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Sample records for endoscopic formalin spray

  1. Safety and efficacy of endoscopic spray cryotherapy for Barrett's dysplasia: results of the National Cryospray Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, S; Tsai, F C; Greenwald, B D; Jang, S; Dumot, J A; McKinley, M J; Shaheen, N J; Habr, F; Coyle, W J

    2016-04-01

    Retrospective series have shown the efficacy of endoscopic spray cryotherapy in eradicating high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in Barrett's esophagus (BE); however, prospective data are lacking, and efficacy for low-grade dysplasia (LGD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of spray cryotherapy in patients with LGD or HGD. A multicenter, prospective open-label registry enrolled patients with dysplastic BE. Spray cryotherapy was performed every 2-3 months until there was no endoscopic evidence of BE and no histological evidence of dysplasia, followed by surveillance endoscopies up to 2 years. Primary outcome measures were complete eradication of dysplasia (CE-D) and complete eradication of all intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM). Ninety-six subjects with Barrett's dysplasia (67% HGD; 65% long-segment BE; mean length 4.5 cm) underwent 321 treatments (mean 3.3 per subject). Mean age was 67 years, 83% were male. Eighty patients (83%) completed treatment with follow-up endoscopy (mean duration 21 months). In patients with LGD, rate of CE-D was 91% (21/23) and rate of CE-IM was 61% (14/23). In HGD, CE-D rate was 81% (46/57) and CE-IM was 65% (37/57). In patients with short-segment BE (SSBE) with any dysplasia, CE-D was achieved in 97% (30/31) and CE-IM in 77% (24/31). There were no esophageal perforations or related deaths. One subject developed a stricture, which did not require dilation. One patient was hospitalized for bleeding in the setting of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. In the largest prospective cohort to date, data suggest endoscopic spray cryotherapy is a safe and effective modality for eradication of BE with LGD or HGD, particularly with SSBE. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  2. The influence of spray cryotherapy on wound healing following endoscopic sinus surgery in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albu, Silviu; Trombitas, Veronica; Vlad, Diana; Emanuelli, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of spray cryotherapy on wound healing following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The study included 22 consecutive adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps scheduled for bilateral ESS. At the end of the surgical procedure, patients were randomized to the distribution of spray cryotherapy in one middle meatus and saline contralaterally. Outcomes were only measured for endoscopy scores. Thus, postoperative healing and the amount of edema, crusting, secretions, and scarring were assessed using the validated Lund-Kennedy and Perioperative Sinus Endoscopy (POSE) scores. There were no baseline differences concerning POSE and Lund-Kennedy scores between the two groups. Nevertheless, a significant difference was recorded at one, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks in both POSE (P = .001, P = .012, P = .02, P = .006, P = .001) and Lund-Kennedy (P = .002, P = .005, P = .02, P = .02, P = .03) scores. These preliminary results reveal an improvement in postoperative scores, demonstrating enhanced healing following spray cryotherapy. However, without patient subjective outcomes, the study is limited. Additional studies with longer follow-up and larger samples are needed to describe the effects of cryotherapy on wound healing. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Effects of mobile phone WeChat services improve adherence to corticosteroid nasal spray treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis after functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a 3-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoyan; Liang, Zibin; Zhang, Rongkai; Liao, Wei; Chen, Yuan; Fan, Yunping; Li, Huabin

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the impact of receiving daily WeChat services on one's cell phone on adherence to corticosteroid nasal spray treatment in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). This study was a two-arm, randomized, follow-up investigation. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with/without nasal polyps following bilateral FESS were randomised to receive, or to not receive, daily WeChat service on their cell phone to take corticosteroid nasal spray treatment. A prescription of budesonide aqueous nasal spray 128 µg bid was given to all the subjects. Then they returned to the clinic after 30, 60, 90 days. The primary study outcome was adherence to nasal spray treatment, whereas secondary outcomes were change in endoscopic findings and SinoNasal Outcome Test-20 (SNOT-20). On the whole, there was a significant inter-group difference in the change of adherence rate (F = 90.88, p = 0.000). The WeChat group had much higher adherence rate than the control group during the follow-up. In terms of postoperative endoscopic scores and SNOT-20, except granulation score, no significant differences were observed between the two randomization groups. WeChat services are already after a short period of observation associated with improved adherence to corticosteroid nasal spray treatment in CRS patients after FESS.

  4. Histology without formalin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2008-12-01

    Because formalin is toxic, carcinogenic, and a poor preserver of nucleic acids, for more than 20 years, there have been numerous attempts to find a substitute, with as many different alternative fixatives, none totally successful. With a fast penetration, formaldehyde is a slow and reversible fixative that requires 24 to 48 hours to completely bind to tissue; thus, any surgical specimen arriving to the laboratory between 8 AM and 4 PM and processed conventionally for the slides to be ready the following day will be only between 30% and 66% bound and even less fixed when the dehydration starts, resulting in an additional and also incomplete alcoholic fixation. This causes infiltration problems and can affect subsequent tests, especially immunohistochemistry. Formaldehyde fixation is tissue thickness independent between 16 microm and 4 mm but is faster at above room temperature, so the fixation of specimens with less than 24 hours in formalin can be improved if the fixing stations in the conventional tissue processors are set at 40 degrees C. If the safety measures are improved to offer a work environment with a time weighted average level of 0.4 ppm, and the contact with formalin is reduced to a minimum by discouraging its neutralization and limiting the recycling practice to filtering methods, formalin could remain as the routine fixative, with modified methacarn for those specimens requiring nucleic acids studies. This is a preferred solution than having to validate all the standard and special procedures, including those US Food and Drug Administration approved, if formalin is replaced by another fixative without its advantages. To the question posed in the title of this article, the answer is "Yes, it can be done, but that is neither likely nor worth it!"

  5. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  6. 21 CFR 529.1030 - Formalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1030 Formalin. (a... never exceed 1 hour even if fish show no signs of stress. Do not apply formalin to ponds with water...

  7. SPRAY CASTING

    OpenAIRE

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper is designed to provide a basic review of spray casting. A brief overview of the historical development of spray  casting and the description of plant and equipment have been given. Following metallurgical characteristics of spray formed alloys, process parameters and solidification mechanism of spray deposition have been discussed in detail. Finally, microstructure and mechanical properties of the selected spray cast Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys have been presented and comp...

  8. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to suspected gallstone pancreatitis'based on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was adopted in 1976 and was followed in 29 patients. ERCp became the routine method of early biliary tract assessment when gallstone pancreatitis was suspected on ...

  9. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  10. Clinical endoscopic management and outcome of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding is a common complication of biliary sphincterotomy, and the incidence varies from 1% to 48%. It can be challenging to localize the bleeder or to administer various interventions through a side-viewing endoscope. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and the outcome of endoscopic intervention therapies. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 513 patients who underwent biliary sphincterotomy in Mackay Memorial Hospital between 2011 and 2016. The blood biochemistry, comorbidities, indication for sphincterotomy, severity of bleeding, endoscopic features of bleeder, and type of endoscopic therapy were analyzed. Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding occurred in 65 (12.6% patients. Forty-five patients had immediate bleeding and 20 patients had delayed bleeding. The multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding were liver cirrhosis (P = 0.029, end-stage renal disease (P = 0.038, previous antiplatelet drug use (P<0.001, and duodenal ulcer (P = 0.023. The complications of pancreatitis and cholangitis were higher in the bleeding group, with statistical significance. Delayed bleeding occurred within 1 to 7 days (mean, 2.5 days, and 60% (12/20 of the patients received endoscopic evaluation. In the delayed bleeding group, the successful hemostasis rate was 71.4% (5/7, and 65% (13/20 of the patients had ceased bleeding without endoscopic hemostasis therapy. Comparison of different therapeutic modalities showed that cholangitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine spray (P = 0.042 and pancreatitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine injection and electrocoagulation (P = 0.041 and P = 0.039 respectively. Clinically, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and further endoscopic hemostasis therapy increase the complication rate of pancreatitis and cholangitis. Realizing the effectiveness of each

  11. Endoscopic case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a ten-year-old female patient referred to Gastroenterolgy consultation for abdominal pain and cramping, usually worse after eating, recurring diarrhoea, hypochromic and microcytic anaemia with low serum iron and ferritin levels. Moderate to severe Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum e right colon (L3 was diagnosed, based on endoscopic image and biopsy. The patient was treated with prednisone and azathioprine, but after one year of treatment she was steroids dependent and treatment was switched to infliximab. One year after beginning this treatment, the patient achieved remission (clinical and laboratorial parameters. A control colonoscopy showed mucosal healing with scars and deformation with stenosis of ileocecal valve (Figures 1-2. Surgical intervention will be probably necessary in near future.

  12. Endoscopic ampullectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bourke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ampullectomy offers a minimally invasive method of effectively treating non-invasive neoplasms of the ampulla of Vater and surrounding peri-ampullary region with high success and relative safety. These lesions would otherwise require surgical intervention, including pancreatico-duodenectomy. However, major complications may occur and a careful assessment of the patients comorbidities and their ability to tolerate adverse events needs to be factored into the treatment decision. Careful staging, often multi-modality is required, particularly for extensive lesions. Complete en-bloc excision of the entire neoplasm should be the goal with conventional papillary adenomas. Large lesions with extra-papillary extension currently require extended piecemeal excision, however with meticulous technique, recurrence is uncommon in longterm follow up.

  13. FORMALIN IS DELETERIOUS TO CYTOSKELETON PROTEINS - DO WE NEED TO REPLACE IT BY FORMALIN-FREE KRYOFIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOON, ME; KOK, LP

    1991-01-01

    Formalin is hazardous for the environment and for the laboratory personnel and deleterious to cytoskeleton proteins. The pathology and anatomy laboratory can be formalin-free when Kryofix is used as a substitute fixative. In four years experience with Kryofix, we learned that immunostaining on

  14. Endoscopic root canal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshonov, Joshua; Michaeli, Eli; Nahlieli, Oded

    2009-10-01

    To describe an innovative endoscopic technique for root canal treatment. Root canal treatment was performed on 12 patients (15 teeth), using a newly developed endoscope (Sialotechnology), which combines an endoscope, irrigation, and a surgical microinstrument channel. Endoscopic root canal treatment of all 15 teeth was successful with complete resolution of all symptoms (6-month follow-up). The novel endoscope used in this study accurately identified all microstructures and simplified root canal treatment. The endoscope may be considered for use not only for preoperative observation and diagnosis but also for active endodontic treatment.

  15. Accidental intraoral formalin injection: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Dandriyal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Formalin is a hazardous chemical that needs cautious handling and special storage. Owing to its disinfectant and fixative (i.e. for preserving pathologic tissue specimens in histopathology properties, it is widely used in dentistry. Although, the terms formaldehyde and formalin are often confused as being identical, these are different as to the concentrations of the primary component i.e. formaldehyde. In fact, the common fixative available as 10% neutral buffered formalin is actually a 4% solution of formaldehyde (i.e., a 10% solution made from a 37-40% commercially pure formaldehyde solution. This case report describes an unfortunate case of accidental injection instead of local anesthetic, of formalin into the pterygomandibular space in a 35-year old woman during inferior alveolar nerve block for surgical removal of impacted lower right third molar and its successful management by cautious debridement (under both local and general anesthesia and empirical drug therapy (utilizing analgesics and antibiotics.

  16. Comparison of polyvinyl alcohol- and formalin-preserved fecal specimens in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique for parasitological examination.

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, M J; Cook, J; Turner, J A

    1983-01-01

    A total of 965 paired fecal specimens preserved in polyvinyl alcohol fixative and Formalin were processed by the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The effectiveness of the concentration procedures with material from each preservative was determined by comparing both diagnostic efficiency (percent identified) and quantitative egg and semiquantitative cyst counts. Of the 319 infections, 69.5% were detected in concentrates from both preservatives, 6.9% from polyvinyl alcohol only, and 23.5...

  17. Endoscopic submucosal dissection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pimentel-Nunes, Pedro; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Ponchon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    evidence). 2 ESGE recommends endoscopic resection with a curative intent for visible lesions in Barrett's esophagus (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). ESD has not been shown to be superior to EMR for excision of mucosal cancer, and for that reason EMR should be preferred. ESD may...... RECOMMENDATIONS: 1 ESGE recommends endoscopic en bloc resection for superficial esophageal squamous cell cancers (SCCs), excluding those with obvious submucosal involvement (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) may be considered in such lesions when...

  18. Detection of Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemose, AG; Lundemose, JB; Birkelund, Svend

    1989-01-01

    A procedure to detect Chlamydia in postmortal formalin-fixed tissue is described. Monoclonal antibodies against a genus specific chlamydia epitope were used in immunofluorescence to detect chlamydia inclusions in formalin-fixed tissue sections. Lung sections from chlamydia-infected mice were....... Background and non-specific fluorescence were reduced by treating the tissue sections with trypsin, rabbit serum and Evans blue counterstain. Besides giving an exact diagnosis at autopsy, the method provides the possibility of determining the occurrence of chlamydia infections in various tissues, based...

  19. Endoscopic Devices for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity.

  20. Endoscopic Therapeutic Approach for Dysplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Noh Hong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-standing intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD induces dysplastic change in the intestinal mucosa and increases the risk of subsequent colorectal cancer. The evolving endoscopic techniques and technologies, including dye spraying methods and high-definition images, have been replacing random biopsies and have been revealed as more practical and efficient for detection of dysplasia in IBD patients. In addition, they have potential usefulness in detailed characterization of lesions and in the assessment of endoscopic resectability. Most dysplastic lesions without an unclear margin, definite ulceration, non-lifting sign, and high index of malignant change with suspicion for lymph node or distant metastases can be removed endoscopically. However, endoscopic resection of dysplasia in chronic IBD patients is usually difficult because it is often complicated by submucosal fibrosis. In patients with dysplasias that demonstrate submucosa fibrosis or a large size (≥20 mm, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD or ESD with snaring (simplified or hybrid ESD is an alternative option and may avoid a colectomy. However, a standardized endoscopic therapeutic approach for dysplasia in IBD has not been established yet, and dedicated specialized endoscopists with interest in IBD are needed to fully investigate recent emerging techniques and technologies.

  1. Peripheral formalin injection induces unique spinal cord microglial phenotypic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kai-Yuan; Tan, Yong-Hui; Sung, Backil; Mao, Jianren

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are resident immune cells of brain and activated by peripheral tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the possible induction of several microglial surface immunomolecules in the spinal cord, including leukocyte common antigen (LCA/CD45), MHC class I antigen, MHC class II antigen, Fc receptor, and CD11c following formalin injection into the rat’s hind paw. CD45 and MHC class I were upregulated in the activated microglia, which was evident on day 3 with the peak expression on day 7 following peripheral formalin injection. There was a very low basal expression of MHC class II, CD11c, and the Fc receptor, which did not change after the formalin injection. These results, for the first time, indicate that peripheral formalin injection can induce phenotypic changes of microglia with distinct upregulation of CD45 and MHC class I antigen. The data suggest that phenotypic changes of the activated microglia may be a unique pattern of central changes following peripheral tissue injury. PMID:19015000

  2. Formalin treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, E.; Ibsen, T.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Reimer, E.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 71-year-old man developed severe hemorrhagic proctitis 1 year after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Conservative treatment as well as performance of a colostomy failed to control the rectal bleeding. After irrigation of the rectum with a formalin solution the bleeding stopped, and no recurrence has been observed for the next 14 months

  3. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  4. Sertraline inhibits formalin-induced nociception and cardiovascular responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Futuro Neto, H.A. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Gonçalves, W.L.S. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Tiradentes, R.V.; Gouvea, S.A.; Abreu, G.R. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperalgesic effect of sertraline, measured indirectly by the changes of sciatic afferent nerve activity, and its effects on cardiorespiratory parameters, using the model of formalin-induced inflammatory nociception in anesthetized rats. Serum serotonin (5-HT) levels were measured in order to test their correlation with the analgesic effect. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into 4 groups (N = 8 per group): sertraline-treated group (Sert + Saline (Sal) and Sert + Formalin (Form); 3 mg·kg{sup −1}·day{sup −1}, ip, for 7 days) and saline-treated group (Sal + Sal and Sal + Form). The rats were injected with 5% (50 µL) formalin or saline into the right hind paw. Sciatic nerve activity was recorded using a silver electrode connected to a NeuroLog apparatus, and cardiopulmonary parameters (mean arterial pressure, heart rate and respiratory frequency), assessed after arterial cannulation and tracheotomy, were monitored using a Data Acquisition System. Blood samples were collected from the animals and serum 5-HT levels were determined by ELISA. Formalin injection induced the following changes: sciatic afferent nerve activity (+50.8 ± 14.7%), mean arterial pressure (+1.4 ± 3 mmHg), heart rate (+13 ± 6.8 bpm), respiratory frequency (+4.6 ± 5 cpm) and serum 5-HT increased to 1162 ± 124.6 ng/mL. Treatment with sertraline significantly reduced all these parameters (respectively: +19.8 ± 6.9%, -3.3 ± 2 mmHg, -13.1 ± 10.8 bpm, -9.8 ± 5.7 cpm) and serum 5-HT level dropped to 634 ± 69 ng/mL (P < 0.05). These results suggest that sertraline plays an analgesic role in formalin-induced nociception probably through a serotonergic mechanism.

  5. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  6. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  7. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer

    2017-01-02

    Jan 2, 2017 ... Formalin-exposed staff reported symptoms of skin disorders as drying (75%), ..... rent research, 6.2% of the formalin-exposed staff had abnormal ..... Khaliq F, Tripathi P. Acute effects of formalin on pulmonary functions in gross.

  8. Remotely controlled spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  9. A new substitute for formalin: Application to embalming cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizuka, Yoshinori; Nagase, Miki; Takashino, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Fujikura, Yoshihisa; Matsumura, George

    2018-01-01

    The development of formalin-free fixatives is an urgent issue in gross anatomy because of the health hazard and the tissue-hardening actions of formalin. We recently identified the fixative, antimicrobial, and preservative effects of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), a precursor of the water-soluble macromolecular polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, in animal experiments. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether NVP solution can be used as an alternative to formalin in human cadaveric dissection. Twelve donated cadavers were infused with NVP via the femoral and common carotid arteries using a peristaltic pump. Experienced teaching staff members in our department dissected the cadavers and examined their macroanatomical properties. The NVP-embalmed corpses showed no sign of decomposition or fungal growth. The bodies remained soft and flexible. Notably, the shoulder, elbow, wrist, phalangeal, hip, knee, cervical spine, and temporomandibular joints were highly mobile, almost equivalent to those of living individuals. The range of motion of most joints was greater in the NVP-fixed than formalin-fixed cadavers. Under the dermis, the subcutaneous fat was markedly reduced and the connective tissues were transparent, so the ligaments, cutaneous nerves, and veins were easily discernible. The abdominal wall and the visceral organs remained pliable and elastic, resembling those of fresh cadavers. The lungs, liver, and gastrointestinal tract were moveable in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and were readily isolated. NVP can be used successfully as a fixative and preservative solution for human cadavers; furthermore, NVP-embalmed bodies could be valuable for learning clinical skills and for training, and for developing innovative medical devices. Clin. Anat. 31:90-98, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Learning endoscopic resection in the esophagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vilsteren, Frederike G. I.; Pouw, Roos E.; Herrero, Lorenza Alvarez; Bisschops, Raf; Houben, Martin; Peters, Frans T. M.; Schenk, B. E.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Schoon, Erik J.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.

    Background: Endoscopic resection is the cornerstone of endoscopic management of esophageal early neoplasia. However, endoscopic resection is a complex technique requiring knowledge and expertise. Our aims were to identify the most important learning points in performing endoscopic resection in a

  11. New endoscope shaft for endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindert, E.J. van; Grotenhuis, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a new endoscope shaft developed for suction-aspiration during endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. METHODS: A custom-made shaft for a Wolf endoscope (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) was developed with a height of 10 mm and a width of 5 mm, allowing an

  12. [Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühner, W; Frimberger, E; Ottenjann, R

    1984-06-29

    Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder stones were performed, as far as we know for the first time, in three patients with combined choledochocystolithiasis. Following endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) and subsequent mechanical lithotripsy of multiple choledochal concrements measuring up to 3 cm the gallbladder stones were successfully extracted with a Dormia basket through the cystic duct. The patients have remained free of complications after the endoscopic intervention.

  13. Detection and quantitation analysis of cocaine and metabolites in fixed liver tissue and formalin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Mariano; Cippitelli, Marcello; Froldi, Rino; Gambaro, Veniero; Tassoni, Giovanna

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the results of the detection and quantitation of cocaine and its metabolites in liver tissues fixed in formalin and in the formalin solutions in which the same tissues were fixed. Toxicological analyses were performed on formalin-fixed liver samples from four cases of death of cocaine abusers and on formalin solutions (10% buffered, pH 7) in which the samples were preserved. Analyses carried out at the time of autopsy on body fluids and tissues allowed identification of cocaine and the metabolite benzoylecgonine. Liver tissue samples were preserved in formalin solutions for four weeks before analysis. Results only showed the presence of benzoylecgonine in the studied materials. The mean levels of recovery of benzoylecgonine in fixed tissues were 12.31% in liver and 84.47% in formalin from liver. Results indicated that benzoylecgonine has good stability, even in biological specimens subjected to chemical fixation.

  14. Studi Identifikasi Kandungan Formalin pada Ikan Pindang di Pasar Tradisional dan Modern Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Sitiopan Telaumbanua, Henny Putri

    2012-01-01

    Ikan pindang adalah salah satu jenis makanan olahan yang dikonsumsi masyarakat dan harus segera dijual karena daya tahan yang terbatas dan akan cepat membusuk. Penggunaan formalin sebagai pengawet ternyata telah disalahgunakan oleh pihak-pihak yang tidak bertanggungjawab, dengan cara menggunakan formalin tersebut sebagai bahan pengawet dalam industri makanan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi kandungan formalin pada ikan pindang yang dijual di pasar tradisional dan modern Kota S...

  15. Endoscopic management of colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel; Fischer, Andreas; Schmidt, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal adenomas are well known precursors of invasive adenocarcinoma. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for adenoma detection. Colonoscopy is far more than a diagnostic tool, as it allows effective treatment of colorectal adenomas. Endoscopic resection of colorectal adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer. Difficult resection techniques are available, such as endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic submucosal dissection and endoscopic full-thickness resection. This review aims to provide an overview of the different endoscopic resection techniques and their indications, and summarizes the current recommendations in the recently published guideline of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy.

  16. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  17. Identifikasi Formalin pada Bakso yang Dijual pada Beberapa Tempat di Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faradila .

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKonsumsi makanan cepat saji saat ini telah menjadi kebiasaan makan bagi masyarakat Indonesia. Salah satu makanan cepat saji yang popular adalah bakso, namun saat ini sering dijumpai penggunaan bahan tambahan non pangan di dalam bakso yaitu formalin. Penggunaan formalin sudah dilarang dalam makanan berdasarkan peraturan Menteri Kesehatan No. 1168 tahun 1999, tetapi pada kenyataannya masih ada produsen makanan yang memproduksi makanan mengandung formalin. Salah satu makanan yang sering ditemukan berformalin adalah bakso. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi apakah terdapat formalin pada bakso yang dijual di Kota Padang. 42 sampel yang diidentifikasi diambil dari pedagang bakso gerobak, warung bakso, serta rumah makan franchise di beberapa lokasi dengan jumlah pedagang bakso terbanyak. Pemeriksaan kualitatif dilakukan dengan menggunakan Test Kit Formalin yang terdiri atas cairan pereaksi I dan serbuk pereaksi II. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa 20 sampel dari 42 sampel yang diidentifikasi dilaboratorium positif mengandung formalin (47,6%. Bedasarkan hasil yang didapatkan dapat disimpulkan bahwa hampir separuh bakso yang dijual di Kota Padang mengandung formalin.Kata kunci: Bakso, FormalinAbstractNow a days, the consumption of fast food has become an eating pattern for Indonesian. One of the most popular fast food is meatball, but today, we often found that the producents add a non food addition ingredient in the meatball that we call formalin. The use of formalin actually has been prohibited used in food based on the Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan No.1168 tahun 1999, but in fact, there are food producent that produce food with formalin. One of the food is meat ball. The objective of this research is to identifying whether there are formalin in meatballs that sold in padang. 42 samples that identified taken from mobile vendor, meatball restaurant and franchise restaurant in several locations with the greatest numbers of

  18. Electrostatically atomised hydrocarbon sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yule, A.J.; Shrimpton, J.S.; Watkins, A.P.; Balachandran, W.; Hu, D. [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom). Thermofluids Division, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A burner using an electrostatic method to produce and control a fuel spray is investigated for non-burning sprays. The burner has a charge injection nozzle and the liquid flow rate and charge injection rate are varied using hydrocarbon liquids of differing viscosities, surface tensions and electrical conductivities (kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil). Droplet size distributions are measured and it is shown how the dropsize, spray pattern, breakup mechanism and breakup length depend on the above variables, and in particular on the specific charge achieved in the spray. The data are valuable for validating two computer models under development. One predicts the electric field and flow field inside the nozzle as a function of emitter potential, geometry and flow rate. The other predicts the effect of charge on spray dispersion, with a view to optimizing spray combustion. It is shown that electrostatic disruptive forces can be used to atomize oils at flow rates commensurate with practical combustion systems and that the charge injection technique is particularly suitable for highly resistive liquids. Possible limitations requiring further research include the need to control the wide spray angle, which may provide fuel-air mixtures too lean near the nozzle, and the need to design for maximum charge injection rate, which is thought to be limited by corona breakdown in the gas near the nozzle orifice. 30 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  20. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, Muhamad Hafiz Abd; Saad, Nor Hayati; Abas, Sunhaji Kiyai; Shah, Noriyati Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  1. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanai, Ryoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography of non-formalin fixed biological objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Momose, Atsushi; Wu, Jin; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Yu Quanwen; Thet Thet Lwin; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-21

    Using a monolithic X-ray interferometer having the view size of 25 mmx25 mm, phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCCT) was performed for non-formalin fixed livers of two normal rats and a rabbit transplanted with VX-2 cancer. PCCT images of liver and cancer lesions resembled well those obtained by formalin fixed samples.

  3. Phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography of non-formalin fixed biological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Momose, Atsushi; Wu, Jin; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Yu, Quanwen; Thet-Thet-Lwin; Itai, Yuji

    2001-07-01

    Using a monolithic X-ray interferometer having the view size of 25 mm×25 mm, phase-contrast X-ray CT (PCCT) was performed for non-formalin fixed livers of two normal rats and a rabbit transplanted with VX-2 cancer. PCCT images of liver and cancer lesions resembled well those obtained by formalin fixed samples.

  4. Intravesical instillation of Formalin for hemorrhagic cystitis secondary to radiation for gynecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behnam, K.; Patil, U.B.; Mariano, E.

    1983-01-01

    Our experience with the use of Formalin instillation in intractable gross hematuria secondary to radiation cystitis in patients with gynecological malignancies is reported. This study indicates coagulative effect of low concentration of Formalin with minimal side effects as a method to control hemorrhage

  5. Chemical Facial Cellulitis Due to Inadvertent Injection of Formalin into Oral Tissue Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bector, Aditi; Virk, Pawandeep Sandhu; Arakeri, Gururaj

    2015-11-05

    This paper reports the accidental injection of formalin into oral tissue space, in an 8-year old child resulting in chemical facial necrotizing cellulitis and its management. The common practice of keeping formalin in local anesthesia vials should be avoided by dental clinics, to prevent such unfortunate incidents.

  6. Chemical facial cellulitis due to inadvertent injection of formalin into oral tissue space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Bector

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the accidental injection of formalin into oral tissue space, in an 8-year old child resulting in chemical facial necrotizing cellulitis and its management. The common practice of keeping formalin in local anesthesia vials should be avoided by dental clinics, to prevent such unfortunate incidents.

  7. Toxic effects of formalin-treated cadaver on medical students, staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Formaldehyde can be toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. Evaporation of formaldehyde from formalin-treated cadavers in the anatomy dissection rooms can produce high exposure. This study was conducted to assess acute and chronic toxic effects of formalin-treated cadavers on medical students, staff ...

  8. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub Petersen, Bodil; Zeuthen, Mette Christa; Pedersen, Sanni

    2004-01-01

    , such as quantitation of signals as in triploidy, it is possible to isolate nuclei from paraffin-embedded tissue. However, using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, either in thin sections or as isolated nuclei, one encounters a range of technical problems, paralleling those met in immunohistochemistry. Variations...... nuclei and tissue sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue....

  9. Transaxillary Endoscopic Breast Augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Bo Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The axillary technique is the most popular approach to breast augmentation among Korean women. Transaxillary breast augmentation is now conducted with sharp electrocautery dissection under direct endoscopic vision throughout the entire process. The aims of this method are clear: both a bloodless pocket and a sharp non-traumatic dissection. Round textured or anatomical cohesive gel implants have been used to make predictable well-defined inframammary creases because textured surface implants demonstrated a better stability attributable to tissue adherence compared with smooth surface implants. The axillary endoscopic technique has greatly evolved, and now the surgical results are comparable to those with the inframammary approach. The author feels that this technique is an excellent choice for young patients with an indistinct or absent inframammary fold, who do not want a scar in the aesthetic unit of their chest.

  10. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Christopher J; Cunningham, Chris; Bach, Simon P

    2014-02-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a well established method of accurate resection of specimens from the rectum under binocular vision. This review examines its role in the treatment of benign conditions of the rectum and the evidence to support its use and compliment existing endoscopic treatments. The evolution of TEMS in early rectal cancer and the concepts and outcomes of how it has been utilised to treat patients so far are presented. The bespoke nature of early rectal cancer treatment is changing the standard algorithms of rectal cancer care. The future of TEMS in the organ preserving treatment of early rectal cancer is discussed and how as clinicians we are able to select the correct patients for neoadjuvant or radical treatments accurately. The role of radiotherapy and outcomes from combination treatment using TEMS are presented with suggestions for areas of future research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [GERD: endoscopic antireflux therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caca, K

    2006-08-02

    A couple of minimally-invasive, endoscopic antireflux procedures have been developed during the last years. Beside endoscopic suturing these included injection/implantation technique of biopolymers and application of radiofrequency. Radiofrequency (Stretta) has proved only a very modest effect, while implantation techniques have been abandoned due to lack of long-term efficacy (Gatekeeper) or serious side effects (Enteryx). While first generation endoluminal suturing techniques (EndoCinch, ESD) demonstrated a proof of principle their lack of durability, due to suture loss, led to the development of a potentially durable transmural plication technique (Plicator). In a prospective-randomized, sham-controlled trial the Plicator procedure proved superiority concerning reflux symptoms, medication use and esophageal acid exposure (24-h-pH-metry). While long-term data have to be awaited to draw final conclusions, technical improvements will drive innovation in this field.

  12. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  13. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... 5 sprays into the air away from the face. If you have not used it for 2 ...

  14. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  15. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class of medications called corticosteroids. It works by blocking the release of certain natural substances that cause ... your thumb. Point the applicator away from your face. If you are using the spray for the ...

  16. Endoscopic tissue diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harewood, Gavin C

    2008-09-01

    The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.

  17. Novel methods for endoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, C E; Jowell, P S; Baillie, J

    1995-04-01

    The development of past, present, and future endoscopic training methods is described. A historical perspective of endoscopy training guidelines and devices is used to demonstrate support for the use of novel endoscopic training techniques. Computer simulation of endoscopy, interactive learning, and virtual reality applications in endoscopy and surgery are reviewed. The goals of endoscopic simulation and challenges facing investigators in this field are discussed, with an emphasis on current and future research.

  18. ROTARY SPRAY DUSTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Nechaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of researches of hydraulic resistance, ablation of splashes and efficiency of dedusting in the rotor spray dust collector are given. Influence of frequency of rotation of the spray, the specified speed of gas and diameter of spattering holes on hydraulic resistance, size ablation of splashes and efficiency of a dedusting the device by diameter 0,25 m is investigated. As model liquid water is used. Results of mathematical processing are presented.

  19. Preservation of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue by a formalin-free histology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Azorides R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential problems associated with the use of formalin in histology, such as health hazards, degradation of RNA and cross-linking of proteins are well recognized. We describe the utilization of a formalin-free fixation and processing system for tissue detection of two important biopredictors in breast cancer – estrogen receptor and HER2 – at the RNA and protein levels. Methods Parallel sections of 62 cases of breast cancer were fixed in an alcohol-based molecular fixative and in formalin. Molecular fixative samples were processed by a novel formalin-free microwave-assisted processing system that preserves DNA, RNA and proteins. Formalin-fixed samples were processed using the conventional method. Estrogen receptor was assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. HER2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, FISH, CISH and real-time PCR. Results The immunohistochemical reaction for estrogen receptor was similar in molecular- and formalin-fixed samples (Spearman Rank R = 0.83, p Conclusion The formalin-free tissue fixation and processing system is a practical platform for evaluation of biomolecular markers in breast cancer and it allows reliable DNA and RNA and protein studies.

  20. Mangosteen peel extract reduces formalin-induced liver cell death in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiana Rohmani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Formalin is a xenobiotic that is now commonly used as a preservative in the food industry. The liver is an organ that has the highest metabolic capacity as compared to other organs. Mangosteen or Garcinia mangostana Linn (GML peel contains xanthones, which are a source of natural antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of mangosteen peel extract on formalin-induced liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression in Wistar rats. Methods Eighteen rats received formalin orally for 2 weeks, and were subsequently divided into 3 groups, consisting of the formalin-control group receiving a placebo and treatment groups 1 and 2, which were treated with mangosteen peel extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kgBW/day, respectively. The treatment was carried out for 1 week, and finally the rats were terminated. The differences in liver cell mortality rate and p53 protein expression were analyzed. Results One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant differences in liver cell mortality rate among the three groups (p=0.004. The liver cell mortality rate in the treatment group receiving 400 mg/kgBW/day extract was lower than that in the formalin-control group. There was no p53 expression in all groups. Conclusions Garcinia mangostana Linn peel extract reduced the mortality rate of liver cells in rats receiving oral formalin. Involvement of p53 expression in liver cell mortality in rats exposed to oral formalin is presumably negligible.

  1. Endoscopic transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000

  2. Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter

    2006-02-01

    The objective was to prove the advantage of endoscopic laser-urethroplasty over internal urethrotomy in acquired urethral strictures. Patients and Method: From January, 1996 to June, 2005, 35 patients with a mean age of 66 years were submitted to endoscopic laser-urethroplasty for strictures of either the bulbar (30) or membranous (5) urethra. The operations were carried out under general anesthesia. First of all, the strictures were incised at the 4, 8 and 12 o'clock position by means of a Sachse-urethrotom. Then the scar flap between the 4 and 8 o'clock position was vaporized using a Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1060 nm and a 600 pm bare fiber, the latter always being in contact with the tissue. The laser worked at 40W power in continuous mode. The total energy averaged 2574 J. An indwelling catheter was kept in place overnight and the patients were discharged the following day. Urinalysis, uroflowmetry and clinical examination were performed at two months after surgery and from then on every six months. Results: No serious complications were encountered. Considering a mean follow-up of 18 months, the average peak flow improved from 7.3 ml/s preoperatively to 18.7 mVs postoperatively. The treatment faded in 5 patients ( 14.3% ) who finally underwent open urethroplasty. Conclusions: Endoscopic laser-urethroplasty yields better short-term results than internal visual urethrotomy. Long-term follow-up has yet to confirm its superiority in the treatment of acquired urethral strictures.

  3. Dosimetry in endoscopic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Paes, Walter Siqueira; Fausto, Agnes M.F.; Nucci, Jose Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Okuno, Emico; Maruta, Luis Massuo

    1996-01-01

    Equivalent and effective doses in occupational exposures are evaluated considering that some specific endoscopic examinations, radiographic and fluoroscopic images of patients are taken with the medical staff near to the radiation field. Examinations are simulated using an anthropomorphic phantom as a member of the medical staff. Thermoluminescent dosemeters are attached in several positions of the phantom in order to determine some organ doses. From the comparison between the doses experimentally determined and the International and the Brazilian recommended occupational dose limits, the maximum number of examination that any member of the staff can perform was calculated

  4. Craniopharyngioma - Transnasal Endoscopic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Bhagat,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing tumours arising from remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and occupy the sellar region. The patients may remain asymptomatic for long duration or present with headache or visual disturbances. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. Traditionally these tumours have been removed by neurosurgeons through the cranial approach but the advent of nasal endoscopes has opened new avenues for ENT surgeons to treat such patients. We hereby present a case of craniopharyngioma who was successfully treated by Trans-nasal Hypophysectomy.

  5. Endoscopic resection of subepithelial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Bauder, Markus; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2014-12-16

    Management of subepithelial tumors (SETs) remains challenging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has improved differential diagnosis of these tumors but a definitive diagnosis on EUS findings alone can be achieved in the minority of cases. Complete endoscopic resection may provide a reasonable approach for tissue acquisition and may also be therapeutic in case of malignant lesions. Small SET restricted to the submucosa can be removed with established basic resection techniques. However, resection of SET arising from deeper layers of the gastrointestinal wall requires advanced endoscopic methods and harbours the risk of perforation. Innovative techniques such as submucosal tunneling and full thickness resection have expanded the frontiers of endoscopic therapy in the past years. This review will give an overview about endoscopic resection techniques of SET with a focus on novel methods.

  6. Long term/low dose formalin exposure to small-scale recirculation aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Nielsen, Jeppe L.

    2010-01-01

    on a daily basis as compared to untreated systems. In systems intermittently treated with formalin, increased variation and minor reductions of ammonium and nitrite oxidation rates were observed. Nitrifying bacteria were screened by specific gene probes using fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantified...... Nitrobacter sp. was not detected. The relative abundances of AOB and NOB in the untreated system were generally higher compared to the system exposed to formalin. Low dose formalin in recirculated aquaculture systems proved to be a possible treatment strategy, as the effect on nitrification was minimal. Since...

  7. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation proc...

  8. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  9. Endoscopic approach to achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Michaela; Eckardt, Alexander J; Wehrmann, Till

    2013-01-01

    Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder. The etiology is still unknown and therefore all treatment options are strictly palliative with the intention to weaken the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Current established endoscopic therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD) or botulinum toxin injection. Both treatment approaches have an excellent symptomatic short term effect, and lead to a reduction of LES pressure. However, the long term success of botulinum toxin (BT) injection is poor with symptom recurrence in more than 50% of the patients after 12 mo and in nearly 100% of the patients after 24 mo, which commonly requires repeat injections. In contrast, after a single PD 40%-60% of the patients remain asymptomatic for ≥ 10 years. Repeated on demand PD might become necessary and long term remission can be achieved with this approach in up to 90% of these patients. The main positive predictors for a symptomatic response to PD are an age > 40 years, a LES-pressure reduction to 40 years, was nearly equivalent to surgery. A new promising technique might be peroral endoscopic myotomy, although long term results are needed and practicability as well as safety issues must be considered. Treatment with a temporary self expanding stent has been reported with favorable outcomes, but the data are all from one study group and must be confirmed by others before definite recommendations can be made. In addition to its use as a therapeutic tool, endoscopy also plays an important role in the diagnosis and surveillance of patients with achalasia. PMID:23951393

  10. Peroral endoscopic myotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) incorporatesconcepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopicsurgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizinga submucosal tunnel as an operating space.Although intended for the palliation of symptoms ofachalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is alsoefficacious in the management of spastic esophagealdisorders. The technique requires an understanding ofthe pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders aswell as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut.POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% ofpatients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition,it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremesof age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken.Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist tomanage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical asfailure to do so could result in significant morbidity. Themajor late adverse event is gastroesophageal refluxwhich appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients.Research is being conducted to clarify the optimaltechnique for POEM and a personalized approach bymeasuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junctiondistensibility appears promising. In addition toesophageal disorders,POEM is being studied in themanagement of gastroparesis (gastric pyloromyotomy)with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility.Although POEM represents a paradigm shift themanagement of esophageal motility disorders, theresults of prospective randomized controlled trials withlong-term follow up are eagerly awaited.

  11. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, P; Kaltseis, J; Fritz, A; Edlinger, M; Posch, W; Wilflingseder, D; Lass-Flörl, C; Orth-Höller, D

    2018-02-24

    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes, have been described. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination varies dramatically in literature. The aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture-based and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3%-4.6% according to the national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene-relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples failing in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly Pseudomonas oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n = 9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n = 6, 11.5%) only on account of microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared with results from other European countries, possibly due to the high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  13. SPRAY code user's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1977-03-01

    The SPRAY computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping within containment chambers. The calculation method utilizes gas convection, heat transfer and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects within the enclosure. The applicable range is 0-21 mol percent oxygen and .02-.30 inch droplets with or without humidity. Droplet motion and large sodium surface area combine to produce rapid heat release and pressure rise within the enclosed volume

  14. Influence of copper and formalin on the mycorrhiza of pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of copper sulphate and formalin were tested for their effect on the efficiency of mycorrhizal functioning in pine seedlings. Low and higher doses of copper applied to the container grown seedling exhibited a less stimulatory effect than nedium doses. When applied in higher concentrations, the formalin caused mortality in young pine seedlings. The seedling yield and phosphate uptake was found maximum in 100 ppm applied concentration of copper. while słów growth and lower phosphate concentration was observed in the seedlings not given any copper treatment. Formalin at 50 ppm concentration slightly improved the seedling growth and phosphate uptake in mycorrhizal seedling as compared with untreated ones. Variation in the development and spread of ectomycorrhiza on the surface of roots of pine seedlings was also recorded in responses to copper and formalin treatments.

