deeply procedures of their processing and transfer on telecommunication channels of the various natures, to master modern reports of record and video and audio information reproduction. The separate section is devoted to questions of designing of surgical toolkit compatible with fiber-optical endoscopes.
Fomichev, D V; Kalinin, P L; Kutin, M A; Sharipov, O I; Chernov, I V
Surgical treatment for epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region is a challenge because of the tendency to a massive spread of epidermoid masses through the cerebrospinal fluid pathways and a significant lesion deviation from the midline. To analyze capabilities of the extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach in surgery for epidermoid cysts. The study included 6 patients with epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region who were operated on using the extended anterior endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach at the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute in the past 5 years. Epidermoid masses were completely removed in 5 patients; in none of the cases, complete removal of the epidermoid cyst capsule was achieved. There were no cases of vision deterioration and the development of new focal neurological symptoms. One female patient developed hypopituitary disorders in the postoperative period. There was no recurrence of epidermoid cysts during follow-up. Removal of epidermoid cysts of the chiasmatic region using the extended anterior endoscopic transsphenoidal approach may be an alternative to transcranial microsurgery.
Lazarenko, V A; Okhotnikov, O I; Prokopov, V A; Kopeĭko, I L; Bobrovskaia, E A; Es'kov, V P; Tulupova, L N
The authors present their experiences with endoscopic dissection of perforating veins in patients with severe forms of chronic venous insufficiency with special reference to the peculiarities of blood supply of the extremity superficial tissue. The generalized morphological description of the perforating arteriovenous structures of the leg is presented as a vascular formation including the arteries and veins put in the general connective-tissue vagina and beginning from the profound or/and muscular veins and arteries. Operations were made on 56 patients aged 25-76 years, 40 of them had postthrombotic disease, 16 - varicose disease. The endoscopic subfascial dissection of the perforating veins was conducted using the standard set of tools for laparoscopic surgery of K. Storz Company. During the surgical procedure the perforating vascular bunch in the subfascial space was isolated, the veins were intersected electrosurgically, the other parts of the vascular bunch were preserved. On the average, the patients were in the hospital for 7+/-2 days. Trophic ulcers healed up during 7-30 days. Long-term results were good in 30%, satisfactory in 64%, unsatisfactory - in 6%. So, the selective endoscopical dissection of perforating veins is thought to be a radical, minimally invasive, anatomically and functionally reasonable method of elimination of the horizontal venous blood regurgitation. This technique resulted in a considerably decreased number of postoperative complications and less time of hospital treatment.
Wolf, Amparo; Goncalves, Sandy; Salehi, Fateme; Bird, Jeff; Cooper, Paul; Van Uum, Stan; Lee, Donald H; Rotenberg, Brian W; Duggal, Neil
OBJECT The relationship between headaches, pituitary adenomas, and surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas remains unclear. The authors assessed the severity and predictors of self-reported headaches in patients referred for surgery of pituitary adenomas and evaluated the impact of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery on headache severity and quality of life (QOL). METHODS In this prospective study, 79 patients with pituitary adenomas underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resection and completed the Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) QOL questionnaire preoperatively and at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS Preoperatively, 49.4% of patients had mild headache severity, 13.9% had moderate severity, 13.9% had substantial severity, and 22.8% had intense severity. Younger age and hormone-producing tumors predisposed greater headache severity, while tumor volume, suprasellar extension, chiasmal compression, and cavernous sinus invasion of the pituitary tumors did not. Preoperative headache severity was found to be significantly associated with reduced scores across all SF-36 QOL dimensions and most significantly associated with mental health. By 6 months postoperatively, headache severity was reduced in a significant proportion of patients. Of the 40 patients with headaches causing an impact on daily living (moderate, substantial, or intense headache), 70% had improvement of at least 1 category on HIT-6 by 6 months postoperatively, while headache worsened in 7.6% of patients. The best predictors of headache response to surgery included younger age, poor preoperative SF-36 mental health score, and hormone-producing microadenoma. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study confirm that surgery can significantly improve headaches in patients with pituitary adenomas by 6 months postoperatively, particularly in younger patients whose preoperative QOL is impacted. A larger multicenter study is underway to evaluate the long
Yeung, Anthony; Gore, Satishchandra
The most common causes of failed back surgery are residual or recurrent herniation, foraminal fibrosis and foraminal stenosis that is ignored, untreated, or undertreated. Residual back ache may also be from facetal causes or denervation and scarring of the paraspinal muscles.(1-6) The original surgeon may advise his patient that nothing more can be done on the basis of his opinion that the nerve was visually decompressed by the original surgery, supported by improved post-op imaging and follow-up studies such as EMG and conduction velocity studies. Post-op imaging or electrophysiological assessment may be inadequate to explain all the reasons for residual or recurrent symptoms. Treatment of Failed back surgery by repeat traditional open revision surgery usually incorporates more extensive decompression causing increased instability and back pain, therefore necessitating fusion. The authors, having limited their practice to endoscopic MIS surgery over the last 15-20 years, report on their experience gained during that period to relieve pain by endoscopically visualizing and treating unrecognized causative patho-anatomy in FBSS.(7.) Thirty consecutive patients with FBSS presenting with back and leg pain that had supporting imaging diagnosis of lateral stenosis and /or residual / recurrent disc herniation, or whose pain complaint was supported by relief from diagnostic and therapeutic injections (Figure 1), were offered percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy and foraminoplasty over a repeat open procedure. Each patient sought consultation following a transient successful, partially successful or unsuccessful open translaminar surgical treatment for disc herniation or spinal stenosis. Endoscopic foraminoplasty was also performed to either decompress the bony foramen for foraminal stenosis, or foraminoplasty to allow for endoscopic visual examination of the affected traversing and exiting nerve roots in the axilla, also known as the "hidden zone" of Macnab
Lidiane Maria de Brito Macedo Ferreira
Full Text Available O nasoangiofibroma é um tumor benigno com componente vascular que acomete homens jovens, e tem como principal tratamento a cirurgia. Tem sido descrita a utilização de cirurgia endoscópica para a ressecção de tumores em estádios iniciais, sem evidência de permanência de restos tumorais ou recidiva da doença. OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar a via endoscópica precedida pela embolização como meio de tratamento para nasoangiofibroma em estádios II, e um caso selecionado em estádio III, com avaliação da morbidade pós-operatória a partir das seguintes variáveis: tempo cirúrgico, tempo de internamento pós-operatório, necessidade de transfusão sangüínea, presença de complicações, tempo entre embolização e cirurgia e presença de recidiva tumoral. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi realizado em estudo prospectivo, a partir de nove pacientes internados no Hospital Geral de Fortaleza SESA/SUS no período de outubro de 2001 a novembro de 2004. CONCLUSÃO: Pelos dados obtidos, concluiu-se que a via endoscópica, quando precedida pela embolização tumoral, é uma via eficaz no tratamento de nasoangiofibromas em estádios iniciais, com reduzida morbidade pós-operatória.Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a vascular benign tumor that affects young men, and surgery is the treatment of choice. Endoscopic surgery has been used to excise tumors in their initial stages, when there is no evidence of residual or recurrent disease. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the endoscopic approach preceded by tumor embolization as treatment option for stages II to III angiofibroma. Treatment morbidity was evaluated through: surgery duration, hospital stay after surgery, the need for blood transfusion, complications, the time span between preoperative embolization and surgery, and tumor recurrence. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out with nine patients treated at the Fortaleza General Hospital SESA/SUS from October 2001 through
Ismail, Mostafa; Fares, Abd Alla; Abdelhak, Balegh; D'Haens, Jean; Michel, Olaf
Sellar reconstruction with intrasellar packing following endoscopic resection of pituitary macroadenomas remains a subject of clinical and radiological discussion particularly, when an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is absent. This study was conducted to contribute our experience with sellar reconstruction after a standard endoscopic surgery of pituitary macroadenomas without intraoperative CSF leakage to the ongoing discussion between techniques with and without intrasellar packing. A consecutive series of 47 pituitary macroadenomas undergoing excision via a standard endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) without evident intraoperative CSF leakage were retrospectively evaluated over a 10-months mean follow-up period. According to the sellar reconstruction technique, three groups could be identified: Group A - with no intrasellar packing, Group B - with haemostatic materials packing, and Group C - with abdominal fat packing. Postoperative clinical and radiological assessments of the three groups were documented and analyzed for differences in outcome. Postoperative clinical assessment did not differ significantly between the three groups. In group A, postoperative CSF leakage, sphenoid sinusitis and empty sella syndrome were not observed. However, a significant difference in radiological assessment could be identified; the interpretation of sellar contents in postoperative MRI of group A succeeded earlier and more reliably than in other groups with intrasellar packing. There is no difference in the incidence of postoperative CSF leakage and empty sella syndrome among the various reconstructive techniques with and without intrasellar packing, irrespective of size and extension of the pituitary adenoma. Sellar reconstruction without intrasellar packing following a standard EETS is not inferior to other techniques with packing and even shows more radiological advantages, which made it our preferred technique, at least if no
Full Text Available Objectives: Sellar reconstruction with intrasellar packing following endoscopic resection of pituitary macroadenomas remains a subject of clinical and radiological discussion particularly, when an intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leakage is absent. This study was conducted to contribute our experience with sellar reconstruction after a standard endoscopic surgery of pituitary macroadenomas without intraoperative CSF leakage to the ongoing discussion between techniques with and without intrasellar packing.Methods: A consecutive series of 47 pituitary macroadenomas undergoing excision via a standard endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS without evident intraoperative CSF leakage were retrospectively evaluated over a 10-months mean follow-up period. According to the sellar reconstruction technique, three groups could be identified: Group A – with no intrasellar packing, Group B – with haemostatic materials packing, and Group C – with abdominal fat packing. Postoperative clinical and radiological assessments of the three groups were documented and analyzed for differences in outcome.Results: Postoperative clinical assessment did not differ significantly between the three groups. In group A, postoperative CSF leakage, sphenoid sinusitis and empty sella syndrome were not observed. However, a significant difference in radiological assessment could be identified; the interpretation of sellar contents in postoperative MRI of group A succeeded earlier and more reliably than in other groups with intrasellar packing. Conclusions: There is no difference in the incidence of postoperative CSF leakage and empty sella syndrome among the various reconstructive techniques with and without intrasellar packing, irrespective of size and extension of the pituitary adenoma. Sellar reconstruction without intrasellar packing following a standard EETS is not inferior to other techniques with packing and even shows more radiological advantages
Liu, Chien-Ying; Chu, Yen; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Yuan, Hsu-Chia; Ko, Po-Jen; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping
Transoral endoscopic surgery has been shown to be feasible and safe in both humans and animal models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transoral and conventional thoracoscopy for thoracic exploration, surgical lung biopsy, and pericardial window creation. The animals (n = 20) were randomly assigned to the transoral endoscopic approach group (n = 10) or conventional thoracoscopic approach group (n = 10). Transoral thoracoscopy was performed with a flexible bronchoscope via an incision over the vestibulum oris. In conventional thoracoscopy, access to the thoracic cavity was obtained through a thoracic incision. Surgical outcomes (body weight, operating time, operative complications, and time to resumption of normal diet), physiologic parameters (respiratory rate, body temperature), inflammatory parameters [white blood cell (WBC) counts and C-reactive protein (CRP)], and pulmonary parameters (arterial blood gases) were compared for both procedures. The surgical lung biopsy and pericardial window creation were successfully performed in all animals except one animal in the transoral group. There was no significant difference in operating times between the groups. The increase in WBC in the transoral thoracoscopy group was significantly smaller on postoperative day 1 than in the conventional thoracoscopy group (p = 0.0029). The transoral group had an earlier return to preoperative body temperature (p = 0.041) and respiratory rate (p = 0.045) on day 7. With respect to pulmonary parameters, there was no significant difference in blood pH, pCO2, or PaCO2 between the transoral and transthoracic groups. All animals survived without complications 14 days after surgery. This study demonstrated that the transoral approach was comparable to conventional thoracoscopic surgery for lung biopsy and pericardial window creation in terms of safety and efficacy.
Nallet, E; Decq, P; Bezzo, A; Le Lievre, G; Peynegre, R; Coste, A
The incidence and the risk of meningitidis justify treatment in all cases of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea with spontaneous etiology or after traumatic injury. Endonasal surgery with endoscopic instruments provides many advantages compared with transcranial or transfacial approach used by neurosurgeons. We report our experience and our surgical technique in the treatment of CSF leaks in 5 patients. Intrathecal injection of fluoresceine was very useful in all cases for detecting the CSF leak. Total or selected ethmoidectomy depended on the localization of the leakage. Wide sphenoidotomy enables detection and repair of CSF leaks from the sphenoid cavity. A free graft of inferior turbinal mucosal was used to repair the breache. This rapid low morbidity surgery offered secure closure of rhinorrhea in 4 cases after one procedure and in 1 case after two procedures with an average follow up of 22 months. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea can be managed in first line therapy with endoscopic intranasal surgical techniques when they are localized in the anterior ethmoid or in the sphenoid cavity.
Wang, Huixue; Gao, Yingji; Ji, Lixin; Bai, Wanshan
The clinical value of soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring in general anesthesia percutaneous interlaminar approach was investigated. A total of 80 cases with unilateral L5-S1 disc herniation between January 2015 and October 2016 were randomly divided into control group (without soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40) and observation group (with soleus muscle H-reflex monitoring, n=40). Results showed that the operation time of the observation group was shorter than that of the control group (Ph after operation, the amplitude of H-reflex in diseased side soleus muscle was significantly lower than that in healthy side (Ph postoperatively, the latency of H-reflex in diseased side soleus muscle was shorter than that of healthy side (PH-reflex latency in soleus muscle were significantly lower (PH-reflex monitoring can effectively reduce the damage to the nerve roots under percutaneous endoscopic intervertebral endoscopic surgery under general anesthesia, improve the accuracy of surgery, reduce the complications, shorten the operation time and reduce the surgical bleeding, which is more beneficial to patients smooth recovery.
Ajlouni, Yousef; Iser, John H; Gibson, Peter R
Endoscopic balloon dilatation (EBD), a non-surgical treatment option for intestinal strictures in Crohn's disease, appears to be applied infrequently, possibly due to the perceived risk of perforation and early recurrence. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of EBD by a single endoscopist using a defined technique. The records of all patients with Crohn's disease in whom EBD was attempted over a 12-year period were examined to determine the rate of technical success, complications and outcome. A stricture was defined as that which prevented passage of the 14 mm diameter colonoscope. Technical success was defined as the ability to traverse the stricture postdilatation. Patients were selected on the colonoscopic appearance of the stricture and dilatation was performed using through-the-endoscope balloons. Antibiotics were given during and for 7 days postdilatation. EBD was attempted on 83 strictures (31 anastomotic and 52 primary) in 37 patients (15 males) and was successful in 75 (90%) of 31 patients. A single dilatation only was required in 21 patients who had a median follow-up of 20 months (range 6-122 months). Recurrent symptomatic stricture requiring dilatation (eight patients) or surgery (two patients) occurred 8 (1-112) months after the initial dilatation. The only complication occurred in one patient where an intra-abdominal fistula and abscess were probably related to the dilatation. EBD of intestinal strictures associated with Crohn's disease has a low complication rate and leads to prolonged clinical benefit. It should be considered as a real alternative to surgery.
Storr, Helen L; Drake, William M; Evanson, Jane; Matson, Matthew; Berney, Dan M; Grossman, Ashley B; Akker, Scott A; Monson, John P; Alusi, Ghassan; Savage, Martin O; Sabin, Ian
Selective adenomectomy remains the first-line treatment for Cushing's disease (CD), until recently by microscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Endonasal transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery (ETES) is emerging as a novel, less invasive treatment for pituitary adenomas and has become the optimal surgical approach. There are no published series for the treatment of paediatric CD by ETES, and we report our centre's preliminary results. Retrospective analysis. Six paediatric patients (median age 15·8 years; range 11·7-17·0 years) fulfilled standard diagnostic criteria for CD. Preoperatively, no abnormality was identified on pituitary MR scanning in 3 (50%) patients, one had a macroadenoma. Bilateral petrosal sinus sampling demonstrated central ACTH secretion (IPS/P ACTH ratio ≥3·0, post-CRH) in 3/6 (50%) patients. The same neurosurgeon and endoscopic nasal surgeon undertook all the operations. Therapeutic outcome and rate of complications. Clinical recovery and biochemical 'cure' were achieved in 5 (83%) patients, and a corticotroph adenoma was confirmed histologically in all cured cases. One case developed post-operative CSF leak requiring lumbar drain insertion and patching. At a mean interval of 4·7 years (0·1-10·8 years) post-operatively, cured patients have shown no recurrence. One patient, with a large diffuse adenoma requiring more extensive surgery, has panhypopituitarism, and another patient has GH and gonadotrophin deficiencies. Our experience shows that ETES for removing corticotroph adenomas in children, in most cases not visualized on MRI, is minimally invasive and gave excellent post-operative recovery/results. In skilled hands, this technique provides an alternative to conventional transsphenoidal microscopic surgery in managing paediatric CD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dixon, Benjamin J; Daly, Michael J; Chan, Harley; Vescan, Allan; Witterick, Ian J; Irish, Jonathan C
Image-guided surgery (IGS) systems are frequently utilized during cranial base surgery to aid in orientation and facilitate targeted surgery. We wished to assess the performance of our recently developed localized intraoperative virtual endoscopy (LIVE)-IGS prototype in a preclinical setting prior to deployment in the operating room. This system combines real-time ablative instrument tracking, critical structure proximity alerts, three-dimensional virtual endoscopic views, and intraoperative cone-beam computed tomographic image updates. Randomized-controlled trial plus qualitative analysis. Skull base procedures were performed on 14 cadaver specimens by seven fellowship-trained skull base surgeons. Each subject performed two endoscopic transclival approaches; one with LIVE-IGS and one using a conventional IGS system in random order. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scores were documented for each dissection, and a semistructured interview was recorded for qualitative assessment. The NASA-TLX scores for mental demand, effort, and frustration were significantly reduced with the LIVE-IGS system in comparison to conventional navigation (P < .05). The system interface was judged to be intuitive and most useful when there was a combination of high spatial demand, reduced or absent surface landmarks, and proximity to critical structures. The development of auditory icons for proximity alerts during the trial better informed the surgeon while limiting distraction. The LIVE-IGS system provided accurate, intuitive, and dynamic feedback to the operating surgeon. Further refinements to proximity alerts and visualization settings will enhance orientation while limiting distraction. The system is currently being deployed in a prospective clinical trial in skull base surgery. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Krombach, G.A.; Haage, P.; Kilbinger, M.; Rohde, V.; Struffert, T.; Thron, A.
We assessed the clinical value of MR ventriculoscopy (virtual endoscopy, VE) combined with image-guided frameless stereotaxy for endoscopic surgery of occlusive hydrocephalus and intracranial cysts. VE was obtained in 20 patients with hydrocephalus and three with intracranial cysts. All surgical operations were endoscopic. The path of the rigid endoscope to the target point was planned using neuronavigation. VE was carried out along the same trajectory retrospectively in 20 cases and prospectively in three. The results were analysed for demonstration of anatomical landmarks and structures at risk. VE was successful in all patients. Possible obstacles to endoscopic access to the lamina terminalis and the basal cisterns and structures at risk, such as the basilar artery, were clearly shown in relation to the direction of the endoscope. However, the floor of the third ventricle and septum pellucidum were not clearly seen and possible abnormalities could therefore not be appreciated. VE can provide realistic simulation of endoscopic third ventriculostomy and cystostomy. The appropriate trepanation point and trajectory of the endoscope can be assessed with regard to the size of the foramen of Monro and the position of vulnerable structures. This simulated trajectory can be adapted to the field of operation by image-guided neuronavigation. This regime may potentially reduce the risk of damage to intracranial structures. (orig.)
Cracco, Cecilia Maria; Scoffone, Cesare Marco
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is still the gold-standard treatment for large and/or complex renal stones. Evolution in the endoscopic instrumentation and innovation in the surgical skills improved its success rate and reduced perioperative morbidity. ECIRS (Endoscopic Combined IntraRenal Surgery) is a new way of affording PNL in a modified supine position, approaching antero-retrogradely to the renal cavities, and exploiting the full array of endourologic equipment. ECIRS summarizes the main issues recently debated about PNL. The recent literature regarding supine PNL and ECIRS has been reviewed, namely about patient positioning, synergy between operators, procedures, instrumentation, accessories and diagnostic tools, step-by-step standardization along with versatility of the surgical sequence, minimization of radiation exposure, broadening to particular and/or complex patients, limitation of post-operative renal damage. Supine PNL and ECIRS are not superior to prone PNL in terms of urological results, but guarantee undeniable anesthesiological and management advantages for both patient and operators. In particular, ECIRS requires from the surgeon a permanent mental attitude to synergy, standardized surgical steps, versatility and adherence to the ongoing clinical requirements. ECIRS can be performed also in particular cases, irrespective to age or body habitus. The use of flexible endoscopes during ECIRS contributes to minimizing radiation exposure, hemorrhagic risk and post-PNL renal damage. ECIRS may be considered an evolution of the PNL procedure. Its proposal has the merit of having triggered the critical analysis of the various PNL steps and of patient positioning, and of having transformed the old static PNL into an updated approach.
Gondim, Jackson A; Schops, Michele; de Almeida, João Paulo C; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne F; Gomes, Erika; Ferraz, Tânia; Barroso, Francisca Andréa C
Pituitary tumors are challenging tumors in the sellar region. Surgical approaches to the pituitary have undergone numerous refinements over the last 100 years. The introduction of the endoscope have revolutionized pituitary surgery. The aim of this study is to report the results of a consecutive series of patients undergoing pituitary surgery using a pure endoscopic endonasal approach and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this procedure. We reviewed the data of 228 consecutive patients who underwent endonasal transsphenoidal adenoma removal over an 10-year period. Pre- and post-operative hormonal status (at least 3 months after surgery) were analyzed and compared with clinical parameters presented by the patients. Tumor removal rate, endocrinological outcomes, and complications were retrospectively assessed in 228 patients with pituitary adenomas who underwent 251 procedures between December 1998 and December 2007. There were 93 nonfunctioning adenomas, 58 growth hormone-secreting, 41 prolactin-secreting, 28 adrenocorticotropin hormone secreting, 7 FSH-LH secreting and 1 thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting adenomas. Gross total removal was achieved in 79.3% of the cases after a median follow-up of 61.5 months. The remission results for patients with nonfunctioning adenomas was 83% and for functioning adenomas were 76.3% (70.6% for GH hormone-secreting, 85.3% for prolactin hormone-secreting, 71.4% for ACTH hormone-secreting, 85.7% for FSH-LH hormone-secreting and 100% for TSH hormone-secreting), with no recurrence at the time of the last follow-up. Post-operative complications were present in 35 (13.9%) cases. The most frequent complications were temporary and permanent diabetes insipidus (six and two cases, respectively), syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (two cases) and CSF leaks (eight cases). There was no death related to the procedure in this series. The endoscopic endonasal approach for resection of pituitary adenomas, provides
Samad, Idris; Akst, Lee; Karatayli-Özgürsoy, Selmin; Teets, Kristine; Simpson, Marissa; Sharma, Ashwyn; Best, Simon R A; Hillel, Alexander T
Endoscopic airway surgery is a frequently used procedure in the management of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS); however, no established outcome measures are available to assess treatment response. To assess acoustics and aerodynamic measures and voice- and dyspnea-related quality of life (QOL) in adult patients with LTS who undergo endoscopic airway surgery. This case series compared preoperative measures and postoperative outcomes among adult patients who underwent endoscopic airway surgery for LTS from September 1, 2013, to September 30, 2015, at the tertiary care Johns Hopkins Voice Center. Patients were excluded if they did not undergo balloon dilation or if they had multilevel or glottic stenosis. The Phonatory Aerodynamic System was used to quantify laryngotracheal aerodynamic changes after surgery. Final follow-up was completed 2 to 6 weeks after surgery. The voice-related QOL instrument (V-RQOL), Dyspnea Index, and Clinical Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Questionnaire were completed before and after endoscopic surgery. Consensus auditory perceptual evaluation of voice, acoustic measurements, and aerodynamic outcomes were also assessed. Fourteen patients (1 man and 13 women; mean [SD] age, 45.4 [4.3] years) were enrolled. The mean postoperative V-RQOL scores (n = 14) increased from 74.3 to 85.5 (mean of difference, 11.3; 95% CI, 2.2 to 20.3). The mean postoperative Dyspnea Index (n = 14) decreased from 26.9 to 6.6 (mean of difference, -20.3; 95% CI, -27.9 to -12.7); the mean postoperative Clinical Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Questionnaire scores (n = 9) decreased from 3.2 to 1.0 (mean of difference, -2.2; 95% CI, -3.4 to -0.9). Postoperative mean vital capacity (n = 14) increased from 2.5 to 3.1 L (mean of difference, 0.6 L; 95% CI, 0.3-1.0 L), whereas mean laryngeal resistance (n = 14) decreased from 73.9 to 46.4 cm H2O/L/s (mean of difference, -27.5 cm H2O/L/s; 95% CI, -44.8 to -10.3 cm H2O/L/s) postoperatively. Patients
Voultsos, P; Casini, M; Ricci, G; Tambone, V; Midolo, E; Spagnolo, A G
The aim of the present study is to propose legal reform limiting surgeons' criminal liability in high-accuracy and high-risk surgery such as endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The study includes a review of the medical literature, focusing on identifying and examining reasons why ESS carries a very high risk of serious complications related to inaccurate surgical manoeuvers and reviewing British and Italian legal theory and case-law on medical negligence, especially with regard to Italian Law 189/2012 (so called "Balduzzi" Law). It was found that serious complications due to inaccurate surgical manoeuvers may occur in ESS regardless of the skill, experience and prudence/diligence of the surgeon. Subjectivity should be essential to medical negligence, especially regarding high-accuracy surgery. Italian Law 189/2012 represents a good basis for the limitation of criminal liability resulting from inaccurate manoeuvres in high-accuracy surgery such as ESS. It is concluded that ESS surgeons should be relieved of criminal liability in cases of simple/ordinary negligence where guidelines have been observed. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.
Campbell, M. R.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L.; Jennings, R.; Short, D.; Hamilton, D.; Dulchavsky, S. A.
BACKGROUND: Performing a surgical procedure in weightlessness, also called 0-gravity (0-g), has been shown to be no more difficult than in a 1-g environment if the requirements for the restraint of the patient, operator, surgical hardware, are observed. The performance of laparoscopic and thorascopic procedures in weightlessness, if feasible, would offer several advantages over the performance of an open operation. Concerns about the feasibility of performing minimally invasive procedures in weightlessness have included impaired visualization from the absence of gravitational retraction of the bowel (laparoscopy) or thoracic organs (thoracoscopy) as well as obstruction and interference from floating debris such as blood, pus, and irrigation fluid. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of performing laparoscopic and thorascopic procedures and the degree of impaired surgical endoscopic visualization in weightlessness. METHODS: From 1993 to 2000, laparoscopic and thorascopic procedures were performed on 10 anesthetized adult pigs weighing approximately 50 kg in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Microgravity Program using a modified KC-135 airplane. The parabolic simulation system for advanced life support was used in this project, and 20 to 40 parabolas were used for laparoscopic or thorascopic investigation, each containing approximately 30 s of 0-g alternating with 2-g pullouts. The animal model was restrained in the supine position on a floor-level Crew Medical Restraint System, and the abdominal cavity was insufflated with carbon dioxide. The intraabdominal and intrathoracic anatomy was visualized in the 1-g, 0-g, and 2-g periods of parabolic flight. Bleeding was created in the animals, and the behavior of the blood in the abdominal and thoracic cavities was observed. In the thoracic cavity, gas insufflation and mechanical retraction was used at times unilaterally to decrease pulmonary ventilation enough to increase the
Yim, Michael T; Ahmed, Omar G; Takashima, Masayoshi
Administration of topical 1:1000 epinephrine is commonly used in practice to achieve vasoconstriction during endoscopic sinus surgery and skull-base surgery; however, real-time effects on cardiovascular changes from systemic absorption have not been well studied. Twenty-six patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary lesion at a single institution were included into the study. Following arterial line placement by anesthesiology, 6 cottonoid pledgets soaked in 1:1000 epinephrine were placed into the bilateral nasal passages. Hemodynamic parameters including heart rate, blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure were collected at baseline, 30 seconds, and increments in minutes up to 10 minutes. Additional potentially confounding factors such as use of antihypertensives, stress dose steroids, and positioning with head pins were all performed following termination of data collection. The majority of patients (20/26, 77%) showed no significant change in any parameter following placement of epinephrine soaked cottonoids. Six patients, however, had transient increases in blood pressure following administration of topical epinephrine, with a few requiring vasodilatory interventions. Return to baseline cardiovascular values were noted after an average of 7 minutes. There was no correlative preoperative characteristic that predicted sensitivity to placement of epinephrine. There were no lasting or permanent effects. Although intranasal topical 1:1000 epinephrine use showed no substantial hemodynamic changes in the majority of patients, in a subset of patients it can cause significant transient elevations in blood pressure to a degree necessitating intervention. Topical epinephrine should be used judiciously in endoscopic sinus surgery. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Hucl, T.; Beneš, M.; Kočík, M.; Šplíchalová, Alla; Malušková, J.; Krak, M.; Lánská, V.; Heczková, M.; Kieslichová, E.; Oliverius, M.; Špičák, J.
Roč. 2016, MAY (2016), s. 7320275 ISSN 1687-6121 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : TRANSLUMINAL ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY * NOTES TRANSVAGINAL CHOLECYSTECTOMY * PORCINE SURVIVAL MODEL Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.863, year: 2016
Pledger, Carrie L; Elzoghby, Mohamed A; Oldfield, Edward H; Payne, Spencer C; Jane, John A
OBJECT Both endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal approaches are accepted techniques for the resection of pituitary adenomas. Although studies have explored patient outcomes for each technique individually, none have prospectively compared sinonasal and quality of life outcomes in a concurrent series of patients at the same institution, as has been done in the present study. METHODS Patients with nonfunctioning adenomas undergoing transsphenoidal surgery were assessed for sinonasal function, quality of life, and pain using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20), the short form of the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) instrument, the SF-36, and a headache scale. Eighty-two patients undergoing either endoscopic (47 patients) or microscopic (35 patients) surgery were surveyed preoperatively and at 24-48 hours, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 1 year after surgery. RESULTS Patients who underwent endoscopic and microscopic transsphenoidal surgery experienced a similar recovery pattern, showing an initial increase in symptoms during the first 2 weeks, followed by a return to baseline by 4 weeks and improvement beyond baseline functioning by 8 weeks. Patients who underwent endoscopic surgery experienced better sinonasal outcomes at 24-48 hours (SNOT total p = 0.015, SNOT rhinologic subscale [ssRhino] p surgery, no significant differences in sinonasal outcomes were observed between the 2 groups. Headache scales at 1 year improved in all dimensions except duration for both groups (total result 73%, p = 0.004; severity 46%, p surgery, both groups experienced significant improvements in mental health (13%, p = 0.005) and vitality (15%, p = 0.037). By 1 year after surgery, patients improved significantly in mental health (14%, p = 0.03), role physical (14%, p = 0.036), social functioning (16%, p = 0.009), vitality (22%, p = 0.002), and SF-36 total (10%, p = 0.024) as compared with preoperative measures. There were no significant differences at any time point
Naspro, Richard; Lerner, Lori B; Rossini, Roberta; Manica, Michele; Woo, Henry H; Calopedos, Ross J; Cracco, Cecilia M; Scoffone, Cesare M; Herrmann, Thomas R; de la Rosette, Jean J; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; DA Pozzo, Luigi F
The number of patients on chronic anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy requiring endoscopic urological surgery is increasing worldwide. Therefore, there is a strong demand to standardize the perioperative treatment of this cohort of patients, both from a surgical and cardiological point of view, balancing the risks of bleeding versus thrombosis, and the important possible clinical and medical legal repercussions therein. Although literature is scarce and the quality of evidence quite low, in line with other surgical specialties, guidelines and recommendations for the management of urological patients have begun to emerge. The aim of this review is to analyze current available literature and evidence on the most common endoscopic procedures performed in this high-risk group of patients, focusing on the perioperative management. In particular, to analyze the most frequently performed endoscopic procedures for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement (transurethral resection of the prostate, Thulium, Holmium and greenlight laser prostatectomy), bladder cancer (transurethral resection of the bladder), upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, and nephrolithiasis. Despite the lack of randomized studies, regardless of individual patient considerations, studies would support continuation of acetylsalicylic acid, which is recommended by cardiologists, in patients with intermediate/high risk of coronary thrombosis. In contrast, multiple studies found that bridging with light weight molecular weight heparin can potentially lead to more bleeding than continuation of the anticoagulant(s) and antiplatelet therapy, and caution with bridging is advised. All urologists should familiarize themselves with emerging guidelines and recommendations, and always be prepared to discuss specific cases or scenarios in a dedicated multidisciplinary team.