  15. Flow mapping of multiphase flows using a novel single stem endoscopic particle image velocimetry instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lad, N; Adebayo, D; Aroussi, A

    2011-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a successful flow mapping technique which can optically quantify large portions of a flow regime. This enables the method to be completely non-intrusive. The ability to be non-intrusive to any flow has allowed PIV to be used in a large range of industrial sectors for many applications. However, a fundamental disadvantage of the conventional PIV technique is that it cannot easily be used with flows which have no or limited optical access. Flows which have limited optical access for PIV measurement have been addressed using endoscopic PIV techniques. This system uses two separate probes which relay a light sheet and imaging optics to a planar position within the desired flow regime. This system is effective in medical and engineering applications. The present study has been involved in the development of a new endoscopic PIV system which integrates the illumination and imaging optics into one rigid probe. This paper focuses on the validation of the images taken from the novel single stem endoscopic PIV system. The probe is used within atomized spray flow and is compared with conventional PIV measurement and also pitot-static data. The endoscopic PIV system provides images which create localized velocity maps that are comparable with the global measurement of the conventional PIV system. The velocity information for both systems clearly show similar results for the spray characterization and are also validated using the pitot-static data

  16. Predicting the concentration of residual methanol in industrial formalin using machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Heidkamp, William

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, a machine learning approach was used to develop a predictive model for residual methanol concentration in industrial formalin produced at the Akzo Nobel factory in Kristinehamn, Sweden. The MATLABTM computational environment supplemented with the Statistics and Machine LearningTM toolbox from the MathWorks were used to test various machine learning algorithms on the formalin production data from Akzo Nobel. As a result, the Gaussian Process Regression algorithm was found to pr...

  17. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harith M. Alkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: (1 Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2 A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3 Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective.

  18. Endoscopic retrograde cholanglopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, S.C.; Garra, B.S.; Zeman, R.K.; Krasner, B.H.; Lo, S.C.B.; Davros, W.J.; Silverman, P.M.; Cattau, E.L.; Fleischer, D.E.; Benjamin, S.B.S.B.

    1989-01-01

    As part of the clinical evaluation of image management and communications system (IMACS), the authors undertook a prospective study to compare conventional film versus digitized film viewed on a workstation. Twenty-five each of normal and abnormal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic (ERCP) studies were digitized with a 1,684 x 2,048-pixel matrix and evaluated in a single-blind fashion on the workstation. The resulting interpretations were then compared with those resulting from interpretation of film (spot film and 100-mm photospot) images. They report that no significant differences were found in ability to see anatomic detail or pathology. A second study involved performing 10 ERCP studies in a lithotripsy suite equipped with biplane digital fluoroscopy. The digital video displays were comparable in quality to that of film. Progress is being made in using the IMACS for archiving and retrieval of all current ERCP images

  19. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, F; el Nawar, A; Van Gossum, A

    1992-01-01

    From March 87 to March 92, fifty eight patients were referred to our department for percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). The modality of the feeding tube insertion is described. The most common indications for placement were neurologic disorders in 62% of the cases (n = 36) and malignant diseases in 32% (n = 19). The success rate of the technique was 98.3% (n = 57). No procedure-related mortality was observed. A low rate of major complication (1.7%) and minor complication (10.5%) was noted. Feeding tubes were removed in 21% of patients (n = 12); none of them with malignant disease. Survival curve analysis demonstrated that 50% of patients died within 3 months of PEG placement. Such results raise questions about the selection of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience of patients undergoing PEG. Our experience suggests that PEG is easy and safe, even in debilitated patients, having an acceptable life expectancy.

  20. Perbedaan Kadar Formalin pada Tahu yang Dijual di Pasar Pusat Kota dengan Pinggiran Kota Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Ardina Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTahu merupakan makanan yang digemari oleh masyarakat.Tahu mempunyai daya tahan sekitar 1 - 2 hari sehingga pedagang sering menambahkan formalin sebagai pengawet. Formalin merupakan bahan pengawet yang dilarang oleh pemerintah yang penggunaannya masih terdapat secara luas di masyarakat dan bila dilihat dari tekstur tahu yang dijual di pasar kota Padang, dicurigai tahu memiliki kandungan formalin.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan kadar formalin pada tahu yang dijual di pasar pusat kota dengan pinggiran kota Padang. Penelitian ini dilakukan di laboratorium Balai Riset dan Standardisasi Industri Padang.Jenis penelitian ini adalah analitik yang telah dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni-September 2013. Jumlah sampel adalah sebanyak 36 buah yang terdiri dari 18 sampel tahu yang berasal dari pasar pusat kota dan 18 sampel tahu yang berasal dari pasar pinggiran kota Padang. Uji kualitatif formalin pada tahu dilakukan dengan metode asam kromatropat dan uji kuantitatif formalin menggunakan metode titrasi asam basa. Analisis data dilakukan secara bivariat dengan menggunakan uji t. Hasil penelitian didapatkan kadar formalin pada tahu di pasar pusat kota Padang dari 18 sampel yang diperiksa terdapat 17 sampel yang positif formalin dengan kadar paling tinggi adalah 3.65%. Kadar formalin pada tahu di pasar pinggiran kota Padang dari 18 sampel yang diperiksa terdapat 17 sampel yang positif formalin dengan kadar paling tinggi adalah 2.73%. Rata-rata kadar formalin pada pasar pusat kota adalah 1.08% dan pasar pinggiran kota adalah 0.67%.Kata Kunci: kadar formalin, tahu, pasar pusat kota Padang, pasar pinggiran kota PadangAbstractTofu is a favorite food among the community. Tofu has resistance 1 - 2 days so that merchant often add formalin as a preservative. Formalin is a preservative which is banned by the government that there is still widespread use in the community and the texture of tofu sold in the market is suspected for having

  1. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of

  2. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  3. Ilex paraguariensis Promotes Orofacial Pain Relief After Formalin Injection: Involvement of Noradrenergic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Eudislaine Fonseca; de Oliveira, Simone Kobe; Nardi, Viviane Koepp; Gelinski, Tathiana Carla; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Maraschin, Marcelo; Nardi, Geisson Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Drinking mate or chimarrão, a hot infusion of Ilex paraguariensis (ILEX) leaves, is a common habit in Southern South America that has a social and almost ritualistic role. It has been used as a stimulant beverage in South America and analgesic in regions of Argentina for treatment of headache and others painful inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological activity of I. paraguariensis infusion (ILEX) on orofacial nociception model induced by formalin, and study its mechanism of action. The analgesic effect of ILEX was assessed through writhing test, paw formalin test, paw edema induced by carrageenan, and orofacial pain induced by formalin. To study the action mechanism of ILEX, opioidergic, dopaminergic, nitrergic, and adrenergic pathways were investigated. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of ILEX infusion revealed caffeine and theobromine. The treatment with ILEX reduced the number of writhing. However, it was effective neither in the formalin paw test nor in the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Different from formalin paw test, ILEX was able to reduce the orofacial reactivity to formalin in 31.8% (70.4 ± 2.5 s; first phase), and 20% (127.3 ± 18.9 s; second phase). The analgesic effect of ILEX results from the modulation of noradrenergic pathways since prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, 0.15 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) reversed the analgesic effect of ILEX. The present report demonstrates that analgesic effect of ILEX in orofacial formalin test is due mainly to modulation of noradrenergic pathways. Ilex paraguariensis (ILEX) has been used as a stimulant beverage in South America and analgesic in regions of Argentina for the treatment of headache and others painful inflammatory conditions such arthritis and rheumatism.The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological activity of ILEX on orofacial nociception model induced by formalin, and study its mechanism of

  4. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncica, Ana Maria; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...

  5. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  6. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  7. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  8. Plasma sprayed thermoregulating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudinov, V.V.; Puzanov, A.A.; Zambrzhitskij, A.P.; Soboleva, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Shown is the possibility of plasma spraying application for thermoregulating coating formation. Given are test results of service properties of BeO, Al 2 O 2 plasma coatings on the substrates of the MA2-1 magnesium alloy. Described is a device for studying durability of coating optical parameters under ultraviolet irradiation in deep vacuum. Dynamics of absorption coefficient, growth caused by an increase in absorption centers amount under such irradiation is investigated

  9. Emulsions from Aerosol Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengelmolen; Vincent; Hassall

    1997-12-01

    An electrostatic emulsification apparatus has been designed for the purpose of studying diffusion from oil droplets which have a mean size in the range of approximately 1.5-3.5 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of 40-50%. The emulsification technique involves the collection of a spray of electrically charged oil droplets onto a rotating water film which is sustained from a reservoir. In this way, emulsions with volume fractions of approximately 10(-3) are produced within several minutes at oil flow rates of around 10(-2) ml min-1. Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to assess droplet size distributions for the sprays and emulsions. Results show that the mean emulsion droplet size was smaller than the mean spray droplet size by several orders of magnitude. At flow rates around 10(-2) ml min-1, the spray droplet size distribution was little affected by the applied potential between about -4.20 and -4.65 kV (mean droplet size between approximately 7.6 and 7.8 &mgr;m, with standard deviations of approximately 20%), whereas the mean droplet size of the corresponding emulsion decreased more rapidly with applied potential. Above an applied potential of approximately -4.30 kV, which corresponded to an emulsion droplet size below approximately 2 &mgr;m, the measured volume fraction of the emulsion decreased with respect to the volume fraction as calculated on the basis of total amount of injected oil. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  10. Radiolysis of spray solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habersbergerova, A.; Janovsky, I.

    1985-01-01

    The factors were studied affecting thiosulfate radiolysis in the so-called spray solution for nuclear power plant containments. The reaction mechanism of primary radiolytic reactions leading to thiosulfate decomposition was studied using pulse radiolysis. Also measured was hydrazine loss in the irradiation of the bubbling solution intended for the capture of volatile chemical forms of radioiodine. Pulse radiolysis was used to study the kinetics of hydrazine reaction with elemental iodine. (author)

  11. [Endoscopic full-thickness resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B; Schmidt, A; Caca, K

    2016-08-01

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are powerful tools for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms. However, those techniques are limited to the superficial layers of the GI wall (mucosa and submucosa). Lesions without lifting sign (usually arising from deeper layers) or lesions in difficult anatomic positions (appendix, diverticulum) are difficult - if not impossible - to resect using conventional techniques, due to the increased risk of complications. For larger lesions (>2 cm), ESD appears to be superior to the conventional techniques because of the en bloc resection, but the procedure is technically challenging, time consuming, and associated with complications even in experienced hands. Since the development of the over-the-scope clips (OTSC), complications like bleeding or perforation can be endoscopically better managed. In recent years, different endoscopic full-thickness resection techniques came to the focus of interventional endoscopy. Since September 2014, the full-thickness resection device (FTRD) has the CE marking in Europe for full-thickness resection in the lower GI tract. Technically the device is based on the OTSC system and combines OTSC application and snare polypectomy in one step. This study shows all full-thickness resection techniques currently available, but clearly focuses on the experience with the FTRD in the lower GI tract.

  12. Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. M Brand, D Bisoz. Abstract. Background. Antibiotic prophylaxis for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is controversial. We set out to assess the current antibiotic prescribing practice among ...

  13. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ... endoscopic management at a median of 12 days (range 2 - 104 days) after surgery. Presenting features included intra-abdominal collections with pain in 58 cases ...

  14. Evaluation of robotically controlled advanced endoscopic instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Misra, Sarthak

    Background Advanced flexible endoscopes and instruments with multiple degrees of freedom enable physicians to perform challenging procedures such as the removal of large sections of mucosal tissue. However, these advanced endoscopes are difficult to control and require several physicians to

  15. Thiel embalming fluid--a new way to revive formalin-fixed cadaveric specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Amanda; Eisma, Roos; Lamb, Clare

    2014-09-01

    By soft fixing cadavers using the Thiel embalming method, our cadavers now exhibit a greater degree of flexibility and color retention compared to that of traditional formalin-fixed cadavers. The aim of this experiment was to discover whether Thiel embalming fluid could be used to revive and soften the muscles of formalin-fixed prosected specimens. Earlier this year, two severely dehydrated formalin-fixed forearm and hand specimens were fully submerged in a tank containing Thiel embalming fluid. After a period of six months the specimens were removed from the tank and noticeable changes were observed in flexibility, quality of the tissue, and color of the specimens. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Endoscopic Palliation for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Bakhru

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is devastating due to its poor prognosis. Patients require a multidisciplinary approach to guide available options, mostly palliative because of advanced disease at presentation. Palliation including relief of biliary obstruction, gastric outlet obstruction, and cancer-related pain has become the focus in patients whose cancer is determined to be unresectable. Endoscopic stenting for biliary obstruction is an option for drainage to avoid the complications including jaundice, pruritus, infection, liver dysfunction and eventually failure. Enteral stents can relieve gastric obstruction and allow patients to resume oral intake. Pain is difficult to treat in cancer patients and endoscopic procedures such as pancreatic stenting and celiac plexus neurolysis can provide relief. The objective of endoscopic palliation is to primarily address symptoms as well improve quality of life.

  17. Endoscopic inspection of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliniemi, H.; Muukka, E.

    1990-01-01

    For over ten years, Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed, complementary inspection methods for steam turbine condition monitoring, which can be applied both during operation and shutdown. One important method used periodically during outages is endoscopic inspection. The inspection is based on the method where the internal parts of the turbine is inspected through access borings with endoscope and where the magnified figures of the internal parts is seen on video screen. To improve inspection assurance, an image-processing based pattern recognition method for cracks has been developed for the endoscopic inspection of turbine blades. It is based on the deduction conditions derived from the crack shape. The computer gives an alarm of a crack detection and prints a simulated image of the crack, which is then checked manually

  18. Spray-formed tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, K. M.; Key, J. F.

    The United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) has formed a partnership with the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a process for the rapid production of low-cost tooling based on spray forming technology developed at the INEL. Phase 1 of the program will involve bench-scale system development, materials characterization, and process optimization. In Phase 2, prototype systems will be designed, constructed, evaluated, and optimized. Process control and other issues that influence commercialization will be addressed during this phase of the project. Technology transfer to USCAR, or a tooling vendor selected by USCAR, will be accomplished during Phase 3. The approach INEL is using to produce tooling, such as plastic injection molds and stamping dies, combines rapid solidification processing and net-shape materials processing into a single step. A bulk liquid metal is pressure-fed into a de Laval spray nozzle transporting a high velocity, high temperature inert gas. The gas jet disintegrates the metal into fine droplets and deposits them onto a tool pattern made from materials such as plastic, wax, clay, ceramics, and metals. The approach is compatible with solid freeform fabrication techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and laminated object manufacturing. Heat is extracted rapidly, in-flight, by convection as the spray jet entrains cool inert gas to produce undercooled and semi-solid droplets. At the pattern, the droplets weld together while replicating the shape and surface features of the pattern. Tool formation is rapid; deposition rates in excess of 1 ton/h have been demonstrated for bench-scale nozzles.

  19. Fixing Formalin: A Method to Recover Genomic-Scale DNA Sequence Data from Formalin-Fixed Museum Specimens Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Hykin

    Full Text Available For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles, attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens-particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses-has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp. We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens

  20. Fixing Formalin: A Method to Recover Genomic-Scale DNA Sequence Data from Formalin-Fixed Museum Specimens Using High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hykin, Sarah M; Bi, Ke; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2015-01-01

    For 150 years or more, specimens were routinely collected and deposited in natural history collections without preserving fresh tissue samples for genetic analysis. In the case of most herpetological specimens (i.e. amphibians and reptiles), attempts to extract and sequence DNA from formalin-fixed, ethanol-preserved specimens-particularly for use in phylogenetic analyses-has been laborious and largely ineffective due to the highly fragmented nature of the DNA. As a result, tens of thousands of specimens in herpetological collections have not been available for sequence-based phylogenetic studies. Massively parallel High-Throughput Sequencing methods and the associated bioinformatics, however, are particularly suited to recovering meaningful genetic markers from severely degraded/fragmented DNA sequences such as DNA damaged by formalin-fixation. In this study, we compared previously published DNA extraction methods on three tissue types subsampled from formalin-fixed specimens of Anolis carolinensis, followed by sequencing. Sufficient quality DNA was recovered from liver tissue, making this technique minimally destructive to museum specimens. Sequencing was only successful for the more recently collected specimen (collected ~30 ybp). We suspect this could be due either to the conditions of preservation and/or the amount of tissue used for extraction purposes. For the successfully sequenced sample, we found a high rate of base misincorporation. After rigorous trimming, we successfully mapped 27.93% of the cleaned reads to the reference genome, were able to reconstruct the complete mitochondrial genome, and recovered an accurate phylogenetic placement for our specimen. We conclude that the amount of DNA available, which can vary depending on specimen age and preservation conditions, will determine if sequencing will be successful. The technique described here will greatly improve the value of museum collections by making many formalin-fixed specimens available for

  1. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  2. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  3. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2006-12-01

    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  4. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  5. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  6. Substrate system for spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Men G. (Export, PA); Chernicoff, William P. (Harrisburg, PA)

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  7. Utilization of spray drying technique for improvement of dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.

  8. Spray deposition and spray drift in orchard spraying by multiple row sprayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Zande, van de J.C.; Michielsen, J.G.P.; Stallinga, H.; Velde, van P.

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the latest data on spray drift in orchard spraying in the Netherlands, and measurements of surface water quality parameters show that the current legislation and measures are insufficient to protect the surface water. To meet the national and European objectives regarding surface

  9. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Rösch, T.; Fockens, P.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of achalasia is complicated by symptom recurrence and a significant risk for severe complications. Endoscopic myotomy was developed in the search for a highly efficacious treatment with lower risks. Since its introduction in 2010, several centers have adopted the technique and published

  10. Colonic perforation following endoscopic retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We highlight a potentially lethal complication of acute severe pancreatitis that may not be suspected in severely ill patients. A 41-year-old woman developed acute severe pancreatitis following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for suspected choledocholithiasis. When her condition deteriorated ...

  11. Effects of opioids in the formalin test in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wambugu, SN; Towett, PK; Kiama, SG

    2010-01-01

    decrease in the duration of limb retraction in the formalin test. The anti-nociceptive effects were naloxone (5 mg/kg) reversible. The data suggest that the formalin test is a good test for studying nociception and anti-nociception in tortoises and that the opioidergic system plays a role in the control......Little is known about analgesia in lower vertebrates such as the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kinixy's spekii), yet of late they are increasingly being adopted as pets. The effects of morphine (5, 7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), pethidine (10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and naloxone (5 mg/kg) on nociception induced...... by the formalin test (12.5%, 100 microL) were studied in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Formalin induced a monophasic limb retraction behavioural response and its duration was recorded. The behaviour lasted for 16.4 +/- 0.8 min. Morphine (7.5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and pethidine (20 and 50 mg/kg) induced significant...

  12. Antigenic characterization of a formalin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from live-attenuated Sabin strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tano, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Martin, Javier; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Simizu, Bunsiti; Miyamura, Tatsuo

    2007-10-10

    A candidate inactivated poliovirus vaccine derived from live-attenuated Sabin strains (sIPV), which are used in the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), was prepared in a large-production scale. The modification of viral antigenic epitopes during the formalin inactivation process was investigated by capture ELISA assays using type-specific and antigenic site-specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). The major antigenic site 1 was modified during the formalin inactivation of Sabin 1. Antigenic sites 1-3 were slightly modified during the formalin inactivation of Sabin 2 strain. Sites 1 and 3 were altered on inactivated Sabin 3 virus. These alterations were different to those shown by wild-type Saukett strain, used in conventional IPV (cIPV). It has been previously reported that type 1 sIPV showed higher immunogenicity to type 1 cIPV whereas types 2 and 3 sIPV induced lower level of immunogenicity than their cIPV counterparts. Our results suggest that the differences in epitope structure after formalin inactivation may account, at least in part, for the observed differences in immunogenicity between Sabin and wild-type inactivated poliovaccines.

  13. Interaction between dexibuprofen and dexketoprofen in the orofacial formalin test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, H F; Noriega, V; Sierralta, F; Prieto, J C

    2011-01-01

    Animal models are used to research the mechanisms of pain and to mimic human pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of interaction between dexketoprofen and dexibuprofen, by isobolographic analysis using the formalin orofacial assay in mice. This assay presents two-phase time course: an early short-lasting, phase I, starting immediately after the formalin injection producing a tonic acute pain, leaving a 15 min quiescent period, followed by a prolonged, phase II, after the formalin and representing inflammatory pain. Administration of dexketoprofen or dexibuprofen produced a dose-dependent antinociception, with different potency, either during phases I or II. The co-administration of dexketoprofen and dexibuprofen produced synergism in phase I and II. In conclusion, both dexketoprofen and dexibuprofen are able to induce antinociception in the orofacial formalin assay. Their co-administration produced a synergism, which could be related to the different degree of COX inhibition and other mechanisms of analgesics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Formalin Fixation Prior to in vitro Ultrasound Examination of Porcine Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Vogt, Katja; Jespersen, Søren Kragh

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the influence on the echosignal from porcine artery walls due to two different formalin fixationprocedures. The lumen diameter, the wall thickness and the mean echogenicitywere calculated. In general, the fixation resulted in a more rigid wall. Whileconve...

  15. Effect of pilocarpine on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of subcutaneous (SC injection of pilocarpine (a cholinomimetic agent and atropine (a muscarinic receptors antagonist were investigated on a tonic model of orofacial pain in rats. The contribution of the endogenous analgesic opioid system was assessed using naloxone (an opioid receptors antagonist. Tonic orofacial pain was induced by SC injection of a diluted formalin solution (1%, 50 μL in the right upper lip, and the time spent face rubbing was measured in five min blocks for 1 h. Formalin induced a biphasic (first phase: 0-5 min and second phase: 15-35 min pain response. Pilocarpine significantly (P < 0.05 suppressed both phases of orofacial pain. Atropine did not have any effect and naloxone non-significantly increased the intensity of pain when used alone. In the pre-injection examinations, atropine prevented, but naloxone did not reverse the antinociceptive effect of pilocarpine. The results indicated that SC injection of formalin in the orofacial region induced a marked biphasic pain. Pilocarpine via muscarinic cholinergic receptors produced antinociceptive effect in the orofacial formalin-induced pain. The endogenous opioid analgesic system may not have a role in pilocarpine-induced antinociception.

  16. Effect of Formalin on the Hatching Rate of eggs and Survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1, and 1000 mgl-1 of formalin resulted in total egg mortality (0% hatching rate). In the definitive ... treatment of fish disease, particularly fungi, as in this study, where it effectively reduced fungi on eggs and larvae of ... salmon held for spawning).

  17. Effects of sublethal concentrations of formalin on weight gain in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus, was exposed to various sublethal concentrations (25.0, 12.50, 6.25, 3.125, 1.56 and 0.0 mgl-1) of formalin to investigate their effects on the weight gain of the fish. Decrease in weight gain, directly proportional to the toxicant concentration, was observed in fish exposed to ...

  18. Virus characterization and discovery in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodewes, Rogier; van Run, Peter R W A; Schürch, Anita C; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L

    2015-01-01

    Detection and characterization of novel viruses is hampered frequently by the lack of properly stored materials. Especially for the retrospective identification of viruses responsible for past disease outbreaks, often only formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are available.

  19. Evaluating Quality of Aged Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Samples for RNA-Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples offer a vast, untapped source of genomic data for biomarker discovery. However, the quality of FFPE samples is often highly variable, and conventional methods to assess RNA quality for RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) are not infor...

  20. Indoor spray measurement of spray drift potential using a spray drift test bench : effect of drift-reducing nozzle types, spray boom height, nozzle spacing and forward speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Ruiz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    In a series of indoor experiments spray drift potential was assessed when spraying over a spray drift testbench with two different driving speeds, 2m/s and 4m/s, two different spray boom heights, 30 cm and 50 cm, and two different nozzle spacing, 25 cm and 50 cm, for six different nozzle types. The

  1. Burn, freeze, or photo-ablate?: comparative symptom profile in Barrett's dysplasia patients undergoing endoscopic ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kanwar Rupinder S.; Gross, Seth A.; Greenwald, Bruce D.; Hemminger, Lois L.; Wolfsen, Herbert C.

    2009-06-01

    Background: There are few data available comparing endoscopic ablation methods for Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia (BE-HGD). Objective: To determine differences in symptoms and complications associated with endoscopic ablation. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Two tertiary care centers in USA. Patients: Consecutive patients with BE-HGD Interventions: In this pilot study, symptoms profile data were collected for BE-HGD patients among 3 endoscopic ablation methods: porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy, radiofrequency ablation and low-pressure liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy. Main Outcome Measurements: Symptom profiles and complications from the procedures were assessed 1-8 weeks after treatment. Results: Ten BE-HGD patients were treated with each ablation modality (30 patients total; 25 men, median age: 69 years (range 53-81). All procedures were performed in the clinic setting and none required subsequent hospitalization. The most common symptoms among all therapies were chest pain, dysphagia and odynophagia. More patients (n=8) in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group reported weight loss compared to radio-frequency ablactation (n=2) and cryotherapy (n=0). Four patients in the porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy group developed phototoxicity requiring medical treatment. Strictures, each requiring a single dilation, were found in radiofrequency ablactation (n=1) and porfimer sodium photodynamic therapy (n=2) patients. Limitations: Small sample size, non-randomized study. Conclusions: These three endoscopic therapies are associated with different types and severity of post-ablation symptoms and complications.

  2. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  3. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  4. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Champagne, V. K; Leyman, P.F; Helfritch, D. J

    2008-01-01

    .... Army Research Laboratory has developed a cold spray process to reclaim magnesium components that shows significant improvement over existing methods and is in the process of qualification for use on rotorcraft...

  5. Scoping the scope: endoscopic evaluation of endoscope working channels with a new high-resolution inspection endoscope (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Monique T; Girotra, Mohit; Huang, Robert J; Banerjee, Subhas

    2018-02-06

    Outbreaks of transmission of infection related to endoscopy despite reported adherence to reprocessing guidelines warrant scrutiny of all potential contributing factors. Recent reports from ambulatory surgery centers indicated widespread significant occult damage within endoscope working channels, raising concerns regarding the potential detrimental impact of this damage on the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. We inspected working channels of all 68 endoscopes at our academic institution using a novel flexible inspection endoscope. Inspections were recorded and videos reviewed by 3 investigators to evaluate and rate channel damage and/or debris. Working channel rinsates were obtained from all endoscopes, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence was measured. Overall endoscope working channel damage was rated as minimal and/or mild and was consistent with expected wear and tear (median 1.59 on our 5-point scale). Our predominant findings included superficial scratches (98.5%) and scratches with adherent peel (76.5%). No channel perforations, stains, or burns were detected. The extent of damage was not predicted by endoscope age. Minor punctate debris was common, and a few small drops of fluid were noted in 42.6% of endoscopes after reprocessing and drying. The presence of residual fluid predicted higher ATP bioluminescence values. The presence of visualized working channel damage or debris was not associated with elevated ATP bioluminescence values. The flexible inspection endoscope enables high-resolution imaging of endoscope working channels and offers endoscopy units an additional modality for endoscope surveillance, potentially complementing bacterial cultures and ATP values. Our study, conducted in a busy academic endoscopy unit, indicated predominately mild damage to endoscope working channels, which did not correlate with elevated ATP values. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, Nischita K; Ioncică, Ana Maria; Săftoiu, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Contrast agents are increasingly being used to characterize the vasculature in an organ of interest, to better delineate benign from malignant pathology and to aid in staging and directing therapeutic procedures. We review the mechanisms of action of first, second and third generation contrast...... agents and their use in various endoscopic procedures in the gastrointestinal tract. Various applications of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography include differentiating benign from malignant mediastinal lymphadenopathy, assessment of depth of invasion of esophageal, gastric and gall bladder...... cancers and visualization of the portal venous system and esophageal varices. In addition, contrast agents can be used to differentiate pancreatic lesions. The use of color Doppler further increases the ability to diagnose and differentiate various pancreatic malignancies. The sensitivity of power Doppler...

  7. Advances in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xiangping

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is a well-established advanced endoscopic technique for the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatobiliary diseases. New advances have been made in the treatment concept and techniques of ERCP in recent years. This article elaborates on the recent advances in ERCP, including the application of pancreatic duct stent, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and aggressive hydration to prevent postoperative pancreatitis, covered metal stent for the treatment of benign bile duct stenosis, intraluminal radiofrequency ablation for malignant bile duct stenosis, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and covered metal stent for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis, peroral choledochoscopy for qualitative diagnosis of bile duct stenosis and huge refractory stones, definition of difficult intubation, timing of pre-cut technique, and ERCP after gastrointestinal reconstruction.

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound and pancreas divisum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Surinder S; Gonen, Can; Vilmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiop......Pancreas divisum is the most common congenital anatomic variation of the pancreatic ductal anatomy and in most of the individuals it is asymptomatic. However, in minority of individuals it is presumed to cause recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde...... of the parenchyma also. Therefore EUS, both radial and linear, has potential for being a minimally invasive diagnostic modality for pancreas divisum. A number of EUS criteria have been suggested for the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. These criteria have varying sensitivity and specificity and hence there is a need...

  9. Endoscopic Endonasal Management of Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Brad E; Amine, Muhamad; Anand, Vijay; Schwartz, Theodore H

    2016-02-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare clinical entity that poses a significant management challenge given their location and propensity to recur. As part of a minimally disruptive treatment paradigm, the expanded endonasal approach has the potential to improve rates of resection, improve postoperative visual recovery, and minimize surgical morbidity. This article updates the otolaryngologic community on the basic principles and techniques regarding the incorporation of the endoscopic, endonasal approach in the management paradigm of craniopharyngioma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systems workplace for endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, K M; Novak, P

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) a decade ago, the requirements for operating rooms (OR) and their equipment have been increased. Compared with conventional open surgery, the new endoscopic techniques require additional tools. Television systems, for video-assisted image acquisition and visualisation, including cameras, monitors and light systems, as well as insufflators, pumps, high-frequency units, lasers and motorised therapy units, are nowadays usually made available on carts during endoscopic surgery. In conjunction with a set of endoscopic instruments, these high-tech units allow new operating techniques to be performed. The benefit for patients has become clear in recent years; however, the technical complexity of OR has also increased considerably. To minimise this problem for the OR personnel, the MIS concept 'OR1' (Operating Room 1) was developed and implemented. OR1 is a fully functional and integrated multi-speciality surgical suite for MIS. The centrepieces of the OR1 are the Storz Communication Bus (SCB) and the advanced image and data archiving system (Aida) from Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany. Both components allow monitoring, access and networking of the MIS equipment and other OR facilities, as well as the acquisition, storage and display of image, patient and equipment data during the endoscopic procedure. A central user interface allows efficient, simplified operation and online clinical images. Due to the system integration, the handling of complex equipment is considerably simplified, logistical procedures in the OR are improved, procedure times are shorter and, particularly noteworthy, operative risk can be reduced through simplified device operation.

  11. Endoscopic Management of Posterior Epistaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, J.; Kanotra, Sohit Paul; Kanotra, Sonika

    2011-01-01

    The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26–50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of ...

  12. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg Bennike, Tue; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving...... samples in RNAlater, and by formalin-fixation, paraffin-embedding on human soft tissue, using directly frozen samples as a control ("Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples" [1]). We here report the data from the analysis...

  13. Endoscopic treatment of esophageal achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D

    2016-01-25

    Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection. Even though few patients can be cured with only one treatment and repeat procedure might be needed, long term relief from dysphagia can be obtained in about 90% of cases with either surgical interventions such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or with endoscopic techniques such pneumatic dilatation or, more recently, with per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Age, sex, and manometric type by HRM are also predictors of responsiveness to treatment. Older patients, females and type II achalasia are better after treatment compared to younger patients, males and type III achalasia. Self-expandable metallic stents are an alternative in patients non responding to conventional therapies.

  14. [Risk management for endoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taizo

    2010-05-01

    The number of medical accidents in endoscopic surgery has recently increased. Surgical complications caused by inadequate preparation or immature technique or those resulting in serious adverse outcomes may be referred to as medical accidents. The Nationwide Survey of Endoscopic Surgery showed that bile duct injury and uncontrollable bleeding were seen in 0.68% and in 0.58%, respectively, of cholecystectomy patients; interoperative and postoperative complications in 0.84% and in 3.8%, respectively, of gastric cancer surgery patients; and operative complications in 6.74% of bowel surgery patients. Some required open repair, and 49 patients died. The characteristic causes of complications in endoscopic surgery are a misunderstanding of anatomy, handling of organs outside the visual field, burn by electrocautery, and injuries caused by forceps. Bleeding that requires a laparotomy for hemostasis is also a complication. Furthermore, since the surgery is usually videorecorded, immature techniques resulting in complications are easily discovered. To decrease the frequency of accidents, education through textbooks and seminars, training using training boxes, simulators, or animals, proper selection of the surgeon depending on the difficulty of the procedure, a low threshold for conversion to laparotomy, and use of the best optical equipment and surgical instruments are important. To avoid malpractice lawsuits, informed consent obtained before surgery and proper communication after accidents are necessary.

  15. Endoscopic treatment of esophageal achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D

    2016-01-01

    Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection. Even though few patients can be cured with only one treatment and repeat procedure might be needed, long term relief from dysphagia can be obtained in about 90% of cases with either surgical interventions such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or with endoscopic techniques such pneumatic dilatation or, more recently, with per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Age, sex, and manometric type by HRM are also predictors of responsiveness to treatment. Older patients, females and type II achalasia are better after treatment compared to younger patients, males and type III achalasia. Self-expandable metallic stents are an alternative in patients non responding to conventional therapies. PMID:26839644

  16. Endoscopic management of posterior epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J; Kanotra, Sohit Paul; Kanotra, Sonika

    2011-04-01

    The traditional method of management of posterior epistaxis has been with anteroposterior nasal packing. Apart from the high failure rate of 26-50% reported in various series, nasal packing is associated with marked discomfort and several complications. In order to avoid nasal packing, we started doing endoscopic cauterization in cases of posterior epistaxis. A total of 23 patients with posterior epistaxis were subjected to nasal endoscopy with the intent to stop bleeding by cauterization of the bleeding vessel. Of these, in four cases unsuspected diagnosis was made. Of the remaining 19, in three patients, the bleeding point could not be localized accurately and these patients were managed by anteroposterior packing. The rest of the 16 patients were managed by endoscopic cauterization. In four patients, there was recurrence of bleeding within 24 h. In one of these, cauterization controlled the bleeding while in the rest nasal packing had to be resorted to. Thus, of the 23 patients of posterior epistaxis subjected to nasal endoscopy, we could avoid nasal packing in 17 (74%). To conclude, endoscopic nasal cauterization is recommended as the first line to treatment in all cases of posterior epistaxis. This will not only prevent the uncomfortable and potentially dangerous nasal packing but also help in finding the underlying pathology.

  17. Endoscopically removed giant submucosal lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although uncommon, giant submucosal colon lipomas merit attention as they are often presented with dramatic clinical features such as bleeding, acute bowel obstruction, perforation and sometimes may be mistaken for malignancy. There is a great debate in the literature as to how to treat them. Case report. A patient, 67-year old, was admitted to the Clinic due to a constipation over the last several months, increasing abdominal pain mainly localized in the left lower quadrant accompanied by nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. Physical examination was unremarkable and the results of the detailed laboratory tests and carcinoembryonic antigen remained within normal limits. Colonoscopy revealed a large 10 cm long, and 4 to 5 cm in diameter, mobile lesion in his sigmoid colon. Conventional endoscopic ultrasound revealed 5 cm hyperechoic lesion of the colonic wall. Twenty MHz mini-probe examination showed that lesion was limited to the submucosa. Since polyp appeared too large for a single transaction, it was removed piecemeal. Once the largest portion of the polyp has been resected, it was relatively easy to place the opened snare loop around portions of the residual polyp. Endoscopic resection was carried out safely without complications. Histological examination revealed the common typical histological features of lipoma elsewhere. The patient remained stable and eventually discharged home. Four weeks later he suffered no recurrent symptoms. Conclusion. Colonic lipomas can be endoscopically removed safely eliminating unnecessary surgery.

  18. [Endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous for biliary drainage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Marie Høxbro; Vilmann, Peter; Hassan, Hazem; Karstensen, John Gésdal

    2015-04-27

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is currently standard treatment for biliary drainage. Endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) is a novel method to overcome an unsuccessful biliary drainage procedure. Under endoscopic ultrasound guidance a guidewire is passed via a needle from the stomach or duodenum to the common bile duct and from there on to the duodenum enabling ERCP. With a relatively high rate of success EUS-RV should be considered as an alternative to biliary drainage and surgical intervention.

  19. Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy Breaking New Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M.

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management ...

  20. New techniques in gastrointestinal endoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antonio Luengas Tello

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal endoscopic surgery has been making great progress since the seventies in the management paradigms of conditions such as gastrointestinal bleeding, polyp resection and diagnostic and therapeutic management of the biliary tract. The current challenge is the development of techniques that allow endoscopic treatment of emerging diseases such as cancer, morbid obesity, gastro-esophageal reflux and achalasia. This article reports on new techniques and expectations for the future in the endoscopic management of these diseases.

  1. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  2. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy breaking new frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management of benign sino-nasal tumours. We present our experience of endoscopic medial maxillectomy in the management of sinonasal pathologies.

  3. Asymptomatic Esophageal Varices Should Be Endoscopically Treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nib Soehendra

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment has generally been accepted in the management of bleeding esophageal varices. Both the control of acute variceal bleeding and elective variceal eradication to prevent recurrent bleeding can be achieved via endoscopic methods. In contrast to acute and elective treatment, the role of endoscopic therapy in asymptomatic patients who have never had variceal bleeding remains controversial because of the rather disappointing results obtained from prophylactic sclerotherapy. Most published randomized controlled trials showed that prophylactic sclerotherapy had no effect on survival. In some studies, neither survival rate nor bleeding risk was improved. In this article, the author champions the view that asymptomatic esophageal varices should be endoscopically treated.

  4. Endoscopic full-thickness resection: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2015-08-21

    Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices.

  5. Prolonged analgesic effect of PLGA-encapsulated bee venom on formalin-induced pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Injae; Kim, Beom-Soo; Lee, Hyejung; Lee, Kang-Min; Shim, Insop; Kang, Sung-Keel; Yin, Chang-Shick; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2009-10-01

    To enhance the medicinal activity of bee venom (BV) acupuncture, bee venom was loaded into biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles (BV-PLGA-NPs) by a water-in-oil-in-water-emulsion/solvent-evaporation technique. Rat formalin tests were performed after subcutaneous injection of BV-PLGA-NPs to the Zusanli acupuncture point (ST36) at 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h before plantar injection of 2% formalin. BV-PLGA-NPs treatment showed comparable analgesic activity to typical BV acupuncture during the late phase, compared with saline-treated controls, and the analgesic effect lasted for 12h. PLGA-encapsulation was also effective in alleviating the edema induced by allergens in bee venom. These results indicate that PLGA-encapsulation provided a more prolonged effect of BV acupuncture treatment, while maintaining a comparable therapeutic effect.

  6. Stress of formalin treatment in juvenile spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, Gary; Yasutake, W.T.

    1973-01-01

    The physiological stress of 200 ppm formalin treatments at 10 C is more severe in the juvenile steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) than in the spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). In the steelhead, a marked hypochloremia follows a 1-hr treatment and recovery requires about 24 hr. During longer treatments, hypercholesterolemia together with reduced regulatory precision, hypercortisolemia, alkaline reserve depletion, and hypocapnia unaccompanied by a fall in blood pH occur — suggestive of compensated respiratory alkalosis. In the spring chinook, hypochloremia and reduced plasma cholesterol regulatory precision are the significant treatment side effects but recovery requires only a few hours.Formalin treatments also cause epithelial separation, hypertrophy, and necrosis in the gills of both fishes but again, consistent with the physiological dysfunctions, these are more severe in the steelhead.

  7. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  8. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  9. Synergistic effect of the interaction between curcumin and diclofenac on the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paz-Campos, Marco A; Ortiz, Mario I; Chávez Piña, Aracely E; Zazueta-Beltrán, Liliana; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto

    2014-10-15

    The association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with certain plant extracts can increase antinociceptive activity, permitting the use of lower doses and thus limiting side effects. Therefore, the aim objective of the current study was to examine the effects of curcumin on the nociception and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in rats. Antinociception was assessed using the formalin test. Diluted formalin was injected subcutaneously into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw. Nociceptive behavior was quantified as the number of flinches of the injected paw during 60 min after injection, and a reduction in formalin-induced flinching was interpreted as an antinociceptive response. Rats were treated with oral diclofenac (1-31 mg/kg), curcumin (3.1-100 mg/kg) or the diclofenac-curcumin combination (2.4-38.4 mg/kg). To determine the possibility of a pharmacokinetic interaction, the oral bioavailability of diclofenac (10 mg/kg) was studied in presence and the absence of curcumin (31 mg/kg). Diclofenac, curcumin, or diclofenac-curcumin combination produced an antinociceptive effect on the formalin test. ED30 values were estimated for the individual drugs, and an isobologram was constructed. The derived theoretical ED30 for the antinociceptive effect (19.2 mg/kg) was significantly different from the observed experimental ED30 value (9.8 mg/kg); hence, the interaction between diclofenac and curcumin that mediates the antinociceptive effect was synergistic. Notwithstanding, the interaction does not appear to involve pharmacokinetic mechanisms, as oral curcumin failed to produce any significant alteration in oral diclofenac bioavailability. Data suggest that the diclofenac-curcumin combination can interact at the systemic level and may have therapeutic advantages for the clinical treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Synergistic analgesia of duloxetine and celecoxib in the mouse formalin test: a combination analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hai Sun

    Full Text Available Duloxetine, a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, and celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, are commonly used analgesics for persistent pain, however with moderate gastrointestinal side effects or analgesia tolerance. One promising analgesic strategy is to give a combined prescription, allowing the maximal or equal efficacy with fewer side effects. In the current study, the efficacy and side effects of combined administration of duloxetine and celecoxib were tested in the mouse formalin pain model. The subcutaneous (s.c. injection of formalin into the left hindpaw induced significant somatic and emotional pain evaluated by the biphasic spontaneous flinching of the injected hindpaw and interphase ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during the 1 h after formalin injection, respectively. Pretreatment with intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of duloxetine or celecoxib at 1 h before formalin injection induced the dose-dependent inhibition on the second but not first phase pain responses. Combined administration of duloxetine and celecoxib showed significant analgesia for the second phase pain responses. Combination analgesia on the first phase was observed only with higher dose combination. A statistical difference between the theoretical and experimental ED50 for the second phase pain responses was observed, which indicated synergistic interaction of the two drugs. Concerning the emotional pain responses revealed with USVs, we assumed that the antinociceptive effects were almost completely derived from duloxetine, since celecoxib was ineffective when administered alone or reduced the dosage of duloxetine when given in combination. Based on the above findings, acute concomitant administration of duloxetine and celecoxib showed synergism on the somatic pain behavior but not emotional pain behaviors.

  11. Comparison of Tissue Preservation using Formalin and Ethanol as Preservative Formula

    OpenAIRE

    See Woan Shian; Arifin Soenggono; Sawkar Vijay Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue preservation can be performed through embalming, by providing the chemical embalming fluid to the human remains. Formalin’s preservative formula is the foundation for modern methods of embalming. Unfortunately, this preservative formula has several disadvantages. While Ethanol’s preservative formula is a considerable agent to replace formalin’s preservative formula. The aim of this study was to compare the tissue preservation using formalin and ethanol as preservative formu...

  12. The Effect of Experimental Parkinson on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Pain is one of the preceding claims of Parkinson's disease (PD, that its mechanisms have not been fully identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical pain responses induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin in male parkinsonized rats.   Method : In this experimental study, 40 Wistar male rats were used and PD was established by stereotaxic injection of 6-OHDA toxin into the striatum. Parkinson's disease severity determined by apomorphine-induced rotation test and then the pain response of 4 groups, the control, sham and 2 weak or full Parkinson groups, were evaluated using formalin test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test.   Results : In both acute and chronic phases of the formalin test, the symptoms of pain in different groups were same, but at the interphase stage, pain intensity increased more in Parkinson 's rats, especially in full PD group compared to control (p<0.01.   Conclusion: These results suggest that the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway have important modulating role on chronic pain.

  13. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at Ptest groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats.

  14. PrPSc detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue by ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson Eric M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue is regularly employed in the diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE by immunohistochemistry (IHC, the standard by which all other TSE diagnostic protocols are judged. While IHC affords advantages over diagnostic approaches that typically utilize fresh or frozen tissue, such as Western blot and ELISA, the process of fixing, staining, and analyzing individual sections by hand does not allow for rapid or high throughput screening. However, preservation of tissues in formalin is not dependent upon the availability of refrigeration. Findings Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from TSE transmission studies of scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer or transmissible mink encephalopathy in cattle were cut at 5 μm thickness. Samples containing the tissue equivalent of as little as one 5 μm section can be used to readily discriminate positive from negative samples. Conclusions This approach cannot replace IHC but may be used along with IHC as both a more rapid and readily high throughput screen where fresh or frozen tissues are not available or impractical.

  15. Physiological effects of potassium chloride, formalin and handling stress on bonytail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Catherine L.; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Gould, William R.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized the sublethal physiological changes in bonytail Gila elegans subjected to consecutive 750-mg/L potassium chloride (KCl) and 25-mg/L formalin treatments for the removal of zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussel D. bugensis veligers. Plasma cortisol, glucose, and osmolality were measured over 24 h and at 14 d posthandling after exposing bonytail to KCl and one net stressor (capture with a net), KCl plus formalin and two net stressors, and one or two net stressors without chemicals. Elevated plasma cortisol (322–440 ng/mL) and glucose (254–399 mg/dL) concentrations were observed in all treatments compared with the concentrations in control fish (plasma cortisol, 56 ng/mL; glucose, 43 mg/dL). While there were no detectable differences in plasma osmolality among the treatment and control fish, a difference was observed between fish that were handled once versus twice. Chemical effects of stress were not observed in any of the physiological responses when the KCl treatment was compared with the one-net stressor treatment or when the KCl plus formalin treatment was compared with the two-net stressor treatment. Cumulative responses, however, were observed between one net stressor and two net stressors for plasma glucose and osmolality but not for plasma cortisol. Plasma cortisol and glucose levels remained elevated at 24 h posthandling, indicating that bonytail had not completely recovered from the handling stressors and would benefit from a recovery period in protected refugia before being released.

  16. A case study of rabies diagnosis from formalin-fixed brain material : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Coertse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is caused by several Lyssavirus species, a group of negative sense RNA viruses. Although rabies is preventable, it is often neglected particularly in developing countries in the face of many competing public and veterinary health priorities. Epidemiological information based on laboratory-based surveillance data is critical to adequately strategise control and prevention plans. In this regard the fluorescent antibody test for rabies virus antigen in brain tissues is still considered the basic requirement for laboratory confirmation of animal cases. Occasionally brain tissues from suspected rabid animals are still submitted in formalin, although this has been discouraged for a number of years. Immunohistochemical testing or a modified fluorescent antibody technique can be performed on such samples. However, this method is cumbersome and cannot distinguish between different Lyssavirus species. Owing to RNA degradation in formalin-fixed tissues, conventional RT-PCR methodologies have also been proven to be unreliable. This report is concerned with a rabies case in a domestic dog from an area in South Africa where rabies is not common. Typing of the virus involved was therefore important, but the only available sample was submitted as a formalin-fixed specimen. A real-time RT-PCR method was therefore applied and it was possible to confirmrabies and obtain phylogenetic information that indicated a close relationship between this virus and the canid rabies virus variants from another province (KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa.

  17. Magnesium sulfate reduces formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats with normal magnesium serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja M; Dožić, Ivan S; Dožić, Branko S; Savić Vujović, Katarina R; Milovanović, Aleksandar P; Karadžić, Branislav V; Prostran, Milica Š

    2018-02-01

    In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain. Male Wistar rats were injected with 1.5% formalin into the perinasal area, and the total time spent in pain-related behavior (face rubbing) was quantified. We also spectrophotometrically determined the concentration of magnesium and creatine kinase activity in blood serum. Magnesium sulfate administered subcutaneously (0.005-45mg/kg) produced significant antinociception in the second phase of the orofacial formalin test in rats at physiological serum concentration of magnesium. The effect was not dose-dependent. The maximum antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate was about 50% and was achieved at doses of 15 and 45mg/kg. Magnesium did not affect increase the levels of serum creatine kinase activity. Preemptive systemic administration of magnesium sulfate as the only drug can be used to prevent inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. Its analgesic effect is not associated with magnesium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Robot-assisted endoscope guidance versus manual endoscope guidance in functional endonasal sinus surgery (FESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Klaus Wolfgang; Westphal, Ralf; Rilk, Markus; Last, Carsten; Bootz, Friedrich; Wahl, Friedrich; Jakob, Mark; Send, Thorsten

    2017-10-01

    Having one hand occupied with the endoscope is the major disadvantage for the surgeon when it comes to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Only the other hand is free to use the surgical instruments. Tiredness or frequent instrument changes can thus lead to shaky endoscopic images. We collected the pose data (position and orientation) of the rigid 0° endoscope and all the instruments used in 16 FESS procedures with manual endoscope guidance as well as robot-assisted endoscope guidance. In combination with the DICOM CT data, we tracked the endoscope poses and workspaces using self-developed tracking markers. All surgeries were performed once with the robot and once with the surgeon holding the endoscope. Looking at the durations required, we observed a decrease in the operating time because one surgeon doing all the procedures and so a learning curve occurred what we expected. The visual inspection of the specimens showed no damages to any of the structures outside the paranasal sinuses. Robot-assisted endoscope guidance in sinus surgery is possible. Further CT data, however, are desirable for the surgical analysis of a tracker-based navigation within the anatomic borders. Our marker-based tracking of the endoscope as well as the instruments makes an automated endoscope guidance feasible. On the subjective side, we see that RASS brings a relief for the surgeon.

  19. Plasma spraying process of disperse carbides for spraying and facing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Vishnevetskaya, I.A.; Kostyukovich, T.G.; Ostapovich, A.O.

    1989-01-01

    A possibility to metallize carbides in plasma of impulsing capacitor discharge is considered. Powders granulation occurs during plasma spraying process, ceramic core being completely capped. X-ray phase and chemical analyses of coatings did not show considerable changes of carbon content in carbides before and after plasma processing. This distinguishes the process of carbides metallization in impulsing plasma from the similar processing in arc and high-frequency plasma generator. Use of powder composites produced in the impulsing capacitor discharge, for plasma spraying and laser facing permits 2-3 times increasing wear resistance of the surface layer as against the coatings produced from mechanical powders mixtures

  20. Inhibition of Spinal Interlukin-33/ST2 Signaling and Downstream ERK and JNK Pathways in Electroacupuncture Analgesia in Formalin Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Han

    Full Text Available Although acupuncture is widely used to manage pain, it remains highly controversial, largely due to the lack of a clear mechanism for its benefits. Here, we investigated the role of IL-33, a novel interleukin (IL-1 family member, and its receptor ST2 in the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA on formalin-induced inflammatory pain. The results showed that 1 EA stimulation of ipsilateral Zusanli (ST 36 and Yanglingquan (GB 34 acupoints for 30 min remarkably suppressed the two phases of formalin-induced spontaneous pain; 2 subcutaneous or intrathecal administration of recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33 significantly inhibited the analgesic effect of EA, whereas the ST2 antibody potentiated EA analgesia in formalin mice; 3 EA treatment decreased the up-regulation of IL-33 and ST2 protein following formalin injection; and 4 the suppression of the formalin-induced expression of spinal phosphorylated ERK and JNK induced by EA treatment was significantly attenuated following subcutaneous rIL-33 delivery, and was further decreased by the ST2 antibody. These data suggest that EA alleviates formalin-induced inflammatory pain, at least partially, by inhibiting of spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling and the downstream ERK and JNK pathways.

  1. Inhibition of Spinal Interlukin-33/ST2 Signaling and Downstream ERK and JNK Pathways in Electroacupuncture Analgesia in Formalin Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Yanqing; Wu, Gencheng; Mi, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Although acupuncture is widely used to manage pain, it remains highly controversial, largely due to the lack of a clear mechanism for its benefits. Here, we investigated the role of IL-33, a novel interleukin (IL)-1 family member, and its receptor ST2 in the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on formalin-induced inflammatory pain. The results showed that 1) EA stimulation of ipsilateral Zusanli (ST 36) and Yanglingquan (GB 34) acupoints for 30 min remarkably suppressed the two phases of formalin-induced spontaneous pain; 2) subcutaneous or intrathecal administration of recombinant IL-33 (rIL-33) significantly inhibited the analgesic effect of EA, whereas the ST2 antibody potentiated EA analgesia in formalin mice; 3) EA treatment decreased the up-regulation of IL-33 and ST2 protein following formalin injection; and 4) the suppression of the formalin-induced expression of spinal phosphorylated ERK and JNK induced by EA treatment was significantly attenuated following subcutaneous rIL-33 delivery, and was further decreased by the ST2 antibody. These data suggest that EA alleviates formalin-induced inflammatory pain, at least partially, by inhibiting of spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling and the downstream ERK and JNK pathways. PMID:26067287

  2. Endoscopic approach to the infratemporal fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Youssef

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach is considered one of the most useful surgical solutions to manage selected tumors that involve the infratemporal fossa. A good understanding of the endoscopic anatomy of infratemporal fossa allows safe and complete resection of lesions arising or extending to infratemporal fossa.

  3. Duodenal diverticular bleeding: an endoscopic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Valdivielso-Cortázar

    Full Text Available Duodenal diverticula are an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Until recently, it was primarily managed with surgery, but advances in the field of endoscopy have made management increasingly less invasive. We report a case of duodenal diverticular bleeding that was endoscopically managed, and review the literature about the various endoscopic therapies thus far described.

  4. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  5. Endoscopic palliation in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivieso, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The integral search for improved living conditions for those patients with gastric cancer who have not received curative surgical treatment continues to challenge the knowledge, dexterity and ethical foundations of medical teams. The justification for palliative treatment must be based on a thorough consideration of the available options and the particular situation in each case. This article reviews endoscopic therapy with auto expandable prosthetics for palliative treatment of gastric cancer, as well as the scientific evidence that supports its use and the factors that determine its indication.

  6. Integrated biophotonics in endoscopic oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.

    2009-02-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great progress during last decade. Diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced by better training, improved dye-contrast techniques method, and the development of new image processing technologies. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white-light optical imaging is essentially limited by being based on morphological changes and/or visual attribution: hue, saturation and intensity, interpretation of which depends on the endoscopist's eye and brain. In microlesions in the gastrointestinal tract, we still rely ultimately on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Autofluorescence imaging system has been applied for lesions which have been difficult to morphologically recognize or are indistinct with conventional endoscope, and this approach has potential application for the diagnosis of dysplastic lesions and early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, supplementing the information from white light endoscopy. This system has an advantage that it needs no administration of a photosensitive agent, making it suitable as a screening method for the early detection of neoplastic tissues. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique which can distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions without chromoendoscopy. Magnifying endoscopy in combination with NBI has an obvious advantage, namely analysis of the epithelial pit pattern and the vascular network. This new technique allows a detailed visualization in early neoplastic lesions of esophagus, stomach and colon. However, problems remain; how to combine these technologies in an optimum diagnostic strategy, how to apply them into the algorithm for therapeutic decision-making, and how to standardize several classifications surrounding them. 'Molecular imaging' is a concept representing the most novel imaging methods in medicine, although the definition of the word is still controversial. In the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the future of

  7. Endoscopic management of hilar biliary strictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Ranjan; Singh, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Hilar biliary strictures are caused by various benign and malignant conditions. It is difficult to differentiate benign and malignant strictures. Postcholecystectomy benign biliary strictures are frequently encountered. Endoscopic management of these strictures is challenging. An endoscopic method has been advocated that involves placement of increasing number of stents at regular intervals to resolve the stricture. Malignant hilar strictures are mostly unresectable at the time of diagnosis and only palliation is possible.Endoscopic palliation is preferred over surgery or radiological intervention. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticography is quite important in the management of these strictures. Metal stents are superior to plastic stents. The opinion is divided over the issue of unilateral or bilateral stenting.Minimal contrast or no contrast technique has been advocated during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography of these patients. The role of intraluminal brachytherapy, intraductal ablation devices, photodynamic therapy, and endoscopic ultrasound still remains to be defined. PMID:26191345

  8. Endoscopes with latest technology and concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh

    2003-09-01

    Endoscopic imaging systems that perform as the "eye" of the operator during endoscopic surgical procedures have developed rapidly due to various technological developments. In addition, since the most recent turn of the century robotic surgery has increased its scope through the utilization of systems such as Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci System. To optimize the imaging required for precise robotic surgery, a unique endoscope has been developed, consisting of both a two dimensional (2D) image optical system for wider observation of the entire surgical field, and a three dimensional (3D) image optical system for observation of the more precise details at the operative site. Additionally, a "near infrared radiation" endoscopic system is under development to detect the sentinel lymph node more readily. Such progress in the area of endoscopic imaging is expected to enhance the surgical procedure from both the patient's and the surgeon's point of view.

  9. Endoscopic findings following retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, Alexey V; Dmitriev, Ilya V; Shmarina, Nonna V; Teterin, Yury S; Balkarov, Aslan G; Storozhev, Roman V; Anisimov, Yuri A; Gasanov, Ali M

    2017-07-01

    An evaluation of the efficacy of endoscopic methods for the diagnosis and correction of surgical and immunological complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. From October 2011 to March 2015, 27 patients underwent simultaneous retroperitoneal pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT). Diagnostic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with protocol biopsy of the donor and recipient duodenal mucosa and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) were performed to detect possible complications. Endoscopic stenting of the main pancreatic duct with plastic stents and three-stage endoscopic hemostasis were conducted to correct the identified complications. Endoscopic methods showed high efficiency in the timely diagnosis and adequate correction of complications after retroperitoneal pancreas transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  11. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  12. Liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia: long-term results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Sonia; Mercer, Kim; Twaddell, William S; Uradomo, Lance; Greenwald, Bruce D

    2013-08-01

    Liquid nitrogen endoscopic spray cryotherapy can safely and effectively eradicate high-grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE-HGD). Long-term data on treatment success and safety are lacking. To assess the long-term safety and efficacy of spray cryotherapy in patients with BE-HGD. Single-center, retrospective study. Tertiary-care referral center. A total of 32 patients with BE-HGD of any length. Patients were treated with liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy every 8 weeks until complete eradication of HGD (CE-HGD) and intestinal metaplasia (CE-IM) was found by endoscopic biopsy. Surveillance endoscopy with biopsies was performed for at least 2 years. CE-HGD, CE-IM, durability of response, disease progression, and adverse events. CE-HGD was 100% (32/32), and CE-IM was 84% (27/32) at 2-year follow-up. At last follow-up (range 24-57 months), CE-HGD was 31/32 (97%), and CE-IM was 26/32 (81%). Recurrent HGD was found in 6 (18%), with CE-HGD in 5 after repeat treatment. One patient progressed to adenocarcinoma, downgraded to HGD after repeat cryotherapy. BE segment length ≥3 cm was associated with a higher recurrence of IM (P = .004; odds ratio 22.6) but not HGD. No serious adverse events occurred. Stricture was seen in 3 patients (9%), all successfully dilated. Retrospective study design, small sample size. In patients with BE-HGD, liquid nitrogen spray cryotherapy has an acceptable safety profile and success rate for eliminating HGD and IM and is associated with a low rate of recurrence or progression to cancer with long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CONCHAS-SPRAY, Reactive Flows with Fuel Sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutman, L.D.; Dukowicz, J.K.; Ramshaw, J.D.; Amsden, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Description of program or function: CONCHAS-SPRAY solves the equations of transient, multicomponent, chemically reactive fluid dynamics, together with those for the dynamics of an evaporating liquid spray. The program was developed with applications to internal combustion engines in mind. The formulation is spatially two-dimensional, and encompasses both planar and axisymmetric geometries. In the latter case, the flow is permitted to swirl about the axis of symmetry. CONCHAS-SPRAY is a time-marching, finite- difference program that uses a partially implicit numerical scheme. Spatial differences are formed with respect to a generalized two- dimensional mesh of arbitrary quadrilaterals whose corner locations are specified functions of time. This feature allows a Lagrangian, Eulerian, or mixed description, and is particularly useful for representing curved or moving boundary surfaces. Arbitrary numbers of species and chemical reactions are allowed. The latter are subdivided into kinetic and equilibrium reactions, which are treated by different algorithms. A turbulent law-of-the-wall boundary layer option is provided. CONCHAS-SPRAY calls a number of LANL system subroutines to display graphic or numerical information on microfiche. These routines are not included, but are described in the reference report. Several routines called from LINPACK and SLATEC1.0 are included

  14. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  15. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  16. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  17. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  18. A new method for spray deposit assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester M. Himel; Leland Vaughn; Raymond P. Miskus; Arthur D. Moore

    1965-01-01

    Solid fluorescent particles suspended in a spray liquid are distributed in direct proportion to the size of the spray droplets. Use of solid fluorescent particles is the basis of a new method for visual recognition of the size and number of droplets impinging on target and nontarget portions of sprayed areas.

  19. Therapeutic aspects of endoscopic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Timothy A.

    1999-06-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a technology that had been used primarily as a passive imaging modality. Recent advances have enabled us to move beyond the use of EUS solely as a staging tool to an interventional device. Current studies suggest that interventional applications of EUS will allow for minimally invasive assessment and therapies in a cost-effective manner. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been demonstrated to be a technically feasible, relatively safe method of obtaining cytologic specimens. The clinical utility of EUS- FNA appears to be greatest in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer and in the nodal staging of gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. In addition, EUS-FNA has demonstrated utility in the sampling pleural and ascitic fluid not generally appreciated or assessable to standard interventions. Interventional applications of EUS include EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage, EUS-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia, and EUS- guided celiac plexus neurolysis in the treatment of pancreatic cancer pain. Finally, EUS-guided fine-needle installation is being evaluated, in conjunction with recent bimolecular treatment modalities, as a delivery system in the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tumors.

  20. Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Resection of Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kong Yew; Narayanan, Prepageran; Waran, Vicknes

    2018-02-01

    Objectives  To demonstrate, step-by-step, the technique and efficacy of endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma. Design  The video shows a step-by-step approach to the resection, covering the exposure, access, resection, and confirmation of resection and reconstruction. Setting  The surgery was performed in the University of Malaya Medical Centre, a tertiary referral center in the capital of Malaysia. Participants  Surgery was performed jointly by Professor Prepageran from the department of otorhinolaryngology and Professor Vicknes Waran from the division of neurosurgery. Both surgeons are from the University of Malaya. Video compilation, editing, and voice narration was done by Dr. Kong Yew Liew. Main Outcome Measures  Completeness of resection and avoidance of intra- and postoperative complications. Results  Based on intraoperative views and MRI findings, the tumor was completely resected with the patient suffering only transient diabetes insipidus. Conclusion  Central suprasellar tumors can be removed completely via an endoscopic transsphenoidal approach with minimal morbidity to the patient. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/ZNIHfk12cYg .

  1. 21 CFR 884.4100 - Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. 884... Surgical Devices § 884.4100 Endoscopic electrocautery and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscopic electrocautery is a device used to perform female sterilization under endoscopic observation. It is designed to...

  2. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  3. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    market for the delivery system and ongoing development of transdermal sprays for hormone ... (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... patches and gels have been very popular owing ... This product was developed for ... In a safety announcement, the US Food and.

  4. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  5. Endoscopic approaches to treatment of achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Iqbal, Shahzad; Grendell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy for achalasia is directed at disrupting or weakening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The two most commonly utilized endoscopic interventions are large balloon pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin injection (BTI). These interventions have been extensively scrutinized and compared with each other as well as with surgical disruption (myotomy) of the LES. PD is generally more effective in improving dysphagia in achalasia than BTI, with the latter reserved for infirm older people, and PD may approach treatment results attained with myotomy. However, PD may need to be repeated. Small balloon dilation and endoscopic stent placement for achalasia have only been used in select centers. Per oral endoscopic myotomy is a newer endoscopic modality that will likely change the treatment paradigm for achalasia. It arose from the field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and represents a scarless endoscopic approach to Heller myotomy. This is a technique that requires extensive training and preparation and thus there should be rigorous accreditation and monitoring of outcomes to ensure safety and efficacy. PMID:23503707

  6. Endoscopic management of bleeding peptic ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, J.I.; Farooqi, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Peptic ulcers account for more than half of the cases of non variceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and therefore, are the focus of most of the methods of endoscopic hemostasis. Surgical intervention is now largely reserved for patients in whom endoscopic hemostasis has failed. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been employed to stop bleeding and reduce the risk of rebleeding, with no major differences in outcome between these methods. These include injection therapy, fibrin injection, heater probe, mono polar electrocautery, bipolar electrocautery, lasers and mechanical hemo clipping. The most important factor in determining outcome after gastrointestinal bleeding is rebleeding or persistent bleeding. The endoscopic appearance of an ulcer, however, provides the most useful prognostic information for bleeding. Recurrent bleeding after initial endoscopic hemostasis occurs in 15-20% of patients with a bleeding peptic ulcer. The best approach to these patients remains controversial; the current options are repeat endoscopic therapy with the same or a different technique, emergency surgery or semi elective surgery after repeat endoscopic hemostasis. The combination of epinephrine injection with thermal coagulation may be more effective than epinephrine injection alone. Newer modalities such as fibrin injection or the application of hemo clips appear promising and comparative studies are awaited. (author)

  7. Synergism between dexketoprofen and meloxicam in an orofacial formalin test was not modified by opioid antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Claudia; Zegpi, Carlos; Noriega, Viviana; Prieto, Juan C; Miranda, Hugo F

    2011-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most widely used drugs for the management of acute and chronic pain. The role of the opioid system in the synergism between NSAIDs is not well characterized. Mice were injected with a 5% formalin solution (20 μl) into the upper right lip to perform an orofacial formalin test. The isobolographic method was used to determine the interaction between dexketoprofen, which is the (S)-(+) enantiomer of ketoprofen, and meloxicam co-administration. Additionally, the non-selective, opioid antagonist naltrexone, the selective δ opioid receptor (DOP) antagonist naltrindole and the selective κ opioid receptor (KOP) antagonist norbinaltorphimine were used to assess the opioid effects on this interaction. Intraperitoneal administration of dexketoprofen or meloxicam induced dose-dependent antinociception with different phase I and phase II potencies in the orofacial formalin test. Meloxicam displayed similar potencies (ED(50)) in phase I (7.20 mg/kg) and phase II (8.60 mg/kg). Dexketoprofen was more potent in phase I (19.96 mg/kg) than in phase II (50.90 mg/kg). The interactions between dexketoprofen and meloxicam were synergistic in both phases. This was determined based on the fixed ratios (1:1) of their ED(50) values, which were determined by isobolographic analysis. Furthermore, this antinociceptive activity does not seem to be modulated by opioid receptor blockers because they did not induce changes in the nature of this interaction. This finding may be relevant with regards to NSAID multi-modal analgesia where an opioid antagonist must be used.

  8. The used of formalin, borax and initial bacterial contamination on otak-otak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Kadir I

    2013-01-01

    A research has been conducted to identify the used of formalin and borax content and also study the initial bacterial contamination on otak-otak. The wrapped and unwrapped samples were irradiated with a dose of 3 kGy Further, the samples were stored at room temperature (± 30°C) and low temperature (± 4°C) up to 4 weeks. The irradiation was done at a Multipurpose Panoramic Batch Irradiator (IRPASENA) with a dose rate of 1.149 kGy/h. Those samples were stored 4 weeks at 2 different temperatures and the total bacteria were observe every week. The measured parameter were formalin and borax content in otak-otak, the amount of total aerob bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp., identification of Salmonella. The results showed all samples used formalin but borax was not detected. Initial contamination of total aerob bacteria for unwrapped and wrapped samples were 4.3 x 10"7 and 2.0 x 10"7 cfu/g, respectively. Irradiation dose up to 3 kGy showed no bacterial growth on unwrapped and wrapped samples. Combination treatment of irradiation and storage at low temperature could eliminate all aerobic bacteria at the first week. Initial contamination of coliform bacteria on unwrapped and wrapped samples were 1.9 x 10"5 and 5.7 x 10"5 cfu/g, respectively. Initial contamination of E. coli on unwrapped and wrapped samples were 1.2 x 10"5 cfu/g. The total amount of Staphylococcus spp. on unwrapped and wrapped samples were 3.3 x 10"5 and 4.8 x 10"6 cfu/g, respectively. Irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy could eliminate coliform bacteria, E. coli and Staphylococcus spp in all samples observed. No Salmonella was detected in all samples observed. (author)

  9. Metformin and phenformin block the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin on the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mario I

    2012-01-02

    Recent evidence has shown that systemic administration of sulfonylureas and biguanides block the diclofenac-induced antinociception, but not the effect produced by indomethacin. However, there are no reports about the peripheral interaction between analgesics and the biguanides metformin and phenformin. Therefore, this work was undertaken to determine whether glibenclamide and glipizide and the biguanides metformin and phenformin have any effect on the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin. Diclofenac and indomethacin were administered locally in the formalin-injured rat paw, and the antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the 1% formalin test. To determine whether peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac or indomethacin was mediated by either the ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or biguanides-induced mechanisms, the effect of pretreatment with the appropriates vehicles or glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin on the antinociceptive effect induced by local peripheral diclofenac and indomethacin was assessed. Local peripheral injections of diclofenac (50-200 μg/paw) and indomethacin (200-800 μg/paw) produced a dose-dependent antinociception during the second phase of the test. Local pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin blocked the diclofenac-induced antinociception. On the other hand, the pretreatment with glibenclamide and glipizide did not prevent the local antinociception produced by indomethacin. Nonetheless, metformin and phenformin reversed the local antinociception induced by indomethacin. Data suggest that diclofenac could activate the K(+) channels and biguanides-dependent mechanisms to produce its peripheral antinociceptive effects in the formalin test. Likewise, a biguanides-dependent mechanism could be activated by indomethacin consecutively to generate its peripheral antinociceptive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inadvertent injection of formalin mistaken for local anesthetic agent: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-05-01

    Chemical facial cellulitis, while commonly seen in domestic accidents or attempted suicide, is uncommon in the dental office and hence rarely addressed in the dental literature. We present an unusual case of chemical facial cellulitis caused by inadvertent injection of formalin into the soft tissues of the oral cavity, which was mistaken for local anesthesia solution. This report comprises the immediate symptoms, possible root cause, and management of the difficult situation. We also provide some guidelines to avoid such unfortunate events. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [PACS-based endoscope image acquisition workstation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J B; Zhuang, T G

    2001-01-01

    A practical PACS-based Endoscope Image Acquisition Workstation is here introduced. By a Multimedia Video Card, the endoscope video is digitized and captured dynamically or statically into computer. This workstation realizes a variety of functions such as the endoscope video's acquisition and display, as well as the editing, processing, managing, storage, printing, communication of related information. Together with other medical image workstation, it can make up the image sources of PACS for hospitals. In addition, it can also act as an independent endoscopy diagnostic system.

  12. Antinociceptive Effect of Morphine Microinjections into the Dorsal Hippocampus in the Formalin-Induced Orofacial Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Khalilzadeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of intra-hippocampal microinjections of morphine (an opioid agonist and naloxone (an opioid antagonist were investigated in the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous injection of formalin (1 %, 50 μl in the upper lip region and the time spent of face rubbing was measured in 3-min blocks for 45 min. Formalin induced a biphasic (first phase: 0-3 min; second phase: 15-33 min pain response. Intra-hippocampal microinjections of morphine at doses of 2 and 4 μg significantly (P < 0.05 attenuated the first phase, and at doses of 1, 2 and 4 μg, morphine significantly (P < 0.05 suppressed both phases of formalin-induced orofacial pain response. Intra-hippocampal microinjections of naloxone (1 and 4 μg non-significantly increased pain when used alone, and in pretreatment microinjection, naloxone (4 μg reversed morphine (2 μg-induced antinociception. These results indicate that at the level of hippocampus of the brain, morphine through a naloxone-reversible mechanism produced an antinociceptive effect confronting the pain induced by formalin in the orofacial region in rats.

  13. The Antinociceptive Effects of Iranian Cobra Snake Venom using Formalin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hadi Chegeni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: There have been numerous reports of snake venoms being employed as analgesics in attempts to relieve severe pain associated with cancer, immune dysfunction and viral infections. This study investigates the antinociceptive effects of iranian cobra snake venom (Naja naja oxiana in comparison with morphine and lidocain on laboratorial femal mice. Materials and Methods: This study has been done on 48 NMRI female mice of 18-20 g in weight. Antinociceptive activeity of snake venom was evaluated by formalin test. In this test, the animals were divided into 6 groups (each group consisting of 8 mice: Sham, positive Control (receiving morphine at dose of 5 mg/kg, and receiving lidocain at dose of 20 mg/kg, and experimental groups receiving venom at doses of 1, 3 and 4/5 µg/mice. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of venom and drugs in mice. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: The results showed that the venom of Naja naja oxiana decreased nociception meaningfully in both acute and chronic phases. We also showed that this venom revealed even a better analgesic activity in comparison with morphine and lidocain. Conclusion: This study showed that the antinociceptive effect of the venom was mediated through central nervous system and peripheral mechanisms. Although details of the mechanism remain unclear, and further studies should be considered to demonstrate its therapeutic effects.

  14. Identifying Corneal Infections in Formalin-Fixed Specimens Using Next Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Breitwieser, Florian P; Lu, Jennifer; Jun, Albert S; Asnaghi, Laura; Salzberg, Steven L; Eberhart, Charles G

    2018-01-01

    We test the ability of next-generation sequencing, combined with computational analysis, to identify a range of organisms causing infectious keratitis. This retrospective study evaluated 16 cases of infectious keratitis and four control corneas in formalin-fixed tissues from the pathology laboratory. Infectious cases also were analyzed in the microbiology laboratory using culture, polymerase chain reaction, and direct staining. Classified sequence reads were analyzed with two different metagenomics classification engines, Kraken and Centrifuge, and visualized using the Pavian software tool. Sequencing generated 20 to 46 million reads per sample. On average, 96% of the reads were classified as human, 0.3% corresponded to known vectors or contaminant sequences, 1.7% represented microbial sequences, and 2.4% could not be classified. The two computational strategies successfully identified the fungal, bacterial, and amoebal pathogens in most patients, including all four bacterial and mycobacterial cases, five of six fungal cases, three of three Acanthamoeba cases, and one of three herpetic keratitis cases. In several cases, additional potential pathogens also were identified. In one case with cytomegalovirus identified by Kraken and Centrifuge, the virus was confirmed by direct testing, while two where Staphylococcus aureus or cytomegalovirus were identified by Centrifuge but not Kraken could not be confirmed. Confirmation was not attempted for an additional three potential pathogens identified by Kraken and 11 identified by Centrifuge. Next generation sequencing combined with computational analysis can identify a wide range of pathogens in formalin-fixed corneal specimens, with potential applications in clinical diagnostics and research.

  15. Lectin immunohistochemical evaluation of human bladder carcinomas. A comparison of Carnoy's and formalin fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, T; Ueda, K; Ohtaguro, K; Inoue, K; Washida, H; Mori, M; Tatemoto, Y; Fukushima, S

    1993-10-01

    A lectin immunohistochemical analysis of 51 human bladder carcinomas, including 44 cases of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) (G1, 15 cases; G2, 17 cases; G3, 12 cases) and 7 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), was performed. Tissues were obtained by cold punch biopsies, fixed in Carnoy's or 10% formalin solution, stained for binding of 10 different lectins, and evaluated under the light microscope. The lectins used were concanavalin agglutinin (Con A), soybean agglutinin (SBA), Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LTA), Dolichos biflorusa agglutinin (DBA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA1), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, II (UEA-I, II), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and Pisum sativum agglutinin (PEA). TCC prepared with Carnoy's fixation tended to show moderately positive Con A, UEA-I, and WGA reactions for G1, and strongly positive reactions for G2 and G3 lesions. UEA-II was mainly negative in G1, but tended to increase to become moderate in G3. DBA tended to show a moderately positive reaction in G1 and G2, but was mainly negative in G3. With formalin fixation, only RCA1 demonstrated grade specific variation, tendency to react moderately in the G1 and G2 cases, and strongly in G3. There were no further differences among the histopathological grades of TCC for other lectins. Thus, Carnoy's fixation appears superior for distinguishing between grades of lesions. SCC tended to react more strongly than TCC with all the various lectins except PEA, independent of fixation.

  16. Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of severe acute gallstone pancreatitis discovered at diag~osticlaparotomy. ... in these cases Included cholecystectomy and Ttube drainage (2 patients) cholecystostomy drainage (3 patients), and closure of the abdomen without drainage (2 patients).

  17. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  18. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy versus ventriculoperitoneal shunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients' medical records, operative notes, and neural tube database records were used to complete a structured questionnaire. The difference in ... likely after 6 months. Keywords: obstructive hydrocephalus; endoscopic third ventriculostomy; ventriculoperitoneal shunt; children; paediatric surgery; neurosurgery; Ethiopia ...

  19. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis. Rinki Saha, Anuradha Sinha, Jyoti Prakash Phukan. Abstract. Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed ...

  20. Diagnosis and management of iatrogenic endoscopic perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that ea...

  1. PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gasanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we report the incidence and etiology of pulmonary hemorrhage, and modern classifications according to the literature data. Methods of endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage are analyzed.

  2. Acute toxicity and histopathology in ornamental fish amazon bluespotted corydora (Corydoras melanistius exposed to formalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudã F.B. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of formalin and histopathological effects on the Amazon ornamental fish, bluespotted coridora (Corydoras melanistius. A randomized design was used, with ten concentrations of formalin (40% (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250mg.L-1 with four replicates and five fish per container (3L in static system for 96 hours. The moribund fish were killed and fixed in 10% formalin to proceed the histopathological analysis of gill, liver and kidney. At the end of this experiment the following mortality rates (% were obtained in increasing order of exposure: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85, 100, 100 and 100%. The lethal concentration 50% (LC50-96h (I estimated was 50.76 mg.L-1 with regression of y = 0.51x, and r² = 0.80. Further, in higher concentrations morphological changes as gill hyperplasia, with filling of interlamellar spaces, disorganization of liver arrangement, and necrosis in kidney were observed. In this study, the formalin can be considered slightly toxic to bluespotted corydora, and cause morphological changes when exposed to high concentrations. The use of formalin to treat of ornamental fish in the inner river of capture with wrong concentration can provoke negative environmental and biological effects.O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a toxicidade aguda de formalina e os efeitos histopatológicos para o peixe ornamental amazônico corredora bicuda (Corydora melanistius. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado; com dez concentrações de formalina 40% (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250mg.L-1, com quatro repetições e cinco peixes por recipiente de água (3 L em sistema estático durante 96 horas. Os peixes moribundos foram mortos e fixados em formol 10% procedendo à análise histopatológica das brânquias e do fígado. Ao final desse experimento, obtiveram-se as seguintes taxas de mortalidades em ordem crescente de exposição (%: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85

  3. Current Status of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic ...

  4. An unusual experience with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is known for its varied diagnostic and therapeutic utility for a variety of disorders. However it has greater likelihood of procedure related complications among the endoscopic procedures of gastrointestinal tract. The extraluminal hemorrhagic complications following ERCP are potentially life threatening though relatively rare. We present a 50 year patient with choledocholithiasis and cholelithiasis developing rare complication of subcapsular hepatic hematoma, following ERCP due to guide wire injury.

  5. Importance of radiographic monitoring of endoscopic sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Shapiro, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic features of endoscopic sphincterotomies performed in 44 patients were evaluated. Radiographic landmarks aided in proper sphincterotome placement and also disclosed conditions and anatomic variations that made catheter placement difficult. Fluoroscopic and radiographic monitoring not only assisted the performance of endoscopic sphincterotomy, but also confirmed successful results and revealed reasons for failure. Radiographic changes in the biliary tract after sphincterotomy, as well as potential complications of sphincterotomy, are discussed and illustrated

  6. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  7. Current Status of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.

  8. Current Status of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders. PMID:29397656

  9. Current Status of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kwan Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM has been established as an optional treatment for achalasia. POEM is an endoluminal procedure that involves dissection of esophageal muscle fibers followed by submucosal tunneling. Inoue first attempted to use POEM for the treatment of achalasia in humans. Expanded indications of POEM include classic indications such as type I, type II, type III achalasia, failed prior treatments, including Botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic balloon dilation, laparoscopic Heller myotomy, and hypertensive motor disorders such as diffuse esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus. Contraindications include prior radiation therapy to the esophagus and prior extensive esophageal mucosal resection/ablation involving the POEM field. Most of the complications are minor and self-limited and can be managed conservatively. As POEM emerged as the main treatment for achalasia, various adaptations to tunnel endoscopic surgery have been attempted. Tunnel endoscopic surgery includes POEM, peroral endoscopic tumor resection, gastric peroral endoscopic pyloromyotomy. POEM has been widely accepted as a treatment for all types of achalasia, even for specific cases such as achalasia with failed prior treatments, and hypertensive motor disorders.