Liu, Hong; Xie, Yong-jun; Xu, Yi-quan; Li, Chao; Liu, Xing-guo
To explore the feasibility and safety of transtracheal assisted sublingual approach to totally endoscopic thyroidectomy by studying the anatomical approach and adjacent structures. A total of 5 embalmed adult cadavers from Chengdu Medical College were dissected layer by layer in the cervical region, pharyngeal region, and mandible region, according to transtracheal assisted sublingual approach that was verified from the anatomical approach and planes. A total of 15 embalmed adult cadavers were dissected by arterial vascular casting technique, imaging scanning technique, and thin layer cryotomy. Then the vessel and anatomical structures of thyroid surgical region were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Three-dimensional visualization of larynx artery was reconstructed by Autodesk 3ds Max 2010(32). Transtracheal assisted sublingual approach for totally endoscopic thyroidectomy was simulated on 5 embalmed adult cadavers. The sublingual observed access was located in the middle of sublingual region. The geniohyoid muscle, mylohyoid seam, and submental triangle were divided in turn in the middle to reach the plane under the plastima muscles. Superficial cervical fascia, anterior body of hyoid bone, and infrahyoid muscles were passed in sequence to reach thyroid gland surgical region. The transtracheal operational access was placed from the cavitas oris propria, isthmus faucium, subepiglottic region, laryngeal pharynx, and intermediate laryngeal cavit, and then passed from the top down in order to reach pars cervicalis tracheae where a sagittal incision was made in the anterior wall of cartilagines tracheales to reach a ascertained surgical region. Transtracheal assisted sublingual approach to totally endoscopic thyroidectomy is anatomically feasible and safe and can be useful in thyroid gland surgery.
Sairyo, Koichi; Chikawa, Takashi; Nagamachi, Akihiro
Transforaminal (TF) percutaneous endoscopic surgery for the lumbar spine under the local anesthesia was initiated in 2003 in Japan. Since it requires only an 8-mm skin incision and damage of the paravertebral muscles would be minimum, it would be the least invasive spinal surgery at present. At the beginning, the technique was used for discectomy; thus, the procedure was called PELD (percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy). TF approach can be done under the local anesthesia, there are great benefits. During the surgery patients would be in awake and aware condition; thus, severe nerve root damage can be avoided. Furthermore, the procedure is possible for the elderly patients with poor general condition, which does not allow the general anesthesia. Historically, the technique was first applied for the herniated nucleus pulposus. Then, foraminoplasty, which is the enlargement surgery of the narrow foramen, became possible thanks to the development of the high speed drill. It was called the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar foraminoplasty (PELF). More recently, this technique was applied to decompress the lateral recess stenosis, and the technique was named percutaneous endoscopic ventral facetectomy (PEVF). In this review article, we explain in detail the development of the surgical technique of with time with showing our typical cases. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
García-Garrigós, Elena; Arenas-Jiménez, Juan José; Monjas-Cánovas, Irene; Abarca-Olivas, Javier; Cortés-Vela, Jesús Julián; De La Hoz-Rosa, Javier; Guirau-Rubio, Maria Dolores
In the last 2 decades, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery has become the most popular choice of neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists to treat lesions of the skull base, with minimal invasiveness, lower incidence of complications, and lower morbidity and mortality rates compared with traditional approaches. The transsphenoidal route is the surgical approach of choice for most sellar tumors because of the relationship of the sphenoid bone to the nasal cavity below and the pituitary gland above. More recently, extended approaches have expanded the indications for transsphenoidal surgery by using different corridors leading to specific target areas, from the crista galli to the spinomedullary junction. Computer-assisted surgery is an evolving technology that allows real-time anatomic navigation during endoscopic surgery by linking preoperative triplanar radiologic images and intraoperative endoscopic views, thus helping the surgeon avoid damage to vital structures. Preoperative computed tomography is the preferred modality to show bone landmarks and vascular structures. Radiologists play an important role in surgical planning by reporting extension of sphenoid pneumatization, recesses and septations of the sinus, and other relevant anatomic variants. Radiologists should understand the relationships of the sphenoid bone and skull base structures, anatomic variants, and image-guided neuronavigation techniques to prevent surgical complications and allow effective treatment of skull base lesions with the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. ©RSNA, 2015.
Derks, Laura S M; Veenstra, Hidde J; Oomen, Karin P Q; Speleman, Lucienne; Stegeman, Inge
To systematically review the current literature on treatment of third and fourth branchial pouch sinuses with endoscopic cauterization, including chemocauterization and electrocauterization, in comparison to surgical treatment. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We conducted a systematic search. Studies reporting original study data were included. After assessing the directness of evidence and risk of bias, studies with a low directness of evidence or a high risk of bias were excluded from analysis. Cumulative success rates after initial and recurrent treatments were calculated for both methods. A meta-analysis was conducted comparing the success rate of electrocauterization and surgery. A total of 2,263 articles were retrieved, of which seven retrospective and one prospective article were eligible for analysis. The cumulative success rate after primary treatment with cauterization ranged from 66.7% to 100%, and ranged from 77.8% to 100% after a second cauterization. The cumulative success rate after the first surgical treatment ranged from 50% to 100% and was 100% after the second surgical attempt. Meta-analysis on electrocauterization showed a nonsignificant risk ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.78-2.33). The effectiveness of cauterization in preventing recurrence seems to be comparable to surgical treatment. However, we suggest endoscopic cauterization as the treatment of choice for third and fourth branchial pouch sinuses because of the lower morbidity rate. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Alonso, S.; Arenas, J.; Fernandez, F.; Gil, S.; Guirau, M. D.
The detailed radiological study of the anatomy of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinus is essential prior to endoscopic sinus surgery since, on the one hand, it discloses the extent of the disease and, on the other hand, it aids in the detection of the numerous anatomic variants, some of which are of great interest to the endoscopic as the lack of preoperative knowledge of them may increase the risk of complications. the objective of the present report is to review these variants, stressing those that may be associated with a greater surgical risk. Although coronal computed tomography is the technique of choice for pre endoscopy examination, certain structures and anatomic variants are better viewed in axial images. These exceptions include anterior and posterior walls of the frontal sinuses, the anatomic relationships between posterior ethmoid complex and the sphenoid sinus, the relationships between the sphenoid sinus and the optic nerve, and the detection of Onodi cells. Thus, we recommend that the radiological examination include both coronal and axial images. (Author) 16 refs
Venugopal, Vivek; Stockdale, Alan; Neacsu, Florin; Kettenring, Frank; Frangioni, John V.; Gangadharan, Sidharta P.; Gioux, Sylvain
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, accounting for 28% of all cancer deaths. Standard of care for potentially curable lung cancer involves preoperative radiographic or invasive staging, followed by surgical resection. With recent adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation studies showing a survival advantage in nodepositive patients, it is crucial to accurately stage these patients surgically in order to identify those who may benefit. However, lymphadenectomy in lung cancer is currently performed without guidance, mainly due to the lack of tools permitting real-time, intraoperative identification of lymph nodes. In this study we report the design and validation of a novel, clinically compatible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence thoracoscope for real-time intraoperative guidance during lymphadenectomy. A novel, NIR-compatible, clinical rigid endoscope has been designed and fabricated, and coupled to a custom source and a dual channel camera to provide simultaneous color and NIR fluorescence information to the surgeon. The device has been successfully used in conjunction with a safe, FDA-approved fluorescent tracer to detect and resect mediastinal lymph nodes during thoracic surgery on Yorkshire pigs. Taken together, this study lays the foundation for the clinical translation of endoscopic NIR fluorescence intraoperative guidance and has the potential to profoundly impact the management of lung cancer patients.
Zaidi, Hasan A; Cote, David J; Burke, William T; Castlen, Joseph P; Bi, Wenya Linda; Laws, Edward R; Dunn, Ian F
Pituitary tumor apoplexy can result from either hemorrhagic or infarctive expansion of pituitary adenomas, and the related mass effect can result in compression of critical neurovascular structures. The time course of recovery of visual field deficits, headaches, ophthalmoparesis, and pituitary dysfunction after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has not been well established. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for all patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor apoplexy from April 2008 to November 2014. Of 578 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery, pituitary tumor apoplexy was identified in 44 patients (7.6%). Two patients had prior surgery, leaving 42 patients for final analysis. These included infarction-related apoplexy in 7 (14.4%) patients, and hemorrhagic apoplexy in 35 (85.6%) patients. Hemorrhagic adenomas had a larger axial tumor diameter than patients with infarctive adenomas (4.4 ± 4.1 cm vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 cm; P surgery. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery can provide durable resolution of symptoms for patients presenting with pituitary tumor apoplexy. Recovery from headaches, visual, and pituitary dysfunction may be more rapid compared with ophthalmoparesis. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Induced hypotension limits intra-operative blood loss to provide better visibility of the surgical field and diminishes the incidence of major complications during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS. We aimed at comparing nitroglycerine, esmolol and dexmedetomidine for inducing controlled hypotension in patients undergoing FESS. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifty American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II adult patients undergoing FESS under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to three groups of 50 patients each. Group E received esmolol in a loading and maintenance dose of 1 mg/kg over 1 min and 0.5-1.0 mg/kg/h, respectively. Group D received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by an infusion 0.5-1.0 μg/kg/h, and group N received nitroglycerine infusion at a dose of 0.5-2 μg/kg/min so as to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP between 60 and 70 mmHg in all the groups. The visibility of the surgical field was assessed by surgeon using Fromme and Boezaart scoring system. Hemodynamic variables, total intra-operative fentanyl consumption, emergence time and time to first analgesic request were recorded. Any side-effects were noted. The postoperative sedation was assessed using Ramsay Sedation Score. Result: The desired MAP (60-70 mmHg could be achieved in all the three study groups albeit with titration of study drugs during intra-operative period. No significant intergroup difference was observed in Fromme′s score during the intra-operative period. The mean total dose of fentanyl (μg/kg used was found to be significantly lower in group D compared to groups E and N (1.2 ± 0.75 vs. 3.6 ± 1.3 and 2.9 ± 1.1 respectively. The mean heart rate was significantly lower in group D compared to groups E and N at all times of measurement (P < 0.05. The MAP was found to be significantly lower in group D compared to groups E and N after infusion of study drugs
Trotter, W L; Kaw, P; Meyer, D R; Simon, J W
During the past 2 decades, the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has dramatically improved the treatment of sinus disorders. However, a variety of orbital complications have been reported, including optic nerve damage, hemorrhage, infection, compromise of the lacrimal drainage apparatus, and strabismus. At least 10 cases have reported damage to the medial rectus muscle. (1-8) Treatment options for such patients have been limited, especially because most are adults at risk for anterior segment ischemia after transposition of vertical rectus muscles. We describe 2 patients whose medial rectus myectomies were repaired by using nonabsorbable "hang-back" sutures in combination with a botulinum toxin (Botox) injection of the antagonist lateral rectus muscle. Good primary position alignment was achieved in both patients, and one patient was able to regain binocular function. We recommend this surgical approach, especially in patients at increased risk for anterior segment ischemia.
Baur, C; Guzzoni, D; Georg, O
This paper describes the VIRGY project at the VRAI Group (Virtual Reality and Active Interface), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Lausanne, Switzerland). Since 1994, we have been investigating a variety of virtual-reality based methods for simulating laparoscopic surgery procedures. Our goal is to develop an endoscopic surgical training tool which realistically simulates the interactions between one or more surgical instruments and gastrointestinal organs. To support real-time interaction and manipulation between instruments and organs, we have developed several novel graphic simulation techniques. In particular, we are using live video texturing to achieve dynamic effects such as bleeding or vaporization of fatty tissues. Special texture manipulations allows us to generate pulsing objects while minimizing processor load. Additionally, we have created a new surface deformation algorithm which enables real-time deformations under external constraints. Lastly, we have developed a new 3D object definition which allows us to perform operations such as total or partial object cuttings, as well as to selectively render objects with different levels of detail. To provide realistic physical simulation of the forces and torques on surgical instruments encountered during an operation, we have also designed a new haptic device dedicated to endososcopic surgery constraints. We are using special interpolation and extrapolation techniques to integrate our 25 Hz visual simulation with the 300 Hz feedback required for realistic tactile interaction. The fully VIRGY simulator has been tested by surgeons and the quality of both our visual and haptic simulation has been judged sufficient for training basic surgery gestures.
Almutairi, Reem D; Muskens, Ivo S; Cote, David J; Dijkman, Mark D; Kavouridis, Vasileios K; Crocker, Erin; Ghazawi, Kholoud; Broekman, Marike L D; Smith, Timothy R; Mekary, Rania A; Zaidi, Hasan A
Microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (mTSS) is a well-established method to address adenomas of the pituitary gland. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (eTSS) has become a viable alternative, however. Advocates suggest that the greater illumination, panoramic visualization, and angled endoscopic views afforded by eTSS may allow for higher rates of gross total tumor resection (GTR). The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the rate of GTR using mTSS and eTSS. A meta-analysis of the literature was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through July 2017 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Seventy case series that reported GTR rate in 8257 pituitary adenoma patients were identified. For all pituitary adenomas, eTSS (GTR=74.0%; I 2 = 92.1%) was associated with higher GTR as compared to mTSS (GTR=66.4%; I 2 = 84.0%) in a fixed-effect model (P-interaction 0.05). No significant publication bias was identified for any of the outcomes. Among patients who were not randomly allocated to either approach, eTSS resulted in a higher rate of GTR as compared to mTSS for all patients and for NFPA patients alone, but only in a fixed-effect model. For FPA, however, eTSS did not seem to offer a significantly higher rate of GTR. These conclusions should be interpreted with caution because of the nature of the included non-comparative studies.
Ye, Yuanliang; Wang, Fuyu; Zhou, Tao; Luo, Yi
To evaluate effect of sellar reconstruction during pituitary adenoma resection surgery by the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach using artificial cerebral dura mater patch.This was a retrospective study of 1281 patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resection for the treatment of pituitary adenomas between December 2006 and May 2014 at the Neurosurgery Department of the People's Liberation Army General Hospital. The patients were classified into 4 grades according to intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage site. All patients were followed up for 3 months by telephone and outpatient visits.One thousand seventy three (83.7%) patients underwent sellar reconstruction using artificial dura matter patched outside the sellar region (method A), 106 (8.3%) using artificial dura matter patched inside the sellar region (method B), and 102 (8.0%) using artificial dura matter and a mucosal flap (method C). Method A was used for grade 0-1 leakage, method B for grade 1 to 2 leakage, and method C for grade 2 to 3 leakage. During the 3-month follow-up, postoperative CSF leakage was observed in 7 patients (0.6%): 2 among patients who underwent method B (1.9%) and 5 among those who underwent method C (4.9%). Meningitis was diagnosed in 13 patients (1.0%): 2 among patients who underwent method A (0.2%), 4 among those who underwent method B (3.8%), and 7 among those who underwent method C (6.7%).Compared with other reconstruction methods, sellar reconstruction surgery that only use artificial dura mater as repair material had a low rate of complications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Barber, Samuel R; Kozin, Elliott D; Dedmon, Matthew; Lin, Brian M; Lee, Kyuwon; Sinha, Sumi; Black, Nicole; Remenschneider, Aaron K; Lee, Daniel J
Surgical simulators are designed to improve operative skills and patient safety. Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery (TEES) is a relatively new surgical approach with a slow learning curve due to one-handed dissection. A reusable and customizable 3-dimensional (3D)-printed endoscopic ear surgery simulator may facilitate the development of surgical skills with high fidelity and low cost. Herein, we aim to design, fabricate, and test a low-cost and reusable 3D-printed TEES simulator. The TEES simulator was designed in computer-aided design (CAD) software using anatomic measurements taken from anthropometric studies. Cross sections from external auditory canal samples were traced as vectors and serially combined into a mesh construct. A modified tympanic cavity with a modular testing platform for simulator tasks was incorporated. Components were fabricated using calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder and multiple colored infiltrants via a commercial inkjet 3D-printing service. All components of a left-sided ear were printed to scale. Six right-handed trainees completed three trials each. Mean trial time (n = 3) ranged from 23.03 to 62.77 s using the dominant hand for all dissection. Statistically significant differences between first and last completion time with the dominant hand (p 3D-printed simulator is feasible for TEES simulation. Otolaryngology training programs with access to a 3D printer may readily fabricate a TEES simulator, resulting in inexpensive yet high-fidelity surgical simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gondim, Jackson A; Almeida, João Paulo; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne F; Gomes, Erika; Schops, Michele; Ferraz, Tania
Acromegaly is a chronic disease related to the excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor–I secretion, usually by pituitary adenomas. Traditional treatment of acromegaly consists of surgery, drug therapy, and eventually radiotherapy. The introduction of endoscopy as an additional tool for surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas and, therefore, acromegaly represents an important advance of pituitary surgery in the recent years. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the results of pure transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery in a series of patients with acromegaly who were operated on by a pituitary specialist surgeon. The authors discuss the advantages, outcome, complications, and factors related to the success of the endoscopic approach in cases of GHsecreting adenomas. The authors retrospectively analyzed data from cases involving patients with GH-secreting adenomas who underwent pure transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery at the Department of Neurosurgery of the General Hospital in Fortaleza, Brazil, between 2000 and 2009. Tumors were classified according to size as micro- or macroadenomas, and tumor extension was analyzed based on suprasellar/parasellar extension and sella floor destruction. All patients were followed up for at least 1 year. The criteria of disease control were GH levels transsphenoidal surgery for treatment of acromegaly. Disease control was obtained in 50 cases (74.6%). The rate of treatment success was higher in patients with microadenomas (disease control achieved in 12 [85.7%] of 14 cases) than in those with larger lesions. Suprasellar/parasellar extension and high levels of sella floor erosion were associated with lower rates of disease control (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Complications related to the endoscopic surgery included epistaxis (6.0%), transitory diabetes insipidus (4.5%), and 1 case of seizure (1.5%). Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery represents an effective option for treatment of patients
Waran, Vicknes; Tang, Ing Ping; Karuppiah, Ravindran; Abd Kadir, Khairul Azmi; Chandran, Hari; Muthusamy, Kalai Arasu; Prepageran, Narayanan
Abstract The endoscopic transnasal, transsphenoidal surgical technique for pituitary tumour excision has generally been regarded as a less invasive technique, ranging from single nostril to dual nostril techniques. We propose a single nostril technique using a modified nasal speculum as a preferred technique. We initially reviewed 25 patients who underwent pituitary tumour excision, via endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal surgery, using this new modified speculum-guided single nostril technique. The results show shorter operation time with reduced intra- and post-operative nasal soft tissue injuries and complications.
Nemec, Stefan Franz; Peloschek, Philipp; Koelblinger, Claus; Mehrain, Sheida; Krestan, Christian Robert; Czerny, Christian
Background and purpose: Today, functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is performed in most of the patients with sinonasal inflammatory disease. The postoperative imaging findings of FESS in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) considerably differ from those of historic Caldwell-Luc (CL) maxillary sinus surgery which is an uncommon procedure today. Thus, the postoperative CL imaging findings may lead to diagnostic confusion and misinterpretation. Therefore, this study explicitly presents the MDCT findings of post-CL patients which have not been described previously. Methods: Twenty-eight patients with clinically suspected sinusitis and documented history of CL-procedure underwent 16 row MDCT (MDCT Mx8000 IDT Philips) with multiplanar reconstructions of the paranasal sinuses in the axial plane. The following parameters were used: 140 kV, 50 mAs; 16 mm x 0.75 mm detector collimation; 1 mm reconstructed slice thickness; 0.5 mm increment. The studies were reconstructed with a bone algorithm (W3000/L600; 1 mm slice thickness) in axial plane and coronal plane (3 mm slice thickness). The images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of normal surgery-related and pathological findings. Results: Surgery-related imaging characteristics presented as follows: an anterior and a medial bony wall defect and sclerosis and sinus wall thickening were observed in all 28/28 cases (100%). Collaps of the sinus cavity was seen in 26/28 cases (92.9%). Furthermore, inflammatory disease of the operated sinus(es) was found in 23/28 cases (82.1%): 14/28 patients (50%) had inflammatory mucosal thickening of the operated sinus(es) as well as of other sinonasal cavities and 9/28 patients (32.1%) had inflammatory mucosal thickening limited to the operated sinus(es). A postoperative mucocele was depicted in 3/28 cases (10.7%). 2/28 patients (7.1%) showed neither maxillary nor other mucosal swelling. Conclusion: MDCT with multiplanar reconstructions is a precise method to evaluate
van der Merwe, Johan; Van Praet, Frank; Stockman, Bernard; Degrieck, Ivan; Vermeulen, Yvette; Casselman, Filip
This study reports the factors that contribute to sternotomy conversions (SCs) and adverse intraoperative events in minimally invasive aortic valve surgery (MI-AVS) and minimally invasive Endoscopic Port Access™ atrioventricular valve surgery (MI-PAS). In total, 3780 consecutive patients with either aortic valve disease or atrioventricular valve disease underwent minimally invasive valve surgery (MIVS) at our institution between 1 February 1997 and 31 March 2016. MI-AVS was performed in 908 patients (mean age 69.2 ± 11.3 years, 45.2% women, 6.2% redo cardiac surgery) and MI-PAS in 2872 patients (mean age 64.1 ± 13.3 years, 46.7% women, 12.2% redo cardiac surgery). A cumulative total of 4415 MIVS procedures (MI-AVS = 908, MI-PAS = 3507) included 1537 valve replacements (MI-AVS = 896, MI-PAS = 641) and 2878 isolated or combined valve repairs (MI-AVS = 12, MI-PAS = 2866). SC was required in 3.0% (n = 114 of 3780) of MIVS patients, which occurred in 3.1% (n = 28 of 908) of MI-AVS patients and 3.0% (n = 86 of 2872) of MI-PAS patients, respectively. Reasons for SC in MI-AVS included inadequate visualization (n = 4, 0.4%) and arterial cannulation difficulty (n = 7, 0.8%). For MI-PAS, SC was required in 54 (2.5%) isolated mitral valve procedures (n = 2183). Factors that contributed to SC in MI-PAS included lung adhesions (n = 35, 1.2%), inadequate visualization (n = 2, 0.1%), ventricular bleeding (n = 3, 0.1%) and atrioventricular dehiscence (n = 5, 0.2%). Neurological deficit occurred in 1 (0.1%) and 3 (3.5%) MI-AVS and MI-PAS conversions, respectively. No operative or 30-day mortalities were observed in MI-AVS conversions (n = 28). The 30-day mortality associated with SC in MI-PAS (n = 86) was 10.5% (n = 9). MIVS is increasingly being recognized as the 'gold-standard' for surgical valve interventions in the context of rapidly expanding catheter-based technology and increasing
Ghani, Yaser; Thakrar, Raj; Kosuge, Dennis; Bates, Peter
Operation notes are the only comprehensive account of what took place during surgery. Accurate and detailed documentation of surgical operation notes is crucial, both for post-operative management of patients and for medico-legal clarity. The aims of this study were to compare operation documentation against the Royal College of Surgeons of England guidelines and to compare the before-and-after effect of introducing an electronic operation note system. Fifty consecutive operation notes for inpatients that had undergone emergency orthopaedic trauma surgery were audited. An electronic operation note proforma was then introduced and a re-audit carried out after its implementation. The results after implementation of electronic operation notes, demonstrated a marked improvement. All notes contained an operation note (previously 5/6). Seventy five percent included time of surgery and age of patient (vs. 0% previously). A hundred percent included closure details and antibiotic selection at induction (vs. 60% and 69% respectively). Post-operative instructions improved to 100%. All were typed, making for 100% legibility as compared to only 66% of operation notes with legible hand writing in the initial audit. We used our pilot audit to target specific information that was commonly omitted and we 'enforced' these areas using drop-down selections in electronic operation note. This study has demonstrated that implementation of an electronic operation note system markedly improved the quality of documentation, both in terms of information detail and readability. We would recommend this template system as a standard for operation note documentation. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Basílio, Flávia Machado Alves
Full Text Available Introduction: The endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS is currently regarded as the gold standard in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (RNSC, with or without nasal polyposis refractory to medical therapy optimized. Objective: To evaluate the improvement of symptoms after FESS RNSC, through a questionnaire. Method: This is a prospective study, which included 34 patients undergoing FESS during the year 2009, the Service of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital das Clínicas / UFPR. Of these, 22 were diagnosed as RNSC RNSC and 12 had associated nasal polyps. All patients underwent a questionnaire on preoperative symptoms, comorbidities and degree of symptom improvement after surgery, six months after the procedure. Results: The percentage improvement of symptoms more prevalent in the group with RNSC was as follows: nasal obstruction 87.4%, 80.5% headache, pain / facial pressure 91.6% 81.2% posterior nasal discharge. In the group with polyposis associated improvement was nasal obstruction 76.6%, 76.6% posterior nasal discharge, hyposmia, 68.7%, headache 83%. In our study we found an overall improvement in symptoms of 83.74% in patients with RNSC and 80.5% in patients with associated nasal polyposis. Conclusion: FESS is highly effective in controlling symptoms of RNSC with or without polyposis and is, in our study, its efficacy similar to that found in the literature. With respect to patients with nasal polyposis, studies are needed with longer follow up, since this disease has a high degree of recurrence.
Zhou, Tao; Wang, Fuyu; Meng, Xianghui; Ba, Jianmin; Wei, Shaobo; Xu, Bainan
To determine the efficacy of endoscopic surgery in combination with long-acting somatostatin analogues (SSAs) in treating patients with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumor. We performed retrospective analysis of 133 patients with GH producing pituitary adenoma who underwent pure endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery in our center from January 2007 to July 2012. Patients were followed up for a range of 3-48 months. The radiological remission, biochemical remission and complication were evaluated. A total of 110 (82.7%) patients achieved radiological complete resection, 11 (8.2%) subtotal resection, and 12 (9.0%) partial resection. Eighty-eight (66.2%) patients showed nadir GH level less than 1 ng/mL after oral glucose administration. No mortality or severe disability was observed during follow up. Preoperative long-acting SSA successfully improved left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and blood glucose in three patients who subsequently underwent success operation. Long-acting SSA (20 mg every 30 days) achieved biochemical remission in 19 out 23 (82.6%) patients who showed persistent high GH level after surgery. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery can biochemically cure the majority of GH producing pituitary adenoma. Post-operative use of SSA can improve biochemical remission.
Wen, Guodao; Cong, ZiXiang; Liu, KaiDong; Tang, Chao; Zhong, Chunyu; Li, Liwen; Dai, XuJie; Ma, Chiyuan
We aimed to present a practical three-dimensional (3D) printed simulator to comprehensively and effectively accelerate the learning curve of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS). The 3D printed simulator consists of three parts: (1) skull frame, (2) the nasal passage and the nasal alar of the face, and (3) a modified sella turcica. We aimed to improve three basic operational skills of surgeons: drilling, curetting, and aspirating. Eighteen neurosurgeons and five post-graduates were recruited and consented for the training. For trainees, (1) as the training progressed, the scores increased gradually, (2) a significant increase in the average scores was observed in the tenth training compared to the first training, and (3) there is a significant decrease in trainee variability in the shortening of the gap. The 18 neurosurgeons were divided into three groups: experts, assistants, and observers. For all three basic operations, (1) the average score of experts was obviously higher than that of the assistants, observers, and trainees' tenth training and (2) the average scores of assistants and observers were obviously higher than that of trainees' first training. A significant high in the average score between the assistants and the observers was seen for aspirating, but not for drilling or curetting. For curetting and aspirating, the tenth training average score of trainees was obviously higher than that of assistants and observers. This 3D printed simulator allows different endoscopic basic operations to be simulated and improves the EETS techniques of surgeons. We believed it to be a practical, simple, and low-cost simulator.
Full Text Available Penetration of the clivus is required for surgical access of the brain stem. The endoscopic transclivus approach is a difficult procedure with high risk of injury to important neurovascular structures. We undertook a novel anatomical and radiological investigation to understand the structure of the clivus and neurovascular structures relevant to the extended trans-nasal trans-sphenoid procedure and determine a safe corridor for the penetration of the clivus.We examined the clivus region in the computed tomographic angiography (CTA images of 220 adults, magnetic resonance (MR images of 50 adults, and dry skull specimens of 10 adults. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR of the CT images was performed, and the anatomical features of the clivus were studied in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes. The data from the images were used to determine the anatomical parameters of the clivus and neurovascular structures, such as the internal carotid artery and inferior petrosal sinus.The examination of the CTA and MR images of the enrolled subjects revealed that the thickness of the clivus helped determine the depth of the penetration, while the distance from the sagittal midline to the important neurovascular structures determined the width of the penetration. Further, data from the CTA and MR images were consistent with those retrieved from the examination of the cadaveric specimens.Our findings provided certain pointers that may be useful in guiding the surgery such that inadvertent injury to vital structures is avoided and also provided supportive information for the choice of the appropriate endoscopic equipment.
Miki, Koichi; Yagi, Kenji; Nonaka, Masani; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Morishita, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Inoue, Tooru
Endoscopic evacuation of hematoma (EEH) has recently been applied to treat patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). Intraoperative active bleeding (IAB), which is occasionally observed in EEH, might lead to greater blood loss, further brain damage, and more postoperative recurrent hemorrhage. However, no definite predictor of IAB has been established. Because the spot sign is associated with other hemorrhagic complications, we aimed to evaluate whether it predicts IAB. We retrospectively assessed the incidence and risk factors of IAB, including the spot sign, in 127 sICH patients who underwent EEH within 6 hours after computed tomography angiography at our institution between June 2009 and December 2017. The study included 53 women and 74 men with an average age of 66.7 ± 11.8 years. IAB occurred in 40 (31.5%) of the 127 patients, and it was more frequent in patients with the spot sign than in patients without it (14/24 [58.3%] vs. 26/103 [25.2%]; P = 0.003). Multivariable regression analyses suggested that the spot sign was an independent predictor of IAB (odds ratio [OR], 3.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-8.30; P = 0.03). In addition, earlier surgery gradually increased the risk of IAB, and surgery within 4 hours of onset was an independent risk factor (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.12-16.9; P = 0.03, referring to postonset 8 hours or more). The spot sign and early surgery were independent predictors of IAB in EEH for sICH. In patients with sICH and spot sign, complete treatment of IAB by electrocoagulation might be important for minimizing surgical complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Jai Ho; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Sung Won
Objective Complete sellar floor reconstruction is critical to avoid postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during transsphenoidal surgery. Recently, the pedicled nasoseptal flap has undergone many modifications and eventually proved to be valuable and efficient. However, using these nasoseptal flaps in all patients who undergo transsphenoidal surgery, including those who had none or only minor CSF leakage, appears to be overly invasive and time-consuming. Methods Patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal tumor surgery within a 5 year-period were reviewed. Since 2009, we classified the intraoperative CSF leakage into grades from 0 to 3. Sellar floor reconstruction was tailored to each leak grade. We did not use any tissue grafts such as abdominal fat and did not include any procedures of CSF diversions such as lumbar drainage. Results Among 200 cases in 188 patients (147 pituitary adenoma and 41 other pathologies), intraoperative CSF leakage was observed in 27.4% of 197 cases : 14.7% Grade 1, 4.6% Grade 2a, 3.0% Grade 2b, and 5.1% Grade 3. Postoperative CSF leakage was observed in none of the cases. Septal bone buttress was used for Grade 1 to 3 leakages instead of any other foreign materials. Pedicled nasoseptal flap was used for Grades 2b and 3 leakages. Unused septal bones and nasoseptal flaps were repositioned. Conclusion Modified classification of intraoperative CSF leaks and tailored repair technique in a multilayered fashion using an en-bloc harvested septal bone and vascularized nasoseptal flaps is an effective and reliable method for the prevention of postoperative CSF leaks. PMID:26279811
Emanuelli, Enzo; Frasson, Giuliana; Cazzador, Diego; Borsetto, Daniele; Denaro, Luca
Objectives Ideal treatment of craniopharyngiomas is still controversial. Radiotherapy (RT) is considered effective for recurrences or after subtotal tumor removal (STR). About 40 to 50% of patients may experience tumor cyst expansion soon after RT; in these cases, the role of salvage surgery is debated. Design Operative video. Setting Tertiary care center. Participants An 11-year-old boy diagnosed with persistent craniopharyngioma. In 2015, the patient underwent right frontotemporal craniotomy for STR at another center, complicated by panhypopituitarism. Two years later, fractionated 54-Gy RT was performed on growing residual tumor. After 3 months, he was admitted to our hospital due to persistent malaise, vomiting, pulsating headache, and epistaxis. Ophthalmologic evaluation evidenced left homonymous hemianopsia. Results A contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 27-mm cystic component enlarging from the cranial end of the persistent craniopharyngioma lesion, extending into the third ventricle. Biventricular hydrocephalus and brain midline shift to the right were present. Compared with the early post-RT MRI, the cystic component of the tumor demonstrated growth. The patient underwent external ventricular drainage placement for emergent treatment of hydrocephalus and endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. After cystic content drainage, the lesion was completely removed with its capsule. A "gasket seal" technique was performed for skull base reconstruction, with autologous fascia lata, septal bone, and mucoperiosteum from inferior turbinate. Histologic examination confirmed the craniopharyngioma diagnosis. Postoperative MRI showed resolution of the hydrocephalus and complete tumor removal. Conclusion Although shrinkage of cystic components of craniopharyngioma residuals may occur within 5 to 6 months after RT, salvage surgery is indicated in symptomatic patients. The link to the video can be found at https://youtu.be/4x6Qe76bf60 .
Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea; Doglietto, Francesco; Carobbio, Andrea; Schreiber, Alberto; Panni, Camilla; Piantoni, Enrico; Guida, Giovanni; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Nicolai, Piero; Cassinis, Riccardo
Although robotics has already been applied to several surgical fields, available systems are not designed for endoscopic skull base surgery (ESBS). New conception prototypes have been recently described for ESBS. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic literature review of robotics for ESBS and describe a novel prototype developed at the University of Brescia. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched using a combination of terms, including Robotics OR Robot and Surgery OR Otolaryngology OR Skull Base OR Holder. The retrieved papers were analyzed, recording the following features: interface, tools under robotic control, force feedback, safety systems, setup time, and operative time. A novel hybrid robotic system has been developed and tested in a preclinical setting at the University of Brescia, using an industrial manipulator and readily available off-the-shelf components. A total of 11 robotic prototypes for ESBS were identified. Almost all prototypes present a difficult emergency management as one of the main limits. The Brescia Endoscope Assistant Robotic holder has proven the feasibility of an intuitive robotic movement, using the surgeon's head position: a 6 degree of freedom sensor was used and 2 light sources were added to glasses that were therefore recognized by a commercially available sensor. Robotic system prototypes designed for ESBS and reported in the literature still present significant technical limitations. Hybrid robot assistance has a huge potential and might soon be feasible in ESBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The authors describe the combination of awake craniotomy and minimally invasive endoscopic port surgery to resect a high-grade glioma located near eloquent structures of the temporal lobe. Combined minimally invasive techniques such as these may facilitate deep tumor resection within eloquent regions of the brain, allowing minimum white matter dissection. Technical aspects of this procedure, a case outcome involving this technique, and the direction of further investigations for the utility of these techniques are discussed.
Parodi, Andrea; De Ceglie, Antonella; De Luca, Luca; Conigliaro, Rita; Naspetti, Riccardo; Arpe, Paola; Coccia, Gianni; Conio, Massimo
Compared to emergency surgery, self-expandable metallic stents are effective and safe when used as bridge-to-surgery (BTS) in operable patients with acute colorectal cancer obstruction. In this study, we report data on the new conformable colonic stents. To evaluate clinical effectiveness of conformable stents as BTS in patients with acute colorectal cancer obstruction. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted at six Italian Endoscopic Units. Data about patients with acute malignant colorectal obstruction were collected between 2007 and 2012. All patients were treated with conformable stents as BTS. Technical success, clinical success, rate of primary anastomosis and colostomy, early and late complications were evaluated. Data about 88 patients (62 males) were reviewed in this study. Conformable SEMS were correctly deployed in 86 out of 88 patients, with resolution of obstruction in all treated patients. Tumor resection with primary anastomosis was possible in all patients. A temporary colostomy was performed in 40. Early complications did not occur. Late complications occurred in 11 patients. Stent migration was significantly higher in patients treated with partially-covered stents compared to the uncovered group (35% vs. 0%, P<0.001). Endoscopical re-intervention was required in 12% of patients. One patient with rectal cancer had an anastomotic dehiscence after surgery and he was successfully treated with endoscopic clipping. One year after surgery, all patients were alive and local recurrence have not been documented. This was a retrospective and uncontrolled study. Preliminary data from this large case series are encouraging, with a high rate of technical and clinical success and low rate of clinically relevant complications. Partially-covered SEMS should be avoided in order to reduce the risk of endoscopic re-intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Seyed mojtaba Karimi
Full Text Available Introduction: Endoscopic surgery is a new standard method of treatment for chronic sinusitis. During this operation even small amount of bleeding may reduce the visual field of surgeon significantly and make the procedure troublesome. In this study we have compared the operative condition between patients who receive either remifentanil or halothane for general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 60 patents. Pre- medication was done by fentanil and midazolam and induction was done by propofol and atracurium. Halothane or remifentanil was used in two groups of patients respectively for anesthesia maintenance. Monitoring was performed during anesthesia. Bleeding volume was measured and operation field condition was assessed by the surgeon. Results: Personal characteristics such as age and sex were the same in both groups. Intra- operative systolic blood pressures was significantly lower in remifentanil group but diastolic and mean blood pressure and heart rate didn’t change after induction and during maintenance in both groups. Recovery time in remifentanil group was also significantly shorter than halothane group. Finally bleeding volume was lower and operation field condition was better significantly in remifentanil group. Conclusion: Remifentanil is a good choice to maintain an ideal anesthesia for endoscopic sinus surgery.
Shkarubo, Alexey Nikolaevich; Chernov, Ilia Valerievich; Ogurtsova, Anna Anatolievna; Moshchev, Dmitry Aleksandrovich; Lubnin, Andrew Jurievich; Andreev, Dmitry Nicolaevich; Koval, Konstantin Vladimirovich
Intraoperative identification of cranial nerves is crucial for safe surgery of skull base tumors. Currently, only a small number of published papers describe the technique of trigger electromyography (t-EMG) in endoscopic endonasal removal of such tumors. To assess the effectiveness of t-EMG in preventing intraoperative cranial nerve damage in endoscopic endonasal surgery of skull base tumors. Nine patients were operated on using the endoscopic endonasal approach within a 1-year period. The tumors included large skull base chordomas and trigeminal neurinomas localized in the cavernous sinus. During the surgical process, cranial nerve identification was carried out using monopolar and bipolar t-EMG methods. Assessment of cranial nerve functional activity was conducted both before and after tumor removal. We mapped 17 nerves in 9 patients. Third, fifth, and sixth cranial nerves were identified intraoperatively. There were no cases of postoperative functional impairment of the mapped cranial nerves. In one case we were unable to get an intraoperative response from the fourth cranial nerve and observed its postoperative transient plegia (the function was normal before surgery). t-EMG allows surgeons to control the safety of cranial nerves both during and after skull base tumor removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asayama, Naoki; Nagata, Shinji; Shigita, Kenjiro; Aoyama, Taiki; Fukumoto, Akira; Mukai, Shinichi
Benign colonic anastomotic stenosis sometimes occurs after surgical resection and usually requires surgical or endoscopic dilation. Limited data are available on the effectiveness and safety of the endoscopic radial incision and cutting (RIC) method at sites other than the esophagus. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of RIC dilation for severe benign anastomotic colonic stenosis. Subjects were 3 men (median age 72 years, range 65 - 76 years) who developed severe benign anastomotic stenosis after surgical resection for colorectal carcinoma and were subsequently treated by RIC dilation at Hiroshima City Asa Citizens Hospital between May 2014 and December 2016. Severe anastomotic stenosis was defined as a narrowed anastomosis through which a standard colonoscope could not be passed. The median interval from surgery to RIC was 21 months (range 9 - 29 months). RIC was successful in all 3 patients and reduced the severity of dyschezia postoperatively; 2 patients experienced improvement after a single RIC session and the other after 6 RIC sessions. No treatment-related adverse events or re-stenosis requiring repeat dilation was noted during a median follow-up of 27 months (range 8 - 37 months). Our findings indicate that the RIC technique can be applied safely and effectively to various sites in the colon, avoiding the need for reoperation.
Younus, Iyan; Forbes, Jonathan A; Ordóñez-Rubiano, Edgar G; Avendano-Pradel, Rafael; La Corte, Emanuele; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H
Radiation therapy is often advocated for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma following surgical resection to prevent local recurrence. However, radiation therapy is not always effective and may render tumors more difficult to remove. If this is the case, patients may benefit more from reoperation if gross total resection can be achieved. Nevertheless, there is little data on the impact of radiation on reoperations for craniopharyngioma. In this study, we sought to analyze whether a history of previous radiation therapy (RT) affected extent of resection in patients with recurrent craniopharyngiomas subsequently treated with reoperation via endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA). The authors reviewed a prospectively acquired database of EEA reoperations of craniopharyngiomas over 13 years at Weill Cornell, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. All procedures were performed by the senior author. The operations were separated into two groups based on whether the patient had surgery alone (group A) or surgery and RT (group B) prior to recurrence. A total of 24 patients (16 male, 8 female) who underwent surgery for recurrent craniopharyngioma were identified. The average time to recurrence was 7.64 ± 4.34 months (range 3-16 months) for group A and 16.62 ± 12.1 months (range 6-45 months) for group B (p < 0.05). The average tumor size at recurrence was smaller in group A (1.85 ± 0.72 cm; range 0.5-3.2) than group B (2.59 ± 0.91 cm; range 1.5-4.6; p = 0.00017). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 91% (10/11) of patients in group A and 54% (7/13) of patients in group B (p = 0.047). There was a near significant trend for higher average Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score at last follow-up for group A (83 ± 10.6) compared with group B (70 ± 16.3, p = 0.056). While RT for residual or recurrent craniopharyngioma may delay time to recurrence, ability to achieve GTR with additional surgery is reduced. In the case of
Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L.; Mace, Jess C.; Schlosser, Rodney J.; Hwang, Peter H.; Soler, Zachary M.
Objective The primary objective of this pilot study was to define the change in productivity costs following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Secondary objectives were to identify CRS-related characteristics that may influence the degree of productivity improvement after ESS. Study Design Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. Methods The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time was quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 US National Census and the 2013 US Department of Labor statistics. Results 27 patients with refractory CRS who underwent ESS were followed for a mean of 15 [SD 4.0] months (range: 8 – 25 months). Following ESS, there were improvements in annual absenteeism (22 days reduced to 3 days), annual presenteeism (41 days reduced to 19 days), and annual household days lost (12 days reduced to 6 days). Overall, the preoperative productivity costs were reduced after ESS, $9,097 vs. $3,301, respectively (pproductivity is negatively impacted by the presence of CRS. The outcomes from this study provide the first insights into the reduced productivity costs associated with receiving ESS for refractory CRS. Future studies with larger sample sizes will need to validate the results from this pilot study. PMID:26371457
Rodriguez Valiente, A; Roldan Fidalgo, A; Laguna Ortega, D
In the literature various methods are described to reduce bleeding in endoscopic sinus surgery. Scientific evidence and results were gathered and analysed to determine the effectiveness of the various methods used. A total of 20 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two retrospective articles studied the differences between local and general anaesthesia. Three articles analysed the use of local methods to control bleeding. The majority of the articles analysed the use of different systemic drugs to control intraoperative bleeding. Certain procedures, such as the reverse Trendelenburg position, the use of high doses of epinephrine, the infiltration of phenylephrine and lidocaine into the pterygopalatine fossa, the preoperative use of prednisone, and the control of the heart rate (with dexmedetomidine or remifentanil), appear to reduce the intraoperative blood loss and/or improve the visualisation of the surgical field. However, the evidence supporting these conclusions is poor. The benefits of other procedures, such as the preoperative use of β-blockers, antihypertensive agents, and surgical pledgets with oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, or cocaine, for bleeding control are not evidenced in the literature. In addition, the literature does not present any evidence on the benefits of local anaesthesia compared with general anaesthesia or the use of propofol compared to inhaled analgesics in terms of intraoperative bleeding or complication rates.
Albu, Silviu; Trombitas, Veronica; Vlad, Diana; Emanuelli, Enzo
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of spray cryotherapy on wound healing following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The study included 22 consecutive adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps scheduled for bilateral ESS. At the end of the surgical procedure, patients were randomized to the distribution of spray cryotherapy in one middle meatus and saline contralaterally. Outcomes were only measured for endoscopy scores. Thus, postoperative healing and the amount of edema, crusting, secretions, and scarring were assessed using the validated Lund-Kennedy and Perioperative Sinus Endoscopy (POSE) scores. There were no baseline differences concerning POSE and Lund-Kennedy scores between the two groups. Nevertheless, a significant difference was recorded at one, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks in both POSE (P = .001, P = .012, P = .02, P = .006, P = .001) and Lund-Kennedy (P = .002, P = .005, P = .02, P = .02, P = .03) scores. These preliminary results reveal an improvement in postoperative scores, demonstrating enhanced healing following spray cryotherapy. However, without patient subjective outcomes, the study is limited. Additional studies with longer follow-up and larger samples are needed to describe the effects of cryotherapy on wound healing. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L; Mace, Jess C; Schlosser, Rodney J; Hwang, Peter H; Soler, Zachary M
The primary objective of this pilot study was to define the change in productivity costs following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Secondary objectives were to identify CRS-related characteristics that may influence the degree of productivity improvement after ESS. Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time were quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 US Census and the 2013 US Department of Labor statistics. Twenty-seven patients with refractory CRS who underwent ESS were followed for a mean of 15 months (range, 8-25 months). Following ESS, there were improvements in annual absenteeism (22 days reduced to 3 days), annual presenteeism (41 days reduced to 19 days), and annual household days lost (12 days reduced to 6 days). Overall, the preoperative productivity costs were reduced after ESS ($9,190 vs. $3,373, respectively; P productivity is negatively impacted by the presence of CRS. The outcomes from this study provide the first insights into the reduced productivity costs associated with receiving ESS for refractory CRS. Future studies with larger sample sizes will need to validate the results from this pilot study. 2c Laryngoscope, 126:570-574, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Cherla, Deepa V; Sanghvi, Saurin; Choudhry, Osamah J; Liu, James K; Eloy, Jean Anderson
Numerous professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals provide Internet-based patient education materials (PEMs) to the general public, but not all of this information is written at a reading level appropriate for the average patient. The National Institutes of Health and the US Department of Health and Human Services recommend that PEMs be written at or below the sixth-grade level. Our purpose was to assess the readability of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS)-related PEMs available on the Internet and compare readability levels of PEMs provided by three sources: professional societies, clinical practices, and hospitals. A descriptive and correlational design was used for this study. The readability of 31 ESS-related PEMs was assessed with four different readability indices: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (Gunning FOG). Averages were evaluated against national recommendations and between each source using analysis of variance and t tests. The majority of PEMs (96.8%) were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level, based on FKGL (P Internet-based PEMs related to ESS, regardless of source type, were written well above the recommended sixth-grade level. Materials from the hospitals/university-affiliated websites had lower readability scores, but were still above recommended levels. Web-based PEMs pertaining to ESS should be written with the average patient in mind. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Zorron, Ricardo; Galvão-Neto, Manoel Passos; Campos, Josemberg; Branco, Alcides José; Sampaio, José; Junghans, Tido; Bothe, Claudia; Benzing, Christian; Krenzien, Felix
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a standard therapy in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding, although with good results in the literature, are showing higher rates of treatment failure to reduce obesity-associated morbidity and body weight. Other problems after bariatric may occur, as band erosion, gastroesophageal reflux disease and might be refractory to medication. Therefore, a laparoscopic conversion to a RYGB can be an effective alternative, as long as specific indications for revision are fulfilled. The objective of this study was to analyse own and literature data on revisional bariatric procedures to evaluate best alternatives to current practice. Institutional experience and systematic review from the literature on revisional bariatric surgery. Endoscopic procedures are recently applied to ameliorate failure and complications of bariatric procedures. Therapy failure following RYGB occurs in up to 20%. Transoral outlet reduction is currently an alternative method to reduce the gastrojejunal anastomosis. The diameter and volume of sleeve gastrectomy can enlarge as well, which can be reduced by endoscopic full-thickness sutures longitudinally. Dumping syndrome and severe hypoglycemic episodes (neuroglycopenia) can be present in patients following RYGB. The hypoglycemic episodes have to be evaluated and usually can be treated conventionally. To avoid partial pancreatectomy or conversion to normal anatomy, a new laparoscopic approach with remnant gastric resection and jejunal interposition can be applied in non-responders alternatively. Hypoglycemic episodes are ameliorated while weight loss is sustained. Revisional and endoscopic procedures following bariatric surgery in patients with collateral symptomatic or treatment failure can be applied. Conventional non-surgical approaches should have been applied intensively before a revisional surgery will be indicated. Former complex surgical revisional procedures are evolving to less
Heaton, Chase M; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pletcher, Steven D; Glastonbury, Christine M
Anatomic variations in skull base anatomy may predispose the surgeon to inadvertent skull base injury with resultant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Our objective was to compare preoperative sinus imaging of patients who underwent FESS with and without CSF leak to elucidate these variations. In this retrospective case-control study, 18 patients with CSF leak following FESS for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) from 2000 to 2011 were compared to 18 randomly selected patients who underwent preoperative imaging for FESS for CRS. Measurements were obtained from preoperative computed tomography images with specific attention to anatomic differences in cribriform plate and ethmoid roof heights in the coronal plane, and the skull base angle in the sagittal plane. Mean values of measured variables were compared using a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. When compared to controls, patients with CSF leak demonstrated a greater angle of the skull base in the sagittal plane (P variations may help to prevent iatrogenic CSF leak. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Stoikes, Nathaniel F N; Dutton, Jay M
The symptom of eustachian tube dysfunction has been categorized as a "minor" symptom in chronic rhinosinusitis. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the frequency of otologic symptoms in patients with confirmed rhinosinusitis and the likelihood of its resolution in those patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Questionnaires were obtained from 168 patients who had undergone prior ESS over a 5-year period. Patients were asked to evaluate if they suffered from several different potential symptoms of eustachian tube dysfunction before ESS and whether that symptom changed postoperatively. Using the binomial test, 95% confidence intervals were determined for the following otologic symptoms of tubal dysfunction: "earfullness and congestion," "ear cracking and popping," "dizziness," and "ear pain. "ESS was found to have a significant treatment effect for the indicated otologic symptoms of tubal dysfunction. Tubal dysfunction, as manifested by otologic symptoms, is common in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis undergoing ESS. The classification of this as a "minor" symptom of rhinosinusitis needs to be reevaluated. These symptoms improve or resolve in the majority of patients undergoing ESS.
Ament, Jared D; Yang, Zhuo; Khatchadourian, Vic; Strong, Edward B; Shahlaie, Kiarash
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETPS) has become increasingly popular for resection of pituitary tumors, whereas microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (MTPS) also remains a commonly used approach. The economic sustainability of new techniques and technologies is rarely evaluated in the neurosurgical skull base literature. The aim of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of ETPS compared with MTPS. A Markov model was constructed to conduct a cost-utility analysis of ETPS versus MTPS from a single-payer health care perspective. Data were obtained from previously published outcomes studies. Costs were based on Medicare reimbursement rates, considering covariates such as complications, length of stay, and operative time. The base case adopted a 2-year follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses were conducted. On average, ETPS costs $143 less and generates 0.014 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared with MTPS over 2 years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is -$10,214 per QALY, suggesting economic dominance. The QALY benefit increased to 0.105 when modeled to 10 years, suggesting that ETPS becomes even more favorable over time. ETPS appears to be cost-effective when compared with MTPS because the ICER falls below the commonly accepted $50,000 per QALY benchmark. Model limitations and assumptions affect the generalizability of the conclusion; however, ongoing efforts to improve rhinologic morbidity related to ETPS would appear to further augment the marginal cost savings and QALYs gained. Further research on the cost-effectiveness of ETPS using prospective data is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Di Stasi, Leandro L; Díaz-Piedra, Carolina; Ruiz-Rabelo, Juan Francisco; Rieiro, Héctor; Sanchez Carrion, Jose M; Catena, Andrés
Despite the growing interest concerning the laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) procedure, LESS presents multiple difficulties and challenges that are likely to increase the surgeon's cognitive cost, in terms of both cognitive load and performance. Nevertheless, there is currently no objective index capable of assessing the surgeon cognitive cost while performing LESS. We assessed if gaze-based indices might offer unique and unbiased measures to quantify LESS complexity and its cognitive cost. We expect that the assessment of surgeon's cognitive cost to improve patient safety by measuring fitness-for-duty and reducing surgeons overload. Using a wearable eye tracker device, we measured gaze entropy and velocity of surgical trainees and attending surgeons during two surgical procedures (LESS vs. multiport laparoscopy surgery [MPS]). None of the participants had previous experience with LESS. They performed two exercises with different complexity levels (Low: Pattern Cut vs. High: Peg Transfer). We also collected performance and subjective data. LESS caused higher cognitive demand than MPS, as indicated by increased gaze entropy in both surgical trainees and attending surgeons (exploration pattern became more random). Furthermore, gaze velocity was higher (exploration pattern became more rapid) for the LESS procedure independently of the surgeon's expertise. Perceived task complexity and laparoscopic accuracy confirmed gaze-based results. Gaze-based indices have great potential as objective and non-intrusive measures to assess surgeons' cognitive cost and fitness-for-duty. Furthermore, gaze-based indices might play a relevant role in defining future guidelines on surgeons' examinations to mark their achievements during the entire training (e.g. analyzing surgical learning curves). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Deliberate hypotension is one way to achieve a bloodless surgical field in endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS. We compared two anaesthesia regimens to induce deliberate hypotension and attempted to determine the most efficient one. Methods Fifty-nine patients undergoing ESS were minimized into two groups. In the CLO group, patients received I.V. sufentanil 0.15 µg/kg together with I.V. clonidine 2–3 µg/kg. In the REMI group, patients received remifentanil at a rate of up to 1 µg/kg/min. Fromme scores were collected 15 min after the incision and at the end of the procedure. Mean arterial pressure readings (MAP, heart rate readings, time to eyes opening, time to extubation, pain scores, analgesic requirements, and oxygen needs were collected and compared. Results There were no significant differences in Fromme scores between the two groups. The averaged MAP from 15 min to the end of the procedure was significantly lower in the REMI group; these patients also received more ephedrine. Significantly fewer patients in the CLO group needed oxygen therapy to keep their Pulse Oximeter Oxygen Saturation within 3% of their preoperative values. Patients in this group also needed less piritramide in the recovery room, and their pain scores were lower at discharge from the recovery room. Discussion Although both anaesthesia regimens offered a similar quality of surgical field, this study suggests that clonidine had a better average safety profile. Furthermore, patients who received this regimen required fewer painkillers immediately after surgery.
Zhou, Xuewu; Peng, Lei; Sha, Yongliang; Song, Daiqiang
To describe transumbilical laparoscopic herniorrhaphy after unsuccessful attempted manual reduction of incarcerated inguinal hernias in infants and children. In our two hospitals, two-trocar transumbilical endoscopic surgery (TUES) is the standard technique used to repair incarcerated inguinal hernias in infants and children. Seventeen patients (aged 8months to 2.5years; median, 15months; 15 boys, 2 girls) with incarcerated inguinal hernias underwent urgent laparoscopy after unsuccessful attempted manual reduction. Two 3- or 5-mm trocars were inserted into the abdomen through two intraumbilical incisions, under laparoscopic guidance. The hernia was reduced by combined external manual pressure and internal pulling with bowel forceps. After inspection of the bowel, a round needle with a 2-0 nonabsorbable suture was introduced into the peritoneal cavity through the anterior abdominal wall near the internal inguinal ring. The hernial orifice was closed with an extraperitoneal purse-string suture around the internal inguinal ring, and tied with an intraperitoneal knot. A similar procedure was performed on the contralateral side if the processus vaginalis was patent. The TUES procedure was successful in all patients. No conversions to open surgery were required. The mean operating time was 30min (range, 25-40min). All patients were discharged on the second postoperative day. No complications such as postoperative bleeding, hydrocele, or scrotal edema were observed. The mean follow-up period was 15months. No cases of testicular atrophy, hypotrophy, or hernia recurrence were reported. Our preliminary experience with using TUES for the treatment of incarcerated inguinal hernias in infants and children had satisfactory outcomes. This technique appeared to be safe, effective, and reliable, and had excellent cosmetic results. Published by Elsevier Inc.
For every innovation there are two sides to consider. For endoscopic surgery the positive side is more comfort for the patient, and the negative side is new complications, even disasters, such as injuries to organs (e.g., the bowel), vessels, and the common bile duct. These disasters are rare and seldom reported in the scientific world, as at conferences, at symposiums, and in publications. Today there are many methods for testing an innovation (controlled clinical trials, consensus conferences, audits, and confidential inquiries). Reporting "complications," however, does not help to avoid them. We need real methods for avoiding negative failures. The failure analysis is the method of choice in industry. If an airplane crashes, error analysis starts immediately. Humans make errors, and making errors means punishment. Failure analysis means rigorously and objectively investigating a clinical situation to find clinical relevant information for avoiding these negative events in the future. Error analysis has four important steps: (1) What was the clinical situation? (2) What has happened? (3) Most important: Why did it happen? (4) How do we avoid the negative event or disaster in the future. Error analysis has decisive advantages. It is easy to perform; it supplies clinically relevant information to help avoid it; and there is no need for money. It can be done everywhere; and the information is available in a short time. The other side of the coin is that error analysis is of course retrospective, it may not be objective, and most important it will probably have legal consequences. To be more effective in medicine and surgery we must handle our errors using a different approach. According to Sir Karl Popper: "The consituation is that we have to learn from our errors. To cover up failure is therefore the biggest intellectual sin.
Barakat, Monique T; Girotra, Mohit; Huang, Robert J; Banerjee, Subhas
Outbreaks of transmission of infection related to endoscopy despite reported adherence to reprocessing guidelines warrant scrutiny of all potential contributing factors. Recent reports from ambulatory surgery centers indicated widespread significant occult damage within endoscope working channels, raising concerns regarding the potential detrimental impact of this damage on the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. We inspected working channels of all 68 endoscopes at our academic institution using a novel flexible inspection endoscope. Inspections were recorded and videos reviewed by 3 investigators to evaluate and rate channel damage and/or debris. Working channel rinsates were obtained from all endoscopes, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence was measured. Overall endoscope working channel damage was rated as minimal and/or mild and was consistent with expected wear and tear (median 1.59 on our 5-point scale). Our predominant findings included superficial scratches (98.5%) and scratches with adherent peel (76.5%). No channel perforations, stains, or burns were detected. The extent of damage was not predicted by endoscope age. Minor punctate debris was common, and a few small drops of fluid were noted in 42.6% of endoscopes after reprocessing and drying. The presence of residual fluid predicted higher ATP bioluminescence values. The presence of visualized working channel damage or debris was not associated with elevated ATP bioluminescence values. The flexible inspection endoscope enables high-resolution imaging of endoscope working channels and offers endoscopy units an additional modality for endoscope surveillance, potentially complementing bacterial cultures and ATP values. Our study, conducted in a busy academic endoscopy unit, indicated predominately mild damage to endoscope working channels, which did not correlate with elevated ATP values. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Wilkinson-Smith, V; Bharucha, A E; Emmanuel, A; Knowles, C; Yiannakou, Y; Corsetti, M
While the pharmacological armamentarium for chronic constipation has expanded over the past few years, a substantial proportion of constipated patients do not respond to these medications. This review summarizes the pharmacological and behavioral options for managing constipation and details the management of refractory constipation. Refractory constipation is defined as an inadequate improvement in constipation symptoms evaluated with an objective scale despite adequate therapy (ie, pharmacological and/or behavioral) that is based on the underlying pathophysiology of constipation. Minimally invasive (ie, rectal irrigation and percutaneous endoscopic colostomy) and surgical therapies are used to manage refractory constipation. This review appraises these options, and in particular, percutaneous endoscopic colostomy, which as detailed by an article in this issue, is a less invasive option for managing refractory constipation than surgery. While these options benefit some patients, the evidence of the risk: benefit profile for these therapies is limited. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eloy, Jean Anderson; Patel, Amit A; Shukla, Pratik A; Choudhry, Osamah J; Liu, James K
The vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap (PNSF) represents a successful option for reconstruction of large skull base defects after expanded endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEA). This vascularized flap can be harvested early or late in the operation depending on the anticipation of high-flow CSF leaks. Each harvesting technique (early vs. late) is associated with different advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we evaluate our experience with early harvesting of the PNSF for repair of large skull base defects after EEA. A retrospective review was performed at a tertiary care medical center on patients who underwent early PNSF harvesting during reconstruction of intraoperative high-flow CSF leaks after EEA between December 2008 and March 2012. Demographic data, repair materials, surgical approach, and incidence of PNSF usage were collected. Eighty-seven patients meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. In 86 procedures (98.9%), the PNSF harvested at the beginning of the operation was used. In 1 case (1.1%), the PNSF was not used because a high-flow intraoperative CSF leak was not encountered. This patient had recurrence of intradural disease 8months later, and the previously elevated PNSF was subsequent used after tumor resection. Based on our data, a high-flow CSF leak and need for a PNSF can be accurately anticipated in patients undergoing EEA for skull base lesions. Because of the advantages of early harvesting of the PNSF and the high preoperative predictive value of CSF leak anticipations, this technique represents a feasible harvesting practice for EEA surgeries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Miki, Koichi; Yagi, Kenji; Nonaka, Masani; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Morishita, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Inoue, Tooru
OBJECTIVE In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), postoperative recurrent hemorrhage (PRH) is one of the most severe complications after endoscopic evacuation of hematoma (EEH). However, no predictors of this complication have been identified. In the present study, the authors retrospectively investigated whether PRH can be preoperatively predicted by the presence of the spot sign on CT scans. METHODS In total, 143 patients with sICH were treated by EEH between June 2009 and March 2017, and 127 patients who underwent preoperative CT angiography were included in this study. Significant correlations of PRH with the patients' baseline, clinical, and radiographic characteristics, including the spot sign, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS The incidence of and risk factors for PRH were assessed in 127 patients with available data. PRH occurred in 9 (7.1%) patients. Five (21.7%) cases of PRH were observed among 23 patients with the spot sign, whereas only 4 (3.8%) cases of PRH occurred among 104 patients without the spot sign. The spot sign was the only independent predictor of PRH (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.26-26.88; p = 0.02). The following factors were not independently associated with PRH: age, hypertension, poor consciousness, antihemostatic factors (thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and use of antithrombotic drugs), the location and size of the sICH, other radiographic findings (black hole sign and blend sign), surgical duration and procedures, and early surgery. CONCLUSIONS The spot sign is likely to be a strong predictor of PRH after EEH among patients with sICH. Complete and careful control of bleeding in the operative field should be ensured when surgically treating such patients. New surgical strategies and procedures might be needed to improve these patients' outcomes.
Full Text Available The preemptive analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of preoperatively administered piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin for post-endoscopic sinus surgery pain was determined in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, clinical study. Seventy-five American Society of Anesthesiologists status I-II patients, aged 18-65 years, were divided into three groups with similar demographic characteristics: group 1 received 20 mg piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin, group 2 received 40 mg piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin and group 3 received placebo orally before induction of general anesthesia. A blinded observer recorded the incidence and severity of pain at admission to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU, at 15, 30, and 45 min in the PACU, and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h postoperatively. All patients received patient-controlled morphine analgesia during the postoperative period and consumption was recorded for 24 h. During the PACU period, mean visual analogue scale values were significantly lower in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3 (P < 0.05. During the postoperative period, morphine consumption was 3.03 ± 2.54, 2.7 ± 2.8, and 5.56 ± 3.12 mg for each group, respectively (P < 0.05. As a side effect, bleeding was observed in groups 1 and 3, nausea and vomiting in all groups, and edema only in group 3. However, no significant differences were detected in any of the parameters analyzed, which also included epigastric pain, constipation/diarrhea and headache. Similar hematological test results were obtained for all groups. Preemptive administration of piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin effectively reduced analgesic consumption, and 40 mg of the drug was more effective than 20 mg piroxicam-β-cyclodextrin without side effects during the postoperative period.