  10. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  11. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coatings * biomedical * electronics * energy generation * functional coatings * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  12. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chun, Jung-Hoon [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ando, T. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  13. Combined comparative and chemical proteomics on the mechanisms of levo-tetrahydropalmatine-induced antinociception in the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhou, Jiangrui; Wang, Shuowen; Ye, Mingliang; Jiang, Chunlei; Fan, Guorong; Zou, Hanfa

    2010-06-04

    This study investigated the mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive action induced by levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) in the formalin test by combined comparative and chemical proteomics. Rats were pretreated with l-THP by the oral route (40 mg/kg) 1 h before formalin injection. The antinociceptive effect of l-THP was shown in the first and second phases of the formalin test. To address the mechanisms by which l-THP inhibits formalin-induced nociception in rats, the combined comparative and chemical proteomics were applied. A novel high-throughput comparative proteomic approach based on 2D-nano-LC-MS/MS was applied to simultaneously evaluate the deregulated proteins involved in the response of l-THP treatment in formalin-induced pain rats. Thousands of proteins were identified, among which 17 proteins survived the stringent filter criteria and were further included for functional discussion. Two proteins (Neurabin-1 and Calcium-dependent secretion activator 1) were randomly selected, and their expression levels were further confirmed by Western Blots. The results matched well with those of proteomics. In the present study, we also described the development and application of l-THP immobilized beads to bind the targets. Following incubation with cellular lysates, the proteome interacting with the fixed l-THP was identified. The results of comparative and chemical proteomics were quite complementary. Although the precise roles of these identified moleculars in l-THP-induced antinociception need further study, the combined results indicated that proteins associated with signal transduction, vesicular trafficking and neurotransmitter release, energy metabolism, and ion transport play important roles in l-THP-induced antinociception in the formalin test.

  14. Hormonal and molecular effects of restraint stress on formalin-induced pain-like behavior in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Caela C; Sadler, Katelyn E; Kolber, Benedict J

    2016-10-15

    The evolutionary advantages to the suppression of pain during a stressful event (stress-induced analgesia (SIA)) are obvious, yet the reasoning behind sex-differences in the expression of this pain reduction are not. The different ways in which males and females integrate physiological stress responses and descending pain inhibition are unclear. A potential supraspinal modulator of stress-induced analgesia is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). This limbic brain region is involved in both the processing of stress and pain; the CeA is anatomically and molecularly linked to regions of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and descending pain network. The CeA exhibits sex-based differences in response to stress and pain that may differentially induce SIA in males and females. Here, sex-based differences in behavioral and molecular indices of SIA were examined following noxious stimulation. Acute restraint stress in male and female mice was performed prior to intraplantar injections of formalin, a noxious inflammatory agent. Spontaneous pain-like behaviors were measured for 60min following formalin injection and mechanical hypersensitivity was evaluated 120 and 180min post-injection. Restraint stress altered formalin-induced spontaneous behaviors in male and female mice and formalin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity in male mice. To assess molecular indices of SIA, tissue samples from the CeA and blood samples were collected at the 180min time point. Restraint stress prevented formalin-induced increases in extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylation in the male CeA, but no changes associated with pERK2 were seen with formalin or restraint in females. Sex differences were also seen in plasma corticosterone concentrations 180min post injection. These results demonstrate sex-based differences in behavioral, molecular, and hormonal indices of acute stress in mice that extend for 180min after stress and noxious stimulation. Copyright

  15. Measurements of T1 and T2 over time in formalin-fixed human whole-brain specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovi, M.; Ericsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    T1 and T2 were measured in 5 formalin-fixed human whole-brain specimens as a function of time. Gray matter/white matter contrast reversal was observed around the 4th day and was considered to be due to the greater decrease in T1 in gray than in white matter. A possible explanation for this is that the decomposition of the myelin phospholipid structure by formalin somewhat counteracts the general reductive effect of the fixation procedure on relaxation times. (orig.)

  16. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  17. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery versus endoscopic mucosal resection for large rectal adenomas (TREND-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.C. van den Broek (Frank); E.J.R. de Graaf (Eelco); M.G.W. Dijkgraaf (Marcel); J.B. Reitsma (Johannes); J. Haringsma (Jelle); R. Timmer (Robin); B.L. Weusten (Bas); M.F. Gerhards (Michael); E.C. Consten (Esther); M.P. Schwartz (Matthijs); M.J. Boom (Maarten); E.J. Derksen (Erik); A.B. Bijnen (Bart); P.H.P. Davids (Paul); C. Hoff (Christiaan); H.M. van Dullemen (Hendrik); G.D.N. Heine (Dimitri); K. van der Linde (Klaas); J.M. Jansen (Jeroen); R.C.H. Mallant-Hent (Rosalie); R. Breumelhof (Ronald); H. Geldof (Han); J.C. Hardwick (James); P. Doornebosch (Pascal); A.C.T.M. Depla (Annekatrien); M.F. Ernst (Miranda); I.P. van Munster (Ivo); I.H.J.T. de Hingh (Ignace); E.J. Schoon (Erik); W.A. Bemelman (Willem); P. Fockens (Paul); E. Dekker (Evelien)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does

  18. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery versus endoscopic mucosal resection for large rectal adenomas (TREND-study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Frank J. C.; de Graaf, Eelco J. R.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Haringsma, Jelle; Timmer, Robin; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Gerhards, Michael F.; Consten, Esther C. J.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Boom, Maarten J.; Derksen, Erik J.; Bijnen, A. Bart; Davids, Paul H. P.; Hoff, Christiaan; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; Heine, G. Dimitri N.; van der Linde, Klaas; Jansen, Jeroen M.; Mallant-Hent, Rosalie C. H.; Breumelhof, Ronald; Geldof, Han; Hardwick, James C. H.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; Depla, Annekatrien C. T. M.; Ernst, Miranda F.; van Munster, Ivo P.; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Schoon, Erik J.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien; Reitsma, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent non-randomized studies suggest that extended endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is equally effective in removing large rectal adenomas as transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM). If equally effective, EMR might be a more cost-effective approach as this strategy does not require

  19. Foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder for endoscopic sinus surgery: A cadaveric feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jason Y K; Leung, Iris; Navarro-Alarcon, David; Lin, Weiyang; Li, Peng; Lee, Dennis L Y; Liu, Yun-hui; Tong, Michael C F

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of a unique prototype foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder (FREE) in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Cadaveric study. Using human cadavers, we investigated the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of the robotic endoscope holder in performing endoscopic sinus surgery with two hands in five cadaver heads, mimicking a single nostril three-handed technique. The FREE robot is relatively easy to use. Setup was quick, taking less than 3 minutes from docking the robot at the head of the bed to visualizing the middle meatus. The unit is also relatively small, takes up little space, and currently has four degrees of freedom. The learning curve for using the foot control was short. The use of both hands was not hindered by the presence of the endoscope in the nasal cavity. The tremor filtration also aided in the smooth movement of the endoscope, with minimal collisions. The FREE endoscope holder in an ex-vivo cadaver test corroborated the feasibility of the robotic prototype, which allows for a two-handed approach to surgery equal to a single nostril three-handed technique without the holder that may reduce operating time. Further studies will be needed to evaluate its safety profile and use in other areas of endoscopic surgery. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:566-569, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  1. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  2. Multiphysics modelling of the spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, J.; Grant, P.S.; Fritsching, U.; Belkessam, O.; Garmendia, I.; Landaberea, A.

    2008-01-01

    An integrated, multiphysics numerical model has been developed through the joint efforts of the University of Oxford (UK), University of Bremen (Germany) and Inasmet (Spain) to simulate the spray forming process. The integrated model consisted of four sub-models: (1) an atomization model simulating the fragmentation of a continuous liquid metal stream into droplet spray during gas atomization; (2) a droplet spray model simulating the droplet spray mass and enthalpy evolution in the gas flow field prior to deposition; (3) a droplet deposition model simulating droplet deposition, splashing and re-deposition behavior and the resulting preform shape and heat flow; and (4) a porosity model simulating the porosity distribution inside a spray formed ring preform. The model has been validated against experiments of the spray forming of large diameter IN718 Ni superalloy rings. The modelled preform shape, surface temperature and final porosity distribution showed good agreement with experimental measurements

  3. Head spray nozzle in reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Shun-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, a head spray nozzle is used for cooling the head of the pressure vessel and, in view of the thermal stresses, it is desirable that cooling is applied as uniformly as possible. A conventional head spray is constituted by combining full cone type nozzles. Since the sprayed water is flown down upon water spraying and the sprayed water in the vertical direction is overlapped, the flow rate distribution has a high sharpness to form a shape as having a maximum value near the center and it is difficult to obtain a uniform flow rate distribution in the circumferential direction. Then, in the present invention, flat nozzles each having a spray water cross section of laterally long shape, having less sharpness in the circumferential distribution upon spraying water to the inner wall of the pressure vessel and having a wide angle of water spray are combined, to make the flow rate distribution of spray water uniform in the inner wall of the pressure vessel. Accordingly, the pressure vessel can be cooled uniformly and thermal stresses upon cooling can be decreased. (N.H.)

  4. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  5. Effects of nozzle type and spray angle on spray deposition in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Nuyttens, David

    2011-02-01

    Fewer plant protection products are now authorised for use in ornamental growings. Frequent spraying with the same product or a suboptimal technique can lead to resistance in pests and diseases. Better application techniques could improve the sustainable use of the plant protection products still available. Spray boom systems--instead of the still predominantly used spray guns--might improve crop protection management in greenhouses considerably. The effect of nozzle type, spray pressure and spray angle on spray deposition and coverage in ivy pot plants was studied, with a focus on crop penetration and spraying the bottom side of the leaves in this dense crop. The experiments showed a significant and important effect of collector position on deposition and coverage in the plant. Although spray deposition and coverage on the bottom side of the leaves are generally low, they could be improved 3.0-4.9-fold using the appropriate application technique. When using a spray boom in a dense crop, the nozzle choice, spray pressure and spray angle should be well considered. The hollow-cone, the air-inclusion flat-fan and the standard flat-fan nozzle with an inclined spray angle performed best because of the effect of swirling droplets, droplets with a high momentum and droplet direction respectively. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  7. Towards automated visual flexible endoscope navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Stap, Nanda; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2013-10-01

    The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now forms a barrier in the extension of flexible endoscope applications. Automating the navigation of endoscopes could be a solution for this problem. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in image-based navigation algorithms. The objectives are to find the most promising navigation system(s) to date and to indicate fields for further research. A systematic literature search was performed using three general search terms in two medical-technological literature databases. Papers were included according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 135 papers were analyzed. Ultimately, 26 were included. Navigation often is based on visual information, which means steering the endoscope using the images that the endoscope produces. Two main techniques are described: lumen centralization and visual odometry. Although the research results are promising, no successful, commercially available automated flexible endoscopy system exists to date. Automated systems that employ conventional flexible endoscopes show the most promising prospects in terms of cost and applicability. To produce such a system, the research focus should lie on finding low-cost mechatronics and technologically robust steering algorithms. Additional functionality and increased efficiency can be obtained through software development. The first priority is to find real-time, robust steering algorithms. These algorithms need to handle bubbles, motion blur, and other image artifacts without disrupting the steering process.

  8. Training in Endoscopy: Endoscopic Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Min Cho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS has been recently established as an indispensable modality for the diagnosis and management of pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal (GI disorders. EUS proficiency requires both cognitive and technical abilities, including an understanding of the appropriate indications, the performance of appropriate evaluations before and after the procedure, and the management of procedure-related complications. An increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures and a continual shortage of EUS training programs are two major obstacles for EUS training. Acquiring the skills necessary to comprehend and conduct EUS often requires training beyond the scope of a standard GI fellowship program. In addition to traditional formal EUS training and preceptorships, regular short-term intensive EUS training programs that provide training at various levels may help EUS practitioners improve and maintain EUS-related knowledges and skills. Theoretical knowledge can be acquired from lectures, textbooks, atlases, slides, videotapes, digital video discs, interactive compact discs, and websites. Informal EUS training is generally based on 1- or 2-day intensive seminars, including didactic lectures, skills demonstrated by expert practitioners through live video-streaming of procedures, and hands-on learning using animal or phantom models.

  9. Endoscopic treatment of prepatellar bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chih; Yeh, Wen-Lin

    2011-03-01

    Operative treatment of prepatellar bursitis is indicated in intractable bursitis. The most common complication of surgical treatment for prepatellar bursitis is skin problems. For traumatic prepatellar bursitis, we propose a protocol of outpatient endoscopic surgery under local anaesthesia. From September 1996 to February 2001, 60 cases of failed nonoperative treatment for prepatellar bursitis were included. The average age was 33.5 ± 11.1 years (range 21-55). The average operation duration was 18 minutes. Two to three mini-arthroscopic portals were used in our series. No sutures or a simple suture was needed for the portals after operation. After follow-up for an average of 36.3 months, all patients are were symptom-free and had regained knee function. None of the population had local tenderness or hypo-aesthesia around their wound. Their radiographic and sonographic examinations showed no recurrence of bursitis. Outpatient arthroscopic bursectomy under local anaesthesia is an effective procedure for the treatment of post-traumatic prepatellar bursitis after failed conservative treatments. Both the cosmetic results and functional results were satisfactory.

  10. Endoscopic surgery of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado, Silvio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (NAJ is a tumor with vascular component, slow growing, benign but very aggressive because of its local invasiveness. The NAJ is rare, accounting for 0.05% of all head and neck cancers. The classic triad of epistaxis, unilateral nasal obstruction and a mass in the nasopharynx suggests the diagnosis of NAJ and is then supplemented by imaging. Over the past 10 years the treatment of this disease has been discussed with the aim of designing a management protocol. Currently, surgery appears to be the best treatment of the NAJ. Other methods such as hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment modalities are now used occasionally as complementary treatments. Objective: To present the cases of this disease in the Hospital Infantil between October 2007 and August 2008. Methods: A retrospective case study of five cases of NAJ underwent surgery solely with endoscopic technique of two surgeons. Classifieds between IIA and IIIA. All patients underwent angiography with embolization of the tumor 3-4 days before surgery. Follow-up after surgery to detect recurrence. Results: There were two relapses in the following two years after surgery. Conclusion: Given the short period of patient follow-up, there were only two relapses in one year. So there is need for further action to claim that this technique has a low recurrence rate, since the recurrence is probably related to incomplete resection the initial tumor.

  11. Modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour by clonidine and yohimbine in the Speke's hinged tortoise (Kiniskys spekii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makau, C M; Towett, P K; Abelson, K S P

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the involvement of noradrenergic and serotonergic receptor systems in the modulation of formalin-induced pain-related behaviour in the Speke's hinged tortoise. Intradermal injection of 100 μL of formalin at a dilution of 12.5% caused pain-related behaviour (h...

  12. Aerial electrostatic spray deposition and canopy penetration in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray deposition on abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces along with canopy penetration are essential for insect control and foliage defoliation in cotton production agriculture. Researchers have reported that electrostatically charged sprays have increased spray deposit onto these surfaces under widel...

  13. Effects of crocin and safranal, saffron constituents, on the formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Erfanparast

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crocin and safranal are the main components of saffron, and have many biological functions such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of crocin, safranal, morphine, diclofenac and naloxone in combined and separately on formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats. Materials and Methods: Subcutaneous injection of a diluted formalin solution (50 µl, 1.5% into the upper lip region produced a biphasic pattern of pain response (a neurogenic phase: 0-3 min and an inflammatory phase: 15-33 min. The time each animal spent face rubbing with ipsilateral forepaw was recorded and considered as an index of nociception Results: Intraperitoneal injections of crocin (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, safranal (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg, diclofenac (5 and 10 mg/kg and morphine (1 and 2 mg/kg suppressed the second phase of pain. The second phase of pain was also reduced when low (ineffective doses of crocin (6.25 mg/kg and safranal (0.125 mg/kg were co-administered with low doses of diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg and morphine (0.5 mg/kg. The more antinociceptive effects were observed when the medium doses of the above-mentioned chemicals used together. Naloxone prevented morphine-induced antinociception, but did not inhibit the suppressive effects of crocin and safranal. Safranal at a high dose (0.5 mg/kg suppressed locomotor activity. Conclusion: The present results showed antinociceptive effects for crocin and safranal in inflammatory pain. Opioid receptors may not be involved in the antinociceptive effect of crocin and safranal. Crocin and safranal increased diclofenac-induced antinociception.

  14. Elastic scattering spectroscopy findings in formalin-fixed oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, B.; Elmaaytah, M.; Jerjes, W.; Hopper, C.

    2005-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been shown to spread locally and infiltrate adjacent bone or via the lymphatic system to the cervical lymph nodes. This usually necessitates a surgical neck dissection and either a local or segmental resection for bone clearance. While histopathology remains the gold standard for tissue diagnosis, several new diagnostic techniques are being developed that rely on physical and biochemical changes that mirror or precede malignant changes within tissue. The aim of this study was to compare findings of Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy (ESS) with histopathology on formalin-fixed specimens of both neck lymph node dissections and de-calcified archival bone from patients with OSCC. We wished to see if this technique could be used as an adjunct or alternative to histopathology in defining cervical nodal involvement and if it could be used to identify bone resection margins positive for tumour. 130 lymph nodes were examined from 13 patients. The nodes were formalin-fixed, bivalved and examined by ESS. The intensity of the spectrum at 4 points was considered for comparison; at 360nm, 450nm, 630nm and 690nm. 341 spectra were taken from the mandibular specimens of 21 patients, of which 231 spectra were taken from histologically positive sites and the rest were normal. The nodes and bone specimens were then routinely processed with haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, examined histopathologically, and the results compared. Using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) as a statistical method, a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 68% was obtained for the neck nodes and a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 80% for the bone margins.

  15. Detection of protozoa in water samples by formalin/ether concentration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Suarez, Fabiana; Rivera, Raul; Triviño-Valencia, Jessica; Gomez-Marin, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    Methods to detect protozoa in water samples are expensive and laborious. We evaluated the formalin/ether concentration method to detect Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Toxoplasma in water. In order to test the properties of the method, we spiked water samples with different amounts of each protozoa (0, 10 and 50 cysts or oocysts) in a volume of 10 L of water. Immunofluorescence assay was used for detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Toxoplasma oocysts were identified by morphology. The mean percent of recovery in 10 repetitions of the entire method, in 10 samples spiked with ten parasites and read by three different observers, were for Cryptosporidium 71.3 ± 12, for Giardia 63 ± 10 and for Toxoplasma 91.6 ± 9 and the relative standard deviation of the method was of 17.5, 17.2 and 9.8, respectively. Intraobserver variation as measured by intraclass correlation coefficient, was fair for Toxoplasma, moderate for Cryptosporidium and almost perfect for Giardia. The method was then applied in 77 samples of raw and drinkable water in three different plant of water treatment. Cryptosporidium was found in 28 of 77 samples (36%) and Giardia in 31 of 77 samples (40%). Theses results identified significant differences in treatment process to reduce the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, the formalin ether method to concentrate protozoa in water is a new alternative for low resources countries, where is urgently need to monitor and follow the presence of theses protozoa in drinkable water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multimodal Raman-fluorescence spectroscopy of formalin fixed samples is able to discriminate brain tumors from dysplastic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2014-05-01

    In the recent years, there has been a considerable surge in the application of spectroscopy for disease diagnosis. Raman and fluorescence spectra provide characteristic spectral profile related to biochemical and morphological changes when tissues progress from normal state towards malignancy. Spectroscopic techniques offer the advantage of being minimally invasive compared to traditional histopathology, real time and quantitative. In biomedical optical diagnostics, freshly excised specimens are preferred for making ex-vivo spectroscopic measurements. With regard to fresh tissues, if the lab is located far away from the clinic it could pose a problem as spectral measurements have to be performed immediately after dissection. Tissue samples are usually placed in a fixative agent such as 4% formaldehyde to preserve the samples before processing them for routine histopathological studies. Fixation prevents the tissues from decomposition by arresting autolysis. In the present study, we intend to investigate the possibility of using formalin fixed samples for discrimination of brain tumours from dysplastic tissue using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formalin fixed samples were washed with phosphate buffered saline for about 5 minutes in order to remove the effects of formalin during spectroscopic measurements. In case of fluorescence spectroscopy, changes in spectral profile have been observed in the region between 550-670 nm between dysplastic and tumor samples. For Raman measurements, we found significant differences in the spectral profiles between dysplasia and tumor. In conclusion, formalin fixed samples can be potentially used for the spectroscopic discrimination of tumor against dysplastic tissue in brain samples.

  17. Learning Anatomy through Thiel- vs. Formalin-Embalmed Cadavers: Student Perceptions of Embalming Methods and Effect on Functional Anatomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M. A.; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience…

  18. Investigating and comparing effects of atropine and physostigmine in peripheral pain examination due to formalin injection on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Pourahmadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There areseveral neurotransmittersat feel the pain and processing nervoussystem, and until now cholinergic system has not been well studied in this field. The purpose of this research is investigating effects of atropine and physostigmine on the response of formalin pain test. We divided 50 male wistar head rats into 5 groups , first group ( saline normal injection 5 µ , second group ( 1% formalin injection into 50 µ , third group ( physostigmine injection 0/1 mg / kg , fourth group (atropine injection 2 mg / kg , fifth group ( atropine injection 2 mg / kg and physostigmine 0/1 mg/kg , after formalin injection , the animals were placed inside mirror pain machine and it was recorded pain response at the time ranges 0-5 and 15-45 . Results investigated with spss software and ANOVA and Duncan’s test. Formalin injection causes pain response in both time ranges. Atropine injection alone had no effect on pain response. Physostigmine effect alone, with a significant reduction (p< 0/05 in the number of foot motions in both stage and duration causesof licking and biting in the 15-45 minutes stage . Atropine and physostigmine injections in fifth group cause significant reduction in the number of foot motions and duration of licking and biting in the time range of 15-45 minutes.Perhaps there is a close relationship between cholinergic system and peripheral pain that can be taken through the action of muscarinic receptors.

  19. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Bjerg Bennike

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving samples in RNAlater, and by formalin-fixation, paraffin-embedding on human soft tissue, using directly frozen samples as a control (“Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples” [1]. We here report the data from the analysis. The comparative analysis was performed on 24 colon mucosa biopsies, extracted from the sigmoideum of two gastroenterologically healthy participants for the purpose of this study. A set of biopsies were additionally stored for 30 min at room temperature prior to formalin-fixation. The samples were analyzed by high throughput gel free quantitative proteomics. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002029. Keywords: Human, Colon, Mucosa, RNAlater, FFPE, Snap-frozen, Stability, LC–MS, Proteomics

  20. Investigation of archived formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue with whole-genome gene expression microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Nete Vinstrup; Brusgaard, Klaus; Tan, Qihua

    2011-01-01

    The use of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue overcomes the most prominent issues related to research on relatively rare diseases: limited sample size, availability of control tissue, and time frame. The use of FFPE pancreatic tissue in GEM may be especially challenging due to its very...

  1. Comparing the proteome of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large biobanks exist worldwide containing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and samples stored in RNAlater. However, the impact of tissue preservation on the result of a quantative proteome analysis remains poorly described.Human colon mucosal biopsies were extracted from the sigmoideum...

  2. Dose-Response Analysis of RNA-Seq Profiles in Archival Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of archival resources has been limited to date by inconsistent methods for genomic profiling of degraded RNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. RNA-sequencing offers a promising way to address this problem. Here we evaluated transcriptomic dose responses us...

  3. An Optimized Method of Metabolite Extraction from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissue for GC/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojakowska, Anna; Marczak, Łukasz; Jelonek, Karol; Polanski, Krzysztof; Widlak, Piotr; Pietrowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens constitute a highly valuable source of clinical material for retrospective molecular studies. However, metabolomic assessment of such archival material remains still in its infancy. Hence, there is an urgent need for efficient methods enabling extraction and profiling of metabolites present in FFPE tissue specimens. Here we demonstrate the methodology for isolation of primary metabolites from archival tissues; either fresh-frozen, formalin-fixed or formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of mouse kidney were analysed and compared in this work. We used gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS approach) to identify about 80 metabolites (including amino acids, saccharides, carboxylic acids, fatty acids) present in such archive material. Importantly, about 75% of identified compounds were detected in all three types of specimens. Moreover, we observed that fixation with formalin itself (and their duration) did not affect markedly the presence of particular metabolites in tissue-extracted material, yet fixation for 24h could be recommended as a practical standard. Paraffin embedding influenced efficiency of extraction, which resulted in reduced quantities of several compounds. Nevertheless, we proved applicability of FFPE specimens for non-targeted GS/MS-based profiling of tissue metabolome, which is of great importance for feasibility of metabolomics studies using retrospective clinical material.

  4. Nasal encephalocele: endoscopic excision with anesthetic consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad; El-Bosraty, Hussam; Qotb, Mohamed; El-Hamamsy, Mostafa; El-Sonbaty, Mohamed; Abdel-Badie, Hazem; Zynabdeen, Mustapha

    2010-08-01

    Nasal encephalocele may presents as a nasal mass, its treatment is surgical and it should be done early in life. When removal is indicated, there are multiple surgical approaches; including lateral rhinotomy, a transnasal approach and a coronal flap approach. However, the treatment of a basal intranasal encephalocele using transnasal endoscopic approach could obviates the possible morbidity associated with other approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic removal of intranasal encephalocele, also to document the role of anesthetist in the operative and postoperative periods. Nine cases with nasal encephalocele were included in this study; CT and/or MRI were used in their examination. The lesions were removed via transnasal endoscopic approach. Preoperative evaluation, intervention and postoperative follow-up were presented with discussion of anesthesia used for those children. The lesions of all patients were removed successfully with no recurrence through the follow-up period of at least 21 months. No cases showed morbidity or mortality intra- or post-operatively. Endoscopic excision of intranasal encephalocele is an effective method with high success rate. Anesthetist plays an important role in the operative and postoperative period, even during the endoscopic follow up; sedation of the children is usually needed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoscopic and laparoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David I; Immanuel, Arul

    2010-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is extremely common in Western countries. For selected patients, there is an established role for the surgical treatment of reflux, and possibly an emerging role for endoscopic antireflux procedures. Randomized trials have compared medical versus surgical management, laparoscopic versus open surgery and partial versus total fundoplications. However, the evidence base for endoscopic procedures is limited to some small sham-controlled studies, and cohort studies with short-term follow-up. Laparoscopic fundoplication has been shown to be an effective antireflux operation. It facilitates quicker convalescence and is associated with fewer complications, but has a similar longer term outcome compared with open antireflux surgery. In most randomized trials, antireflux surgery achieves at least as good control of reflux as medical therapy, and these studies support a wider application of surgery for the treatment of moderate-to-severe reflux. Laparoscopic partial fundoplication is an effective surgical procedure with fewer side effects, and it may achieve high rates of patient satisfaction at late follow-up. Many of the early endoscopic antireflux procedures have failed to achieve effective reflux control, and they have been withdrawn from the market. Newer procedures have the potential to fashion a surgical fundoplication. However, at present there is insufficient evidence to establish the safety and efficacy of endoscopic procedures for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and no endoscopic procedure has achieved equivalent reflux control to that achieved by surgical fundoplication.

  6. [Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Chul Young; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy is developing rapidly. Once limited to the gastroinstestinal lumen, the endoscopic technology is now breaking the barriers and extending its boundary to peritoneal and pleural space. In 2004, Dr. Kalloo, a gastroenterologist, observed intraperitoneal organs of a pig using a conventional endoscope through the stomach wall. Since then, new endoscopic technique of intraperitoneal intervention with transluminal approach named the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery or NOTES has been introduced. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina, urethra) and entering the peritoneal lumen by means of making an incision on the luminal wall. After a series of successful experiences in animal studies, NOTES are now being tried on human subjects. There are still many obstacles to overcome, but bright future for this new technology is expected because of its proposed advantages of less pain, lower complication rate, short recovery time, and scarless access. In this review, we plan to learn about NOTES.

  7. Limits of the endoscopic transnasal transtubercular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellner, Verena; Tomazic, Peter V

    2018-06-01

    The endoscopic transnasal trans-sphenoidal transtubercular approach has become a standard alternative approach to neurosurgical transcranial routes for lesions of the anterior skull base in particular pathologies of the anterior tubercle, sphenoid plane, and midline lesions up to the interpeduncular cistern. For both the endoscopic and the transcranial approach indications must strictly be evaluated and tailored to the patients' morphology and condition. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the evidence in literature of the limitations of the endoscopic transtubercular approach. A PubMed/Medline search was conducted in January 2018 entering following keywords. Upon initial screening 7 papers were included in this review. There are several other papers describing the endoscopic transtubercular approach (ETTA). We tried to list the limitation factors according to the actual existing literature as cited. The main limiting factors are laterally extending lesions in relation to the optic canal and vascular encasement and/or unfavorable tumor tissue consistency. The ETTA is considered as a high level transnasal endoscopic extended skull base approach and requires excellent training, skills and experience.

  8. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a New Zealand experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Ian; Van Dalen, Roelof; Lolohea, Simione; Wu, Linus

    2017-12-03

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEMS) is a proven alternative therapy to either radical surgery or endoscopic mucosal resection for rectal neoplasms. It has proven benefits with lower morbidity and mortality compared with total mesorectal excision, and a lower local recurrence rate when compared to endoscopic mucosal techniques. A retrospective data collection of TEMS procedures performed through Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand, from 2010 to 2015 was conducted. Supportive follow-up data were sourced from patient records and from local centres around New Zealand. A total of 137 procedures were performed over the study period, with five being repeat procedures. Procedures were mostly performed for benign lesions (66.4%) with an overall complication rate of 15.3%, only five of which were Clavien-Dindo grade III (3.6%). Our local recurrence rate after resection of benign lesions was 5.1%. Our data set demonstrates the TEMS procedure to be safe compared to radical resection (total mesorectal excision) for sessile rectal lesions. Close endoscopic follow-up is recommended, especially for close or incomplete margins. Good therapeutic results can be obtained for appropriately selected early malignant lesions. TEMS provides better oncological results than endoscopic mucosal resection or transanal excision. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  9. SU-C-18A-02: Image-Based Camera Tracking: Towards Registration of Endoscopic Video to CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, S; Rao, A; Wendt, R; Castillo, R; Court, L; Yang, J; Beadle, B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Endoscopic examinations are routinely performed on head and neck and esophageal cancer patients. However, these images are underutilized for radiation therapy because there is currently no way to register them to a CT of the patient. The purpose of this work is to develop a method to track the motion of an endoscope within a structure using images from standard clinical equipment. This method will be incorporated into a broader endoscopy/CT registration framework. Methods: We developed a software algorithm to track the motion of an endoscope within an arbitrary structure. We computed frame-to-frame rotation and translation of the camera by tracking surface points across the video sequence and utilizing two-camera epipolar geometry. The resulting 3D camera path was used to recover the surrounding structure via triangulation methods. We tested this algorithm on a rigid cylindrical phantom with a pattern spray-painted on the inside. We did not constrain the motion of the endoscope while recording, and we did not constrain our measurements using the known structure of the phantom. Results: Our software algorithm can successfully track the general motion of the endoscope as it moves through the phantom. However, our preliminary data do not show a high degree of accuracy in the triangulation of 3D point locations. More rigorous data will be presented at the annual meeting. Conclusion: Image-based camera tracking is a promising method for endoscopy/CT image registration, and it requires only standard clinical equipment. It is one of two major components needed to achieve endoscopy/CT registration, the second of which is tying the camera path to absolute patient geometry. In addition to this second component, future work will focus on validating our camera tracking algorithm in the presence of clinical imaging features such as patient motion, erratic camera motion, and dynamic scene illumination

  10. 21 CFR 876.4300 - Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Endoscopic electrosurgical unit and accessories. (a) Identification. An endoscopic electrosurgical unit and... device includes the electrosurgical generator, patient plate, electric biopsy forceps, electrode, flexible snare, electrosurgical alarm system, electrosurgical power supply unit, electrical clamp, self...

  11. Endoscopic Radial Artery Harvest for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Ming Chiu

    2006-01-01

    Conclusion: Endoscopic harvest of the radial artery is technically demanding, but excellent results can be achieved. The endoscopic approach can provide suitable conduits in a less invasive way than the open harvest technique.

  12. Sequelae of Endoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair : Incidence, evaluation and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgmans, J.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The endoscopic preperitoneal technique (TEP) is an appealing inguinal hernia repair technique, theoretically superior to other approaches. In practice some problems remain unsolved. Real incidences of chronic postoperative inguinal pain (CPIP) and other important sequelae of endoscopic hernia repair

  13. Reduction of spray pressure leads to less emission and better deposition of spray liquid at high-volume spraying in greenhouse tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.; Michielsen, J.M.G.P.; Corver, F.J.M.; Berg, van den J.V.; Bruins, M.A.; Porskamp, H.A.J.; Zande, van de J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In an experimental greenhouse, growing a tomato crop, it was investigated if a reduction in spray pressure could improve the spray result, while, simultaneously, emission to the ground could be reduced. Spray deposition on the leaves and the emission to the ground was evaluated at different spray

  14. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoh, Eric, E-mail: eric.yeoh@health.sa.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle [School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide (Australia)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction.

  15. Argon Plasma Coagulation Therapy Versus Topical Formalin for Intractable Rectal Bleeding and Anorectal Dysfunction After Radiation Therapy for Prostate Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, Eric; Tam, William; Schoeman, Mark; Moore, James; Thomas, Michelle; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effect of argon plasma coagulation (APC) and topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction associated with chronic radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Thirty men (median age, 72 years; range, 49-87 years) with intractable rectal bleeding (defined as ≥1× per week and/or requiring blood transfusions) after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma were randomized to treatment with APC (n=17) or topical formalin (n=13). Each patient underwent evaluations of (1) anorectal symptoms (validated questionnaires, including modified Late Effects in Normal Tissues–Subjective, Objective, Management, and Analytic and visual analogue scales for rectal bleeding); (2) anorectal motor and sensory function (manometry and graded rectal balloon distension); and (3) anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and after the treatment endpoint (defined as reduction in rectal bleeding to 1× per month or better, reduction in visual analogue scales to ≤25 mm, and no longer needing blood transfusions). Results: The treatment endpoint was achieved in 94% of the APC group and 100% of the topical formalin group after a median (range) of 2 (1-5) sessions of either treatment. After a follow-up duration of 111 (29-170) months, only 1 patient in each group needed further treatment. Reductions in rectal compliance and volumes of sensory perception occurred after APC, but no effect on anorectal symptoms other than rectal bleeding was observed. There were no differences between APC and topical formalin for anorectal symptoms and function, nor for anal sphincteric morphology. Conclusions: Argon plasma coagulation and topical formalin had comparable efficacy in the durable control of rectal bleeding associated with chronic radiation proctitis but had no beneficial effect on anorectal dysfunction

  16. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-03-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ 11: 166-174. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jye Hae Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG can improve nutritional status and reduce the amount of time needed to feed neurologically impaired children. We evaluated the characteristics, complications, and outcomes of neurologically impaired children treated with PEG. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 32 neurologically impaired children who underwent PEG between March 2002 and August 2008 at our medical center. Forty-two PEG procedures comprising 32 PEG insertions and 10 PEG exchanges, were performed. The mean follow-up time was 12.2 (6.6 months. Results: Mean patient age was 9.4 (4.5 years. The main indications for PEG insertion were swallowing difficulty with GI bleeding due to nasogastric tube placement and/or the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. The overall rate of complications was 47%, with early complications evident in 25% of patients and late complications in 22%. The late complications included one gastro-colic fistula, two cases of aggravated GERD, and four instances of wound infection. Among the 15 patients with histological evidence of GERD before PEG, 13 (87% had less severe GERD, experienced no new aspiration events, and showed increased body weight after PEG treatment. Conclusion: PEG is a safe, effective, and relatively simple technique affording long-term enteral nutritional support in neurologically impaired children. Following PEG treatment, the body weight of most patients increased and the levels of vomiting, GI bleeding, and aspiration fell. We suggest that PEG with post-procedural observation be considered for enteral nutritional support of neurologically impaired children.

  18. Holodiscus (K. Koch) Maxim.: ocean-spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Peter F. Stickney

    2008-01-01

    Holodiscus is a taxonomically complex genus including about 6 species of western North America and northern South America (Hitchcock and others 1961; Ley 1943). The 2 generally recognized North American species (table 1) - creambush ocean-spray and gland ocean-spray - are deciduous, multistemmed shrubs with simple, alternate, deciduous, toothed to shallowly lobed,...

  19. Spray drying of liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Monat, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Full scale performance tests of a Koch spray dryer were conducted on simulated liquid radioactive waste streams. The liquid feeds simulated the solutions that result from radwaste incineration of DAW an ion exchange resins, as well as evaporator bottoms. The integration of the spray dryer into a complete system is discussed

  20. Summary of the Blackmo 88 spray experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. R. Miller; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus; D. E. Anderson; K. Mierzejewski

    1991-01-01

    The Blackmo 88 spray trial experiment was conducted for two primary purposes: To quantify the effects of local micrometeorological processes, in and near the canopy, on the deposition patterns of aerially applied BT in a mature oak forest; To generate a data set containing simultaneous measurements of spray deposition and detailed micrometeorology, in a canopy of known...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients suspected of pancreaticobiliary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ainsworth, A P; Rafaelsen, S R; Wamberg, P A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not known whether initial endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is more cost effective than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis of EUS, MRCP and ERCP was performed on 163...

  2. Endoscopic management of peripancreatic fluid collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Jatinder; Ramesh, Jayapal

    2015-07-01

    Peripancreatic fluid collections are a well-known complication of pancreatitis and can vary from fluid-filled collections to entirely necrotic collections. Although most of the fluid-filled pseudocysts tend to resolve spontaneously with conservative management, intervention is necessary in symptomatic patients. Open surgery has been the traditional treatment modality of choice though endoscopic, laparoscopic and transcutaneous techniques offer alternative drainage approaches. During the last decade, improvement in endoscopic ultrasound technology has enabled real-time access and drainage of fluid collections that were previously not amenable to blind transmural drainage. This has initiated a trend towards use of this modality for treatment of pseudocysts. In this review, we have summarised the existing evidence for endoscopic drainage of peripancreatic fluid collections from published studies.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendenaa, K.; Horn, A.; Viste, A.

    1994-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was carried out for the first time in 1968. Five years later endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed. Since then both modalities have become established as necessary adjuncts in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with pathology in the bile duct or pancreas. The main indication is common bile duct stone, and as a consequence of this treatment fewer patients are now treated surgically. Patients with malignant bile duct obstruction can be given reasonable palliation of both jaundice and pruritus and therefore improved quality of life. Some reports indicate that endoscopic drainage may be useful for pancreatic stenosis. Complications are few, but vigilance and prompt treatment is necessary to keep morbidity at a minimum. Follow-up after several years shows that sphincterotomy is successful also in the long term. The authors discuss the present diagnostic and therapeutic situation. 31 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Endoscopic facial skeletal surgery using a neuronavigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y; Kobayashi, S; Watanabe, E; Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K

    1996-09-01

    In the reconstruction of asymmetrical deformities of the facial skeleton, both an endoscope and a neuronavigator have been used. The endoscope allows the surgeon a wide view of the object on a television monitor, reduces the scarring, minimizes the undermined field, and reduces the need to work blind. The neuronavigator is a frameless computed tomographic stereotactic device that has been mainly used in neurosurgery. The device is easy to use and can offer the surgeon three-dimensional coordinates of the status during the operation. We have used this new technique in three clinical cases, two involving augmentation of the zygomatic bone on one side and one involving reduction of the frontal bone on one side. The surgical techniques we used and the versatility of both the endoscope and the neuronavigator are discussed herein based on our own experience.

  5. Endoscopic and Photodynamic Therapy of Cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have unresectable disease. Endoscopic bile duct drainage is one of the major objectives of palliation of obstructive jaundice. Stent implantation using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is considered to be the standard technique. Unilateral versus bilateral stenting is associated with different advantages and disadvantages; however, a standard approach is still not defined. As there are various kinds of stents, there is an ongoing discussion on which stent to use in which situation. Palliation of obstructive jaundice can be augmented through the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Studies have shown a prolonged survival for the combinations of PDT and different stent applications as well as combinations of PDT and additional systemic chemotherapy. More well-designed studies are needed to better evaluate and standardize endoscopic treatment of unresectable CCA.

  6. Post-endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy bleeding: an interventional radiology approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is an integral component of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Post-sphincterotomy hemorrhage is a recognized complication. First line treatment involves a variety of endoscopic techniques performed at the time of sphincterotomy. If these are not successful, transcatheter arterial embolization or open surgical vessel ligation are therapeutic considerations.

  7. Spray characteristics and spray cooling heat transfer in the non-boiling regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Wen-Long; Han, Feng-Yun; Liu, Qi-Nie; Fan, Han-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Spray cooling is an effective method for dissipating high heat fluxes in the field of electronics thermal control. In this study, experiments were performed with distilled water as a test liquid to study the spray cooling heat transfer in non-boiling regime. A Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used to study the spray characteristics. The effects of spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature on spray cooling heat transfer were investigated. It was found that the parameters affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and working fluid thermophysical properties. Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauter mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%, which were based upon the orifice diameter, the Weber and Reynolds numbers of the orifice flow prior to liquid breakup, dimensionless spray height and spray cross-section radius. The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%, which was mainly associated with the working fluid thermophysical properties, the Weber and Reynolds numbers hitting the heating surface, dimensionless heating surface temperature and diameter. -- Highlights: → The spray flow rate, spray height, and inlet temperature affect heat transfer of spray cooling in non-boiling regime by the spray characteristics and the working fluid thermophysical properties. → Then the corresponding droplet axial velocity and Sauer mean diameter (SMD) were successfully correlated with mean absolute error of 15%. → The heat transfer in non-boiling regime was correlated with a mean absolute error of 7%.

  8. ENDOSCOPIC TECHNOLOGIES IN EARLY RECTAL CANCER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Samsonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total mesorectal excision is the “golden standard” of surgical treatment for rectal cancer. Development of endoscopic technologies allowed to implement the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in early rectal cancer treatment, decrease morbidity and mortality, improve functional outcome and quality of life. Oncological safety of this method is still a subject for discussion due to lack of lymph node harvest. Endoscopic operations for early rectal cancer are being actively implemented in daily practice, but lack of experience does not allow to include this method in national clinical prac-tice guidelines.

  9. Endoscopic management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan

    2014-12-01

    This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunocytochemistry of formalin-fixed human brain tissues: microwave irradiation of free-floating sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiurba, R A; Spooner, E T; Ishiguro, K; Takahashi, M; Yoshida, R; Wheelock, T R; Imahori, K; Cataldo, A M; Nixon, R A

    1998-01-01

    Formalin fixation, the chemical process in which formaldehyde binds to cells and tissues, is widely used to preserve human brain specimens from autolytic decomposition. Ultrastructure of cellular and mitochondrial membranes is markedly altered by vesiculation, but this does not interfere with diagnostic evaluation of neurohistology by light microscopy. Serious difficulties are encountered, however, when immunocytochemical staining is attempted. Antigens that are immunoreactive in unfixed frozen sections and protein extracts appear to be concealed or destroyed in formalin-fixed tissues. In dilute aqueous solution, formaldehyde is in equilibrium with methylene glycol and its polymeric hydrates, the balance by far in favor of methylene glyco. Carbonylic formaldehyde is a reactive electrophilic species well known for crosslinking functional groups in tissue proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides. Some of its methylene crosslinks are readily hydrolyzed. Others are stable and irreversible. During immunostaining reactions, intra- and inter-molecular links between macromolecules limit antibody permeation of tissue sections, alter protein secondary structure, and reduce accessibility of antigenic determinants . Accordingly, immunoreactivity is diminished for many antigens. Tissues are rapidly penetrated by methylene glycol, but formaldehyde binding to cellular constituents is relatively slow, increasing progressively until equilibrium is reached. In addition, prolonged storage in formalin may result in acidification of human brain specimens. Low pH favors dissociation of methylene glycol into formaldehyde, further reducing both classical staining and antigen detectability. Various procedures have been devised to counter the antigen masking effects of formaldehyde. Examples include pretreatment of tissue sections with proteases, formic acid, or ultrasound. Recently, heating of mounted sections in ionic salt solution by microwave energy was found to restore many

  11. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy: Major advance in achalasia treatment and in endoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Stavropoulos, Stavros N

    2014-01-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) represents a natural orifice endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach to laparoscopy Heller myotomy (LHM). POEM is arguably the most successful clinical application of NOTES. The growth of POEM from a single center in 2008 to approximately 60 centers worldwide in 2014 with several thousand procedures having been performed attests to the success of POEM. Initial efficacy, safety and acid reflux data suggest at least equivalence of POEM to LHM, the previous gold standard for achalasia therapy. Adjunctive techniques used in the West include impedance planimetry for real-time intraprocedural luminal assessment and endoscopic suturing for challenging mucosal defect closures during POEM. The impact of POEM extends beyond the realm of esophageal motility disorders as it is rapidly popularizing endoscopic submucosal dissection in the West and spawning offshoots that use the submucosal tunnel technique for a host of new indications ranging from resection of tumors to pyloromyotomy for gastroparesis. PMID:25548473

  12. Endoscope-Assisted Transoral Fixation of Mandibular Condyle Fractures: Submandibular Versus Transoral Endoscopic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Na-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hwan; You, Hi-Jin; Yoon, Eul-Sik; Kim, Deok-Woo

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, endoscope-assisted transoral approach for condylar fracture treatment has attracted much attention. However, the surgical approach is technically challenging: the procedure requires specialized instruments and the surgeons experience a steep learning curve. During the transoral endoscopic (TE) approach several instruments are positioned through a narrow oral incision making endoscope maneuvering very difficult. For this reason, the authors changed the entry port of the endoscope from transoral to submandibular area through a small stab incision. The aim of this study is to assess the advantage of using the submandibular endoscopic intraoral approach (SEI).The SEI approach requires intraoral incision for fracture reduction and fixation, and 4 mm size submandibular stab incision for endoscope and traction wires. Fifteen patients with condyle neck and subcondyle fractures were operated under the submandibular approach and 15 patients with the same diagnosis were operated under the standard TE approach.The SEI approach allowed clear visualization of the posterior margin of the ramus and condyle, and the visual axis was parallel to the condyle ramus unit. The TE approach clearly shows the anterior margin of the condyle and the sigmoid notch. The surgical time of the SEI group was 128 minutes and the TE group was 120 minutes (P >0.05). All patients in the TE endoscope group were fixated with the trocar system, but only 2 lower neck fracture patients in the SEI group required a trocar. The other 13 subcondyle fractures were fixated with an angulated screw driver (P <0.05). There were no differences in complication and surgical outcomes.The submandibular endoscopic approach has an advantage of having more space with good visualization, and facilitated the use of an angulated screw driver.

  13. Transient analysis of intermittent multijet sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panao, Miguel R.O.; Moreira, Antonio Luis N. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, IN, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Durao, Diamantino G. [Universidade Lusiada, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-07-15

    This paper analyzes the transient characteristics of intermittent sprays produced by the single-point impact of multiple cylindrical jets. The aim is to perform a transient analysis of the intermittent atomization process to study the effect of varying the number of impinging jets in the hydrodynamic mechanisms of droplet formation. The results evidence that hydrodynamic mechanisms underlying the physics of ligament fragmentation in 2-impinging jets sprays also apply to sprays produced with more than 2 jets during the main period of injection. Ligaments detaching from the liquid sheet, as well as from its bounding rim, have been identified and associated with distinct droplet clusters, which become more evident as the number of impinging jets increases. Droplets produced by detached ligaments constitute the main spray, and their axial velocity becomes more uniformly distributed with 4-impinging jets because of a delayed ligament fragmentation. Multijet spray dispersion patterns are geometric depending on the number of impinging jets. Finally, an analysis on the Weber number of droplets suggests that multijet sprays are more likely to deposit on interposed surfaces, thus becoming a promising and competitive atomization solution for improving spray cooling. (orig.)

  14. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--cobalt permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high-temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating cobalt--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--cobalt magnets, sprayed from samarium-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million gauss-oersteds and coercive forces of approximately 6000 oersteds. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates. (auth)

  15. Plasma sprayed samarium--cobalt permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, M.C.; Janowiecki, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    Samarium--Co permanent magnets were fabricated by arc plasma spraying. This process involves the injection of relatively coarse powder particles into a high temperature gas for melting and spraying onto a substrate. The technique is being investigated as an economical method for fabricating Co--rare earth magnets for advanced traveling wave tubes and cross-field amplifiers. Plasma spraying permits deposition of material at high rates over large areas with optional direct bonding to the substrate, and offers the ability to fabricate magnets in a variety of shapes and sizes. Isotropic magnets were produced with high coercivity and good reproducibility in magnetic properties. Post-spray thermal treatments were used to enhance the magnetic properties of sprayed deposits. Samarium--Co magnets, sprayed from Sm-rich powder and subjected to post-spray heat treatment, displayed energy products in excess of 9 million G-Oe and coercive forces of approximately 6000 Oe. Bar magnet arrays were constructed by depositing magnets on ceramic substrates

  16. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  17. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for locally recurrent colorectal lesions after previous endoscopic mucosal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pinghong; Yao, Liqing; Qin, Xinyu; Xu, Meidong; Zhong, Yunshi; Chen, Weifeng

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for locally recurrent colorectal cancer after previous endoscopic mucosal resection. A total of 16 patients with locally recurrent colorectal lesions were enrolled. A needle knife, an insulated-tip knife and a hook knife were used to resect the lesion along the submucosa. The rate of the curative resection, procedure time, and incidence of complications were evaluated. Of 16 lesions, 15 were completely resected with endoscopic submucosal dissection, yielding an en bloc resection rate of 93.8 percent. Histologic examination confirmed that lateral and basal margins were cancer-free in 14 patients (87.5 percent). The average procedure time was 87.2 +/- 60.7 minutes. None of the patients had immediate or delayed bleeding during or after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Perforation in one patient (6.3 percent) was the only complication and was managed conservatively. The mean follow-up period was 15.5 +/- 6.8 months; none of the patients experienced lesion residue or recurrence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection appears to be effective for locally recurrent colorectal cancer after previous endoscopic mucosal resection, making it possible to resect whole lesions and provide precise histologic information.

  18. Endoscopic therapy of neoplasia related to Barrett's esophagus and endoscopic palliation of esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignesh, Shivakumar; Hoffe, Sarah E; Meredith, Kenneth L; Shridhar, Ravi; Almhanna, Khaldoun; Gupta, Akshay K

    2013-04-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the most important identifiable risk factor for the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma. This article reviews the current endoscopic therapies for BE with high-grade dysplasia and intramucosal cancer and briefly discusses the endoscopic palliation of advanced esophageal cancer. The diagnosis of low-grade or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) is based on several cytologic criteria that suggest neoplastic transformation of the columnar epithelium. HGD and carcinoma in situ are regarded as equivalent. The presence of dysplasia, particularly HGD, is also a risk factor for synchronous and metachronous adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia is a marker of adenocarcinoma and also has been shown to be the preinvasive lesion. Esophagectomy has been the conventional treatment for T1 esophageal cancer and, although debated, is an appropriate option in some patients with HGD due to the presence of occult cancer in over one-third of patients. Endoscopic ablative modalities (eg, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation) and endoscopic resection techniques (eg, endoscopic mucosal resection) have demonstrated promising results. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy makes endoscopic treatment an attractive potential option.

  19. Rendezvous endoscopic recanalization for complete esophageal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Stefano; Kratt, Thomas; Gani, Cihan; Stueker, Dietmar; Zips, Daniel; Malek, Nisar P; Goetz, Martin

    2018-03-30

    Complete esophageal obstruction after (chemo)radiation for head and neck cancers is rare. However, inability to swallow one's own saliva strongly inflicts upon quality of life. Techniques for endoscopic recanalization in complete obstruction are not well established. We assessed the efficacy and safety of rendezvous recanalization. We performed a retrospective review of all patients who underwent endoscopic recanalization of complete proximal esophageal obstruction after radiotherapy between January 2009 and June 2016. Technical success was defined as an ability to pass an endoscope across the recanalized lumen, clinical success by changes in the dysphagia score. Adverse events were recorded prospectively. 19 patients with complete obstruction (dysphagia IV°), all of whom had failed at least one trial of conventional dilatation, underwent recanalization by endoscopic rendezvous, a combined approach through a gastrostomy and perorally under fluoroscopic control. Conscious sedation was used in all patients. In 18/19 patients (94.7%), recanalization was technically successful. In 14/18 patients (77.8%), the post-intervention dysphagia score changed to ≤ II. Three patients had their PEG removed. Factors negatively associated with success were obstruction length of 50 mm; and tumor recurrence for long-term success. No severe complications were recorded. Rendezvous recanalization for complete esophageal obstruction is a reliable and safe method to re-establish luminal patency. Differences between technical and clinical success rates highlight the importance of additional functional factors associated with dysphagia. Given the lack of therapeutic alternatives, rendezvous recanalization is a valid option to improve dysphagia.

  20. Outcome of Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery for Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Se, Young-Bem; Kim, Hey In; Lee, Seung Hoon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Yong Hwy

    2017-08-01

    Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has recently been introduced in pituitary surgery. We investigated outcomes and complications of endoscopic surgery in 2 referral centers in Korea. We enrolled 134 patients with acromegaly (microadenomas, n = 15; macroadenomas, n = 119) who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at Seoul National University Hospital (n = 74) and Samsung Medical Center (n = 60) between January 2009 and March 2016. Remission was defined as having a normal insulin-like growth factor-1 and a suppressed growth hormone (GH) surgery, normal pituitary function was maintained in 34 patients (25.4%). Sixty-four patients (47.7%) presented complete (n = 59, 44.0%) or incomplete (n = 5, 3.7%) recovery of pituitary function. Hypopituitarism persisted in 20 patients (14.9%) and worsened in 16 patients (11.9%). Postoperatively, transient diabetes insipidus was reported in 52 patients (38.8%) but only persisted in 2 patients (1.5%). Other postoperative complications were epistaxis (n = 2), cerebral fluid leakage (n = 4), infection (n = 1), and intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 1). Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly presented high remission rates and a low incidence of endocrine deficits and complications. Regardless of surgical techniques, invasive pituitary tumors were associated with poor outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endoscopic Surgery for Traumatic Acute Subdural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH is generally addressed by craniotomy under general anesthesia. We report a patient whose traumatic ASDH was treated under local anesthesia by one-burr-hole endoscopic surgery. This 87-year-old woman had undergone coil embolization for a ruptured right middle-cerebral artery aneurysm and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus 5 years earlier. Upon admission, she manifested consciousness disturbance after suffering head trauma and right hemiplegia. Her Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 (E2V2M4. Computed tomography (CT demonstrated a thick, left-frontotemporal ASDH. Due to her advanced age and poor condition, we performed endoscopic surgery rather than craniotomy to evacuate the ASDH. Under local anesthesia, we made a burr hole in her left forehead and increased its size to 15 mm in diameter. After introducing a transparent sheath into the hematoma cavity with a rigid endoscope, the clot was evacuated with a suction tube. The arterial bleeding point was electrically coagulated. A postoperative CT scan confirmed the reduction of the hematoma. There was neither brain compression nor brain swelling. Her consciousness disturbance and right hemiplegia improved immediately. Endoscopic surgery may represent a viable method to address traumatic intracranial hematomas in some patients.

  2. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  3. Update on the endoscopic treatments for achalasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Dushant S; Wang, Andrew Y

    2016-01-01

    Achalasia is the most common primary motility disorder of the esophagus and presents as dysphagia to solids and liquids. It is characterized by impaired deglutitive relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. High-resolution manometry allows for definitive diagnosis and classification of achalasia, with type II being the most responsive to therapy. Since no cure for achalasia exists, early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is critical to prevent end-stage disease. The central tenant of diagnosis is to first rule out mechanical obstruction due to stricture or malignancy, which is often accomplished by endoscopic and fluoroscopic examination. Therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD), surgical myotomy, and endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin injection. Heller myotomy and PD are more efficacious than pharmacologic therapies and should be considered first-line treatment options. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a minimally-invasive endoscopic therapy that might be as effective as surgical myotomy when performed by a trained and experienced endoscopist, although long-term data are lacking. Overall, therapy should be individualized to each patient’s clinical situation and based upon his or her risk tolerance, operative candidacy, and life expectancy. In instances of therapeutic failure or symptom recurrence re-treatment is possible and can include PD or POEM of the wall opposite the site of prior myotomy. Patients undergoing therapy for achalasia require counseling, as the goal of therapy is to improve swallowing and prevent late manifestations of the disease rather than to restore normal swallowing, which is unfortunately impossible. PMID:27818585

  4. Successful Endoscopic Therapy of Traumatic Bile Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Spinn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.

  5. An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic injection sclerotherapy in patients with portal hypertension seen at the Centre for Clinical Research, ... The report concludes that variceal injection sclerotherapy is a useful method of treating oesophageal varices and can be performed on an out patient basis.

  6. ENDOSCOPIC TREATMENT OF THE HYPOPHARYNGEAL (ZENKERS) DIVERTICULUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOUTERS, B; VANOVERBEEK, JJM

    Over the years the techniques for endoscopic treatment of Zenker's diverticulum have been improved. Initially, in 1964, we used the electrocoagulation technique as described by Dohlman, but currently we prefer to sever the tissue bridge between the diverticulum and esophagus with the CO2 laser under

  7. Liver parenchumography following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revert, A.; Arana, E.; Pertejo, V.; Berenguer, M.; Masip, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Focal liver opacification during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) is an uncommon complication caused by excessive pressure during contrast injection. In this situation, ERCP must be interrupted and the position of the cannula checked. We recommend that these images be excluded from the diagnosis of tumor or cystic cavities. 4 refs

  8. Subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation using miniport for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    miniport for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. Akinari Hinoki*, Ikeda ... method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the ... the open technique and an additional 2 mm miniport). A ... (unilateral, n = 9) or 42 ± 8 min (bilateral, n = 5). The mean .... Methods of laparoscopic repair have recently ...

  9. Early endoscopic realignment in posterior urethral injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B; Baidya, J L

    2013-01-01

    Posterior urethral injury requires meticulous tertiary care and optimum expertise to manage successfully. The aim of our study is to describe our experiences with pelvic injuries involving posterior urethra and their outcome after early endoscopic realignment. A prospective study was carried out in 20 patients with complete posterior urethral rupture, from November 2007 till October 2010. They presented with blunt traumatic pelvic fracture and underwent primary realignment of posterior urethra in our institute. The definitive diagnosis of urethral rupture was made after retrograde urethrography and antegrade urethrography where applicable. The initial management was suprapubic catheter insertion after primary trauma management in casualty. After a week of conservative management with intravenous antibiotics and pain management, patients were subjected to the endoscopic realignment. The follow up period was at least six months. The results were analyzed with SPSS software. After endoscopic realignment, all patients were advised CISC for the initial 3 months. All patients voided well after three months of CISC. However, 12 patients were lost to follow up by the end of 6 postoperative months. Out of eight remaining patients, two had features of restricture and were managed with DVU followed by CISC again. One patient with restricture had some degree of erectile dysfunction who improved significantly after phospodiesterase inhibitors. None of the patients had features of incontinence. Early endoscopic realignment of posterior urethra is a minimally invasive modality in the management of complete posterior urethral injury with low rates of incontinence and impotency.

  10. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy: Success and Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deopujari, Chandrashekhar E; Karmarkar, Vikram S; Shaikh, Salman T

    2017-05-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has now become an accepted mode of hydrocephalus treatment in children. Varying degrees of success for the procedure have been reported depending on the type and etiology of hydrocephalus, age of the patient and certain technical parameters. Review of these factors for predictability of success, complications and validation of success score is presented.

  11. Anaesthetic management of endoscopic resection of juvenile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P Khanna, BR Ray, R Sinha, R Kumar, K Sikka, AC Singh ... We present the anaesthetic management of endoscopic resection of 14 JNAs, together with a review. ... Mean duration of surgery was 197.14 ± 77 minutes, and median blood loss ...

  12. An illumination system for endoscopic applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to an illumination system for endoscopic applications comprising at least one substantially monochromatic light source having a predefined central wavelength between 400 and 500 nm or between 500 and 550 nm, an optical transmission path adapted to guide light emanat...... for photodynamic diagnosis and/or therapy of bladder cancer is further disclosed herein....

  13. Subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation using miniport for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background This report describes the first miniport method using subcutaneous endoscopically assisted ligation (SEAL) for the treatment of girls with inguinal hernia. To validate its safety and efficacy, the authors evaluated their early experiences. Methods Between April 2014 and December 2014, 19 SEALs using miniport ...

  14. Endoscopic management of bile leaks after laparoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... operative treatment is necessary, repair by a surgeon with expertise in biliary ... vascular injuries or other endoscopic findings requiring surgical or radiological intervention. Of 84 patients ..... necrosis and unrecognised distal CD injury. ... placement of multiple simultaneous stents, an alternative option.

  15. Optimization of portal placement for endoscopic calcaneoplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, Maayke N.; Groot, Minke; Sierevelt, Inger N.; Spennacchio, Pietro A.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine an anatomic landmark to help locate portals in endoscopic calcaneoplasty. The device for optimal portal placement (DOPP) was developed to measure the distance from the distal fibula tip to the calcaneus (DFC) in 28 volunteers to determine the location of the

  16. Effect of spray angle and spray volume on deposition of a medium droplet spray with air support in ivy pot plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foqué, Dieter; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2014-03-01

    Spray boom systems, an alternative to the predominantly-used spray guns, have the potential to considerably improve crop protection management in glasshouses. Based on earlier experiments, the further optimization of the deposits of a medium spray quality extended range flat fan nozzle type using easy adjustable spray boom settings was examined. Using mineral chelate tracers and water sensitive papers, the spray results were monitored at three plant levels, on the upper side and the underside of the leaves, and on some off-target collectors. In addition, the deposition datasets of all tree experiments were compared. The data showed that the most efficient spray distribution with the medium spray quality flat fan nozzles was found with a 30° forward angled spray combined with air support and an application rate of 1000 L ha(-1) . This technique resulted in a more uniform deposition in the dense canopy and increased spray deposition on the lower side of the leaves compared with the a standard spray boom application. Applying 1000 L ha(-1) in two subsequent runs instead of one did not seem to show any added value. Spray deposition can be improved hugely simply by changing some spray boom settings like nozzle type, angling the spray, using air support and adjusting the spray volume to the crop. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. On the modeling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Christer

    1997-12-01

    This report concerns on the modelling of fuel sprays in a non-combustible case using an own developed fuel spray code module. The spray code is made as an independent module to simplify the use of different gas flow solvers together with the spray module. This enables the possibility to use different turbulence models. In the report two turbulence models has been used, the standard k-{epsilon} and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) model. The report presents results obtained from a sensitivity study of both numerical and physical parameters on an evaporating spray under diesel like conditions (light duty diesel engine) with the spray code module attached to a cylindrical gas phase flow solver. The results from the sensitivity analysis showed that these effects were not so pronounced as has been reported. It was suggested that this was due to the `easy` nature of the investigated case, where the flow field could be sufficiently resolved without violating the droplet void fraction criteria and break-up, collision and combustion that may increase the grid spacing sensitivity were not modelled. An investigation was performed to valuate the feasibility of using LES as turbulence model. Calculations of the initial phase of a developing jet were made and it was found that in the initial phase of the spray and the flow structure were similar to that of a spatially developing jet flow, which is in agreement with experimental observations. Results from LES calculations on a developing spray jet was also compared with k-{epsilon} based ones. This result showed that the spray-LES approach captured the transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow field with an increase in turbulent kinetic energy k along the injection direction 45 refs, 37 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Reactor Containment Spray Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T. H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The design basis accident in water moderated power reactors is a loss-of-coolant accident in which water sprays are generally employed to control the containment pressure transient by condensing the released steam-air mixture. Additives to the spray have been proposed as a way to increase their usefulness by enhancing the removal of various forms of radioiodine from the containment atmosphere. A program to investigate the gas-liquid systems involved is co-ordinated by ORNL for the US Atomic Energy Commission. A basic part of the program is the search for various chemical additives that will increase the spray affinity for molecular iodine and methyl iodide. A method for evaluating additives was developed that measures equilibrium distribution coefficients for iodine between air and aqueous solutions. Additives selected are used in single drop-wind tunnel experiments where the circulating gas contains iodine or CH{sub 3}I. Mass transfer coefficients and transient distribution coefficients have been determined as a function of relative humidity, temperature, drop size, and solution pH and concentration. Tests have shown that surfactants and organic amines increase the solution ability to getter CH{sub 3}l. Results from single drop tests help in planning spray experiments in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant, a large ({approx}38 m{sup 3}) facility, where accident conditions are closely simulated. Iodine and CH{sub 3}I removal rates have been determined for a number of solutions, including 1 wt% Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH and 3000 ppm B + 0.153 M NaOH. The additive has very little effect in removal of I{sub 2} with half-lives of less than 1 mm typical for any aqueous solution. These same solutions remove CH{sub 3}I with a half-life of one hour. Analytical models for the removal processes have been developed. Consideration is also being given to corrosion, thermal and radiation stability of the solutions. Radiation studies have indicated the loss

  19. Polydisperse effects in jet spray flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Noam; Greenberg, J. Barry

    2018-01-01

    A laminar jet polydisperse spray diffusion flame is analysed mathematically for the first time using an extension of classical similarity solutions for gaseous jet flames. The analysis enables a comparison to be drawn between conditions for flame stability or flame blow-out for purely gaseous flames and for spray flames. It is found that, in contrast to the Schmidt number criteria relevant to gas flames, droplet size and initial spray polydispersity play a critical role in determining potential flame scenarios. Some qualitative agreement for lift-off height is found when comparing predictions of the theory and sparse independent experimental evidence from the literature.

  20. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, Jesper Saederup; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  1. Spray deposition using impulse atomization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellendt, N.; Schmidt, R.; Knabe, J.; Henein, H.; Uhlenwinkel, V.

    2004-01-01

    A novel technique, impulse atomization, has been used for spray deposition. This single fluid atomization technique leads to different spray characteristics and impact conditions of the droplets compared to gas atomization technique which is the common technique used for spray deposition. Deposition experiments with a Cu-6Sn alloy were conducted to evaluate the appropriateness of impulse atomization to produce dense material. Based on these experiments, a model has been developed to simulate the thermal history and the local solidification rates of the deposited material. A numerical study shows how different cooling conditions affect the solidification rate of the material

  2. Endoscopic management of biliary injuries and leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Chandrasekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct injuries and subsequent leaks can occur following laparoscopic and open cholecystectomies and also during other hepatobiliary surgeries. Various patient related and technical factors are implicated in the causation of biliary injuries. Over a period of twenty five years managing such patients of biliary injuries our team has found a practical approach to assess the cause of biliary injuries based on the symptoms, clinical examination and imaging. Bismuth classification is helpful in most of the cases. Immediate referral to a centre experienced in the management of bile duct injury and timely intervention is associated with improved outcomes. Resuscitation, correcting dyselectrolytemia, aspiration of undrained biloma and antibiotics take the priority in the management. The goal is to restore the bile conduit, and to prevent short and longterm complications such as biliary fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, biliary stricture, recurrent cholangitis and secondary biliary cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapy by reducing the transpapillary pressure gradient helps in reducing the leak. Endoscopic therapy with biliary sphincterotomy alone or with additional placement of a biliary stent/ nasobiliary drainage is advocated. In our tertiary care referral unit, we found endoscopic interventions are useful in situations where there is leak with associated CBD calculus or a foreign body, peripheral bile duct injury, cystic duct stump leak and partial bile duct injury with leak/ narrowing of the lumen. Endotherapy is not useful in case of complete transection (total cut off and complete stricture involving common hepatic or common bile ducts. In conclusion, endoscopic treatment can be considered a highly effective therapy and should be the first-line therapy in such patients. Though less successful, an endoscopic attempt is warranted in patients suffering from central bile duct leakages failing which surgical management is recommended.

  3. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty: the learning curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; El Zein, Mohamad; Agnihotri, Abhishek; Dunlap, Margo; Chang, Angela; Agrawal, Alison; Barola, Sindhu; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Chen, Yen-I; Kalloo, Anthony N; Khashab, Mouen A; Kumbhari, Vivek

    2017-09-01

    Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is gaining traction as a minimally invasive bariatric treatment. Concern that the learning curve may be slow, even among those proficient in endoscopic suturing, is a barrier to widespread implementation of the procedure. Therefore, we aimed to define the learning curve for ESG in a single endoscopist experienced in endoscopic suturing who participated in a 1-day ESG training program.  Consecutive patients who underwent ESG between February 2016 and November 2016 were included. The performing endoscopist, who is proficient in endoscopic suturing for non-ESG procedures, participated in a 1-day ESG training session before offering ESG to patients. The outcome measurements were length of procedure (LOP) and number of plications per procedure. Nonlinear regression was used to determine the learning plateau and calculate the learning rate.  Twenty-one consecutive patients (8 males), with mean age 47.7 ± 11.2 years and mean body mass index 41.8 ± 8.5 kg/m 2 underwent ESG. LOP decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a learning plateau at 101.5 minutes and a learning rate of 7 cases ( P  = 0.04). The number of plications per procedure also decreased significantly across consecutive procedures, with a plateau at 8 sutures and a learning rate of 9 cases ( P  < 0.001). Further, the average time per plication decreased significantly with consecutive procedures, reaching a plateau at 9 procedures ( P  < 0.001).  Endoscopists experienced in endoscopic suturing are expected to achieve a reduction in LOP and number of plications per procedure in successive cases, with progress plateauing at 7 and 9 cases, respectively.

  4. Update on endoscopic pancreatic function testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tyler Stevens; Mansour A Parsi

    2011-01-01

    Hormone-stimulated pancreatic function tests (PFTs) are considered the gold standard for measuring pancreatic exocrine function. PFTs involve the administration of intravenous secretin or cholecystokinin, followed by collection and analysis of pancreatic secretions. Because exocrine function may decline in the earliest phase of pancreatic fibrosis, PFTs are considered accurate for diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. Unfortunately, these potentially valuable tests are infrequently performed except at specialized centers, because they are time consuming and complicated. To overcome these limitations, endoscopic PFT methods have been developed which include aspiration of pancreatic secretions through the suction channel of the endoscope. The secretin endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT) involves collection of duodenal aspirates at 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after secretin stimulation. A bicarbonate concentration greater than 80 mmol/L in any of the samples is considered a normal result. The secretin ePFT has demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared with various reference standards, including the "Dreiling tube" secretin PFT, endoscopic ultrasound, and surgical histology. Furthermore, a standard autoanalyzer can be used for bicarbonate analysis, which allows the secretin ePFT to be performed at any hospital. The secretin ePFT may complement imaging tests like endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis.This paper will review the literature validating the use of ePFT in the diagnosis of exocrine insufficiency and chronic pancreatitis. Newer developments will also be discussed, including the feasibility of combined EUS/ePFT, the use of cholecystokinin alone or in combination with secretin, and the discovery of new protein and lipid pancreatic juice biomarkers which may complement traditionalfluid analysis.

  5. Radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, In One; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Gook Myung; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang; Cheon, Jung Eun; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Guk Myung

    2001-01-01

    Endoscopic incision of ureterocele is considered a simple and safe method for decompression of urinary tract obstruction above ureterocele. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological findings (ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography, and voiding cystourethrography(VCU)) in 16 patients with ureterocele who underwent endoscopic incision (mean age at surgery, 15 months; M:F 3:13; 18 ureteroceles). According to the postoperative results, treatment was classified as successful when medical treatment was still required, and second operation when additional surgical treatment was required. Postoperative US (n=10) showed that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction was relieved: the kidney parenchima was thicker and the ureterocele was smaller. Intravenous urography (n=8), demonstrated that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction and the excretory function of the kidney had improved. Postoperative VCU indicated that in 92% of patients (12 of 13), endoscopic incision of the ureterocele led to vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Of these twelve, seven (58%) showed VUR of more than grade 3, while newly developed VUR was seen in five of eight patients (63%) who had preoperative VCU. Surgery was successful in four patients (25%), partially successful in three (19%), and a second operation-on account of recurrent urinary tract infection and VUR of more than grase 3 during the follow-up period-was required by nine (56%). Although endoscopic incision of a ureterocele is a useful way of relieving urinary tract obstruction, an ensuing complication may be VUR. Postoperative US and intravenous urography should be used to evaluate parenchymal change in the kidney and improvement of uronary tract obstructon, while to assess the extend of VUR during the follow-up period , postoperative VCU is required

  6. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovařík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 758-768 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015

  7. Synergism between fentanyl and tramadol in tonic inflammatory pain: the orofacial formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Zepeda, Ramiro J; Sierralta, Fernando; Prieto, Juan C

    2012-06-01

    Opioids have been used for long time to management of pain, the coadministration of two opioids may induce synergism. The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive interaction between the dual mechanism of action of tramadol compared to the main of fentanyl antinociception in the orofacial formalin which represents a model of persistent cutaneous nociception in the region innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The i.p. administration of tramadol and fentanyl induced a dose-dependent antinociception with an ED(50) of 2.97 ± 0.32 mg/kg for phase I and 1.79 ± 0.30 mg/kg for phase II and 0.062 ± 0.0040 mg/kg in phase I and 0.041 ± 0.0039 mg/kg in phase II, respectively. The coadministration of fentanyl with tramadol induced synergism in both phases of the test with an interaction index of 0.343 and 0.163 for phase I and phase II, respectively. This finding could be explained by the more complex pharmacology of tramadol compared to fentanyl.

  8. Molecular Markers for Prostate Cancer in Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sequeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the most frequently diagnosed type of cancer in developed countries. The decisive method of diagnosis is based on the results of biopsies, morphologically evaluated to determine the presence or absence of cancer. Although this approach leads to a confident diagnosis in most cases, it can be improved by using the molecular markers present in the tissue. Both miRNAs and proteins are considered excellent candidates for biomarkers in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, due to their stability over long periods of time. In the last few years, a concerted effort has been made to develop the necessary tools for their reliable measurement in these types of samples. Furthermore, the use of these kinds of markers may also help in establishing tumor grade and aggressiveness, as well as predicting the possible outcomes in each particular case for the different treatments available. This would aid clinicians in the decision-making process. In this review, we attempt to summarize and discuss the potential use of microRNA and protein profiles in FFPE tissue samples as markers to better predict PCa diagnosis, progression, and response to therapy.

  9. Probing focal cortical dysplasia in formalin fixed samples using tissue optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Suresh; Cicchi, Riccardo; Giordano, Flavio; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Conti, Valerio; Guerrini, Renzo; Pavone, Francesco Saverio

    2016-03-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is one of most common causes of intractable epilepsy in pediatric population and these are often insensitive to anti-epileptic drugs. FCD is characterized by a disarray in localized regions of the cerebral cortex and abnormal neurons which results them to misfire with incorrect signals. Resective neurosurgery to remove or disconnect the affected parts from the rest of the brain seems to be a viable option to treat FCD. Before neurosurgery the subject could undergo imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. On the downside FCD could be elusive in MRI images and may be practically invisible in CT scans. Furthermore, unnecessary removal of normal tissues is to be taken into consideration as this could lead to neurological defects. In this context, optical spectroscopy have been widely investigated as an alternative technique for the detection of abnormal tissues in different organ sites. Disease progression is accompanied by a number of architectural, biochemical and morphological changes. These variations are reflected in the spectral intensity and line shape. Here, in this proof of concept study we propose to investigate the application of tissue optical spectroscopy based on fluorescence excitation at two wavelength 378 and 445 nm coupled along with Raman spectroscopy for the detection of FCD on formalin fixed tissue specimens from pediatric subjects. For fluorescence at both the excitation wavelengths FCD showed a decreased intensity at longer wavelength when compared to normal tissues. Also, differences exist in the Raman spectral profiles of normal and FCD.

  10. Virus characterization and discovery in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; van Run, Peter R W A; Schürch, Anita C; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Kuiken, Thijs; Smits, Saskia L

    2015-03-01

    Detection and characterization of novel viruses is hampered frequently by the lack of properly stored materials. Especially for the retrospective identification of viruses responsible for past disease outbreaks, often only formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples are available. Although FFPE tissues can be used to detect known viral sequences, the application of FFPE tissues for detection of novel viruses is currently unclear. In the present study it was shown that sequence-independent amplification in combination with next-generation sequencing can be used to detect sequences of known and unknown viruses, although with relatively low sensitivity. These findings indicate that this technique could be useful for detecting novel viral sequences in FFPE tissues collected from humans and animals with disease of unknown origin, when other samples are not available. In addition, application of this method to FFPE tissues allows to correlate with the presence of histopathological changes in the corresponding tissue sections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved protein extraction and protein identification from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human aortas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zongming; Yan, Kun; Rosenberg, Avraham; Jin, Zhicheng; Crain, Barbara; Athas, Grace; Heide, Richard S Vander; Howard, Timothy; Everett, Allen D; Herrington, David; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2013-04-01

    Evaluate combination of heat and elevated pressure to enhance protein extraction and quality of formalin-fixed (FF), and FF paraffin-embedded (FFPE) aorta for proteomics. Proteins were extracted from fresh frozen aorta at room temperature (RT). FF and FFPE aortas (3 months and 15 years) were extracted at RT, heat alone, or a combination of heat and high pressure. Protein yields were compared, and digested peptides from the extracts were analyzed with MS. Combined heat and elevated pressure increased protein yield from human FF or FFPE aorta compared to matched tissues with heat alone (1.5-fold) or at RT (8.3-fold), resulting in more proteins identified and with more sequence coverage. The length of storage did adversely affect the quality of proteins from FF tissue. For long-term storage, aorta was preserved better with FFPE than FF alone. Periostin and MGF-E8 were demonstrated suitable for MRM assays from FFPE aorta. Combination of heat and high pressure is an effective method to extract proteins from FFPE aorta for downstream proteomics. This method opens the possibility for use of archival and often rare FFPE aortas and possibly other tissues available to proteomics for biomarker discovery and quantification. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Complete solubilization of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue may improve proteomic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Taylor, Clive R; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    Tissue-based proteomic approaches (tissue proteomics) are essential for discovering and evaluating biomarkers for personalized medicine. In any proteomics study, the most critical issue is sample extraction and preparation. This problem is especially difficult when recovering proteins from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. However, improving and standardizing protein extraction from FFPE tissue is a critical need because of the millions of archival FFPE tissues available in tissue banks worldwide. Recent progress in the application of heat-induced antigen retrieval principles for protein extraction from FFPE tissue has resulted in a number of published FFPE tissue proteomics studies. However, there is currently no consensus on the optimal protocol for protein extraction from FFPE tissue or accepted standards for quantitative evaluation of the extracts. Standardization is critical to ensure the accurate evaluation of FFPE protein extracts by proteomic methods such as reverse phase protein arrays, which is now in clinical use. In our view, complete solubilization of FFPE tissue samples is the best way to achieve the goal of standardizing the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. However, further studies are recommended to develop standardized protein extraction methods to ensure quantitative and qualitative reproducibility in the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biomedical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples: The Holy Grail for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczo, Boglarka; Guttman, Andras

    2018-06-05

    More than a century ago in 1893, a revolutionary idea about fixing biological tissue specimens was introduced by Ferdinand Blum, a German physician. Since then, a plethora of fixation methods have been investigated and used. Formalin fixation with paraffin embedment became the most widely used types of fixation and preservation method, due to its proper architectural conservation of tissue structures and cellular shape. The huge collection of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sample archives worldwide holds a large amount of unearthed information about diseases that could be the Holy Grail in contemporary biomarker research utilizing analytical omics based molecular diagnostics. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the omics options for FFPE tissue sample analysis in the molecular diagnostics field. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Involvement of nitridergic and opioidergic pathways in the antinociception of gabapentin in the orofacial formalin test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Hugo F; Sierralta, Fernando; Lux, Sebastian; Troncoso, Rocío; Ciudad, Natalia; Zepeda, Ramiro; Zanetta, Pilar; Noriega, Viviana; Prieto, Juan Carlos

    2015-04-01

    Pain is one of the most common problems in clinical medicine. There is considerable evidence that pharmacologic approaches are the most widely used therapeutic options to ameliorate persistent or chronic pain. In this study it was evaluated the effect of l-NAME and naltrexone in the antinociception induced by administration of gabapentin in the orofacial formalin test of mice. The algesiometer assay was performed by the administration of 20 μl of 2% formalin solution injected into the upper right lip of each mouse. The dose of gabapentin that produces the 50% of the maximum possible effect (ED50) was significantly increased by the pretreatment with l-NAME or naltrexone. These results suggest that gabapentin produce antinociception partly via the activation nitridergic pathways and opioid system. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Analytical validation of a melanoma diagnostic gene signature using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warf, M Bryan; Flake, Darl D; Adams, Doug; Gutin, Alexander; Kolquist, Kathryn A; Wenstrup, Richard J; Roa, Benjamin B

    2015-01-01

    These studies were to validate the analytical performance of a gene expression signature that differentiates melanoma and nevi, using RNA expression from 14 signature genes and nine normalization genes that generates a melanoma diagnostic score (MDS). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions were evaluated in these studies. The overall SD of the assay was determined to be 0.69 MDS units. Individual amplicons within the signature had an average amplification efficiency of 92% and a SD less than 0.5 CT. The MDS was reproducible across a 2000-fold dilution range of input RNA. Melanin, an inhibitor of PCR, does not interfere with the signature. These studies indicate this signature is robust and reproducible and is analytically validated on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.