Derks, Laura S M; Veenstra, Hidde J.; Oomen, Karin P Q; Speleman, Lucienne; Stegeman, Inge
Objectives To systematically review the current literature on treatment of third and fourth branchial pouch sinuses with endoscopic cauterization, including chemocauterization and electrocauterization, in comparison to surgical treatment. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Review
Takes, R.P.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Marres, H.A.M.
BACKGROUND: Cricopharyngeal dysfunction may lead to severe dysphagia and aspiration. Several treatment modalities are available, such as external myotomy of the muscle, dilatation, and local infiltration with botulinum toxin. Recently, endoscopic transmucosal myotomies using a CO2 laser have been
Zhao, Wensheng; Zhao Xian; Li, Jinjin; Fang, Jianqiao
To study whether the dose of controlling antihypertensive drug is reduced by transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) and the anesthetics, as well as the control of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in endoscopic endonasal surgery with general anesthesia. Sixty patients for selective endoscopic endonasal surgery with general anesthetics and controlling antihypertension involved were selected and randomized into a TEAS group, a sham-TEAS group, 30 cases in each one. The electric pads were attached to bilateral Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Quchi (LI 11), stimulated with Hans-200 apparatus, 3 to 5 mA, 2 Hz/100 Hz in the TEAS group based on the patients' response to comfort. No electric stimulation was applied to the sham-TEAS group. The general anesthesia started after 30 min intervention and lasted till the end of surgery. The BP and HR were observed and recorded at the end of monitoring in operation room, 10 min after tranquilization (T0), 30 min after intervention (Tj, after induction~of general anestiesa (T2), 30 min after surgery start (T3), 60 min after surgery start (T4) and 30 min after extubation (T5). The doses of vecuronium bromide, propofol and nitroglycerin were recorded statistically in surgery, as well as the operative bleeding volume, the operative time, the resuscitation time and the visual analogue scale (VAS) score after resuscitation. Compared with that at T0, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at T2, T3, T4 and T5 in the TEAS group and at T3 and T4 in the sham-TEAS group was all reduced, indicating the significant difference (all P 0.05). HR was different at T2 to Ts in the sham-TEAS group statistically (all P 0.05). The general anesthesia with TEAS and anesthetics involved for controlling antihypertension contributes to the control of BP and HR in the patients in endoscopic endonasal surgery. The impacts are not obvious on the doses of antihypertensive drug, the general anesthetics, the operative bleeding
Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Goto, Tetsuya; Nagm, Alhusain; Hongo, Kazuhiro
Objective The intelligent arm-support system, iArmS, which follows the surgeon's arm and automatically fixes it at an adequate position, was developed as an operation support robot. iArmS was designed to support the surgeon's forearm to prevent hand trembling and to alleviate fatigue during surgery with a microscope. In this study, the authors report on application of this robotic device to endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) and evaluate their initial experiences. Methods The study population consisted of 43 patients: 29 with pituitary adenoma, 3 with meningioma, 3 with Rathke's cleft cyst, 2 with craniopharyngioma, 2 with chordoma, and 4 with other conditions. All patients underwent surgery via the endonasal transsphenoidal approach using a rigid endoscope. During the nasal and sphenoid phases, iArmS was used to support the surgeon's nondominant arm, which held the endoscope. The details of the iArmS and clinical results were collected. Results iArmS followed the surgeon's arm movement automatically. It reduced the surgeon's fatigue and stabilized the surgeon's hand during ETSS. Shaking of the video image decreased due to the steadying of the surgeon's scope-holding hand with iArmS. There were no complications related to use of the device. Conclusions The intelligent armrest, iArmS, seems to be safe and effective during ETSS. iArmS is helpful for improving the precision and safety not only for microscopic neurosurgery, but also for ETSS. Ongoing advances in robotics ensure the continued evolution of neurosurgery.
Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…
Gearhart, Susan; Marohn, Michael; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Adrales, Gina; Owodunni, Oluwafemi; Duncan, Kim; Petrusa, Emil; Lipsett, Pamela
The demonstration of competency in endoscopy is required prior to obtaining American Board of Surgery Certification. To demonstrate competency, the resident must pass a national high-stakes cognitive test and a technical skills exam on a virtual reality simulator. The purpose of this preliminary study was to design a proficiency-based endoscopy simulation curriculum to meet this competency requirement. This is a mixed methods prospective cohort study at a single academic medical institution. Prior to taking the national exam, surgery residents were required to participate in a skills lab and demonstrate proficiency on 10 simulation tasks. Proficiency was based on time and percent of objects targeted/mucosa seen. Simulation practice time, number of task repetitions to proficiency, and prior endoscopic experience were recorded. Resident's self-reported confidence scores in endoscopic skills prior to and following simulation lab training were obtained. From January 1, 2016 through August 1, 2017, 20 surgical residents (8 PGY2, 8 PGY3, 4 PGY4) completed both a faculty-supervised endoscopy skills lab and independent learning with train-to-proficiency simulation tasks. Median overall simulator time per resident was 306 min (IQR: 247-405 min). Median overall time to proficiency in all tasks was 235 min (IQR: 208-283 min). The median time to proficiency decreased with increasing PGY status (r = 0.4, P = 0.05). There was no correlation between prior real-time endoscopic experience and time to proficiency. Reported confidence in endoscopic skills increased significantly from mean of 5.75 prior to 7.30 following the faculty-supervised endoscopy skills lab (P = 0.0002). All 20 residents passed the national exam. In this preliminary study, a train-to-proficiency curriculum in endoscopy improved surgical resident's confidence in their endoscopic skills and 100% of residents passed the FES technical skills test on their first attempt. Our findings also indicate
Full Text Available Objective: A comparative study to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as a hypotensive agent in comparison to esmolol in Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS. Methods: Forty patients ASA I or II scheduled for FESS were equally randomly assigned to receive either dexmedetomidine 1 μg/Kg over 10 min before induction of anesthesia followed by 0.4-0.8 μg/Kg/h infusion during maintenance (DEX group, or esmolol, loading dose 1mg/kg was infused over one min followed by 0.4-0.8 mg/kg/h infusion during maintenance (E group to maintain mean arterial blood pressure (MAP between (55-65 mmHg. General anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 2%-4%. The surgical field was assessed using Average Category Scale and average blood loss was calculated. Hemodynamic variables (MAP and HR; arterial blood gas analysis; plasma cortisol level; intraoperative fentanyl consumption; Emergence time and total recovery from anesthesia (Aldrete score ≥9 were recorded. Sedation score was determined at 15, 30, 60 min after tracheal extubation and time to first analgesic request was recorded. Result: Both DEX group and E group reached the desired MAP (55-65 mmHg with no intergroup differences in MAP or HR. The for the quality of the surgical filed in the range of MAP (55-65 mmHg were <=2 with no significant differences between group scores during hypotensive period. Mean intraoperative fentanyl consumption was significantly lower in DEX group than E group. Cortisol level showed no significant changes between or within groups. No significant changes were observed in arterial blood gases. Emergence time and time to achieve Aldrete score ≥9 were significantly lower in E group compared with DEX group. The sedation score were significantly lower in E group compared with DEX group at 15 and 30 minutes postoperatively. Time to first analgesic request was significantly longer in DEX group. Conclusion: Both dexmedetomidine or esmolol with sevoflurane are safe agents for
Koutourousiou, Maria; Filho, Francisco Vaz Guimaraes; Costacou, Tina; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Eric W; Snyderman, Carl H; Rothfus, William E; Gardner, Paul A
Transclival endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) has recently been used for the treatment of posterior fossa tumors. The optimal method of reconstruction of large clival defects following EES has not been established. A morphometric analysis of the posterior fossa was performed in patients who underwent transclival EES to compare those with observed postoperative anatomical changes (study group) to 50 normal individuals (anatomical control group) and 41 matched transclival cases with preserved posterior fossa anatomy (case-control group) using the same parameters. Given the absence of clival bone following transclival EES, the authors used the line between the anterior commissure and the basion as an equivalent to the clival plane to evaluate the location of the pons. Four parameters were studied and compared in the two populations: the pontine location/displacement, the maximum anteroposterior (AP) diameter of the pons, the maximum AP diameter of the fourth ventricle, and the cervicomedullary angle (CMA). All measurements were performed on midsagittal 3-month postoperative MR images in the study group. Among 103 posterior fossa tumors treated with transclival EES, 14 cases (13.6%) with postoperative posterior fossa anatomy changes were identified. The most significant change was anterior displacement of the pons (transclival pontine encephalocele) compared with the normal location in the anatomical control group (p 50% of the clivus) and dura. Nine (64.3%) of the 14 patients were overweight (body mass index [BMI] > 25 kg/m(2)). An association between BMI and the degree of pontine encephalocele was observed, but did not reach statistical significance. The use of a fat graft as part of the reconstruction technique following transclival EES with dural opening was the single significant factor that prevented pontine displacement (p = 0.02), associated with 91% lower odds of pontine encephalocele (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.77). The effect of fat graft reconstruction was
Full Text Available Zhihong Li,1,* Yuqian Li,1,* Feifei Xu,2,* Xi Zhang,3 Qiang Tian,4 Lihong Li1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Tangdu Hospital, 2Department of Foreign Languages, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, 4Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Two prevalent therapies for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH in basal ganglia are, minimally invasive puncture and drainage (MIPD, and endoscopic surgery (ES. Because both surgical techniques are of a minimally invasive nature, they have attracted greater attention in recent years. However, evidence comparing the curative effect of MIPD and ES has been uncertain. The indication for MIPD or ES has been uncertain till now. In the present study, 112 patients with spontaneous ICH in basal ganglia who received MIPD or ES were reviewed retrospectively. Baseline parameters prior to the operation, evacuation rate (ER, perihematoma edema, postoperative complications, and rebleeding incidences were collected. Moreover, 1-year postictus, the long-term functional outcomes of patients with regard to hematoma volume (HV or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score were judged, respectively, by the case fatality, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS, Barthel Index (BI, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS. The ES group had a higher ER than the MIPD group on postoperative day 1. The MIPD group had fewer adverse outcomes, which included less perihematoma edema, anesthetic time, and blood loss, than the ES group. The functional outcomes represented by GOS, BI, and mRS were better in the MIPD group than in the ES group for patients with HV 30–60 mL or GCS score 9–14. These results indicate that ES is more effective in evacuating hematoma in basal ganglia, while MIPD is less invasive than ES. Patients with HV 30–60 mL or GCS score 9–14 may benefit more from the MIPD
Sommer, Doron D; Arbab-Tafti, Sadaf; Farrokhyar, Forough; Tewfik, Marc; Vescan, Allan; Witterick, Ian J; Rotenberg, Brian; Chandra, Rakesh; Weitzel, Erik K; Wright, Erin; Ramakrishna, Jayant
The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate the impact of an aviation-style challenge and response sinus surgery-specific checklist on potential safety and equipment issues during sinus surgery at a tertiary academic health center. The secondary goal was to assess the potential impact of use of the checklist on surgical times during, before, and after surgery. This initiative is designed to be utilized in conjunction with the "standard" World Health Organization (WHO) surgical checklist. Although endoscopic sinus surgery is generally considered a safe procedure, avoidable complications and potential safety concerns continue to occur. The WHO surgical checklist does not directly address certain surgery-specific issues, which may be of particular relevance for endoscopic sinus surgery. This prospective observational pilot study monitored compliance with and compared the occurrence of safety and equipment issues before and after implementation of the checklist. Forty-seven consecutive endoscopic surgeries were audited; the first 8 without the checklist and the following 39 with the checklist. The checklist was compiled by evaluating the patient journey, utilizing the available literature, expert consensus, and finally reevaluation with audit type cases. The final checklist was developed with all relevant stakeholders involved in a Delphi method. Implementing this specific surgical checklist in 39 cases at our institution, allowed us to identify and rectify 35 separate instances of potentially unsafe, improper or inefficient preoperative setup. These incidents included issues with labeling of topical vasoconstrictor or injectable anesthetics (3, 7.7%) and availability, function and/or position of video monitors (2, 5.1%), endoscope (6, 15.4%), microdebrider (6, 15.4%), bipolar cautery (6, 15.4%), and suctions (12, 30.8%). The design and integration of this checklist for endoscopic sinus surgery, has helped improve efficiency and patient safety in the operating
Shou, Xuefei; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Qilin; Zhang, Yichao; He, Wenqiang; Ma, Zengyi; Zhao, Yao; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Yongfei
We aim to study surgical technique and analyze the related factors affecting tumor total removal and postoperative endocrinological remission for endoscopic endonasal pituitary adenomas surgery. We retrospectively analyzed 178 endoscopic endonasal pituitary adenomas surgery from March 2011 to May 2014. Endonasal approach included the routine transnasal-sphenoidal approach, transnasal- maxillary sinus approach in four cases and transnasal-clivus approach in one case. According to postoperative imaging data and endocrine examination results, total removal was achieved in 129 patients (72.5%), and endocrinological remission was achieved in 38 patients with functional adenomas (44.1%). Statistical analysis of the clinical data showed that total removal rate was much closely related to tumor volume (P = 0.006), and tumor invasiveness (P < 0.001). In this study, we found tumor sizes and invasion of cavernous sinus were related to total removal rate and endocrinological remission rate; the direction and degree of tumor invasion, and the surgeon's experience were the key influence factors of the endocrinological remission rate for invasive functional pituitary adenomas.
Barros, Bruno Borges de Carvalho; Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Garcia, Leandro Borborema; Pifaia, Gustavo Ribeiro; Cruz, Oswaldo Laércio Mendonça; Onishi, Ektor Tsuneo; Penido, Norma de Oliveira
To describe topographic and endoscopic anatomy of guinea pig ear for development of surgical approaches in experimental studies. Experimental study. Eight adult guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were used in this study. Four animals were described through endoscopic view and four animals were used to describe topographic anatomy. The main structures of middle ear were well identified through endoscopy view: oval and round window, ossicles and vascular structures. Temporal bone position, landmarks and its relations to skull are perceived with topographic description. Topographic anatomic description allowed exposition of temporal bone relations for external surgical approaches. Alternatively, grooves and middle ear structures were identified and may be used to transcanal accesses.
Sander, Ian M; Liepert, Taimi T; Doney, Evan L; Leevy, W Matthew; Liepert, Douglas R
Within the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medical space, a relatively small fraction of patients follow through with elective surgeries to fix ailments such as a deviated septum or occluded sinus passage. Patient understanding of their diagnosis and treatment plan is integral to compliance, which ultimately yields improved medical outcomes and better quality of life. Here we report the usage of advanced, polyjet 3D printing methods to develop a multimaterial replica of human nasal sinus anatomy, derived from clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT) data, to be used as an educational aid during physician consultation. The final patient education model was developed over several iterations to optimize material properties, anatomical accuracy and overall display. A two-arm, single-center, randomized, prospective study was then performed in which 50 ENT surgical candidates (and an associated control group, n = 50) were given an explanation of their anatomy, disease state, and treatment options using the education model as an aid. Statistically significant improvements in patient ratings of their physician's explanation of their treatment options ( p = 0.020), self-rated anatomical understanding ( p = 0.043), self-rated understanding of disease state ( p = 0.016), and effectiveness of the visualization ( p = 0.007) were noted from the population that viewed the 3D education model, indicating it is an effective tool which ENT surgeons may use to educate and interact with patients.
А. А. Razzhivina
Full Text Available The review of literature for current methods of endoscopic treatment for colon epithelial neoplasms is represented. Such types of endoscopic interventions as loop electroresection, submucosal dissection, coagulation and destruction of tumors and combination of several options depending on efficiency of previous therapy is analyzed. Limitations of every method, its special aspects and possible complications are described. Special focus is on specifics of neoplasms for which selected methods may be the most effective. Thus, hot biopsy and destruction using high-energy laser is efficient for small flat neoplasms, endoscopic electroexcision – far small pedunculated lesions, and fragmentation is adequate for exophytic tumors more than 2.0 cm. Long-term results of endoscopic treatment, recurrence rates after different options are represented. The literature for photodynamic therapy consists mostly articles about development (on pre-clenecal stage of new photosensitizers which are effective for colon cancer, new methods of treatment including combination with hyperthermia in low-dose light irradiation etc. The literature data shows the prospectivity of subsequent developments in this field.
Jethwa, Pinakin R; Patel, Tapan D; Hajart, Aaron F; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K
Although prolactinomas are treated effectively with dopamine agonists, some have proposed curative surgical resection for select cases of microprolactinomas to avoid life-long medical therapy. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis comparing transsphenoidal surgery (either microsurgical or endoscopic) and medical therapy (either bromocriptine or cabergoline) with decision analysis modeling. A 2-armed decision tree was created with TreeAge Pro Suite 2012 to compare upfront transsphenoidal surgery versus medical therapy. The economic perspective was that of the health care third-party payer. On the basis of a literature review, we assigned plausible distributions for costs and utilities to each potential outcome, taking into account medical and surgical costs and complications. Base-case analysis, sensitivity analysis, and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the cost-effectiveness of each strategy at 5-year and 10-year time horizons. In the base-case scenario, microscopic transsphenoidal surgery was the most cost-effective option at 5 years from the time of diagnosis; however, by the 10-year time horizon, endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery became the most cost-effective option. At both time horizons, medical therapy (both bromocriptine and cabergoline) were found to be more costly and less effective than transsphenoidal surgery (i.e., the medical arm was dominated by the surgical arm in this model). Two-way sensitivity analysis demonstrated that endoscopic resection would be the most cost-effective strategy if the cure rate from endoscopic surgery was greater than 90% and the complication rate was less than 1%. Monte Carlo simulation was performed for endoscopic surgery versus microscopic surgery at both time horizons. This analysis produced an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $80,235 per quality-adjusted life years at 5 years and $40,737 per quality-adjusted life years at 10 years, implying that with increasing time intervals, endoscopic
Jung, Kyunghwa; Choi, Hyunseok; Hong, Hanpyo; Adikrishna, Arnold; Jeon, In-Ho; Hong, Jaesung
A hands-free region-of-interest (ROI) selection interface is proposed for solo surgery using a wide-angle endoscope. A wide-angle endoscope provides images with a larger field of view than a conventional endoscope. With an appropriate selection interface for a ROI, surgeons can also obtain a detailed local view as if they moved a conventional endoscope in a specific position and direction. To manipulate the endoscope without releasing the surgical instrument in hand, a mini-camera is attached to the instrument, and the images taken by the attached camera are analyzed. When a surgeon moves the instrument, the instrument orientation is calculated by an image processing. Surgeons can select the ROI with this instrument movement after switching from 'task mode' to 'selection mode.' The accelerated KAZE algorithm is used to track the features of the camera images once the instrument is moved. Both the wide-angle and detailed local views are displayed simultaneously, and a surgeon can move the local view area by moving the mini-camera attached to the surgical instrument. Local view selection for a solo surgery was performed without releasing the instrument. The accuracy of camera pose estimation was not significantly different between camera resolutions, but it was significantly different between background camera images with different numbers of features (P solo surgeries without a camera assistant.
Hansasuta, Ake; Pokanan, Siriwut; Punyawai, Pritsana; Mahattanakul, Wattana
Introduction Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) for pituitary adenoma (PA) has been a recent shift from the traditional microscopic technique. Although some literature demonstrated superiority of ETSS over the microscopic method and some evaluated mono- vs. binostril access within the ETSS, none had explored the potential influence of dedicated instrument, as this procedure had evolved, on patients' outcomes when compared to traditional microscopic tools. Objective To investigate our own clinical and radiographic outcomes of ETSS for PA with its technical evolution over time as well as a significance of, having vs. lacking, the special endoscopic tools. Methods Included patients underwent ETSS for PA performed by the first author (AH). Prospectively recorded patients' data concerning pre-, intra- and postoperative clinical and radiographic assessments were subject to analysis. The three groups of differently evolving ETSS techniques, beginning with mononostril (MN) to binostril ETSS with standard microsurgical instruments (BN1) and, lastly, binostril ETSS with specially-designed endoscopic tools (BN2), were examined for their impact on the intra- and, short- and long-term, postoperative results. Also, the survival after ETSS for PA, as defined by the need for reintervention in each technical group, was appraised. Results From January 2006 to 2012, there were 47, 101 and 72 ETSS, from 183 patients, in the MN, BN1 and BN2 cohorts, respectively. Significant preoperative findings were greater proportion of patients with prior surgery (p=0.01) and tumors with parasellar extension (p=0.02) in the binostril (BN1&2) than the MN group. Substantially shorter operative time and less amount of blood loss were evident as our technique had evolved (psurgery, Knosp grade, and firm tumor while BN1, BN2 and percentages of anteroposterior dimension PA removal had positive effect on longer survival. Conclusion The evolution of technique for ETSS for PA from MN to BN2 has shown
Inoshita, Ayako; Yokoi, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Fumihiko; Yao, Toru; Kawano, Kenji; Furukawa, Masayuki; Ikeda, Katsuhisa
The clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of oral antimicrobial prophylaxis with levofloxacin (LVFX) on endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) was evaluated. Ninety-three patients undergoing ESS were prospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups, LVFX and flomoxef (FMOX). Two hundred milligrams of LVFX was orally given 2 hours before the start of surgery and 6 hours after the end of surgery, which was followed by the administration of 200 mg every 12 hours for 2 days. One gram of FMOX was dissolved in 100 ml of physiological saline and given intravenously at the induction of anesthesia and 6 hours after the end of surgery, followed by infusion twice daily for 2 days. There were no statistically significant differences between 2 groups in terms of age, sex, systemic complications, surgical procedures, the duration of the operation, the length of hospitalization, the amount of blood loss, body temperature, or the number of white blood cells or C-reactive protein. Although no statistical significance was observed in the bacterial resistance between the two antibiotics, LVFX seems to show a low rate of resistance pattern change as compared to FMOX. The present study demonstrated that no patients treated with LVFX or FMOX were afflicted with postsurgical infection. Oral administration of LVFX is a simple, cost-effective and safe alternative to intravenous prophylaxis in ESS based on clinical efficacy and bacteriological study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shimanskaya, Viktoria E; Wagenmakers, Margreet A E M; Bartels, Ronald H M A; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D; Grotenhuis, J André; Hermus, Ad R M M; van de Ven, Annenienke C; van Lindert, Erik J
It is unclear which patients have the greatest risk of developing complications in the first days after endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery (ETS) and how long patients should stay hospitalized after surgery. The objective of this study is to identify which patients are at risk for early postoperative medical and surgical reinterventions to optimize the length of hospitalization. The medical records of 146 patients who underwent ETS for a pituitary adenoma between January 2013 and July 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Data were collected on baseline patient-related characteristics, characteristics of the pituitary adenoma, perioperative complications and interventions, and postoperative outcomes. Patients who underwent additional interventions on days 2, 3, and 4 after ETS were identified as cases, and patients who did not have any interventions after day 1 postoperatively were identified as controls. Diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR], 4.279; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.149-15.933; P = 0.03), incomplete adenoma resection (OR, 2.840; 95% CI, 1.228-6.568; P = 0.02) and increased morning sodium concentration on day 2 after surgery (OR, 5.211; 95% CI, 2.158-12.579; P surgery have an increased chance on reinterventions. In addition, patients without any interventions on day 1 and 2 are at low risk for later reinterventions. These patients could be suitable candidates for early hospital discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a disease with high morbidity, high disability rate, high mortality, and high economic burden. Whether patients can benefit from surgical evacuation of hematomas is still controversial, especially for those with moderate-volume hematomas in the basal ganglia. This study is designed to compare the efficacy of endoscopic surgery and conservative treatment for the moderate-volume hematoma in spontaneous basal ganglia hemorrhage. Methods Patients meet the criteria will be randomized into the endoscopic surgery group (endoscopic surgery for hematoma evacuation and the best medical treatment or the conservative treatment group (the best medical treatment. Patients will be followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months after initial treatment. The primary outcomes include the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale. The secondary outcomes consist of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the mortality. The Barthel Index(BI will also be evaluated. The sample size is 100 patients. Discussion The ECMOH trial is a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate if endoscopic surgery is better than conservative treatment for patients with moderate-volume hematomas in the basal ganglia. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-11001614 (http://www.chictr.org/en/proj/show.aspx?proj=1618
Abdi, Elahe; Bouri, Mohamed; Burdet, Etienne; Himidan, Sharifa; Bleuler, Hannes
We have investigated how surgeons can use the foot to position a laparoscopic endoscope, a task that normally requires an extra assistant. Surgeons need to train in order to exploit the possibilities offered by this new technique and safely manipulate the endoscope together with the hands movements. A realistic abdominal cavity has been developed as training simulator to investigate this multi-arm manipulation. In this virtual environment, the surgeon's biological hands are modelled as laparoscopic graspers while the viewpoint is controlled by the dominant foot. 23 surgeons and medical students performed single-handed and bimanual manipulation in this environment. The results show that residents had superior performance compared to both medical students and more experienced surgeons, suggesting that residency is an ideal period for this training. Performing the single-handed task improves the performance in the bimanual task, whereas the converse was not true.
Cirurgia por orifícios naturais transcolônica: acesso NOTES peri-retal (PNA para excisão mesoretal total Transcolonic natural orifice surgery: peri-rectal NOTES access (PNA for total mesorectal excision
application of transcolonic NOTES in the literature, in a new transrectal TME procedure for rectal cancer. METHODS: IRB approval was obtained at the institution for the study, and the patient signed informed consent. In a 54yrs-old male patient with a rectal adenocarcinoma, total mesorectal resection and rectosigmoidectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed using a posterior transcolonic access 3cm from the anal verge. Mesorectal dissection was achieved using a flexible colonoscope and endoscopic instrumentation and laparoscopic assistance. The specimen was extracted transanally, and transorificial anastomosis was performed, with proximal stoma. RESULTS: Operative time was 350 min, no intraoperative complications occurred. The postoperative course was uneventful, patient was discharged after 6 days. CONCLUSION: Successful first human report on Transcolonic NOTES potentially brings new fronteers and applications for minimally invasive surgery. The treatment of colorectal diseases through a flexible Perirectal NOTES Access (PNA is a promising new approach besides existing laparoscopic and open surgery to improve patient care.
Vassiliou, Melina C; Dunkin, Brian J; Fried, Gerald M; Mellinger, John D; Trus, Thadeus; Kaneva, Pepa; Lyons, Calvin; Korndorffer, James R; Ujiki, Michael; Velanovich, Vic; Kochman, Michael L; Tsuda, Shawn; Martinez, Jose; Scott, Daniel J; Korus, Gary; Park, Adrian; Marks, Jeffrey M
The Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery™ (FES) program consists of online materials and didactic and skills-based tests. All components were designed to measure the skills and knowledge required to perform safe flexible endoscopy. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the hands-on component of the FES examination, and to establish the pass score. Expert endoscopists identified the critical skill set required for flexible endoscopy. They were then modeled in a virtual reality simulator (GI Mentor™ II, Simbionix™ Ltd., Airport City, Israel) to create five tasks and metrics. Scores were designed to measure both speed and precision. Validity evidence was assessed by correlating performance with self-reported endoscopic experience (surgeons and gastroenterologists [GIs]). Internal consistency of each test task was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was determined by having the same participant perform the test a second time and comparing their scores. Passing scores were determined by a contrasting groups methodology and use of receiver operating characteristic curves. A total of 160 participants (17 % GIs) performed the simulator test. Scores on the five tasks showed good internal consistency reliability and all had significant correlations with endoscopic experience. Total FES scores correlated 0.73, with participants' level of endoscopic experience providing evidence of their validity, and their internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was 0.82. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 11 participants, and the intraclass correlation was 0.85. The passing score was determined and is estimated to have a sensitivity (true positive rate) of 0.81 and a 1-specificity (false positive rate) of 0.21. The FES hands-on skills test examines the basic procedural components required to perform safe flexible endoscopy. It meets rigorous standards of reliability and validity required for high
Bonin, Eduardo A; Moran, Erica; Gostout, Christopher J; McConico, Andrea L; Zielinski, Martin; Bingener, Juliane
Perforation accounts for 70% of deaths attributed to peptic ulcers. Laparoscopic repair is effective but infrequently used. Our aim was to assess how many patients with perforated peptic ulcer could be candidates for a transluminal endoscopic omental patch closure. This retrospective study reviewed patients with perforated peptic ulcer from 2005 to 2010. Demographics, ulcer characteristics, operative procedure, and outcomes were recorded. Candidates for endoscopic transluminal repair were defined as those having undergone omental patch closure of an ulcer of appropriate size and no contraindications to laparoscopy or endoscopy. In the retrospective review, a total of 104 patients were identified; 62% female, mean age = 68 years, mean ASA of 3, and 63% medication-related ulcers. Fifty-nine (63%) had an omental patch (80% open), and 35 (37%) had other procedures. Ten patients had nonoperative management. Thirty-day mortality was 14% and 1 year mortality was 35%. Forty-nine patients (52%) were considered potential candidates for transluminal repair. Sixty-three percent of our patients sustained a medication-related perforation with 1 year mortality of 35%. The majority of patients were treated using open omental patch repair. Transluminal endoscopic repair may provide an additional situation for a minimally invasive approach for a number of these patients.
Full Text Available Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is accepted as a minimally invasive treatment for colorectal cancer. However, due to technical difficulties and an increased rate of complications, ESD is not widely used in the colorectum. In some cases, endoscopic treatment alone is insufficient for disease control, and laparoscopic surgery is required. The combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection represents a new frontier in cancer treatment. Recent developments in advanced polypectomy and minimally invasive surgical techniques will enable surgeons and endoscopists to challenge current practice in colorectal cancer treatment. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR of the colon offers the potential to decrease the postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with segmental colectomy while enhancing the diagnostic yield compared to current endoscopic techniques. However, closure is necessary after EFTR and natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES. Innovative methods and new devices for EFTR and suturing are being developed and may potentially change traditional paradigms to achieve minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. The present paper aims to discuss the complementary role of ESD and the future development of EFTR. We focus on the possibility of achieving EFTR using the ESD method and closing devices.
Xie, Tao; Liu, Tengfei; Zhang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Lingli; Luo, Rongkui; Sun, Wei; Hu, Fan; Yu, Yong; Gu, Ye; Lu, Zhiqiang
To investigate the role of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery and the pseudocapsule in the treatment of growth hormone adenomas. The study included 43 patients (age range, 21-64 years) with growth hormone adenomas treated with an endoscopic endonasal approach. We compared the tumor characteristics and surgical outcomes of cases with (group A, 21 cases, from November 2013 to January 2015) and without (group B, 22 cases, from October 2011 to October 2013) extra-pseudocapsule resection. The preoperative demographics, tumor characteristics, and surgical complications were not significantly different between groups A and B. Postoperative remission without adjuvant therapy was achieved in 18 of 21 cases (85.7%) in group A, which was significantly greater than that observed in group B (12 of 22 cases [54.4%]). In group A, the pseudocapsules were verified by endoscopy and histopathology. The pseudocapsule was removed en bloc with the whole adenoma in only 5 cases (23.8%). For the remaining 16 patients (76.2%), following extra-pseudocapsule dissection, incomplete pseudocapsule removals with intracapsule procedures were achieved. The combination of extra-pseudocapsule resection and endoscopy led to a high rate of gross total tumor resection and endocrinologicl remission in acromegalic patients compared with the group with intracapsular resection. Extra-pseudocapsule resection resulted in no additional postoperative complications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Objective: To show the way to reach and stay in note 6 in the evaluation process of Medicine III of CAPES. Methods: Capes determinations were reviewed concerning this topic, grades 6 and 7, and also the difficulties and facilities of running a program that amounted to Note 6 after restructuring and being in compliance with regulations. Results: The main points to achieve and maintain Note 6 were: 1 regular production of master's and doctoral theses with appropriate distribution among all teachers; 2 average time of appropriate titration, as well as strict selection of students who resets the withdrawals and cancellations; 3 production of scientific articles in high impact journals and with academic and student participation in most part; 4 progressive and substantial increase in fundraising and patent search; 5 progressive increase in international exchanges with joint production; 6 visibility through new bilingual website and updated weekly; 7 numerous solidarity activities in research, but also in health services for the population and even in basic education; 8 rigorous selection of students (through design analysis, curriculum and teacher training program; 9 maintenance of high levels teachers production; 10 preparing new teachers for guidance through participation as co-supervision and involvement in the program to fit the needs. Conclusion: The Postgraduate Program in Translational Surgery went through difficult times; was submitted to a series of measures, adjustments, cooperation and understanding of the teaching staff, that took the program from note 3 - and almost closing - to a level of excellence keeping note 6 for three consecutive three-year periods of evaluation.