  16. Tungsten/copper composite deposits produced by a cold spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun-Ki; Kang, Suk Bong

    2003-01-01

    An agglomerated tungsten/copper composite powder was both cold sprayed and plasma sprayed onto a mild steel substrate for electronic package applications. Most pores resulting from the spraying were found in the vicinity of the tungsten-rich regions of the final product. The levels of porosity varied with the amount of tungsten present. No copper oxidation was found at the cold-sprayed deposit, but relatively high copper oxidation was observed at the plasma-sprayed deposit

  17. Estradiol-induced antinociceptive responses on formalin-induced nociception are independent of COX and HPA activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deirtra A; Barr, Gordon A; Amador, Nicole; Shivers, Kai-Yvonne; Kemen, Lynne; Kreiter, Christopher M; Jenab, Shirzad; Inturrisi, Charles E; Quinones-Jenab, Vanya

    2011-07-01

    Estrogen modulates pain perception but how it does so is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine if estradiol reduces nociceptive responses in part via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/COX-2 activity. The first study examined the effects of estradiol (20%) or vehicle with concurrent injection nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on formalin-induced nociceptive responding (flinching) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The drugs were ibuprofen (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor), SC560 (COX-1 inhibitor), or NS398 (COX-2 inhibitor). In a second study, estradiol's effects on formalin-induced nociception were tested in adrenalectomized (ADX), OVX, and ADX+OVX rats. Serum levels of prostaglandins (PG) PGE(2) and corticosterone were measured. Estradiol significantly decreased nociceptive responses in OVX rats with effects during both the first and the second phase of the formalin test. The nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) did not alter nociception at the doses used here. Adrenalectomy neither altered flinching responses in female rats nor reversed estradiol-induced antinociceptive responses. Estradiol alone had no effect on corticosterone (CORT) or prostaglandin levels after the formalin test, dissociating the effects of estradiol on behavior and these serum markers. Ibuprofen and NS398 significantly reduced PGE2 levels. CORT was not decreased by OVX surgery or by estradiol below that of ADX. Only IBU significantly increased corticosterone levels. Taken together, our results suggest that estradiol-induced antinociception in female rats is independent of COX activity and HPA axis activation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Recruitment of hypothalamic orexin neurons after formalin injections in adult male rats exposed to a neonatal immune challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Jane Campbell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to early life physiological stressors, such as infection, is thought to contribute to the onset of psychopathology in adulthood. In animal models, injections of the bacterial immune challenge, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, during the neonatal period has been shown to alter both neuroendocrine function and behavioural pain responses in adulthood. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests a role for the lateral hypothalamic peptide orexin in stress and nociceptive processing. However, whether neonatal LPS exposure affects the reactivity of the orexin system to formalin-induced inflammatory pain in later life remains to be determined. Male Wistar rats (n=13 were exposed to either LPS or saline (0.05mg/kg, i.p on postnatal days (PND 3 and 5. On PND 80-97, all rats were exposed to a subcutaneous hindpaw injection of 2.25% formalin. Following behavioural testing, animals were perfused and brains processed for Fos-protein and orexin immunohistochemistry. Rats treated with LPS during the neonatal period exhibited decreased licking behaviours during the interphase of the formalin test, the period typically associated with the active inhibition of pain, and increased grooming responses to formalin in adulthood. Interestingly, these behavioural changes were accompanied by an increase in the percentage of Fos-positive orexin cells in the dorsomedial and perifornical hypothalamus in LPS-exposed animals. Similar increases in Fos-protein were also observed in stress and pain sensitive brain regions that receive orexinergic inputs. These findings highlight a potential role for orexin in the behavioural responses to pain and provide further evidence that early life stress can prime the circuitry responsible for these responses in adulthood.

  19. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii from the formalin-fixed tissues of Q fever patients with acute hepatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Rock Jang

    Full Text Available Serologic diagnosis is one of the most widely used diagnostic methods for Q fever, but the window period in antibody response of 2 to 3 weeks after symptom onset results in significant diagnostic delay. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Q fever PCR from formalin-fixed liver tissues in Q fever patients with acute hepatitis.We reviewed the clinical and laboratory data in patients with Q fever hepatitis who underwent liver biopsy during a 17-year period, and whose biopsied tissues were available. We also selected patients who revealed granuloma in liver biopsy and with no Q fever diagnosis within the last 3 years as control. Acute Q fever hepatitis was diagnosed if two or more of the following clinical, serologic, or histopathologic criteria were met: (1 an infectious hepatitis-like clinical feature such as fever (≥ 38°C with elevated hepatic transaminase levels; (2 exhibition of a phase II immunoglobulin G (IgG antibodies titer by IFA of ≥ 1:128 in single determination, or a four-fold or greater rise between two separate samples obtained two or more weeks apart; (3 histologic finding of biopsy tissue showing characteristic fibrin ring granuloma.A total of 11 patients with acute Q fever hepatitis were selected and analyzed. Of the 11 patients, 3 (27% had exposure to zoonotic risk factors and 7 (63% met the serologic criteria. Granulomas with either circumferential or radiating fibrin deposition were observed in 10 cases on liver biopsy and in 1 case on bone marrow biopsy. 8 (73% revealed positive Coxiella burnetii PCR from their formalin-fixed liver tissues. In contrast, none of 10 patients with alternative diagnosis who had hepatic granuloma revealed positive C. burnetii PCR from their formalin-fixed liver tissues.Q fever PCR from formalin-fixed liver tissues appears to be a useful adjunct for diagnosing Q fever hepatitis.

  20. Opioid Mechanism Involvement in the Synergism Produced by the Combination of Diclofenac and Caffeine in the Formalin Model

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Ramos, Jos? Mar?a; D?az-Reval, M. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Analgesics can be administered in combination with caffeine for improved analgesic effectiveness in a process known as synergism. The mechanisms by which these combinations produce synergism are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the administration of diclofenac combined with caffeine produced antinociceptive synergism and whether opioid mechanisms played a role in this event. The formalin model was used to evaluate the antinociception produced by the oral ...

  1. Hygiene Sanitasi Makanan dan Pemeriksaan Formalin Serta Boraks Pada Makanan Jajanan (Otak-Otak) di Kota Tanjungpinang Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Doliyanto

    2015-01-01

    Otak-otak are typical foods of Tanjungpinang. Those makers of traditional food of otak-otak are usually people who have low knowledge. Thus, the management of street food gave less attention to food safety, including food sanitation hygiene. The objective of this study was to know the hygiene of food sanitation and inspection of formalin and borax on street food (otak-otak) in Tanjungpinang . This was descriptive survey research. The samples were traditional snack food maker...

  2. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  3. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activities of enaminone compounds on the formalin and hot plate tests in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masocha, Willias; Kombian, Samuel B.; Edafiogho, Ivan O.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, we found that methyl 4-(4‧-bromophenyl)aminocyclohex-3-en-6-methyl-2-oxo-1-oate (E139), an anticonvulsant enaminone, has antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test. In this study we evaluated the antinociceptive activity of five anilino enaminones E139, ethyl 4-(4‧-chlorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E121), ethyl 4-(4‧-bromophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E122), methyl 4-(4‧-chlorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (E138) and ethyl 4-(4‧-fluorophenyl)amino-6-methyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-oate (BRG 19) using the formalin and hot plate tests. E139 has been reported to exert its effects via enhancement of extracellular GABA levels, thus tiagabine, a GABA transporter inhibitor, was evaluated as a control together with indomethacin. Tiagabine had antinociceptive activity in both phase 1 (neurogenic pain) and phase 2 (inflammatory pain) of the formalin test, whereas indomethacin had activity only in phase 2. E139 and E138 had antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test, whereas E121 had activity only in phase 1 and BRG 19 had activity only in phase 2. E122 had no significant activity in either phase. In the hot plate test only E139 had antinociceptive activity. Administration of either bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, or CGP 35348, a GABAB receptor antagonist, blocked the antinociceptive activity of E139. In conclusion our results indicate that E139 has antinociceptive activity in the formalin and hot plate tests that are dependent on GABA receptors.

  4. Proteome stability analysis of snap frozen, RNAlater preserved, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human colon mucosal biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Kastaniegaard, Kenneth; Padurariu, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Large repositories of well characterized RNAlater preserved samples and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples have been generated worldwide. However, the impact on the proteome of the preservation methods remain poorly described. Therefore, we analyzed the impact on the proteome of preserving...... throughput gel free quantitative proteomics. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PRIDE: PXD002029....

  5. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  6. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  7. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  8. Formalin fixation increases deamination mutation signature but should not lead to false positive mutations in clinical practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah M Prentice

    Full Text Available Genomic analysis of cancer tissues is an essential aspect of personalized oncology treatment. Though it has been suggested that formalin fixation of patient tissues may be suboptimal for molecular studies, this tissue processing approach remains the industry standard. Therefore clinical molecular laboratories must be able to work with formalin fixed, paraffin embedded (FFPE material. This study examines the effects of pre-analytic variables introduced by routine pathology processing on specimens used for clinical reports produced by next-generation sequencing technology. Tissue resected from three colorectal cancer patients was subjected to 2, 15, 24, and 48 hour fixation times in neutral buffered formalin. DNA was extracted from all tissues twice, once with uracil-N-glycosylase (UNG treatment to counter deamination effects, and once without. Of note, deamination events at methylated cytosine, as found at CpG sites, remains unaffected by UNG. After extraction a two-step PCR targeted sequencing method was performed using the Illumina MiSeq and the data was analyzed via a custom-built bioinformatics pipeline, including filtration of reads with mapping quality T/A mutations that is not represented in DNA treated with UNG. This suggests these errors may be due to deamination events triggered by a longer fixation time. However the allelic frequency of these events remained below the limit of detection for reportable mutations in this assay (<2%. We do however recommend that suspected intratumoral heterogeneity events be verified by re-sequencing the same FFPE block.

  9. Phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of the kidney. Differences between ethanol fixation and formalin fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Ryota; Kunii, Takuya; Maruyama, Hiroko; Takeda, Tohoru; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet Thet

    2012-01-01

    A phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique using an X-ray interferometer that provides approximately 1000 times higher sensitivity than the conventional X-ray imaging method for low-atomic number elements based on the difference in the mass attenuation coefficient has recently been developed. In the present study, we compared rat kidneys fixed in 100% ethanol and in 10% formalin to evaluate the effects of ethanol in enhancing image contrast in phase-contrast imaging because ethanol causes significant dehydration of tissues and enhances density differences between tissue components. The experiments were conducted at the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, and the X-ray energy was set at 35 keV. Fine anatomical structures in the kidney such as the glomeruli, tubules, and vessels were observed. Particularly clear renal images were obtained with ethanol fixation. The pixel value ratio between the cortex and medulla was about 43% in ethanol-fixed kidneys and 21% in formalin-fixed kidneys. In other words, the contrast in ethanol-fixed kidneys was about two times higher than that in formalin-fixed kidneys. Histological examination showed significantly condensed features in the cortex. The results of this study suggest that the ethanol fixation technique may be useful for enhancing the image contrast of renal structures in the phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique. (author)

  10. Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Tanacetum Sonbolii (Asteraceae on Pain-related Behaviors during Formalin Test in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sofiabadi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tanacetum sonbolii (Asteraceae is an endemic species in Iran. In the present study, we examined the effects of Tanacetum sonbolii hydroalcoholic extract on the formalin test in mice. Methods: 126 Swiss albino mice weighing 230-280g were used as subjects. The formalin test was performed on two control groups (marked as intact and saline groups n = 6 in each group and an experimental group. In all groups, the formalin test was recorded for 60 min after administration of extract and drugs in mice. Results: The results showed that Tanacetum sonbolii (150 and 300 mg/kg produced significant antinociception in phase 2. In addition, different doses of Tanacetum sonbolii extract (600, 900 and 1200 mg/kg also induced antinociceptive effects in phase1 and phase 2. On the other hand, morphine could induce antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg failed to affect the pain scores compared to Tanacetum sonbolii (300 mg/kg group. Discussion: It seems that administration of hydroalcoholic extract of Tanacetum sonbolii has the potential to relieve pain through both central and peripheral mechanisms in persistent inflammatory nociception.

  11. Altered formalin-induced pain and Fos induction in the periaqueductal grey of preadolescent rats following neonatal LPS exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihssane Zouikr

    Full Text Available Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis during postnatal day (PND 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG. Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb as compared to medial habenula (MHb, however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process.

  12. Altered Formalin-Induced Pain and Fos Induction in the Periaqueductal Grey of Preadolescent Rats following Neonatal LPS Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouikr, Ihssane; James, Morgan H.; Campbell, Erin J.; Clifton, Vicki L.; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Dayas, Christopher V.; Hodgson, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that early pain experiences can produce alterations in the nociceptive systems later in life including increased sensitivity to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. However, less is known about the impact of neonatal immune challenge on future responses to noxious stimuli and the reactivity of neural substrates involved in analgesia. Here we demonstrate that rats exposed to Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg IP, Salmonella enteritidis) during postnatal day (PND) 3 and 5 displayed enhanced formalin-induced flinching but not licking following formalin injection at PND 22. This LPS-induced hyperalgesia was accompanied by distinct recruitment of supra-spinal regions involved in analgesia as indicated by significantly attenuated Fos-protein induction in the rostral dorsal periaqueductal grey (DPAG) as well as rostral and caudal axes of the ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG). Formalin injections were associated with increased Fos-protein labelling in lateral habenula (LHb) as compared to medial habenula (MHb), however the intensity of this labelling did not differ as a result of neonatal immune challenge. These data highlight the importance of neonatal immune priming in programming inflammatory pain sensitivity later in development and highlight the PAG as a possible mediator of this process. PMID:24878577

  13. Detection of African swine fever virus from formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues by polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Luka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Formalin fixing and paraffin embedding of tissue samples is one of the techniques for preserving the structural integrity of cells for a very long time. However, extraction and analysis of genomic material from formalin fixed tissue (FFT remains a challenge despite numerous attempts to develop a more effective method. The success of polymerase chain reaction (PCR depends on the quality of DNA extract. Materials and Methods: Here we assessed the conventional method of DNA extraction from FFT for African swine fever virus (ASFV detection. The modified conventional method gave a higher quality DNA when compared with commercially available DNA extraction kits (QIAamp® DNA Mini Kit, DNeasy® Blood and Tissue Kit, and ZR Genomic DNA™ Tissue MiniPrep. Results: An average A260/A280 DNA purity of 0.86-1.68 and 3.22-5.32 μg DNA/mg for formalin fixed and non-fixed tissues, respectively using a conventional method. In a reproducible and three times repeat PCR, the ASFV DNA expected product size of 278 bp was obtained from the DNA extract of the conventional method but not from the DNA extract of the commercial kits. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that the conventional method extracts ASFV genome better than commercial kit. In summary, the commercial kit extraction appeared not suitable to purify ASFV DNA from FFT. We, therefore, recommend that the use of the conventional method be considered for African swine fever DNA extraction from FFT.

  14. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  16. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  17. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  18. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, J.L.; Kahler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  20. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  1. Structure of Non-evaporating diesel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.R.; Baluch, A.H.; Tahir, Z.R.

    2008-01-01

    Need is always felt of some rational experimental information on fuel spray jet formation, its development and dispersion in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The latest study uses computational fluid dynamics for the modeling of engine flows. The original experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by a single-hole orifice type nozzle using a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of non-evaporating diesel sprays. The correlations derived can be used to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure and combustion chamber pressure. (author)

  2. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    G Nasr; A Whitehead; A Yule

    2016-01-01

    Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's). The Spray Research Group (SRG) have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA) for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coatin...

  3. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  4. Cold Spray for Repair of Magnesium Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Readiness Center East GM General Motors He helium hex-Cr hexavalent chromium HP-Al High Purity Aluminum HVOF High Velocity Oxygen Fuel ID inner...process is the hexavalent chromium (hex-Cr) permissible exposure limit (PEL) as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA...project related to replacement of hard chrome plating on helicopter dynamic components using HVOF thermal spray coatings. FRC-E has a thermal spray

  5. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  6. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  7. A comparison of biological effect and spray liquid distribution and deposition for different spray application techniques in different crops

    OpenAIRE

    Larsolle, Anders; Wretblad, Per; Westberg, Carl

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare a selection of spray application techniques with different application volumes, with respect to the spray liquid distribution on flat surfaces, the deposition in fully developed crops and the biological effect. The spray application techniques in this study were conventional spray technique with three different nozzles: Teelet XR, Lechler ID and Lurmark DriftBeta, and also AirTec, Danfoil, Hardi Twin, Kyndestoit and Släpduk. The dynamic spray liquid ...

  8. Engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, A.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Arnoux, G.; Balshaw, N.; Brezinsek, S.; Egner, S.; Hartl, M.; Kampf, D.; Klammer, J.; Lambertz, H.T.; Morlock, C.; Murari, A.; Reindl, M.; Sanders, S.; Sergienko, G.; Spencer, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Replacement of JET diagnostics to match the new ITER-like Wall. ► The endoscope test ITER-like design with only mirror based optics. ► Withstanding and diagnostic capability during Plasma operation and disruptions. ► Engineering process from design to installation and procurement. -- Abstract: The development of optical diagnostics, like endoscopes, compatible with the ITER environment (metallic plasma facing components, neutron proof optics, etc.) is a challenge, but current tokamaks such as JET provide opportunities to test fully working concepts. This paper describes the engineering aspects of a fully mirrored endoscope that has recently been designed, procured and installed on JET. The system must operate in a very strict environment with high temperature, high magnetic fields up to B = 4 T and rapid field variations (∂B/∂t ∼ 100 T/s) that induce high stresses due to eddy currents in the front mirror assembly. It must be designed to withstand high mechanical loads especially during disruptions, which lead to acceleration of about 7 g at 14 Hz. For the JET endoscope, when the plasma thermal loading, direct and indirect, was added to the assumed disruption loads, the reserve factor, defined as a ratio of yield strength over summed up von Mises stresses, was close to 1 for the mirror components. To ensure reliable operation, several analyses were performed to evaluate the thermo-mechanical performance of the endoscope and a final validation was obtained from mechanical and thermal tests, before the system's final installation in May 2011. During the tests, stability of the field of view angle variation was kept below 1° despite the high thermal gradient on endoscope head (∂T/∂x ∼ 500 K/m). In parallel, to ensure long time operation and to prevent undesirable performance degradation, a shutter system was also implemented in order to reduce impurity deposition on in-vessel mirrors but also to allow in situ transmission calibration

  9. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  10. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.M.; Yee, I.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  11. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  12. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radio-frequency plasma spraying of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Hamatani, H.; Yoshida, T.

    1989-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a novel spraying process using a radio-frequency (rf) plasma. Experiments of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 spraying showed that the initial powder size was the most important parameter for depositing dense coatings. The optimum powder sizes of Al 2 O 3 and ZrO 2 - 8 wt% Y 2 O 3 were considered to be around 100 and 80 μm, respectively. The use of such large-size powders compared with those used by conventional dc plasma spraying made it possible to deposit adherent ceramics coatings of 150 to 300 μm on as-rolled SS304 substrates. It was also shown that low particle velocity of about 10 m/s, which is peculiar to rf plasma spraying, was sufficient for particle deformation, though it imposed a severe limitation on the substrate position. These experimental results prove that rf plasma spraying is an effective process and a strong candidate to open new fields of spraying applications

  14. A single simple procedure for dewaxing, hydration and heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, I M S; Dimke, H; Frische, S

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) is widely used for immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and includes temperatures well above the melting point of paraffin. We therefore tested whether traditional xylene-based removal of paraffin is required on sections from paraff...... of dewaxing in xylene. In conclusion, the HIER procedure described and tested can be used as a single procedure enabling dewaxing, hydration and epitope retrieval for immunohistochemistry in formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue....

  15. Formalin-induced behavioural hypersensitivity and neuronal hyperexcitability are mediated by rapid protein synthesis at the spinal level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Curtis O; Wallace, Victoria C; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2009-01-01

    Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of mRNA translation whose action can be inhibited by the drug rapamycin. Forms of long-term plasticity require protein synthesis and evidence indicates that mRNA in dendrites, axon terminals and cell bodies is essential for long-term synaptic plasticity. Specific to pain, shifts in pain thresholds and responsiveness are an expression of neuronal plasticity and this likely contributes to persistent pain. We investigated this by inhibiting the activity of mTOR with rapamycin at the spinal level, of rats that were subjected to the formalin test, using both behavioural and electrophysiological techniques. Results For in vivo electrophysiology, Sprague Dawley rats were fully anaesthetised and single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained from lamina V wide dynamic range (WDR) dorsal horn spinal neurones at the region where input is received from the hind paw. Neuronal responses from naive rats showed that rapamycin-sensitive pathways were important in nociceptive-specific C-fibre mediated transmission onto WDR neurones as well mechanically-evoked responses since rapamycin was effective in attenuating these measures. Formalin solution was injected into the hind paw prior to which, rapamycin or vehicle was applied directly onto the exposed spinal cord. When rapamycin was applied to the spinal cord prior to hind paw formalin injection, there was a significant attenuation of the prolonged second phase of the formalin test, which comprises continuing afferent input to the spinal cord, neuronal hyperexcitability and an activated descending facilitatory drive from the brainstem acting on spinal neurones. In accordance with electrophysiological data, behavioural studies showed that rapamycin attenuated behavioural hypersensitivity elicited by formalin injection into the hind paw. Conclusion We conclude that mTOR has a role in maintaining persistent pain states via mRNA translation and thus protein

  16. Formalin-induced behavioural hypersensitivity and neuronal hyperexcitability are mediated by rapid protein synthesis at the spinal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Victoria C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a key regulator of mRNA translation whose action can be inhibited by the drug rapamycin. Forms of long-term plasticity require protein synthesis and evidence indicates that mRNA in dendrites, axon terminals and cell bodies is essential for long-term synaptic plasticity. Specific to pain, shifts in pain thresholds and responsiveness are an expression of neuronal plasticity and this likely contributes to persistent pain. We investigated this by inhibiting the activity of mTOR with rapamycin at the spinal level, of rats that were subjected to the formalin test, using both behavioural and electrophysiological techniques. Results For in vivo electrophysiology, Sprague Dawley rats were fully anaesthetised and single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained from lamina V wide dynamic range (WDR dorsal horn spinal neurones at the region where input is received from the hind paw. Neuronal responses from naive rats showed that rapamycin-sensitive pathways were important in nociceptive-specific C-fibre mediated transmission onto WDR neurones as well mechanically-evoked responses since rapamycin was effective in attenuating these measures. Formalin solution was injected into the hind paw prior to which, rapamycin or vehicle was applied directly onto the exposed spinal cord. When rapamycin was applied to the spinal cord prior to hind paw formalin injection, there was a significant attenuation of the prolonged second phase of the formalin test, which comprises continuing afferent input to the spinal cord, neuronal hyperexcitability and an activated descending facilitatory drive from the brainstem acting on spinal neurones. In accordance with electrophysiological data, behavioural studies showed that rapamycin attenuated behavioural hypersensitivity elicited by formalin injection into the hind paw. Conclusion We conclude that mTOR has a role in maintaining persistent pain states via m

  17. endoscope-i: an innovation in mobile endoscopic technology transforming the delivery of patient care in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, N; Coulson, C; George, A

    2017-11-01

    Digital and mobile device technology in healthcare is a growing market. The introduction of the endoscope-i, the world's first endoscopic mobile imaging system, allows the acquisition of high definition images of the ear, nose and throat (ENT). The system combines the e-i Pro camera app with a bespoke engineered endoscope-i adaptor which fits securely onto the iPhone or iPod touch. Endoscopic examination forms a salient aspect of the ENT work-up. The endoscope-i therefore provides a mobile and compact alternative to the existing bulky endoscopic systems currently in use which often restrict the clinician to the clinic setting. Areas covered: This article gives a detailed overview of the endoscope-i system together with its applications. A review and comparison of alternative devices on the market offering smartphone adapted endoscopic viewing systems is also presented. Expert commentary: The endoscope-i fulfils unmet needs by providing a compact, highly portable, simple to use endoscopic viewing system which is cost-effective and which makes use of smartphone technology most clinicians have in their pocket. The system allows real-time feedback to the patient and has the potential to transform the way that healthcare is delivered in ENT as well as having applications further afield.

  18. Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment. A diploma programme in gynaecological endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rudi; Wattiez, Arnaud; Tanos, Vasilis; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Grimbizis, Grigoris; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara; Puga, Marco; Molinas, Roger; O'Donovan, Peter; Deprest, Jan; Van Belle, Yves; Lissens, Ann; Herrmann, Anja; Tahir, Mahmood; Benedetto, Chiara; Siebert, Igno; Rabischong, Benoit; De Wilde, Rudy Leon

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, training and education in endoscopic surgery has been critically reviewed. Clinicians, both surgeons as gynaecologist who perform endoscopic surgery without proper training of the specific psychomotor skills are at higher risk to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the apprentice-tutor model has long been a successful approach for training of surgeons, recently, clinicians have recognised that endoscopic surgery requires an important training phase outside the operating theatre. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA), recognises the necessity of this structured approach and implements two separated stages in its learning strategy. In the first stage, a skill certificate on theoretical knowledge and specific practical psychomotor skills is acquired through a high stake exam; in the second stage, a clinical programme is completed to achieve surgical competence and receive the corresponding diploma. Three diplomas can be awarded: (a) the Bachelor in Endoscopy; (b) the Minimally Invasive Gynaecological Surgeon (MIGS); and (c) the Master level. The Master level is sub-divided into two separate diplomas: the Master in Laparoscopic Pelvic Surgery and the Master in Hysteroscopy. The complexity of modern surgery has increased the demands and challenges to surgical education and the quality control. This programme is based on the best available scientific evidence and it counteracts the problem of the traditional surgical apprentice tutor model. It is seen as a major step toward standardization of endoscopic surgical training in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anisotropy of the apparent frequency dependence of backscatter in formalin fixed human myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, C S; Verdonk, E D; Wickline, S A; Perez, J E; Miller, J G

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the frequency dependence of ultrasonic backscatter are presented for specific angles of insonification for regions of infarcted and noninfarcted human myocardium. A 5-MHz transducer was used to insonify cylindrical cores taken from 7 noninfarcted regions and 12 infarcted regions of the left ventricular free wall of 6 formalin-fixed human hearts explanted because of ischemic cardiomyopathy. The dependence of apparent (uncompensated for diffraction effects and attenuation) backscatter on frequency was approximated by a power-law dependence, magnitude of B(f)2 = afn. Under ideal conditions in a lossless medium, the effect of not compensating for the effects of diffraction and attenuation leads to the value of n to be 2.0 for Rayleigh scatterers while the frequency dependence of the fully compensated backscatter coefficient would be f4. The value of n was determined over the frequency range, 3-7 MHz. Both nonifarcted and infarcted myocardium exhibited anisotropy of the frequency dependence of backscatter, with maxima occurring at angles that were perpendicular to the predominant myofiber direction and minima when parallel to the fibers. Perpendicular insonification yielded results for n of 1.8 +/- 0.1 for noninfarcted myocardium and 1.2 +/- 0.1 for infarcted myocardium while parallel insonification yielded results of 0.4 +/- 0.1 for noninfarcted and 0.0 +/- 0.1 for infarcted myocardium. The functional form of the angle-dependent backscatter is similar for both noninfarcted and infarcted myocardium, although the frequency dependence is clearly different for both tissue states for all angles of insonification. The results of this study indicate that the anisotropy of the frequency dependence of backscatter may play a significant role in ultrasonic imaging and is an important consideration for ultrasonic tissue characterization in myocardium.

  20. Unmasking of complements using proteinase-K in formalin fixed paraffin embedded renal biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal biopsy interpretation requires histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF and electron microscopy. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE sent for light microscopy can be used for DIF after antigen retrieval. However, complement staining has not been satisfactory. We standardized DIF using proteinase-K for antigen retrieval in FFPE renal biopsies. A pilot study was conducted on known cases of membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN, membranoproliferative type-1 (MPGN-1, immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN, and anti-glomerular basement disease (anti-GBM. Immunofluorescence panel included fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC conjugated IgG, IgA, IgM, complements (C3 and C1q, light chains (kappa, lambda and fibrinogen antibodies. After standardization of the technique, 75 renal biopsies and 43 autopsies cases were stained. Out of 43 autopsy cases, immune-complex mediated glomerulonephritis (GN was confirmed in 18 cases (Lupus nephritis-11, IgAN-6, MGN-1, complement-mediated dense deposit disease (DDD-1 and monoclonal diseases in 4 cases (amyloidosis-3, cast nephropathy-1. Immune-mediated injury was excluded in 17 cases (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis -3, crescentic GN-6 [pauci-immune-3, anti-GBM-3], thrombotic microangiopathy-5, atherosclerosis-3. Renal biopsies (n-75 where inadequate or no frozen sample was available; this technique classified 52 mesangiocapillary pattern as MPGN type-1-46, DDD-2 and (C3GN-4. Others were diagnosed as IgAN-3, lupus nephritis-2, MGN-4, diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN-1, Non-IC crescentic GN-1, monoclonal diseases-3. In nine cases, DIF on FFPE tissue could not help in making diagnosis. Proteinase-K enzymatic digestion of FFPE renal biopsies can unmask complements (both C3 and C1q in immune-complexes mediated and complement-mediated diseases. This method showed good results on autopsy tissues archived for as long as 15 years.

  1. DNA degrades during storage in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyard, Alice; Boyez, Alice; Pujals, Anaïs; Robe, Cyrielle; Tran Van Nhieu, Jeanne; Allory, Yves; Moroch, Julien; Georges, Odette; Fournet, Jean-Christophe; Zafrani, Elie-Serge; Leroy, Karen

    2017-10-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks are widely used to identify clinically actionable molecular alterations or perform retrospective molecular studies. Our goal was to quantify degradation of DNA occurring during mid to long-term storage of samples in usual conditions. We selected 46 FFPE samples of surgically resected carcinomas of lung, colon, and urothelial tract, of which DNA had been previously extracted. We performed a second DNA extraction on the same blocks under identical conditions after a median period of storage of 5.5 years. Quantitation of DNA by fluorimetry showed a 53% decrease in DNA quantity after storage. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting KRAS exon 2 showed delayed amplification of DNA extracted after storage in all samples but one. The qPCR/fluorimetry quantification ratio decreased from 56 to 15% after storage (p DNA analyzable by qPCR represented only 11% of the amount obtained at first extraction. Maximal length of amplifiable DNA fragments assessed with a multiplex PCR was reduced in DNA extracted from stored tissue, indicating that DNA fragmentation had increased in the paraffin blocks during storage. Next-generation sequencing was performed on 12 samples and showed a mean 3.3-fold decrease in library yield and a mean 4.5-fold increase in the number of single-nucleotide variants detected after storage. In conclusion, we observed significant degradation of DNA extracted from the same FFPE block after 4 to 6 years of storage. Better preservation strategies should be considered for storage of FFPE biopsy specimens.

  2. Devices and Endoscopic Bariatric Therapies for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine H; Igel, Leon I; Saumoy, Monica; Sharaiha, Reem Z; Aronne, Louis J

    2018-04-17

    In this review, we describe the FDA-approved and investigational devices and endoscopic bariatric therapies for the treatment of obesity. We focus on literature published in the past few years and present mechanisms of action as well as efficacy and safety data. Devices and endoscopic procedures are emerging options to fill the significant treatment gap in the management of obesity. Not only are these devices and procedures minimally invasive and reversible, but they are potentially more effective than antiobesity medications, often safer for poor surgical candidates and possibly less expensive than bariatric surgery. As many patients require a variety of management strategies (medications, devices, procedures, and/or surgery) in addition to lifestyle modifications to achieve clinically significant weight loss, the future of obesity treatment involves a multidisciplinary approach. Combinations of advanced treatment strategies can lead to additive or synergistic weight loss. This is an area that requires further investigation.

  3. Fundus imaging with a nasal endoscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahesh Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.

  4. Emerging indications of endoscopic radiofrequency ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becq, Aymeric; Camus, Marine; Rahmi, Gabriel; de Parades, Vincent; Marteau, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-validated treatment of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Other indications of endoscopic RFA are under evaluation. Results Four prospective studies (total 69 patients) have shown that RFA achieved complete remission of early esophageal squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia at a rate of 80%, but with a substantial risk of stricture. In the setting of gastric antral vascular ectasia, two prospective monocenter studies, and a retrospective multicenter study, (total 51 patients), suggest that RFA is efficacious in terms of reducing transfusion dependency. In the setting of chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy, a prospective monocenter study and a retrospective multicenter study (total 56 patients) suggest that RFA is an efficient treatment. A retrospective comparative study (64 patients) suggests that RFA improves stents patency in malignant biliary strictures. Conclusions Endoscopic RFA is an upcoming treatment modality in early esophageal squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia, as well as in gastric, rectal, and biliary diseases. PMID:26279839

  5. Endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, A.; Ahmed, I.; Rauf, M.H.; Rauf, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficiency and safety of endoscopic treatment of large vesical calculi with the available modern endoscopic instruments. Methology: In case series, patients were collected randomly from 2007 to 2014. Patients were diagnosed with ultrasound and Nephroscope with Swiss pneumatic lithoclast, lithotrite and stone punch were used for treatment. Results: Majority of the patient could be managed with the method adopted. Stone size, hardness or softness, gender were the factors affecting treatment. Associated prostate pathology was seen in four patients. Postoperative complications included hemorrhage, perforation, residual stone and transurethral resection of prostate syndrome. Conclusion: Overall, it is a safe procedure except in patients with large enlarged prostate and large vesical calculi. Very hard vesical calculus may need vesicolithotomy. (author)

  6. Comprehensive review on endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282

  7. Counter traction makes endoscopic submucosal dissection easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-11-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.

  8. Endoscopic therapy for Barrett′s esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Shaheen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrett′s esophagus (BE is the precursor lesion to esophageal adenocarcinoma. This cancer has undergone a rapid increase in incidence in Western societies in the last 30 years. Current practices seek to lower the risk of death from this cancer by performing screening upper endoscopy on those with chronic reflux symptoms, and then surveillance upper endoscopy on those found to have BE at periodic intervals. While this approach is intuitively appealing, no data substantiate a decreased cancer risk with these practices, and substantial issues limit the effectiveness of this approach. This article outlines the current approaches to BE, their shortcomings, and presents data supporting the use of endoscopic therapy for subjects with BE and dysplasia. A significant and growing literature supports the use of endoscopic therapy in BE, and this approach, combined with improved risk stratification, may improve our care of subjects with BE.

  9. Endoscopic Treatment of Intrasheath Peroneal Tendon Subluxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Michels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrasheath subluxation of the peroneal tendons within the peroneal groove is an uncommon problem. Open exploration combined with a peroneal groove-deepening procedure and retinacular reefing is the recommended treatment. This extensive lateral approach needs incision of the intact superior peroneal retinaculum and repair afterwards. We treated three patients with a painful intrasheath subluxation using an endoscopic approach. During this tendoscopy both tendons were inspected. The distal muscle fibers of the peroneus brevis tendon were resected in two patients. A partial tear was debrided in the third patient. All patients had a good result. No wound-healing problems or other complications occurred. Early return to work and sports was possible. An endoscopic approach was successful in treatment of an intrasheath subluxation of the peroneal tendons.

  10. Heavy duty plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irons, G.C.; Klein, J.F.; Lander, R.D.; Thompson, H.C.; Trapani, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    A heavy duty plasma spray gun for extended industrial service is disclosed. The gun includes a gas distribution member made of a material having a coefficient of expansion different from that of the parts surrounding it. The gas distribution member is forcibly urged by a resilient member such as a coiled spring against a seal so as to assure the plasma gas is introduced into the gun arc in a manner only defined by the gas distribution member. The gun has liquid cooling for the nozzle (anode) and the cathode. Double seals are provided between the coolant and the arc region and a vent is provided between the seals which provides an indication when a seal has failed. Some parts of the gun are electrically isolated from others by an intermediate member which is formed as a sandwich of two rigid metal face pieces and an insulator disposed between them. The metal face pieces provide a rigid body to attach the remaining parts in proper alignment therewith

  11. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Wook Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment is a minimally invasive treatment for managing patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Although several bulking agents have been used for endoscopic treatment, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is the only bulking agent currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating VUR. Endoscopic treatment of VUR has gained great popularity owing to several obvious benefits, including short operative time, short hospital stay, minimal invasiveness, high efficacy, low complication rate, and reduced cost. Initially, the success rates of endoscopic treatment have been lower than that of open antireflux surgery. However, because injection techniques have been developed, a recent study showed higher success rates of endoscopic treatment than open surgery in the treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-grade VUR. Despite the controversy surrounding its effectiveness, endoscopic treatment is considered a valuable treatment option and viable alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis.

  12. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gastric Subepithelial Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jeong Gong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions.

  13. Endoscopic versus open bursectomy of lateral malleolar bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Kyung Tai; Lee, Young Koo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ryoul; Chung, Woo Chull; Cha, Seung Do

    2012-06-01

    Compare the result of endoscopic versus open bursectomy in lateral malleolar bursitis. Prospective evaluation of 21 patients (22 ankles) undergoing either open or endoscopic excision of lateral malleolar bursitis. The median age was 64 (38-79) years old. The median postoperative follow-up was 15 (12-18) months. Those patients undergoing endoscopic excision showed a higher satisfaction rate (excellent 9, good 2) than open excision (excellent 4, good 3, fair 1). The wounds also healed earlier in the endoscopic group although the operation time was slightly longer. One patient in the endoscopic group had recurrence of symptoms but complications in the open group included one patient with skin necrosis, one patient with wound dehiscence, and two patients of with superficial peroneal nerve injury. Endoscopic resection of the lateral malleolar bursitis is a promising technique and shows favorable results compared to the open resection. Therapeutic studies-Investigating the result of treatment, Level II.

  14. Endoscopic Management of Tumor Bleeding from Inoperable Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il

    2015-01-01

    Tumor bleeding is not a rare complication in patients with inoperable gastric cancer. Endoscopy has important roles in the diagnosis and primary treatment of tumor bleeding, similar to its roles in other non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases. Although limited studies have been performed, endoscopic therapy has been highly successful in achieving initial hemostasis. One or a combination of endoscopic therapy modalities, such as injection therapy, mechanical therapy, or ablative therapy, can be used for hemostasis in patients with endoscopic stigmata of recent hemorrhage. However, rebleeding after successful hemostasis with endoscopic therapy frequently occurs. Endoscopic therapy may be a treatment option for successfully controlling this rebleeding. Transarterial embolization or palliative surgery should be considered when endoscopic therapy fails. For primary and secondary prevention of tumor bleeding, proton pump inhibitors can be prescribed, although their effectiveness to prevent bleeding remains to be investigated. PMID:25844339

  15. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  17. Counter Traction Makes Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Easier

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Tsuneo

    2012-01-01

    Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable co...

  18. Vagal withdrawal during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Rasmussen, Verner; Schulze, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are at risk of developing cardiorespiratory complications, but the mechanism is still unknown. Treatment with metoprolol 2 h before the endoscopy has been shown to decrease the incidence of myocardial ischaemia......: The existence of a defence-like reaction ('vagal withdrawal') during ERCP has been shown. Metoprolol given 2 h before the procedure did not affect the occurrence of this phenomenon. The interaction of other periendoscopic factors is still unclear and should be studied further....

  19. Automated processing of endoscopic surgical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K; Sieber, J P; Schrimm, H; Heeg, P; Buess, G

    1994-10-01

    This paper deals with the requirements for automated processing of endoscopic surgical instruments. After a brief analysis of the current problems, solutions are discussed. Test-procedures have been developed to validate the automated processing, so that the cleaning results are guaranteed and reproducable. Also a device for testing and cleaning was designed together with Netzsch Newamatic and PCI, called TC-MIC, to automate processing and reduce manual work.

  20. Mirizzi Syndrome with Endoscopic Ultrasound Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rayapudi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 1 Mirizzi syndrome diagnosed on endoscopic ultrasound. He presented with acute onset of jaundice, malaise, dark urine over 3-4 days, and was found to have obstructive jaundice on lab testing. CT scan of the abdomen showed intrahepatic biliary ductal dilation, a 1.5 cm common bile duct (CBD above the pancreas, and possible stones in the CBD, but no masses. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP by a community gastroenterologist failed to cannulate the CBD. At the University Center, type 1 Mirizzi syndrome was noted on endoscopic ultrasound with narrowing of the CBD with extrinsic compression from cystic duct stone. During repeat ERCP, the CBD could be cannulated over the pancreatic duct wire. A mid CBD narrowing, distal CBD stones, proximal CBD and extrahepatic duct dilation were noted, and biliary sphincterotomy was performed. A small stone in the distal CBD was removed with an extraction balloon. The cystic duct stone was moved with the biliary balloon into the CBD, mechanical basket lithotripsy was performed and stone fragments were delivered out with an extraction balloon. The patient was seen 7 weeks later in the clinic. Skin and scleral icterus had cleared up and he is scheduled for an elective cholecystectomy. Mirizzi syndrome refers to biliary obstruction resulting from impacted stone in the cystic duct or neck of the gallbladder and commonly presents with obstructive jaundice. Type 1 does not have cholecystocholedochal fistulas, but they present in types 2, 3 and 4. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Endoscopic treatment is effective and can also be used as a temporizing measure or definitive treatment in poor surgical risk candidates.

  1. A Primer on Endoscopic Electronic Medical Records

    OpenAIRE

    Atreja, Ashish; Rizk, Maged; Gurland, Brooke

    2010-01-01

    Endoscopic electronic medical record systems (EEMRs) are now increasingly utilized in many endoscopy centers. Modern EEMRs not only support endoscopy report generation, but often include features such as practice management tools, image and video clip management, inventory management, e-faxes to referring physicians, and database support to measure quality and patient outcomes. There are many existing software vendors offering EEMRs, and choosing a software vendor can be time consuming and co...

  2. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  3. Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fukuda, Katsumi; Sato, Tatsuro; Nonaka, Katsumi; Gozu, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m 3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

  4. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  5. Spray Drift Reduction Evaluations of Spray Nozzles Using a Standardized Testing Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Nonimaging Light-Scattering Instruments,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 14-02, ASTM...Test Method for Determining Liquid Drop Size Characteristics in a Spray Using Optical Non- imaging Light-Scattering Instruments 22. AGDISP Model

  6. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.

  7. Endoscopic transnasal approach for removing pituitary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Cabral Moreira de Castro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To describe a series of 129 consecutive patients submitted to the resection of pituitary tumors using the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach in a public medical center. Method: Retrospective analysis based on the records of patients submitted to the resection of a pituitary tumor through the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach between 2004 and 2009. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine records were analyzed. The tumor was non-secreting in 96 (74.42% and secreting in 33 patients (22.58%. Out of the secretory tumors, the most prevalent was the growth hormone producer (7.65%, followed by the prolactinoma, (6.98%. Eleven patients developed cerebral spinal fluid (CSF fistulas, and four of them developed meningitis. One patient died due to intracerebral hemorrhage in the postoperative period. Conclusion: The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach to sellar tumors proved to be safe when the majority of the tumors were non-secreting. The most frequent complication was CSF. This technique can be done even in a public hospital with financial limits, since the health professionals are integrated.

  8. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis: A Rare Endoscopic Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Lopes de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old woman, presenting with a 4-year history of progressive dysphagia, was submitted to endoscopic examination. The upper endoscopy revealed a proximal esophageal stricture and inflammatory mucosa associated with multiples small orifices in the esophageal wall, some of them fulfilled with white spots suggestive of fungal infection. This was a typical endoscopic finding of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis, a benign and rare condition, related to chronic esophagitis and others comorbid states, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease or infectious esophagitis, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, and achalasia. Dysphagia is the predominant symptom and can be accompanied by esophageal stricture in 80% to 90% of patients. The pathogenesis is unknown, and as the pseudodiverticulosis is an intramural finding, endoscopy biopsies are inconclusive. The main histological finding is dilation of the submucosal glands excretory ducts, probably obstructed by inflammatory cells. The treatment consists in management of the underlying diseases and symptoms relief. In this particular case, the patient was submitted to antifungal drugs followed by endoscopic dilation with thermoplastic bougies, with satisfactory improvement of dysphagia.

  9. Solo-Surgeon Retroauricular Approach Endoscopic Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoon

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy. For solo-surgery, we used an Endoeye Flex Laparo-Thoraco Videoscope (Olympus America, Inc.). A Vitom Karl Storz holding system (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.) composed of several bars connected by a ball-joint system was used for fixation of endoscope. A snake retractor and a brain-spoon retractor were used on the sternocleidomastoid. Endoscopic thyroidectomy using the solo-surgeon technique was performed in 10 patients having papillary thyroid carcinoma. The mean patient age was 36.0 ± 11.1 years, and all patients were female. There were no postoperative complications such as vocal cord paralysis and hematoma. When compared with the operating times and volume of drainage of a control group of 100 patients who underwent surgery through the conventional retroauricular approach between May 2013 and December 2015, the operating times and volume of drainage were not significantly different (P = .781 and .541, respectively). Solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy is safe and feasible when performed by a surgeon competent in endoscopic thyroidectomy.

  10. Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Retrochiasmatic Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanzo, Justin R; Goyal, Neerav; Zacharia, Brad E

    2018-02-01

    This video abstract demonstrates the use of the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach for the resection of a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma. These tumors are notoriously difficult to treat, and many approaches have been tried to facilitate safe and effective resection. The endoscopic endonasal approach has been increasingly utilized for selected sellar/suprasellar pathology. We present the case of a 39-year-old man who was found to have a cystic, partially calcified suprasellar mass consistent with a craniopharyngioma. To facilitate robust skull base repair, a vascularized nasoseptal flap was harvested. A wide sphenoidotomy was performed and the sella and tuberculum were exposed. After the dural opening and arachnoid dissection, the stalk was identified, merging seamlessly with the tumor capsule. The lesion was then internally debulked with the use of an ultrasonic aspirator. The capsule was then dissected off of the optic chiasm, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The cavity was inspected with an angled endoscope to ensure complete resection. A multilayered reconstruction was performed using autologous fascia lata, the previously harvested nasoseptal flap, and dural sealant. Postoperatively, the patient did have expected panhypopituitarism but remained neurologically intact and had improvement in his vision. In conclusion, this video demonstrates how an expanded endonasal approach can be used to safely resect a craniopharyngioma, even when in close proximity to delicate structures such as the optic chiasm. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/tahjHmrXhc4 .

  11. Novel computer-based endoscopic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitz, R.; Hai, N.; Abraham, Martin D.; Adler, Doron; Nissani, M.; Fridental, Ron; Vitsnudel, Ilia

    1995-05-01

    We have introduced a computer-based endoscopic camera which includes (a) unique real-time digital image processing to optimize image visualization by reducing over exposed glared areas and brightening dark areas, and by accentuating sharpness and fine structures, and (b) patient data documentation and management. The image processing is based on i Sight's iSP1000TM digital video processor chip and Adaptive SensitivityTM patented scheme for capturing and displaying images with wide dynamic range of light, taking into account local neighborhood image conditions and global image statistics. It provides the medical user with the ability to view images under difficult lighting conditions, without losing details `in the dark' or in completely saturated areas. The patient data documentation and management allows storage of images (approximately 1 MB per image for a full 24 bit color image) to any storage device installed into the camera, or to an external host media via network. The patient data which is included with every image described essential information on the patient and procedure. The operator can assign custom data descriptors, and can search for the stored image/data by typing any image descriptor. The camera optics has extended zoom range of f equals 20 - 45 mm allowing control of the diameter of the field which is displayed on the monitor such that the complete field of view of the endoscope can be displayed on all the area of the screen. All these features provide versatile endoscopic camera with excellent image quality and documentation capabilities.

  12. Esophageal Stricture Prevention after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanshu Jain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in diagnostic modalities and improvement in surveillance programs for Barrett esophagus has resulted in an increase in the incidence of superficial esophageal cancers (SECs. SEC, due to their limited metastatic potential, are amenable to non-invasive treatment modalities. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic mucosal resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD are some of the new modalities that gastroenterologists have used over the last decade to diagnose and treat SEC. However, esophageal stricture (ES is a very common complication and a major cause of morbidity post-ESD. In the past few years, there has been a tremendous effort to reduce the incidence of ES among patients undergoing ESD. Steroids have shown the most consistent results over time with minimal complications although the preferred mode of delivery is debatable, with both systemic and local therapy having pros and cons for specific subgroups of patients. Newer modalities such as esophageal stents, autologous cell sheet transplantation, polyglycolic acid, and tranilast have shown promising results but the depth of experience with these methods is still limited. We have summarized case reports, prospective single center studies, and randomized controlled trials describing the various methods intended to reduce the incidence of ES after ESD. Indications, techniques, outcomes, limitations, and reported complications are discussed.

  13. Treatment of nonseptic bursitis with endoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Yıldırım

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to show that endoscopic surgery is a simple and acceptable method for various problems associated with wounds, range of motion and that such surgery ensures an early return to work after treatment of nonresponding nonseptic bursitis. Methods: Thirty-two patients with nonseptic bursitis caused by repeated minor trauma that did not respond to medical treatment from 2008 to 2012 were included in this study. Radiographic [anteroposterior and lateral], ultrasound, macro and microscopic analyses of drainage liquid and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were obtained from the patients for the diagnosis. Results: The mean age was 40.8 years. Fifteen patients had prepatellar bursitis, 13 had olecranon bursitis and 4 had ankle bursitis. Two patients had a history of falling on their knee. The other patients had a history of repetitive stimulation .The mean follow up period was 2.6 years [range. 2-5 years] and no medical complications occurred after the endoscopic surgery; such as scarring, loss of sensation and infection. One recurrence in response to medical treatment was observed. Conclusion: Endoscopic bursectomy is a short and acceptable procedure with excellent results in terms of returning to work early and minimal wound related problems. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 220-223

  14. New flexible endoscope for otologic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchan, Mark L.

    1993-07-01

    Endoscopy has become an important procedure in many medical specialties. For the Otologist, however, space limitations within the ear have restricted development of endoscopic procedures. The desire for minimally invasive techniques in Otology has demonstrated itself through the work of numerous physicians who have performed procedures ranging from diagnostic inspection of the middle ear to viewing the interior of the cochlea. To assist in performing such endoscopic procedures, Xomed-Treace has developed a line of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for use by the Otologist. These scopes combine illumination and imaging fiber bundles within a small diameter unit ranging in size from 0.8 mm to 1.2 mm. The 1.2 mm scope is produced with an angled, rigid stainless steel sheath. The 0.8 mm scope is flexible with the ability to articulate 120 degree(s) in one direction. The fiberscopes have been designed for the Otologist to produce a good resolution image while allowing ease of operation through ergonomics and consideration of the surgical anatomy.

  15. Endoscopic Instruments and Electrosurgical Unit for Colonoscopic Polypectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hong Jun

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal polypectomy is an effective method for prevention of colorectal cancer. Many endoscopic instruments have been used for colorectal polypectomy, such as snares, forceps, endoscopic clips, a Coagrasper, retrieval net, injector, and electrosurgery generator unit (ESU). Understanding the characteristics of endoscopic instruments and their proper use according to morphology and size of the colorectal polyp will enable endoscopists to perform effective polypectomy. I reviewed the characte...

  16. Study on Spray Characteristics and Spray Droplets Dynamic Behavior of Diesel Engine Fueled by Rapeseed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapit Azwan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It directly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel needs great help to atomize because the fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fueled by rapeseed oil (RO. Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the rapeseed oil spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  17. Endoscopic removal of a dislocated tomour prothesis from the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckauer, K.; Dinkel, E.

    1985-01-01

    Endoscopic pertubation of oesophagogustric neoplasms is an established method of palliative treatment. The dislocated plastic prosthesis may be removed with difficulties from the stomach endoscopically. A simple technique for endoscopic removal of the prosthesis is described. The tube can be precisely centred within the oesophageal lumen by use of an intestinal decompression tube and additional guidance by the endoscopic retraction forceps. Thus gross damge of the exophytic tumor tissue with bleeding or perforation sequelae can be avoided. Injury to the patient does not exceed that caused by an ordinary gastroscopy. (orig.) [de

  18. Submucosal tunnel endoscopy: Peroral endoscopic myotomy and peroral endoscopic tumor resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Nikolas; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Onimaru, Manabu; Maselli, Roberta; Santi, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an innovative, minimally invasive, endoscopic treatment for esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders, emerged from the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures, and since the first human case performed by Inoue in 2008, showed exciting results in international level, with more than 4000 cases globally up to now. POEM showed superior characteristics than the standard 100-year-old surgical or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), not only for all types of esophageal achalasia [classical (I), vigorous (II), spastic (III), Chicago Classification], but also for advanced sigmoid type achalasia (S1 and S2), failed LHM, or other esophageal motility disorders (diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or Jackhammer esophagus). POEM starts with a mucosal incision, followed by submucosal tunnel creation crossing the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and myotomy. Finally the mucosal entry is closed with endoscopic clip placement. POEM permitted relatively free choice of myotomy length and localization. Although it is technically demanding procedure, POEM can be performed safely and achieves very good control of dysphagia and chest pain. Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common troublesome side effect, and is well controllable with proton pump inhibitors. Furthermore, POEM opened the era of submucosal tunnel endoscopy, with many other applications. Based on the same principles with POEM, in combination with new technological developments, such as endoscopic suturing, peroral endoscopic tumor resection (POET), is safely and effectively applied for challenging submucosal esophageal, EGJ and gastric cardia tumors (submucosal tumors), emerged from muscularis propria. POET showed up to know promising results, however, it is restricted to specialized centers. The present article reviews the recent data of POEM and POET and discussed controversial issues that need further study and future perspectives. PMID

  19. Multiple-Nozzle Spray Head Applies Foam Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1993-01-01

    Spray head equipped with four-nozzle turret mixes two reactive components of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foam insulating material and sprays reacting mixture onto surface to be insulated. If nozzle in use becomes clogged, fresh one automatically rotated into position, with minimal interruption of spraying process. Incorporates features recirculating and controlling pressures of reactive components to maintain quality of foam by ensuring proper blend at outset. Also used to spray protective coats on or in ships, aircraft, and pipelines. Sprays such reactive adhesives as epoxy/polyurethane mixtures. Components of spray contain solid-particle fillers for strength, fire retardance, toughness, resistance to abrasion, or radar absorption.

  20. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic esphinterotomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with choledocolitiasis and cholelitiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveron Quevedo, Kelly; Irsula Ballaga, Vladimir; Gonzalez Ulloa, Lianne; Deborah LLorca, Armando

    2012-01-01

    The case report of a 30 year-old presumably healthy patient, who attended the Gastroenterology Department from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, and suffering from biliary cholic, ictero, choluria, nausea, vomit and loss of appetite is presented. The complementary examinations confirmed the choledocolitiasis and cholelitiasis diagnosis, reason why it was necessary to carry out a endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic esphinterotomy and ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy, in a single anesthetic injection. The postoperative clinical course was favorable and she was discharged without complications 24 hours before the intervention

  1. Endoscopic Management of an Intramural Sinus Leak After Per- Oral Endoscopic Myotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Taii, Haider; Confer, Bradley; Gabbard, Scott; Kroh, Matthew; Jang, Sunguk; Rodriguez, John; Parsi, Mansour A.; Vargo, John J.; Ponsky, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was developed less than a decade ago for the treatment of achalasia. Its minimally invasive approach and the favorable short-term outcome have led to rapid adoption of the technique throughout the world. As with any new technique, there will be adverse events, and it is important that effective treatments for these adverse events be discussed. We present a case of successful endoscopic management of an intramural sinus leak after a POEM procedure using tandem fully covered esophageal stents. PMID:27921057

  2. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  3. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J 2 /He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  4. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  5. Detection of viral infection by immunofluorescence in formalin-fixed tissues, pretreated with trypsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Barth

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of viral antigen in sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human tissues was demonstrated by trypsin digestion followed by direct or indirect immunofluorescence. The specimens may be used for retrospective diagnosis. The immunofluorescence technique has to be adapted to the suspected virus infection on the basis of previous histopathology study. Variations of trypsin concentration time and temperature of incubation, expose different viral antigens and have to be previously tested for each unknown system. For measles virus detection in lung a stronger digestion has to be applied as compared to adenovirus or respiratory disease viruses in the same tisue. Flavivirus in liver tissue needs a weaker digestion. The reproducibility of the method makes it useful as a routine technique in diagnosis of virus infection.A presença de antígeno viral em cortes de tecidos humanos fixados em formol e emblocados em parafina foi demonstrada pela digestão com tripsina foi demonstrada pela ingestão com tripsina seguida de imunofluorescência direta ou indireta. Os espécimens podem ser utilizados para diagnoses retrospectivas. A técnica da imunofluorescência deve ser adaptada à infecção viral suspeita segundo diagnosie histopatológica prévia. Os parâmetros para a digestão do tecido pela tripsina, relacionados à concentração, duração de atuação e temperatura, expõem diferentes antígenos virais e devem ser previamente testados para cada sistema a ser estabelecido. Uma digestão mais intensa deve ser aplicada para a detecção do vírus do sarampo em tecido pulmonar do que para adenovírus ou vírus respiratório sincicial no mesmo tecido. Por outro lado, o vírus da febre amarela em tecido de fígado necessita de uma digestão mais fraca.

  6. Whole-genome gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig April

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a gene expression assay (Whole-Genome DASL, capable of generating whole-genome gene expression profiles from degraded samples such as formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE specimens.We demonstrated a similar level of sensitivity in gene detection between matched fresh-frozen (FF and FFPE samples, with the number and overlap of probes detected in the FFPE samples being approximately 88% and 95% of that in the corresponding FF samples, respectively; 74% of the differentially expressed probes overlapped between the FF and FFPE pairs. The WG-DASL assay is also able to detect 1.3-1.5 and 1.5-2 -fold changes in intact and FFPE samples, respectively. The dynamic range for the assay is approximately 3 logs. Comparing the WG-DASL assay with an in vitro transcription-based labeling method yielded fold-change correlations of R(2 approximately 0.83, while fold-change comparisons with quantitative RT-PCR assays yielded R(2 approximately 0.86 and R(2 approximately 0.55 for intact and FFPE samples, respectively. Additionally, the WG-DASL assay yielded high self-correlations (R(2>0.98 with low intact RNA inputs ranging from 1 ng to 100 ng; reproducible expression profiles were also obtained with 250 pg total RNA (R(2 approximately 0.92, with approximately 71% of the probes detected in 100 ng total RNA also detected at the 250 pg level. When FFPE samples were assayed, 1 ng total RNA yielded self-correlations of R(2 approximately 0.80, while still maintaining a correlation of R(2 approximately 0.75 with standard FFPE inputs (200 ng.Taken together, these results show that WG-DASL assay provides a reliable platform for genome-wide expression profiling in archived materials. It also possesses utility within clinical settings where only limited quantities of samples may be available (e.g. microdissected material or when minimally invasive procedures are performed (e.g. biopsied specimens.

  7. Role of D1- and D2-like dopaminergic receptors in the nucleus accumbens in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain: Involvement of lateral hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Iman; Vatankhah, Mahsaneh; Zarepour, Leila; Ezzatpanah, Somayeh; Haghparast, Abbas

    2018-05-01

    The role of dopaminergic system in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial nociception has been established. The present study aims to investigate the role of dopaminergic receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in modulation of nociceptive responses induced by formalin injection in the orofacial region. One hundred and six male Wistar rats were unilaterally implanted with two cannulae into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and NAc. Intra-LH microinjection of carbachol, a cholinergic receptor agonist, was done 5min after intra-accumbal administration of different doses of SCH23390 (D1-like receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (D2-like receptor antagonist). After 5min, 50μl of 1% formalin was subcutaneously injected into the upper lip for inducing the orofacial pain. Carbachol alone dose-dependently reduced both phases of the formalin-induced orofacial pain. Intra-accumbal administration of SCH23390 (0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl saline) or sulpiride (0.25, 1 and 4μg/0.5μl DMSO) before LH stimulation by carbachol (250nM/0.5μl saline) antagonized the antinociceptive responses during both phases of orofacial formalin test. The effects of D1- and D2-like receptor antagonism on the LH stimulation-induced antinociception were almost similar during the early phase. However, compared to D1-like receptor antagonism, D2-like receptor antagonism was a little more effective but not significant, at blocking the LH stimulation-induced antinociception during the late phase of formalin test. The findings revealed that there is a direct or indirect neural pathway from the LH to the NAc which is at least partially contributed to the modulation of formalin-induced orofacial nociception through recruitment of both dopaminergic receptors in this region. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  9. Elevated pressure improves the extraction and identification of proteins recovered from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B Fowler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing.In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%. Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates.These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form suitable for proteomic analysis.

  10. High-throughput sequencing and copy number variation detection using formalin fixed embedded tissue in metastatic gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhwi Kim

    Full Text Available In the era of targeted therapy, mutation profiling of cancer is a crucial aspect of making therapeutic decisions. To characterize cancer at a molecular level, the use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue is important. We tested the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 and nCounter Copy Number Variation Assay in 89 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples to determine whether they are applicable in archival clinical samples for personalized targeted therapies. We validated the results with Sanger sequencing, real-time quantitative PCR, fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Frequently detected somatic mutations included TP53 (28.17%, APC (10.1%, PIK3CA (5.6%, KRAS (4.5%, SMO (3.4%, STK11 (3.4%, CDKN2A (3.4% and SMAD4 (3.4%. Amplifications of HER2, CCNE1, MYC, KRAS and EGFR genes were observed in 8 (8.9%, 4 (4.5%, 2 (2.2%, 1 (1.1% and 1 (1.1% cases, respectively. In the cases with amplification, fluorescence in situ hybridization for HER2 verified gene amplification and immunohistochemistry for HER2, EGFR and CCNE1 verified the overexpression of proteins in tumor cells. In conclusion, we successfully performed semiconductor-based sequencing and nCounter copy number variation analyses in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer samples. High-throughput screening in archival clinical samples enables faster, more accurate and cost-effective detection of hotspot mutations or amplification in genes.

  11. Elevated Pressure Improves the Extraction and Identification of Proteins Recovered from Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Carol B.; Chesnick, Ingrid E.; Moore, Cedric D.; O'Leary, Timothy J.; Mason, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Proteomic studies of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues are frustrated by the inability to extract proteins from archival tissue in a form suitable for analysis by 2-D gel electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. This inability arises from the difficulty of reversing formaldehyde-induced protein adducts and cross-links within FFPE tissues. We previously reported the use of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from a hen egg-white lysozyme tissue surrogate, a model system developed to study formalin fixation and histochemical processing. Principal Findings In this study, we demonstrate the utility of elevated hydrostatic pressure as a method for efficient protein recovery from FFPE mouse liver tissue and a complex multi-protein FFPE tissue surrogate comprised of hen egg-white lysozyme, bovine carbonic anhydrase, bovine ribonuclease A, bovine serum albumin, and equine myoglobin (55∶15∶15∶10∶5 wt%). Mass spectrometry of the FFPE tissue surrogates retrieved under elevated pressure showed that both the low and high-abundance proteins were identified with sequence coverage comparable to that of the surrogate mixture prior to formaldehyde treatment. In contrast, non-pressure-extracted tissue surrogate samples yielded few positive and many false peptide identifications. Studies with soluble formalin-treated bovine ribonuclease A demonstrated that pressure modestly inhibited the rate of reversal (hydrolysis) of formaldehyde-induced protein cross-links. Dynamic light scattering studies suggest that elevated hydrostatic pressure and heat facilitate the recovery of proteins free of formaldehyde adducts and cross-links by promoting protein unfolding and hydration with a concomitant reduction in the average size of the protein aggregates. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that elevated hydrostatic pressure treatment is a promising approach for improving the recovery of proteins from FFPE tissues in a form

  12. Computational Analysis of Spray Jet Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Utsav

    There is a boost in the utilization of renewable sources of energy but because of high energy density applications, combustion will never be obsolete. Spray combustion is a type of multiphase combustion which has tremendous engineering applications in different fields, varying from energy conversion devices to rocket propulsion system. Developing accurate computational models for turbulent spray combustion is vital for improving the design of combustors and making them energy efficient. Flamelet models have been extensively used for gas phase combustion because of their relatively low computational cost to model the turbulence-chemistry interaction using a low dimensional manifold approach. This framework is designed for gas phase non-premixed combustion and its implementation is not very straight forward for multiphase and multi-regime combustion such as spray combustion. This is because of the use of a conserved scalar and various flamelet related assumptions. Mixture fraction has been popularly employed as a conserved scalar and hence used to parameterize the characteristics of gaseous flamelets. However, for spray combustion, the mixture fraction is not monotonic and does not give a unique mapping in order to parameterize the structure of spray flames. In order to develop a flamelet type model for spray flames, a new variable called the mixing variable is introduced which acts as an ideal conserved scalar and takes into account the convection and evaporation of fuel droplets. In addition to the conserved scalar, it has been observed that though gaseous flamelets can be characterized by the conserved scalar and its dissipation, this might not be true for spray flamelets. Droplet dynamics has a significant influence on the spray flamelet and because of effects such as flame penetration of droplets and oscillation of droplets across the stagnation plane, it becomes important to accommodate their influence in the flamelet formulation. In order to recognize the

  13. Spray Drying of Mosambi Juice in Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. V.; Verma, A.

    2014-01-01

    The studies on spray drying of mosambi juice were carried out with Laboratory spray dryer set-up (LSD-48 MINI SPRAY DRYER-JISL). Inlet and outlet air temperature and maltodextrin (drying agent) concentration was taken as variable parameters. Experiments were conducted by using 110 °C to 140 °C inlet air temperature, 60 °C to 70 °C outlet air temperature and 5-7 % maltodextrin concentration. The free flow powder of mosambi juice was obtained with 7 % maltodextrin at 140 °C inlet air temperature and 60 °C outlet air temperature. Fresh and reconstituted juices were evaluated for vitamin C, titrable acidity and sensory characteristics. The reconstituted juice was found slightly acceptable by taste panel.

  14. Autoignition of liquid-fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitzutani, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the published autoignition data of liquid fuel sprays that were extensively reviewed by classifying them into the following three categories; liquid fuels injected into a stagnant hot atmosphere, liquid fuels injected into a hot air stream (vitiated or unvitiated), and droplet cluster ignited behind an incident or reflected shock. Comparison of these data with the counterparts of gaseous fuels and single droplets revealed that it was the ignition process dominated by droplet evaporation whereas it was the one dominated by chemical kinetics. It consisted, depending on the experimental condition, of the data and of the ignition process dominated by the shattering of droplets by an incident shock. In addition, theoretical works on spray autoignition were reviewed, pointing out that they were still far from universally predicting the ignition delays of liquid fuel sprays

  15. Radio frequency induction plasma spraying of molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xianliang

    2003-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) induction plasma was used to make free-standing deposition of molybdenum (Mo). The phenomena of particle melting, flattening, and stacking were investigated. The effect of process parameters such as plasma power, chamber pressure, and spray distance on the phenomena mentioned above was studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the plasma-processed powder, splats formed, and deposits obtained. Experimental results show that less Mo particles are spheroidized when compared to the number of spheroidized tungsten (W) particles at the same powder feed rate under the same plasma spray condition. Molten Mo particles can be sufficiently flattened on substrate. The influence of the process parameters on the flattening behavior is not significant. Mo deposit is not as dense as W deposit, due to the splash and low impact of molten Mo particles. Oxidation of the Mo powder with a large particle size is not evident under the low pressure plasma spray

  16. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  17. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  18. Spray Behavior and Atomization Characteristics of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Biodiesel has large amount of oxygen in itself, which make it very efficient in reducing exhaust emission by improving combustion inside an engine. But biodiesel has a low temperature flow problem because it has a high viscosity. In this study, the spray behavior and atomization characteristics were investigated to confirm of some effect for the combination of non-esterification biodiesel and fuel additive WDP and IPA. The process of spray was visualized through the visualization system composed of a halogen lamp and high speed camera, and atomization characteristics were investigated through LDPA. When blending WDP and IPA with biodiesel, atomization and spray characteristics were improved. Through this experimental result, SMD of blended fuel, WDP 25% and biodiesel 75%, was 33.9% reduced at distance 6cm from a nozzle tip under injection pressure 30MPa.

  19. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  20. Retort Racks for Polymeric Trays in 1400 Style Spray Retorts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruins, Henderikus B

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design a retort rack that would maximize the retort capacity of a 1400 style spray retort and to select a material that would withstand the harsh retort spray environment...

  1. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  2. Interaction between the dopaminergic and opioidergic systems in dorsal hippocampus in modulation of formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisi, Zahra; Haghparast, Amir; Pahlevani, Pouyan; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Haghparast, Abbas

    2014-09-01

    The hippocampus is a region of the brain that serves several functions. The dopaminergic system acts through D1- and D2-like receptors to interfere in pain modulation and the opioid receptors play major roles in analgesic processes and there are obvious overlaps between these two systems. The present study investigated the interaction between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems in the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) region for formalin-induced orofacial pain. Two guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted in the CA1 region and morphine (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 μg/0.5 μl saline) and naloxone (0.3, 1 and 3 μg/0.5 μl saline) were used as the opioid receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively. SKF-38393 (1 μg/0.5 μl saline) was used as a D1-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (2 μg/0.5 μl saline) as a D2-like receptor agonist, SCH-23390 (0.5 μg/0.5 μl saline) as a D1-like receptor antagonist and sulpiride (3 μg/0.5 μl DMSO) as a D2-like receptor antagonist. To induce orofacial pain, 50 μl of 1% formalin was subcutaneously injected into the left side of the upper lip. Our results showed that different doses of morphine significantly reduced orofacial pain in both phases induced by formalin. Naloxone (1 and 3 μg) reversed morphine induced analgesia in CA1. SKF-38393 and quinpirole with naloxone (1 μg) significantly decreased formalin-induced orofacial pain in both phases. SCH-23390 had no effect on the antinociceptive response of morphine in both phases of orofacial pain. Sulpiride reversed the antinociceptive effects of morphine only in the first phase, but this result was not significant. Our findings suggest that there is cross-talk between the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems. Opioidergic neurons also exerted antinociceptive effects by modulation of the dopaminergic system in the CA1 region of the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy for advanced cholangiocarcinoma after failed stenting by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukij Panpimanmas

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: Endoscopic-ultrasound-guided hepaticogastrostomy is safe and can be a good palliative option for advanced malignant biliary obstruction because it drains internally and is remote from the tumor site, promoting a long patency period of prosthesis and better quality of life.

  4. Endoscopic Radiofrequency Ablation-Assisted Resection of Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma: Comparison with Traditional Endoscopic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Eamon J; Cunningham, Michael J; Kazahaya, Ken; Hsing, Julianna; Kawai, Kosuke; Adil, Eelam A

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of radiofrequency surgical instrumentation for endoscopic resection of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) and to test the hypothesis that endoscopic radiofrequency ablation-assisted (RFA) resection will have superior intraoperative and/or postoperative outcomes as compared with traditional endoscopic (TE) resection techniques. Case series with chart review. Two tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Twenty-nine pediatric patients who underwent endoscopic transnasal resection of JNA from January 2000 to December 2014. Twenty-nine patients underwent RFA (n = 13) or TE (n = 16) JNA resection over the 15-year study period. Mean patient age was not statistically different between the 2 groups (P = .41); neither was their University of Pittsburgh Medical Center classification stage (P = .79). All patients underwent preoperative embolization. Mean operative times were not statistically different (P = .29). Mean intraoperative blood loss and the need for a transfusion were also not statistically different (P = .27 and .47, respectively). Length of hospital stay was not statistically different (P = .46). Recurrence rates did not differ between groups (P = .99) over a mean follow-up period of 2.3 years. There were no significant differences between RFA and TE resection in intraoperative or postoperative outcome parameters. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  5. Significance of endoscopic screening and endoscopic resection for esophageal cancer in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Kinji; Nakamura, Satoaki

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer remains controversial and its impact on prognosis has not been adequately discussed. We studied the use of endoscopic screening to detect esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients by analyzing the incidence, stage and prognosis. We included 64 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer who received radical radiotherapy at our institute. Chromoendoscopic esophageal examinations with Lugol dye solution were routinely performed at and after treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-eight esophageal cancers were detected in 28 (41%) patients (18 synchronous and 10 metachronous cancers). Of the 28 cancers, 23 were stage 0 or I cancer and 15 of these were treated with endoscopic resection. Local control was achieved in all of these 23 stage 0 or I cancers. The 5-year overall survival rates with esophageal cancer were 83% in stage 0, 47% in stage I and 0% in stage IIA-IVB. This study showed a strikingly high incidence of esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients. We suppose that the combination of early detection by chromoendoscopic examination and endoscopic resection for associated esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients improve prognosis and maintain quality of life. (author)

  6. Development of design solutions for spray ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, M.P.; Minasyan, R.G.; Kranzfeld, Ja.L.; Zaruba, V.C.; Baranov, Yu.A.; Sorokin, M.Ja.; Jegorov, A.V.; Khashchina, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of process design of spray cooling systems for responsible consumers of up-to-date reactor building are discussed in this paper. Development in design principles with respect to problem solving of operational reliability increase and ecological efficiency of nuclear power equipment is shown. The structural solutions of basin antifiltration shield are spoken in detail. The results of experimental physical-mathematical and climatic studies as well as comparative tests of bituminous asphalt emulsive mastic and mushy asphalt are reported. The directions of up-to-date researches on improvement of concept of spray coolers are indicated

  7. Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0095 Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display Yukiharu Uraoka NARA INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Final Report 11/26/2016...DATES COVERED (From - To)  20 Mar 2013 to 19 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electro Spray Method for Flexible Display 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT...NUMBER FA2386-13-1-4024 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Yukiharu Uraoka 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.   WORK UNIT NUMBER 7

  8. WWER-type NPP spray ponds screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, M.; Jordanov, M.; Denev, J.; Markov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a protection screen of WWER-type NPP spray ponds. The screen design is to ensure reduction of the water droplets blown by the wind and, if possible, their return back to the spray ponds. The cooling capacity of the ponds is not to be changed below the design level for safety reasons. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to assess the influence of each design variant on the behavior of the water droplets distribution. Two variants are presented here. The one with plants is found not feasible. The second variant, with steel screen and terrain profile modification is selected for implementation. (author)

  9. Plasma-sprayed tantalum/alumina cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, C.M.

    1977-12-01

    Cermets of tantalum and alumina were fabricated by plasma spraying, with the amount of alumina varied from 0 to 65 percent (by volume). Each of four compositions was then measured for tensile strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion. In general, strength and strain to failure decreased with increasing alumina content: 62 MPa for 100 percent Ta to 19 MPa for 35 v percent Ta. A maximum of 0.1 percent strain was observed for the sprayed 100 percent Ta specimens. The coefficient of thermal expansion measured for the pure Ta was 6.2 (10 -6 )/K

  10. Endoscopic Lung Volume Reduction : An Expert Panel Recommendation - Update 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herth, Felix J. F.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Criner, Gerard J.; Shah, Pallav L.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR) technologies for emphysema is consistently growing. In the last couple of months, several endoscopic options (e.g., endo-or intrabronchial valves, coil implants, and thermal vapor ablation) that have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials

  11. Endoscopic and histologic healing of Crohn's (ileo-) colitis with azathioprine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Haens, G.; Geboes, K.; Rutgeerts, P.

    1999-01-01

    The correlation between disease activity and endoscopic findings in Crohn's disease is poor. Corticosteroids induce symptom relief without consistent improvement of endoscopic lesions. Our aim was to examine the effect of azathioprine therapy on healing of inflammatory lesions in patients with

  12. Is endoscopic nodular gastritis associated with premalignant lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, R; Manafi, A; Maghbool, M; Kouhpayeh, A; Mahmoudi, L

    2015-06-01

    Nodularity on the gastric mucosa is occasionally seen in general practice. There is no consensus about the association of nodular gastritis and histological premalignant lesions. This study is designed to investigate the prevalence of histological premalignant lesions in dyspeptic patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Consecutive patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Endoscopic nodular gastritis was defined as a miliary nodular appearance of the gastric mucosa on endoscopy. Biopsy samples of stomach tissue were examined for the presence of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. The presence of Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by histology. From 5366 evaluated patients, a total of 273 patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis and 1103 participants as control group were enrolled. H. pylori infection was detected in 87.5% of the patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis, whereas 73.8% of the control group were positive for H. pylori (p gastritis were significantly higher than in the control group. Prevalence of atrophic gastritis and complete intestinal metaplasia were also more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis than in the control group. Dysplasia, incomplete intestinal metaplasia and H. pylori infection are significantly more frequent in patients with endoscopic nodular gastritis. Although further studies are needed before a clear conclusion can be reached, we suggest that endoscopic nodular gastritis might serve as a premalignant lesion and could be biopsied in all patients for the possibility of histological premalignancy, in addition to H. pylori infection.

  13. Endoscopic versus surgical drainage treatment of calcific chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ning, Deng; Cheng, Qi; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2018-04-21

    Endoscopic therapy and surgery are both conventional treatments to remove pancreatic duct stones that developed during the natural course of chronic pancreatitis. However, few studies comparing the effect and safety between surgery drainage and endoscopic drainage (plus Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy, ESWL).The aim of this study was to compare the benefits between endoscopic and surgical drainage of the pancreatic duct for patients with calcified chronic pancreatitis. A total of 86 patients were classified into endoscopic/ESWL (n = 40) or surgical (n = 46) treatment groups. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. Pain recurrence and hospital stays were similar between the endoscopic/ESWL treatment and surgery group. However, endoscopic/ESWL treatment yielded significantly lower medical expense and less complications compared with the surgical treatment. In selective patients, endoscopic/ESWL treatment could achieve comparable efficacy to the surgical treatment. With lower medical expense and less complications, endoscopic/ESWL treatment would be much preferred to be the initial treatment of choice for patients with calcified chronic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endoscopic lesions in Crohn's disease early after ileocecal resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Mulder, C. J.; Brummelkamp, W. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty patients with Crohn's disease were studied endoscopically 6 weeks to 6 months (median 9 weeks) after ileocecal or ileocolonic resection for evidence of non-resected abnormality. Only 8 of the 50 patients were endoscopically free of abnormalities. Microscopic examination of the surgical

  15. The clinical and endoscopic spectrum of the watermelon stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gostout, C. J.; Viggiano, T. R.; Ahlquist, D. A.; Wang, K. K.; Larson, M. V.; Balm, R.

    1992-01-01

    The watermelon stomach is an uncommon but treatable cause of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. We report our experience with the clinical and endoscopic features of 45 consecutive patients treated by endoscopic Nd:YAG laser coagulation. The prototypic patient was a woman (71%) with an average age

  16. Responsiveness of Endoscopic Indices of Disease Activity for Crohn's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khanna, Reena; Zou, Guangyong; Stitt, Larry; Feagan, Brian G.; Sandborn, William J.; Rutgeerts, Paul; McDonald, John W. D.; Dubcenco, Elena; Fogel, Ronald; Panaccione, Remo; Jairath, Vipul; Nelson, Sigrid; Shackelton, Lisa M.; Huang, Bidan; Zhou, Qian; Robinson, Anne M.; Levesque, Barrett G.; D'Haens, Geert

    2017-01-01

    The Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) and the Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) are commonly used to assess Crohn's disease (CD) activity; however neither instrument is fully validated. We evaluated the responsiveness to change of the SES-CD and CDEIS using data

  17. Evaluation of flexible endoscope steering using haptic guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M L; Misra, Sarthak

    Background: Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician's dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods: A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated based

  18. Endoscopic Camera Control by Head Movements for Thoracic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; de Bruin, Gart; Franken, M.C.J.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Misra, Sarthak; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    In current video-assisted thoracic surgery, the endoscopic camera is operated by an assistant of the surgeon, which has several disadvantages. This paper describes a system which enables the surgeon to control the endoscopic camera without the help of an assistant. The system is controlled using

  19. Evaluation of flexible endoscope steering using haptic guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reilink, Rob; Stramigioli, Stefano; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    Background - Steering the tip of a flexible endoscope relies on the physician’s dexterity and experience. For complex flexible endoscopes, conventional controls may be inadequate. Methods - A steering method based on a multi-degree-of-freedom haptic device is presented. Haptic cues are generated

  20. [Pull percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: personal experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, G; Sciumè, C; Pisello, F; Li Volsi, F; Facella, T; Tinaglia, D; Modica, G

    2007-04-01

    To review the indications, complications, and outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), that are placed routinely in patients unable to obtain adequate nutrition from oral feeding for swallowing disorders (neurological diseases, head and neck cancer, oesophageal cancer, psychological disorders). Retrospective review of patients referred for PEG placement from 2003 to 2005. Endoscopic Surgery in Section of General and Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Palermo, Italy. A total of 50 patients, 11 women and 39 men, referred our Section for PEG placement. Indications for PEG placement included various neurologic impairment (82%), oesophageal non-operable cancer (6%), cardia non-operable cancer (4%), cerebrovascular accident (2%), anorexia (2%), pharyngeal esophageal obstruction (2%), head and neck cancer (2%). All patients received preoperative antibiotics as short-term profilaxis. 51 PEGs were positioned in 50 patients. No major complications were registered; 45 patients (90%) were alive at 1 year follow-up and no mortality procedure-related was registered. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrotomy removal had been performed on 2 patients as end-point of treatment, and 43 patients continued to have PEGs in use at 2006. Outpatients PEG placement using conscious sedation is a safe and effective method for providing enteral nutrition. This technique constitutes the gold standard treatment for enteral nutrition in patients with neurologic impairment or as prophylactic in patients affected by head and neck cancer who needs demolitive surgery. Patients should be carefully assessed, and discussion with the patient and their families should be held to determine that the patient is an appropriate candidate. The Authors feel prophylactic antibiotics lessened the incidence of cutaneous perigastrostomy infection.

  1. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  2. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  3. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation of...

  4. Quantitative Assessment of Spray Deposition with Water-Sensitive Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray droplets, discharged from the lower six nozzles of an airblast sprayer, were sampled on pairs of absorbent filter and water-sensitive papers at nine distances from sprayer. Spray deposition on filter targets were measured by fluorometry and spray distribution on WSP targets were assessed by t...

  5. Numerical Modeling of Diesel Spray Formation and Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekdemir, C.; Somers, L.M.T.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    2009-01-01

    A study is presented on the modeling of fuel sprays in diesel engines. The objective of this study is in the first place to accurately and efficiently model non-reacting diesel spray formation, and secondly to include ignition and combustion. For that an efficient 1D Euler-Euler spray model [21] is

  6. Endoscopic treatment of Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-05-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed degloving soft tissue injury in which subcutaneous tissue is torn from the underlying muscular fascia. The tear leads to venolymphatic leak, and concomitant adipose tissue necrosis from the force of the trauma causes swelling and possible infection at the site of injury. The traditional treatment for the lesion is surgical drainage and debridement. In this report, an endoscopic method is described, which achieves the goal of an open surgical debridement but minimizes surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endoscopic Treatment of Studer's Orthotopic Neobladder Lithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Gil-Sousa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studer's neobladder lithiasis is a rare but important long term complication of this orthotopic bladder substitute technique. We report a case of a 45 year-old male patient, submitted to a radical cystoprostatectomy with a Studer's orthotopic neobladder 4 years before, presenting bad compliance to recommended urinary habits, increased production of mucus and high post voiding residue. CT scan and urethrocystography showed a distended pouch with 2 major sacculations with narrow communication and a stone in each sacculation. A minimally invasive endoscopic technique was successfully used in the treatment of the 2 small calculus.