Yeung, Baldwin Po Man; Gourlay, Terence
Further development of advanced therapeutic endoscopic techniques and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) requires a powerful flexible endoscopic multitasking platform. Medline search was performed to identify literature relating to flexible endoscopic multitasking platform from year 2004-2011 using keywords: Flexible endoscopic multitasking platform, NOTES, Instrumentation, Endoscopic robotic surgery, and specific names of various endoscopic multitasking platforms. Key articles from articles references were reviewed. Flexible multitasking platforms can be classified as either mechanical or robotic. Purely mechanical systems include the dual channel endoscope (DCE) (Olympus), R-Scope (Olympus), the EndoSamurai (Olympus), the ANUBIScope (Karl-Storz), Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP) (USGI), and DDES system (Boston Scientific). Robotic systems include the MASTER system (Nanyang University, Singapore) and the Viacath (Hansen Medical). The DCE, the R-Scope, the EndoSamurai and the ANUBIScope have integrated visual function and instrument manipulation function. The IOP and DDES systems rely on the conventional flexible endoscope for visualization, and instrument manipulation is integrated through the use of a flexible, often lockable, multichannel access device. The advantage of the access device concept is that it allows optics and instrument dissociation. Due to the anatomical constrains of the pharynx, systems are designed to have a diameter of less than 20 mm. All systems are controlled by traction cable system actuated either by hand or by robotic machinery. In a flexible system, this method of actuation inevitably leads to significant hysteresis. This problem will be accentuated with a long endoscope such as that required in performing colonic procedures. Systems often require multiple operators. To date, the DCE, the R-Scope, the IOP, and the Viacath system have data published relating to their application in human. Alternative forms of
Rigante, M; La Rocca, G; Lauretti, L; D'Alessandris, G Q; Mangiola, A; Anile, C; Olivi, A; Paludetti, G
During the last two decades endoscopic skull base surgery observed a continuous technical and technological development 3D endoscopy and ultra High Definition (HD) endoscopy have provided great advances in terms of visualisation and spatial resolution. Ultra-high definition (UHD) 4K systems, recently introduced in the clinical practice, will shape next steps forward especially in skull base surgery field. Patients were operated on through transnasal transsphenoidal endoscopic approaches performed using Olympus NBI 4K UHD endoscope with a 4 mm 0° Ultra Telescope, 300 W xenon lamp (CLV-S400) predisposed for narrow band imaging (NBI) technology connected through a camera head to a high-quality control unit (OTV-S400 - VISERA 4K UHD) (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Two screens are used, one 31" Monitor - (LMD-X310S) and one main ultra-HD 55" screen optimised for UHD image reproduction (LMD-X550S). In selected cases, we used a navigation system (Stealthstation S7, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, US). We evaluated 22 pituitary adenomas (86.3% macroadenomas; 13.7% microadenomas). 50% were not functional (NF), 22.8% GH, 18.2% ACTH, 9% PRL-secreting. Three of 22 were recurrences. In 91% of cases we achieved total removal, while in 9% near total resection. A mean follow-up of 187 days and average length of hospitalisation was 3.09 ± 0.61 days. Surgical duration was 128.18± 30.74 minutes. We experienced only 1 case of intraoperative low flow fistula with no further complications. None of the cases required any post- or intraoperative blood transfusion. The visualisation and high resolution of the operative field provided a very detailed view of all anatomical structures and pathologies allowing an improvement in safety and efficacy of the surgical procedure. The operative time was similar to the standard 2D HD and 3D procedures and the physical strain was also comparable to others in terms of ergonomics and weight. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia
Szold, Amir; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Broeders, Ivo; Dankelman, Jenny; Forgione, Antonello; Langø, Thomas; Melzer, Andreas; Mintz, Yoav; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Rhodes, Michael; Satava, Richard; Tang, Chung-Ngai; Vilallonga, Ramon
Following an extensive literature search and a consensus conference with subject matter experts the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. Robotic surgery is still at its infancy, and there is a great potential in sophisticated electromechanical systems to perform complex surgical tasks when these systems evolve. 2. To date, in the vast majority of clinical settings, there is little or no advantage in using robotic systems in general surgery in terms of clinical outcome. Dedicated parameters should be addressed, and high quality research should focus on quality of care instead of routine parameters, where a clear advantage is not to be expected. 3. Preliminary data demonstrates that robotic system have a clinical benefit in performing complex procedures in confined spaces, especially in those that are located in unfavorable anatomical locations. 4. There is a severe lack of high quality data on robotic surgery, and there is a great need for rigorously controlled, unbiased clinical trials. These trials should be urged to address the cost-effectiveness issues as well. 5. Specific areas of research should include complex hepatobiliary surgery, surgery for gastric and esophageal cancer, revisional surgery in bariatric and upper GI surgery, surgery for large adrenal masses, and rectal surgery. All these fields show some potential for a true benefit of using current robotic systems. 6. Robotic surgery requires a specific set of skills, and needs to be trained using a dedicated, structured training program that addresses the specific knowledge, safety issues and skills essential to perform this type of surgery safely and with good outcomes. It is the responsibility of the corresponding professional organizations, not the industry, to define the training and credentialing of robotic basic skills and specific procedures. 7. Due to the special economic environment in which robotic surgery is currently employed special care should be taken in the decision making process when
Ichimasa, Katsuro; Kudo, Shin-Ei; Mori, Yuichi; Misawa, Masashi; Matsudaira, Shingo; Kouyama, Yuta; Baba, Toshiyuki; Hidaka, Eiji; Wakamura, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takemasa; Kudo, Toyoki; Ishigaki, Tomoyuki; Yagawa, Yusuke; Nakamura, Hiroki; Takeda, Kenichi; Haji, Amyn; Hamatani, Shigeharu; Mori, Kensaku; Ishida, Fumio; Miyachi, Hideyuki
Decisions concerning additional surgery after endoscopic resection of T1 colorectal cancer (CRC) are difficult because preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis (LNM) is problematic. We investigated whether artificial intelligence can predict LNM presence, thus minimizing the need for additional surgery. Data on 690 consecutive patients with T1 CRCs that were surgically resected in 2001 - 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. We divided patients into two groups according to date: data from 590 patients were used for machine learning for the artificial intelligence model, and the remaining 100 patients were included for model validation. The artificial intelligence model analyzed 45 clinicopathological factors and then predicted positivity or negativity for LNM. Operative specimens were used as the gold standard for the presence of LNM. The artificial intelligence model was validated by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for predicting LNM, and comparing these data with those of the American, European, and Japanese guidelines. Sensitivity was 100 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 72 % to 100 %) in all models. Specificity of the artificial intelligence model and the American, European, and Japanese guidelines was 66 % (95 %CI 56 % to 76 %), 44 % (95 %CI 34 % to 55 %), 0 % (95 %CI 0 % to 3 %), and 0 % (95 %CI 0 % to 3 %), respectively; and accuracy was 69 % (95 %CI 59 % to 78 %), 49 % (95 %CI 39 % to 59 %), 9 % (95 %CI 4 % to 16 %), and 9 % (95 %CI 4 % - 16 %), respectively. The rates of unnecessary additional surgery attributable to misdiagnosing LNM-negative patients as having LNM were: 77 % (95 %CI 62 % to 89 %) for the artificial intelligence model, and 85 % (95 %CI 73 % to 93 %; P artificial intelligence significantly reduced unnecessary additional surgery after endoscopic resection of T1 CRC without missing LNM positivity. © Georg
Zaidi, Hasan A.; De Los Reyes, Kenneth; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Litvack, Zachary N.; Bi, Wenya Linda; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Dunn, Ian F.; Laws, Edward R.
Objective Endoscopic skull base surgery has become increasingly popular among the skull base surgery community, with improved illumination and angled visualization potentially improving tumor resection rates. Intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is used to detect residual disease during the course of the resection. This study is an investigation of the utility of 3-T iMRI in combination with transnasal endoscopy with regard to gross-total resection (GTR) of pituitary macroadenomas. Methods The authors retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic transsphenoidal operations performed in the Advanced Multimodality Image Guided Operating (AMIGO) suite from November 2011 to December 2014. Inclusion criteria were patients harboring presumed pituitary macroadenomas with optic nerve or chiasmal compression and visual loss, operated on by a single surgeon. Results Of the 27 patients who underwent transsphenoidal resection in the AMIGO suite, 20 patients met the inclusion criteria. The endoscope alone, without the use of iMRI, would have correctly predicted 13 (65%) of 20 cases. Gross-total resection was achieved in 12 patients (60%) prior to MRI. Intraoperative MRI helped convert 1 STR and 4 NTRs to GTRs, increasing the number of GTRs from 12 (60%) to 16 (80%). Conclusions Despite advances in visualization provided by the endoscope, the incidence of residual disease can potentially place the patient at risk for additional surgery. The authors found that iMRI can be useful in detecting unexpected residual tumor. The cost-effectiveness of this tool is yet to be determined. PMID:26926058
CT findings after normal and unsuccessful functional endoscopic sinus surgery; Ruolod della tomografia computerizzata dopo chirurgia funzionale dei seni paranasali: rilievi normali e valutazioni degli insuccessi chirurgici
Scribano, E.; Ascenti, G.; Bellinvia, A.; Mazziotti, S.; Lamberto, S. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; Cascio, F. [Messina Univ., Messina (Italy). Ist. di Otorinolaringoiatria
The paper investigates the functional endoscopic sinus surgery with the Messer-linger's technique which treats benign or inflammatory diseases of paranasal sinuses resistant to medical therapy. The goal of this type of surgery is to open the obstructed sinus ostia and restore normal aeration and mucociliary clearance. The computerized tomography permits an accurate assessment of extension and results of functional endoscopic sinus surgery. [Italian] L'articolo discute l'uso della tecnica di Messerklinger nella chirurgia funzionale endoscopica dei seni paranasali per il trattamento delle malattie benigne e delle infiammazioni croniche. Essa disostruisce gli osti sinusali ripristinando la normale areazione e la pulizia mucociliare. La tomografia computerizzata consente di valutare l'estensione e i risultati del trattamento chirurgico funzionale, soprattutto nel caso di insuccesso terapeutico, rilevando malattia nasosinusale ricorrente e-o recidiva.
Full Text Available Internal carotid artery (ICA pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery occurring in 0.4–1.1% of cases. Pseudoaneurysms can subsequently result in other complications, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, epistaxis, and caroticocavernous fistula with resultant death or permanent neurologic deficit. In this case, we illustrate endovascular treatment with a flow-diverting stent for an ICA pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic endonasal surgery for a pituitary adenoma in a 56-year-old male. Surgery was complicated by excessive intraoperative bleeding and emergent CT angiography confirmed an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm on the anteromedial surface of the ICA. The pseudoaneurysm was treated endovascularly with flow-diverting stent implantation only. Follow-up CT angiography after three months demonstrated occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm.
Mehrnoosh Musavi Aghdas
Full Text Available Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis is one of the most common diseases in the world. The high prevalence and chronicity of disease increasing burden of disease. Burden of this disease, productivity and the quality of life of patients decreased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery on the quality of life of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Method: This prospective study was performed on 59 patients suffering chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis referring to ENT clinic of educational hospital of Tabriz University of medical sciences during 2015 to 2017. These patients underwent Endoscopic Sinus Surgery as treatment. For all patients, SINO-NASAL OUTCOME (TEST (SNOT-22 was completed before and twelve months after surgery. Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in this study. 21 were female (35.6% and 38 were male (64.40%. The mean age of the studied population was 40.88 ± 16.11 years. The mean score of the preoperative score was 59.38 ± 5.84 and the mean score of the postoperative score was 24.01 ± 10.48. The results of the statistical analysis showed that endoscopic surgery reduced The SNOT-22 questionnaire score is significant. (P < 0.000. The results of the test showed that the increase in preoperative score increases the gain after surgery. (Spearman correlation coefficient: 0.419 and P: 0.001 Conclusion: Endoscopic sinus surgery seems to improve the symptoms and quality of Life in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis.
Hazarika, Produl; Zachariah, Plavilayl Koruthu Joyse; Victor, John; Punnoose, Seema E; Sharma, Santosh; Devi, Chitra
A slow-growing frontal sinus osteoma has been followed up since the year 2001 by clinical, endoscopic, and radiological examination in the Department of Otolaryngology, New Medical Centre Specialty Hospital, Abu Dhabi, for 10 years until the year 2010. The last computed tomography scan of paranasal sinuses was done on April 5, 2010, which revealed increasing size of the osteoma by 38.1 mm; and it has become symptomatic. No specific cause of the sudden change of growth of the osteoma could be evaluated from the history and clinical examination. There was an increase in the frequency of headache and feeling of pressure in the forehead. Choice of surgical approach was difficult in this popular era of endonasal endoscopic sinus approach. A great deal of effort was made after reviewing the literature and consultation with the radiologist and neurosurgeon to accept the bicoronal osteoplastic flap approach. A broad-based posterior frontal sinus is found to be ideal for external approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey
Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of cranial nerves (CNs) VII, IX, X, XI, and XII in skull base surgeries performed using endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to reduce iatrogenic CN deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 73 patients out of 990 patients who had EEA in our institution who had at least one CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as group I and those who did not as group II. Results We monitored a total of 342 CNs. A total of 62 nerves had SG f-EMG activity including CN VII = 18, CN IX = 16, CN X = 13, CN XI = 5, and CN XII = 10. No nerve deficit was found in the nerves that had significant activity during procedure. A total of five nerve deficits including (CN IX = 1, CN X = 2, CN XII = 2) were observed in the group that did not display SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG seems highly sensitive to surgical manipulations and in locating CNs. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of lower CNs during EEA procedures need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.
Lee, John Y K; Cho, Steve S; Zeh, Ryan; Pierce, John T; Martinez-Lage, Maria; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N; Newman, Jason G; Learned, Kim O; White, Caitlin; Kharlip, Julia; Snyder, Peter; Low, Philip S; Singhal, Sunil; Grady, M Sean
OBJECTIVE Pituitary adenomas account for approximately 10% of intracranial tumors and have an estimated prevalence of 15%-20% in the general US population. Resection is the primary treatment for pituitary adenomas, and the transsphenoidal approach remains the most common. The greatest challenge with pituitary adenomas is that 20% of patients develop tumor recurrence. Current approaches to reduce recurrence, such as intraoperative MRI, are costly, associated with high false-positive rates, and not recommended. Pituitary adenomas are known to overexpress folate receptor alpha (FRα), and it was hypothesized that OTL38, a folate analog conjugated to a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, could provide real-time intraoperative visual contrast of the tumor versus the surrounding nonneoplastic tissues. The preliminary results of this novel clinical trial are presented. METHODS Nineteen adult patients who presented with pituitary adenoma were enrolled. Patients were infused with OTL38 2-4 hours prior to surgery. A 4-mm endoscope with both visible and NIR light capabilities was used to visualize the pituitary adenoma and its margins in real time during surgery. The signal-to-background ratio (SBR) was recorded for each tumor and surrounding tissues at various endoscope-to-sella distances. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess the FRα expression levels in all specimens and classify patients as having either high or low FRα expression. RESULTS Data from 15 patients (4 with null cell adenomas, 1 clinically silent gonadotroph, 1 totally silent somatotroph, 5 with a corticotroph, 3 with somatotrophs, and 1 somatocorticotroph) were analyzed in this preliminary analysis. Four patients were excluded for technical considerations. Intraoperative NIR imaging delineated the main tumors in all 15 patients with an average SBR of 1.9 ± 0.70. The FRα expression level of the adenomas and endoscope-to-sella distance had statistically significant impacts on the fluorescent
Noguera, José F; Dolz, Carlos; Cuadrado, Angel; Olea, José; García, Juan
The development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery has led to other techniques, such as single-incision surgery. The use of the flexible endoscope for single-incision surgery paves the way for further refinement of both surgical methods. To describe a new, single-incision surgical technique, namely, flexible single-incision surgery. Assessment of the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic cholecystectomy in a series of 30 patients. This technique consists of a single umbilical incision through which a flexible endoscope is introduced and consists of 2 parallel entry ports that provide access to nonarticulated laparoscopic instruments. The technique was applied in all patients for whom it was prescribed. No general or surgical wound complications were noted. Surgical time was no longer than usual for single-port surgery. Flexible single-incision surgery is a new single-site surgical technique offering the same level of patient safety, with additional advantages for the surgeon at minimal cost.
Oka, Tetsuo; Sugiu, Kenji; Ishida, Joji; Hishikawa, Tomohito; Ono, Shigeki; Tokunaga, Koji; Date, Isao
We report here a case of massive nasal bleeding from the sphenopalatine artery three weeks after endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. This 66-year-old male suffered from massive nasal bleeding with the status of hypovolemic shock. Under general anesthesia, an emergent angiography revealed an extravasation from the sphenopalatine artery. Trans-arterial embolization using coil and n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) was performed following the diagnostic angiography. Complete occlusion of the injured artery was achieved. The patient showed good recovery from general anesthesia. Delayed nasal bleeding after endonasal transsphenoidal surgery is a rare but important complication. The sphenopalatine artery and its branch are located in the hidden inferior lateral corner of the sphenoid sinus and may be injured during enlargement of the sphenoid opening. When massive delayed nasal bleeding follows transsphenoidal surgery and damage of the internal carotid artery has been ruled out, endovascular treatment of the external carotid artery should be considered.
Full Text Available 10-40% of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB patients regain significant weight after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery due to dilation of the pouch and/or the gastrojejunal (GJ anastomosis. Traditional revision surgery is associated with significant morbidity (e.g. post-anastomotic GJ leak where less invasive endoluminal procedures may represent safer alternatives. The present article reports a case of the safe and successful use of endoluminal gastric pouch plication (EGPP using the StomaphyX™ device to correct both a dilated gastric pouch and a dilated gastrojejunostomy in a post-RYGB patient who regained significant weight.
Taguchi, Kazumi; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Okada, Atsushi; Mizuno, Kentaro; Tozawa, Keiichi; Hayashi, Yutaro; Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro
Less-invasive therapy for pediatric urolithiasis is available due to the miniaturization of equipment and improved optics; however, surgical treatment strategies, especially for large calculi, remain controversial. We describe here our experience of treating a 2-year-old boy with left renal staghorn calculi with a single session of mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery in the prone split-leg position with pre-ureteral stenting and the directional enhanced flow imaging ultrasound technique. This is the first report of successful pediatric mini-endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery without any major complications. We believe this technique provides an important therapeutic option for large renal calculus in pediatric patients. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.
Favier, Valentin; Zemiti, Nabil; Caravaca Mora, Oscar; Subsol, Gérard; Captier, Guillaume; Lebrun, Renaud; Crampette, Louis; Mondain, Michel; Gilles, Benjamin
Introduction Endoscopic skull base surgery allows minimal invasive therapy through the nostrils to treat infectious or tumorous diseases. Surgical and anatomical education in this field is limited by the lack of validated training models in terms of geometric and mechanical accuracy. We choose to evaluate several consumer-grade materials to create a patient-specific 3D-printed skull base model for anatomical learning and surgical training. Methods Four 3D-printed consumer-grade materials were...
In this review article the surgical technique of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) is examined. A number of techniques have been used to treat adenomas of the rectum. The treatment of large adenomas which occupy a large surface of the rectal lumen or adenomas which are flat and grow in a "carpet-like" fashion is particularly challenging. Major rectal surgery carries a risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly and unfit patients. Although local excision with transanal res...
Froukje J. Verdam
Full Text Available Obesity (BMI 30–35 kg/m2 and its associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease have reached pandemic proportions worldwide. For the morbidly obese population (BMI 35–50 kg/m2, bariatric surgery has proven to be the most effective treatment to achieve significant and sustained weight loss, with concomitant positive effects on the metabolic syndrome. However, only a minor percentage of eligible candidates are treated by means of bariatric surgery. In addition, the expanding obesity epidemic consists mostly of relatively less obese patients who are not (yet eligible for bariatric surgery. Hence, less invasive techniques and devices are rapidly being developed. These novel entities mimic several aspects of bariatric surgery either by gastric restriction (gastric balloons, gastric plication, by influencing gastric function (gastric botulinum injections, gastric pacing, and vagal nerve stimulation, or by partial exclusion of the small intestine (duodenal-jejunal sleeve. In the last decade, several novel less invasive techniques have been introduced and some have been abandoned again. The aim of this paper is to discuss the safety, efficacy, complications, reversibility, and long-term results of these latest developments in the treatment of obesity.
García, Sergio; Reyes, Luis; Roldán, Pedro; Torales, Jorge; Halperin, Irene; Hanzu, Felicia; Langdon, Cristobal; Alobid, Isam; Enseñat, Joaquim
To assess the contribution of low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMRI) to endoscopic pituitary surgery. We analyzed a prospective series of patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas assisted with a low-field iMRI (PoleStarN30, 0.15 T [Medtronic]). Clinical, radiologic, and surgical variables were analyzed and compared with our fully endoscopic historic cohort operated on without iMRI assistance. A bibliographic review of pituitary surgery assisted with iMRI was conducted. Thirty patients (57% female; mean age, 55 years) were prospectively analyzed. The most frequent tumor subtype was nonfunctioning macroadenoma (50%). The average Knosp grade was 2.3 and mean tumor size was 18 mm. Surgical and positioning time were 102 and 47 minutes, respectively. Hospital stay and complication rates were similar to our historical cohort for pituitary surgery. Mean follow-up was 10 months. Complete resection (CR) was achieved in 83% of patients. Seven patients (23%) benefited from iMRI assistance and achieved a CR in their surgeries. All patients except 1 experienced hormonal activity remission. iMRI sensitivity and specificity was 0.8 and 1, respectively. Although not statistically significant, CR rates were globally 11.5% superior in iMRI series compared with our historical cohort. This difference was independent of cavernous sinus invasiveness grade (CR rate increased 12.5% for Knosp grade 0-2 and 8.1% for Knosp grade 3-4). Low-field iMRI is a useful and safe assistance even in advanced surgical techniques such as endoscopy. Its contribution is limited by the intrinsic features of the tumor. Further randomized studies are required to confirm the cost-effectiveness of iMRI in pituitary surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramaswamy, Balakrishnan; Singh, Rohit; Manusrut, Manusrut; Hazarika, Manali
An eyelid or orbital lipogranuloma can occur following nasal packing with liquid paraffin, petroleum jelly or an antibiotic-based cream. It usually presents a few weeks or months after the initial procedure. We present a report of three such cases of sclerosing lipogranuloma involving the eyelid, which occurred following a sinonasal surgery where nasal packing using petroleum jelly was performed. The typical clinical course and the classical histopathological features are highlighted. All cases were diagnosed by histopathological examination as sclerosing lipogranuloma. Complete surgical removal resulted in complete resolution on 1 month follow-up. The diagnosis is based on a high degree of suspicion following a detailed history of prior use of lipid-based products for nasal packing following endonasal surgery. Histopathology is diagnostic. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, however, due to its infiltrative nature, it may be difficult to obtain a complete cure. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Cahill, R A
The new avenue of minimally invasive surgery, referred to as single-incision\\/access laparoscopy, is often presented as an alternative to standard multiport approaches, whereas in fact it is more usefully perceived as a complementary modality. The emergence of the technique can be of greater use both to patients and to the colorectal specialty if its principles can be merged into next-stage evolution by synergy with more conventional practice. In particular, rather than device specificity, what is needed is convergence of capability that can be applied by the same surgeon in differing scenarios depending on the individualized patient and disease characteristics. We detail here the global applicability of a simple access device construct that allows the provision of simple and complex single-port laparoscopy as well as contributing to multiport laparoscopic and transanal resections in a manner that is reliable, reproducible, ergonomical and economical.
Audette, M. A.; Hertel, I.; Burgert, O.; Strauss, G.
This paper presents on-going work on a method for determining which subvolumes of a patient-specific tissue map, extracted from CT data of the head, are relevant to simulating endoscopic sinus surgery of that individual, and for decomposing these relevant tissues into triangles and tetrahedra whose mesh size is well controlled. The overall goal is to limit the complexity of the real-time biomechanical interaction while ensuring the clinical relevance of the simulation. Relevant tissues are determined as the union of the pathology present in the patient, of critical tissues deemed to be near the intended surgical path or pathology, and of bone and soft tissue near the intended path, pathology or critical tissues. The processing of tissues, prior to meshing, is based on the Fast Marching method applied under various guises, in a conditional manner that is related to tissue classes. The meshing is based on an adaptation of a meshing method of ours, which combines the Marching Tetrahedra method and the discrete Simplex mesh surface model to produce a topologically faithful surface mesh with well controlled edge and face size as a first stage, and Almost-regular Tetrahedralization of the same prescribed mesh size as a last stage.
Davis, Greg E; Baik, Fred M; Liddell, Robert M; Ayars, Andrew G; Branch, Kelley R; Pottinger, Paul S; Hillel, Allen D; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common disease process in humans; however, in the primate population of gorillas, it has rarely been described. This case describes lifesaving sinus surgery on a critically ill gorilla performed by a human otolaryngology team in collaboration with the gorilla's veterinary medicine team. The 35-year-old western silverback gorilla was treated for 3 months with aggressive medical therapy for a worsening sinus infection. When his condition became severe, a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed showing advanced chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps vs other masses and some bone erosion. As his condition deteriorated further, a tertiary otolaryngology team performed sinus surgery using the latest technology available, including image guidance, steroid-eluting sinus stents, and balloon sinus dilation. The postoperative course was complicated by subcutaneous infection and eventual fistulization. Fortunately, with culture-directed antibiotic therapy his condition gradually improved. One year later he required revision sinus surgery. At that point allergy testing was performed followed by appropriate allergy medical therapy. Now, 3 years out from his initial surgery, he continues to do well and has fathered a young female gorilla. This case represents a unique collaboration between human physicians and veterinarians. The combined medical approach was critical to heal this ailing gorilla. This case discusses many of the challenges and offers recommendations for physicians who may be involved with similar care of animals in the future. The success of the surgical and medical treatment of this gorilla's life-threatening sinus infection required many experts, careful planning, and corporate generosity. The interaction between human and animal medicine would not have been successful without the close and trusting collaborations between human and veterinary health providers. We encourage human healthcare providers to seek volunteer
Fan, Lin-Jun; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Xin-Hua; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xing-Gang; Chen, Xian-Chun; Zhong, Ling
Breast conserving surgery (BCS) has been the standard surgical procedure for the treatment of early breast cancer. Endoscopic subcutaneous mastectomy (ESM) plus immediate reconstruction with implants is an emerging procedure. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of these two surgical procedures in our clinical setting. From March 2004 to October 2007, 43 patients with breast cancer underwent ESM plus axillary lymph node dissection and immediate reconstruction with implants, while 54 patients underwent BCS. The clinical and pathological characteristics, surgical safety, and therapeutic effects were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences in the age, clinical stage, histopathologic type of tumor, operative blood loss, postoperative drainage time, and postoperative complications between the two groups (P > 0.05). The postoperative complications were partial necrosis of the nipple and superficial skin flap in the ESM patients, and hydrops in the axilla and residual cavity in the BCS patients. There was no significant difference in the rate of satisfactory postoperative cosmetic outcomes between the ESM (88.4%, 38/43) and BCS (92.6%, 50/54) patients (P > 0.05). During follow-up of 6 months to 4 years, all patients treated with ESM were disease-free, but 3 patients who underwent BCS had metastasis or recurrence -one of these patients died of multiple organ metastasis. After considering the wide indications for use, high surgical safety, and favorable cosmetic outcomes, we conclude that ESM plus axillary lymph node dissection and immediate reconstruction with implants - the new surgery of choice for breast cancer - warrants serious consideration as the prospective next standard surgical procedure.
S. A. R. Nouraei
Full Text Available Background: Upper airway compromise due to tracheobronchial stenosis commonly occurs in patients with Wegener's Granulomatosis (WG. There is at present no consensus on the optimal management of this life-threatening condition. Objective: To assess the results of laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy, intralesional steroid therapy, laser surgery, and dilatation in managing obstructive tracheobronchial WG. Methods: Records of eighteen previously-untreated stridulous patients with obstructive tracheobronchial WG, treated between 2004 and 2006 were prospectively recorded on an airway database and retrospectively reviewed. Information about patient and lesion characteristics and treatment details were recorded. Treatment progress was illustrated using a timeline plot, and intervention-free intervals were calculated with actuarial analysis. Results: There were nine males and the average age at presentation was 40 (16 years [range 13–74]. There were thirteen patients with tracheal, and five patients with tracheal and bronchial lesions. The average tracheal lesion height was 8 (3 mm, located 23 (9 mm below the glottis. There were 1, 10 and 7 Myer-Cotton grade I, II and III lesions respectively. Mean intervention-free interval following minimally-invasive treatment was 26 (2.8 months. Following endobronchial therapy the median intervention-free interval was 22 months (p>0.8 vs. tracheal lesions. No patient required a tracheostomy or endoluminal stenting. Conclusions: Intralesional steroid therapy and conservative endoluminal surgery is an effective strategy for treating airway compromise due to active tracheal and bronchial WG, obviating the need for airway bypass or stenting. We recommend the combination of endotracheal dilatation, conservative laser surgery and steroid therapy as the standard of care for treating airway compromise due to obstructive tracheobronchial WG.
Wang, Hesheng; Zhang, Runxi; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Xiaozhou; Pfeifer, Rolf
Minimally invasive surgery attracts more and more attention because of the advantages of minimal trauma, less bleeding and pain and low complication rate. However, minimally invasive surgery for beating hearts is still a challenge. Our goal is to develop a soft robot surgical system for single-port minimally invasive surgery on a beating heart. The soft robot described in this paper is inspired by the octopus arm. Although the octopus arm is soft and has more degrees of freedom (DOFs), it can be controlled flexibly. The soft robot is driven by cables that are embedded into the soft robot manipulator and can control the direction of the end and middle of the soft robot manipulator. The forward, backward and rotation movement of the soft robot is driven by a propulsion plant. The soft robot can move freely by properly controlling the cables and the propulsion plant. The soft surgical robot system can perform different thoracic operations by changing surgical instruments. To evaluate the flexibility, controllability and reachability of the designed soft robot surgical system, some testing experiments have been conducted in vivo on a swine. Through the subxiphoid, the soft robot manipulator could enter into the thoracic cavity and pericardial cavity smoothly and perform some operations such as biopsy, ligation and ablation. The operations were performed successfully and did not cause any damage to the surrounding soft tissues. From the experiments, the flexibility, controllability and reachability of the soft robot surgical system have been verified. Also, it has been shown that this system can be used in the thoracic and pericardial cavity for different operations. Compared with other endoscopy robots, the soft robot surgical system is safer, has more DOFs and is more flexible for control. When performing operations in a beating heart, this system maybe more suitable than traditional endoscopy robots.
Little, Andrew S; Kelly, Daniel F; Milligan, John; Griffiths, Chester; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L; Rosseau, Gail; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Jahnke, Heidi; Chaloner, Charlene; Jelinek, Kathryn L; Chapple, Kristina; White, William L
Despite the widespread adoption of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas, the sinonasal quality of life (QOL) and health status in patients who have undergone this technique have not been compared with these findings in patients who have undergone the traditional direct uninostril microsurgical technique. In this study, the authors compared the sinonasal QOL and patient-reported health status after use of these 2 surgical techniques. The study design was a nonblinded prospective cohort study. Adult patients with sellar pathology and planned transsphenoidal surgery were screened at 4 pituitary centers in the US between October 2011 and August 2013. The primary end point of the study was postoperative patient-reported sinonasal QOL as measured by the Anterior Skull Base Nasal Inventory-12 (ASK Nasal-12). Supplementary end points included patient-reported health status estimated by the 8-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-8) and EuroQol (EQ)-5D-5L instruments, and sinonasal complications. Patients were followed for 6 months after surgery. A total of 301 patients were screened and 235 were enrolled in the study. Of these, 218 were analyzed (111 microsurgery patients, 107 endoscopic surgery patients). Demographic and tumor characteristics were similar between groups (p ≥ 0.12 for all comparisons). The most common complication in both groups was sinusitis (7% in the microsurgery group, 13% in the endoscopic surgery group; p = 0.15). Patients treated with the endoscopic technique were more likely to have postoperative nasal debridements (p surgery, but then returned to baseline at 3 months. At 3 months after surgery, patients treated with endoscopy reported statistically better sinonasal QOL compared with patients treated using the microscopic technique (p = 0.02), but there were no significant differences at any of the other postoperative time points. This is the first multicenter study to examine the effect of the transsphenoidal surgical technique
Cambi, Maria Paula Carlini; Marchesini, Simone Dallegrave; Baretta, Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso
Bariatric surgery is effective treatment for weight loss, but demand continuous nutritional care and physical activity. They regain weight happens with inadequate diets, physical inactivity and high alcohol consumption. To investigate in patients undergoing Roux-Y-of gastroplasty weight regain, nutritional deficiencies, candidates for the treatment with endoscopic argon plasma, the diameter of the gastrojejunostomy and the size of the gastric pouch at the time of treatment with plasma. A prospective 59 patients non-randomized study with no control group undergoing gastroplasty with recurrence of weight and candidates for the endoscopic procedure of argon plasma was realized. The surgical evaluation consisted of investigation of complications in the digestive system and verification of the increased diameter of the gastrojejunostomy. Nutritional evaluation was based on body mass index at the time of operation, in the minimum BMI achieved after and in which BMI was when making the procedure with plasma. The laboratory tests included hemoglobin, erythrocyte volume, ferritin, vitamin D, B12, iron, calcium, zinc and serum albumin. Clinical analysis was based on scheduled follow-up. Of the 59 selected, five were men and 51 women; were included 49 people (four men and 44 women) with all the complete data. The exclusion was due to the lack of some of the laboratory tests. Of this total 19 patients (38.7%) had a restrictive ring, while 30 (61.2%) did not. Iron deficiency anemia was common; 30 patients (61.2%) were below 30 with ferritin (unit); 35 (71.4%) with vitamin B12 were below 300 pg/ml; vitamin D3 deficiency occurred in more than 90%; there were no cases of deficiency of protein, calcium and zinc; glucose levels were above 99 mg/dl in three patients (6.12%). Clinically all had complaints of labile memory, irritability and poor concentration. All reported that they stopped treatment with the multidisciplinary team in the first year after the operation. The profile of
Ryu, Jiwon; Choi, Jaesoon; Kim, Hee Chan
Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery is effective for operations in limited space. Enhancing safety based on automatic tracking of surgical instrument position to prevent inadvertent harmful events such as tissue perforation or instrument collisions could be a meaningful augmentation to current robotic surgical systems. A vision-based instrument tracking scheme as a core algorithm to implement such functions was developed in this study. An automatic tracking scheme is proposed as a chain of computer vision techniques, including classification of metallic properties using k-means clustering and instrument movement tracking using similarity measures, Euclidean distance calculations, and a Kalman filter algorithm. The implemented system showed satisfactory performance in tests using actual robot-assisted surgery videos. Trajectory comparisons of automatically detected data and ground truth data obtained by manually locating the center of mass of each instrument were used to quantitatively validate the system. Instruments and collisions could be well tracked through the proposed methods. The developed collision warning system could provide valuable information to clinicians for safer procedures. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Netuka, David; Májovský, Martin; Masopust, Václav; Belšán, Tomáš; Marek, Josef; Kršek, Michal; Hána, Václav; Ježková, Jana; Hána, Václav; Beneš, Vladimír
The effect of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) on the extent of sellar region tumors treated endonasally has been described in previous research. However, the effects of iMRI on endocrinologic outcome of growth hormone-secreting adenomas have been studied in only a few small cohort studies. Inclusion criteria were primary transsphenoidal surgery for growth hormone-secreting adenoma from January 2009 to December 2014, a minimum follow-up of 1 year, complete endocrinologic data, at least 1 iMRI, and at least 2 postoperative magnetic resonance images. The cohort consisted of 105 patients (54 females, 51 males) with a mean age of 48.3 years (range, 7-77 years). There were 16 microadenomas and 89 macroadenomas. Endocrinologic remission in the whole cohort was achieved in 64 of the patients (60.9%). Resection after iMRI was attempted in 22 of the cases (20.9%). Resection after iMRI led to hormonal remission in 9 cases (8.6%). Endocrinologic postoperative deficit was observed in 10 cases (12.5%). Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage indicated the necessity to reoperate in 3 cases (3.8%). No neurologic deterioration was observed. iMRI influences not only the morphologic extent of pituitary adenomas resection but also the endocrinologic results. We encourage the routine application of iMRI in pituitary adenoma surgery, including hormone-secreting pituitary tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matsuda, Dean K; Sehgal, Bantoo; Matsuda, Nicole A
Osteitis pubis is a common form of athletic pubalgia associated with femoroacetabular impingement. Endoscopic pubic symphysectomy was developed as a less invasive option than open surgical curettage for recalcitrant osteitis pubis. This technical note demonstrates the use of the anterior and suprapubic portals in the supine lithotomy position for endoscopic burr resection of pubic symphyseal fibrocartilage and hyaline endplates. Key steps include use of the suprapubic portal for burr resection of the posteroinferior symphysis and preservation of the posterior and arcuate ligaments. Endoscopic pubic symphysectomy is a minimally invasive bone-conserving surgery that retains stability and may be useful in the treatment of recalcitrant osteitis pubis or osteoarthritis. It nicely complements arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement and may find broader application in this group of co-affected athletes.
Kraats, Everine B van de; Carelsen, Bart; Fokkens, Wytske J; Boon, Sjirk N; Noordhoek, Niels; Niessen, Wiro J; Walsum, Theo van
Recently, three-dimensional (3D) rotational x-ray imaging has been combined with navigation technology, enabling direct 3D navigation for minimally invasive image guided interventions. In this study, phantom experiments are used to determine the accuracy of such a navigation set-up for a mobile C-arm with propeller motion. After calibration of the C-arm system, the accuracy is evaluated by pinpointing divots on a special-purpose phantom with known geometry. This evaluation is performed both with and without C-arm motion in between calibration and registration for navigation. The variation caused by each of the individual transformations in the calibration and registration process is also studied. The feasibility of direct navigation on 3D rotational x-ray images for functional endoscopic sinus surgery has been evaluated in a cadaver navigation experiment. Navigation accuracy was approximately 1.0 mm, which is sufficient for functional endoscopic sinus surgery. C-arm motion in between calibration and registration slightly degraded the registration accuracy by approximately 0.3 mm. Standard deviations of each of the transformations were in the range 0.15-0.31 mm. In the cadaver experiment, the navigation images were considered in good correspondence with the endoscopic images by an experienced ENT surgeon. Availability of 3D localization information provided by the navigation system was considered valuable by the ENT surgeon
Grindle, Christopher R; Curry, Joseph M; Kang, Melissa D; Evans, James J; Rosen, Marc R
Despite the increasing utilization of image-guided surgery, no radiology protocols for obtaining magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of adequate quality are available in the current literature. At our institution, more than 300 endonasal cranial base procedures including pituitary, extended pituitary, and other anterior skullbase procedures have been performed in the past 3 years. To facilitate and optimize preoperative evaluation and assessment, there was a need to develop a magnetic resonance protocol. Retrospective Technical Assessment was performed. Through a collaborative effort between the otolaryngology, neurosurgery, and neuroradiology departments at our institution, a skull base MR image-guided (IGS) protocol was developed with several ends in mind. First, it was necessary to generate diagnostic images useful for the more frequently seen pathologies to improve work flow and limit the expense and inefficiency of case specific MR studies. Second, it was necessary to generate sequences useful for IGS, preferably using sequences that best highlight that lesion. Currently, at our institution, all MR images used for IGS are obtained using this protocol as part of preoperative planning. The protocol that has been developed allows for thin cut precontrast and postcontrast axial cuts that can be used to plan intraoperative image guidance. It also obtains a thin cut T2 axial series that can be compiled separately for intraoperative imaging, or may be fused with computed tomographic images for combined modality. The outlined protocol obtains image sequences effective for diagnostic and operative purposes for image-guided surgery using both T1 and T2 sequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De
In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.
Fujimoto, Kenji; Yano, Shigetoshi; Shinojima, Naoki; Hide, Takuichiro; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi
With the rapid aging of the general population, the number of pituitary adenoma (PA) diagnosed in elderly patients is increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) for PA in patients aged ≥80 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients aged ≥80 years who underwent ETSS for PA at our hospital from January 2001 through December 2014. Treatment results were assessed by the extent of surgical removal, symptom improvement, postoperative complications, and Karnofsky performance status (KPS). The results were also compared with the surgical result of PA patients aged <80 years. Twelve patients aged ≥80 years underwent ETSS for PA. Recovery of visual function was observed in 11 patients (91.7%). Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage was observed in 3 patients. New hormonal replacement therapy was required in 2 patients. These complications had not affected patient prognosis. During the follow-up periods, deterioration of KPS was observed in 2 patients due to pneumonia or cerebral infarction. In total, 150 PA patients aged <80 years were compared with the patients aged ≥80 years. The percentage of total removal was significantly higher in the younger patient group than that in the older one (54.0% vs 16.6%, respectively; P = 0.016). Visual improvement was observed in 93.2% of the younger patient group, which was almost equal to that in the older one. ETSS is a safe and effective surgical technique in PA patients aged ≥80 years.
Bal, Ercan; Öge, Kamil; Berker, Mustafa
Craniopharyngioma resection is one of the most challenging surgical procedures. Herein, we describe our extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) technique, and the results of 9 years of use on primary and recurrent/residual craniopharyngiomas. This study reviewed 28 EETSs in 25 patients with craniopharyngiomas between January 2006 and September 2015. The patients were divided into 2 groups, newly diagnosed patients (group A, n = 15), and patients having residual or recurrent tumors (group B, n = 10). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the largest tumor diameter (P = 0.495), and all patients underwent EETS. The clinical and ophthalmologic examinations, imaging studies, endocrinologic studies, and operative findings for these cases were reviewed retrospectively. The number of gross total resections in group A was 13/15, and 7/10 in group B. Three of the patients developed postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage (all in group A). There were no neurovascular or ophthalmologic complications, and no meningitis or mortality was observed. There has been a notable increase in the use of EETS in the treatment of craniopharyngiomas during the last decade. Despite its increased use in the treatment of primary craniopharyngiomas, its implementation for recurrent or residual craniopharyngiomas has been viewed with suspicion. In this study, the results have been presented separately for primary and recurrent/residual craniopharyngiomas, so that the results can be compared. Overall, EETS is a reliable and successful surgical treatment method for primary and recurrent/residual craniopharyngiomas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koutourousiou, Maria; Winstead, Welby I
Complete surgical resection of an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is the gold standard of treatment of Cushing disease. Ectopic location of these adenomas is an extremely rare condition that may compromise the diagnosis and surgical success. We present the first case of an ectopic intracavernous ACTH-secreting macroadenoma totally resected with endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES). A 36-year-old woman presented with Cushing syndrome. Increased ACTH, serum cortisol, and free urine cortisol levels were identified; however, pituitary magnetic resonance imaging failed to show a pituitary tumor; instead, a parasellar lesion in the left cavernous sinus (CS) was noticed. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling showed a significant central to peripheral and lateralized left-sided ACTH gradient. The patient underwent EES. No tumor was found in the sella; however, the left CS was widely explored and a tumor was found lateral to the paraclival segment of the carotid artery. There were no complications after EES. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of an ACTH-secreting adenoma. During the immediate postoperative course, serum cortisol levels decreased lower than 5 μg/dL. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed complete tumor resection. At 20 months follow-up, the patient remained in clinical and biochemical remission of Cushing disease. Only 12 cases of ectopic intracavernous ACTH-secreting adenomas have been reported and all were microadenomas. The presence of an ectopic ACTH-secreting macroadenoma in the CS represents a surgical challenge. EES is the ideal approach for complete resection of ectopic intracavernous adenomas, allowing for a wide exploration of the CS with no surgical complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuo, Chao-Hung; Yen, Yu-Shu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich
There are scant data of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETS) with adjuvant therapies of Cushing disease (CD). To report the remission rate, secondary management, and outcomes of a series of CD patients. Patients with CD with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-positive adenoma who underwent ETS as the first and primary treatment were included. The diagnostic criteria were a combination of 24-hour urine-free cortisol, elevated serum cortisol levels, or other tests (e.g., inferior petrosal sinus sampling). All clinical and laboratory evaluations and radiological examinations were reviewed. Forty consecutive CD patients, with an average age of 41.0 years, were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 40.2 ± 29.6 months. These included 22 patients with microadenoma and 18 with macroadenoma, including 9 cavernous invasions. The overall remission rate of CD after ETS was 72.5% throughout the entire follow-up. Patients with microadenoma or noninvasive macroadenoma had a higher remission rate than those who had macroadenoma with cavernous sinus invasion (81.8% or 77.8% vs. 44.4%, P = 0.02). After ETS, the patients who had adrenocorticotropic hormone-positive adenoma had a higher remission rate than those who had not (76.5% vs. 50%, P = 0.03). In the 11 patients who had persistent/recurrent CD after the first ETS, 1 underwent secondary ETS, 8 received gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and 2 underwent both. At the study end point, two (5%) of these CD patients had persistent CD and were under the medication of ketoconazole. For MRI-positive CD patients, primary (i.e., the first) ETS yielded an overall remission rate of 72.5%. Adjuvant therapies, including secondary ETS, GKRS, or both, yielded an ultimate remission rate of 95%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwameis, Katrin; Lin, Brenda; Roman, Jordan; Olengue, Ketetha; Siegal, Steve; DeMeester, Steven R
The relationship between the Los Angeles (LA) grade of esophagitis and acid exposure by pH monitoring is unclear. The aim of this study was to correlate the results of pH testing in patients with esophagitis to determine at what LA grade of esophagitis a pH test is not necessary. A retrospective review was performed of the records of all patients who underwent upper endoscopy and were found to have esophagitis graded using the LA system and who had pH monitoring from 2014 to 2016. An abnormal pH test was determined based on the DeMeester score. There were 56 patients with a median age of 57 years. Esophagitis was LA grade A in 19, B in 20, C in 15 and D in 2 patients. An abnormal pH score was present in 47 patients (84%). All patients with C or D esophagitis had an abnormal pH score compared to 79% and 75% of patients with A and B esophagitis, respectively. The presence of LA C or D esophagitis was always associated with increased esophageal acid exposure on pH testing and is proof of reflux disease. However, pH testing is recommended prior to antireflux surgery in patients with LA A or B esophagitis.
Cohen, Salomon; Jones, Samuel H; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Negm, Hazem M; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H
Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a persistent, albeit much less prominent, complication following endonasal endoscopic surgery. The pathology with highest risk is suprasellar meningiomas. A postoperative lumbar drain (LD) is used to decrease the risk of CSF leak but is not universally accepted. To compare the rates of postoperative CSF leak between patients with and without LD who underwent endonasal endoscopic surgical resection of suprasellar meningiomas. A consecutive series of newly diagnosed suprasellar meningiomas was drawn from a prospectively acquired database of endonasal endoscopic surgeries at our institution. An intraoperative, preresection LD was placed and left open at 5 cc/h for ∼48 h. In a subset of patients, the LD could not be placed. Rates of postoperative CSF leak were compared between patients with and without an LD. Twenty-five patients underwent endonasal endoscopic surgical resection of suprasellar meningiomas. An LD could not be placed in 2 patients. There were 2 postoperative CSF leaks (8%), both of which occurred in the patients who did not have an LD (P = .0033). The average body mass index (BMI) of the patients in whom the LD could not be placed was 39.1 kg/m2, compared with 27.6 kg/m2 for those in whom the LD could be placed (P = .009). In the subgroup of obese patients (BMI > 30 kg/m2), LD placement was protective against postoperative CSF leak (P = .022). The inability to place an LD in patients with obesity is a risk factor for postoperative CSF leak. An LD may be useful to prevent postoperative CSF leak, particularly in patients with elevated BMI. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Sabino-Neto, Miguel; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
To show the way to reach and stay in note 6 in the evaluation process of Medicine III of CAPES. Capes determinations were reviewed concerning this topic, grades 6 and 7, and also the difficulties and facilities of running a program that amounted to Note 6 after restructuring and being in compliance with regulations. The main points to achieve and maintain Note 6 were: 1) regular production of master's and doctoral theses with appropriate distribution among all teachers; 2) average time of appropriate titration, as well as strict selection of students who resets the withdrawals and cancellations; 3) production of scientific articles in high impact journals and with academic and student participation in most part; 4) progressive and substantial increase in fundraising and patent search; 5) progressive increase in international exchanges with joint production; 6) visibility through new bilingual website and updated weekly; 7) numerous solidarity activities in research, but also in health services for the population and even in basic education; 8) rigorous selection of students (through design analysis, curriculum and teacher training program); 9) maintenance of high levels teachers production; 10) preparing new teachers for guidance through participation as co-supervision and involvement in the program to fit the needs. The Postgraduate Program in Translational Surgery went through difficult times; was submitted to a series of measures, adjustments, cooperation and understanding of the teaching staff, that took the program from note 3 - and almost closing - to a level of excellence keeping note 6 for three consecutive three-year periods of evaluation. Mostrar o caminho para alcançar e se manter na nota 6 no processo de avaliação da Medicina III da Capes. Foram revisadas as determinações da Capes concernentes ao tema, conceitos 6 e 7, e também as dificuldades e facilidades próprias da execução de um programa que ascendeu à nota 6 após reestruturação e
Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ... endoscopic management at a median of 12 days (range 2 - 104 days) after surgery. Presenting features included intra-abdominal collections with pain in 58 cases ...
van Bunderen, Christa C.; van Varsseveld, Nadège C.; Baayen, Johannes C.; van Furth, Wouter R.; Aliaga, Esther Sanchez; Hazewinkel, Marieke J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Freling, Nicole J. M.; Lips, Paul; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.; Drent, Madeleine L.
The availability of various first-line treatment modalities for acromegaly and evolving surgical techniques emphasize the need for accurately defined predictors of surgical outcome. We retrospectively analysed the outcome of 30 patients with acromegaly after initial endoscopic transsphenoidal
Kikuchi, Ryogo; Toda, Masahiro; Tomita, Toshiki; Ogawa, Kaoru; Yoshida, Kazunari
This study aimed to assess the efficacy of endoscopic endonasal surgery, conducted by a team of neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. We studied 40 patients who were undergoing surgery for primary non-functional pituitary adenomas with Knosp grades 1 to 3, at Keio University Hospital between 2005 and 2012. We compared the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (team-eTSS; T-eTSS), with a microscopic transsphenoidal approach (mTSS). Analyses were conducted for differences between the two groups in tumor resection rates, operating durations, and complications from the non-functional pituitary adenomas. We also compared the heminostril and binostril approaches for T-eTSS. Tumor resection rates were higher when the surgeries were conducted by T-eTSS than mTSS. In particular, when the maximum tumor diameter was more than 25 mm, resection rates were significantly higher for T-eTSS than for mTSS. There were no unexpected complications in either group. There was no significant difference in resection rates between the heminostril and binostril approaches when T-eTSS was performed. T-eTSS is an efficacious surgical option for non-functional pituitary adenomas, particularly when the adenoma is of large size. Benefits of the heminostril approach are evident.
Rohini V Bhat Pai
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS provides a challenge and an opportunity to the anesthesiologists to prove their mettle and give the surgeons a surgical field which can make their delicate surgery safer,more precise and faster. The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical field and the rate of blood loss in patients premedicated with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery. Material and Methods: ASA I or II patients who were scheduled to undergo ESS were randomly allocated to group D (n = 30 or group C (n = 30. The patients′ vital parameters, propofol infusion rate, and rate of blood loss were observed and calculated. The surgeon, who was blinded, rated the visibility of the surgical field from grade 0-5. Results: In the clonidine group, the rate of blood loss, the surgical time, propofol infusion rate was found to be statistically lower as compared to the diazepam group. Also a higher number of patients in the clonidine group had a better surgical score (better surgical field than the diazepam group and vice versa. Conclusions: Premedication with clonidine as compared to diazepam, provides a better surgical field with less blood loss in patients undergoing ESS.
Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Harper, Mick; Hall, Stuart; Figueiredo, Nuno; Qureshi, Tahseen; Parvaiz, Amjad
Robotic rectal surgery is becoming increasingly more popular among colorectal surgeons. However, time spent on robotic platform docking, arm clashing and undocking of the platform during the procedure are factors that surgeons often find cumbersome and time consuming. The newest surgical platform, the da Vinci Xi, coupled with integrated table motion can help to overcome these problems. This technical note aims to describe a standardised operative technique of single docking robotic rectal surgery using the da Vinci Xi system and integrated table motion. A stepwise approach of the da Vinci docking process and surgical technique is described accompanied by an intra-operative video that demonstrates this technique. We also present data collected from a prospectively maintained database. 33 consecutive rectal cancer patients (24 male, 9 female) received robotic rectal surgery with the da Vinci Xi during the preparation of this technical note. 29 (88%) patients had anterior resections, and four (12%) had abdominoperineal excisions. There were no conversions, no anastomotic leaks and no mortality. Median operation time was 331 (249-372) min, blood loss 20 (20-45) mls and length of stay 6.5 (4-8) days. 30-day readmission rate and re-operation rates were 3% (n = 1). This standardised technique of single docking robotic rectal surgery with the da Vinci Xi is safe, feasible and reproducible. The technological advances of the new robotic system facilitate the totally robotic single docking approach.
Hamamoto, Shuzo; Unno, Rei; Taguchi, Kazumi; Ando, Ryosuke; Hamakawa, Takashi; Naiki, Taku; Okada, Shinsuke; Inoue, Takaaki; Okada, Atsushi; Kohri, Kenjiro; Yasui, Takahiro
To evaluate the clinical utility of a new navigation technique for percutaneous renal puncture using real-time virtual sonography (RVS) during endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery. Thirty consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic combined intrarenal surgery for renal calculi, between April 2014 and July 2015, were divided into the RVS-guided puncture (RVS; n = 15) group and the ultrasonography-guided puncture (US; n = 15) group. In the RVS group, renal puncture was repeated until precise piercing of a papilla was achieved under direct endoscopic vision, using the RVS system to synchronize the real-time US image with the preoperative computed tomography image. In the US group, renal puncture was performed under US guidance only. In both groups, 2 urologists worked simultaneously to fragment the renal calculi after inserting the miniature percutaneous tract. The mean sizes of the renal calculi in the RVS and the US group were 33.5 and 30.5 mm, respectively. A lower mean number of puncture attempts until renal access through the calyx was needed for the RVS compared with the US group (1.6 vs 3.4 times, respectively; P = .001). The RVS group had a lower mean postoperative hemoglobin decrease (0.93 vs 1.39 g/dL, respectively; P = .04), but with no between-group differences with regard to operative time, tubeless rate, and stone-free rate. None of the patients in the RVS group experienced postoperative complications of a Clavien score ≥2, with 3 patients experiencing such complications in the US group. RVS-guided renal puncture was effective, with a lower incidence of bleeding-related complications compared with US-guided puncture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gessner, C E; Jowell, P S; Baillie, J
The development of past, present, and future endoscopic training methods is described. A historical perspective of endoscopy training guidelines and devices is used to demonstrate support for the use of novel endoscopic training techniques. Computer simulation of endoscopy, interactive learning, and virtual reality applications in endoscopy and surgery are reviewed. The goals of endoscopic simulation and challenges facing investigators in this field are discussed, with an emphasis on current and future research.
Cuadrado-Garcia, Angel; Noguera, Jose F; Olea-Martinez, Jose M; Morales, Rafael; Dolz, Carlos; Lozano, Luis; Vicens, Jose-Carlos; Pujol, Juan José
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) makes it possible to perform intraperitoneal surgical procedures with a minimal number of access points in the abdominal wall. Currently, it is not possible to perform these interventions without the help of abdominal wall entryways, so these procedures are hybrids fusing minilaparoscopy and transluminal endoscopic surgery. This report presents a prospective clinical series of 25 patients who underwent transvaginal hybrid cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. The study comprised a clinical series of 25 consecutive nonrandomized women who underwent a fusion transvaginal NOTES and minilaparoscopy procedure with two trocars for cholelithiasis: one 5-mm umbilical trocar and one 3-mm trocar in the upper left quadrant. The study had no control group. The scheduled surgical intervention was performed for all 25 women. No intraoperative complications occurred. One patient had mild hematuria that resolved in less than 12 h, but no other complications occurred during an average follow-up period of 140 days. Of the 25 women, 20 were discharged in 24 h, and 5 were discharged less than 12 h after the procedure. Hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy, combining NOTES and minilaparoscopy, is a good surgical model for minimally invasive surgery. It can be performed in surgical settings where laparoscopy is practiced regularly using the instruments normally used for endoscopy and laparoscopic surgery. Due to the reproducibility of the intervention and the ease of vaginal closure, hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy will permit further development of NOTES in the future.
Brand, Y; Lim, E; Waran, V; Prepageran, N
Endoscopic endonasal techniques have recently become the method of choice in dealing with cerebrospinal fluid leak involving the anterior cranial fossa. However, most surgeons prefer an intracranial approach when leaks involve the middle cranial fossa. This case report illustrates the possibilities of using endoscopic techniques for cerebrospinal fluid leaks involving the middle fossa. A 37-year-old male patient presented with multiple areas of cranial defect with cerebrospinal fluid leak due to osteoradionecrosis following radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma 4 years earlier. Clinical examination showed involvement of all cranial nerves except the IInd and XIth nerves on the left side. A prior attempt to repair the cerebrospinal fluid leak with craniotomy was not successful. This case demonstrates the successful endoscopic repair of a large cranial defect with cerebrospinal fluid leak.
... with this type of surgery give it some advantages over standard endoscopic techniques. The surgeon can make ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 87. Muller CL, Fried GM. Emerging technology in surgery: Informatics, electronics, robotics. In: ...
practice, accurate documentation is critical. This is particularly true for operative procedures, and medical councils have identified this and published guidelines to aid surgeons. However, these remain a frequently cited weakness in their defence in medico-legal cases. This study assessed the accuracy of operative notes in ...
Rosen, Jacob; Brown, Jeffrey D; Barreca, Marco; Chang, Lily; Hannaford, Blake; Sinanan, Mika
Minimally invasive surgeiy (MIS) involves a multi-dimensional series of tasks requiring a synthesis between visual information and the kinematics and dynamics of the surgical tools. Analysis of these sources of information is a key step in mastering MIS surgery but may also be used to define objective criteria for characterizing surgical performance. The BIueDRAGON is a new system for acquiring the kinematics and the dynamics of two endoscopic tools along with the visual view of the surgical scene. It includes two four-bar mechanisms equipped with position and force torque sensors for measuring the positions and the orientations (P/O) of two endoscopic tools along with the forces and torques applied by the surgeons hands. The methodology of decomposing the surgical task is based on a fully connected, finite-states (28 states) Markov model where each states corresponded to a fundamental tool/tissue interaction based on the tool kinematics and associated with unique F/T signatures. The experimental protocol included seven MIS tasks performed on an animal model (pig) by 30 surgeons at different levels of their residency training. Preliminary analysis of these data showed that major differences between residents at different skill levels were: (i) the types of tool/tissue interactions being used, (ii) the transitions between tool/tissue interactions being applied by each hand, (iii) time spent while perfonning each tool/tissue interaction, (iv) the overall completion time, and (v) the variable F/T magnitudes being applied by the subjects through the endoscopic tools. Systems like surgical robots or virtual reality simulators that inherently measure the kinematics and the dynamics of the surgical tool may benefit from inclusion of the proposed methodology for analysis of efficacy and objective evaluation of surgical skills during training.
V. B. Karakhan
Full Text Available The use of current accesses to the tumors of the fourth ventricle, which fill and compress from the outside its cavity, was assessed in 28 patients. Original associated endomicrosurgical techniques were used. Two groups and five topographic types of fourth ventricle tumors are identified. Basic accesses — telovelar and supracerebellar — eliminate the necessity of dissecting the vermis cerebelli. The key endoscopic technique is to provide a simultaneous survey of the lower and upper poles of a tumor during its removal. The technique of trochlear removal of metastatic nodes from the fourth ventricle is shown. The benefits of endoscopic techniques are to early examine the vulnerable vascular and neural structures blocked by a tumor at the access step; to reduce the volume of an access itself and the traction of cerebellar and truncal structures; to completely survey the Sylvian aqueduct without additionally displacing or dissecting the vermis cerebelli; to maintain optical sharpness within sight of differently remote microstructures. Overall, incorporation of the endoscopic method realizes the principle of mini-invasive neurosurgery.
Hattori, Asaki; Suzuki, Naoki; Tanoue, Kazuo; Ieiri, Satoshi; Konishi, Kozo; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Kenmotsu, Hajime; Hashizume, Makoto
This study reports the development of patient's integrated information-displaying system at image-guided, robotic peroral endoscopic operation of digestive tracts as well as the actual operative field for the operator not to look aside. The peroral endoscope has, at its top, a magnetic position sensor and 2 robotic manipulative forceps at right and left side to navigate the surgery through following 3 windows of superimposing display: the inner peritoneal 3D structure of the real operative field reconstructed from preoperative CT and MR images by volume rendering, presentation of the robot top tip in the structure above and in the preoperative CT or MR image as an ordinary navigation. Furthermore, the robot has a function to measure softness of its grabbing tissue which is displayed in the corresponding right and left superimposing windows, and signs like the real-time blood pressure and heart rate are also given in another window. All of the patient's integrated information-displaying can be handled at will during the operation. Improvement of user interface and of navigation display is further to be conducted. (T.T.)
Alonso, S.; Arenas, J.; Fernandez, F.; Gil, S.; Guirau, M. D. [Hospital General Universitario de Alicante (Spain)
The detailed radiological study of the anatomy of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinus is essential prior to endoscopic sinus surgery since, on the one hand, it discloses the extent of the disease and, on the other hand, it aids in the detection of the numerous anatomic variants, some of which are of great interest to the endoscopic as the lack of preoperative knowledge of them may increase the risk of complications. the objective of the present report is to review these variants, stressing those that may be associated with a greater surgical risk. Although coronal computed tomography is the technique of choice for pre endoscopy examination, certain structures and anatomic variants are better viewed in axial images. These exceptions include anterior and posterior walls of the frontal sinuses, the anatomic relationships between posterior ethmoid complex and the sphenoid sinus, the relationships between the sphenoid sinus and the optic nerve, and the detection of Onodi cells. Thus, we recommend that the radiological examination include both coronal and axial images. (Author) 16 refs.
Spencer, C R
Sir Harold Gillies, born in New Zealand, is widely considered a British icon and the father of modern plastic surgery. This article provides an overview of his life and the circumstances which led to him laying the foundations of plastic surgery in Britain in the early twentieth century. A hand search and review of case notes from the Gillies Archives at Queen Mary's Hospital in Sidcup, UK, where he made history, was conducted. Gillies' ongoing legacy was found to also include his influence on the development of his cousin Sir Archibald McIndoe's work. Gillies was a talented sportsman who engaged in charitable activities. Additionally, he was a gifted teacher, with his hospital attracting many young surgeons from around the world. He was found to have expressed genius in both the design and execution of the art and science of surgery. He incepted reconstructive techniques ranging from the world's first gender reassignment operation to facial reanimation procedures for the treatment of facial paralysis. His operative work on ex-servicemen in need of complex rhinoplasty and in particular the inception of the tubed pedicle flap are depicted.
In this review article the surgical technique of Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEMS) is examined. A number of techniques have been used to treat adenomas of the rectum. The treatment of large adenomas which occupy a large surface of the rectal lumen or adenomas which are flat and grow in a "carpet-like" fashion is particularly challenging. Major rectal surgery carries a risk of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly and unfit patients. Although local excision with transanal resection (TAR) and the Kraske sacral operation have been used in the past, during the last twenty years TEMS has become the method of choice for those lesions. TEMS is efficient and minimally invasive. The technique allows the patient to recover rapidly and the incidence of complications is much lower than that of major surgery. In case of recurrence the option of repeat TEMS or major surgery remain available. TEMS has been slow to gain popularity mainly for reasons of cost and steep learning curve but it is now an established procedure and a valuable therapeutic option which is particularly useful for elderly and unfit patients. Gastroenterologists should be aware of the nature and indications of TEMS in order to advise and refer selected patients with rectal adenomas accordingly.
Alrasheed, Abdulaziz S; Nguyen, Lily H P; Mongeau, Luc; Funnell, W Robert J; Tewfik, Marc A
Endoscopic sinus surgery poses unique training challenges due to complex and variable anatomy, and the risk of major complications. We sought to create and provide validity evidence for a novel 3D-printed simulator of the nose and paranasal sinuses. Sinonasal computed tomography (CT) images of a patient were imported into 3D visualization software. Segmentation of bony and soft tissue structures was then performed. The model was printed using simulated bone and soft tissue materials. Rhinologists and otolaryngology residents completed 6 prespecified tasks including maxillary antrostomy and frontal recess dissection on the simulator. Participants evaluated the model using survey ratings based on a 5-point Likert scale. The average time to complete each task was calculated. Descriptive analysis was used to evaluate ratings, and thematic analysis was done for qualitative questions. A total of 20 participants (10 rhinologists and 10 otolaryngology residents) tested the model and answered the survey. Overall the participants felt that the simulator would be useful as a training/educational tool (4.6/5), and that it should be integrated as part of the rhinology training curriculum (4.5/5). The following responses were obtained: visual appearance 4.25/5; realism of materials 3.8/5; and surgical experience 3.9/5. The average time to complete each task was lower for the rhinologist group than for the residents. We describe the development and validation of a novel 3D-printed model for the training of endoscopic sinus surgery skills. Although participants found the simulator to be a useful training and educational tool, further model development could improve the outcome. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Matthes, Kai; Nemani, Arun; Ahn, Woojin; Kato, Masayuki; Jones, Daniel B; Schwaitzberg, Steven; De, Suvranu
INTRODUCTION AND STUDY AIM: Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an emerging surgical technique that requires a cautious adoption approach to ensure patient safety. High-fidelity virtual-reality-based simulators allow development of new surgical procedures and tools and train medical personnel without risk to human patients. As part of a project funded by the National Institutes of Health, we are developing the virtual transluminal endoscopic surgery trainer (VTEST) for this purpose. The objective of this study is to conduct a structured needs analysis to identify the design parameters for such a virtual-reality-based simulator for NOTES. A 30-point questionnaire was distributed at the 2011 National Orifice Surgery Consortium for Assessment and Research meeting to obtain responses from experts. Ordinal logistic regression and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used for analysis. A total of 22 NOTES experts participated in the study. Cholecystectomy (CE, 68 %) followed by appendectomy (AE, 63 %) (CE vs AE, p = 0.0521) was selected as the first choice for simulation. Flexible (FL, 47 %) and hybrid (HY, 47 %) approaches were equally favorable compared with rigid (RI, 6 %) with p virtual NOTES simulator in training and testing new tools for NOTES were rated very high by the participants. Our study reinforces the importance of developing a virtual NOTES simulator and clearly presents expert preferences. The results of this analysis will direct our initial development of the VTEST platform.
Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M.
Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management ...
João Flávio Nogueira Júnior
visualization of important structures. b To show initial results, discuss possible advantages and disadvantages of this instrument. METHODS: 15 patients with otosclerosis were selected to undergo stapedotomies in 2010. The data and surgery videos were analyzed retrospectively (study case series. The anatomical conditions of the oval window niche and surgical steps were described and used to assess possible benefits of such procedures. RESULTS: The surgeries were performed with endoscopes only and all relevant anatomical structures were visualized without difficulty. No complications were observed and 14 of the 15 patients reported improvement of their hearing, confirmed by postoperative audiological tests. CONCLUSION: Totally endoscopic stapes surgeries are technically feasible, safe and promising. In this small series, the main advantages were: virtually no trauma to the chorda tympani nerve and excellent vision. The disadvantages were the lack of stereoscopic vision, having to work with one hand only and the learning curve.
Full Text Available We describe a 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 1 Mirizzi syndrome diagnosed on endoscopic ultrasound. He presented with acute onset of jaundice, malaise, dark urine over 3-4 days, and was found to have obstructive jaundice on lab testing. CT scan of the abdomen showed intrahepatic biliary ductal dilation, a 1.5 cm common bile duct (CBD above the pancreas, and possible stones in the CBD, but no masses. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP by a community gastroenterologist failed to cannulate the CBD. At the University Center, type 1 Mirizzi syndrome was noted on endoscopic ultrasound with narrowing of the CBD with extrinsic compression from cystic duct stone. During repeat ERCP, the CBD could be cannulated over the pancreatic duct wire. A mid CBD narrowing, distal CBD stones, proximal CBD and extrahepatic duct dilation were noted, and biliary sphincterotomy was performed. A small stone in the distal CBD was removed with an extraction balloon. The cystic duct stone was moved with the biliary balloon into the CBD, mechanical basket lithotripsy was performed and stone fragments were delivered out with an extraction balloon. The patient was seen 7 weeks later in the clinic. Skin and scleral icterus had cleared up and he is scheduled for an elective cholecystectomy. Mirizzi syndrome refers to biliary obstruction resulting from impacted stone in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder and commonly presents with obstructive jaundice. Type 1 does not have cholecystocholedochal fistulas, but they present in types 2, 3 and 4. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Endoscopic treatment is effective and can also be used as a temporizing measure or definitive treatment in poor surgical risk candidates.
Full Text Available Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES is a natural consequence of evolution in minimally invasivesurgery. It allows one to reduce surgical trauma and the number of complications and to improve cosmetic outcomes.It also shortens the patient’s recovery time. So far there have been only nine NOTES procedures performed in Polandand around 200 NOTES interventions performed worldwide. In this paper a transgastric diagnostic NOTES procedurein a critically ill patient is described. A 60-year-old male patient with multi-organ failure (circulatory, respiratory andrenal insufficiency, with co-morbid hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus hospitalized in the intensive therapy unit(ITU with unknown cause of his condition was qualified for transgastric diagnostic NOTES procedure. This interventionrevealed the diagnosis of metastatic neoplastic disease and allowed persistent therapy to be avoided. DiagnosticNOTES in selected patients seems to be a very useful. It provides fast diagnosis with relatively small perioperativetrauma. It is an easy procedure that requires a regular or operative endoscope, one surgeon and an endoscopic nurse.It can be done anywhere, including at the patient’s bedside. It provides specimens for histopathology and speeds updiagnostics and decision making, especially in terminally ill patients.
Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Tanoue, Kazuo; Ieiri, Satoshi; Konishi, Kozo; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Kenmotsu, Hajime; Hashizume, Makoto
This report presents the development of a VR (virtual real) training system of robotic peroral operation procedure for endoscopic resection of gastric mucosa as the training is essential because the procedure differs from usual one hitherto. For VR operation space, used is reporters' sphere-filled organ model (SFM), which is deformed by and repels to, the outside force as a soft tissue rapidly in the real time. The deformation and repellence are computable. The SFM space is reconstructed to 3D of the inner environment of stomach using MRI data. The endoscope has, at the right and left side of its top, 2 arms of inner needle knife-equipped robotic forceps and is inserted perorally for operation. In VR, the forceps can grab the gastric mucosa, cut it with the knife to complete resection and carry the specimen out of the body. For the procedure training, the time required for hemostasis, bleeding volume, trace of the arms, intensity and direction of the outer force given are recorded, with which trainee's safety and degree of skill are evaluable in VR. Hydration step and clipping to close the wound are to be further added in the procedure. (T.T.)
Recently, the unfamiliar term "natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES)" appeared in my field. Actually, I am hesitant to accept this technique in my surgical practice. In this paper, I will review some references and try to establish my position toward NOTES. The author has been skeptical and ironical about the clinical potentiality of NOTES since hearing the presentation about NOTES for the first time. I have been concerned about making a puncture in the gastrointestinal tract as an old surgeon who believes that intestinal injury must not occur during surgery. However, recent advances in the research of NOTES are changing my stubborn belief. What I have to do is to avoid interrupting or disturbing young surgeons' challenges to develop NOTES. I remember that some senior surgeons were against us when we started laparoscopic surgery around 1990. Senior surgeons and physicians must be generous, considerate, helpful and supportive to our followers. I have been enthusiastic about the development and spread of laparoscopic surgery since 1987 and have been doing various surgical procedures myself, including those involving the biliary tract, pancreas, spleen, upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, adrenal, kidney and gynecologic organs. Recently, the unfamiliar term "NOTES" appeared in my field. Actually, I am hesitant to accept this technique in my surgical practice. In this paper I will review some references and try to establish my position toward NOTES.
Liu, Fei; Zhang, Song; Ren, Wei; Yang, Tian; Lv, Ying; Ling, Tingsheng; Zou, Xiaoping; Wang, Lei
We developed a novel method of endoscopic subserosal dissection (ESSD) for removal of subepithelial tumors (SETs) originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and clinical outcome of this method. Eleven patients with upper GI SETs originating from the MP layer were treated by ESSD between October 2016 and March 2017. ESSD technique consists of six major procedures: (1) incising the mucosal and submucosal layer around the lesion and exposing MP layer; (2) continuous injection was performed while the injection needle slowly moved from the MP layer toward the subserosal layer; (3) incising MP layer; (4) subserosal injection was performed to further separate the serosa from the MP layer; (5) the mucosa, submucosa, and MP layer including SET were carefully dissected en bloc; and (6) closure of the gastric-wall defect with endoscopic techniques. Primary outcome including clinical procedural success and procedure-related adverse events were documented. ESSD was successfully performed in 11 patients. The complete resection rate was 100%, and the mean operation time was 51 (range 22-76) min. The mean resected lesion size was 27 (range 15-40) mm. Pathological diagnosis of these lesions included gastrointestinal stromal tumors (8/11), heterotopic pancreas (1/11), hamartoma (1/11), and leiomyoma (1/11). The small perforations occurred in two patients (4 × 4 and 5 × 5 mm, respectively) during the operation. All perforations and defects were closed successfully by endoscopic techniques. No GI bleeding, peritonitis, abdominal abscess, and other adverse events were observed. No lesion residual or recurrence was found during the follow-up period (mean 18 weeks; range 10-29 weeks). ESSD seems to be an efficacious, safe, and minimally invasive treatment for patients with upper GI SETs originating from the MP layer, making it possible to resect deep lesions, provide
Magdeburg, Richard; Hauth, Daniel; Kaehler, Georg
Laparoscopic surgery has displaced open surgery as the standard of care for many clinical conditions. NOTES has been described as the next surgical frontier with the objective of incision-free abdominal surgery. The principal challenge of NOTES procedures is the loss of triangulation and instrument rigidity, which is one of the fundamental concepts of laparoscopic surgery. To overcome these problems necessitates the development of new instrumentation. material and methods: We aimed to assess the use of a very simple combination of internal and external magnets that might allow the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required in NOTES procedures. The magnet retraction system consisted of an external magnetic assembly and either small internal magnets attached by endoscopic clips to the designated tissue (magnet-clip-approach) or an endoscopic grasping forceps in a magnetic deflector roll (magnet-trocar-approach). We compared both methods regarding precision, time and efficacy by performing transgastric partial uterus resections with better results for the magnet-trocar-approach. This proof-of-principle animal study showed that the combination of external and internal magnets generates sufficient coupling forces at clinically relevant abdominal wall thicknesses, making them suitable for use and evaluation in NOTES procedures, and provides the vigorous multiaxial traction/counter-traction required by the lack of additional abdominal trocars.
Egi, H; Hattori, M; Tokunaga, M; Suzuki, T; Kawaguchi, K; Sawada, H; Ohdan, H
The aim of this study was to determine whether any correlation exists between the performance of the Mimic® dV-Trainer (Mimic Technologies, Seattle, Wash., USA) and the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, Calif., USA). Twelve participants were recruited, ranging from residents to consultants. We used four training tasks, consisting of 'Pick and Place', 'Peg Board', 'Thread the Rings' and 'Suture Sponge', from the software program of the Mimic dV-Trainer. The performance of the participants was recorded and measured. Additionally, we prepared the same tasks for the da Vinci Surgical System. All participants completed the tasks using the da Vinci Surgical System and were assessed according to time, the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill checklist and the global rating score for endoscopic suturing assessed by two independent blinded observers. After performing these tasks, the participants completed a questionnaire that evaluated the Mimic dV-Trainer's face and content validity. The final results for each participant for the Mimic dV-Trainer and the da Vinci Surgical System were compared. All participants ranked the Mimic dV-Trainer as a realistic training platform that is useful for residency training. There was a significant relationship between the Mimic dV-Trainer and the da Vinci Surgical System in all four tasks. We verified the reliability of the assessment of the checklist and the global rating scores for endoscopic suturing assessed by the two blinded observers using Cronbach's alpha test (r = 0.803, 0.891). We evaluated the concurrent validity of the Mimic dV-Trainer and the da Vinci Surgical System. Our results suggest the possibility that training using the Mimic dV-Trainer may therefore be able to improve the operator's performance during live robot-assisted surgery. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Barnett, T P; O'Leary, J M; Parkin, T D H; Dixon, P M; Barakzai, S Z
To investigate upper respiratory tract function in horses, previously undergoing laryngoplasty (LP), using exercising video-endoscopy. To evaluate arytenoid abduction and stability, diagnose any concurrent upper airway problems, and correlate these with the owners' perception of success. Horses undergoing LP during a 6-year period at one hospital were initially included. Those available for re-examination were exercised for a duration and intensity considered maximal for their discipline using an over-ground endoscope. Resting and exercising laryngeal and pharyngeal videos were analysed blindly. Multivariable analysis was used to test associations between resting and exercising endoscopic variables, and also between endoscopic variables and owner questionnaire findings. Forty-one horses were included and 78% had a form of upper airway collapse at exercise, with 41% having complex forms, despite 93% of owners reporting the surgery to have been beneficial. Horses with poor abduction (grades 4 or 5/5) were 6 times more likely to make respiratory noise compared with those with good (grades 2 or 3/5) abduction (P = 0.020; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-27.0), and those not having a ventriculectomy were 4.9 times more likely to produce respiratory noise post operatively (P = 0.048; 95% CI 1.0-23.9). Palatal dysfunction was observed in 24% of horses at rest, and 56% at exercise, with the diagnosis at rest and exercise significantly associated (P = 0.001). Increasing severity of pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia (prevalence 61%) was significantly associated with increasing arytenoid abduction (P = 0.01). Thirty-four per cent of horses had aryepiglottic fold collapse and 22% of horses had vocal fold collapse. Many horses that had previously had LP were diagnosed with upper airway abnormalities, despite the procedure being considered as beneficial by most owners. When investigating cases of ongoing respiratory noise or poor performance following LP, exercising endoscopy must
Doležel, R.; Ryska, O.; Kollár, M.; Juhásová, Jana; Kalvach, J.; Ryska, M.; Martínek, J.
Roč. 30, č. 11 (2016), s. 4910-4916 ISSN 0930-2794 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13634; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : NOTES * endoscopic closure * KING closure * over-the-scope clip Subject RIV: FJ - Surgery incl. Transplants Impact factor: 3.747, year: 2016
Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M
Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management of benign sino-nasal tumours. We present our experience of endoscopic medial maxillectomy in the management of sinonasal pathologies.
Rossini, Zefferino; Milani, Davide; Nicolosi, Federico; Costa, Francesco; Lasio, Giovanni Battista; D'Angelo, Vincenzo Antonio; Fornari, Maurizio; Colombo, Giovanni
The transnasal approach to lesions involving the craniovertebral junction represents a technical challenge because of limited inferior exposure. The endoscopic transseptal approach (EtsA) with posterior nasal spine (PNS) removal is described. This technique can create a wide exposure of the craniovertebral junction, thereby increasing the caudal exposure. On patients undergoing anterior craniovertebral junction decompression, we calculated the degree of exposure on the sagittal plan through a paraseptal route, an EtsA without and with PNS removal. The horizontal exposure and working area with the latter approach were also evaluated. Five patients underwent the transnasal procedure. The age of patients ranged from 34-71 years. All patients harbored basilar impression. The mean postoperative Nurick grade (1, 8) was improved versus the average preoperative grade (3). The average follow-up duration was 16 months. All patients underwent occipitocervical fixation. The mean vertical distances, from the clinoid recess to the inferior most limit with the paraseptal approach, EtsA without and with PNS removal were 38.52, 44.12, and 51.16 mm, respectively. The difference between our approach and a standard paraseptal route was statistically significant (P = 0.041; P< 0.05). The mean horizontal distances were 31.68 mm (mononostril entry) and 35.37 mm (binostril entry). The mean working area was 1795.53 mm 2 . Endoscopic endonasal approaches to the craniovertebral junction are increasing, but the downward extension on the anterior cervical spine represents a limit. Therefore, many surgeons prefer transoral or transcervical approaches. The EtsA with PNS removal allows for a more caudal exposure than the standard paraseptal approach, with reduced nasal trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sheng, Qingfeng; Lv, Zhibao; Xiao, Xianmin; Xu, Weijue; Liu, Jiangbin; Wu, Yibo
Complete resection of the pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) tract is challenging due to repeated infection and inadequate procedures. We present our experiences with intraoperative endoscopic-assisted intubation or instillation of dye through the internal opening as a guide to identify the tract. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 73 consecutive patients diagnosed with PSF during 1999 until 2014 from two tertiary referral centers. Demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. The intraoperative endoscopy was successfully conducted in all 73 cases. No gender predominance was observed. Of the anomalies, 94.5% were left-sided. Presenting symptoms consisted of neck abscess (n = 48), acute suppurative thyroiditis/thyroid abscess (n = 9), neck mass with or without dyspnea (n = 12), and thyroid nodule (n = 4). Barium esophagography and computed tomography scan with oral or intravenous contrast had a satisfactory positive predictive value. Partial thyroidectomy was performed on 25 cases (34.2%) if the ipsilateral thyroid was involved. Good outcome was achieved in all but 3 patients (70/73, 95.9%) during a median follow-up of 4 years (range, 8 months-14 years). Two patients developed postoperative complications: temporary vocal fold motion impairment and left-sided Horner's syndrome, respectively. PSF recurred in 1 case. A complete resection is essential for good outcomes. Intraoperative intubation or methylene blue injection by endoscopy can simplify the identification of the fistula tract during surgical exploration.
Justo Luis González González
aleatorizados y controlados, en busca de información más consistente en relación con el valor real de la técnica, a estas alturas del desarrollo de la cirugía hipofisaria.For a great number of pitituary tumors surgery is the first-line treatment and the microsurgical transsphenoidal approach is the most used. At present, it is performed by microscopic and endoscopic way. Recently, the endoscopic transnasal approach has emerged as an option under development that could predominate in a near future. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate by analyzing the results if it was possible to perform in our setting the endoscopic transsphenoidal transnasal approach for the lesions of the sellar region with surgical results similar at least to those obtained with the traditional microsurgical method. A limited strictly controlled and prospective cohort research of 10 patients selected according to the inclusion criteria that underwent transnasal endoscopic surgery between August 2002 and August 2003 at the Neurosurgery service of “Hermanos Ameijeiras” Hospital, was conducted. 6 cases with hypophyseal macroadenomas were operated on (3 GH-releasing, 1 PRL-secreting and 2 non-releasing hypophyseal macroadenomas. The other 4 were diagnosed LCR fistula through the sellar floor. Total exeresis of the tumor was performed in 5 of the 6 macroadenomas, whereas subtotal exeresis was attained in the other one. Rhinorrhea disappeared in 2 patients with LCR fistula and it was maintained in the other 2. Of the complications observed in 30 % of the cases, only in one (10 %, they were beyond the transoperative. It was concluded that the results obtained by using the endoscopic transnasal method make the procedure in our setting safe enough to justify its implementation and to carry out further randomized and controlled studies searching for more consistent information in relation to the real value of the technique at this level of development of the hypophyseal surgery.
Au, Jennifer; Rudmik, Luke
The time-driven activity-based costing (TD-ABC) method is a novel approach to quantify the costs of a complex system. The aim of this study was to apply the TD-ABC technique to define the overall cost of a routine outpatient endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) from the perspective of the Canadian government payer. Costing perspective was the Canadian government payer. All monetary values are in Canadian dollars as of December 2012. Costs were obtained by contacting staff unions, reviewing purchasing databases and provincial physician fee schedules. Practical capacity time values were collected from the College and Association of Registered Nurses of Alberta. Capacity cost rates ($/min) were calculated for all staff, capital equipment, and hospital space. The overall cost for routine outpatient ESS was $3510.31. The cost per ESS case for each clinical pathway encounter was as follows: preoperative holding ($49.19); intraoperative ($3296.60); sterilization ($90.20); postanesthesia care unit ($28.64); and postoperative day ward ($45.68). The 3 major cost drivers were physician fees, disposable equipment, and nursing costs. The intraoperative phase contributed to 94.5% of the overall cost. This study applied the TD-ABC method to evaluate the cost of outpatient ESS from the perspective of the Canadian government payer and defined the overall cost to be $3510.31 per case. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Michalska, M.; Brojek, W.; Rybak, Z.; Sznelewski, P.; Mamajek, M.; Gogler, S.; Swiderski, J.
An all-fiber, diode-pumped, continuous-wave Tm3+-doped fiber laser operated at a wavelength of 1.94 μm was developed. 37.4 W of output power with a slope efficiency as high as 57% with respect to absorbed pump power at 790 nm was demonstrated. The laser output beam quality factor M2 was measured to be 1.2. The output beam was very stable with power fluctuations surgery of soft biological tissues.
Ithaar H. Derweesh
Full Text Available Introduction. Laparo-endoscopic single-site surgery (LESS may diminish morbidity of laparoscopic surgery. We prospectively evaluated feasibility and outcomes of LESS-Radical Nephrectomy (LESS-RN and Partial Nephrectomy (LESS-PN. Methods. 10 patients underwent LESS-RN (6 and LESS-PN (4 between 2/2009-5/2009. LESS-RN included 2 with renal vein thrombectomy, one of which was also cytoreductive. Transperitoneal LESS access was obtained by periumbilical incision. Patient/tumor characteristics, oncologic, and quality of life (QoL outcomes were analyzed. Results. 3 Men/7 Women (mean age 58.7 years, median follow-up 9.8 months underwent LESS. 9/10 cases were completed successfully. All had negative margins. Mean operative time was 161 minutes, estimated blood loss was 125 mL, and incision size was 4.4 cm. Median tumor size for LESS-RN and -PN was 5.0 and 1.7 cm (=.045. Median LESS-PN ischemia time was 24 minutes; mean preoperative/postoperative creatinine were 0.7/0.8 mg/dL (=.19. Mean pain score at discharge was 1.3. Mean preoperative, 3-, and 6-month postoperative SF-36 QoL Score was 73.8, 74.4 and 77.1 (=.222. All patients are currently alive. Conclusions. LESS-RN, renal vein thrombectomy, and PN are technically feasible and safe while maintaining adherence to oncologic principles, with excellent QoL preservation and low discharge pain scores. Further study is requisite.
Full Text Available Endoscopic skull base surgery allows minimal invasive therapy through the nostrils to treat infectious or tumorous diseases. Surgical and anatomical education in this field is limited by the lack of validated training models in terms of geometric and mechanical accuracy. We choose to evaluate several consumer-grade materials to create a patient-specific 3D-printed skull base model for anatomical learning and surgical training.Four 3D-printed consumer-grade materials were compared to human cadaver bone: calcium sulfate hemihydrate (named Multicolor, polyamide, resin and polycarbonate. We compared the geometric accuracy, forces required to break thin walls of materials and forces required during drilling.All materials had an acceptable global geometric accuracy (from 0.083mm to 0.203mm of global error. Local accuracy was better in polycarbonate (0.09mm and polyamide (0.15mm than in Multicolor (0.90mm and resin (0.86mm. Resin and polyamide thin walls were not broken at 200N. Forces needed to break Multicolor thin walls were 1.6-3.5 times higher than in bone. For polycarbonate, forces applied were 1.6-2.5 times higher. Polycarbonate had a mode of fracture similar to the cadaver bone. Forces applied on materials during drilling followed a normal distribution except for the polyamide which was melted. Energy spent during drilling was respectively 1.6 and 2.6 times higher on bone than on PC and Multicolor.Polycarbonate is a good substitute of human cadaver bone for skull base surgery simulation. Thanks to short lead times and reasonable production costs, patient-specific 3D printed models can be used in clinical practice for pre-operative training, improving patient safety.
Favier, Valentin; Zemiti, Nabil; Caravaca Mora, Oscar; Subsol, Gérard; Captier, Guillaume; Lebrun, Renaud; Crampette, Louis; Mondain, Michel; Gilles, Benjamin
Endoscopic skull base surgery allows minimal invasive therapy through the nostrils to treat infectious or tumorous diseases. Surgical and anatomical education in this field is limited by the lack of validated training models in terms of geometric and mechanical accuracy. We choose to evaluate several consumer-grade materials to create a patient-specific 3D-printed skull base model for anatomical learning and surgical training. Four 3D-printed consumer-grade materials were compared to human cadaver bone: calcium sulfate hemihydrate (named Multicolor), polyamide, resin and polycarbonate. We compared the geometric accuracy, forces required to break thin walls of materials and forces required during drilling. All materials had an acceptable global geometric accuracy (from 0.083mm to 0.203mm of global error). Local accuracy was better in polycarbonate (0.09mm) and polyamide (0.15mm) than in Multicolor (0.90mm) and resin (0.86mm). Resin and polyamide thin walls were not broken at 200N. Forces needed to break Multicolor thin walls were 1.6-3.5 times higher than in bone. For polycarbonate, forces applied were 1.6-2.5 times higher. Polycarbonate had a mode of fracture similar to the cadaver bone. Forces applied on materials during drilling followed a normal distribution except for the polyamide which was melted. Energy spent during drilling was respectively 1.6 and 2.6 times higher on bone than on PC and Multicolor. Polycarbonate is a good substitute of human cadaver bone for skull base surgery simulation. Thanks to short lead times and reasonable production costs, patient-specific 3D printed models can be used in clinical practice for pre-operative training, improving patient safety.
Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...
Welling, Leonardo C; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Nakaji, Peter; Welling, Mariana S; Schafranski, Marcelo D; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C
The ambient cistern is an arachnoid complex that extends from the crural cistern to lateral border of cerebral colliculi. The subtemporal approach has been recognized as the best access to reach pathologies in the ambient cistern, however many disadvantages exist. The present work aims to analyze quantitatively the area of exposure provided by the subtemporal access. The objective is to evaluate if there are advantages of using the neuroendoscope in conventional subtemporal access when compared to the subtemporal access with resection of the parahippocampal gyrus. A subtemporal approach was performed in six brain hemispheres. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were made. The linear exposition of the vascular structures and the surgical exposure area were evaluated. The linear exposure to the posterior cerebral artery was 5.95 for subtemporal access (ST) and 13.6 for subtemporal access with resection of the parahippocampal gyrus (STh) (p = 0.019). The total exposure area was 104.8 mm 2 for ST and 210.5 for STh (p = 0.0001). Regarding endoscope assistance the medial area, ST was 81.0 mm 2 , and STend was 176.2 mm 2 (p = 0.038). For the total area of exposure, we obtained a value of 210.5 mm 2 for ST and a value of 391.3 mm 2 for STend (p = 0.041). In conventional subtemporal access, the use of the neuroendoscopes avoids the need for resection of the parahippocampal gyrus for better visualization of the ambient cistern structures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis was suspected on ...
Youn, Young Hoon; Minami, Hitomi; Chiu, Philip Wai Yan; Park, Hyojin
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is the application of esophageal myotomy to the concept of natural orifice transluminal surgery (NOTES) by utilizing a submucosal tunneling method. Since the first case of POEM was performed for treating achalasia in Japan in 2008, this procedure is being more widely used by many skillful endosopists all over the world. Currently, POEM is a spotlighted, emerging treatment option for achalasia, and the indications for POEM are expanding to include long-standing, sigmoid shaped esophagus in achalasia, even previously failed endoscopic treatment or surgical myotomy, and other spastic esophageal motility disorders. Accumulating data about POEM demonstrate excellent short-term outcomes with minimal risk of major adverse events, and some existing long-term data show the efficacy of POEM to be long lasting. In this review article, we review the technical details and clinical outcomes of POEM, and discuss some considerations of POEM in special situations. PMID:26717928
Cleisson Fábio Andrioli Peralta
STFF, HDC e SPAR parecem superar os riscos de complicações maternas que, raramente, foram consideradas graves.PURPOSE: to describe the maternal complications due to therapeutic endoscopic procedures in fetal Medicine performed at an university center in Brazil. METHODS: retrospective observational study including patients treated from April 2007 to May 2010 who underwent laser ablation of placental vessels (LAPV for severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS; fetal tracheal occlusion (FETO and endoscopic removal of tracheal balloon in cases of severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH; LAPV with or without bipolar coagulation of the umbilical cord in cases of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP sequence. The main variables described for each disease/type of surgery were maternal complications and neonatal survival (discharge from nursery. RESULTS: fifty-six patients underwent 70 procedures: Severe TTTS (34 patients; 34 surgeries; severe CDH (16 patients; 30 surgeries, and TRAP sequence (6 patients; 6 surgeries. Among 34 women who underwent LAPV for TTTS, two (2/34=5.9% experienced amniotic fluid leakage to the peritoneal cavity and seven (7/34=20.6% miscarried after the procedure. Survival of at least one twin was 64.7% (22/34. Among 30 interventions performed in cases of CDH, there was amniotic fluid leakage into the maternal peritoneal cavity in one patient (1/30=3.3% and premature preterm rupture of membranes after three (3/30=30% fetoscopies for removal of the tracheal balloon. Infant survival with discharge from nursery was 43.8% (7/16. Among six cases of TRAP sequence, there was bleeding into the peritoneal cavity after surgery in one patient (1/6=16.7% and neonatal survival with discharge from nursery was 50% (3/6. CONCLUSIONS: in agreement with the available data in literature, at our center, the benefits related to therapeutic endoscopic interventions for TTTS, CDH and TRAP sequence seem to overcome the risks of maternal complications, which were
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a total hysterectomy performed entirely by transvaginal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (vNOTES). Conventional, reusable laparoscopic instruments were used, inserted through an inexpensive, self-constructed single-port device. Ten total vaginal NOTES hysterectomies (TVNHs) were performed by a single surgeon. The self-constructed single-port device was made by assembling a surgical glove, a wound protector or modified laryngeal mask airway, 1 reusable 10-mm trocar, and 4 reusable 5-mm trocars. This gloveport was inserted into the vagina to create a pneumovagina. The conventional steps of a vaginal hysterectomy were followed, but performed endoscopically with standard reusable endoscopic instruments. The patient and perioperative data were analyzed. No conversion to standard laparoscopy or laparotomy was necessary in any of the 10 patients who underwent a TVNH. Mean operation time was 97 min (range: 60-120); mean drop in hemoglobin level was 1.5 g/dL (range: 0.5-2.4). There were no operative complications, and postoperative pain scores were very low. This first report on a small number of patients demonstrates that TVNH is possible. By incorporating the advantages of endoscopic surgery, TVNH broadens the indications for vaginal hysterectomy and helps overcome its limitations. At the same time, the NOTES approach avoids abdominal wall wounds and trocar-related complications. TVNH is feasible, even when performed with reusable, conventional laparoscopic instruments. This frugally innovative technique also enables surgeons to perform hysterectomies by vNOTES in low resource settings. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tae, Chung Hyun; Pouw, Roos E.; Duits, Lucas C.; Sung, Young Kyung; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Kim, Jae J.
Although endoscopic resection (ER) for early gastric cancers (EGCs) has become popular with the development of endoscopic instruments and skillful endoscopists, the risk of lymph node metastasis (LNM) is still an obstacle in performing ER. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors of LNM
Lai, Hung-Wen; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chen, Dar-Ren; Chen, Shu-Ling; Chang, Tsai-Wang; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Kuo, Yao-Lung; Hung, Chin-Sheng
Background Endoscopy-assisted breast surgery (EABS) performed through minimal axillary and/or periareolar incisions is a possible alternative to open surgery for certain patients with breast cancer. In this study, we report the early results of an EABS program in Taiwan. Methods The medical records of patients who underwent EABS for breast cancer during the period May 2009 to December 2014 were collected from the Taiwan Endoscopic Breast Surgery Cooperative Group database. Data on clinicopathologic characteristics, type of surgery, method of breast reconstruction, complications and recurrence were analyzed to determine the effectiveness and oncologic safety of EABS in Taiwan. Results A total of 315 EABS procedures were performed in 292 patients with breast cancer, including 23 (7.8%) patients with bilateral disease. The number of breast cancer patients who underwent EABS increased initially from 2009 to 2012 and then stabilized during the period 2012–2014. The most commonly performed EABS was endoscopy-assisted total mastectomy (EATM) (85.4%) followed by endoscopy-assisted partial mastectomy (EAPM) (14.6%). Approximately 74% of the EATM procedures involved breast reconstruction, with the most common types of reconstruction being implant insertion and autologous pedicled TRAM flap surgery. During the six-year study period, there was an increasing trend in the performance of EABS for the management of breast cancer when total mastectomy was indicated. The positive surgical margin rate was 1.9%. Overall, the rate of complications associated with EABS was 15.2% and all were minor and wound-related. During a median follow-up of 26.8 (3.3–68.6) months, there were 3 (1%) cases of local recurrence, 1 (0.3%) case of distant metastasis and 1 (0.3%) death. Conclusion The preliminary results from the EABS program in Taiwan show that EABS is a safe procedure and results in acceptable cosmetic outcome. These findings could help to promote this under-used surgical technique
Holbek, Bo Laksafoss; Petersen, René Horsleben; Kehlet, Henrik
Objectives To provide a short overview of fast-track video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and to identify areas requiring further research. Design A literature search was made using key words including: fast-track, enhanced recovery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, robot......-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS), robotic, thoracotomy, single-incision, uniportal, natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), chest tube, air-leak, digital drainage, pain management, analgesia, perioperative management, anaesthesia and non-intubated. References from articles were screened for further...
Full Text Available Duodenal diverticula are an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Until recently, it was primarily managed with surgery, but advances in the field of endoscopy have made management increasingly less invasive. We report a case of duodenal diverticular bleeding that was endoscopically managed, and review the literature about the various endoscopic therapies thus far described.
Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Iqbal, Shahzad; Grendell, James H; Stavropoulos, Stavros N
Achalasia is an uncommon esophageal motility disorder characterized by the selective loss of enteric neurons leading to absence of peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a novel modality for the treatment of achalasia performed by gastroenterologists and surgeons. It represents a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to Heller myotomy. POEM has the minimal invasiveness of an endoscopic procedure that can duplicate results of the surgical Heller myotomy. POEM is conceptually similar to a surgical myotomy without the inherent external incisions and post-operative care associated with surgery. Initial high success and low complications rates promise a great future for this technique. In fact, POEM has been successfully performed on patients with end-stage achalasia as an initial treatment reserving esophagectomy for those without good response. The volume of POEMs performed worldwide has grown exponentially. In fact, surgeons who have performed Heller myotomy have embraced POEM as the preferred intervention for achalasia. However, the niche of POEM remains to be defined and long term results are awaited. We describe our experience with POEM having performed the first POEM outside of Japan in 2009, the evolution of our technique, and give our perspective on its future. PMID:24044040
Tan, Yuyong; Lv, Liang; Duan, Tianying; Zhou, Junfeng; Peng, Dongzi; Tang, Yao; Liu, Deliang
Submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) has been proved to be safe and effective for removal of esophageal leiomyoma originating from the muscularis propria (MP) layer. However, there are still technical challenges for tumors ≥35 mm due to the limited space of the submucosal tunnel. The aim of the study was to estimate the safety and efficacy of STER for large esophageal leiomyoma originating from the MP layer as well as compare its efficacy with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), which is a standard procedure for treating esophageal leiomyoma. We retrospectively collected the clinical data of the patients with esophageal leiomyoma of 35-55 mm who underwent STER or VATS at our hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Epidemiological data (gender, age), tumor location, tumor size, procedure-related parameters, complications, length of stay and cost were compared between STER and VATS. A total of 31 patients were enrolled, and 18 patients underwent STER and the other 13 received VATS. There was no significant difference between the two groups in gender, age, tumor location, tumor size, complications and rate of en bloc resection (P > 0.05). However, patients in the STER groups had a shorter operation time, a less decrease in hemoglobin level, a shorter length of hospital stay and a decreased cost (P leiomyoma of 35-55 mm. However, STER is superior to VATS in a shorter operation time, a less decrease in hemoglobin level, a shorter length of hospital stay and a decreased cost.
Fuminari, Komatsu; Hideki, Atsumi; Manabu, Osakabe; Mitsunori, Matsumae
We describe a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma that was safely removed using the extended endoscopic endonasal approach, and discuss the value of three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy and intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to this type of procedure. A 61-year-old-man with bitemporal hemianopsia was referred to our hospital, where MRI revealed an enhanced suprasellar tumor compressing the optic chiasma. The tumor extended on the planum sphenoidale and partially encased the right internal carotid artery. An endocrinological assessment indicated normal pituitary function. The extended endoscopic endonasal approach was taken using a 3D endoscope in the intraoperative MRI suite. The tumor was located above the diaphragma sellae and separated from the normal pituitary gland. The pathological findings indicated non-functioning pituitary adenoma and thus the tumor was diagnosed as a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma. Intra-operative MRI provided useful information to minimize dural opening and the supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma was removed from the complex neurovascular structure via the extended endoscopic endonasal approach under 3D endoscopic guidance in the intra-operative suite. Safe and effective removal of a supra-diaphragmatic ectopic pituitary adenoma was accomplished via the extended endoscopic endonasal approach with visual information provided by 3D endoscopy and intra-operative MRI.
Endoscopic imaging systems that perform as the "eye" of the operator during endoscopic surgical procedures have developed rapidly due to various technological developments. In addition, since the most recent turn of the century robotic surgery has increased its scope through the utilization of systems such as Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci System. To optimize the imaging required for precise robotic surgery, a unique endoscope has been developed, consisting of both a two dimensional (2D) image optical system for wider observation of the entire surgical field, and a three dimensional (3D) image optical system for observation of the more precise details at the operative site. Additionally, a "near infrared radiation" endoscopic system is under development to detect the sentinel lymph node more readily. Such progress in the area of endoscopic imaging is expected to enhance the surgical procedure from both the patient's and the surgeon's point of view.
Maurer, E; Wächter, S; Bartsch, D K
In thyroid surgery multiple different cervical minimally invasive (partly endoscopically assisted) and extracervical endoscopic (partly robot-assisted) approaches have been developed in the last 20 years. The aim of all these alternative approaches to the thyroid gland is optimization of the cosmetic result. The indications for the use of alternative and conventional approaches are principally the same. Important requirements for the use of alternative methods are nevertheless a broad experience in conventional thyroid operations of the thyroid and adequate patient selection under consideration of the size of the thyroid and the underlying pathology. Contraindications for the use of alternative approaches are a large size of the thyroid gland including local symptoms, advanced carcinomas, reoperations and previous radiations of the anterior neck. The current article gives an overview of the clinically implemented alternative approaches for thyroid surgery. Of those the majority must still be considered as experimental. The alternative approaches to the thyroid gland can be divided in cervical minimally invasive, extracervical endosopic (robot-assisted) and transoral operations (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, NOTES). Since conventional thyroid operations are standardized procedures with low complication rates, alternative approaches to the thyroid gland are considered critically in Germany. The request for a perfect cosmetic result should not overweigh patients' safety. Only a few alternative approaches (e. g. MIVAT, RAT) can yet be considered as a safe addition in experienced hands in highly selected patients.
Ali, M.; Usman, M.; Khan, Z.; Khan, K.M.; Hussain, R.; Khanzada, K.
To determine the success rate of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for treating obstructive hydrocephalus. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Neurosurgery Department of PGMI, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from May 2010 to November 2011. Methodology: Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, tectal and non-tectal tumour and already shunted patients for obstructive hydrocephalus presented with blocked shunt were included in the study. Patients with congenital hydrocephalus and secondary to meningitis were excluded. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed. Success, complications and mortality was noted. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17. Results: There were 155 patients including 72 males and 83 females with ratio of 1: 1.33. Success rate was 71%. Indication of surgery was obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, posterior fossa tumour, brain stem and CP angle tumour. Complications were seen in 18 patients including mortality in 3 patients. Conclusion: ETV is effective, safe and successful procedure in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. It may be used as replacement procedure of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt as initial line of management in selected patients. (author)
Feng, Shaoyan; Liang, Zibin; Zhang, Rongkai; Liao, Wei; Chen, Yuan; Fan, Yunping; Li, Huabin
The objective of the study is to investigate the impact of receiving daily WeChat services on one's cell phone on adherence to corticosteroid nasal spray treatment in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). This study was a two-arm, randomized, follow-up investigation. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with/without nasal polyps following bilateral FESS were randomised to receive, or to not receive, daily WeChat service on their cell phone to take corticosteroid nasal spray treatment. A prescription of budesonide aqueous nasal spray 128 µg bid was given to all the subjects. Then they returned to the clinic after 30, 60, 90 days. The primary study outcome was adherence to nasal spray treatment, whereas secondary outcomes were change in endoscopic findings and SinoNasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20). On the whole, there was a significant inter-group difference in the change of adherence rate (F = 90.88, p = 0.000). The WeChat group had much higher adherence rate than the control group during the follow-up. In terms of postoperative endoscopic scores and SNOT-20, except granulation score, no significant differences were observed between the two randomization groups. WeChat services are already after a short period of observation associated with improved adherence to corticosteroid nasal spray treatment in CRS patients after FESS.
José Alberto Alves Oliveira
Full Text Available O nasoangiofibroma é um tumor vascular benigno raro da nasofaringe, 0,5% de todas as neoplasias da cabeça e pescoço. Embora o tratamento de escolha seja a cirurgia, não há consenso sobre qual a melhor abordagem. OBJETIVOS: Comparar o tempo cirúrgico e a necessidade de transfusão intraoperatória em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia endoscópica versus aberta/combinada e relacionar a necessidade de transfusão intra-operatória com o tempo entre embolização e cirurgia. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo descritivo, analítico, retrospectivo, com abordagem quantitativa desenvolvido no serviço de otorrinolaringologia de um hospital-escola. Analisados 37 pacientes com nasoangiofibroma submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico. Dados obtidos de prontuários. Analisados com os testes de Fisher-Freeman-Halton e de Games-Howell. Considerou-se significante se p Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare benign vascular tumor of the nasopharynx. Although the treatment of choice is surgery, there is no consensus on what is the best approach. AIM: To compare surgical time and intraoperative transfusion requirements in patients undergoing endoscopic surgery versus open / combined and relate the need for transfusion during surgery with the time between embolization and surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Study descriptive, analytical, retrospective study with a quantitative approach developed in the Otorhinolaryngology department of a teaching hospital. Analyzed 37 patients with angiofibroma undergoing surgical treatment. Data obtained from medical records. Analyzed with tests of the Fisher-Freeman-Halton and Games-Howell. Was considered significant if p <0.05. Study design: Historical cohort study with cross-sectional. RESULTS: The endoscopic approach had a shorter operative time (p <0.0001. There is less need for transfusion during surgery when the embolization was performed on the fourth day. CONCLUSION: This suggests that the period ahead would be ideal to
Luo, H; Pan, Y; Min, L; Zhao, L; Li, J; Leung, J; Xue, L; Yin, Z; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Sun, A; Li, C; Wu, K; Guo, X; Fan, D
The use of natural oriﬁce transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) for gastroenterostomy has been previously reported, but it remains technically challenging and additional assistance is often needed. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel method for the creation of a gastroenterostomy using NOTES with an occluder. Transgastric endoscopic gastroenterostomy was performed in 12 healthy female dogs using a therapeutic upper gastrointestinal endoscope and a partially covered occluder. The occluder was removed with a snare 1 week later. The patency of the gastroenterostomy was confirmed by endoscopy, contrast radiological study, necropsy, and histological examination after 2 weeks. NOTES gastroenterostomy with an occluder was successful in all 12 dogs. The mean operative time was 32.3 ± 10.3 min (range 20.3 - 53.5). One dog (the first; 8.3 %) died 4 days after the operation of severe intra-abdominal infection due to incorrect deployment of the occluder and poor bowel preparation. Minor bleeding occurred at the anastomosis after removal of the occluder in two of the remaining dogs (18.2 %). Necropsy revealed postoperative adhesions that had developed at the anastomotic site in one dog (9.1 %). No anastomotic leakage or intestinal obstruction was observed. Complete healing of the anastomosis was confirmed on histological evaluation. Gastroenterostomy performed entirely by NOTES using an occluder was technically feasible in this survival animal model. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing tumours arising from remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and occupy the sellar region. The patients may remain asymptomatic for long duration or present with headache or visual disturbances. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. Traditionally these tumours have been removed by neurosurgeons through the cranial approach but the advent of nasal endoscopes has opened new avenues for ENT surgeons to treat such patients. We hereby present a case of craniopharyngioma who was successfully treated by Trans-nasal Hypophysectomy.
Matsuda, Dean K; Matsuda, Nicole A; Head, Rachel; Tivorsak, Tanya
Review of the English orthopaedic literature reveals no prior report of endoscopic repair of rectus abdominis tears and/or prepubic aponeurosis detachment. This technical report describes endoscopic reattachment of an avulsed prepubic aponeurosis and endoscopic repair of a vertical rectus abdominis tear immediately after endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for coexistent recalcitrant osteitis pubis as a single-stage outpatient surgery. Endoscopic rectus abdominis repair and prepubic aponeurosis repair are feasible surgeries that complement endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for patients with concurrent osteitis pubis and expand the less invasive options for patients with athletic pubalgia.
Singh, Rajiv Ranjan; Singh, Virendra
Hilar biliary strictures are caused by various benign and malignant conditions. It is difficult to differentiate benign and malignant strictures. Postcholecystectomy benign biliary strictures are frequently encountered. Endoscopic management of these strictures is challenging. An endoscopic method has been advocated that involves placement of increasing number of stents at regular intervals to resolve the stricture. Malignant hilar strictures are mostly unresectable at the time of diagnosis and only palliation is possible.Endoscopic palliation is preferred over surgery or radiological intervention. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography is quite important in the management of these strictures. Metal stents are superior to plastic stents. The opinion is divided over the issue of unilateral or bilateral stenting.Minimal contrast or no contrast technique has been advocated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography of these patients. The role of intraluminal brachytherapy, intraductal ablation devices, photodynamic therapy, and endoscopic ultrasound still remains to be defined. PMID:26191345
Siddaiah-Subramanya, Manjunath; Tiang, Kor Woi; Nyandowe, Masimba
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) continues to play an important role in general surgery as an alternative to traditional open surgery as well as traditional laparoscopic techniques. Since the 1980s, technological advancement and innovation have seen surgical techniques in MIS rapidly grow as it is viewed as more desirable. MIS, which includes natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), is less invasive and has better cosmetic results. The technological growth and adoption of NOTES and SILS by clinicians in the last decade has however not been uniform. We look at the differences in new developments and advancement in the different techniques in the last 10 years. We also aim to explain these differences as well as the implications in general surgery for the future.
Farooqi, J.I.; Farooqi, R.J.
Peptic ulcers account for more than half of the cases of non variceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and therefore, are the focus of most of the methods of endoscopic hemostasis. Surgical intervention is now largely reserved for patients in whom endoscopic hemostasis has failed. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been employed to stop bleeding and reduce the risk of rebleeding, with no major differences in outcome between these methods. These include injection therapy, fibrin injection, heater probe, mono polar electrocautery, bipolar electrocautery, lasers and mechanical hemo clipping. The most important factor in determining outcome after gastrointestinal bleeding is rebleeding or persistent bleeding. The endoscopic appearance of an ulcer, however, provides the most useful prognostic information for bleeding. Recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic hemostasis occurs in 15-20% of patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer. The best approach to these patients remains controversial; the current options are repeat endoscopic therapy with the same or a different technique, emergency surgery or semi elective surgery after repeat endoscopic hemostasis. The combination of epinephrine injection with thermal coagulation may be more effective than epinephrine injection alone. Newer modalities such as fibrin injection or the application of hemo clips appear promising and comparative studies are awaited. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Lumbar disc herniation is a major cause of back pain and sciatica. The surgical management of lumbar disc prolapse has evolved from exploratory laminectomy to percutaneous endoscopic discectomy. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy is the least invasive procedure for lumbar disc prolapse. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical outcome, quality of life, neurologic function, and complications. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with lumbar disc prolapse who were treated with percutaneous endoscopic discectomy from May 2012 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical followup was done at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and at yearly interval thereafter. The outcome was assessed using modified Macnab′s criteria, visual analog scale, and Oswestry Disability Index. Results: The mean followup period was 2 years (range 18 months - 3 years. Transforaminal approach was used in 84 patients, interlaminar approach in seven patients, and combined approach in nine patients. An excellent outcome was noted in ninety patients, good outcome in six patients, fair result in two patients, and poor result in two patients. Minor complications were seen in three patients, and two patients had recurrent disc prolapse. Mean hospital stay was 1.6 days. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy is a safe and effective procedure in lumbar disc prolapse. It has the advantage that it can be performed on a day care basis under local anesthesia with shorter length of hospitalization and early return to work thus improving the quality of life earlier. The low complication rate makes it the future of disc surgery. Transforaminal approach alone is sufficient in majority of cases, although 16% of cases required either percutaneous interlaminar approach or combined approach. The procedure definitely has a learning curve, but it is acceptable with adequate preparations.
Watson, G J; Nichani, J R; Rothera, M P; Bruce, I A
Fourth branchial arch anomalies represent branchial anomalies and present as recurrent neck infections or suppurative thyroiditis. Traditionally, management has consisted of treatment of the acute infection followed by hemithyroidectomy, surgical excision of the tract and obliteration of the opening in the pyriform fossa. Recently, it has been suggested that endoscopic obliteration of the sinus tract alone using laser, chemo or electrocautery is a viable alternative to open surgery. To determine the results of endoscopic obliteration of fourth branchial arch fistulae in children in our institute. Retrospective case note review of all children undergoing endoscopic treatment of fourth branchial arch anomalies in the last 7 years at the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital. Patient demographics, presenting symptoms, investigations and surgical technique were analysed. The primary and secondary outcome measures were resolution of recurrent infections and incidence of surgical complications, respectively. In total 5 cases were identified (4 females and 1 male) aged between 3 and 12 years. All presented with recurrent left sided neck abscesses. All children underwent a diagnostic laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy which identified a sinus in the apex of the left pyriform fossa. This was obliterated using electrocautery in 1 patient, CO₂ laser/Silver Nitrate chemocautery in 2 patients and Silver Nitrate chemocautery in a further 2 patients. There were no complications and no recurrences over a mean follow-up period of 25 months (range 11-41 months). Endoscopic obliteration of pyriform fossa sinus is a safe method for treating fourth branchial arch anomalies with no recurrence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Hellen; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Advancements in minimally invasive surgery have led to increases in popularity of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) and natural orifice translumenal surgery (NOTES(®); American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy [Oak Brook, IL] and Society of American...... Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons [Los Angeles, CA]) due to their postulated benefits of better cosmesis, less pain, and quicker recovery. This questionnaire-based study investigated Danish surgeons' attitudes toward these new procedures. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A 26-item questionnaire was developed...... and distributed electronically via e-mail to a total of 1253 members of The Danish Society of Surgeons and The Danish Society of Young Surgeons. RESULTS: In total, 352 (approximately 30%) surgeons completed the questionnaire, 54.4% were over 50 years of age, and 76.6% were men. When choosing surgery, the most...
Full Text Available The continued effort of improving cosmesis and reducing morbidity in urologic surgery has given rise to novel alternatives to traditional minimally invasive techniques: Laparoendoscopic Single-site Surgery (LESS and Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES. Despite the development of specialized access devices and instruments, the performance of complex procedures using LESS has been challenging due to loss of triangulation and instrument clashing. A robotic interface may represent the key factor in overcoming the critical restrictions related to NOTES and LESS. Although encouraging, current clinical evidence related to R-LESS remains limited as the current da Vinci® robotic platform has not been specifically designed for LESS. Robotic innovations are imminent and are likely to govern major changes to the current landscape of scarless surgery.
Jong Wook Kim
Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment is a minimally invasive treatment for managing patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Although several bulking agents have been used for endoscopic treatment, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is the only bulking agent currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating VUR. Endoscopic treatment of VUR has gained great popularity owing to several obvious benefits, including short operative time, short hospital stay, minimal invasiveness, high efficacy, low complication rate, and reduced cost. Initially, the success rates of endoscopic treatment have been lower than that of open antireflux surgery. However, because injection techniques have been developed, a recent study showed higher success rates of endoscopic treatment than open surgery in the treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-grade VUR. Despite the controversy surrounding its effectiveness, endoscopic treatment is considered a valuable treatment option and viable alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis.
Van Rompaey, Jason; Bowers, Greg; Radhakrishnan, Jay; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo
Injury to the internal carotid artery is a feared complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery of the skull base. Such an event, although rare, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Even if bleeding is controlled, permanent neurological defects frequently persist. Many techniques have been developed to manage internal carotid artery rupture with varying degrees of success. The purpose of this study was to explore endoscopic management of arterial damage with endovascular closure devices used for a femoral arteriotomy. The ability to remotely suture a damaged artery permits the possible adaptation of this technology in managing endoscopic arterial complications. Technical note. After the creation of an endoscopic endonasal corridor in a cadaveric specimen, an arteriotomy was created at the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery. The Angio-Seal, StarClose, and MynxGrip vascular closure devices were utilized under endoscopic guidance to repair the arteriotomy. Angiography was then done on a cadaver sutured with the StarClose. Both the Angio-Seal and StarClose were deployed quickly and appeared to provide sufficient closure of the arteriotomy. The Angio-Seal required the use of a guidewire and was longer to deploy when compared with the StarClose. The StarClose deployment was quick and facile. The MynxGrip also deployed without difficulty. The Angio-Seal and StarClose systems were both successfully deployed utilizing an endoscopic endonasal approach. The MynxGrip was the easiest to deploy and has the greatest potential to be of benefit in this application. Further studies with hemodynamic models are required to properly assess the appropriateness in this setting. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
The objective was to prove the advantage of endoscopic laser-urethroplasty over internal urethrotomy in acquired urethral strictures. Patients and Method: From January, 1996 to June, 2005, 35 patients with a mean age of 66 years were submitted to endoscopic laser-urethroplasty for strictures of either the bulbar (30) or membranous (5) urethra. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. First of all, the strictures were incised at the 4, 8 and 12 o'clock position by means of a Sachse-urethrotom. Then the scar flap between the 4 and 8 o'clock position was vaporized using a Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1060 nm and a 600 pm bare fiber, the latter always being in contact with the tissue. The laser worked at 40W power in continuous mode. The total energy averaged 2574 J. An indwelling catheter was kept in place overnight and the patients were discharged the following day. Urinalysis, uroflowmetry and clinical examination were performed at two months after surgery and from then on every six months. Results: No serious complications were encountered. Considering a mean follow-up of 18 months, the average peak flow improved from 7.3 ml/s preoperatively to 18.7 mVs postoperatively. The treatment faded in 5 patients ( 14.3% ) who finally underwent open urethroplasty. Conclusions: Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty yields better short-term results than internal visual urethrotomy. Long-term follow-up has yet to confirm its superiority in the treatment of acquired urethral strictures.
Watson, David I; Immanuel, Arul
Gastroesophageal reflux is extremely common in Western countries. For selected patients, there is an established role for the surgical treatment of reflux, and possibly an emerging role for endoscopic antireflux procedures. Randomized trials have compared medical versus surgical management, laparoscopic versus open surgery and partial versus total fundoplications. However, the evidence base for endoscopic procedures is limited to some small sham-controlled studies, and cohort studies with short-term follow-up. Laparoscopic fundoplication has been shown to be an effective antireflux operation. It facilitates quicker convalescence and is associated with fewer complications, but has a similar longer term outcome compared with open antireflux surgery. In most randomized trials, antireflux surgery achieves at least as good control of reflux as medical therapy, and these studies support a wider application of surgery for the treatment of moderate-to-severe reflux. Laparoscopic partial fundoplication is an effective surgical procedure with fewer side effects, and it may achieve high rates of patient satisfaction at late follow-up. Many of the early endoscopic antireflux procedures have failed to achieve effective reflux control, and they have been withdrawn from the market. Newer procedures have the potential to fashion a surgical fundoplication. However, at present there is insufficient evidence to establish the safety and efficacy of endoscopic procedures for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and no endoscopic procedure has achieved equivalent reflux control to that achieved by surgical fundoplication.
Balwant Singh Gendeh
Full Text Available Antrochoanal polyps are a rare clinical entity. In this review of patients treated between January 1996 and September 2002, there were 18 cases of antrochoanal polyps. The mean age of patients was 20 years. Nasal obstruction was the most common symptom (17 cases, 94%, followed by rhinorrhoea (44%, epistaxis (33%, postnasal drip (28%, and snoring (22%. Chronic sinusitis was the most common associated rhinological finding (50%. Various surgical approaches were used: endoscopic polypectomy and middle meatal antrostomy in seven patients (38.9%, powered endoscopic polypectomy and middle meatal antrostomy in seven patients (38.9%, endoscopic polypectomy and inferior meatal antrostomy in three patients (16.7% and Caldwell-Luc surgery in one patient (5.6%. No complications were noted in patients treated with powered instrumentation, including the three patients in whom combined transcanine approaches were used. We concluded that powered endoscopic polypectomy was safe and effective. It allowed a more complete dissection and may diminish the chance of recurrence.
Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Ken; Shinga, Kotaro; Hattori, Soichi; Yamada, Shin; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Various surgical treatment procedures for plantar fasciitis, such as open surgery, percutaneous release, and endoscopic surgery, exist. Skin trouble, nerve disturbance, infection, and persistent pain associated with prolonged recovery time are complications of open surgery. Endoscopic partial plantar fascia release offers the surgeon clear visualization of the anatomy at the surgical site. However, the primary medial portal and portal tract used for this technique have been shown to be in close proximity to the posterior tibial nerves and their branches, and there is always the risk of nerve damage by introducing the endoscope deep to the plantar fascia. By performing endoscopic partial plantar fascia release under ultrasound assistance, we could dynamically visualize the direction of the endoscope and instrument introduction, thus preventing nerve damage from inadvertent insertion deep to the fascia. Full-thickness release of the plantar fascia at the ideal position could also be confirmed under ultrasound imaging. We discuss the technique for this new procedure.
Picard, F; Hersant, B; La Padula, S; Meningaud, J-P
The goal of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to autologous fat graft is to increase the survival rate of the graft. After their activation, platelets release some important growth factors. As a result, PRP may increase the proliferation and differentiation of Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into adipocytes, improve fat graft vascularisation, and may block the apoptosis of grafted adipocytes. The other benefit expected from the addition of PRP to fat graft is the improvement of cutaneous trophicity above the grafted areas. An exhaustive review of the literature retrieved 11 clinical studies on humans and 7 on animals. A statistically significant increase of the survival rate of fat grafts has been found in 9 comparative studies. Our synthesis allowed us to set up the following protocol: addition of 20% of PRP activated with calcium hydrochloride to fat grafts. It may enhance the results of autologous facial fat graft in regenerative and aesthetic facial surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available We present the case of a ten-year-old female patient referred to Gastroenterolgy consultation for abdominal pain and cramping, usually worse after eating, recurring diarrhoea, hypochromic and microcytic anaemia with low serum iron and ferritin levels. Moderate to severe Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum e right colon (L3 was diagnosed, based on endoscopic image and biopsy. The patient was treated with prednisone and azathioprine, but after one year of treatment she was steroids dependent and treatment was switched to infliximab. One year after beginning this treatment, the patient achieved remission (clinical and laboratorial parameters. A control colonoscopy showed mucosal healing with scars and deformation with stenosis of ileocecal valve (Figures 1-2. Surgical intervention will be probably necessary in near future.
Full Text Available Endoscopic ampullectomy offers a minimally invasive method of effectively treating non-invasive neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater and surrounding peri-ampullary region with high success and relative safety. These lesions would otherwise require surgical intervention, including pancreatico-duodenectomy. However, major complications may occur and a careful assessment of the patients comorbidities and their ability to tolerate adverse events needs to be factored into the treatment decision. Careful staging, often multi-modality is required, particularly for extensive lesions. Complete en-bloc excision of the entire neoplasm should be the goal with conventional papillary adenomas. Large lesions with extra-papillary extension currently require extended piecemeal excision, however with meticulous technique, recurrence is uncommon in longterm follow up.
Müller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Wehrmann, Till
Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT) injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ≥ 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia. PMID:23951393
Gay, F; el Nawar, A; Van Gossum, A
From March 87 to March 92, fifty eight patients were referred to our department for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The modality of the feeding tube insertion is described. The most common indications for placement were neurologic disorders in 62% of the cases (n = 36) and malignant diseases in 32% (n = 19). The success rate of the technique was 98.3% (n = 57). No procedure-related mortality was observed. A low rate of major complication (1.7%) and minor complication (10.5%) was noted. Feeding tubes were removed in 21% of patients (n = 12); none of them with malignant disease. Survival curve analysis demonstrated that 50% of patients died within 3 months of PEG placement. Such results raise questions about the selection of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience suggests that PEG is easy and safe, even in debilitated patients, having an acceptable life expectancy.
Golbin, Denis A.; Lasunin, Nikolay V.; Cherekaev, Vasily A.; Polev, Georgiy A.
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using a buccal fat pad for endoscopic skull base defect reconstruction. Design Descriptive anatomical study with an illustrative case presentation. Setting Anatomical study was performed on 12 fresh human cadaver specimens with injected arteries (24 sides). Internal carotid artery was exposed in the coronal plane via the endoscopic transpterygoid approach. The pedicled buccal fat pad was used for reconstruction. Participants: 12 human cadaver head specimens; one patient operated using the proposed technique. Main outcome measures: Proximity of the buccal fat pad flap to the defect, compliance of the flap, comfort and safety of harvesting procedure, and compatibility with the Hadad–Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. Results: Harvesting procedure was performed using anterior transmaxillary corridor. The pedicled buccal fat pad flap can be used to pack the sphenoid sinus or cover the internal carotid artery from cavernous to upper parapharyngeal segment. Conclusion The buccal fat pad can be safely harvested through the same approach without external incisions and is compliant enough to conform to the skull base defect. The proposed pedicled flap can replace free abdominal fat in central skull base reconstruction. The volume of the buccal fat pad allows obliteration of the sphenoid sinus or upper parapharyngeal space. PMID:28180047
Jan 5, 1991 ... stone pancreatitis was adopted by the Department of Surgery .... severe chronic obstructive airways disease, of which she died 3 years later. Patients ... urgent ERCP and ES versus conventional treatment (i.e. non- operative ...
Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.
Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders. PMID:29397656
Young Kwan Cho
Full Text Available Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.
Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Iqbal, Shahzad; Grendell, James H.
Endoscopic therapy for achalasia is directed at disrupting or weakening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The two most commonly utilized endoscopic interventions are large balloon pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin injection (BTI). These interventions have been extensively scrutinized and compared with each other as well as with surgical disruption (myotomy) of the LES. PD is generally more effective in improving dysphagia in achalasia than BTI, with the latter reserved for infirm older people, and PD may approach treatment results attained with myotomy. However, PD may need to be repeated. Small balloon dilation and endoscopic stent placement for achalasia have only been used in select centers. Per oral endoscopic myotomy is a newer endoscopic modality that will likely change the treatment paradigm for achalasia. It arose from the field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and represents a scarless endoscopic approach to Heller myotomy. This is a technique that requires extensive training and preparation and thus there should be rigorous accreditation and monitoring of outcomes to ensure safety and efficacy. PMID:23503707
Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded
To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.
measures before an endoscopic intervention are essential to decrease the morbidity and .... or tabs bisacodyl and castor oil or colostomy washout with 2 days dietary restriction .... sparing patients the trauma of open surgery. Hemorrhoids were.
JOHNNY WESLEY GONÇALVES MARTINS
Full Text Available Com o advento da tecnologia vídeo-assistida a endoscopia tem assumido importante papel terapêutico na cavidade torácica. Este artigo é uma avaliação crítica da literatura e tem como objetivo demonstrar o estado atual da cirurgia endoscópica direcionada para a coluna torácica. Hérnias discais, deformidades, infecções, tumores, doenças congênitas e traumatismos estão sendo tratados por técnica endoscópica. Na literatura, as vantagens sobre a toracotomia aberta são visibilidade aumentada e reduções em: tempo de recuperação, perda sanguínea, custos, índice de infecção e morbidade pós-operatória. Algumas desvantagens são: intubação seletiva, significativa curva de aprendizado, dificuldades técnicas na operação de crianças muito pequenas, reparação da dura máter e instrumentação. Embora os benefícios sejam aparentemente claros e haja pronunciado grau de entusiasmo, os autores são cautelosos em afirmar que a toracoscopia já é uma alternativa definitiva à toracotomia convencional. A comparação dos resultados entre as técnicas endoscópica e aberta é dificultada pela escassez de estudos comparativos. Os autores, embora otimistas, recomendam análises de mais estudos prospectivos, multicêntricos e randomizados para uma conclusão definitiva.After the development of video-assisted technology, endoscopic techniques have assumed an important therapeutic role into thoracic cavity. This is a literature review article to show the current state of the endoscopy for thoracic spine. Disc herniations, deformities, infections, tumors, congenital disorders and traumatic events have been treated by endoscopic techniques. On reviewing the literature, the advantages over open approaches are: enhanced visualization, shorter recovery time and decreased blood loss, costs, infection rate and post operative morbidity. Some disadvantages are: one lung anesthesia, significant learning curve, and technical problems in operating