  8. A primer on endoscopic electronic medical records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreja, Ashish; Rizk, Maged; Gurland, Brooke

    2010-02-01

    Endoscopic electronic medical record systems (EEMRs) are now increasingly utilized in many endoscopy centers. Modern EEMRs not only support endoscopy report generation, but often include features such as practice management tools, image and video clip management, inventory management, e-faxes to referring physicians, and database support to measure quality and patient outcomes. There are many existing software vendors offering EEMRs, and choosing a software vendor can be time consuming and confusing. The goal of this article is inform the readers about current functionalities available in modern EEMR and provide them with a framework necessary to find an EEMR that is best fit for their practice.

  9. Image acquisition in laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Brijesh S.; Georgeson, Keith E.; Hardin, William D., Jr.

    1995-04-01

    Laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery rely uniquely on high quality display of acquired images, but a multitude of problems plague the researcher who attempts to reproduce such images for educational purposes. Some of these are intrinsic limitations of current laparoscopic/endoscopic visualization systems, while others are artifacts solely of the process used to acquire and reproduce such images. Whatever the genesis of these problems, a glance at current literature will reveal the extent to which endoscopy suffers from an inability to reproduce what the surgeon sees during a procedure. The major intrinsic limitation to the acquisition of high-quality still images from laparoscopic procedures lies in the inability to couple directly a camera to the laparoscope. While many systems have this capability, this is useful mostly for otolaryngologists, who do not maintain a sterile field around their scopes. For procedures in which a sterile field must be maintained, one trial method has been to use a beam splitter to send light both to the still camera and the digital video camera. This is no solution, however, since this results in low quality still images as well as a degradation of the image that the surgeon must use to operate, something no surgeon tolerates lightly. Researchers thus must currently rely on other methods for producing images from a laparoscopic procedure. Most manufacturers provide an optional slide or print maker that provides a hardcopy output from the processed composite video signal. The results achieved from such devices are marginal, to say the least. This leaves only one avenue for possible image production, the videotape record of an endoscopic or laparoscopic operation. Video frame grabbing is at least a problem to which industry has applied considerable time and effort to solving. Our own experience with computerized enhancement of videotape frames has been very promising. Computer enhancement allows the researcher to correct several of the

  10. Endoscopic electrosurgical papillotomy and manometry in biliary tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, J E; Hogan, W J; Shaffer, R D; Stewart, E T; Dodds, W J; Arndorfer, R C

    1977-05-09

    Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in 13 patients after cholecystectomy for retained or recurrent common bile duct calculi (11 patients) and a clinical picture suggesting papillary stenosis (two patients). Following endoscopic papillotomy, ten of the 11 patients spontaneously passed common bile duct (CBD) stones verified on repeated endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) study. One patient failed to pass a large CBD calculus; one patient experienced cholangitis three months after in inadequate papillotomy and required operative intervention. Endoscopic papillotomy substantially decreased the pressure gradient existing between the CBD and the duodenum in all five patients studied with ERCP manometry. Endoscopic papillotomy is a relatively safe and effective procedure for postcholecystectomy patients with retained or recurrent CBD stones. The majority of CBD stones will pass spontaneously if the papillotomy is adequate.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted endoscopic partial plantar fascia release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchi, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Ken; Shinga, Kotaro; Hattori, Soichi; Yamada, Shin; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Various surgical treatment procedures for plantar fasciitis, such as open surgery, percutaneous release, and endoscopic surgery, exist. Skin trouble, nerve disturbance, infection, and persistent pain associated with prolonged recovery time are complications of open surgery. Endoscopic partial plantar fascia release offers the surgeon clear visualization of the anatomy at the surgical site. However, the primary medial portal and portal tract used for this technique have been shown to be in close proximity to the posterior tibial nerves and their branches, and there is always the risk of nerve damage by introducing the endoscope deep to the plantar fascia. By performing endoscopic partial plantar fascia release under ultrasound assistance, we could dynamically visualize the direction of the endoscope and instrument introduction, thus preventing nerve damage from inadvertent insertion deep to the fascia. Full-thickness release of the plantar fascia at the ideal position could also be confirmed under ultrasound imaging. We discuss the technique for this new procedure.

  12. Direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic versus open ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N

    2018-02-01

    Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.

  13. A technical review of flexible endoscopic multitasking platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Baldwin Po Man; Gourlay, Terence

    2012-01-01

    Further development of advanced therapeutic endoscopic techniques and natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) requires a powerful flexible endoscopic multitasking platform. Medline search was performed to identify literature relating to flexible endoscopic multitasking platform from year 2004-2011 using keywords: Flexible endoscopic multitasking platform, NOTES, Instrumentation, Endoscopic robotic surgery, and specific names of various endoscopic multitasking platforms. Key articles from articles references were reviewed. Flexible multitasking platforms can be classified as either mechanical or robotic. Purely mechanical systems include the dual channel endoscope (DCE) (Olympus), R-Scope (Olympus), the EndoSamurai (Olympus), the ANUBIScope (Karl-Storz), Incisionless Operating Platform (IOP) (USGI), and DDES system (Boston Scientific). Robotic systems include the MASTER system (Nanyang University, Singapore) and the Viacath (Hansen Medical). The DCE, the R-Scope, the EndoSamurai and the ANUBIScope have integrated visual function and instrument manipulation function. The IOP and DDES systems rely on the conventional flexible endoscope for visualization, and instrument manipulation is integrated through the use of a flexible, often lockable, multichannel access device. The advantage of the access device concept is that it allows optics and instrument dissociation. Due to the anatomical constrains of the pharynx, systems are designed to have a diameter of less than 20 mm. All systems are controlled by traction cable system actuated either by hand or by robotic machinery. In a flexible system, this method of actuation inevitably leads to significant hysteresis. This problem will be accentuated with a long endoscope such as that required in performing colonic procedures. Systems often require multiple operators. To date, the DCE, the R-Scope, the IOP, and the Viacath system have data published relating to their application in human. Alternative forms of

  14. A method to evaluate genome-wide methylation in archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiling Li

    Full Text Available The use of DNA from archival formalin and paraffin embedded (FFPE tissue for genetic and epigenetic analyses may be problematic, since the DNA is often degraded and only limited amounts may be available. Thus, it is currently not known whether genome-wide methylation can be reliably assessed in DNA from archival FFPE tissue.Ovarian tissues, which were obtained and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded in either 1999 or 2011, were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E.Epithelial cells were captured by laser micro dissection, and their DNA subjected to whole genomic bisulfite conversion, whole genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, and purification. Sequencing and software analyses were performed to identify the extent of genomic methylation. We observed that 31.7% of sequence reads from the DNA in the 1999 archival FFPE tissue, and 70.6% of the reads from the 2011 sample, could be matched with the genome. Methylation rates of CpG on the Watson and Crick strands were 32.2% and 45.5%, respectively, in the 1999 sample, and 65.1% and 42.7% in the 2011 sample.We have developed an efficient method that allows DNA methylation to be assessed in archival FFPE tissue samples.

  15. Multicenter Evaluation of a Novel Automated Rapid Detection System of BRAF Status in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Ana-Iris; Parlow, Laura; Gabler, Lisa; Mesteri, Ildiko; Koperek, Oskar; von Deimling, Andreas; Streubel, Berthold; Preusser, Matthias; Lehmann, Annika; Kellner, Udo; Pauwels, Patrick; Lambin, Suzan; Dietel, Manfred; Hummel, Michael; Klauschen, Frederick; Birner, Peter; Möbs, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The mutated BRAF oncogene represents a therapeutic target in malignant melanoma. Because BRAF mutations are also involved in the pathogenesis of other human malignancies, the use of specific BRAF inhibitors might also be extended to other diseases in the future. A prerequisite for the clinical application of BRAF inhibitors is the reliable detection of activating BRAF mutations in routine histopathological samples. In a multicenter approach, we evaluated a novel and fully automated PCR-based system (Idylla) capable of detecting BRAF V600 mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue within 90 minutes with high sensitivity. We analyzed a total of 436 samples with the Idylla system. Valid results were obtained in 421 cases (96.56%). Its performance was compared with conventional methods (pyrosequencing or Sanger sequencing). Concordant results were obtained in 406 cases (96.90%). Reanalysis of eight discordant samples by next-generation sequencing and/or pyrosequencing with newly extracted DNA and the BRAF RGQ Kit confirmed the Idylla result in seven cases, resulting in an overall agreement of 98.57%. In conclusion, the Idylla system is a highly reliable and sensitive platform for detection of BRAF V600 mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material, providing an efficient alternative to conventional diagnostic methods, particularly for routine diagnostics laboratories with limited experience in molecular pathology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Length correction for early-juvenile Brazilian herring Sardinella janeiro (Eigenmann, 1894 after preservation in formalin, ethanol and freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim N. S. Santos

    Full Text Available This work aims to quantify the variation in total length and body mass for the early-juvenile Brazilian herring Sardinella janeiro and to determine total length and body mass correction equation to allow fresh measures to be calculated from preserved ones. Fishes were randomly assigned to one of five preservation methods (freezing at - 20º C, 2.5% and 5% formalin, 70% and 95% ethanol, and measured for total length (TL and body mass (W before preservation, and on days 5, 15, 30, and 60 after storage. Significant reductions in total length and body mass occurred during the first 5 days after preservation and continued to contract significantly at a lesser rate through 30 days in most methods. Exceptions were shown for body mass in freezing and 5% formalin, where the greatest losses occurred after 30 days of preservation. The degree of shrinkage for total length and body mass was very much dependent on fish size, with smaller specimens shrinking more than larger ones. The fresh total length and body mass can be back-calculated using equations that describe the relationship between fresh and preserved individuals after 60 days storage for all methods except for body mass in freezing.

  17. Supra-Additive Interaction of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Naproxen and Gastric Safety on the Formalin Test in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Lira, Arlette Guadalupe; Rodríguez-Ramos, Fernando; Ortiz, Mario I; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Chávez-Piña, Aracely Evangelina

    2017-11-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics-nociception-of naproxen in rats, as well as to determine the gastric safety resulting from this combination versus naproxen alone. Female Wistar rats were orally administered DHA, naproxen or the DHA-naproxen mixture at fixed-ratio combination of 1:3. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the formalin test. The gastric injury was determined 3 h after naproxen administration. An isobolographic analysis was performed to characterize the antinociceptive interaction between DHA and naproxen. To determine the possibility of pharmacokinetic interactions, the oral bioavailability of naproxen was evaluated in presence and absence of oral DHA. The experimental effective dose ED 30 values (Zexp) were decreased from theoretical additive dose values (Zadd; P supra-additive interaction. The oral administration of DHA increased the pharmacokinetic parameter AUC 0- t of naproxen (P supra-additive antinociceptive effect in the formalin test so that this combination could be useful to management of inflammatory pain. Drug Dev Res 78 : 332-339, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A pilot study comparing the use of Thiel- and formalin-embalmed cadavers in the teaching of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Joy Y; Lamb, Clare; Soames, Roger W

    2015-01-01

    Formalin had traditionally been used to preserve human material to teach gross anatomy. In 2008 the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification (CAHID) at the University of Dundee embarked on the use of the Thiel method of embalming. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference between formalin-embalmed cadavers (FEC) and Thiel-embalmed cadavers (TEC) used for teaching and surgical training. Three different questionnaires were prepared for data collection from undergraduate and postgraduate students and clinical staff. All undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as clinical staff commented on the appearance of the TEC. There was no overall consensus concerning the use of TEC, some respondents preferred TEC for the entire dissection, some only for certain areas such as the musculoskeletal system. On a technical level TEC were considered less hazardous then FEC by one-third of participants with fewer than 10% regarding TEC as more irritating than FEC. Psychologically, 32.7% of undergraduate students expressed the view that TEC made them feel more uncomfortable compared with FEC because of their life-like appearance. However, 57.1% of undergraduate students encountered the same uncomfortable feelings when viewing both TEC and FEC. The use of Thiel-embalmed cadavers to teach anatomy has an added value, though further research is required over longer periods of time to identify its best usage. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Activity-Guided Isolation of Bioactive Constituents with Antinociceptive Activity from Muntingia calabura L. Leaves Using the Formalin Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Izwan Mohamad Yusof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP, ethyl acetate (EAP, and aqueous (AQP partitions, in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in the respective early and late phase, was further subjected to the fractionation procedures and yielded seven fractions (labelled A to G. These fractions were tested, at the dose of 300 mg/kg, together with distilled water or 10% DMSO (negative controls; morphine and aspirin (positive controls for potential antinociceptive activity. Of all fractions, Fraction D showed the most significant antinociceptive activity, which is considered as equieffective to morphine or aspirin in the early or late phase, respectively. Further isolation and identification processes on fraction D led to the identification of three known and one new compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (1, 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroyflavone (2, 2′,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxychalcone (3, and calaburone (4. At the dose of 50 mg/kg, compound 3 exhibited the highest percentage of antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of MEMC involved, partly, the synergistic activation of the flavonoid types of compounds.

  20. 2, 4, 6-Trithiol-1, 3, 5-Triazine-Modified Gold Nanoparticles and Its Potential as Formalin Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulizar, Y.; Ariyanta, H. A.; Rakhmania, L.; Hafizah, M. A. E.

    2018-04-01

    Stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNP) have been successfully prepared by a modification of ligand 2, 4, 6-trithiol-1, 3, 5-triazine (TT). TT has three thiol groups and nitrogen atoms on the aromatic ring that can interact and stabilize AuNP. TT modified AuNP (AuNP/TT) was characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer (PSA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The characterization showed that AuNP/TT stable at a maximum wavelength (λmaks) of 537 nm with the particle diameter of 9.41 nm. The increased acidity (pH) causes the protonated thiol groups of TT marked with a visual change of colloidal AuNP/TT from purple to blue, causing AuNP and TT bonds weakened. In this study, the AuNP/TT was reacted with formalin. This interaction shows that AuNP/TT has a potential as an efficient detector of formalin, marked by changes in the diameter of the particle, colloidal color, and maximum wavelength shift.

  1. Intrathecal huperzine A increases thermal escape latency and decreases flinching behavior in the formalin test in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Paula; Schachter, Steven; Yaksh, Tony

    2010-02-05

    Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese club moss Huperzia serrata and has been used for improving memory, cognitive and behavioral function in patients with Alzheimer's disease in China. It has NMDA antagonist and anticholinesterase activity and has shown anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects in preliminary studies when administered intraperitoneally to mice. To better characterize the antinociceptive effects of HupA at the spinal level, Holtzman rats were implanted with intrathecal catheters to measure thermal escape latency using Hargreaves thermal escape testing system and flinching behavior using the formalin test. Intrathecal (IT) administration of HupA showed a dose-dependent increase in thermal escape latency with an ED50 of 0.57 microg. Atropine reversed the increase in thermal escape latency produced by 10 microg HupA, indicating an antinociceptive mechanism through muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The formalin test showed that HupA decreased flinching behavior in a dose-dependent manner. Atropine also reversed the decrease in flinching behavior caused by 10 microg HupA. A dose-dependent increase of side effects including scratching, biting, and chewing tails was observed, although antinociceptive effects were observed in doses that did not produce any adverse effects. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A modification of a previous model fo r inflammatory tooth pain: Effects of different capsaicin and formalin concentrations and ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof DDS, MS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM:This study aimed to solve the problems faced with the previous model of inflammatory tooth painin rats.METHODS:After cutting 2 mm of the distal extremities, the polyethylene crownswere placed on the mandibularincisors. In contrast to the original model, we used flow composite instead of wire in order to maximize the retention ofcrowns. Different concentrations of capsaicin (10, 25 and 100 mg/ml and formalin were administrated into the cavitiesunder the crowns. The algesic agent-induced behaviors were evaluated.RESULTS:The modified model had no liquid leakage. Furthermore, composite allowed the crowns to remain for alonger period of time. Capsaicin 25, 100 mg/ml and formalin applications induced significantly more painfulstimulation compared with control groups (P < 0.001. These responses were significantly reduced by theadministration of ibuprofen, 20 minutes prior to the capsaicin 100 mg/ml injection.CONCLUSIONS:This model seems to be adequate for long-term pain related experiments in which fluid leakageelimination is important.

  3. Impact of pre-analytical factors on the proteomic analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Seonaid M; Craven, Rachel A; Nirmalan, Niroshini J; Harnden, Patricia; Selby, Peter J; Banks, Rosamonde E

    2013-04-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples represent a tremendous potential resource for biomarker discovery, with large numbers of samples in hospital pathology departments and links to clinical information. However, the cross-linking of proteins and nucleic acids by formalin fixation has hampered analysis and proteomic studies have been restricted to using frozen tissue, which is more limited in availability as it needs to be collected specifically for research. This means that rare disease subtypes cannot be studied easily. Recently, improved extraction techniques have enabled analysis of FFPE tissue by a number of proteomic techniques. As with all clinical samples, pre-analytical factors are likely to impact on the results obtained, although overlooked in many studies. The aim of this review is to discuss the various pre-analytical factors, which include warm and cold ischaemic time, size of sample, fixation duration and temperature, tissue processing conditions, length of storage of archival tissue and storage conditions, and to review the studies that have considered these factors in more detail. In those areas where investigations are few or non-existent, illustrative examples of the possible importance of specific factors have been drawn from studies using frozen tissue or from immunohistochemical studies of FFPE tissue. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  5. Mechanical Properties of Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářík, O.; Nohava, Jiří; Siegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 129-145 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma sprayed alumina coatings, fatigue test, metalography, fractography, residual stress, microhardness, Young's modulus , four-point bending Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  6. New atomization nozzle for spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, H.C. van; Houben, R.J.; Koldeweij, R.B.J.

    2013-01-01

    A new atomization nozzle based on ink jet technology is introduced for spray drying. Application areas are the food and dairy industry, in the first instance, because in these industries the quality demands on the final powders are high with respect to heat load, powder shape, and size distribution.

  7. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  8. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  9. Examining Thermally Sprayed Coats By Fluorescence Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Leonhardt, Todd A.

    1994-01-01

    True flaws distinquished from those induced by preparation of specimens. Fluorescence microscopy reveals debonding, porosity, cracks, and other flaws in specimens of thermally sprayed coating materials. Specimen illuminated, and dye it contains fluoresces, emitting light at different wavelength. Filters emphasize contrast between excitation light and emission light. Specimen viewed directly or photographed on color film.

  10. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  11. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervenka, J.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Many large molecular complexes are limited in thin film applications by their insufficient thermal stability, which excludes deposition via commonly used vapour phase deposition methods. Here we demonstrate an alternative way of monolayer formation of large molecules by a simple spray coating method

  12. Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil

    307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others: COST (XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002

  13. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy

  14. Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hanqing; Chu, Xin; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous results have shown that metallic coatings can be successfully cold sprayed onto polymeric substrates. This paper studies the cold sprayability of various metal powders on different polymeric substrates. Five different substrates were used, including carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylenimine (PEI); mild steel was also used as a benchmark substrate. The CFRP used in this work has a thermosetting matrix, and the ABS, PEEK and PEI are all thermoplastic polymers, with different glass transition temperatures as well as a number of distinct mechanical properties. Three metal powders, tin, copper and iron, were cold sprayed with both a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system at various conditions. In general, cold spray on the thermoplastic polymers rendered more positive results than the thermosetting polymers, due to the local thermal softening mechanism in the thermoplastics. Thick copper coatings were successfully deposited on PEEK and PEI. Based on the results, a method is proposed to determine the feasibility and deposition window of cold spraying specific metal powder/polymeric substrate combinations.

  15. Consolidation of tungsten disilicide by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Ctibor, Pavel; Matějíček, Jiří; Rohan, Pavel; Janča, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 311-320 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tungsten disilicide * plasma deposition * thermal spray coatings Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  16. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  17. X-ray vision of fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays

  18. PREOPERATIVE ENDOSCOPIC MARKING OF UNPALPABLE COLONIC TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Goncharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of small colon lesions is one of the major problems in laparoscopic colonic resection.Research objective: to develop a technique of visualization of small tumors of a colon by preoperative endoscopic marking of a tumor.Materials and methods. In one day prior to operation to the patient after bowel preparation the colonoscopy is carried out. In the planned point near tumor on antimesentery edge the submucous infiltration of marking solution (Micky Sharpz blue tattoo pigment, UK is made. The volume of entered solution of 1–3 ml. In only 5 months of use of a technique preoperative marking to 14 patients with small (the size of 1–3 cm malignant tumors of the left colon is performed.Results. The tattoo mark was well visualized by during operation at 13 of 14 patients. In all cases we recorded no complications. Time of operation with preoperative marking averaged 108 min, that is significantly less in comparison with average time of operation with an intra-operative colonoscopy – 155 min (р < 0.001.Conclusions. The first experience of preoperative endoscopic marking of non palpable small tumors of a colon is encouraging. Performance of a technique wasn't accompanied by complications and allowed to reduce significantly time of operation and to simplify conditions of performance of operation.

  19. Endoscopic vs. tactile evaluation of subgingival calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Joy B; Lenton, Patricia A; Lunos, Scott A; Blue, Christine M

    2014-08-01

    Endoscopic technology has been developed to facilitate imagery for use during diagnostic and therapeutic phases of periodontal care. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of subgingival calculus detection using a periodontal endoscope with that of conventional tactile explorer in periodontitis subjects. A convenience sample of 26 subjects with moderate periodontitis in at least 2 quadrants was recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry to undergo quadrant scaling and root planing. One quadrant from each subject was randomized for tactile calculus detection alone and the other quadrant for tactile detection plus the Perioscope ™ (Perioscopy Inc., Oakland, Cali). A calculus index on a 0 to 3 score was performed at baseline and at 2 post-scaling and root planing visits. Sites where calculus was detected at visit 1 were retreated. T-tests were used to determine within-subject differences between Perioscope™ and tactile measures, and changes in measures between visits. Significantly more calculus was detected using the Perioscope™ vs. tactile explorer for all 3 subject visits (pcalculus detection from baseline to visit 1 were statistically significant for both the Perioscope™ and tactile quadrants (pcalculus detection from visit 1 to visit 2 was only significant for the Perioscope™ quadrant (pcalculus at this visit. It was concluded that the addition of a visual component to calculus detection via the Perioscope™ was most helpful in the re-evaluation phase of periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  20. [Digital imaging and robotics in endoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, P M

    1998-05-23

    The introduction of endoscopical surgery has among other things influenced technical developments in surgery. Owing to digitalisation, major progress will be made in imaging and in the sophisticated technology sometimes called robotics. Digital storage makes the results of imaging diagnostics (e.g. the results of radiological examination) suitable for transmission via video conference systems for telediagnostic purposes. The availability of digital video technique renders possible the processing, storage and retrieval of moving images as well. During endoscopical operations use may be made of a robot arm which replaces the camera man. The arm does not grow tired and provides a stable image. The surgeon himself can operate or address the arm and it can remember fixed image positions to which it can return if ordered to do so. The next step is to carry out surgical manipulations via a robot arm. This may make operations more patient-friendly. A robot arm can also have remote control: telerobotics. At the Internet site of this journal a number of supplements to this article can be found, for instance three-dimensional (3D) illustrations (which is the purpose of the 3D spectacles enclosed with this issue) and a quiz (http:@appendix.niwi. knaw.nl).

  1. [Conversional and endoscopic procedures following bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorron, R; Bothe, C; Junghans, T; Pratschke, J; Benzing, C; Krenzien, F

    2016-10-01

    The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the therapy of choice in bariatric surgery. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding are showing higher rates of treatment failure, reducing obesity-associated morbidity and body weight insufficiently. Moreover, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can occur refractory to medication. Therefore, a laparoscopic conversion to RYGB can be reasonable as long as specific conditions are fulfilled.Endoscopic procedures are currently being applied to revise bariatric procedures. Therapy failure following RYGB occurs in up to 20 % of cases. Transoral outlet reduction is the minimally invasive method of choice to reduce gastrojejunal anastomosis of the alimentary limb. The diameter of a gastric sleeve can be unwantedly enlarged as well; that can be reduced by placement of a longitudinal full-thickness suture.Severe hypoglycemic episodes can be present in patients following RYGB. Hypoglycemic episodes have to be diagnosed first and can be treated conventionally. Alternatively, a laparoscopic approach according to Branco-Zorron can be used for non-responders. Hypoglycemic episodes can thus be prevented and body weight reduction can be assured.Conversional and endoscopic procedures can be used in patients with treatment failure following bariatric surgery. Note that non-invasive approaches should have been applied intensively before a revisional procedure is performed.

  2. Non-endoscopic Mechanical Endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Etezad Razavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To circumvent the disadvantages of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy such as small rhinostomy size, high failure rate and expensive equipment, we hereby introduce a modified technique of non-endoscopic mechanical endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (NE-MEDCR. Surgery is performed under general anesthesia with local decongestion of the nasal mucosa. A 20-gauge vitrectomy light probe is introduced through the upper canaliculus until it touches the bony medial wall of the lacrimal sac. While directly viewing the transilluminated target area, a nasal speculum with a fiber optic light carrier is inserted. An incision is made vertically or in a curvilinear fashion on the nasal mucosa in the lacrimal sac down to the bone using a Freer periosteum elevator. Approximately 1 to 1.5 cm of nasal mucosa is removed with Blakesley forceps. Using a lacrimal punch, the thick bone of the frontal process of the maxilla is removed and the inferior half of the sac is uncovered. The lacrimal sac is tented into the surgical site with the light probe and its medial wall is incised using a 3.2 mm keratome and then excised using the Blakesley forceps. The procedure is completed by silicone intubation. The NE-MEDCR technique does not require expensive instrumentation and is feasible in any standard ophthalmic surgical setting.

  3. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for a Suprasellar Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenonos, Georgios A; Snyderman, Carl H; Gardner, Paul A

    2018-04-01

    Objectives  The current video presents the nuances of an endoscopic endonasal approach to a suprasellar craniopharyngioma. Design  The video analyzes the presentation, preoperative workup and imaging, surgical steps and technical nuances of the surgery, the clinical outcome, and follow-up imaging. Setting  The patient was treated by a skull base team consisting of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon, at a teaching academic institution. Participants  The case refers to a 67-year-old man who presented with vision loss and headaches, and was found to have a suprasellar mass, with imaging characteristics consistent with a craniopharyngioma. Main Outcome Measures  The main outcome measures consistent of the reversal of the patient symptoms (vision loss and headaches), the recurrence-free survival based on imaging, as well as the absence of any complications. Results  The patient's vision improved after the surgery; at his last follow-up there was no evidence of recurrence on imaging. Conclusions  The endoscopic endonasal approach is safe and effective in treating suprasellar craniopharyngiomas. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/p1VXbwnAWCo .

  4. Emphysema. Imaging for endoscopic lung volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storbeck, B.; Oldigs, M.; Rabe, K.F.; Weber, C.; University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type (''bronchitis'') on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required. In the current manuscript we will describe emphysema subtypes (centrilobular, paraseptal, panlobular), options for quantifying emphysema and this importance of regional distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous, target area) as this is crucial for patient selection. Analysis of the interlobular fissures is obligatory despite the lack of standardization, as incomplete fissures indicate collateral ventilation (CV) via parenchymal bridges, which is an important criterion in choosing endoscopic methods of LVR. Every radiologist should be familiar with modern LVR therapies such as valves and coils, and furthermore should know what a lung doctor expects from radiologic evaluation (before and after ELVR). Finally we present a checklist as a quick reference for all steps concerning imaging for ELVR.

  5. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in Previously Shunted Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Brichtova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%. There were two serious complications (4.7%—one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  6. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Usman, M.; Khan, Z.; Khan, K.M.; Hussain, R.; Khanzada, K.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the success rate of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for treating obstructive hydrocephalus. Study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The Neurosurgery Department of PGMI, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from May 2010 to November 2011. Methodology: Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, tectal and non-tectal tumour and already shunted patients for obstructive hydrocephalus presented with blocked shunt were included in the study. Patients with congenital hydrocephalus and secondary to meningitis were excluded. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed. Success, complications and mortality was noted. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17. Results: There were 155 patients including 72 males and 83 females with ratio of 1: 1.33. Success rate was 71%. Indication of surgery was obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis, posterior fossa tumour, brain stem and CP angle tumour. Complications were seen in 18 patients including mortality in 3 patients. Conclusion: ETV is effective, safe and successful procedure in patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. It may be used as replacement procedure of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt as initial line of management in selected patients. (author)

  7. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  8. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  9. Characterization of the full cone pressure swirl spray nozzles for the nuclear reactor containment spray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Manish [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); John, Benny [Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited, Mumbai (India); Iyer, K.N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Prabhu, S.V., E-mail: svprabhu@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T., Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Full cone spray pressure swirl nozzle with X-Vane is studied. • Laser illuminated imaging technique is used. • Correlations for coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle and SMD are suggested. • Droplet size and mass fraction distribution is measured. • Inviscid theory predicts the coefficient of discharge. - Abstract: The objective of the present study is to characterize a full cone pressure swirl nozzle for the Containment Spray System (CSS) of Indian Pressurized heavy Water reactors (IPHWR). The influence of Reynolds number and geometric parameters on the coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle, mass flux density distribution, droplet size distribution, Sauter mean diameter (SMD is studied for full cone pressure swirl full cone nozzles. The nozzles of orifice diameter range from 1.3 to 7.2 mm are studied. Experiments are conducted with water at room temperature as the working medium. The nozzles are operated with the pressure ranging from 1 to 8 bar. The measurements of the drop size distributions are performed with laser illuminated imaging technique. The spray cone-angle of the full cone nozzles is measured by the evaluation of images recorded with a camera using IMAGE J software. Correlations for coefficient of discharge, spray cone angle and Sauter mean diameter are suggested on the basis of the experimental results. Rosin–Rammler model and Nukiyama–Tanasawa distributions predict the mass fraction distribution reasonably well. However, the droplet size distribution is predicted by Nukiyama-Tanasawa model only.

  10. Current Innovations in Endoscopic Therapy for the Management of Colorectal Cancer: From Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection to Endoscopic Full-Thickness Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Fujihara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD is accepted as a minimally invasive treatment for colorectal cancer. However, due to technical difficulties and an increased rate of complications, ESD is not widely used in the colorectum. In some cases, endoscopic treatment alone is insufficient for disease control, and laparoscopic surgery is required. The combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection represents a new frontier in cancer treatment. Recent developments in advanced polypectomy and minimally invasive surgical techniques will enable surgeons and endoscopists to challenge current practice in colorectal cancer treatment. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR of the colon offers the potential to decrease the postoperative morbidity and mortality associated with segmental colectomy while enhancing the diagnostic yield compared to current endoscopic techniques. However, closure is necessary after EFTR and natural transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES. Innovative methods and new devices for EFTR and suturing are being developed and may potentially change traditional paradigms to achieve minimally invasive surgery for colorectal cancer. The present paper aims to discuss the complementary role of ESD and the future development of EFTR. We focus on the possibility of achieving EFTR using the ESD method and closing devices.

  11. Evaluation of two commercial and three home-made fixatives for the substitution of formalin: a formaldehyde-free laboratory is possible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Cristina; Gerbaudo, Elisa; Ercole, Elisabetta; Vendramin, Anna; Forni, Marco

    2012-09-04

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas (available as a 37% concentrated solution, stabilized with methanol). The 10% dilution (approximately 4% formaldehyde) has been used as a fixative since the end of the 19th century. Alternative fixatives are also commercially available or may be prepared in-house in laboratories. Statements by the IARC, along with other USA agencies (CalEPA, RoC/NTP) on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde for humans renders its substitution in Pathology Departments necessary since the annual use of formalin may exceed 3,500 liters for a medium-large laboratory. To achieve a "formalin-free laboratory" we tested straightforward-to-make fixatives along with registered reagents offered as formalin substitutes. More than two hundreds specimens were fixed in parallel with in-laboratory made fixatives PAGA (Polyethylenglycol, ethyl Alcohol, Glycerol, Acetic acid), two zinc-based fixatives (ZBF, Z7), and commercially-available alternatives (RCL2 and CellBlock). Tissue micro arrays were used for morphological and immunohistochemical comparison. Extraction of RNA was carried out to evaluate preservation of nucleic acids. Differences compared to formalin fixation were evident in alcohol-based fixatives, mainly restricted to higher stain affinity and considerable tissue shrinkage. Conversely, nuclear detail was superior with these alcohol-based formulas compared to formalin or glyoxale-based recipes. RNA extraction was superior for Z7, PAGA and RCL2 with regard to concentration but relatively comparable regarding quality. Abolition of the human carcinogen formaldehyde from pathology laboratories is possible even in contexts whereby commercial alternatives to formalin are unavailable or are too expensive for routine use, and aspiration devices are lacking or not adequately serviced. The use of known formulations, possibly with simple and not-noxious ("alimentary grade") constituents, comparable with registered proprietary products, may expand the search for the

  12. A study on the macroscopic spray behavior and atomization characteristics of biodiesel and dimethyl ether sprays under increased ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Park, Su Han [Graduate School of Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seoungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Chang Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this work is to investigate the spray behaviors of biodiesel and dimethyl ether (DME) fuels using image processing and atomization performance analysis of the two fuel sprays injected through a common-rail injection system under various ambient pressure conditions in a high pressure chamber. In order to observe the biodiesel and DME fuel spray behaviors under various ambient pressures, the spray images were analyzed at various times after the start of energization using a visualization system consisting of a high speed camera and two metal halide light sources. In addition, a high pressure chamber that can withstand a pressure of 4 MPa was used for adjusting the ambient pressure. From the spray images, spray characteristics such as the spray tip penetration, cone angle, area, and contour plot at various light intensity levels were analyzed using image conversion processing. Also, the local Sauter mean diameters (SMD) were measured at various axial/radial distances from the nozzle tip by a droplet measuring system to compare the atomization performances of the biodiesel and DME sprays. The results showed that the ambient pressure had a significant effect on the spray characteristics of the fuels at the various experimental conditions. The spray tip penetration and spray area decreased as the ambient pressure increased. The contour plot of the biodiesel and DME sprays showed a high light intensity level in the center regions of the sprays. In addition, it was revealed that the atomization performance of the biodiesel spray was inferior to that of the DME spray at the same injection and ambient conditions. (author)

  13. Large Eddy Simulation of the spray formation in confinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampa, A.; Fritsching, U.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Process stability of confined spray processes is affected by the geometric design of the spray confinement. • LES simulations of confined spray flow have been performed successfully. • Clustering processes of droplets is predicted in simulations and validated with experiments. • Criteria for specific coherent gas flow patterns and droplet clustering behaviour are found. -- Abstract: The particle and powder properties produced within spray drying processes are influenced by various unsteady transport phenomena in the dispersed multiphase spray flow in a confined spray chamber. In this context differently scaled spray structures in a confined spray environment have been analyzed in experiments and numerical simulations. The experimental investigations have been carried out with Particle-Image-Velocimetry to determine the velocity of the gas and the discrete phase. Large-Eddy-Simulations have been set up to predict the transient behaviour of the spray process and have given more insight into the sensitivity of the spray flow structures in dependency from the spray chamber design

  14. Fluctuations of a spray generated by an airblast atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batarseh, Feras Z.; Gnirss, Markus; Roisman, Ilia V.; Tropea, Cameron [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Chair of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics

    2009-06-15

    This paper is devoted to the study of the aerodynamic instability of the spray generated by an airblast atomizer. As a result of this instability the spray shape and its velocity fluctuate with a certain frequency, which depends on the operational parameters of the atomizer. The effect of three parameters, namely; chamber pressure, liquid phase flow rate and the gas phase flow rate on the spray fluctuating frequency are investigated. The velocity vector of the drops in the spray and the arrival times to the detection volume are measured using the laser Doppler instrument. The slotting technique is applied to the data of axial velocity and arrival times of the drops in order to estimate the dominating spray frequencies. Additionally, the shape of the spray has been observed using the high-speed video system. The frequencies of the shape fluctuations are estimated using proper orthogonal decomposition of the time-resolved images of the spray. We show that the frequencies of the spray velocity and those exhibited by spray shape coincide over a wide range of spray parameters. Finally, a simple scaling for the spray frequency is proposed and validated by the experimental data. (orig.)

  15. Clinical assessment of diode laser-assisted endoscopic intrasphenoidal vidian neurectomy in the treatment of refractory rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Sen; Cheng, Sheng-Yao; Lin, Yuan-Yung; Yang, Pei-Lin; Lin, Hung-Che; Cheng, Li-Hsiang; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Lee, Jih-Chin

    2017-12-01

    For chronic rhinitis that is refractory to medical therapy, surgical intervention such as endoscopic vidian neurectomy (VN) can be used to control the intractable symptoms. Lasers can contribute to minimizing the invasiveness of ENT surgery. The aim of this retrospective study is to compare in patients who underwent diode laser-assisted versus traditional VN in terms of operative time, surgical field, quality of life, and postoperative complications. All patients had refractory rhinitis with a poor treatment response to a 6-month trial of corticosteroid nasal sprays and underwent endoscopic VN between November 2006 and September 2015. They were non-randomly allocated into either a cold instrument group or a diode laser-assisted group. Vidian nerve was excised with a 940-nm continuous wave diode laser through a 600-μm silica optical fiber, utilizing a contact mode with the power set at 5 W. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to grade the severity of the rhinitis symptoms for quality of life assessment before the surgery and 6 months after. Of the 118 patients enrolled in the study, 75 patients underwent cold instrument VN and 43 patients underwent diode laser-assisted VN. Patients in the laser-assisted group had a significantly lower surgical field score and a lower postoperative bleeding rate than those in the cold instrument group. Changes in the VAS were significant in preoperative and postoperative nasal symptoms in each group. The application of diode lasers for vidian nerve transection showed a better surgical field and a lower incidence of postoperative hemorrhage. Recent advancements in laser application and endoscopic technique has made VN safer and more effective. We recommend this surgical approach as a reliable and effective treatment for patients with refractory rhinitis.

  16. Progesterone receptor isoform analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine mammary dysplasias and tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guil-Luna, S.; Stenvang, Jan; Brünner, Nils

    2014-01-01

    and its isoforms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from canine mammary lesions (4 dysplasias, 10 benign tumors, and 46 carcinomas) using 1-step SYBR Green quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Progesterone receptor was expressed in 75% of dysplasias, all benign...... in the expression of isoform A versus B. Analysis of progesterone receptor mRNA isoforms by RT-qPCR was successful in routinely formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples and enabled the distribution of isoforms A and B to be identified for the first time in dysplasias, benign tumors, and malignant tumors...

  17. Surgical management of failed endoscopic treatment of pancreatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kimberly A; Clark, Colby W; Vogel, Stephen B; Behrns, Kevin E

    2008-11-01

    Endoscopic therapy of acute and chronic pancreatitis has decreased the need for operative intervention. However, a significant proportion of patients treated endoscopically require definitive surgical management for persistent symptoms. Our aim was to determine which patients are likely to fail with endoscopic therapy, and to assess the clinical outcome of surgical management. Patients were identified using ICD-9 codes for pancreatic disease as well as CPT codes for endoscopic therapy followed by surgery. Patients with documented acute or chronic pancreatitis treated endoscopically prior to surgical therapy were included (N = 88). The majority of patients (65%) exhibited chronic pancreatitis due to alcohol abuse. Common indicators for surgery were: persistent symptoms, anatomy not amenable to endoscopic treatment and unresolved common bile duct or pancreatic duct strictures. Surgical salvage procedures included internal drainage of a pseudocyst or an obstructed pancreatic duct (46%), debridement of peripancreatic fluid collections (25%), and pancreatic resection (31%). Death occurred in 3% of patients. The most common complications were hemorrhage (16%), wound infection (13%), and pulmonary complications (11%). Chronic pancreatitis with persistent symptoms is the most common reason for pancreatic surgery following endoscopic therapy. Surgical salvage therapy can largely be accomplished by drainage procedures, but pancreatic resection is common. These complex procedures can be performed with acceptable mortality but also with significant risk for morbidity.

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scintigraphic, endoscopic and histologic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis. 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation. 31 refs.

  19. A Haptic Guided Robotic System for Endoscope Positioning and Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabuk, Burak; Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Tugasaygi, Mehtap; Kizir, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of using a robot for holding and maneuvering the endoscope in transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The system used in this study was a Stewart Platform based robotic system that was developed by Kocaeli University Department of Mechatronics Engineering for positioning and holding of endoscope. After the first use on an artificial head model, the system was used on six fresh postmortem bodies that were provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute (Istanbul, Turkey). The setup required for robotic system was easy, the time for registration procedure and setup of the robot takes 15 minutes. The resistance was felt on haptic arm in case of contact or friction with adjacent tissues. The adaptation process was shorter with the mouse to manipulate the endoscope. The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was achieved with the robotic system. The endoscope was guided to the sphenoid ostium with the help of the robotic arm. This robotic system can be used in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery as an endoscope positioner and holder. The robot is able to change the position easily with the help of an assistant and prevents tremor, and provides a better field of vision for work.

  20. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N.; Carvalho, Joao; Panao, Miguel R.O.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark