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Sample records for endophytic fungus piriformospora

  1. Opprimo ergo sum--evasion and suppression in the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

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    Lahrmann, Urs; Zuccaro, Alga

    2012-06-01

    The genetically tractable endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica is able to colonize the root cortex of a great variety of different plant species with beneficial effects to its hosts, and it represents a suitable model system to study symbiotic interactions. Recent cytological studies in barley and Arabidopsis showed that, upon penetration of the root, P. indica establishes a biotrophic interaction during which fungal cells are encased by the host plasma membrane. Large-scale transcriptional analyses of fungal and plant responses have shown that perturbance of plant hormone homeostasis and secretion of fungal lectins and other small proteins (effectors) may be involved in the evasion and suppression of host defenses at these early colonization steps. At later stages, P. indica is found more often in moribund host cells where it secretes a large variety of hydrolytic enzymes that degrade proteins. This strategy of colonizing plants is reminiscent of that of hemibiotrophic fungi, although a defined shift to necrotrophy with massive host cell death is missing. Instead, the association with the plant root leads to beneficial effects for the host such as growth promotion, increased resistance to root as well as leaf pathogens, and increased tolerance to abiotic stresses. This review describes current advances in understanding the components of the P. indica endophytic lifestyle from molecular and genomic analyses.

  2. Root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica affected growth, cadmium partitioning and chlorophyll fluorescence of sunflower under cadmium toxicity.

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    Shahabivand, Saleh; Parvaneh, Azar; Aliloo, Ali Asghar

    2017-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution in the soil threatens the quality of environmental health, and deleteriously affects physiological activities of crops. Symbiosis of endophytic fungi with various plants is a promising manner to improving numerous plant characteristics and remediating heavy metal-polluted soils. In this pot experiment, the influence of root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica on growth, physiological parameters and organs Cd accumulation in sunflower cv. Zaria plants under the toxic levels of Cd (0, 40, 80 and 120mg/kg soil) were studied. Increasing Cd concentration in the soil reduced growth parameters, chlorophyll (Chl) a and Chl b contents, and Fv/Fm and ETR (electron transport rate) values, but increased root, stem and leaf Cd accumulation, and proline content. The presence of P. indica significantly enhanced growth, Chl a, Chl b and proline contents, and Fv/Fm and ETR values. Compared to non-inoculated ones, P. indica-inoculated plants had higher Cd accumulation in root, whereas lower Cd accumulation in stem and leaf. The present study strongly supports the established ability of P. indica to alleviate Cd toxicity by improving the physiological status in sunflower. Furthermore, this endophyte fungus can be useful for Cd phyto-stabilization in sunflower roots in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

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    Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica. PMID:24409313

  4. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

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    Ye, Wei; Shen, Chin-Hui; Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  5. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  6. Metabolic and transcriptional response of central metabolism affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under salinity in barley.

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    Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Ghabooli, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Hajirezaei, Mohammad Reza; Schweizer, Patrick; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances plant adaptation to environmental stress based on general and non-specific plant species mechanisms. In the present study, we integrated the ionomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics data to identify the genes and metabolic regulatory networks conferring salt tolerance in P. indica-colonized barley plants. To this end, leaf samples were harvested at control (0 mM NaCl) and severe salt stress (300 mM NaCl) in P. indica-colonized and non-inoculated barley plants 4 weeks after fungal inoculation. The metabolome analysis resulted in an identification of a signature containing 14 metabolites and ions conferring tolerance to salt stress. Gene expression analysis has led to the identification of 254 differentially expressed genes at 0 mM NaCl and 391 genes at 300 mM NaCl in P. indica-colonized compared to non-inoculated samples. The integration of metabolome and transcriptome analysis indicated that the major and minor carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and ethylene biosynthesis pathway might play a role in systemic salt-tolerance in leaf tissue induced by the root-colonized fungus.

  7. The root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering, higher biomass and altered secondary metabolites of the medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii.

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    Das, Aparajita; Kamal, Shwet; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar; Varma, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of plant probiotic fungus Piriformospora indica on the medicinal plant C. forskohlii. Interaction of the C. forskohlii with the root endophyte P. indica under field conditions, results in an overall increase in aerial biomass, chlorophyll contents and phosphorus acquisition. The fungus also promoted inflorescence development, consequently the amount of p-cymene in the inflorescence increased. Growth of the root thickness was reduced in P. indica treated plants as they became fibrous, but developed more lateral roots. Because of the smaller root biomass, the content of forskolin was decreased. The symbiotic interaction of C. forskohlii with P. indica under field conditions promoted biomass production of the aerial parts of the plant including flower development. The plant aerial parts are important source of metabolites for medicinal application. Therefore we suggest that the use of the root endophyte fungus P. indica in sustainable agriculture will enhance the medicinally important chemical production.

  8. Piriformospora indica, a Cultivable Plant-Growth-Promoting Root Endophyte

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Ajit; Savita Verma; Sudha; Sahay, Nirmal; Bütehorn, Britta; Franken, Philipp

    1999-01-01

    Piriformospora indica (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycota) is a newly described cultivable endophyte that colonizes roots. Inoculation with the fungus and application of fungal culture filtrate promotes plant growth and biomass production. Due to its ease of culture, this fungus provides a model organism for the study of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and a new tool for improving plant production systems.

  9. Ethylene signalling and ethylene-targeted transcription factors are required to balance beneficial and nonbeneficial traits in the symbiosis between the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Venus, Yvonne; Bethke, Gerit; Varma, Ajit; Lee, Justin; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2010-03-01

    *The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and promotes its growth and seed production. The fungus can be cultivated in axenic culture without a host, and therefore this is an excellent system to investigate plant-fungus symbiosis. *The growth of etr1, ein2 and ein3/eil1 mutant plants was not promoted or even inhibited by the fungus; the plants produced less seeds and the roots were more colonized compared with the wild-type. This correlates with a mild activation of defence responses. The overexpression of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 constitutively activated defence responses, strongly reduced root colonization and abolished the benefits for the plants. *Piriformospora indica-mediated stimulation of growth and seed yield was not affected by jasmonic acid, and jasmonic acid-responsive promoter beta-glucuronidase gene constructs did not respond to the fungus in Arabidopsis roots. *We propose that ethylene signalling components and ethylene-targeted transcription factors are required to balance beneficial and nonbeneficial traits in the symbiosis. The results show that the restriction of fungal growth by ethylene signalling components is required for the beneficial interaction between the two symbionts.

  10. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis

    2017-07-13

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na+/K+ ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na+ and K+ homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na+/K+ ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na+ and K+ ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na+/K+ under salt stress conditions.

  11. Maize water status and physiological traits as affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

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    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger; Sepehri, Mozhgan

    2018-02-16

    Under combined drought and mechanical stresses, mechanical stress primarily controlled physiological responses of maize. Piriformospora indica mitigated the adverse effects of stresses, and inoculated maize experienced less oxidative damage and had better adaptation to stressful conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maize root colonization by an endophytic fungus P. indica on plant water status, physiological traits and root morphology under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Seedlings of inoculated and non-inoculated maize (Zea mays L., cv. single cross 704) were cultivated in growth chambers filled with moistened siliceous sand at a matric suction of 20 hPa. Drought stress was induced using PEG 6000 solution with osmotic potentials of 0, - 0.3 and - 0.5 MPa. Mechanical stress (i.e., penetration resistances of 1.05, 4.23 and 6.34 MPa) was exerted by placing weights on the surface of the sand medium. After 30 days, leaf water potential (LWP) and relative water content (RWC), root and shoot fresh weights, root volume (RV) and diameter (RD), leaf proline content, leaf area (LA) and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were measured. The results show that exposure to individual drought and mechanical stresses led to higher RD and proline content and lower plant biomass, RV and LA. Moreover, increasing drought and mechanical stress severity increased APX activity by about 1.9- and 3.1-fold compared with the control. When plants were exposed to combined stresses, mechanical stress played the dominant role in controlling plant responses. P. indica-inoculated plants are better adapted to individual and combined stresses. The inoculated plants had greater RV, LA, RWC, LWP and proline content under stressful conditions. In comparison with non-inoculated plants, inoculated plants showed lower CAT and APX activities which means that they experienced less oxidative stress induced by stressful conditions.

  12. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress conditions.

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    Abdelaziz, Mohamed E; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-10-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na+/K+ ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na+ and K+ homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na+/K+ ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na+ and K+ ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na+/K+ under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A phosphate transporter from the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica plays a role in phosphate transport to the host plant.

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    Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Manoj; Deep, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Ruby; Tripathi, Takshashila; Tuteja, Narendra; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2010-08-20

    Because pure cultures and a stable transformation system are not available for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, the role of their phosphate transporters for the symbiotic interaction with the plant up till now could not be studied. Here we report the cloning and the functional analysis of a gene encoding a phosphate transporter (PiPT) from the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica, which can be grown axenically. The PiPT polypeptide belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Homology modeling reveals that PiPT exhibits twelve transmembrane helices divided into two halves connected by a large hydrophilic loop in the middle. The function of the protein encoded by PiPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transporter mutant. The kinetic analysis of PiPT (K(m) 25 mum) reveals that it belongs to the high affinity phosphate transporter family (Pht1). Expression of PiPT was localized to the external hyphae of P. indica colonized with maize plant root, which suggests that external hyphae are the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil. To understand the physiological role of PiPT, knockdown transformants of the gene were prepared using electroporation and RNA interference. Knockdown transformants transported a significantly lower amount of phosphate to the host plant than wild-type P. indica. Higher amounts of phosphate were found in plants colonized with wild-type P. indica than that of non-colonized and plants colonized with knockdown PiPT P. indica. These observations suggest that PiPT is actively involved in the phosphate transportation and, in turn, P. indica helps improve the nutritional status of the host plant.

  14. An evaluation of the impact of the endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica on some traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. in drought stress

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    M. Ghabouli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial endophytes, which make one of the most important classes of soil microorganisms, induce genetic, physiological and ecological alterations in their host plant and thus increase its yield and enable its cultivation in saline or dry soils or in climates facing biotic and abiotic stresses. The endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica exhibits a high effect in plant growth and increased resistance against environmental tensions like drought and salinity, as well as against phytopathogens. This work was intended to study the potential of P. indica in enhancing growth and elevating drought resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. during 2010. A greenhouse trial of completely randomized design with two fungal treatments (inoculated vs. non-inoculated and three drought levels (F.C., 50% F.C. and 25% F.C. with four repeats was conducted in greenhouse of Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute (Isfahan. The results indicate that the fungus P. indica has accompanied biomass increments of both shoot and root parts in the inoculated plant compared to the control, as in inoculated plant, total shoot dry weight and root dry weight were increased by 39 and 46 percent, respectively. Also, in stress conditions RWC in inoculated plant was greater. In addition to the growth increasing activity, the effective role of the fungus in enhancing barley growth and yield under drought conditions (especially at the 25% F.C. level is evident. According to the results, and to the fact that the fungus can be cultured on artificial (host-plant-free growth medium, this fungus can be contemplated as making a growth stimulating agent and in producing biological fertilizer for use in crops; and it might take a significant role toward a sustainable agriculture. The application of this fungus can also be beneficial in increasing growth and production of crops such as barley and wheat under the dry conditions widely encountered in Iran.

  15. PiHOG1, a stress regulator MAP kinase from the root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica, confers salinity stress tolerance in rice plants

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    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Verma, Nidhi; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Nevo, Eviatar; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, yeast HOG1 homologue from the root endophyte Piriformospora indica (PiHOG1) was isolated and functionally characterized. Functional expression of PiHOG1 in S. cerevisiae ∆hog1 mutant restored osmotolerance under high osmotic stress. Knockdown (KD) transformants of PiHOG1 generated by RNA interference in P. indica showed that genes for the HOG pathway, osmoresponse and salinity tolerance were less stimulated in KD-PiHOG1 compared to the wild-type under salinity stress. Furthermore, KD lines are impaired in the colonization of rice roots under salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl, and the biomass of the host plants, their shoot and root lengths, root number, photosynthetic pigment and proline contents were reduced as compared to rice plants colonized by WT P. indica. Therefore, PiHOG1 is critical for root colonisation, salinity tolerance and the performance of the host plant under salinity stress. Moreover, downregulation of PiHOG1 resulted not only in reduced and delayed phosphorylation of the remaining PiHOG1 protein in colonized salinity-stressed rice roots, but also in the downregulation of the upstream MAP kinase genes PiPBS2 and PiSSK2 involved in salinity tolerance signalling in the fungus. Our data demonstrate that PiHOG1 is not only involved in the salinity response of P. indica, but also helping host plant to overcome salinity stress. PMID:27849025

  16. Effect of formulated root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria fluorescent pseudomonads R62 and R81 on Vigna mungo.

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    Kumar, Vinod; Sarma, M V R K; Saharan, Krishna; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Lalit; Sahai, Vikram; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, A K

    2012-02-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of three beneficial organisms (root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and pseudomonads strains R62 and R81) and their four different consortia (Pi+R62, Pi+R81, R62+R81, Pi+R62+R81) was investigated on the plant Vigna mungo through their inorganic carrier-based (talcum powder and vermiculite) formulations. All the treatments resulted in significant increase in growth parameters under glasshouse as well as field conditions and showed a consistency in their performance on moving from glasshouse to field conditions. In glasshouse conditions, a maximum increase of 4.5-fold in dry root weight and 3.9-fold in dry shoot weight compared to control was obtained with vermiculite-based consortium formulation of Pi+R81. In field studies using vermiculite as carrier, a maximum enhancement of 3.2-fold in dry root weight, 3.0-fold in dry shoot weight, 8.4-fold in number of nodules and 4.0-fold in number of pods in comparison to control was obtained with the bio-inoculant formulation containing consortium of Pi+R81. The same treatment also caused the highest improvement of 1.9-fold in nitrogen content and 1.7-fold in phosphorus content, while the highest increase of 1.4-fold in potassium content was obtained with Pi alone.

  17. PiHOG1, a stress regulator MAP kinase from the root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica, confers salinity stress tolerance in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Verma, Nidhi; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Nevo, Eviatar; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2016-11-16

    In this study, yeast HOG1 homologue from the root endophyte Piriformospora indica (PiHOG1) was isolated and functionally characterized. Functional expression of PiHOG1 in S. cerevisiae ∆hog1 mutant restored osmotolerance under high osmotic stress. Knockdown (KD) transformants of PiHOG1 generated by RNA interference in P. indica showed that genes for the HOG pathway, osmoresponse and salinity tolerance were less stimulated in KD-PiHOG1 compared to the wild-type under salinity stress. Furthermore, KD lines are impaired in the colonization of rice roots under salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl, and the biomass of the host plants, their shoot and root lengths, root number, photosynthetic pigment and proline contents were reduced as compared to rice plants colonized by WT P. indica. Therefore, PiHOG1 is critical for root colonisation, salinity tolerance and the performance of the host plant under salinity stress. Moreover, downregulation of PiHOG1 resulted not only in reduced and delayed phosphorylation of the remaining PiHOG1 protein in colonized salinity-stressed rice roots, but also in the downregulation of the upstream MAP kinase genes PiPBS2 and PiSSK2 involved in salinity tolerance signalling in the fungus. Our data demonstrate that PiHOG1 is not only involved in the salinity response of P. indica, but also helping host plant to overcome salinity stress.

  18. A leucine-rich repeat protein is required for growth promotion and enhanced seed production mediated by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Shahollari, Bationa; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2007-04-01

    Piriformospora indica, a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, promotes the growth, development and seed production of a variety of plant species. Arabidopsis plants colonized with the fungus produce 22% more seeds than uncolonized plants. Deactivating the Arabidopsis single-copy gene DMI-1, which encodes an ion carrier required for mycorrihiza formation in legumes, does not affect the beneficial interaction between the two symbiotic partners. We used cellular and molecular responses initiated during the establishment of the interaction between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots to isolate mutants that fail to respond to the fungus. An ethylmethane sulfonate mutant (Piriformospora indica-insensitive-2; pii-2), and a corresponding insertion line, are impaired in a leucine-rich repeat protein (At1g13230). The protein pii-2, which contains a putative endoplasmic reticulum retention signal, is also found in Triton X-100-insoluble plasma membrane microdomains, suggesting that it is present in the endoplasmic reticulum/plasma membrane continuum in Arabidopsis roots. The microdomains also contain an atypical receptor protein (At5g16590) containing leucine-rich repeats, the message of which is transiently upregulated in Arabidopsis roots in response to P. indica. This response is not detectable in At1g13230 mutants, and the protein is not detectable in the At1g13230 mutant microdomains. Partial deactivation of a gene for a sphingosine kinase, which is required for the biosynthesis of sphingolipid found in plasma membrane microdomains, also affects the Arabidopsis/P. indica interaction. Thus, pii-2, and presumably also At5g16590, two proteins present in plasma membrane microdomains, appear to be involved in P. indica-induced growth promotion and enhanced seed production in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  19. A cell wall extract from the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes growth of Arabidopsis seedlings and induces intracellular calcium elevation in roots.

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    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ranf, Stefanie; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Mithöfer, Axel; Mazars, Christian; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2009-07-01

    Calcium (Ca2+), as a second messenger, is crucial for signal transduction processes during many biotic interactions. We demonstrate that cellular [Ca2+] elevations are early events in the interaction between the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis thaliana. A cell wall extract (CWE) from the fungus promotes the growth of wild-type seedlings but not of seedlings from P. indica-insensitive mutants. The extract and the fungus also induce a similar set of genes in Arabidopsis roots, among them genes with Ca2+ signalling-related functions. The CWE induces a transient cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+](cyt)) elevation in the roots of Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, as well as in BY-2 suspension cultures expressing the Ca2+ bioluminescent indicator aequorin. Nuclear Ca2+ transients were also observed in tobacco BY-2 cells. The Ca2+ response was more pronounced in roots than in shoots and involved Ca2+ uptake from the extracellular space as revealed by inhibitor studies. Inhibition of the Ca2+ response by staurosporine and the refractory nature of the Ca2+ elevation suggest that a receptor may be involved. The CWE does not stimulate H2O2 production and the activation of defence gene expression, although it led to phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The involvement of MAPK6 in the mutualistic interaction was shown for an mpk6 line, which did not respond to P. indica. Thus, Ca2+ is likely to be an early signalling component in the mutualistic interaction between P. indica and Arabidopsis or tobacco.

  20. The plant strengthening root endophyte Piriformospora indica: potential application and the biology behind.

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    Franken, P

    2012-12-01

    The successful conversion of plant production systems from conventional resource-exhausting to sustainable strategies depends on knowledge-based management of environmental factors. Root-inhabiting fungi came more and more into focus because their hyphae connect in ideal manner resources and challenges of the surrounding with the plant. A paradigm for such root endophytes is presented by the basidiomycete Piriformospora indica. This fungus possesses a broad host spectrum and positively affects different aspects of plant performance. This so far unique combination of attributes makes P. indica and its close relatives among the Sebacinales very interesting tools for cultivation of various crops. This review will outline the different aspects required to apply this root endophyte in agri- and horticulture concerning plant growth, plant nutrition and plant defence or tolerance thereby explaining what is known about the biological basis for the observed effects. Open questions and challenges for successful inoculum production and application will be discussed.

  1. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

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    Maryam eRafiqi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging systems in plant-microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.

  2. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus.

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    Rafiqi, Maryam; Jelonek, Lukas; Akum, Ndifor F; Zhang, Feng; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging systems in plant-microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.

  3. Endophytic Fungi Piriformospora indica Mediated Protection of Host from Arsenic Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Shayan; Shukla, Jagriti; Kushwaha, Aparna S.; Mandrah, Kapil; Shankar, Jai; Arjaria, Nidhi; Saxena, Prem N.; Narayan, Ram; Roy, Somendu K.; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Complex intercellular interaction is a common theme in plant-pathogen/symbiont relationship. Cellular physiology of both the partners is affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known about the degree of protection each offers to the other from different types of environmental stress. Our current study focused on the changes in response to toxic arsenic in the presence of an endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica that colonizes the paddy roots. The primary impact of arsenic was observed in the form of hyper-colonization of fungus in the host root and resulted in the recovery of its overall biomass, root damage, and chlorophyll due to arsenic toxicity. Further, fungal colonization leads to balance the redox status of the cell by adjusting the antioxidative enzyme system which in turn protects photosynthetic machinery of the plant from arsenic stress. We observed that fungus has ability to immobilize soluble arsenic and interestingly, it was also observed that fungal colonization restricts most of arsenic in the colonized root while a small fraction of it translocated to shoot of colonized plants. Our study suggests that P. indica protects the paddy (Oryza sativa) from arsenic toxicity by three different mechanisms viz. reducing the availability of free arsenic in the plant environment, bio-transformation of the toxic arsenic salts into insoluble particulate matter and modulating the antioxidative system of the host cell. PMID:28539916

  4. Endophytic Fungi Piriformospora indica Mediated Protection of Host from Arsenic Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Shayan; Shukla, Jagriti; Kushwaha, Aparna S; Mandrah, Kapil; Shankar, Jai; Arjaria, Nidhi; Saxena, Prem N; Narayan, Ram; Roy, Somendu K; Kumar, Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Complex intercellular interaction is a common theme in plant-pathogen/symbiont relationship. Cellular physiology of both the partners is affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known about the degree of protection each offers to the other from different types of environmental stress. Our current study focused on the changes in response to toxic arsenic in the presence of an endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica that colonizes the paddy roots. The primary impact of arsenic was observed in the form of hyper-colonization of fungus in the host root and resulted in the recovery of its overall biomass, root damage, and chlorophyll due to arsenic toxicity. Further, fungal colonization leads to balance the redox status of the cell by adjusting the antioxidative enzyme system which in turn protects photosynthetic machinery of the plant from arsenic stress. We observed that fungus has ability to immobilize soluble arsenic and interestingly, it was also observed that fungal colonization restricts most of arsenic in the colonized root while a small fraction of it translocated to shoot of colonized plants. Our study suggests that P. indica protects the paddy (Oryza sativa) from arsenic toxicity by three different mechanisms viz. reducing the availability of free arsenic in the plant environment, bio-transformation of the toxic arsenic salts into insoluble particulate matter and modulating the antioxidative system of the host cell.

  5. Functional characterization of a hexose transporter from root endophyte Piriformospora indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mamta Rani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of photosynthate transfer at symbiotic interface by fungal monosaccharide transporter is of substantial importance. The carbohydrate uptake at the apoplast by the fungus is facilitated by PiHXT5 hexose transporter in root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The putative PiHXT5 belongs to MFS superfamily with twelve predicted transmembrane helices. It possesses sugar transporter PFAM motif (PF0083 and MFS superfamily domain (PS50850. It contains the signature tags related to glucose transporter GLUT1 of human erythrocyte. PiHXT5 is regulated in response to mutualism as well as glucose concentration. We have functionally characterized PiHXT5 by complementation of hxt-null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000. It is involved in transport of multiple sugars ranging from D-glucose, D-fructose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-galactose with decreasing affinity. The uncoupling experiments indicate that it functions as H+/glucose co-transporter. Further, pH dependence analysis suggests that it functions maximum between pH 5 to 6. The expression of PiHXT5 is dependent on glucose concentration and was found to be expressed at low glucose levels (1 mM which indicate its role as a high affinity glucose transporter. Our study on this sugar transporter will help in better understanding of carbon metabolism and flow in this agro-friendly fungus.

  6. Endophytic Fungi Piriformospora indica Mediated Protection of Host from Arsenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayan Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Complex intercellular interaction is a common theme in plant-pathogen/symbiont relationship. Cellular physiology of both the partners is affected by abiotic stress. However, little is known about the degree of protection each offers to the other from different types of environmental stress. Our current study focused on the changes in response to toxic arsenic in the presence of an endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica that colonizes the paddy roots. The primary impact of arsenic was observed in the form of hyper-colonization of fungus in the host root and resulted in the recovery of its overall biomass, root damage, and chlorophyll due to arsenic toxicity. Further, fungal colonization leads to balance the redox status of the cell by adjusting the antioxidative enzyme system which in turn protects photosynthetic machinery of the plant from arsenic stress. We observed that fungus has ability to immobilize soluble arsenic and interestingly, it was also observed that fungal colonization restricts most of arsenic in the colonized root while a small fraction of it translocated to shoot of colonized plants. Our study suggests that P. indica protects the paddy (Oryza sativa from arsenic toxicity by three different mechanisms viz. reducing the availability of free arsenic in the plant environment, bio-transformation of the toxic arsenic salts into insoluble particulate matter and modulating the antioxidative system of the host cell.

  7. Functional Characterization of a Hexose Transporter from Root Endophyte Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Mamta; Raj, Sumit; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Johri, Atul K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of photosynthate transfer at symbiotic interface by fungal monosaccharide transporter is of substantial importance. The carbohydrate uptake at the apoplast by the fungus is facilitated by PiHXT5 hexose transporter in root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The putative PiHXT5 belongs to MFS superfamily with 12 predicted transmembrane helices. It possess sugar transporter PFAM motif (PF0083) and MFS superfamily domain (PS50850). It contains the signature tags related to glucose transporter GLUT1 of human erythrocyte. PiHXT5 is regulated in response to mutualism as well as glucose concentration. We have functionally characterized PiHXT5 by complementation of hxt-null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000. It is involved in transport of multiple sugars ranging from D-glucose, D-fructose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-galactose with decreasing affinity. The uncoupling experiments indicate that it functions as H(+)/glucose co-transporter. Further, pH dependence analysis suggests that it functions maximum between pH 5 and 6. The expression of PiHXT5 is dependent on glucose concentration and was found to be expressed at low glucose levels (1 mM) which indicate its role as a high affinity glucose transporter. Our study on this sugar transporter will help in better understanding of carbon metabolism and flow in this agro-friendly fungus.

  8. A endophytic fungus, Ramichloridium cerophilum , promotes growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fungal endophyte, Ramichloridium cerophilum, was identified as a Class 2 endophytes species obtained from the leaf of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L). This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized Chinese cabbage ...

  9. Plant growth-promoting endophyte Piriformospora indica alleviates salinity stress in Medicago truncatula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Li, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhu, Pengyue; Wu, Hongqing; Qi, Shuting

    2017-10-01

    Piriformospora indica, a cultivable root endophytic fungus, induces growth promotion as well as biotic stress resistance and tolerance to abiotic stress in a broad range of host plants. In this study, the potential protection for M Medicago truncatula plants from salinity stress by P. indica was explored. The improved plant growth under severe saline condition was exhibited in P. indica-colonized lines. Moreover, the antioxidant enzymes activities and hyphae density in roots were increased by the endophyte under high salt concentration. Conversely, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) activity, Na + content and relative electrolyte conductivity (REC) were observed in P. indica colonized plants. Especially, osmoprotectant proline accumulated and the expression of Delta 1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase gene (P5CS2) was induced. The defense related genes PR1 and PR10 and the transcription factors MtAlfin1-like and C2H2-type zinc finger protein MtZfp-c2h2 were induced by P. indica colonization as well. Further work indicated that salinity resistance was increased in overexpressing P5CS2, MtAlfin1-like and MtZfp-c2h2 transgenic M. truncatula plants. Interestingly, our data showed that the transcription factors MtAlfin1-like and MtZfp-c2h2 were positively contributed to P. indica colonization. These results demonstrate that tolerance to salinity stress was conferred by P. indica in M. truncatula via accumulation of osmoprotectant, stimulating antioxidant enzymes and the expression of defense-related genes. This work revealed the potential application of P. indica's as a plant growth-promoting fungus for the target improvement either in crop protection or in the salinized soil improvement indirectly. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. A endophytic fungus, Ramichloridium cerophilum, promotes growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... Key words: Ramichloridium cerophilum, endophytic fungus, Chinese cabbage, plant growth promoting. INTRODUCTION. The mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and fungi is common and most plant species are dependent on this symbiosis for improving the productivity and sustainability, including ...

  11. The beneficial fungus Piriformospora indica protects Arabidopsis from Verticillium dahliae infection by downregulation plant defense responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Shao, Yongqi; Vahabi, Khabat; Lu, Jing; Bhattacharya, Samik; Dong, Sheqin; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Sherameti, Irena; Lou, Binggan; Baldwin, Ian T; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-10-09

    Verticillium dahliae (Vd) is a soil-borne vascular pathogen which causes severe wilt symptoms in a wide range of plants. The microsclerotia produced by the pathogen survive in soil for more than 15 years. Here we demonstrate that an exudate preparation induces cytoplasmic calcium elevation in Arabidopsis roots, and the disease development requires the ethylene-activated transcription factor EIN3. Furthermore, the beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) significantly reduced Vd-mediated disease development in Arabidopsis. Pi inhibited the growth of Vd in a dual culture on PDA agar plates and pretreatment of Arabidopsis roots with Pi protected plants from Vd infection. The Pi-pretreated plants grew better after Vd infection and the production of Vd microsclerotia was dramatically reduced, all without activating stress hormones and defense genes in the host. We conclude that Pi is an efficient biocontrol agent that protects Arabidopsis from Vd infection. Our data demonstrate that Vd growth is restricted in the presence of Pi and the additional signals from Pi must participate in the regulation of the immune response against Vd.

  12. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Rafiqi, Maryam; Jelonek, Lukas; Akum, Ndifor F.; Zhang, Feng; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging systems in plant–microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of...

  13. Antimicrobial constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fraction of the fungus Fusarium sp. and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: Six compounds were purified from an fraction of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. using column chromatography and their structures have been confirmed based on 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, 2D COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation experiments. The six isolated compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Results: Phytochemical investigation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. lead to the isolation and identification of the following compounds viz., colletorin B, colletochlorin B, LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B, 4,5-dihydroascochlorin, ascochlorin, and 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin. Colletorin B and colletochlorin B displayed moderate herbicidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities towards Chlorella fusca, Ustilago violacea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Bacillus megaterium. On the other hand LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B showed moderate antifungal activity towards Ustilago violacea and Fusarium oxysporum while 4,5-dihydroascochlorin showed strong antibacterial activity towards Bacillus megaterium. Furthermore, 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin showed very strong antifungal activity towards Eurotium repens. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities demonstrated by five of the six isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that these fungi extracts and active compounds present a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    OpenAIRE

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling compo...

  15. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2017-06-28

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  16. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongjin; Abdelaziz, Mohamad E; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-09-02

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-density spore production of Piriformospora indica, a plant growth-promoting endophyte, by optimization of nutritional and cultural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Sahai, Vikram; Bisaria, V S

    2011-02-01

    Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable root endophytic fungus which exerts plant growth promoting effects on its host plants. To enable commercial production of its spores, the medium composition and culture conditions have been optimized in a 14 L bioreactor such that they result in maximum biomass during growth phase and in maximum spore yield during subsequent sporulation phase. Maximum spore yields were obtained with modified Kaefer medium using a glucose deprivation strategy. An enhancement of 100% in overall biomass productivity (0.18 g L(-1) h(-1)) and reduction of about 70% in the time (60 h) required to achieve the maximum spore yield (9.25×10(7) spores/mL) was achieved in comparison to the original Kaefer medium. The high spore yield obtained in the present study seems to be economical for commercial production of P. indica. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction of Mycobiont: Piriformospora Indica with Medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endophytic symbiotic fungus, Piriformospora indica isolated from desert soils of Rajasthan, India promotes growth as well as important ingredients of the medicinal as well as economically important plants by forming association with roots of various plants and it has been established as biofertilizer, bioprotector, ...

  19. Effect of the Extract of Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica CL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of extract on ultrastructure of MRSA and K. pneumoniae cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results: The time-kill ... pneumonia cells. Keywords: Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica, Antimicrobial activity, Cellular structure degeneration ...

  20. Proteomic analysis of the endophytic fungus Undifilum oxytropis | Li ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The filamentous Ascomycete fungus Undifilum oxytropis is an endophyte of locoweed plants of the genera Oxytropis that produces a toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine, an alpha-mannosidase inhibitor causes a general toxicosis and neurological problems (locoism) when consumed by grazing animals. Swainsonine ...

  1. Fungal endophytes – the hidden inducers of volatile terpene biosynthesis in tomato plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntana, Fani; Jensen, Birgit; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    Endophytes comprise a polyphyletic and diverse group of microorganisms that colonize plant tissues and do not cause any immediate infection symptoms. Revealing the mechanisms of plant-endophyte mutualistic interactions has attracted considerable attention lately, mainly due to their multiple...... benefits on plant growth and fitness, but also due to the need for alternative and more sustainable agricultural solutions. Serendipita indica (syn. Piriformospora indica) is an endophytic fungus with several promising agricultural and biotechnological applications. The fungus, originally isolated from...

  2. Ethylene Supports Colonization of Plant Roots by the Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica. PMID:22536394

  3. Ethylene supports colonization of plant roots by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatabi, Behnam; Molitor, Alexandra; Lindermayr, Christian; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Durner, Jörg; von Wettstein, Diter; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica.

  4. Ethylene supports colonization of plant roots by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Khatabi

    Full Text Available The mutualistic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and thereby improves plant health and yield. Given the capability of P. indica to colonize a broad range of hosts, it must be anticipated that the fungus has evolved efficient strategies to overcome plant immunity and to establish a proper environment for nutrient acquisition and reproduction. Global gene expression studies in barley identified various ethylene synthesis and signaling components that were differentially regulated in P. indica-colonized roots. Based on these findings we examined the impact of ethylene in the symbiotic association. The data presented here suggest that P. indica induces ethylene synthesis in barley and Arabidopsis roots during colonization. Moreover, impaired ethylene signaling resulted in reduced root colonization, Arabidopsis mutants exhibiting constitutive ethylene signaling, -synthesis or ethylene-related defense were hyper-susceptible to P. indica. Our data suggest that ethylene signaling is required for symbiotic root colonization by P. indica.

  5. Effect of the fungus Piriformospora indica on physiological characteristics and root morphology of wheat under combined drought and mechanical stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Mosaddeghi, Mohammad Reza; Dexter, Anthony Roger

    2017-09-01

    This study was done to evaluate the effects of the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on wheat growth under combined drought and mechanical stresses. Inoculated (colonized) and non-inoculated (uncolonized) wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chamran) seedlings were planted in growth chambers filled with moist sand (at a matric suction of 20 hPa). Slight, moderate and severe mechanical stresses (i.e., penetration resistance, Qp, of 1.17, 4.17 and 5.96 MPa, respectively) were produced by a dead-load technique (i.e., placing a weight on the sand surface) in the root medium. Slight, moderate and severe drought stresses were induced using PEG 6000 solutions with osmotic potentials of 0, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa, respectively. After 30 days, plant physiological characteristics and root morphology were measured. An increase in Qp from 1.17 to 5.96 MPa led to greater leaf proline concentration and root diameter, and lower relative water content (RWC), leaf water potential (LWP), chlorophyll contents and root volume. Moreover, severe drought stress decreased root and shoot fresh weights, root volume, leaf area, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll content compared to control. Catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities under severe drought stress were about 1.5 and 2.9 times greater than control. Interaction of the stresses showed that mechanical stress primarily controls plant water status and physiological responses. However, endophyte presence mitigated the adverse effects of individual and combined stresses on plant growth. Colonized plants were better adapted and had greater root length and volume, RWC, LWP and chlorophyll contents under stressful conditions due to higher absorption sites for water and nutrients. Compared with uncolonized plants, colonized plants showed lower CAT activity implying that wheat inoculated with P. indica was more tolerant and experienced less oxidative damage induced by drought and/or mechanical stress. Copyright © 2017

  6. The interaction of Arabidopsis with Piriformospora indica shifts from initial transient stress induced by fungus-released chemical mediators to a mutualistic interaction after physical contact of the two symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Reichelt, Michael; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-02-21

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana. The symbiotic interaction promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. We demonstrate that exudated compounds from the fungus activate stress and defense responses in the Arabidopsis roots and shoots before the two partners are in physical contact. They induce stomata closure, stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, stress-related phytohormone accumulation and activate defense and stress genes in the roots and/or shoots. Once a physical contact is established, the stomata re-open, ROS and phytohormone levels decline, and the number and expression level of defense/stress-related genes decreases. We propose that exudated compounds from P. indica induce stress and defense responses in the host. Root colonization results in the down-regulation of defense responses and the activation of genes involved in promoting plant growth, metabolism and performance.

  7. Interaction of copper nanoparticles and an endophytic growth promoter Piriformospora indica with Cajanus cajan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Jyoti; Bawaskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Agarkar, Gauravi; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, agro-bionanotechnology has paved the way towards revolutionizing current practices in the food and agricultural fields. In the present study, the effect of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) alone and in combination with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica on 2-week-old seedlings of Cajanus cajan was evaluated. Gelatin-coated stable CuNPs were synthesized by the chemical reduction method using hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent. CuNPs were characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, zeta potential measurement and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were found to be quite spherical with a diameter within the range 40 ± 10 nm. After the application of CuNPs and P. indica to the host plant C. cajan, the vitality of plants was determined using a Handy-PEA (plant efficiency analyzer) instrument. Handy-PEA analysis (which measures chlorophyll a fluorescence) indicated that seedlings inoculated with a combination of CuNPs and P. indica were the healthiest and also showed maximum vitality as compared to seedlings inoculated with CuNPs or P. indica alone. These results suggest that CuNPs in combination with P. indica can serve as a nanobiofertilizer for enhancement of the growth and productivity of C. cajan. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camehl, I.; Drzewiecki, C.; Vadassery, J.; Shahollari, B.; Sherameti, I.; Forzani, C.; Munnik, T.; Hirt, H.; Oelmüller, R.

    2011-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen

  9. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from medicinal honeysuckle plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang Huiru; Sun Xinchen; Xu Chunping

    2016-01-01

    .... An endophytic fungus was isolated from honeysuckle, an important Chinese medicinal plant. The phylogenetic and physiological characterization indicated that the isolated strain JY2corresponded to Fusarium sp...

  10. New chlamydosporol derivatives from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Ming; Dong, Wen-Bin; Li, Zheng-Hui; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Two new chlamydosporol derivatives, fusarilactone A (1) and fusarilactone B (2), together with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from the crude extract of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #001. The structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 showed mild cytotoxicities against three tumor cell lines (SMMC-7721, A-549, and MCF-7).

  11. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. HSPRO controls early Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth during interaction with the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1(pro)(-)(1)) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica.

  13. Cytochalasins from cultures of endophytic fungus Phoma multirostrata EA-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-ming; Chen, He-Ping; Li, Yan; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new cytochalsians, multirostratin A (1) and 20-oxo-deoxaphomin (2), together with five known analogues (3-7), were obtained from the endophytic fungus Phoma multirostrata EA-12. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data analyses, as well as by comparison of data with those of analogues reported in the literature. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7 and SW-480).

  14. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  15. Development of carrier-based formulation of root endophyte Piriformospora indica and its evaluation on Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Swati; Das, Aparajita; Chandra, Anil; Varma, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Endophytic fungi are plant beneficial rhizospheric microorganisms often applied as bioinoculants for enhanced and disease-free crop production. The objectives of the present work were to develop a carrier-based formulation of root endophyte Piriformospora indica as a bioinoculant. Powder formulation of four different carrier materials viz., talcum powder, clay, sawdust and bioboost (organic supplement) were evaluated and a talc-based formulation was optimized for a longer shelf life with respect to microbial concentration, storage temperature and biological activity. Finally the effect of optimized talc formulation on plant productivity was determined. The application dosages were optimized by studies on plant growth parameters of Phaseolus vulgaris L. plants under green house conditions. Five percent formulation (w/w) of talcum powder was observed to be the most stable at 30 °C with 10(8) CFU g(-1) and effective for a storage period of 6 months. The application of this optimized formulation resulted in increase of growth parameters of P. vulgaris L. and better adaptation of plants under green house conditions.

  16. Indole-3-acetaldoxime-derived compounds restrict root colonization in the beneficial interaction between Arabidopsis roots and the endophyte Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongbri, Pyniarlang L; Johnson, Joy Michal; Sherameti, Irena; Glawischnig, Erich; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    The growth-promoting and root-colonizing endophyte Piriformospora indica induces camalexin and the expression of CYP79B2, CYP79B3, CYP71A13, PAD3, and WRKY33 required for the synthesis of indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx)-derived compounds in the roots of Arabidopsis seedlings. Upregulation of the mRNA levels by P. indica requires cytoplasmic calcium elevation and mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 but not root-hair-deficient 2, radical oxygen production, or the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1/oxidative signal-inducible 1 pathway. Because P. indica-mediated growth promotion is impaired in cyp79B2 cyp79B3 seedlings, while pad3 seedlings-which do not accumulate camalexin-still respond to the fungus, IAOx-derived compounds other than camalexin (e.g., indole glucosinolates) are required during early phases of the beneficial interaction. The roots of cyp79B2 cyp79B3 seedlings are more colonized than wild-type roots, and upregulation of the defense genes pathogenesis-related (PR)-1, PR-3, PDF1.2, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and germin indicates that the mutant responds to the lack of IAOx-derived compounds by activating other defense processes. After 6 weeks on soil, defense genes are no longer upregulated in wild-type, cyp79B2 cyp79B3, and pad3 roots. This results in uncontrolled fungal growth in the mutant roots and reduced performance of the mutants. We propose that a long-term harmony between the two symbionts requires restriction of root colonization by IAOx-derived compounds.

  17. Isolation and characterization of antibacterial compound from a mangrove-endophytic fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.; De

    secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms, an antibiotic compound containing an indole and a diketopiperazine moiety was isolated from the culture medium of Penicillium chrysogenum, (MTCC 5108), an endophytic fungus on the mangrove plant Porteresia...

  18. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  19. Piriformospora indica Reprograms Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Phosphate Metabolism Mutants But Does Not Compensate for Phosphate Limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Sherameti, Irena; Meichsner, Doreen; Thürich, Johannes; Varma, Ajit; Johri, Atul K.; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus of Sebacinaceae which colonizes the roots of many plant species and confers benefits to the hosts. We demonstrate that approximately 75% of the genes, which respond to P. indica in Arabidopsis roots, differ among seedlings grown on normal phosphate (Pi) or Pi limitation conditions, and among wild-type and the wrky6 mutant impaired in the regulation of the Pi metabolism. Mapman analyses suggest that the fungus activates different signaling, transpo...

  20. Antifungal and cytotoxic constituents from the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab S. Elkhayat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available New mellein derivative; 4-methylmellein (1 along with five known compounds: 4-hydroxymellein (2 and 6-hydroxymellein (3, tyrosol (4, cervesterol (5, and stigmast-4-ene-3-one (6 were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. isolated from the leaf of Senecio flavus (Asteraceae. Structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR, in addition to UV, IR and MS spectrometry. Compounds (3, 4 and 6 were isolated for the first time from the genus Penicillium. Compounds 1–4 showed antifungal activity against F. oxysporum and variable activities against A. flavus and the yeast C. albicans. Compounds 1–3 showed cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line.

  1. [Chemical constituents of an endophytic fungus from Annona muricata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hanlin; Dai, Jungui

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of an endophytic fungus, F-31, from Annona muricata and search antitumor natural products. After scaling up, the fermentation broth and mycelia were extracted by macroporous resin and chromatographied by silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20 gel column and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures of compounds were determined by the means of extensive spectroscopic data The activity of the compounds were evaluated through MTT assay. Six compounds were isolated from the fermentation broth and mycelia of this fungus, their structures were identified as 5-(3-hydroxybutyl)furan-2(5H)-one(1), chloranthalactone E(2), 5, 7-dimethyl-6-hydroxycoumarin(3), 1, 2, 4-triazole-(1'R, 2'R, 3'R, 4'R)-nucleosides(4), L-tryptophan(5), L-phenylalanine(6). The in vitro pharmalogical evaluation results displayed that the above compounds exhibited no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of six tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7). Among these obtained compounds, compound 1 was a new compound.

  2. Naphthalene, an insect repellent, is produced by Muscodor vitigenus, a novel endophytic fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryn H. Daisy; Gary A. Strobel; Uvidelio Castillo; David Ezra; Joe Sears; David K. Weaver; Justin B. Runyon

    2002-01-01

    Muscodor vitigenus is a recently described endophytic fungus of Paullinia paullinioides, a liana growing in the understorey of the rainforests of the Peruvian Amazon. This fungus produces naphthalene under certain cultural conditions. Naphthalene produced by M. vitigenus was identified by gas chromatography/mass...

  3. Growth and nutrition of ‘Imperial’ pineapple nursery plants associated with the fungus Piriformospora indica and herbicide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ivone Barreto Cruz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The low supply of healthy and quality nursery plants has been an obstacle to the growth of pineapple crop in Brazil. The research was carried out with the aim of evaluating mycorrhizal association, growth and nutrient uptake of ‘Imperial’ micropropagated pineapple plants inoculated with the fungus Piriformospora indica in cultivation with herbicide application. The 2 x 4 factorial scheme was used, being the factors the two inoculations: inoculated nursery plants with the fungus P. indica and without inoculation and four doses of herbicides: 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 L ha-1 for ametryn, 0, 1.6, 3.2, 6.4 L ha-1 for diuron and 0, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 L ha-1 for sulfametrazone distributed in a completely randomized design with three replications. The doses of herbicides were applied to substrate before planting. The inoculation with the fungus P. indica was made at the time of planting, placing in the substrate 5 mm mycelial discs containing fungal structures. At 150 days after inoculation evaluations were made by analysis of colonization, determination of N, P and K levels and of nursery plants growth. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and regression. The association of fungus P. indica with ‘Imperial’ pineapple nursery plants was observed with the application of all herbicides. ‘Imperial’ pineapple nursery plants associated with P. indica fungus showed higher levels of nutrients and growth. The use of herbicides in high doses interfered in growth and nutrient uptake by mycorrhizal pineapple nursery plants.

  4. Biofabrication of gold nanoparticles using marine endophytic fungus -Penicillium citrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, Hulikere M; Joshi, Chandrashekhar G; Raju, Narayanappa Govinda

    2017-02-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the promising fields of research and generating new avenues and applications in medicine. Recently, marine floras such as, marine endophytes are gaining the attention of many researchers due to the myriad of bioactive molecules that they possess. In addition, they find applications in many pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this study, they have studied the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) from Penicillium citrinum ( P. citrinum ) and its antioxidant activity. P. citrinum was isolated from brown algae. The identity of the fungus was established by comparing its 18S rDNA sequence. AuNPs were synthesised using P. citrinum and were characterised by UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-vis), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). AuNPs were tested for free radical scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The particle sizes of AuNps were determined by FESEM and DLS. The reduction of gold metal ion was confirmed from the UV-vis spectrum. AuNPs showed significant antioxidant potential and the activity was comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. Further, in vitro and in vivo studies on these AuNPs will help in developing an alternative, cost-effective and acceptable drug for various ailments.

  5. Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jieyin; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-10-15

    Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustained exposure to abscisic acid enhances the colonization potential of the mutualist fungus Piriformospora indica on Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskan-Berghöfer, Tatjana; Vilches-Barro, Amaya; Müller, Teresa M; Glawischnig, Erich; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Rausch, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Root colonization by the beneficial fungus Piriformospora indica is controlled by plant innate immunity, but factors that channel this interaction into a mutualistic relationship are not known. We have explored the impact of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmotic stress on the P. indica interaction with Arabidopsis thaliana. The activation of plant innate immunity in roots was determined by measuring the concentration of the phytoalexin camalexin and expression of transcription factors regulating the biosynthesis of tryptophan-related defence metabolites. Furthermore, the impact of the fungus on the content of ABA, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid (JA) and JA-related metabolites was examined. We demonstrated that treatment with exogenous ABA or the ABA analogue pyrabactin increased fungal colonization efficiency without impairment of plant fitness. Concomitantly, ABA-deficient mutants of A. thaliana (aba1-6 and aba2-1) were less colonized, while plants exposed to moderate stress were more colonized than corresponding controls. Sustained exposure to ABA attenuated expression of transcription factors MYB51, MYB122 and WRKY33 in roots upon P. indica challenge or chitin treatment, and prevented an increase in camalexin content. The results indicate that ABA can strengthen the interaction with P. indica as a consequence of its impact on plant innate immunity. Consequently, ABA will be relevant for the establishment and outcome of the symbiosis under stress conditions. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Broad-spectrum suppression of innate immunity is required for colonization of Arabidopsis roots by the fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sophie; Zechmann, Bernd; Molitor, Alexandra; Trujillo, Marco; Petutschnig, Elena; Lipka, Volker; Likpa, Volker; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing basidiomycete that confers a wide range of beneficial traits to its host. The fungus shows a biotrophic growth phase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots followed by a cell death-associated colonization phase, a colonization strategy that, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported for this plant. P. indica has evolved an extraordinary capacity for plant root colonization. Its broad host spectrum encompasses gymnosperms and monocotyledonous as well as dicotyledonous angiosperms, which suggests that it has an effective mechanism(s) for bypassing or suppressing host immunity. The results of our work argue that P. indica is confronted with a functional root immune system. Moreover, the fungus does not evade detection but rather suppresses immunity triggered by various microbe-associated molecular patterns. This ability to suppress host immunity is compromised in the jasmonate mutants jasmonate insensitive1-1 and jasmonate resistant1-1. A quintuple-DELLA mutant displaying constitutive gibberellin (GA) responses and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-6 (for GA requiring 1) showed higher and lower degrees of colonization, respectively, in the cell death-associated stage, suggesting that P. indica recruits GA signaling to help establish proapoptotic root cell colonization. Our study demonstrates that mutualists, like pathogens, are confronted with an effective innate immune system in roots and that colonization success essentially depends on the evolution of strategies for immunosuppression.

  8. Antiangiogenic, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Endophytic Fungus isolated from seaweed (Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath M. Hulikere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi from marine seaweeds are the less studied group of organisms with vast medical applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antiangiogenic as well as wound healing potential of the endophytic fungus isolated from the seaweed Sargassum wightii. The morphological characters and the rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis (BLAST search in Gen Bank database was used for the identification of endophytic fungus. The antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of endophytic fungus was assessed by, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The fungal extract was also analysed for reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid content. Antiangiogenic activity of the fungal extract was studied in vitro by inhibition of wound healing scratch assay and in vivo by Chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. The endophytic fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Gen Bank ID – KT384175. The ethyl acetate extract of C. cladosporioides showed a significant antioxidant and angiosuppressive activity. The ESI-LC-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of wide range of secondary metabolites. Results suggest that C. cladosporioides extract could be exploited as a potential source for angiogenic modulators.

  9. Impact of Synergistic Association of ZnO-Nanorods and Symbiotic Fungus Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 on Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Broccoli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Uma; Khanuja, Manika; Prasad, Ram; Varma, Ajit

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, novel nanotool called 'nano-embedded fungus' formed by impact of synergistic association of ZnO-nanorods and fungus Piriformospora indica DSM 11827, for growth of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Broccoli) is reported. ZnO-nanorods were synthesized by mechanical assisted thermal decomposition process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology, X-ray diffraction for structural studies and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy for band gap determination. Nanoembedded fungus is prepared by optimizing ZnO-nanorods concentration (500 ppm) which resulted in the increased biomass of P. indica, as confirmed by dry weight method, spore count, spread plate and microscopy techniques viz. SEM and confocal microscopy. Enhancement in B. oleracea var. botrytis is reported on treatment with nanoembedded fungus. According to the authors, this is the first holistic study focusing on the impact of ZnO-nanorods in the enhancement of fungal symbiont for enhanced biomass productivity of B. oleracea plant.

  10. Endophytic Life Strategies Decoded by Genome and Transcriptome Analyses of the Mutualistic Root Symbiont Piriformospora indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota) and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi. PMID:22022265

  11. Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota) and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP), including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD) with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi.

  12. Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alga Zuccaro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP, including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi.

  13. Cytotoxic metabolites produced by Alternaria no.28, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Hu, Ling; Ma, Ya-Tuan; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2009-11-01

    From the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba the fungal endophyte Alternaria no.28 was isolated. Extract of the fungus grown in liquid culture media exhibited marked cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Eight compounds were isolated from the extract of cultures of this endophytic fungus and were elucidated as alterperylenol (1), altertoxin I (2), alternariol (3), alternariol monomethyl ether (4), tenuazonic acid (5) and its derivative (6), together with ergosterol and ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one by means of spectroscopic analysis. Among them, both 5 and 6 showed significant cytotoxic effects in the brine shrimp bioassy, with mortality rates of 73.6% and 68.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1), and they were first isolated from endophytic fungi.

  14. Piperine production by endophytic fungus Periconia sp. isolated from Piper longum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vijay C; Lobkovsky, Emil; Gange, Alan C; Singh, Santosh K; Prakash, Satya

    2011-06-01

    The endophytic fungus Periconia sp. produces piperine (5-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-1-piperidinopent-2, 4-dien-1-one) under liquid culture. This is the first report of the alternative source for this chemical other than its host, Piper longum. The highly functionalized fungus-derived piperine exhibits strong antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. smegmetis with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 1.74 and 2.62 μg ml(-1), respectively. The compound was crystallized and the structure was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. This finding is of significance as piperine is a potential cancer preventative agent. It is reaffirmed by this report that important pharmaceuticals can be produced by endophytic microbes, and these molecules appear to be mimetic to their host origin. Therefore, we can enhance the bioactive principles of medicinal plants by isolating and identifying the endophytes, thereby showing the importance of preserving the biodiversity of these plants.

  15. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds from Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for the allelochemical effects against phytopathogenic fungi and fungo...

  16. Two new meroterpenes from endophytic fungus A1 of Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Dai, Hao-Fu; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Yang, Tao; Zhong, Hui-Min; Mei, Wen-Li

    2012-01-01

    Two new meroterpenes, guignardone D (1) and guignardone E (2), were isolated from endophytic fungus A1 of Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F. Their structures were established based on spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMBC, and ROESY).

  17. Phoma glomerata D14: An Endophytic Fungus from Salvia miltiorrhiza That Produces Salvianolic Acid C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuqing; Zhai, Xin; Shu, Zhiheng; Dong, Ruifang; Ming, Qianliang; Qin, Luping; Zheng, Chengjian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, more and more researches focus on endophytic fungi derived from important medicinal plants, which can produce the same bioactive metabolites as their host plants. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant with versatile pharmacological effects. But the wild plant resource has been in short supply due to the overcollection for bioactive metabolites. Our study was therefore conducted to isolate endophytic fungi from S. miltiorrhiza and get candidate strains that produce the same bioactive compounds as the plant. As a result, an endophyte that produces salvianolic acid C was obtained and identified as Phoma glomerata D14 based on its morphology and internal transcribed spacer analysis. Salvianolic acid C was found present in both the mycelia and fermentation broth. Our study indicates that the endophytic fungus has significant industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands for salvianolic acid C in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way.

  18. HSPRO Controls Early Nicotiana attenuata Seedling Growth during Interaction with the Fungus Piriformospora indica1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stefan; Camehl, Iris; Gilardoni, Paola A.; Oelmueller, Ralf; Baldwin, Ian T.; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    In a previous study aimed at identifying regulators of Nicotiana attenuata responses against chewing insects, a 26-nucleotide tag matching the HSPRO (ORTHOLOG OF SUGAR BEET Hs1pro-1) gene was found to be strongly induced after simulated herbivory (Gilardoni et al., 2010). Here we characterized the function of HSPRO during biotic interactions in transgenic N. attenuata plants silenced in its expression (ir-hspro). In wild-type plants, HSPRO expression was not only induced during simulated herbivory but also when leaves were inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and roots with the growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica. Reduced HSPRO expression did not affect the regulation of direct defenses against Manduca sexta herbivory or P. syringae pv tomato DC3000 infection rates. However, reduced HSPRO expression positively influenced early seedling growth during interaction with P. indica; fungus-colonized ir-hspro seedlings increased their fresh biomass by 30% compared with the wild type. Grafting experiments demonstrated that reduced HSPRO expression in roots was sufficient to induce differential growth promotion in both roots and shoots. This effect was accompanied by changes in the expression of 417 genes in colonized roots, most of which were metabolic genes. The lack of major differences in the metabolic profiles of ir-hspro and wild-type colonized roots (as analyzed by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry) suggested that accelerated metabolic rates were involved. We conclude that HSPRO participates in a whole-plant change in growth physiology when seedlings interact with P. indica. PMID:22892352

  19. Indole derivative production by the root endophyte Piriformospora indica is not required for growth promotion but for biotrophic colonization of barley roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Magdalena; Voll, Lars M; Ding, Yi; Hofmann, Jörg; Sharma, Monica; Zuccaro, Alga

    2012-10-01

    Beneficial effects elicited by the root endophyte Piriformospora indica are widely known, but the mechanism by which these are achieved is still unclear. It is proposed that phytohormones produced by the fungal symbiont play a crucial role in the interaction with the plant roots. Biochemical analyses of the underlying biosynthetic pathways for auxin production have shown that, on tryptophan feeding, P. indica can produce the phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA) through the intermediate indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA). Time course transcriptional analyses after exposure to tryptophan designated the piTam1 gene as a key player. A green fluorescence protein (GFP) reporter study and transcriptional analysis of colonized barley roots showed that piTam1 is induced during the biotrophic phase. Piriformospora indica strains in which the piTam1 gene was silenced via an RNA interference (RNAi) approach were compromised in IAA and ILA production and displayed reduced colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots in the biotrophic phase, but the elicitation of growth promotion was not affected compared with the wild-type situation. Our results suggest that IAA is involved in the establishment of biotrophy in P. indica-barley symbiosis and might represent a compatibility factor in this system. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Identification of a taxol-producing endophytic fungus EFY-36

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... 1Plant Biotechnology Research Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, School of Agriculture and. Biology, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R and D Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai. 200240 .... producing endophytic fungi by restriction enzyme-mediated.

  1. Larvicidal spirobisnaphthalenes from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jin; Liu, Xin Chao; Liu, Zhi Long; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-05-01

    In our screening programme for new agrochemicals from endophytic fungi, the ethyl acetate extract of an endophytic Berkleasmium sp. isolated from the medicinal plant Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to possess strong larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fungal extract has led to the isolation of seven spirobisnaphthalenes, including palmarumycins C8, C12, C15 and B6 and diepoxins γ, δ and ζ. Among them, palmarumycins C8 and B6 showed strong larvicidal activity against the fourth-instar larvae of A. albopictus, with LC50 values of 8.83 and 11.51 µg mL(-1) respectively. Interestingly, only spirobisnaphthalenes with a chlorine substituent possessed strong larvicidal activity. The results indicated that the spirobisnaphthalenes derived from the endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. could be promising leads for the development of new larvicides against A. albopictus. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Benzopyranones from the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 and Their Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligang Zhou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 was isolated from the hybrid ‘Neva’ of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L. In this study, four benzopyranones were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, and identified as palmariol B (1, 4-hydroxymellein (2, alternariol 9-methyl ether (3, and botrallin (4 by means of physicochemical and spectroscopic analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. 4-Hydroxymellein (2 exhibited stronger antibacterial activity than the other compounds. Palmariol B (1 showed stronger antimicrobial, antinematodal and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities than alternariol 9-methyl ether (3 which indicated that the chlorine substitution at position 2 may contribute to its bioactivity. The results indicate the potential of this endophytic fungus as a source of bioactive benzopyranones.

  3. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  4. Identification of New Lactone Derivatives Isolated from Trichoderma sp., An Endophytic Fungus of Brotowali (Tinaspora crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELFITA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi is a rich source of novel organic compounds with interesting biological activities and a high level of structural diversity. As a part of our systematic search for new bioactive lead structures and specific profiles from endophytic fungi, an endophytic fungus was isolated from roots of brotowali (Tinaspora crispa, an important medicinal plant. Colonial morphological trait and microscopic observation revealed that the endophytic fungus was Trichoderma sp. The pure fungal strain was cultivated on 7 L Potatos Dextose Broth (PDB medium under room temperature (no shaking for 8 weeks. The ethyl acetate were added to cultur medium and left overnight to stop cell growth. The culture filtrates were collected and extracted with EtOAc and then taken to evaporation. Two new lactone derivatives, 5-hydroxy-4-hydroxymethyl-2H-pyran-2-one (1 and (5-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H pyran-4-yl methyl acetate (2 were obtained from the EtOAc extracts of Trichoderma sp. Their structures were determined on the basic of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC, and HMBC.

  5. Five New Guaiane Sesquiterpenes from the Endophytic Fungus Xylaria sp. YM 311647 of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Xie, Xiao-Song; Fang, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Kai-Xia; Wu, Shao-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Five new guaiane sesquiterpenes, 1-5, were isolated from the culture broth of the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp. YM 311647, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, and their inhibitory activities against five pathogenic fungi were evaluated. All guaiane sesquiterpenes showed moderate or weak antifungal activities in a broth microdilution assay. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. A novel C₂₅ sterol peroxide from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. EA-122.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Ming; Fan, Qiong-Ying; Chen, He-Ping; Li, Zheng-Hui; Feng, Tao; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    A novel C₂₅ sterol peroxide, phomasterol A (1), together with two known compounds (2-3), was isolated from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. EA-122. The structure of phomasterol A (1) was elucidated by MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data analyses. Phomasterol A (1) was evaluated for its inhibitory activities against protein-tyrosine phosphatases MEG2 and PTP1Bc, showing moderate activities with identical IC₅₀ values of 25 μM.

  7. Benzaldehyde derivatives from Eurotium rubrum, an endophytic fungus derived from the mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Li; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Tie-Gang; Dang, Hong-Yue; Proksch, Peter; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2008-09-01

    Four new (1-4) and seven known (5-11) benzaldehyde derivatives were characterized from the liquid fermentation cultures of Eurotium rubrum, an endophytic fungus that was isolated from the inner tissue of stems of the mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus. The structures of these compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compound 1, which was named as eurotirumin, possesses a new carbon skeleton with a cyclopentabenzopyran ring system.

  8. Meroterpenes from Endophytic Fungus A1 of Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Li Mei; Bo Zheng; You-Xing Zhao; Hui-Ming Zhong; Xun-Li Wu Chen; Yan-Bo Zeng; Wen-Hua Dong; Jiu-Li Huang; Peter Proksch; Hao-Fu Dai

    2012-01-01

    Four new meroterpenes, guignardones F–I (14), together with two known compounds guignardones A (5) and B (6) were isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. A possible...

  9. Meroterpenes from endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zheng, Bo; Zhao, You-Xing; Zhong, Hui-Ming; Chen, Xun-Li Wu; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Dong, Wen-Hua; Huang, Jiu-Li; Proksch, Peter; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2012-09-01

    Four new meroterpenes, guignardones F-I (1-4), together with two known compounds guignardones A (5) and B (6) were isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1-6 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. New bioactive metabolites produced by Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria C.M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Haddad, Renato [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Costa-Neto, Claudio M. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia

    2005-11-15

    Two new metabolites, ethyl 2,4-dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylbenzoate (1) and phomopsilactone (2) were isolated from Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR, MS and IR spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed strong antifungal activity against the phytopatogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as cytotoxicity against human cervical tumor cell line (HeLa), in in vitro assays. (author)

  11. Metabolite diversification by cultivation of the endophytic fungus Dothideomycete sp. in halogen containing media: Cultivation of terrestrial fungus in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesekera, Kanchana; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2017-06-01

    The endophytic fungus, Dothideomycete sp. CRI7, isolated from the terrestrial plant, Tiliacora triandra, was salt tolerant, capable of growing in the culture medium prepared from seawater; salts in seawater did not have any effects on the fungal growth. Metabolite productions of the fungus CRI7 cultivated in media prepared from seawater (MSW), prepared from deionized water supplemented with potassium bromide (MKBr) or potassium iodide (MKI), and prepared from deionized water (MDW) were investigated. It was found that the cultivation of the fungus CRI7 in MKBr and MSW enabled the fungus to produce nine new metabolites (1-9). The production of an azaphilone, austdiol (10), of the fungus CRI7 grown in MDW was 0.04g/L, which was much lower than that grown in MSW, MKBr, and MKI media which provided the yields of 0.5, 0.9, and 1.2g/L, respectively, indicating that halogen salts significantly enhanced the production of the polyketide 10. The cultivation of terrestrial fungi in media containing halogen salts could therefore be useful for the metabolite diversification by one strain-many compounds (OSMAC) approach. Moreover, the isolated polyketides had significant biosynthetic relationship, suggesting that the cultivation of fungi in halogen containing media could provide the insights into certain polyketide biosynthesis. One of the isolated compounds exhibited antibacterial activity with the MIC value of 100μg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Monodehydroascorbate reductase 2 and dehydroascorbate reductase 5 are crucial for a mutualistic interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Tripathi, Swati; Prasad, Ram; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2009-08-15

    Ascorbate is a major antioxidant and radical scavenger in plants. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) are two enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that maintain ascorbate in its reduced state. MDAR2 (At3g09940) and DHAR5 (At1g19570) expression was upregulated in the roots and shoots of Arabidopsis seedlings co-cultivated with the root-colonizing endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica, or that were exposed to a cell wall extract or a culture filtrate from the fungus. Growth and seed production were not promoted by Piriformospora indica in mdar2 (SALK_0776335C) and dhar5 (SALK_029966C) T-DNA insertion lines, while colonized wild-type plants were larger and produced more seeds compared to the uncolonized controls. After 3 weeks of drought stress, growth and seed production were reduced in Piriformospora indica-colonized plants compared to the uncolonized control, and the roots of the drought-stressed insertion lines were colonized more heavily by the fungus than were wild-type plants. Upregulation of the message for the antimicrobial PDF1.2 protein in drought-stressed insertion lines indicated that MDAR2 and DHAR5 are crucial for producing sufficient ascorbate to maintain the interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis in a mutualistic state.

  13. ZnS semiconductor quantum dots production by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddandarao, Priyanka, E-mail: uddandaraopriyanka@gmail.com; B, Raj Mohan, E-mail: rajmohanbala@gmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida was used for the synthesis of quantum dots. • Morris-Weber kinetic model and Lagergren's pseudo-first-order rate equation were used to study the biosorption kinetics. • Polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots of 18 nm and 58.9 nm from TEM and DLS, respectively. - Abstract: The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metal sulphide quantum dots has been considered as a major challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots were synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. It is noteworthy that apart from being rich sources of bioactive compounds, endophytic fungus also has the ability to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticles. TEM and DLS revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of about 18 nm and 58.9 nm, respectively. The ZnS quantum dots were further characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The obtained results confirmed the synthesis of polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots and these quantum dots are used for studying ROS activity. In addition this paper explains kinetics of metal sorption to study the role of biosorption in synthesis of quantum dots by applying Morris-Weber kinetic model. Since Aspergillus flavus is isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, quantum dots synthesized from this fungus may have great potential in broad environmental and medical applications.

  14. Enzyme Inhibitory Radicinol Derivative from Endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12, Associated with Rhazya stricta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes, living inside plant tissues, play an essential role in plant growth and development, whilst producing unique bioactive secondary metabolites. In the current study, the endophytic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana LK12 was isolated from the leaves of ethno-medicinal and alkaloidal rich Rhazya stricta. The bulk amount of ethyl acetate extract of fungus was subjected to advance column chromatographic techniques, which resulted in the isolation of a new radicinol derivative, bipolarisenol (1. It was found to be a derivative of radicinol. The structure elucidation was carried out by the combined use of 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, mass, and UV spectrometric analyses. The bipolarisenol was assessed for its potential role in enzyme inhibition of urease and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE. Results showed that bipolarisenol significantly inhibited the AChE activity with low IC50 (67.23 ± 5.12 µg·mL−1. Bipolarisenol inhibited urease in a dose-dependent manner with high IC50 (81.62 ± 4.61 µg·mL−1. The new compound also showed a moderate anti-lipid peroxidation potential (IC50 = 168.91 ± 4.23 µg·mL−1. In conclusion, endophytes isolated from medicinal plants possess a unique potential to be considered for future drug discovery.

  15. Hexacyclopeptides secreted by an endophytic fungus Fusarium solani N06 act as crosstalk molecules in Narcissus tazetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Xuan; Kusari, Souvik; Sezgin, Selahaddin; Lamshöft, Marc; Kusari, Parijat; Kayser, Oliver; Spiteller, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The basis of chemical crosstalk in plants and associated endophytes lies in certain so-called communication molecules that are responsible for plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Consequently, elucidating the factors that affect the nature, distribution, and amount of these molecules and how they impact the interaction among endophytes and associated organisms is essential to understand the true potential of endophytes. In the present study, we report the discovery of nine hexacyclopeptides from an endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani, isolated from the bulb of Narcissus tazetta, and their selective accumulation by an endophytic bacterium, Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolated from the same tissue. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging high-resolution mass spectrometry (MALDI-imaging-HRMS) to firstly identify and visualize the spatial distribution of the hexacyclopeptides produced by endophytic F. solani. After culture condition optimization, their sequence was identified to be cyclo((Hyp or Dhp)-Xle-Xle-(Ala or Val)-Thr-Xle) (Dhp: dehydroproline) by the characteristic a, b, or y ions using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS(n)). These hexacyclopeptides were confirmed to be fungal biosynthetic products by deuterium labeling experiments. Finally, in order to understand the plausible ecological relevance of one or more of the discovered hexacyclopeptides within the contexts of microbial "neighbor communication," we devised a dual-culture setup to visualize using MALDI-imaging-HRMS how the hexacyclopeptides released by the endophytic fungus are accumulated by another endophytic bacterium, A. xylosoxidans, isolated from the same bulb tissue. This work exemplifies the relevance of cyclopeptides in endophyte-endophyte interspecies neighbor communication occurring in nature. Such communication strategies are evolved by coexisting endophytes to survive and function in their distinct ecological niches.

  16. Study of an endophytic fungus from Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nine endophytic fungal strains labeled as AL-1, AL-2, AS-1, AS-2, AS-3, AS-4, AR-1, AR-2 and AR-4 were isolated from the medicinal plant Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. Three compounds 1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyanthraquinone, propyl p-methoxy phenyl ether and 6-methoxy-7-O-(p-methoxyphenyl-coumarin were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the strain AL-2 by silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques i.e. UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR. Extracts of the strain AL-2 were assessed for antibacterial activities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and general toxicity against brine shrimp lethality assay. The ethyl acetate extract showed only mild activity against two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. Phenylisotertronic acids from the TCM endophytic fungus Phyllosticta sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heng-Gang; Li, Jiao-Jiao; Chen, Shao-Meng; Mou, Lang-Ming; Zou, Jian; Wang, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Guo-Dong; Qin, Sheng-Ying; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Gao, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Four new phenylisotertronic acids (1a/1b, 2a, and 3a) were isolated from a TCM endophytic fungal strain Phyllosticta sp. J13-2-12Y obtained from the leaves of Acorus tatarinowii, along with two known ones (2b and 3b). Compounds 1-3 all existed as mixtures of enantiomers, and their corresponding optically pure enantiomers were successfully isolated by chiral HPLC. The structures of isolated compounds were determined by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and X-ray diffraction. Their absolute configurations were determined by ECD experiments and quantum chemical calculations. In addition, the antimicrobial activities and the cytotoxicities of these three pairs of optically pure enantiomers (1a/1b, 2a/2b, and 3a/3b) had been evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Piperine production by endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Piper nigrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Sachidanandan, P; Jyothis, M; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-03-15

    Many endophytic fungi have been reported with the biosynthetic potential to produce same or similar metabolites present in host plants. The adaptations that might have acquired by these fungi as a result of the long-term association with their host plants can be the possible basis of their biosynthetic potential. The bioactive compounds originated from endophytes are currently explored for their potential applications in pharmaceutical, agriculture and food industries. Piper nigrum, a plant of the Piperaceae is very remarkable because of the presence of the alkaloid piperine. Piperine has been reported to have broad bioactive properties ranging from antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative to anticancer activities. Interestingly, piperine also plays a vital role in increasing the bioavailability of many drugs which again is a promising property. The current study was carried out to identify piperine producing endophytic fungus from Piper nigrum L. By screening various endophytic fungi, the isolate which was identified as member of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was found to have the ability to form piperine and was confirmed by HPLC and LCMS. Considering the broad bioactive potential of piperine, the piperine producing fungi identified in the study can expect to have much industrial potential. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Secondary Metabolites Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis sydowiana and Their 20S Proteasome Inhibitory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuekui; Kim, Soonok; Liu, Changheng; Shim, Sang Hee

    2016-07-20

    Fungal endophytes have attracted attention due to their functional diversity. Secondary metabolites produced by Pestalotiopsis sydowiana from a halophyte, Phragmites communis Trinus, were investigated. Eleven compounds, including four penicillide derivatives (1-4) and seven α-pyrone analogues (5-10) were isolated from cultures of P. sydowiana. The compounds were identified based on spectroscopic data. The inhibitory activities against the 20S proteasome were evaluated. Compounds 1-3, 5, and 9-10 showed modest proteasome inhibition activities, while compound 8 showed strong activity with an IC50 of 1.2 ± 0.3 μM. This is the first study on the secondary metabolites produced by P. sydowiana and their proteasome inhibitory activities. The endophytic fungus P. sydowiana might be a good resource for proteasome inhibitors.

  20. Larvicidal effects of endophytic and basidiomycete fungus extracts on Aedes and Anopheles larvae (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Bucker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.

  1. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkhah, R.; Cabello, S.; Rozanska, E.; Sobczak, M.; Grundler, F. M. W.; Wieczorek, K.; Hofmann, J.

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii. PMID:23956413

  2. Piriformospora indica antagonizes cyst nematode infection and development in Arabidopsis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshkhah, R; Cabello, S; Rozanska, E; Sobczak, M; Grundler, F M W; Wieczorek, K; Hofmann, J

    2013-09-01

    The beneficial endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Its colonization promotes plant growth, development, and seed production as well as resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present work, P. indica was tested as potential antagonist of the sedentary plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. This biotrophic cyst-forming nematode induces severe host plant damage by changing the morphogenesis and physiology of infected roots. Here it is shown that P. indica colonization, as well as the application of fungal exudates and cell-wall extracts, significantly affects the vitality, infectivity, development, and reproduction of H. schachtii.

  3. Gibberellins Producing Endophytic Fungus Porostereum spadiceum AGH786 Rescues Growth of Salt Affected Soybean

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    Muhammad Hamayun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of sustainable agriculture through environment and human health friendly practices, we evaluated the potential of a novel gibberellins (GAs producing basidiomycetous endophytic fungus Porostereum spadiceum AGH786, for alleviating salt stress and promoting health benefits of soybean. Soybean seedlings exposed to different levels of NaCl stress (70 and 140 mM under greenhouse conditions, were inoculated with the AGH786 strain. Levels of phytohormones including GAs, JA and ABA, and isoflavones were compared in control and the inoculated seedlings to understand the mechanism through which the stress is alleviated. Gibberellins producing endophytic fungi have been vital for promoting plant growth under normal and stress conditions. We report P. spadiceum AGH786 as the ever first GAs producing basidiomycetous fungus capable of producing six types of GAs. In comparison to the so for most efficient GAs producing Gibberella fujikuroi, AGH786 produced significantly higher amount of the bioactive GA3. Salt-stressed phenotype of soybean seedlings was characterized by low content of GAs and high amount of ABA and JA with reduced shoot length, biomass, leaf area, chlorophyll contents, and rate of photosynthesis. Mitigation of salt stress by AGH786 was always accompanied by high GAs, and low ABA and JA, suggesting that this endophytic fungus reduces the effect of salinity by modulating endogenous phytohormones of the seedlings. Additionally, this strain also enhanced the endogenous level of two isoflavones including daidzen and genistein in soybean seedlings under normal as well as salt stress conditions as compared to their respective controls. P. spadiceum AGH786 boosted the NaCl stress tolerance and growth in soybean, by modulating seedlings endogenous phytohormones and isoflavones suggesting a valuable contribution of this potent fungal biofertilizer in sustainable agriculture in salt affected soils.

  4. Impact of Synergistic Association of ZnO-Nanorods and Symbiotic Fungus Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 on Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Broccoli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Uma; Khanuja, Manika; Prasad, Ram; Varma, Ajit

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, novel nanotool called ‘nano-embedded fungus’ formed by impact of synergistic association of ZnO-nanorods and fungus Piriformospora indica DSM 11827, for growth of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Broccoli) is reported. ZnO-nanorods were synthesized by mechanical assisted thermal decomposition process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology, X-ray diffraction for structural studies and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy for band gap determination. Nanoembedded fungus is prepared by optimizing ZnO-nanorods concentration (500 ppm) which resulted in the increased biomass of P. indica, as confirmed by dry weight method, spore count, spread plate and microscopy techniques viz. SEM and confocal microscopy. Enhancement in B. oleracea var. botrytis is reported on treatment with nanoembedded fungus. According to the authors, this is the first holistic study focusing on the impact of ZnO-nanorods in the enhancement of fungal symbiont for enhanced biomass productivity of B. oleracea plant. PMID:29089926

  5. Impact of Synergistic Association of ZnO-Nanorods and Symbiotic Fungus Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 on Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Broccoli

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    Uma Singhal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, novel nanotool called ‘nano-embedded fungus’ formed by impact of synergistic association of ZnO-nanorods and fungus Piriformospora indica DSM 11827, for growth of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (Broccoli is reported. ZnO-nanorods were synthesized by mechanical assisted thermal decomposition process and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM for morphology, X-ray diffraction for structural studies and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy for band gap determination. Nanoembedded fungus is prepared by optimizing ZnO-nanorods concentration (500 ppm which resulted in the increased biomass of P. indica, as confirmed by dry weight method, spore count, spread plate and microscopy techniques viz. SEM and confocal microscopy. Enhancement in B. oleracea var. botrytis is reported on treatment with nanoembedded fungus. According to the authors, this is the first holistic study focusing on the impact of ZnO-nanorods in the enhancement of fungal symbiont for enhanced biomass productivity of B. oleracea plant.

  6. Biotransformation of chalcones by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from Paspalum maritimum trin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Marivaldo J.C.; Nunes, Fatima M.; Bitencourt, Heriberto R.; Borges, Fabio C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Arruda, Mara S.P.; Marinho, Andrey M. R.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Alves, Claudio N.; Santos, Lourivaldo S., E-mail: lss@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (IQ/FEQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Brasil, Davi S.B. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPGQ/IQ/UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated as endophytic of the plant Paspalum maritimum Trin. was evaluated for its potential application in biotransformation reactions. The compounds chalcone (1), 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcone (2) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxy chalcone (3) were biotransformed, respectively, in dihydrochalcone (4), 3,4,5-trimethoxydihydrochalcone (5) and 2,3,4,4'-tetramethoxydihydrochalcone (6). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and MS analysis. The dihydrochalcones 5 and 6 are new compounds. (author)

  7. Toxic polyketides produced by Fusarium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-03-15

    A new isocoumarin derivative named fusariumin (1), together with two known related resorcylic acid lactones aigialomycin D (2) and pochonin N (3), has been isolated from the cultures of Fusarium sp. LN-10, an endophytic fungus originated from the leaves of Melia azedarach. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyzes including 1D- and 2D- NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. Compounds 1-3 displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chromones from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. isolated from the chinese mangrove plant Rhizophora mucronata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Kjer, Julia; Sendker, Jandirk; Wray, Victor; Guan, Huashi; Edrada, Ruangelie; Lin, Wenhan; Wu, Jun; Proksch, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Six new chromones, named pestalotiopsones A-F (1-6), and the known derivative 7-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxypropyl)-5-methylchromone (7) were obtained from the mycelia and culture filtrate of the mangrove endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp., which was isolated from leaves of the Chinese Mangrove plant Rhizophora mucronata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Pestalotiopsones A-F are chromones having both an alkyl side chain substituted at C-2 and a free or substituted carboxyl group at C-5. Compound 6 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the murine cancer cell line L5178Y, whereas the other investigated compounds proved to be inactive.

  9. Meroterpenes from Endophytic Fungus A1 of Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

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    Wen-Li Mei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Four new meroterpenes, guignardones F–I (1–4, together with two known compounds guignardones A (5 and B (6 were isolated from the endophytic fungus A1 of the mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1–6 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus aureus.

  10. Cytotoxic effects of Oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

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    Rmaesha eA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to MDCK kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in-vitro. Also to know the possible in-vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 uM to 200 µM. After 24 hrs of post exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of ROS generation and high levels of MDA, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induced glutathione hydroxylase production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosprin concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (SOD1 and CAT expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress

  11. Metabolites from Microsphaeropsis olivacea, an endophytic fungus of Pilgerodendron uviferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormazabal, Emilio; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Astudillo, Luis; Rodríguez, Jaime; Theoduloz, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Seven compounds belonging to different structural skeletons were isolated from Microsphaeropsis olivacea grown in liquid and solid media. The enalin derivative 7-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-3(2H)-benzofuranone is reported for the first time, while additional spectroscopic information is provided for the acetates of botrallin and ulocladol. The activity of the isolated compounds was assessed towards the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and their cytotoxicity against human lung fibroblasts. Graphislactone A and botrallin presented a moderate activity towards AChE, with IC50 of 8.1 and 6.1 microg/ml (27 and 19 microM, respectively). Under the same experimental conditions, the IC50 of the standard inhibitor galanthamine was 3 microg/ml. The cytotoxicity of both compounds was > 1000 and 330 microM, respectively. None of the compounds was promising as antibacterial or antifungic against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. Botrallin and graphislactone A were detected in the liquid potato-dextrose and yeast extract/malt extract/dextrose as well as on a solid substrate (rice). Butyrolactone I was obtained from the fungus growing on solid medium.

  12. Use of the Endophytic Fungus Daldinia cf. concentrica and Its Volatiles as Bio-Control Agents.

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    Orna Liarzi

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are organisms that spend most of their life cycle within plant tissues without causing any visible damage to the host plant. Many endophytes were found to secrete specialized metabolites and/or emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs, which may be biologically active and assist fungal survival inside the plant as well as benefit their hosts. We report on the isolation and characterization of a VOCs-emitting endophytic fungus, isolated from an olive tree (Olea europaea L. growing in Israel; the isolate was identified as Daldinia cf. concentrica. We found that the emitted VOCs were active against various fungi from diverse phyla. Results from postharvest experiments demonstrated that D. cf. concentrica prevented development of molds on organic dried fruits, and eliminated Aspergillus niger infection in peanuts. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the volatiles led to identification of 27 VOCs. On the basis of these VOCs we prepared two mixtures that displayed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. In postharvest experiments these mixtures prevented development of molds on wheat grains, and fully eliminated A. niger infection in peanuts. In light of these findings, we suggest use of D. cf. concentrica and/or its volatiles as an alternative approach to controlling phytopathogenic fungi in the food industry and in agriculture.

  13. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 protect mangrove plant Kandelia candel under copper stress

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    Bin Gong

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove is an important ecosystem in the world. Mangrove ecosystems have a large capacity in retaining heavy metals, and now they are usually considered as sinks for heavy metals. However, the mechanism of why the soil of mangrove ecosystems can retain heavy metal is not certain. In this research, endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 was isolated and identified from the roots of Kandelia candel. When this fungus was added, it protected the growth of K. candel under Cu stress. This can be illustrated by analyzing chlorophyll A and B, RWC and WSD to leaves of K. candel. Purpureocillium sp. A5 reduces uptake of Cu in K. candel and changes the pH characterization of soil. Furthermore, A5 increase the concentration of Cu complexes in soil, and it enhanced the concentration of carbonate-bound Cu, Mn-Fe complexes Cu and organic-bound Cu in soil. Nevertheless, a significant reduction of the Cu ion was noted among A5-treated plants. This study is significant and illustrates a promising potential use for environmental remediation of endophytes, and also may partially explain the large capacity of mangrove ecosystems in retaining heavy metals.

  15. Cytotoxic effects of oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesha, Alurappa; Venkataramana, M; Nirmaladevi, Dhamodaran; Gupta, Vijai K; Chandranayaka, S; Srinivas, Chowdappa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to Madin-Darby canine kidney kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in vitro. Also to know the possible in vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 to 200 μM). After 24 h of exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and high levels of malondialdehyde, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induced glutathione hydroxylase (GSH) production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosporein concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (Superoxide dismutase1 and Catalase ) expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress inducing genes HSP70, Caspase3, Caspase6, and Caspase9 as measured by quantitative real time-PCR assay. Histopathological examination of oosporein treated mouse kidney and splenocytes further revealed that, oosporein treated target mouse tissues were significantly damaged with that of untreated sam control mice and these effects were in directly proportional to the the toxin dose. Results of the present study reveals that, ROS is the principle event prompting increased oosporein toxicity in studied in vivio and in vitro animal models. The high previlance of these fungi in temperate climates further

  16. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) growing in the dry, semideciduous tropical forest of the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile org...

  17. Thielavins A, J and K: alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the bio-active organic extract obtained from solid-media culture of MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus isolated from the Mexican medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), led to separation of three tridepsides which were identified as thielavins A, J and K. All ...

  18. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  19. Broad-Spectrum Suppression of Innate Immunity Is Required for Colonization of Arabidopsis Roots by the Fungus Piriformospora indica1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sophie; Zechmann, Bernd; Molitor, Alexandra; Trujillo, Marco; Petutschnig, Elena; Lipka, Volker; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing basidiomycete that confers a wide range of beneficial traits to its host. The fungus shows a biotrophic growth phase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots followed by a cell death-associated colonization phase, a colonization strategy that, to our knowledge, has not yet been reported for this plant. P. indica has evolved an extraordinary capacity for plant root colonization. Its broad host spectrum encompasses gymnosperms and monocotyledonous as well as dicotyledonous angiosperms, which suggests that it has an effective mechanism(s) for bypassing or suppressing host immunity. The results of our work argue that P. indica is confronted with a functional root immune system. Moreover, the fungus does not evade detection but rather suppresses immunity triggered by various microbe-associated molecular patterns. This ability to suppress host immunity is compromised in the jasmonate mutants jasmonate insensitive1-1 and jasmonate resistant1-1. A quintuple-DELLA mutant displaying constitutive gibberellin (GA) responses and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-6 (for GA requiring 1) showed higher and lower degrees of colonization, respectively, in the cell death-associated stage, suggesting that P. indica recruits GA signaling to help establish proapoptotic root cell colonization. Our study demonstrates that mutualists, like pathogens, are confronted with an effective innate immune system in roots and that colonization success essentially depends on the evolution of strategies for immunosuppression. PMID:21474434

  20. Interactions between co-habitating fungi elicit synthesis of Taxol from an endophytic fungus in host Taxus plants

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    Sameh S.M. Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Within a plant, there can exist an ecosystem of pathogens and endophytes, the latter described as bacteria and fungal inhabitants that thrive without causing disease to the host. Interactions between microbial inhabitants represent a novel area of study for natural products research. Here we analyzed the interactions between the fungal endophytes of Taxus (yew trees. Fungal endophytes of Taxus have been proposed to produce the terpenoid secondary metabolite, Taxol, an anti-cancer drug. It is widely reported that plant extracts stimulate endophytic fungal Taxol production, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. Here, Taxus bark extracts stimulated fungal Taxol production 30-fold compared to a 10-fold induction with wood extracts. However, candidate plant-derived defence compounds (i.e. salicylic acid, benzoic acid were found to act only as modest elicitors of fungal Taxol production from the endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium SSM001, consistent with previous studies. We hypothesized the Taxus plant extracts may contain elicitors derived from other microbes inhabiting these tissues. We investigated the effects of co-culturing SSM001 with other fungi observed to inhabit Taxus bark, but not wood. Surprisingly, co-culture of SSM001 with a bark fungus (Alternaria caused a ~3-fold increase in Taxol production. When SSM001 was pyramided with both the Alternaria endophyte along with another fungus (Phomopsis observed to inhabit Taxus, there was an ~eight-fold increase in fungal Taxol production from SSM001. These results suggest that resident fungi within a host plant interact with one another to stimulate Taxol biosynthesis, either directly or through their metabolites. More generally, our results suggest that endophyte secondary metabolism should be studied in the context of its native ecosystem.

  1. Lethality of cytochalasin B and other compounds isolated from fungus Aspergillus sp. (Trichocomaceae) endophyte of Bauhinia guianensis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, André de O; Dias, Amanda Cristina S; Ramos, Gisele da C; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Siqueira, José Edson S; Marinho, Patrícia Santana B; Barison, Andersson; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do R

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants; several biologically active compounds have been isolated from these fungi. There are few studies of compounds isolated from endophytic fungi of Amazon plants. Thus, this study aimed the isolation and structural identification of ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalonolactone (3), cytochalasin B (4) and cytochalasin H (5) from Aspergillus sp. EJC 04, an endophytic fungus from Bauhinia guianensis. The cytochalasin B (4) and the diacetate derivative of cytochalasin B (4a) showed high lethality in the brine shrimp assay. This is the first occurrence of cytochalasins in Amazonian endophytic fungi from B. guianensis. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Detecting and differentiating Acremonium implicatum: developing a PCR-based method for an endophytic fungus associated with the genus Brachiaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemu, Segenet; Dongyi, Huang; Guixiu, Huang; Takayama, Yuka

    2003-03-01

    SUMMARY Brachiaria is a pan-tropical genus of grasses with about 100 species. The fungus Acremonium implicatum can develop an endophytic association that is mutually beneficial with Brachiaria species. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method by first amplifying DNA from A. implicatum isolates using the Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique with arbitrary 10-mer primers. A 500-bp PCR product, amplified with primer OPAK-10 and common to A. implicatum isolates, was selected for further evaluation. The fragment was digoxygenin-labelled and used to probe a dot blot containing genomic DNA from isolates of A. implicatum and non-endophytic fungi, and from Brachiaria species free of endophytes. Strong signals were obtained only for DNA from A. implicatum isolates. This fragment was cloned and subsequently sequenced. Based on the sequence data, two primers were selected and synthesized: P1 (5'-TTCGAATGATAAGGCAGATC-3') and P4 (5'-ACGCATCCACTGTATGCTAC-3'). The primer pair amplified a single fragment of about 500 bp from DNA of A. implicatum isolates, whether from pure culture or in association with Brachiaria plants. No amplification product was detected in DNA from endophyte-free plants, pathogenic fungi, the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. graminis, or non-pathogenic fungi associated with Brachiaria. This assay thus allows the precise and rapid detection of endophytes in Brachiaria plants and permits a differentiation between endophytic and non-endophytic fungi.

  3. Bioactive secondary metabolites from Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J H; Zhang, Y L; Wang, L W; Wang, J Y; Zhang, C L

    2012-05-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Based on analyzing the rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Nigrospora sp. This is the first report of the isolation of endophytic Nigrospora from M. oleifera. By bioassay-guided fractionation, four antifungal secondary metabolites were isolated from liquid cultures of the fungus Nigrospora sp. LLGLM003, and their chemical structures were determined to be griseofulvin (1), dechlorogriseofulvin (2), 8-dihydroramulosin (3) and mellein (4) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2, 3 and 4 were isolated from Nigrospora sp. for the first time. In vitro antifungal assay showed that griseofulvin displayed clear inhibition of the growth of 8 plant pathogenic fungi. Dechlorogriseofulvin and mellein exhibited only weak antifungal activities, whereas 8-dihydroramulosin displayed no antifungal activities.

  4. Drought stress responses in maize are diminished by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenying; Wang, Jun; Xu, Le; Wang, Aiai; Huang, Lan; Du, Hewei; Qiu, Lijuan; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2018-01-02

    As an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, Piriformospora indica promotes plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought. Colonization of maize roots promoted the leaf size, root length and number of tap roots. Under drought stress, the maize seedlings profited from the presence of the fungus and performed visibly better than the uncolonized controls. To identify genes and biological processes involved in growth promotion and drought tolerance conferred by P. indica, the root transcriptome of colonized and uncolonized seedlings was analyzed 0, 6 and 12 h after drought stress (20% polyethylene glycol 6000). The number of P. indica-responsive genes increased from 464 (no stress at 0 h) to 1337 (6 h drought) and 2037 (12 h drought). Gene Ontology analyses showed that the carbon and sulfur metabolisms are major targets of the fungus. Furthermore, the growth promoting effect of P. indica is reflected by higher transcript levels for microtubule associated processes. Under drought stress, the fungus improved the oxidative potential of the roots, and stimulated genes for hormone functions, including those which respond to abscisic acid, auxin, salicylic acid and cytokinins. The comparative analyses of our study provides systematic insight into the molecular mechanism how P. indica promotes plant performance under drought stress, and presents a collection of genes which are specifically targeted by the fungus under drought stress in maize roots.

  5. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  6. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-03

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis.

  7. Piriformospora indica enhances plant growth by transferring phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Hemant; Sharma, Ruby; Singh, Archana; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2011-05-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonized monocot as well as dicot. P. indica has been termed as plant probiotic because of its plant growth promoting activity and its role in enhancement of the tolerance of the host plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. In our recent study, we have characterized a high affinity phosphate transporter (PiPT) and by using RNAi approach, we have demonstrated the involvement of PiPT in P transfer to the host plant. When knockdown strains of PiPT-P. indica was colonized with the host plant, it resulted in the impaired growth of the host plants. Here we have analyzed and discussed whether the growth promoting activity of P. indica is its intrinsic property or it is dependent on P availability. Our data explain the correlation between the availability of P and growth-promoting activity of P. indica.

  8. Enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in liquid culture of endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 after treatments with metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Luo

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that the enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 accumulation in liquid culture of the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 by the metal ions and their combination should be an effective strategy.

  9. Three New Resveratrol Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3, were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 μM. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 μM. Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  10. Metabolites from an endophytic fungus sphaceloma sp. LN-15 isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, An-Ling; He, Li-Ying; Gao, Jin-Ming; Xu, Xu; Li, Shi-Qing; Bai, Ming-Sheng; Qin, Jian-Chun

    2009-08-01

    Two new natural compounds, a symmetrical disulfide dimer didodecyl 3,3''-dithiodipropionate (1) and a pregnane steroid 5,16-pregnadien-3beta-ol-20-one acetate (2), were isolated together with two known compounds, ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3) and ergosterol peroxide (4), from the ethyl acetate soluble extract of fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus, Sphaceloma sp. LN-15 isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach L. and grown in pure culture. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) experiments and by mass spectrometric measurements (MS). These fungal metabolites were isolated for the first time from the genus Sphaceloma. The structure of 1 was also confirmed by chemical synthesis.

  11. Two New Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp. A744 Derived from Morinda officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Hong-Xin; Chen, Yu-Chan; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Li, Hao-Hua; Li, Sai-Ni; Yan, Ming-Li; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2017-05-08

    Two new compounds isobenzofuranone A ( 1 ) and indandione B ( 2 ), together with eleven known compounds ( 3 - 13 ) were isolated from liquid cultures of an endophytic fungus Alternaria sp., which was obtained from the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis . Among them, the indandione ( 2 ) showed a rarely occurring indanone skeleton in natural products. Their structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. All of the compounds were evaluated with cytotoxic and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assays. Compounds 11 and 12 showed significant inhibitory activities against four tumor cell lines; MCF-7, HepG-2, NCI-H460 and SF-268, with IC 50 values in the range of 1.91-9.67 μM, and compounds 4 , 5 , 9 , 10 , 12 and 13 showed excellent inhibitory activities against α-glucosidase with IC 50 values in the range of 12.05-166.13 μM.

  12. Two new polyhydroxysterols produced by Fusarium solani, an endophytic fungus from Chloranthus multistachys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W Y; Bai, R; Wang, A R; He, J Y; Wang, H; Zhang, Y; Zhao, X F; Dong, J Y

    2016-10-01

    A highly antagonistic endophytic fungus, designated strain CL39, was originated from the leaves of Chloranthus multistachys collected in Wulong of Chongqing municipality of China in November 2015. The strain was identified as Fusarium solani based on morphological characteristics, 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. Two new compounds, 2β, 9α-dihydroxy-5α-methoxyergosta-7, 22-diene (1), 2β, 6β-dihydroxy-5α-methoxyergosta-7, 22-diene (2) have been isolated from the culture broth of the strain. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis of their spectroscopic data aided by the comparison with reported data of related derivatives, and found to belong to the polyhydroxylated steroids with a hydroxyl at C-2 instead of C-3, a rare structure among the steroids. The extract of this strain and all isolated compounds were evaluated for their antagonistic activities.

  13. Evaluation of herbicidal potential of depsides from Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus found in Guava fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Livia S. de; Sampaio, Olivia M.; Silva, Maria Fatima das G.F. da; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Veiga, Thiago Andre M., E-mail: tveiga@unifesp.br [Instituto de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Two natural products produced by Cladosporium uredinicola, an endophytic fungus isolated from guava fruit, were evaluated for their effects on photosynthesis. Both of them inhibited electron flow (basal, phosphorylating, and uncoupled) from water to methylviologen (MV), acting as Hill reaction inhibitors in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids. These polyketides, belonging to depsides class, inhibited partial reactions of photosystem II (PS II) electron flow from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo Na{sup +}), and partially inhibited electron flow from 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichloroindophenol (DCPIP). These results established that the depsides sites of inhibition are located on the donor and acceptor sides of PS II, between P680 and QA . Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements corroborated this mechanism of action. None of the tested compounds inhibited photosystem I (PS I) electron transport. (author)

  14. Secondary Metabolites and Bioactivity of the Endophytic Fungus Phomopsis theicola from Taiwanese endemic plant

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    Yi Hsiao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cytochalasan named as phomocytochalasin (1, together with five previously identified compounds, cytochalasin H, cytochalasin N, RKS-1778, dankasterone B, cyclo(L-Ile-L-Leu, were isolated from the solid fermentate of Phomopsis theicola BCRC 09F0213, an endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of an endemic Formosan plant Litsea hypophaea Hayata . The structure of the new compound was established by spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, HR-ESIMS, and extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Among the isolates, cytochalasin N showed NO inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 77.8 μM . Cytochalasin H showed the progesterone receptor (PR antagonism with the IC 50 value of 1.42 μM.

  15. Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Phomopsis sp., an Endophytic Fungus from Senna spectabilis

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    Vanessa Mara Chapla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of an acetonitrile fraction from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. led to the isolation of the new natural product 2-hydroxy-alternariol (7 together with the known compounds cytochalasins J (1 and H (2, 5'-epialtenuene (3 and the mycotoxins alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, 4, alternariol (AOH, 5 and cytosporone C (6. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by using 1-D and 2-D NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance and high resolution mass spectrometry. The cytochalasins J (1 and H (2 and AOH (5 exhibited potent inhibition of the total ROS (reactive oxygen species produced by stimulated human neutrophils and acted as potent potential anti-inflammatory agents. Moreover, cytochalasin H (2 demonstrated antifungal and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE inhibition in vitro.

  16. Cyclo-(trp-phe diketopiperazines from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Gubiani

    Full Text Available Six known compounds, three peptide derivatives: cyclo-(tryptophyl-phenylalanyl (2, diketopiperazine dimer WIN 64821 (3 and 3-hydroxy-15H-tryptophenaline (4, one adenine derivative: 2-hydroxy-6-N-isopentenyl-adenine (5, one phtalide derivative: 4-methoxyphtalide (1 and one benzoic acid derivative: 3-hydroxy-4-(1-hydroxy-1,5-dimethyl-hexyl benzoic acid (6, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor associated with the Piper aduncum plant. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 1 D and 2D NMR spectra and in comparison with works reported in the literature. This paper, in effect, deals with the first report of these compounds in A. versicolor.

  17. Preussilides A-F, Bicyclic Polyketides from the Endophytic Fungus Preussia similis with Antiproliferative Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumeur, Sara R; Helaly, Soleiman E; Jansen, Rolf; Gereke, Marcus; Stradal, Theresia E B; Harzallah, Daoud; Stadler, Marc

    2017-05-26

    Six novel bioactive bicyclic polyketides (1-6) were isolated from cultures of an endophytic fungus of the medicinal plant Globularia alypum collected in Batna, Algeria. The producer organism was identified as Preussia similis using morphological and molecular phylogenetic methods. The structures of metabolites 1-6, for which the trivial names preussilides A-F are proposed, were elucidated using a combination of spectral methods, including extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and CD spectroscopy. Preussilides were tested for antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects, and, in particular, compounds 1 and 3 showed selective activities against eukaryotes. Subsequent studies on the influence of 1 and 3 on the morphology of human osteosarcoma cells (U2OS) suggest that these two polyketides might target an enzyme involved in coordination of the cell division cycle. Hence, they might, for instance, affect timing or spindle assembly mechanisms, leading to defects in chromosome segregation and/or spindle geometry.

  18. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Meroterpenoid from a Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuhua; Cui, Hui; Liu, Xinglie; Xiao, Ze'en; Wen, Shitong; She, Zhigang; Huang, Xishan

    2017-05-03

    One new meroterpenoid, named 2-hydroacetoxydehydroaustin ( 1 ), together with nine known meroterpenoids, 11-acetoxyisoaustinone ( 2 ), isoaustinol ( 3 ), austin ( 4 ), austinol ( 5 ), acetoxydehydroaustin ( 6 ), dehydroaustin ( 7 ), dehydroaustinol ( 8 ), preaustinoid A2 ( 9 ), and 1,2-dihydro-acetoxydehydroaustin B ( 10 ), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus, Aspergillus sp. 16-5c. These structures were characterized by spectroscopic analysis, further the absolute configurations of stereogenic carbons for Compounds 1 , 3 , 4 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , and 10 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation. Moreover, the absolute configurations of stereogenic carbons for Known Compounds 3 , 7 , 8 , and 9 are identified here for the first time. Compounds 3 , 7 , and 8 showed acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 2.50, 0.40, and 3.00 μM, respectively.

  19. Mycoviruses of an endophytic fungus can replicate in plant cells: evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerva, L; Varese, G C; Falk, B W; Turina, M

    2017-05-15

    So far there is no record of a specific virus able to infect both fungal and plant hosts in nature. However, experimental evidence shows that some plant virus RdRPs are able to perform replication in trans of genomic or DI RNAs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, tobacco mosaic virus was recently shown to replicate in a filamentous ascomycetous fungus. Thus, at least experimentally, some plant viruses can infect some fungi. Endophytic fungi have been reported from many plants and several of these fungi have been shown to contain viruses. Here we tested if mycoviruses derived from a marine plant endophyte can replicate in plant cells. For this purpose, we used partially purified viral particles from isolate MUT4330 of Penicillium aurantiogriseum var. viridicatum which harbors six virus species, some having dsRNA and some positive-strand ssRNA genomes. These were transfected into three distinct plant protoplast cell systems. Time-course analysis of absolute RNA accumulation provided for the first time evidence that viruses of two species belonging to the Partitiviridae and Totiviridae families, can replicate in plant cells without evidence of host adaptation, i.e, changes in their nucleotide sequence.

  20. Antifungal Compounds Produced by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an Endophytic Fungus from Michelia champaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Mara Chapla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, eight endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Michelia champaca. The isolates were screened and evaluated for their antifungal, anticancer and acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitory activities. All of the extracts exhibited potent activity against two evaluated phytopathogenic fungi. Chemical investigation of EtOAc extracts of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resulted in the isolation of one new compound, 2-phenylethyl 1H-indol-3-yl-acetate (1, and seven known compounds: uracil (2, cyclo-(S*-Pro-S*-Tyr (3, cyclo-(S*-Pro-S*-Val (4, 2(2-aminophenylacetic acid (5, 2(4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (6, 4-hydroxy- benzamide (7 and 2(2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (8. All of the compound structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses. The antifungal and AChE inhibitory activities of compounds 1–8 were evaluated in vitro. Compound 1 exhibited promising activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum that was comparable to that of the positive control nystatin.

  1. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92 μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibacterial secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani JK10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyekyeku, James Oppong; Kusari, Souvik; Adosraku, Reimmel Kwame; Bullach, Anke; Golz, Christopher; Strohmann, Carsten; Spiteller, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Extensive chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani JK10, harbored in the root of the Ghanaian medicinal plant Chlorophora regia, using the OSMAC (One Strain Many Compounds) approach resulted in the isolation of seven new 7-desmethyl fusarin C derivatives (1-7), together with five known compounds (8-12). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their spectroscopic data including 1D, 2D NMR, HRESI-MSn and IR data. The relative configuration of compounds 1/2 was deduced by comparison of their experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and optical rotation data with those reported in literature. The absolute configuration of solaniol (10), a known compound with undefined absolute stereochemistry, was established for the first time by X-ray diffraction analysis of a single-crystal structure using Cu-Kα radiation. The antibacterial activities of the crude fungal extract and the compounds isolated from the fungus were evaluated against some clinically important bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, as well as an environmental strain of Escherichia coli and the soil bacterium Acinetobacter sp. BD4. Compounds 3/4 and 6 exhibited antibacterial efficacies against the soil bacterium Acinetobacter sp., comparable to the reference standard streptomycin. All the tested compounds (1-9) demonstrated antibacterial activity against the environmental strain of E. coli, whereas no antibacterial activity was observed against S. aureus and B. subtilis. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds typically against E. coli and Acinetobacter sp. provides further insight into the possible involvement of root-borne endophytes in chemical defense of their host plants in selected ecological niches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological Evaluation of Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 of Justicia adhatoda L.: A Potential Candidate for Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nighat; Mukhtar, Usman; Ihsan-Ul-Haq; Ahmed Qazi, Muneer; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-06-01

    The endophytes of medicinal plants, such as Justicia adhatoda L., represent a promising and largely underexplored domain that is considered as a repository of biologically active compounds. The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds. Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential. Out of six endophytic fungal isolates, Chaetomium sp. NF15 showed the most promising biological activity and was selected for detailed study. The crude ethyl acetate extract of NF15 isolate after cultivation under optimized culture conditions showed promising antimicrobial activity, with significant inhibition of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (87%, n=42), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (> 85%, n = 41), and Candida albicans (62%, n = 24). The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites.

  4. The Mutualistic Fungus Piriformospora indica Colonizes Arabidopsis Roots by Inducing an Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Triggered Caspase-Dependent Cell Death[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoyu; Zechmann, Bernd; Reitz, Marco U.; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana roots, the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica initially colonizes living cells, which die as the colonization proceeds. We aimed to clarify the molecular basis of this colonization-associated cell death. Our cytological analyses revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) swelling and vacuolar collapse in invaded cells, indicative of ER stress and cell death during root colonization. Consistent with this, P. indica–colonized plants were hypersensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. By clear contrast, ER stress sensors bZIP60 and bZIP28 as well as canonical markers for the ER stress response pathway, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), were suppressed at the same time. Arabidopsis mutants compromised in caspase 1–like activity, mediated by cell death–regulating vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), showed reduced colonization and decreased cell death incidence. We propose a previously unreported microbial invasion strategy during which P. indica induces ER stress but inhibits the adaptive UPR. This disturbance results in a VPE/caspase 1–like-mediated cell death, which is required for the establishment of the symbiosis. Our results suggest the presence of an at least partially conserved ER stress–induced caspase-dependent cell death pathway in plants as has been reported for metazoans. PMID:22337916

  5. The mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis roots by inducing an endoplasmic reticulum stress-triggered caspase-dependent cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoyu; Zechmann, Bernd; Reitz, Marco U; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana roots, the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica initially colonizes living cells, which die as the colonization proceeds. We aimed to clarify the molecular basis of this colonization-associated cell death. Our cytological analyses revealed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) swelling and vacuolar collapse in invaded cells, indicative of ER stress and cell death during root colonization. Consistent with this, P. indica-colonized plants were hypersensitive to the ER stress inducer tunicamycin. By clear contrast, ER stress sensors bZIP60 and bZIP28 as well as canonical markers for the ER stress response pathway, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), were suppressed at the same time. Arabidopsis mutants compromised in caspase 1-like activity, mediated by cell death-regulating vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), showed reduced colonization and decreased cell death incidence. We propose a previously unreported microbial invasion strategy during which P. indica induces ER stress but inhibits the adaptive UPR. This disturbance results in a VPE/caspase 1-like-mediated cell death, which is required for the establishment of the symbiosis. Our results suggest the presence of an at least partially conserved ER stress-induced caspase-dependent cell death pathway in plants as has been reported for metazoans.

  6. Fusaroside, a unique glycolipid from Fusarium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Peng; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Laatsch, Hartmut; Kuang, Yi

    2012-01-28

    Fusaroside (1), a unique trehalose-containing glycolipid composed of the 4-hydroxyl group of a trehalose unit attached to the carboxylic carbon of a long-chain fatty acid, was isolated from the organic extract of fermentation broths of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp. LN-11 isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach. Six known compounds, phalluside (2), (9R*,10R*,7E)-6, 9,10-trihydroxyoctadec-7-enoic acid (3), porrigenic acid (4), (9Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadeca-9-enoate (5), cerevisterol (6) and ergokonin B (7), were also isolated from this fungus. The glycolipid contains a rare branched long-chain fatty acid (C(20:4)) with a conjugated diene moiety and a conjugated ketone moiety. The structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR experiments, MS) and chemical degradations. The metabolites 1-5 were shown to have moderate to weak active against the brine shrimp larvae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of the first representative of a new family of glycolipids from natural sources.

  7. Indolediketopiperazine Alkaloids from Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Marine Alga Sargassum thunbergii

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Li-Wei; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Four new indolediketopiperazine derivatives (1–4), along with nine known congeners (5–13), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an endophytic fungus obtained from the marine alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of thesecompounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and the absolute configurations of compounds 1–4 were established by NOESY experiments and by chiral HPLC analyses of their acid hydrolysates. The abso...

  8. 7-O-Methylvariecolortide A, a new spirocyclic diketopiperazine alkaloid from a marine mangrove derived endophytic fungus, Eurotium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Li; Li, Xiao-Ming; Proksch, Peter; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2010-10-01

    A new spirocyclic diketopiperazine alkaloid, namely, 7-O-methylvariecolortide A (1), together with recently reported known compounds variecolortides A-C (2-4), were isolated and identified from the liquid fermentation cultures of Eurotium rubrum, an endophytic fungus that was isolated from the inner tissue of the stems of the mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus. The structures of these compounds were determined by extensive analyses of their spectroscopic data.

  9. New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus flavipes AIL8 Derived from the Mangrove Plant Acanthus ilicifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Bai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new meroterpenoids (2–5, along with three known analogues (1, 6, and 7 were isolated from mangrove plant Acanthus ilicifolius derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavipes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS analysis, the configurations were assigned by CD data, and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway of compounds 1–7 was also proposed. All compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

  10. Impact of Piriformospora indica on tomato growth and on interaction with fungal and viral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhro, Ahmad; Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocío; von Bargen, Susanne; Bandte, Martina; Büttner, Carmen; Grosch, Rita; Schwarz, Dietmar; Franken, Philipp

    2010-03-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root endophytic fungus with plant-promoting properties in numerous plant species and induces resistance against root and shoot pathogens in barley, wheat, and Arabidopsis. A study over several years showed that the endophyte P. indica colonised the roots of the most consumed vegetable crop tomato. P. indica improved the growth of tomato resulting in increased biomass of leaves by up to 20%. Limitation of disease severity caused by Verticillium dahliae by more than 30% was observed on tomato plants colonised by the endophyte. Further experiments were carried out in hydroponic cultures which are commonly used for the indoor production of tomatoes in central Europe. After adaptation of inoculation techniques (inoculum density, plant stage), it was shown that P. indica influences the concentration of Pepino mosaic virus in tomato shoots. The outcome of the interaction seems to be affected by light intensity. Most importantly, the endophyte increases tomato fruit biomass in hydroponic culture concerning fresh weight (up to 100%) and dry matter content (up to 20%). Hence, P. indica represents a suitable growth promoting endophyte for tomato which can be applied in production systems of this important vegetable plant not only in soil, but also in hydroponic cultures.

  11. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Activities of 5-Hydroxyramulosin, a Compound Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Cinnamomum mollisimum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Cinnamomum mollissimum was investigated for the bioactivity of its metabolites. The fungus, similar to a Phoma sp., was cultured in potato dextrose broth for two weeks, followed by extraction with ethyl acetate. The crude extract obtained was fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both crude extract and fractions were assayed for cytotoxicity against P388 murine leukemic cells and inhibition of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The bioactive extract fraction was purified further and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectral and X-ray crystallography analysis. A polyketide compound, 5-hydroxyramulosin, was identified as the constituent of the bioactive fungal extract fraction. This compound inhibited the fungal pathogen Aspergillus niger (IC50 1.56 μg/mL and was cytotoxic against murine leukemia cells (IC50 2.10 μg/mL. 5-Hydroxyramulosin was the major compound produced by the endophytic fungus. This research suggests that fungal endophytes are a good source of bioactive metabolites which have potential applications in medicine.

  12. Dereplication-guided isolation of depsides thielavins S-T and lecanorins D-F from the endophytic fungus Setophoma sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Medeiros, Livia S.; Abreu, Lucas M.; Nielsen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Dereplication methodology using UHPLC-DAD-QTOFMS was applied during the metabolic profiling investigation of the endophyte Setophoma sp., a fungus isolated from symptomless guava fruits. The approach performed allowed a fast analysis of the microbial secondary metabolites. From this fungus, seven...

  13. Acremoxanthone E, a Novel Member of Heterodimeric Polyketides with a Bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene Ring, Produced by Acremonium camptosporum W. Gams (Clavicipitaceae) Endophytic Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Acremonium camptosporum was isolated as an endophyte from the leaves of the plant Bursera simaruba. Extracts from cultures of the fungus were shown to have inhibitory effects on the growth of plant pathogenic oomycetes. The chemical compounds in the extracts were identified, and a group...

  14. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Oropeza, Fabiola; Duarte, Georgina; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Anaya, Ana Luisa

    2010-10-01

    Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) in a dry, semideciduous tropical forest in the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. We tested the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for allelochemical effects against other endophytic fungi, phytopathogenic fungi and fungoids, and plants. VOCs were lethal to Guignardia mangifera, Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia sp., Phytophthora capsici, and P. parasitica, but had no effect on Fusarium oxysporum, Xylaria sp., the endophytic isolate 120, or M. yucatanensis. VOCs inhibited root elongation in amaranth, tomato, and barnyard grass, particularly those produced during the first 15 days of fungal growth. VOCs were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and included compounds not previously reported from other Muscodor species and the previously reported compounds octane, 2-methyl butyl acetate, 2-pentyl furan, caryophyllene, and aromadendrene. We also evaluated organic extracts from the culture medium and mycelium of M. yucatanensis on the same endophytes, phytopathogens, and plants. In general, extracts inhibited plants more than endophytic or phytopathogens fungi. G. mangifera was the only organism that was significantly stimulated by both extracts regardless of concentration. Compounds in both organic extracts were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We discuss the possible allelopathic role that metabolites of M. yucatanensis play in its ecological interactions with its host plant and other organisms.

  15. Piriformospora indica Reprograms Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Phosphate Metabolism Mutants But Does Not Compensate for Phosphate Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Sherameti, Irena; Meichsner, Doreen; Thürich, Johannes; Varma, Ajit; Johri, Atul K.; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus of Sebacinaceae which colonizes the roots of many plant species and confers benefits to the hosts. We demonstrate that approximately 75% of the genes, which respond to P. indica in Arabidopsis roots, differ among seedlings grown on normal phosphate (Pi) or Pi limitation conditions, and among wild-type and the wrky6 mutant impaired in the regulation of the Pi metabolism. Mapman analyses suggest that the fungus activates different signaling, transport, metabolic and developmental programs in the roots of wild-type and wrky6 seedlings under normal and low Pi conditions. Under low Pi, P. indica promotes growth and Pi uptake of wild-type seedlings, and the stimulatory effects are identical for mutants impaired in the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTERS1;1, -1;2 and -1;4. The data suggest that the fungus does not stimulate Pi uptake, but adapts the expression profiles to Pi limitation in Pi metabolism mutants. PMID:28747898

  16. Piriformospora indica Reprograms Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Phosphate Metabolism Mutants But Does Not Compensate for Phosphate Limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Sherameti, Irena; Meichsner, Doreen; Thürich, Johannes; Varma, Ajit; Johri, Atul K; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus of Sebacinaceae which colonizes the roots of many plant species and confers benefits to the hosts. We demonstrate that approximately 75% of the genes, which respond to P. indica in Arabidopsis roots, differ among seedlings grown on normal phosphate (Pi) or Pi limitation conditions, and among wild-type and the wrky6 mutant impaired in the regulation of the Pi metabolism. Mapman analyses suggest that the fungus activates different signaling, transport, metabolic and developmental programs in the roots of wild-type and wrky6 seedlings under normal and low Pi conditions. Under low Pi, P. indica promotes growth and Pi uptake of wild-type seedlings, and the stimulatory effects are identical for mutants impaired in the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTERS1;1, -1;2 and -1;4. The data suggest that the fungus does not stimulate Pi uptake, but adapts the expression profiles to Pi limitation in Pi metabolism mutants.

  17. Piriformospora indica Reprograms Gene Expression in Arabidopsis Phosphate Metabolism Mutants But Does Not Compensate for Phosphate Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhunita Bakshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus of Sebacinaceae which colonizes the roots of many plant species and confers benefits to the hosts. We demonstrate that approximately 75% of the genes, which respond to P. indica in Arabidopsis roots, differ among seedlings grown on normal phosphate (Pi or Pi limitation conditions, and among wild-type and the wrky6 mutant impaired in the regulation of the Pi metabolism. Mapman analyses suggest that the fungus activates different signaling, transport, metabolic and developmental programs in the roots of wild-type and wrky6 seedlings under normal and low Pi conditions. Under low Pi, P. indica promotes growth and Pi uptake of wild-type seedlings, and the stimulatory effects are identical for mutants impaired in the PHOSPHATE TRANSPORTERS1;1, -1;2 and -1;4. The data suggest that the fungus does not stimulate Pi uptake, but adapts the expression profiles to Pi limitation in Pi metabolism mutants.

  18. Bioactive metabolites from Phoma species, an endophytic fungus from the Chinese medicinal plant Arisaema erubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Wei; Xu, Bai-Ge; Wang, Jia-Ying; Su, Zhen-Zhu; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Zhang, Chu-Long; Kubicek, Christian P

    2012-02-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation, the EtOAc extract of a culture broth of the endophytic fungus Phoma species ZJWCF006 in Arisaema erubescens afforded a new α-tetralone derivative, (3S)-3,6,7-trihydroxy-α-tetralone (1), together with cercosporamide (2), β-sitosterol (3), and trichodermin (4). The structures of compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 were obtained from Phoma species for the first time. Additionally, the compounds were subjected to bioactivity assays, including antimicrobial activity, against four plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporium, Rhizoctonia solani, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Magnaporthe oryzae) and two plant pathogenic bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris and Xanthomonas oryzae), as well as in vitro antitumor activities against HT-29, SMMC-772, MCF-7, HL-60, MGC80-3, and P388 cell lines. Compound 1 showed growth inhibition against F. oxysporium and R. solani with EC₅₀ values of 413.22 and 48.5 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 1 showed no cytotoxicity, whereas compound 2 exhibited cytotoxic activity against the six tumor cell lines tested, with IC₅₀ values of 9.3 ± 2.8, 27.87 ± 1.78, 48.79 ± 2.56, 37.57 ± 1.65, 27.83 ± 0.48, and 30.37 ± 0.28 μM, respectively. We conclude that endophytic Phoma are promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites.

  19. Antibacterial and cytotoxic cytochalasins from the endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. harbored in Garcinia kola (Heckel) nut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Mbazoa, Céline Djama; Douala-Meli, Clovis; Sarkar, Prodipta; Bag, Prasanta Kumar; Wandji, Jean

    2016-11-14

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria drastically reduced the efficacy of our antibiotic armory and consequently, increased the frequency of therapeutic failure. The search for bioactive constituents from endophytic fungi against MDR bacteria became a necessity for alternative and promising strategies, and for the development of novel therapeutic solutions. We report here the isolation and structure elucidation of antibacterial and cytotoxic compounds from Phomopsis sp., an endophytic fungus associated with Garcinia kola nuts. The fungus Phomopsis sp. was isolated from the nut of Garcinia kola. The crude extract was prepared from mycelium of Phomopsis sp. by maceration in ethyl acetate and sequentially fractionated by column chromatography. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral studies and comparison with published data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and anticancer properties by broth microdilution and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide methods respectively. The samples were also tested spectrophotometrically for their hemolytic properties against human red blood cells. The fractionation of the crude extract afforded three known cytochalasins including 18-metoxycytochalasin J (1), cytochalasins H (2) and J (3) together with alternariol (4). The cytochalasin compounds showed different degrees of antibacterial activities against the tested bacterial pathogens. Shigella flexneri was the most sensitive microorganism while Vibrio cholerae SG24 and Vibrio cholerae PC2 were the most resistant. Ampicillin did not show any antibacterial activity against Vibrio cholerae NB2, Vibrio cholerae PC2 and Shigella flexneri at concentrations up to 512 μg/mL, but interestingly, these multi-drug resistant bacterial strains were sensitive to the cytochalasin metabolites. These compounds also showed significant cytotoxic properties against human cancer cells (LC

  20. Microbial biotransformation of gentiopicroside by the endophytic fungus Penicillium crustosum 2T01Y01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wen-Liang; Li, Wan-Kui; Han, Han; Tao, Yan-Yan; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Chen, Kai-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are symbiotic with plants and possess multienzyme systems showing promising metabolite potency with region selectivity and stereoselectivity. The aim of this study was to use these special microorganisms as an in vitro model to mimic the potential mammalian metabolites of a natural iridoid gentiopicroside (GPS, compound 1). The fungi isolated from a medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl., were screened for their biotransformation abilities with GPS as the substrate, and one strain with high converting potency was identified as Penicillium crustosum 2T01Y01 on the basis of the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA region. Upon the optimized incubation of P. crustosum 2T01Y01 with the substrate, seven deglycosylated metabolites were detected by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). Preparative-scale biotransformation with whole cells of the endophytic fungus resulted in the production of five metabolites, including three novel ones, 5α-(hydroxymethyl)-6β-methyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-c]pyran-1(8H)-one (compound 2), (Z)-4-(1-hydroxybut-3-en-2-yl)-5,6-dihydropyran-2-one (compound 3), and (E)-4-(1-hydroxybut-3-en-2-yl)-5,6-dihydropyran-2-one (compound 4), along with two known ones, 5α-(hydroxymethyl)-6β-methyl-1H,3H-5,6-dihydropyrano[3,4-c]pyran-1(3H)-one (compound 5) and 5α-(hydroxymethyl)-6α-methyl-5,6-dihydropyrano[3,4-c]pyran-1(3H)-one (compound 6), aided by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectral analyses. The other two metabolites were tentatively identified by online UPLC/Q-TOF MS as 5-hydroxymethyl-5,6-dihydroisochromen-1-one (compound 7) and 5-hydroxymethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroisochromen-1-one (compound 8), and compound 8 is a new metabolite. To test the metabolic mechanism, the β-glucosidase activity of the fungus P. crustosum 2T01Y01 was assayed with ρ-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as a probe substrate

  1. A proteomics approach to study the molecular basis of enhanced salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) conferred by the root mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-interacting mutualistic fungus capable of enhancing plant growth, increasing plant resistance to a wide variety of pathogens, and improving plant stress tolerance under extreme environmental conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which P. indica can improve plant tolerance to stresses will pave the way to identifying the major mechanisms underlying plant adaptability to environmental stresses. We conducted greenhouse experiments at three different salt levels (0, 100 and 300 mM NaCl) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar "Pallas" inoculated with P. indica. Based on the analysis of variance, P. indica had a significant impact on the barley growth and shoot biomass under normal and salt stress conditions. P. indica modulated ion accumulation in colonized plants by increasing the foliar potassium (K(+))/sodium (Na(+)) ratio, as it is considered a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance. P. indica induced calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation and likely influenced the stress signal transduction. Subsequently, proteomic analysis of the barley leaf sheath using two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in detection of 968 protein spots. Of these detected spots, the abundance of 72 protein spots changed significantly in response to salt treatment and P. indica-root colonization. Mass spectrometry analysis of responsive proteins led to the identification of 51 proteins. These proteins belonged to different functional categories including photosynthesis, cell antioxidant defense, protein translation and degradation, energy production, signal transduction and cell wall arrangement. Our results showed that P. indica induced a systemic response to salt stress by altering the physiological and proteome responses of the plant host.

  2. The mycorrhiza fungus Piriformospora indica induces fast root-surface pH signaling and primes systemic alkalinization of the leaf apoplast upon powdery mildew infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felle, Hubert H; Waller, Frank; Molitor, Alexandra; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2009-09-01

    We analyze here, by noninvasive electrophysiology, local and systemic plant responses in the interaction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the root-colonizing basidiomycete Piriformospora indica. In the short term (seconds, minutes), a constant flow of P. indica chlamydospores along primary roots altered surface pH characteristics; whereas the root-hair zone transiently alkalized-a typical elicitor response-the elongation zone acidified, indicative of enhanced H(+) extrusion and plasma membrane H(+) ATPase stimulation. Eight to 10 min after treating roots with chlamydospores, the apoplastic pH of leaves began to acidify, which contrasts with observations of an alkalinization response to various stressors and microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). In the long term (days), plants with P. indica-colonized roots responded to inoculation with the leaf-pathogenic powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei with a leaf apoplastic pH increase of about 2, while the leaf apoplast of noncolonized barley responded to B. graminis f. sp. hordei merely with a pH increase of 0.8. The strong apoplastic pH response is reminiscent of B. graminis f. sp. hordei-triggered pH shifts in resistance gene-mediated resistant barley leaves or upon treatment with a chemical resistance inducer. In contrast, the MAMP N-acetylchito-octaose did not induce resistance to B. graminis f. sp. hordei and did not trigger the primed apoplastic pH shift. We speculate that the primed pH increase is indicative of and supports the potentiated systemic response to B. graminis f. sp. hordei-induced by P. indica in barley.

  3. Piriformospora indica: a Friend in Need is a Friend in Deed

    OpenAIRE

    Dipesh Kumar Trivedi; Amit Srivastava; Praveen Kumar Verma; Narendra Tuteja; Sarvajeet Singh Gill

    2016-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic root-colonizing fungal species classified in the genus Piriformospora of the order Sebacinales. The chlamydospores of P. indica has a typical pear-shape and it was first discovered from the orchid plants in the Thar desert in Rajasthan, India and thus named P. indica.

  4. Fusaripeptide A: new antifungal and anti-malarial cyclodepsipeptide from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Elkhayat, Ehab S; Al Musayeib, Nawal M; Asfour, Hani Z; Zayed, Mohamed F; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2018-01-01

    From the culture of the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia L. (Labiatae) growing in Saudi Arabia, a new cyclodepsipeptide, namely fusaripeptide A (1), along with three known compounds adenosine (2), 2[(2-hydroxypropionyl)amino]benzamide (3), and cyclopentanol (4), have been isolated. Their structures were determined, using extensive 1D and 2D NMR and HRESI and GC mass spectral data. That is the first report for the isolation of compound 4 from natural source. In addition, compounds 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time from Fusarium sp. The absolute configuration of the amino acid residues of 1 was assigned by chiral GCMS and Marfey's analysis after acid hydrolysis. Fusaripeptide A differs from the reported ones from Fusarium sp. in the length of fatty acidic alkyl chain. Compound 1 was evaluated for its antifungal, anti-malarial, and cytotoxic activities. It exhibited potent antifungal activity toward C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and A. fumigates with IC 50 values of 0.11, 0.24, 0.19, and 0.14 μM, respectively. Furthermore, it had significant anti-malarial activity toward P. falciparum (D6 clone) with IC 50 value of 0.34 μM. However, it showed cytotoxic activity toward the tested cell lines.

  5. Integracides H-J: New tetracyclic triterpenoids from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Ross, Samir A

    2016-07-01

    Three new tetracyclic triterpenoids namely, integracides H (1), I (4), and J (5), along with integracides B (3) and F (2) have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia L. (Labiatae) growing in Saudi Arabia. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was achieved by spectroscopic analysis including UV, IR, 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D ((1)H(1)H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) NMR as well as HRESIMS and comparison with literature data. Integracides H (1) and J (5) showed significant anti-leishmanial activity towards Leishmania donovani with IC50 values of 4.75 and 3.29μM, respectively compared to pentamidine (IC50 6.35μM). Moreover, they displayed potent cytotoxic activity towards BT-549, SKOV-3, and KB cell lines with IC50 values of 1.82, 1.32, and 0.18μM and 2.46, 3.01, and 2.54μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Furanones and Anthranilic Acid Derivatives from the Endophytic Fungus Dendrothyrium variisporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy B. Teponno

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from an endophytic fungus isolated from the roots of the Algerian plant Globularia alypum showed prominent antimicrobial activity in a screening for novel antibiotics. The producer organism was identified as Dendrothyrium variisporum by means of morphological studies and molecular phylogenetic methods. Studies on the secondary metabolite production of this strain in various culture media revealed that the major components from shake flasks were massarilactones D (1 and H (2 as well as two new furanone derivatives for which we propose the trivial names (5S-cis-gregatin B (3 and graminin D (4. Scale-up of the fermentation in a 10 L bioreactor yielded massarilactone D and several further metabolites. Among those were three new anthranilic acid derivatives (5–7, two known anthranilic acid analogues (8 and 9 and three cyclopeptides (10–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D- and 2D-NMR, high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRESIMS, and the application of the modified Mosher’s method. The isolated metabolites were tested for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities against various bacteria, fungi, and two mammalian cell lines. The new Metabolite 5 and Compound 9 exhibited antimicrobial activity while Compound 9 showed cytotoxicity activity against KB3.1 cells.

  7. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  8. New furoisocoumarins and isocoumarins from the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 085242

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze’en Xiao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 085242 afforded eight isocoumarin derivatives 1–8 and one isoquinoline 9. Asperisocoumarins A and B (1 and 2 were new furoisocoumarins, and asperisocoumarins E and F (5 and 6 were new isocoumarins. Their structures were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data and the absolute configuration of compound 2 was unambiguously determined by X-ray structure analysis and ECD calculation. Moreover, the absolute configurations of compounds 3–5 were assigned by comparison of their ECD spectra with isocoumarins described in the literature. Asperisocoumarins C and D (3 and 4 were fully characterized spectroscopically and isolated from a natural source for the first time. Asperisocoumarins A–D (1–4 related to the class of furo[3,2-h]isocoumarins are rarely occurring in natural sources. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 87.8, 52.3, and 95.6 μM, respectively. In addition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak radical scavenging activity with EC50 values of 125 and 138 μM, respectively.

  9. Selected phytotoxins and organic extracts from endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae as light reaction of photosynthesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; Ruiz-Velasco Sobrino, María Emma; Meléndez-González, Claudio; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2014-09-05

    In a search for natural herbicides, we investigated the action mechanism of the naphthoquinone spiroketals, isolated from the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae: preussomerins EG1 (1) and EG4 (2), and palmarumycins CP17 (3), and CP2 (4) on the photosynthesis light reactions. The naphthoquinone spiroketals 1-4 inhibited the ATP synthesis in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids from water to MV, and they also inhibited the non-cyclic electron transport in the basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled conditions from water to MV. Therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors. The results suggested that naphthoquinone spiroketals 1-4 have two interactions and inhibition site on the PSII electron transport chain. The first one involves the water splitting enzyme inhibition; and, the second on the acceptor site of PSII in a similar way that herbicide Diuron, studied by polaroghaphy and corroborated by fluorescence of the chlorophyll a of PSII. The culture medium and mycelium organic extracts from four morphological variants of E. gomezpompae were phytotoxic, and the culture medium extracts were more potent than mycelium extracts. They also act as Hill reaction inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Penicitroamide, an Antimicrobial Metabolite with High Carbonylization from the Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. (NO. 24

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Wei Feng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penicitroamide (1, a new metabolite with a new framework, was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth medium of Penicillium sp. (NO. 24. The endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. (NO. 24 was obtained from the healthy leaves of Tapiscia sinensis Oliv. The structure of penicitroamide (1 features a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane core unit with a high degree of carbonylization (four carbonyl groups and one enol group. The chemical structure of penicitroamide (1 was elucidated by analysis of 1D-, 2D-NMR and MS data. In bioassays, penicitroamide (1 displayed antibacterial potency against two plant pathogens, Erwinia carotovora subsp. Carotovora (Jones Bersey, et al. and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. with MIC50 at 45 and 50 μg/mL. Compound 1 also showed 60% lethality against brine shrimp at 10 μg/mL. Penicitroamide (1 exhibited no significant activity against A549, Caski, HepG2 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 > 50 μg/mL. Finally, the possible biosynthetic pathway of penicitroamide (1 was discussed.

  11. Transformation of the endophytic fungus Acremonium implicatum with GFP and evaluation of its biocontrol effect against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu-Rong; Tian, Xue-Liang; Shen, Bao-Ming; Mao, Zhen-Chuan; Chen, Guo-Hua; Xie, Bing-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Acremonium implicatum is an endophytic fungus with biocontrol potential against Meloidogyne incognita based on its opportunistic egg-parasitic, hatching inhibition, and toxic properties. To understand its mode of plant endophytism and opportunistic egg parasitism, GFP-tagged A. implicatum was constructed by PEG-mediated protoplast transformation. By laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), we evaluated the endophytism and opportunistic egg parasitism of a stable gfp transformant (Acr-1). Acr-1 could colonize epidermal tissue, cortical tissue, and xylem of roots and form a mutualistic symbiosis with tomato host plants. LSCM of Acr-1 infecting M. incognita eggs revealed that hyphae penetrated the shell and grew inside eggs to form trophic hyphae. A large number of hyphae enveloped parasitized eggs. In addition, the egg shell integrity was destroyed by fungal penetration. The percentage of egg parasitism was 33.8 %. There were no marked differences between the wild type and mutant in nematode second-stage juvenile mortality and egg hatching and in fungal control efficiency in a pot experiment. In conclusion, gfp-transformation did not change the nematicidal activity of A. implicatum and is a tool to examine the mode of plant endophytism and opportunistic egg parasitism of A. implicatum.

  12. Morphological and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Osmoadaptive Response of Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus montevidensis ZYD4 to High Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai-Hui; Ding, Xiao-Wei; Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yong-Gui; Liu, Fei-Hu; Liu, Bing-Bing; Xiao, Min; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Halophilic fungi have evolved unique osmoadaptive strategies, enabling them to thrive in hypersaline habitats. Here, we conduct morphological and transcriptomic response of endophytic fungus (Aspergillus montevidensis ZYD4) in both the presence and absence of salt stress. Under salt stress, the colony morphology of the A. montevidensis ZYD4 changed drastically and exhibited decreased colony pigmentation. Extensive conidiophores development was observed under salt stress; conidiophores rarely developed in the absence of salt stress. Under salt stress, yellow cleistothecium formation was inhibited, while glycerol and compatible sugars continued to accumulate. Among differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs), 733 of them were up-regulated while 1,619 unigenes were down-regulated. We discovered that genes involved in the accumulation of glycerol, the storage of compatible sugars, organic acids, pigment production, and asexual sporulation were differentially regulated under salt stress. These results provide further understanding of the molecular basis of osmoadaptive mechanisms of halophilic endophytic fungi.

  13. Molecular profiling and bioactive potential of an endophytic fungus Aspergillus sulphureus isolated from Sida acuta: a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, M; Mahendra, C; Hema, P; Rajashekar, N; Nataraju, A; Sudarshana, M S; Amruthesh, K N

    2017-12-01

    Sida acuta Burm.f. (Malvaceae) extracts are reported to have applications against malaria, diuretic, antipyretic, nervous and urinary diseases. No fungal endophytes of S. acuta are reported. Isolation, identification and evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer and haemolytic potential of fungal endophytes from the ethnomedcinal plant S. acuta. Sida acuta stem segments were placed on PDA medium to isolate endophytic fungi. The fungus was identified by genomic DNA analysis and phylogenetic tree was constructed using ITS sequences (GenBank) to confirm species. The antibacterial efficacy of Aspergillus sulphureus MME12 ethyl acetate extract was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. DPPH free radical scavenging activity, anticancer and DNA fragmentation against EAC cells, and direct haemolytic activity (100-500 μg/mL) using human erythrocytes were determined. The ethyl acetate extract of A. sulphureus (Fresen.) Wehmer (Trichocomaceae) demonstrated significant antibacterial potential against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi compared to streptomycin. MIC against test pathogens was in the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/mL. The antioxidant results revealed significant RSA from 12.43% to 62.02% (IC50 = 350.4 μg/mL, p ≤ 0.05). MME12 offered considerable inhibition of EAC proliferation (23% to 84%, IC50 = 216.7 μg/mL, p ≤ 0.05) supported by DNA fragmentation studies. The extract also offered insignificant haemolysis (5.6%) compared to Triton X-100. A single endophytic fungus, A. sulphureus MME12 was isolated and identified using molecular profiling. The above-mentioned findings support the pharmacological application of A. sulphureus MME12 extract and demand for purification of the active principle(s).

  14. Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey M. do Rosario; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Moitinho, Maria da Luz R. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Santos, Lourivaldo S. [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.br

    2005-04-01

    Penicillium janthinellum, isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach, was cultivated over 20 days on ground and autoclaved white corn, where the known polyketides citrinin, emodin, 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-hydroxymethylanthraquinone, and a new modified anthraquinone, named janthinone, were produced and isolated by classical chromatographic procedures and identified by MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The antibacterial properties of these polyketides were investigated. Citrinin inhibited 100% of Leishmania growth after 48h at a concentration of 40 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. (author)

  15. Cristatumins A-D, new indole alkaloids from the marine-derived endophytic fungus Eurotium cristatum EN-220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chun-Shun; Shang, Zhuo; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2012-07-15

    Four new indole alkaloids, namely, cristatumins A-D (1-4), along with six known congeners (5-10) were identified from the culture extract of Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an endophytic fungus isolated from the marine alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. Each of these compounds was evaluated for antimicrobial and insecticidal activity. Compounds 1 and 9 showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphyloccocus aureus, respectively, while compounds 2, 6, and 7 exhibited moderate lethal activity against brine shrimp. Preliminary structure-activity relationships were also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Four new steroids from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. M453 derived of Chinese herbal medicine Huperzia serrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei-Xue; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yao; Yang, Yin-He; Li, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Pei-Ji

    2017-03-01

    An endophytic fungus, Chaetomium sp. M453, was isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. and subjected to phytochemical investigation. Three unusual C25 steroids, neocyclocitrinols E-G (1-3), and 3β-hydroxy-5,9-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4) together with three known steroids were isolated from solid fermentation products of the fungus, which were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS experiments. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD analyses. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of compounds 1-4 were tested in vitro. Compound 4 showed weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Newly Isolated Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium sp. LK1 Produces Ascotoxin

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    Sang-Mo Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated five endophytic fungi from the roots of Capsicum annuum, Cucumis sativus and Glycine max. The culture filtrates (CF of these endophytes were screened on dwarf mutant rice (Waito-C and normal rice (Dongjin-byeo. Endophyte CAC-1A significantly inhibited the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo. Endophyte CAC-1A was identified as Paraconiothyrium sp. by sequencing the ITS rDNA region and phylogenetic analysis. The ethyl acetate fraction of Paraconiothyrium sp. suppressed the germination of Lactuca sativa and Echinochloa crus-galli seeds. The ethyl acetate fraction of the endophyte was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained the phytotoxic compound ascotoxin (1 which was characterized through NMR and GC/MS techniques. Ascotoxin revealed 100% inhibitory effects on seed germination of Echinochloa crus-galli. Compound (1 was isolated for the first time from Paraconiothyrium sp.

  18. Specific In Situ Visualization of the Pathogenic Endophytic Fungus Aciculosporium take, the Cause of Witches’ Broom in Bamboo▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches’ broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host. PMID:19465522

  19. Specific in situ visualization of the pathogenic endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take, the cause of witches' broom in bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches' broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host.

  20. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26-42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants.

  1. Isolation, purification and characterization of vinblastine and vincristine from endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum isolated from Catharanthus roseus.

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    Ashutosh Kumar

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi reside in a symbiotic fashion inside their host plants, mimic their chemistry and interestingly, produce the same natural products as their hosts and are thus being screened for the production of valuable compounds like taxol, camptothecin, podophyllotoxin, etc. Vinblastine and vincristine are excellent anti-cancer drugs but their current production using plants is non-abundant and expensive. In order to make these drugs readily available to the patients at affordable prices, we isolated the endophytic fungi from Catharanthus roseus plant and found a fungus AA-CRL-6 which produces vinblastine and vincristine in appreciable amounts. These drugs were purified by TLC and HPLC and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, ESI-MS, MS/MS and (1H NMR. One liter of culture filtrate yielded 76 µg and 67 µg of vinblastine and vincristine respectively. This endophytic fungal strain was identified as Fusarium oxysporum based upon its cultural and morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequence analysis.

  2. The role of auxins and cytokinins in the mutualistic interaction between Arabidopsis and Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Ritter, Claudia; Venus, Yvonne; Camehl, Iris; Varma, Ajit; Shahollari, Bationa; Novák, Ondrej; Strnad, Miroslav; Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2008-10-01

    Arabidopsis growth and reproduction are stimulated by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The fungus produces low amounts of auxins, but the auxin levels and the expression of auxin-regulated genes are not altered in colonized roots. Also, mutants with reduced auxin levels (ilr1-1, nit1-3, tfl2, cyp79 b2b3) respond to P. indica. However, the fungus rescues the dwarf phenotype of the auxin overproducer sur1-1 by converting free auxin into conjugates, which also results in the downregulation of the auxin-induced IAA6 and the upregulation of the P. indica-induced LRR1 gene. The fungus produces relatively high levels of cytokinins, and the cytokinin levels are higher in colonized roots compared with the uncolonized controls. trans-Zeatin cytokinin biosynthesis and the CRE1/AHK2 receptor combination are crucial for P. indica-mediated growth stimulation, while mutants lacking cis-zeatin, impaired in other cytokinin receptor combinations, or containing reduced cytokinin levels respond to the fungus. Since root colonization is not affected in the cytokinin mutants, we propose that cytokinins are required for P. indica-induced growth promotion. Finally, a comparative analysis of the phytohormone mutants allows the conclusion that the response to P. indica is independent of the architecture and size of the roots.

  3. Effect of precursors feeding and media manipulation on production of novel anticancer pro-drug camptothecin from endophytic fungus

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    Touseef Amna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have established methodology for the isolation and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from the inner bark of medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, which produced camptothecin in Sabouraud broth (SB under shake flask conditions. Camptothecin and its related compounds are at present obtained by extraction from intact plants, but fungal endopytes may be an alternative source of production. In present study we have observed the effect of different nutrient combinations and precursors (tryptophan, tryptamine, geraniol, citral, mevalonic acid and leucine on the accumulation of camptothecin by endophytic fungus Entrophospora infrequens. The precursors were fed either alone or in combinations (tryptophan and geraniol, tryptophan and citral, tryptophan and mevalonic acid, tryptophan and leucine. The highest camptothecin content was observed in the range of 503 ± 25µg/100g dry cell mass in Sabouraud medium. Camptothecin content in the medium was increased by 2.5 folds by the presence of tryptophan and leucine whereas the production with trytophan was also significantly different from other treatments. Furthermore, the effect of fungal camptothecin on the morphology of human cancer cell lines was also studied. The treated cells showed reduction in size, condensation of nucleus and the protoplasmic extensions were reduced. All these characteristics are found in apoptotic cells.

  4. In vitro plant development and root colonization of Coleus forskohlii by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aparajita; Tripathi, Swati; Varma, Ajit

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted for optimization of in vitro substrates under aseptic conditions for interaction of Piriformospora indica with the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. It aims to test the effects of different substrates on P. indica colonization as well as growth parameters of the in vitro raised C. forskohlii. Interaction of in vitro C. forskohlii with root endophyte P. indica under aseptic condition resulted in increase in growth parameters in fungus colonized plants. It was observed that P. indica promoted the plant's growth in all irrespective of substrates used for co-culture study. The growth was found inferior in liquid compared to semisolid medium as well as there was problem of hyperhydricity in liquid medium. P. indica treated in vitro plantlets were better adapted for establishment under green house compared to the non treated plants due to fungal intervention.

  5. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleucine coracona produces anti-fungal natural products

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    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp. was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  6. An endophytic fungus isolated from finger millet (Eleusine coracana) produces anti-fungal natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Walaa K; Schwan, Adrian; Davidson, Jeffrey; Strange, Philip; Liu, Huaizhi; Zhou, Ting; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Finger millet is an ancient African cereal crop, domesticated 7000 years ago in Ethiopia, reaching India at 3000 BC. Finger millet is reported to be resistant to various fungal pathogens including Fusarium sp. We hypothesized that finger millet may host beneficial endophytes (plant-colonizing microbes) that contribute to the antifungal activity. Here we report the first isolation of endophyte(s) from finger millet. Five distinct fungal species were isolated from roots and predicted taxonomically based on 18S rDNA sequencing. Extracts from three putative endophytes inhibited growth of F. graminearum and three other pathogenic Fusarium species. The most potent anti-Fusarium strain (WF4, predicted to be a Phoma sp.) was confirmed to behave as an endophyte using pathogenicity and confocal microscopy experiments. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the WF4 extract identified four anti-fungal compounds, viridicatol, tenuazonic acid, alternariol, and alternariol monomethyl ether. All the purified compounds caused dramatic breakage of F. graminearum hyphae in vitro. These compounds have not previously been reported to have anti-Fusarium activity. None of the compounds, except for tenuazonic acid, have previously been reported to be produced by Phoma. We conclude that the ancient, disease-tolerant crop, finger millet, is a novel source of endophytic anti-fungal natural products. This paper suggests the value of the crops grown by subsistence farmers as sources of endophytes and their natural products. Application of these natural chemicals to solve real world problems will require further validation.

  7. Bioactive compounds of Aspergillus terreus-F7, an endophytic fungus from Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Igor Pereira; Brissow, Elson; Kellner Filho, Luis Claudio; Senabio, Jaqueline; de Siqueira, Kátia Aparecida; Vandresen Filho, Samuel; Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; Mendes, Suzana Amorim; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Magalhães, Lizandra Guidi; Junior, Policarpo Ademar Sales; Januário, Ana Helena; Soares, Marcos Antônio

    2017-03-01

    The compounds terrein (1), butyrolactone I (2), and butyrolactone V (3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (EtOAc) of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus-F7 obtained from Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. The extract and the compounds presented schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni; at 100 µg/mL for EtOAc extract, 1297.3 µM for compound 1, 235.6 µM for compound 2, and 454.1 µM for compound 3, they killed 100% of the parasites after 72 h of treatment. Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exerted moderate leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 ranged from 23.7 to 78.6 µM). At 235.6 and 227.0 µM, compounds 2 and 3, respectively, scavenged 95.92 and 95.12% of the DPPH radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl), respectively. Regarding the cytotoxicity against the breast tumor cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, compound 2 gave IC50 of 34.4 and 17.4 µM, respectively, while compound 3 afforded IC50 of 22.2 and 31.9 µM, respectively. At 117.6 µM, compound 2 inhibited the growth of and killed the pathogen Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 displayed low toxicity against the normal line of human lung fibroblasts (GM07492A cells), with IC50 of 15.3 × 103, 3.4 × 103, and 5.8 × 103 µM, respectively. This is the first report on (i) the in vitro schistosomicidal and leishmanicidal activities of the EtOAc extract of A. terreus-F7 and compounds 1, 2, and 3; and (ii) the antitumor activity of compounds 2 and 3 against MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells.

  8. Effect of salinity medium on antioxidant and antidiabetic activity marine endophytic fungus of asperegillus elegans ptf 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Hani; Artanti, Nina; Fitria, Irni; Filailla, Euis; Kandace, Yoice Sri; Udin, Linar Zalinar

    2017-11-01

    Our previous studies on screening of antioxidant activities from various endophytic fungi isolated from marine bioata showed that A. elegans PTF9 isolated from sea weed is one of the fungus that has good antioxidant activity. In current study we reported the effect of medium salinity (0, 3 and 10% salt in PDB medium) on antioxidant and antidiabetes activity of mycelium and filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of A. elegans Ptf 9. The antioxidant assay was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity method. The antidiabetes assay was conducted using a-glucosidase inhibitory activity method. The results showed that the best antioxidant activity was obtained from filtrate extract of fungus cultures with 0% salt (IC50=1.56 ppm), whereas the best antidiabetes activity was obtained from filtrate extract of fungus culture with 10% salt (IC50= 3.64 ppm). Addition of salt reduced the antioxidant activity, but not the antidiabetes activity. The results suggest that A. elegans PTF9 showed potential for further studies on isolation of antioxidant and antidiabetes lead compounds that could be use for further development of new drugs.

  9. Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis conferred by the mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica requires jasmonic acid signaling and the cytoplasmic function of NPR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Elke; Molitor, Alexandra; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Waller, Frank

    2008-11-01

    We analyzed the requirement of specific defense pathways for powdery mildew (Golovinomyces orontii) resistance induced by the basidiomycete Piriformospora indica in Arabidopsis. Piriformospora indica root colonization reduced G. orontii conidia in wild-type (Col-0), npr1-3 (nonexpressor of PR genes 1-3) and NahG plants, but not in the npr1-1 null mutant. Therefore, cytoplasmic but not nuclear localization of NPR1 is required for P. indica-induced resistance. Two jasmonate signaling mutants were non-responsive to P. indica, and jasmonic acid-responsive vegetative storage protein expression was primed and thus elevated in response to powdery mildew, suggesting that P. indica confers resistance reminiscent of induced systemic resistance (ISR).

  10. Cytotoxic assay of endophytic fungus 1.2.11 secondary metabolites from Brucea javanica (L Merr towards cancer cell in vitro

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    Pratiwi Sudarmono

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic assay of secondary metabolite endophytic fungus 1.2.11 from Brucea javanica (L Merr has been carried out. Brucea javanica fruit collected from Cianjur was used in this experiment. Cytotoxic assay was done on Raji, NS-1, HeLa and Vero cells. The observation was done for 24 hours and also for 48 hours. IC50 was calculated using the Rich and Muench theory. To observe the working mechanism of cytotoxic process, DNA staining with etidium bromide and acridine orange was conducted. The cytotoxic assay of endophytic fungi 1.2.11 showed an IC50 of 58.35 μg/ml, 88.39 μg/ml on Raji cell,; 162.09 μg/ml, 66.24 μg/ml on NS cell; 361.21 μg/ml, 219.97 μg/ml on HeLa cell; and lastly 1075.18 μg/ml, 656.82 μg/ml on Vero cell after 24 and 48 hour incubation respectively. The results of this study showed that secondary metabolite of endophytic fungus 1.2.11 has selective cytotoxic effect towards cancer cell and also showed that it might cause apoptosis in NS-1cell. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:137-44 Keywords: Brucea javanica (L. Merr, endophytic microbe, Cytotoxic assay, endophytic isolate 1.2.11, apoptosis

  11. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5% of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops.

  12. Indolediketopiperazine Alkaloids from Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Marine Alga Sargassum thunbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Li-Wei; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-01-25

    Four new indolediketopiperazine derivatives (1-4), along with nine known congeners (5-13), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an endophytic fungus obtained from the marine alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of thesecompounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and the absolute configurations of compounds 1-4 were established by NOESY experiments and by chiral HPLC analyses of their acid hydrolysates. The absolute configuration of C-8 (a quaternary carbon substituted with a hydroxyl group) in 5 of preechinulin class was firstly determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All these compounds were evaluatedfor brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality and nematicidal activity as well as antioxidativeand antimicrobial potency.

  13. Indolediketopiperazine Alkaloids from Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Marine Alga Sargassum thunbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yu Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new indolediketopiperazine derivatives (1–4, along with nine known congeners (5–13, were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an endophytic fungus obtained from the marine alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of thesecompounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and the absolute configurations of compounds 1–4 were established by NOESY experiments and by chiral HPLC analyses of their acid hydrolysates. The absolute configuration of C-8 (a quaternary carbon substituted with a hydroxyl group in 5 of preechinulin class was firstly determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculations. All these compounds were evaluatedfor brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethality and nematicidal activity as well as antioxidativeand antimicrobial potency.

  14. An Endophytic Fungus, Talaromyces radicus, Isolated from Catharanthus roseus, Produces Vincristine and Vinblastine, Which Induce Apoptotic Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palem, Padmini P C; Kuriakose, Gini C; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi isolated from Catharanthus roseus were screened for the production of vincristine and vinblastine. Twenty-two endophytic fungi isolated from various tissues of C. roseus were characterized taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and grouped into 10 genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Colletotrichum, Dothideomycetes, Eutypella, Eutypa, Flavodon, Fusarium and Talaromyces. The antiproliferative activity of these fungi was assayed in HeLa cells using the MTT assay. The fungal isolates Eutypella sp--CrP14, obtained from stem tissues, and Talaromyces radicus--CrP20, obtained from leaf tissues, showed the strongest antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values of 13.5 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml, respectively. All 22 endophytic fungi were screened for the presence of the gene encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), the key enzyme in the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway, though this gene could only be amplified from T. radicus--CrP20 (NCBI GenBank accession number KC920846). The production of vincristine and vinblastine by T. radicus--CrP20 was confirmed and optimized in nine different liquid media. Good yields of vincristine (670 μg/l) in modified M2 medium and of vinblastine (70 μg/l) in potato dextrose broth medium were obtained. The cytotoxic activity of partially purified fungal vincristine was evaluated in different human cancer cell lines, with HeLa cells showing maximum susceptibility. The apoptosis-inducing activity of vincristine derived from this fungus was established through cell cycle analysis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation patterns.

  15. Direct MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses of unnatural beauvericins produced by the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum SS46

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    Mayra Vendramini Tuiche

    Full Text Available The best time of production of the cyclohexadepsipeptide beauvericin by the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum SS46 in Czapek medium was evaluated. The highest level of beauvericin production was found on day 21 of fermentative culture, as assessed by quantitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. Precursor-directed biosynthesis experiments were carried out to produce new analogues of beauvericin by feeding F. oxysporum with ten analogues of L-phenylalanine. In order to evaluate which precursor analogues were incorporated by the microorganism, the obtained extracts were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF. The precursor-directed biosynthesis studies led to the biosynthesis of novel beauvericin derivatives by replacement of one, two, or all three L-phenylalanine residues in beauvericin with DL-3-fluorophenylalanine, L-3-fluorophenylalanine, L-4-fluorophenylalanine, or L-tyrosine. Beyond these precursor analogues, one unit of L-4-aminophenylalanine, L-4-chlorophenylalanine, DL-4-bromophenylalanine, or L-4-bromophenylalanine was also incorporated by the endophyte F. oxysporum SS46. Units of L-4-nitrophenylalanine and L-histidine were not incorporated by the microorganism to produce unnatural beauvericins.

  16. Secondary Metabolites from Endophytic Fungus Penicillium pinophilum Induce ROS-Mediated Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathway in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Mytre; Meena, Samdarshi; Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Parduman Raj; Singamaneni, Venugopal; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Hamid, Abid; Chaubey, Asha; Prabhakar, Anil; Gupta, Prasoon; Singh, Shashank

    2016-03-01

    The endophytic fungus strain MRCJ-326, isolated from Allium schoenoprasum, which is also known as Snow Mountain Garlic or Kashmiri garlic, was identified as Penicillium pinophilum on the basis of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer region nucleotide sequence analysis. The endophytic fungus extract was subjected to 2D-SEPBOX bioactivity-guided fractionation and purification. The anthraquinone class of the bioactive secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized as oxyskyrin (1), skyrin (2), dicatenarin (3), and 1,6,8-trihydroxy-3-hydroxy methylanthraquinone (4) by spectral analysis. Dicatenarin and skyrin showed marked growth inhibition against the NCI60/ATCC panel of human cancer cell lines with least IC50 values of 12 µg/mL and 27 µg/mL, respectively, against the human pancreatic cancer (MIA PaCa-2) cell line. The phenolic hydroxyl group in anthraquinones plays a crucial role in the oxidative process and bioactivity. Mechanistically, these compounds, i.e., dicatenarin and skyrin, significantly induce apoptosis and transmit the apoptotic signal via intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, thereby inducing a change in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and induction of the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway. Our data indicated that dicatenarin and skyrin induce reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition and resulted in an increased induction of caspase-3 apoptotic proteins in human pancreatic cancer (MIA PaCa-2) cells. Dicatenarin showed a more pronounced cytotoxic/proapopotic effect than skyrin due to the presence of an additional phenolic hydroxyl group at C-4, which increases oxidative reactive oxygen species generation. This is the first report from P. pinophilum secreating these cytotoxic/proapoptotic secondary metabolites. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. A new α-pyrone metabolite from a mangrove plant endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Yoshihito; Shibuya, Fumiaki; Koseki, Takuya; Harizon; Supratman, Unang; Uesugi, Shota; Kimura, Ken-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    A new α-pyrone derivative, compound 2, and a known one, cladobotrin V, were isolated from the culture broth of the mangrove endophyte Fusarium sp. IM-37. Their structures were determined spectroscopically and compared with previously reported spectral data. Compound 2 restored the growth inhibition caused by hyperactivated Ca(2+)-signaling in mutant yeast.

  18. Genomic analysis of the hydrocarbon-producing, cellulolytic, endophytic fungus Ascocoryne sarcoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara A Gianoulis

    Full Text Available The microbial conversion of solid cellulosic biomass to liquid biofuels may provide a renewable energy source for transportation fuels. Endophytes represent a promising group of organisms, as they are a mostly untapped reservoir of metabolic diversity. They are often able to degrade cellulose, and they can produce an extraordinary diversity of metabolites. The filamentous fungal endophyte Ascocoryne sarcoides was shown to produce potential-biofuel metabolites when grown on a cellulose-based medium; however, the genetic pathways needed for this production are unknown and the lack of genetic tools makes traditional reverse genetics difficult. We present the genomic characterization of A. sarcoides and use transcriptomic and metabolomic data to describe the genes involved in cellulose degradation and to provide hypotheses for the biofuel production pathways. In total, almost 80 biosynthetic clusters were identified, including several previously found only in plants. Additionally, many transcriptionally active regions outside of genes showed condition-specific expression, offering more evidence for the role of long non-coding RNA in gene regulation. This is one of the highest quality fungal genomes and, to our knowledge, the only thoroughly annotated and transcriptionally profiled fungal endophyte genome currently available. The analyses and datasets contribute to the study of cellulose degradation and biofuel production and provide the genomic foundation for the study of a model endophyte system.

  19. Chemical communication between the endophytic fungus Paraconiothyrium variabile and the phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Combès

    Full Text Available Paraconiothyrium variabile, one of the specific endophytic fungi isolated from the host plant Cephalotaxus harringtonia, possesses the faculty to inhibit the growth of common phytopathogens, thus suggesting a role in its host protection. A strong antagonism between the endophyte P. variabile and Fusarium oxysporum was observed and studied using optic and electronic microscopies. A disorganization of the mycelium of F. oxysporum was thus noticed. Interestingly, the biological effect of the main secondary metabolites isolated from P. variabile against F. oxysporum did not account for this strong antagonism. However, a metabolomic approach of pure fungal strains and confrontation zones using the data analysis tool XCMS were analyzed and pointed out a competition-induced metabolite production by the endophyte in the presence of the phytopathogen. Subsequent MS/MS fragmentations permitted to identify one of the induced metabolites as 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid and highlighted a negative modulation of the biosynthesis of beauvericin, one of the most potent mycotoxin of F. oxysporum, during the competition with the endophyte.

  20. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana’s roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes PMID:27399695

  1. Piriformospora indica confers cadmium tolerance in Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Feiqiong; Liu, Jian; Gao, Qikang; Lou, Binggan

    2015-11-01

    Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to confirm the influence of P. indica on growth, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), chlorophyll, and cadmium (Cd) amounts in Nicotiana tabacum under Cd stress, hydroponics, pot and field trials were conducted. The results showed that P. indica can store Cd in plant roots and reduce leaf Cd content, reduce the concentration of MDA, and increase the proline and chlorophyll content and the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase under hydroponic Cd stress. RT-PCR analysis showed that the relative expression level of genes Gsh2, TaPCS1, oas1, GPX, and Hsp70 in colonized plants was 4.3, 1.4, 2.9, 1.7, and 6.9 fold higher than in un-colonized plants respectively. Cd exposure significantly reduced un-colonized plants' agronomic traits compared to P. indica-colonized ones. Our results suggested that P. indica can sequester Cd in roots, so that much less cadmium was transported to leaves, and the increased concentrations of antioxidant enzymes, pigments and proline contents, as well as the higher expression of stress-related phytochelatin biosynthesis genes in P. indica-inoculated plants, may also serve to protect N. tabacum plants against oxidative damage, enhancing Cd tolerance. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Strehmel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana’s roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI-QTOFMS and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS, and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes

  3. Piriformospora indica Stimulates Root Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Nadine; Mönchgesang, Susann; Herklotz, Siska; Krüger, Sylvia; Ziegler, Jörg; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-07-08

    Piriformospora indica is a root-colonizing fungus, which interacts with a variety of plants including Arabidopsis thaliana. This interaction has been considered as mutualistic leading to growth promotion of the host. So far, only indolic glucosinolates and phytohormones have been identified as key players. In a comprehensive non-targeted metabolite profiling study, we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana's roots, root exudates, and leaves of inoculated and non-inoculated plants by ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/(ESI)-QTOFMS) and gas chromatography/electron ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-QMS), and identified further biomarkers. Among them, the concentration of nucleosides, dipeptides, oligolignols, and glucosinolate degradation products was affected in the exudates. In the root profiles, nearly all metabolite levels increased upon co-cultivation, like carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, glucosinolates, oligolignols, and flavonoids. In the leaf profiles, we detected by far less significant changes. We only observed an increased concentration of organic acids, carbohydrates, ascorbate, glucosinolates and hydroxycinnamic acids, and a decreased concentration of nitrogen-rich amino acids in inoculated plants. These findings contribute to the understanding of symbiotic interactions between plant roots and fungi of the order of Sebacinales and are a valid source for follow-up mechanistic studies, because these symbioses are particular and clearly different from interactions of roots with mycorrhizal fungi or dark septate endophytes.

  4. Antifungal compounds of Xylaria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae); Substancias antifungicas de Xylaria sp., um fungo endofitico isolado de Palicourea marcgravii (Rubiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cafeu, Mariana C.; Silva, Geraldo H.; Teles, Helder L.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia M. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas; Pfenning, Ludwig H. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitopatologia

    2005-11-15

    Five compounds, 2-hexyl-3-methyl-butanodioic acid (1), cytochalasin D (2), 7-dechlorogriseofulvin (3), cytochalasin B (4) and griseofulvin (5), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Xylaria sp., and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. In the bioautography assay against Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum, compounds 1 and 2 were found to be active while compounds 3, 4 and 5 did not show antifungal activity. (author)

  5. A new endophytic taxol- and baccatin III-producing fungus isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . mairei and only a fungus was detected to produce Taxol and related taxanes in potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The presence of taxol and baccatin III was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography combined with mass ...

  6. Phomapyrrolidones A-C, antitubercular alkaloids from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. NRRL 46751.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; He, Hongping; Franzblau, Scott G; Hoffman, Angela M; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2013-10-25

    Three new alkaloids, phomapyrrolidones A-C (1-3), bearing a cyclopenta[b]fluorene ring system were isolated from the mycelium extract of the endophytic fungal strain Phoma sp. NRRL 46751, inhabiting Saurauia scaberrinae. Methylation of 1 afforded its N-methyl derivative 4. The planar structures and relative configurations of 1-4 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Phomapyrrolidones B (2) and C (3) exhibited weak antitubercular activity at subcytotoxic concentrations.

  7. Phomapyrrolidones A–C, Antitubercular Alkaloids from the Endophytic Fungus Phoma sp. NRRL 46751

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, E. M. Kithsiri; He, Hongping; Franzblau, Scott G.; Hoffman, Angela M.; Gunatilaka, A. A. Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Three new alkaloids, phomapyrrolidones A–C (1–3), bearing a cyclopenta[b]fluorene ring system were isolated from the mycelium extract of the endophytic fungal strain, Phoma sp. NRRL 46751, inhabiting Saurauia scaberrinae. Methylation of 1 afforded its N-methyl derivative 4. The planar structures and relative configurations of 1–4 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. Phomapyrrolidones B (2) and C (3) exhibited weak antitubercular activity at subcytotoxic concentrations. PMID:24079882

  8. Enhancement of Thiamine Biosynthesis in Oil Palm Seedlings by Colonization of Endophytic Fungus Hendersonia toruloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirah N. Kamarudin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Thiamine, or vitamin B1 plays an indispensable role as a cofactor in crucial metabolic reactions including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in all living organisms. Thiamine has been shown to play a role in plant adaptation toward biotic and abiotic stresses. The modulation of thiamine biosynthetic genes in oil palm seedlings was evaluated in response to root colonization by endophytic Hendersonia toruloidea. Seven-month-old oil palm seedlings were inoculated with H. toruloidea and microscopic analyses were performed to visualize the localization of endophytic H. toruloidea in oil palm roots. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that H. toruloidea colonized cortical cells. The expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes and accumulation of total thiamine in oil palm seedlings were also evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure transcript abundances of four key thiamine biosynthesis genes (THI4, THIC, TH1, and TPK on days 1, 7, 15, and 30 in response to H. toruloidea colonization. The results showed an increase of up to 12-fold in the expression of all gene transcripts on day 1 post-inoculation. On days 7, 15, and 30 post-inoculation, the relative expression levels of these genes were shown to be downregulated. Thiamine accumulation was observed on day 7 post-colonization and subsequently decreased until day 30. This work provides the first evidence for the enhancement of thiamine biosynthesis by endophytic colonization in oil palm seedlings.

  9. Cholinesterase inhibitor (Altenuene) from an endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata: optimization, purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, J; Kaur, A; Kaur, R; Yadav, A K; Sharma, V; Chadha, B S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to screen endophytic fungi isolated from Vinca rosea for their potential to produce acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. Endophytic fungi isolated from V. rosea (Catharanthus roseus), were screened for AChE inhibitor production using Ellman's method. Maximum inhibition against AChE (78%) was observed in an isolate VS-10, identified to be Alternaria alternata on morphological and molecular basis. The isolate also inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (73%). Significant increase (1·3 fold) was achieved after optimization of process parameters using one variable at time approach. The inhibitor was purified using chromatographic techniques. The structure elucidation of the inhibitor was carried out using spectroscopic techniques and was identified to be 'altenuene'. The purified inhibitor possessed antioxidant potential as revealed by dot blot assay. The insecticidal potential of purified inhibitor was evaluated by feeding Spodoptora litura on diet amended with inhibitor. It evinced significant larval mortality. Endophytic A. alternata can serve as a source of dual cholinesterase inhibitor 'altenuene' with significant antioxidant and insecticidal activity. This is the first report on acetylcholinestearse inhibitory activity of altenuene. Alternaria alternata has the potential to produce a dual ChE inhibitor with antioxidant activity useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and in agriculture as biocontrol agent. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Enhancement of Thiamine Biosynthesis in Oil Palm Seedlings by Colonization of Endophytic Fungus Hendersonia toruloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Amirah N; Lai, Kok S; Lamasudin, Dhilia U; Idris, Abu S; Balia Yusof, Zetty N

    2017-01-01

    Thiamine, or vitamin B1 plays an indispensable role as a cofactor in crucial metabolic reactions including glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle in all living organisms. Thiamine has been shown to play a role in plant adaptation toward biotic and abiotic stresses. The modulation of thiamine biosynthetic genes in oil palm seedlings was evaluated in response to root colonization by endophytic Hendersonia toruloidea. Seven-month-old oil palm seedlings were inoculated with H. toruloidea and microscopic analyses were performed to visualize the localization of endophytic H. toruloidea in oil palm roots. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that H. toruloidea colonized cortical cells. The expression of thiamine biosynthetic genes and accumulation of total thiamine in oil palm seedlings were also evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure transcript abundances of four key thiamine biosynthesis genes (THI4, THIC, TH1, and TPK) on days 1, 7, 15, and 30 in response to H. toruloidea colonization. The results showed an increase of up to 12-fold in the expression of all gene transcripts on day 1 post-inoculation. On days 7, 15, and 30 post-inoculation, the relative expression levels of these genes were shown to be downregulated. Thiamine accumulation was observed on day 7 post-colonization and subsequently decreased until day 30. This work provides the first evidence for the enhancement of thiamine biosynthesis by endophytic colonization in oil palm seedlings.

  11. The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camehl, Iris; Drzewiecki, Corinna; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Shahollari, Bationa; Sherameti, Irena; Forzani, Celine; Munnik, Teun; Hirt, Heribert; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2011-05-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1) gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H₂O₂ and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1). A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA) and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H₂O₂ formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLD)α1 or PLDδ mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade.

  12. The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Camehl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1 gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H₂O₂ and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1. A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H₂O₂ formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLDα1 or PLDδ mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade.

  13. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Constituents Isolated from the Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus DO14 from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-Shang; Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Bo; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Si, Jin-Ping; Peng, Wei; Han, Ting

    2015-12-22

    Two novel cytotoxic and antifungal constituents, (4S,6S)-6-[(1S,2R)-1, 2-dihydroxybutyl]-4-hydroxy-4-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1), (6S,2E)-6-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-oxodec-2-enoic acid (2), together with three known compounds, LL-P880γ (3), LL-P880α (4), and Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (5) were isolated from the metabolites of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1-5 were evaluated by cytotoxicity and antifungal effects. Our present results indicated that compounds 1-4 showed notable anti-fungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 50 μg/mL) for all the tested pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, compounds 1-4 possessed notable cytotoxcities against human cancer cell lines of HL-60 cells with the IC50 values of below 100 μM. Besides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong cytotoxities on the LOVO cell line with the IC50 values were lower than 100 μM. In conclusion, our study suggested that endophytic fungi of D. officinale are great potential resources to discover novel agents for preventing or treating pathogens and tumors.

  14. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  15. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Constituents Isolated from the Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus DO14 from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Shang Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two novel cytotoxic and antifungal constituents, (4S,6S-6-[(1S,2R-1, 2-dihydroxybutyl]-4-hydroxy-4-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1, (6S,2E-6-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-oxodec-2-enoic acid (2, together with three known compounds, LL-P880γ (3, LL-P880α (4, and Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (5 were isolated from the metabolites of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1–5 were evaluated by cytotoxicity and antifungal effects. Our present results indicated that compounds 1–4 showed notable anti-fungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC ≤ 50 μg/mL for all the tested pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, compounds 1–4 possessed notable cytotoxcities against human cancer cell lines of HL-60 cells with the IC50 values of below 100 μM. Besides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong cytotoxities on the LOVO cell line with the IC50 values were lower than 100 μM. In conclusion, our study suggested that endophytic fungi of D. officinale are great potential resources to discover novel agents for preventing or treating pathogens and tumors.

  16. Isolation of genes conferring salt tolerance from Piriformospora indica by random overexpression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlot, Sunayna; Joshi, Amita; Singh, Pratap; Tuteja, Renu; Dua, Meenakshi; Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Kumar, Manoj; Raj, Sumit; Dayaman, Vikram; Johri, Atul Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-08-01

    Piriformospora indica, a root endophytic fungus identified in the Indian Thar desert, colonizes the roots of plants and provides resistance towards biotic stress as well as tolerance to abiotic stress in the plants. Despite its positive impact on the host, little is known about the P. indica genes that are involved in salt stress tolerance. Therefore this study was conducted to identify and isolate high salinity-tolerance genes from P. indica. Thirty-six salinity-tolerance genes were obtained by functional screening, based on random over expression of a P. indica cDNA library in Escherichia coli grown on medium supplemented with 0.6 M NaCl. The salinity tolerance conferred by these 36 genes in bacteria was further confirmed by using another strain of E. coli (DH5α) transformants. However when the expression of these 36 genes was analysed in P. indica using quantitative RT-PCR, we found only six genes were up-regulated by salt stress. These six genes are involved in different cellular processes, such as metabolism, energy and biosynthetic processes, DNA repair, regulation of protein turnover, transport and salt stress tolerance. This work presents the basis for further molecular analyses of the mechanisms of salt tolerance in P. indica and for the use of this endophyte to confer salt tolerance to plants.

  17. Piriformospora indica: Potential and Significance in Plant Stress Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet S; Gill, Ritu; Trivedi, Dipesh K; Anjum, Naser A; Sharma, Krishna K; Ansari, Mohammed W; Ansari, Abid A; Johri, Atul K; Prasad, Ram; Pereira, Eduarda; Varma, Ajit; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus which exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating plant hormone-signaling pathway during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect, including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants to overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator, and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P. indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production.

  18. Piriformospora indica: potential and significance in plant stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvajeet Singh Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Owing to its exceptional ability to efficiently promote plant growth, protection and stress tolerance, a mycorrhiza like endophytic Agaricomycetes fungus Piriformospora indica has received a great attention over the last few decades. P. indica is an axenically cultiviable fungus and exhibits its versatility for colonizing/hosting a broad range of plant species through directly manipulating mainly plant hormone-signaling during the course of mutualism. P. indica-root colonization leads to a better plant performance in all respect including enhanced root proliferation by indole-3-acetic acid production which in turn results into better nutrient-acquisition and subsequently to improved crop growth and productivity. Additionally, P. indica can induce both local and systemic resistance to fungal and viral plant diseases through signal transduction. P. indica-mediated stimulation in antioxidant defense system components and expressing stress-related genes can confer crop/plant stress tolerance. Therefore, P. indica can biotize micropropagated plantlets and also help these plants overcome transplantation shock. Nevertheless, it can also be involved in a more complex symbiotic relationship, such as tripartite symbiosis and can enhance population dynamic of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. In brief, P. indica can be utilized as a plant promoter, bio-fertilizer, bioprotector, bioregulator and biotization agent. The outcome of the recent literature appraised herein will help us to understand the physiological and molecular bases of mechanisms underlying P. indica-crop plant mutual relationship. Together, the discussion will be functional to comprehend the usefulness of crop plant-P indica association in both achieving new insights into crop protection/improvement as well as in sustainable agriculture production.

  19. α-Pyrone derivatives with cytotoxic activities, from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. YN02-P-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xia-Nan; Chen, Shao-Fei; Tang, Ming-Xu; Wang, Hai-Feng; An, Xiao; Lu, Xiao-Jie; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Yu-Bo; Bai, Jiao; Hua, Hui-Ming; Chen, Gang; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2017-08-15

    Four new α-pyrone derivatives phomones C-F (1-4) together with four known compounds (5-8) were isolated from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. YN02-P-3. Compound 1 is the first example of 6-α,β-unsaturated ester-2-pyrone dimers via intermolecular symmetrical [2+2] cycloaddition. The chemical structures of these compounds were determined from spectroscopic data (1D/2D NMR, MS and IR). The acetylated product (9) of 1 along with compounds 1-8 were then tested for their cytotoxicity against HL-60, PC-3 and HCT-116 cell lines. Compounds 2, 3, 5 and 9 with acetyl groups showed significant inhibitory activities against the three cell lines with IC50 values in the range 0.52-9.85μM. while compounds 1, 4 and 6-8 that possess no acetyl group showed no inhibitory activity (IC50>50μM), indicating that the acetyl group at 10- or 12- are essential for their cytotoxic activities. The structure-activity relationships of these phomones were also reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of the Endophytic Fungus Phialocephala fortinii Rac56 Found in Rhodiola Plants to Produce Salidroside and p-Tyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jinlong; Guo, Tingting; Chao, Jianbin; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Junhong

    2016-04-16

    2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ehyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (salidroside) and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol (p-tyrosol) are famous food and medicine additives originally derived from alpine Rhodiola plants. Salidroside or p-tyrosol production by the endophytic fungus Rac56 (Phialocephala fortinii) was confirmed by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and ¹H-NMR. The fermentation conditions were optimized by orthogonal design using data processing system software. The broth fermentation results showed that salidroside and p-tyrosol extraction yields from Rac56 were stable and reached 1.729 ± 0.06 mg and 1.990 ± 0.05 mg per mL of culture medium, respectively. The optimal conditions for salidroside and p-tyrosol production in fermentation culture of Rac56 were determined to be 25 °C, pH values of 7 and 5, Czapek-Dox culture medium volumes of 150 mL and 50 mL in 250 mL flasks, rotation speeds of 100× g and 200× g, and fermentation durations of 7 and 15 days, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, stable yields of 2.339 ± 0.1093 mg and 2.002 ± 0.0009 mg per mL of culture medium of salidroside and p-tyrosol, respectively, were obtained, indicating that the P. fortinii Rac56 strain is a promising source of these compounds.

  1. Potential of the Endophytic Fungus Phialocephala fortinii Rac56 Found in Rhodiola Plants to Produce Salidroside and p-Tyrosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Cui

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 2-(4-Hydroxyphenylehyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (salidroside and 4-(2-hydroxyethylphenol (p-tyrosol are famous food and medicine additives originally derived from alpine Rhodiola plants. Salidroside or p-tyrosol production by the endophytic fungus Rac56 (Phialocephala fortinii was confirmed by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and 1H-NMR. The fermentation conditions were optimized by orthogonal design using data processing system software. The broth fermentation results showed that salidroside and p-tyrosol extraction yields from Rac56 were stable and reached 1.729 ± 0.06 mg and 1.990 ± 0.05 mg per mL of culture medium, respectively. The optimal conditions for salidroside and p-tyrosol production in fermentation culture of Rac56 were determined to be 25 °C, pH values of 7 and 5, Czapek-Dox culture medium volumes of 150 mL and 50 mL in 250 mL flasks, rotation speeds of 100× g and 200× g, and fermentation durations of 7 and 15 days, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, stable yields of 2.339 ± 0.1093 mg and 2.002 ± 0.0009 mg per mL of culture medium of salidroside and p-tyrosol, respectively, were obtained, indicating that the P. fortinii Rac56 strain is a promising source of these compounds.

  2. Structures of meroterpenes produced by Penicillium sp, an endophytic fungus found associated with Melia azedarach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Regina M. Geris dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach after surface sterilisation and cultivated for three weeks on sterilised rice. A new meroterpene, named austinoneol, and the known meroterpenes 7-b-acetoxy-dehydroaustin, neoaustin and dehydroaustin were isolated from the methanol extract of this rice culture. Their structures were identified after extensive spectroscopic studies, which also helped on the revision of ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignment for some of the known meroterpenes.

  3. Biotransformation of a tetrahydrofuran lignan by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis Sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verza, Michelle; Arakawa, Nilton S.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Pupo, Monica T.; Said, Suraia; Carvalho, Ivone [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: carronal@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    The biotrasformation of the tetrahydrofuran lignan, (-)-grandisin, by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis sp, obtained from Viguiera arenaria, led to the formation of a new compound determined as 3,4-dimethyl-2- (4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methoxy-tetrahydrofuran. The metabolite was evaluated against the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas's disease, and showed a trypanocidal activity (IC{sub 50} 9.8 {mu}mol L{sup -1}) similar to the natural precursor (IC{sub 50} 3.7 {mu}mol L{sup -1}). (author)

  4. Piriformospora indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis through regulation of the photoperiod and gibberellin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rui; Xu, Le; Wei, Qiao; Wu, Chu; Tang, Wenlin; Oelmüller, Ralf; Zhang, Wenying

    2017-01-01

    Flowering in plants is synchronized by both environmental cues and internal regulatory factors. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and early flowering in Coleus forskohlii (a medicinal plant) and Arabidopsis. To further dissect the impact of P. indica on pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated Arabidopsis with P. indica and used RT-qPCR to analyze the main gene regulation networks involved in flowering. Our results revealed that the symbiotic interaction of Arabidopsis with P. indica promotes early flower development and the number of siliques. In addition, expression of the core flowering regulatory gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), of genes controlling the photoperiod [CRYPTOCHROMES (CRY1, CRY2) and PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB)] and those related to gibberellin (GA) functions (RGA1, AGL24, GA3, and MYB5) were induced by the fungus, while key genes controlling the age and autonomous pathways remained unchanged. Moreover, early flowering promotion conferred by P. indica was promoted by exogenous GA and inhabited by GA inhibitor, and this effect could be observed under long day and neutral day photoperiod. Therefore, our data suggested that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely through photoperiod and GA rather than age or the autonomous pathway.

  5. Antioxidant enzymes in chickpea colonized by Piriformospora indica participate in defense against the pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Om Prakash; Verma, Nidhi; Singh, Alok Kumar; Oelmüller, Ralf; Kumar, Manoj; Prasad, Durga; Kapoor, Rupam; Dua, Meenakshi; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2017-10-19

    Piriformospora indica, a root endophytic fungus, promotes growth of the economically important chickpea plant (Cicer arietinum Linn.) and protects it against the pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Biomass and root development were found to be significantly improved in chickpea plants colonized with P. indica as compared to the plants grown without P. indica as well as from the plants infected with the B. cinerea. Our PCR analyses showed that gradual increase in the colonization of P. indica in the plants result in the inhibition of the colonization of B. cinerea. P. indica colonized plants showed increased antioxidant enzyme activities. Interestingly, there were pronounced decrease in the antioxidant enzyme activities in shoots infected with B. cinerea and colonized with P. indica in alternate and simultaneous mode as compared to plants infected with B. cinerea alone. We conclude that P. indica helps plants to overcome the disease load by enhancing antioxidant enzyme defense system. Our data suggest that, bio-protective action of P. indica might be mediated via systemic induction of antioxidant defense in the host plants.

  6. Piriformospora indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis through regulation of the photoperiod and gibberellin pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Pan

    Full Text Available Flowering in plants is synchronized by both environmental cues and internal regulatory factors. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and early flowering in Coleus forskohlii (a medicinal plant and Arabidopsis. To further dissect the impact of P. indica on pathways responsible for flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated Arabidopsis with P. indica and used RT-qPCR to analyze the main gene regulation networks involved in flowering. Our results revealed that the symbiotic interaction of Arabidopsis with P. indica promotes early flower development and the number of siliques. In addition, expression of the core flowering regulatory gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT, of genes controlling the photoperiod [CRYPTOCHROMES (CRY1, CRY2 and PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB] and those related to gibberellin (GA functions (RGA1, AGL24, GA3, and MYB5 were induced by the fungus, while key genes controlling the age and autonomous pathways remained unchanged. Moreover, early flowering promotion conferred by P. indica was promoted by exogenous GA and inhabited by GA inhibitor, and this effect could be observed under long day and neutral day photoperiod. Therefore, our data suggested that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely through photoperiod and GA rather than age or the autonomous pathway.

  7. The mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica protects barley roots from a loss of antioxidant capacity caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Fusarium culmorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrach, Borbála D; Baltruschat, Helmut; Barna, Balázs; Fodor, József; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2013-05-01

    Fusarium culmorum causes root rot in barley (Hordeum vulgare), resulting in severely reduced plant growth and yield. Pretreatment of roots with chlamydospores of the mutualistic root-colonizing basidiomycete Piriformospora indica (subdivision Agaricomycotina) prevented necrotization of root tissues and plant growth retardation commonly associated with Fusarium root rot. Quantification of Fusarium infections with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay revealed a correlation between root rot symptoms and the relative amount of fungal DNA. Fusarium-infected roots showed reduced levels of ascorbate and glutathione (GSH), along with reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, GSH reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monodehydroascorbate reductase. Consistent with this, Fusarium-infected roots showed elevated levels of lipid hydroperoxides and decreased ratios of reduced to oxidized forms of ascorbate and GSH. In clear contrast, roots treated with P. indica prior to inoculation with F. culmorum showed levels of ascorbate and GSH that were similar to controls. Likewise, lipid peroxidation and the overall reduction in antioxidant enzyme activities were largely attenuated by P. indica in roots challenged by F. culmorum. These results suggest that P. indica protects roots from necrotrophic pathogens, at least partly, through activating the plant's antioxidant capacity.

  8. Peimisine and peiminine production by endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Hou, Kai; Gao, Feng; Hu, Bo; Chen, Que; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Steroidal alkaloids, as the major biologically active components in Bulbus Fritillariae, possess a variety of toxicological and pharmacological effects on humans. The objective of this work was to determine whether endophytic fungi isolated from fresh bulbs of Fritillaria unibracteata var. wabensis can produce one or more alkaloids like its host plant. Four classical reagents including Wagner's, iodine-potassium iodide, Mayer's and improved Dragendorff's were used for primary screening. Then thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) were employed to identify the fermentation products of the selected strains. The results showed that extract from one stain (WBS007) has positive reactions in process of primary screening. A further TLC scan and HPLC-ELSD showed that strain WBS007 had two components with the same TLC relative front (Rf) value and HPLC retention time (RT) as authentic peimisine and peiminine. In addition, strain WBS007 was identified as Fusarium sp. based on phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences. Thus, strain WBS007 produced the bioactive ingredient peimisine and peiminine, as does its host plant, and could be used for the production of peimisine and peiminine by fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Sesquiterpenes produced by endophytic fungus Phomopsis cassiae with antifungal and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities; Sesquiterpenos produzidos pelo fungo endofitico Phomopsis cassiae com atividade antifungica e inibidora de acetilcolinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Lisineia M.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J.; Silva, Dulce H. Siqueira; Trevisan, Henrique C.; Araujo, Angela R. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Silva, Geraldo H. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Teles, Helder L. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (UFMT), Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Young, Maria Claudia M., E-mail: araujoar@iq.unesp.br [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Seccao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2012-07-01

    Two new diastereoisomeric cadinanes sesquiterpenes 3,9-dihydroxycalamenene (1-2), along with the known 3-hydroxycalamen-8-one (3) and aristelegone-A (4), were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Phomopsis cassiae, an endophytic fungus in Cassia spectabilis. Their structures, including relative stereochemistry, were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 2D NMR spectra and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1-4 displayed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, as well as inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. (author)

  10. Absolute configuration of fusarone, a new azaphilone from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. isolated from Melia azedarach, and of related azaphilones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Gao, Jin-Ming; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tian, Jun-Mian; Pescitelli, Gennaro

    2012-08-01

    A new azaphilone derivative, named fusarone (1), has been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble extract of the fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp. LN-12, isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach Linn. The structure of the new compound was established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D-NMR and 2D-NMR ((1) H-(1)H COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) experiments. The absolute configurations of fusarone (1) and of a second related azaphilone were determined by means of electronic circular dichroism spectroscopy and optical rotation calculations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2012-04-04

    Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12β-hydroxy-13α-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12β-hydroxy-13α-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 μg/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed.

  12. A mutualistic interaction between a fungivorous nematode and a fungus within the endophytic community of Bromus tectorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa A. Baynes; Danelle M. Russell; George Newcombe; Lynn K. Carta; Amy Y. Rossman; Adnan. Ismaiel

    2012-01-01

    In its invaded range in western North America, Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) can host more than 100 sequence-based, operational taxonomic units of endophytic fungi, of which an individual plant hosts a subset. Research suggests that the specific subset is determined by plant genotype, environment, dispersal of locally available endophytes, and mycorrhizal associates....

  13. Acremoxanthone E, a novel member of heterodimeric polyketides with a bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene ring, produced by Acremonium camptosporum W. GAMS (Clavicipitaceae) endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez-González, Claudio; Murià-González, M Jordi; Anaya, Ana Luisa; Hernández-Bautista, Blanca E; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; González, María C; Glenn, Anthony E; Hanlin, Richard T; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the organic mycelium extract of the endophytic fungus Acremonium camptosporum W. Gams (Clavicipitaceae), isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae), led to the isolation of six major heterodimeric polyketides, including one not previously characterized acremoxanthone derivative. In addition, the already known acremoxanthone C, acremonidins A and B, and acremoxanthones A and B were obtained. The structure of the new compound was established by extensive NMR studies, including DEPT, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC methods. The trivial name proposed for this compound is acremoxanthone E. In addition, the structure of acremoxanthone C was unequivocally established for the first time, through X-ray crystal-structure analysis. The anti-oomycete activities of the pure compounds were tested against four economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes. Inhibitory concentration for 50% diameter growth reduction, IC50 , values for the four phytopathogens ranged from 6 to 38 μM. Also, in parallel, the cytotoxic activities against six cancer cell lines were evaluated showing IC50 values similar to those of cisplatin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on three different groups of heterodimeric polyketides, linked by a bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene, such as xanthoquinodins, acremonidins, and acremoxanthones, which are isolated from an endophytic fungus. In addition, a common biosynthetic origin could be proposed. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Leishmanicidal compounds of Nectria pseudotrichia, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betania Barros Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood, is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1, 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2, 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3, piliformic acid (4, hydroheptelidic acid (5, xylaric acid D (6, and cytochalasin D (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V. braziliensis than to mammalian cells.

  15. Piriformospora indica requires kaurene synthase activity for successful plant colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Chen, Xi; Ma, Chaoyang; Wu, Hongqing; Qi, Shuting

    2016-05-01

    Ent-kaurene (KS) synthases and ent-kaurene-like (KSL) synthases are involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins and/or gibberellins which play a role in plant immunity and development. The relationship between expression of five synthase genes (HvKSL1, HvKS2, HvKS4, HvKS5, HvKSL4) and plant colonization by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica was assessed in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The KS gene family is differently up-regulated at 1, 3 and 7 day after P. indica inoculation. By comparison, the HvKSL4 gene expression pattern is more significantly affected by UV irradiation and P. indica colonization. The characterizations of two silencing lines (HvKSL1-RNAi, HvKSL4-RNAi) also were analyzed. HvKSL1-RNAi and HvKSL4-RNAi lines in the first generation lead to less dark green leaves and slower plant development. Further, reduced spikelet fertility in progenies of RNAi plants heterozygous for HvKSL1 were observed, but not for HvKSL4. T2 generation of HvKSL1-RNAi line showed semi-dwarf phenotype while the wild type phenotype could be restored by applying GA3. Silencing of HvKSL4 and HvKSL1 resulted in reduced colonization by P. indica especially in the HvKSL1-RNAi line. These results probably suggest the presence of two ent-KS synthase in barley, one (HvKSL1) that participates in the biosynthesis of GAs and another (HvKSL4) that is involved in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethylene signalling and ethylene-targeted transcription factors are required to balance beneficial and nonbeneficial traits in the symbiosis between the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis thaliana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iris Camehl; Irena Sherameti; Yvonne Venus; Gerit Bethke; Ajit Varma; Justin Lee; Ralf Oelmüller

    2010-01-01

    .... This correlates with a mild activation of defence responses. The overexpression of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 constitutively activated defence responses, strongly reduced root colonization and abolished the benefits for the plants...

  17. Gibberella moniliformis AH13 with antitumor activity, an endophytic fungus strain producing triolein isolated from Adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi: poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Nuo; Wu, Wen-wen; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the isolation of an endophytic fungus from the leaves of the medicinal herb adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is reported for the first time. The fungus produced Triolein (trioleoylglycerol), a major constituent of triacylglycerols (TAGs) of adlay, in rice medium under shake-flask and bench-scale fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Gibberella moniliformis (Fusarium verticillioides) by its morphology and authenticated by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Triolein was identified by HPLC-ELSD coupled with APCI-MS and confirmed through comparison with authentic standard. The concentration of triolein produced by G. moniliformis AH13 reached 2.536 ± 0.006 mg/g dry weight of mycelium. Moreover, the EtOAc extract of G. moniliformis AH13 showed strong antitumor activity against four types of tumor cells (A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231, and SW1990). These results suggest that G. moniliformis AH13 in adlay has significant scientific and industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands and sustainable energy requirements for TAGs in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way and is also a potential novel source of natural antitumor bioactive agents.

  18. Induction of root colonization by Piriformospora indica leads to enhanced asiaticoside production in Centella asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheesan, Jisha; Narayanan, Anith K; Sakunthala, Manjula

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort) has wide application in Indian and Chinese traditional medicines with documented evidence for wound healing and neuroprotective and anti-aging potential. Asiaticoside, a trisaccharide triterpene, is the most medicinally active compound in the plant. β-Amyrin synthase and squalene synthase have been identified as the two key genes in the triterpenoid pathway which regulate the production of asiaticoside in C. asiatica. The paper reports salient findings of our study utilizing the growth-promoting endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica to successfully colonize roots of C. asiatica in vitro cultures for investigating the effect of the mutualistic association on asiaticoside production. Co-cultivation of P. indica resulted in the rapid enhancement of root and shoot biomass of host plant, which was visible after 7 days of culture and continued up to 45 days. P. indica co-cultivation also favored the synthesis of asiaticosides, as evidenced by HPLC analysis which indicated about twofold increase (0.53% (w/w) in leaves and 0.23% (w/w) in whole plant) over control (0.33% (w/w) in leaves and 0.14% (w/w) in whole plant). Real-time PCR results confirmed the strong upregulation of squalene synthase and β-amyrin synthase transcripts in P. indica-challenged plants compared with the control. Our data demonstrate the potential use of P. indica as a means to enhance plant secondary metabolite production in planta with scope for further field evaluation. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  19. Targeting high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis with high-resolution radical scavenging profiles - bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Penicillium namyslowskii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubshet, Sileshi Gizachew; Nyberg, Nils; Tejesvi, Mysore V.

    2013-01-01

    The high-resolution radical scavenging profile of an extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium namyslowskii was used to target analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HPLC...... NMR probe designed for 1.7-mm NMR tubes. To further explore the potential of the above HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform for analysis of endophytic extracts, six peaks displaying no radical scavenging activity were also analyzed. This allowed unambiguous identification of six metabolites, i...

  20. Two new derivatives of griseofulvin from the mangrove endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. (strain No. 1403) from Kandelia candel (L.) Druce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xuekui; Li, Qing; Li, Jia; Shao, Changlun; Zhang, Jianye; Zhang, Yonggang; Liu, Xin; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Changheng; She, Zhigang

    2011-10-01

    Two new compounds, methyl 3-chloro-6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methylphenoxy)-4-methoxybenzoate (1) and (2 S,5' R,E)-7-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-2-(1-methoxy-3-oxo-5-methylhex-1-enyl)-benzofuran-3(2H)-one (2), together with four known compounds, griseofulvin (3), dechlorogriseofulvin (4), bostrycin (5), and deoxybostrycin (6), were isolated from the marine endophytic fungus NIGROSPORA sp. (No. 1403) collected from the South China Sea. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, 1D, 2D NMR, and HREIMS. Compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate antitumor and moderate antimicrobial activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Structure and Absolute Configuration of 20β-Hydroxyprednisolone, a Biotransformed Product of Predinisolone by the Marine Endophytic Fungus Penicilium lapidosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Sultan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory drug predinisolone (1 was reduced to 20β-hydroxyprednisolone (2 by the marine endophytic fungus Penicilium lapidosum isolated from an alga. The structural elucidation of 2 was achieved by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, IR data. Although, 2 is a known compound previously obtained through microbial transformation, the data provided failed to prove the C20 stereochemistry. To solve this issue, DFT and TD-DFT calculations have been carried out at the B3LYP/6–31+G (d,p level of theory in gas and solvent phase. The absolute configuration of C20 was eventually assigned by combining experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra and 3JHH chemical coupling constants.

  2. 4-Phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives from Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus isolated from the mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Han; Li, Chun-Shun; Wang, Ming-Hui; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2013-10-25

    Six new 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives (1-6) along with the related aflaquinolone A (7) were isolated and identified from the cultures of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh leaves of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism experiments, and the structure of compound 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. In bioscreening experiments, none of the isolated compounds showed potent antibacterial or cytotoxic activity. However, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina), with LD50 values of 7.1, 4.5, and 5.5 μM, respectively.

  3. Piriformospora indica confers drought tolerance in Chinese cabbage leaves by stimulating antioxidant enzymes, the expression of drought-related genes and the plastid-localized CAS protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Johnson, Joy M; Cai, Daguang; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Lou, Binggan

    2010-08-15

    Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. The fungus strongly colonizes the roots of Chinese cabbage, promotes root and shoot growth, and promotes lateral root formation. When colonized plants were exposed to polyethylene glycol to mimic drought stress, the activities of peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutases in the leaves were upregulated within 24h. The fungus retarded the drought-induced decline in the photosynthetic efficiency and the degradation of chlorophylls and thylakoid proteins. The expression levels of the drought-related genes DREB2A, CBL1, ANAC072 and RD29A were upregulated in the drought-stressed leaves of colonized plants. Furthermore, the CAS mRNA level for the thylakoid membrane associated Ca(2+)-sensing regulator and the amount of the CAS protein increased. We conclude that antioxidant enzyme activities, drought-related genes and CAS are three crucial targets of P. indica in Chinese cabbage leaves during the establishment of drought tolerance. P. indica-colonized Chinese cabbage provides a good model system to study root-to-shoot communication. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. A fungal endophyte helps plants to tolerate root herbivory through changes in gibberellin and jasmonate signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebeca Cosme, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413319393

    2016-01-01

    Plant–microbe mutualisms can improve plant defense, but the impact of root endophytes on below-ground herbivore interactions remains unknown. We investigated the effects of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on interactions between rice (Oryza sativa) plants and its root herbivore rice water

  5. Proteomics study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying water stress tolerance induced by Piriformospora indica in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghabooli, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Ahmadi, Farajolah Shahriary; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Mirzaei, Mehdi; Amirkhani, Ardeshir; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-12-06

    Piriformospora indica is a mutualistic root endophytic fungus, which transfers several benefits to hosts including enhance plant growth and increase yield under both normal and stress conditions. It has been shown that P. indica root-colonization enhances water stress tolerance based on general and non-specific plant-species mechanism. To better understand the molecular mechanism of P. indica-mediated drought stress tolerance, we designed a set of comparative experiments to study the impact of P. indica on barely plants cultivar "Golden Promise" grown under different drought levels [Filed capacity (F.C.) and 25% F.C.]. P. indica enhanced root and shoot biomass of colonized plants under both well-watered and water-deficit conditions. Proteome analysis of P. indica-colonized barley leaves under well-treated and water-deficit conditions resulted in detection of 726 reproducibly protein spots. Mass spectrometry analysis resulted in the identification of 45 differentially accumulated proteins involved in photosynthesis, reactive oxygen scavenging, metabolisms, signal transduction, and plant defense responses. Interestingly, P. indica increased the level of proteins involved in photosynthesis, antioxidative defense system and energy transport. We propose that P. indica-mediated drought stress tolerance in barely is through photosynthesis stimulation, energy releasing and enhanced antioxidative capacity in colonized plants. Plant mutualistic symbionts offer long-term abiotic stress tolerance through the host adaptation to environmental stress. There have been a few published proteomic studies of plant symbionts to drought, and this is thought to be the first proteomic analysis, demonstrating the impact of endophyte on barley plant under drought stress. For some of identified proteins like TCTP and PCNA, a connection to physiological function in plants is novel, and can be the best candidates for sources of drought tolerance in future studies. © 2013.

  6. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi of the Sri Lankan aquatic plant Nymphaea nouchali and chaetoglobosin A and C, produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga K. Dissanayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty distinct endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface-sterilized plant parts of Nymphaea nouchali and were identified using morphological and molecular techniques. At 300 µg/disc concentration, eight of the 20 fungal extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778 while two within the eight showed activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218. Furthermore, investigation of the crude extract of Chaetomium globosum resulted in the isolation of two known cytochalasans, chaetoglobosin A and C, and their structures were elucidated and confirmed by mass and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and tROESY spectral data. Chaetoglobosin A showed antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC 16 µg mL−1, Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 32 µg mL−1 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MIC 32 µg mL−1. This is the first study to report the isolation, identification and antimicrobial properties of endophytic fungi of N. nouchali in Sri Lanka.

  7. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheplick, G.P. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Talaroxanthone, a novel xanthone dimer from the endophytic fungus Talaromyces sp. associated with Duguetia stelechantha (Diels) R.E. Fries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Hector H.F., E-mail: hectorkoolen@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Menezes, Lais S.; Souza, Mayane P.; Silva, Felipe M.A.; Almeida, Fabiana G.O.; Souza, Afonso D.L. de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L. de [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Escola Superior de Ciencias da Saude; Nepel, Angelita; Barison, Andersson [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Silva, Flavio Henrique da; Evangelista, Danilo Elton [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSC), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao

    2013-05-15

    DgCr22.1b, an endophytic isolate of Talaromyces sp., was collected in the Amazonian Rain forest from the medicinal plant Duguetia stelechantha. From the fractionation of the methanolic mycelial extract, a new xanthone dimer talaroxanthone was isolated. The structure of this new compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic analyses including 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. (author)

  9. Alkaloid Quantities in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue are Affected by the Plant-Fungus Combination and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, M; Phillips, T; Faeth, S H; Bush, L P; McCulley, R; Saloniemi, I; Saikkonen, K

    2016-02-01

    Many grass species are symbiotic with systemic, vertically-transmitted, asymptomatic Epichloë endophytic fungi. These fungi often produce alkaloids that defend the host against herbivores. We studied how environmental variables affect alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) from three Northern European wild origins and the widely planted US cultivar 'Kentucky-31' (KY31). The plants were grown in identical common garden experiments in Finland and Kentucky for two growing seasons. Plants were left as controls (C) or given water (W), nutrient (N) or water and nutrient (WN) treatments. For 8-10 replications of each plant origin and treatment combination in both experiments, we analyzed ergot alkaloids, lysergic acid, and lolines. In Finland, tall fescue plants produced 50 % more ergot alkaloids compared to plants of the same origin and treatments in Kentucky. Origin of the plants affected the ergot alkaloid concentration at both study sites: the wild origin plants produced 2-4 times more ergot alkaloids than KY31, but the ergot alkaloid concentration of KY31 plants was the same at both locations. Overall lysergic acid content was 60 % higher in plants grown in Kentucky than in those grown in Finland. Nutrient treatments (N, WN) significantly increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in plants from Finland but not in plants from Kentucky. These results suggest that the success of KY31 in US is not due to selection for high ergot alkaloid production but rather other traits associated with the endophyte. In addition, the environmental effects causing variation in alkaloid production of grass-endophyte combinations should be taken into account when using endophyte-infected grasses agriculturally.

  10. Growth promotion of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis by Piriformospora indica is not stimulated by mycelium-synthesized auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yin-Chen; Johnson, Joy Michal; Chien, Ching-Te; Sun, Chao; Cai, Daguang; Lou, Binggan; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2011-04-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of the order Sebacinales, interacts with the roots of a large variety of plant species. We compared the interaction of this fungus with Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis) and Arabidopsis seedlings. The development of shoots and roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings was strongly promoted by P. indica and the fresh weight of the seedlings increased approximately twofold. The strong stimulation of root hair development resulted in a bushy root phenotype. The auxin level in the infected Chinese cabbage roots was twofold higher compared with the uncolonized controls. Three classes of auxin-related genes, which were upregulated by P. indica in Chinese cabbage roots, were isolated from a double-subtractive expressed sequence tag library: genes for proteins related to cell wall acidification, intercellular auxin transport carrier proteins such as AUX1, and auxin signal proteins. Overexpression of B. campestris BcAUX1 in Arabidopsis strongly promoted growth and biomass production of Arabidopsis seedlings and plants; the roots were highly branched but not bushy when compared with colonized Chinese cabbage roots. This suggests that BcAUX1 is a target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. P. indica also promoted growth of Arabidopsis seedlings but the auxin levels were not higher and auxin genes were not upregulated, implying that auxin signaling is a more important target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage than in Arabidopsis. The fungus also stimulated growth of Arabidopsis aux1 and aux1/axr4 and rhd6 seedlings. Furthermore, a component in an exudate fraction from P. indica but not auxin stimulated growth of Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis seedlings. We propose that activation of auxin biosynthesis and signaling in the roots might be the cause for the P. indica-mediated growth phenotype in Chinese cabbage.

  11. Piriformospora indica confers drought tolerance on Zea mays L. through enhancement of antioxidant activity and expression of drought-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most severe environmental constraints to plant growth and crop productivity. Plant growth is greatly affected by drought stress, and plants, to survive, adapt to this stress by invoking different pathways. Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, promotes plant growth and confers resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, including drought stress, by affecting the physiological properties of the host plant. The fungus strongly colonizes the roots of maize (Zea mays L. and promotes shoot and root growth under both normal growth conditions and drought stress. We used polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000 to mimic drought stress and found that root fresh and dry weight, leaf area, SPAD value, and leaf number were increased in P. indica-colonized plants. The antioxidative activities of catalases and superoxide dismutases were upregulated within 24 h in the leaves of P. indica-colonized plants. Drought-related genes DREB2A, CBL1, ANAC072, and RD29A were upregulated in drought-stressed leaves of P. indica-colonized plants. Furthermore, after drought treatment, proline content increased, whereas accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of membrane damage, decreased in P. indica-colonized maize. We conclude that P. indica-mediated plant protection against the detrimental effects of drought may result from enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity, proline accumulation, and expression of drought-related genes and lower membrane damage in maize plants.

  12. Metabolomic compounds identified in Piriformospora indica-colonized Chinese cabbage roots delineate symbiotic functions of the interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Mo Da-Sang; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Tian, Zhihong; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2017-08-24

    Root colonization by endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica facilitating growth/development and stress tolerance has been demonstrated in various host plants. However, global metabolomic studies are rare. By using high-throughput gas-chromatography-based mass spectrometry, 549 metabolites of 1,126 total compounds observed were identified in colonized and uncolonized Chinese cabbage roots, and hyphae of P. indica. The analyses demonstrate that the host metabolomic compounds and metabolite pathways are globally reprogrammed after symbiosis with P. indica. Especially, γ-amino butyrate (GABA), oxylipin-family compounds, poly-saturated fatty acids, and auxin and its intermediates were highly induced and de novo synthesized in colonized roots. Conversely, nicotinic acid (niacin) and dimethylallylpyrophosphate were strongly decreased. In vivo assays with exogenously applied compounds confirmed that GABA primes plant immunity toward pathogen attack and enhances high salinity and temperature tolerance. Moreover, generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species stimulated by nicotinic acid is repressed by P. indica, and causes the feasibility of symbiotic interaction. This global metabolomic analysis and the identification of symbiosis-specific metabolites may help to understand how P. indica confers benefits to the host plant.

  13. Anticancer and antibacterial secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. CAM64 against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Tamokou, Jean-de-Dieu; Mbazoa, Céline Djama; Sarkar, Prodipta; Bag, Prasanta Kumar; Wandji, Jean

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of multiple-drug resistance bacteria has become a major threat and thus calls for an urgent need to search for new effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. This study aims to evaluate the anticancer and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus associated with leaves of Garcinia nobilis. The culture filtrate from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. was extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major metabolites were isolated and identified by spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with published data. The antibacterial activity of the compounds was assessed by broth microdilution method while the anticancer activity was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The fractionation of the crude extract afforded penialidin A-C (1-3), citromycetin (4), p-hydroxyphenylglyoxalaldoxime (5) and brefelfin A (6). All of the compounds tested here showed antibacterial activity (MIC = 0.50 - 128 µg/mL) against Gramnegative multi-drug resistance bacteria, Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of dreadful disease cholera) and Shigella flexneri (causative agent of shigellosis), as well as the significant anticancer activity (LC 50 = 0.88 - 9.21 µg/mL) against HeLa cells. The results obtained indicate that compounds 1-6 showed good antibacterial and anticancer activities with no toxicity to human red blood cells and normal Vero cells.

  14. Anti-TMV Activity of Malformin A1, a Cyclic Penta-Peptide Produced by an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus tubingensis FJBJ11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Wei Tan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant-associated microorganisms are known to produce a variety of metabolites with novel structures and interesting biological activities. An endophytic fungus FJBJ11, isolated from the plant tissue of Brucea javanica (L. Merr. (Simaroubaceae, was proven to be significantly effective in producing metabolites with anti-Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV activities. The isolate was identified as Aspergillus tubingensis FJBJ11 based on morphological characteristics and ITS sequence. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the identification of a cycli penta-peptide, malformin A1, along with two cyclic dipeptides, cyclo (Gly-l-Pro and cyclo (Ala-Leu. Malformin A1 showed potent inhibitory effect against the infection and replication of TMV with IC50 values of 19.7 and 45.4 μg·mL−1, as tested using local lesion assay and leaf-disc method, respectively. The results indicated the potential use of malformin A1 as a leading compound or a promising candidate of new viricide.

  15. Induction of Diverse Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma sp. (Strain 307 by Co-Cultivation with Acinetobacter johnsonii (Strain B2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhong Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new sesquiterpenes, microsphaeropsisin B (1 and C (2, and two new de-O-methyllasiodiplodins, (3R, 7R-7-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (4 and (3R-5-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5, together with one new natural product (6 and twelve known compounds (3, 7–17, were isolated from the co-cultivation of mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 and aquatic pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism, Mo2(AcO4-induced circular dichroism, and comparison with reported data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. New compounds 4 and 5 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 25.8 and 54.6 µM, respectively, which were more potent than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 = 703.8 µM. The good results of the tested bioactivity allowed us to explore α-glucosidase inhibitors in lasiodiplodins.

  16. Nonpathogenic Isolates of the Citrus Black Spot Fungus, Guignardia citricarpa, Identified as a Cosmopolitan Endophyte of Woody Plants, G. mangiferae (Phyllosticta capitalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baayen, R P; Bonants, P J M; Verkley, G; Carroll, G C; van der Aa, H A; de Weerdt, M; van Brouwershaven, I R; Schutte, G C; Maccheroni, W; de Blanco, C Glienke; Azevedo, J L

    2002-05-01

    ABSTRACT The population structure of Guignardia citricarpa sensu lato (anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa), a fungus of which strains pathogenic to citrus are subject to phytosanitary legislation in the European Union and the United States, was investigated. Internal transcribed spacer sequences revealed two phylogenetically distinct groups in G. citricarpa. This distinction was supported by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis that also supported the exclusion of two isolates that had apparently been misclassified as G. citricarpa. On cherry decoction agar, but not on other media, growth rates of group I isolates were lower than those of group II isolates. Conidial dimensions were similar, but group I isolates formed conidia with barely visible mucoid sheaths, whereas those of group II formed conidia with thick sheaths. Cultures of isolates belonging to group I produced rare infertile perithecia, whereas fertile perithecia were formed by most isolates of group II. Colonies of isolates belonging to group I were less dark than those of group II, with a wider translucent outer zone and a lobate rather than entire margin. On oatmeal agar, exclusively group I isolates formed a yellow pigment. Group I harbored strains from citrus fruits with classical black spot lesions (1 to 10 mm in diameter) usually containing pycnidia. Group II harbored endophytic strains from a wide range of host species, as well as strains from symptomless citrus fruits or fruits with minute spots (citrus black spot, justifying its exclusion from quarantine measures.

  17. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of the metabolites isolated from the culture of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Eurotium chevalieri KUFA 0006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May Zin, War War; Buttachon, Suradet; Dethoup, Tida; Pereira, José A; Gales, Luís; Inácio, Ângela; Costa, Paulo M; Lee, Michael; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Silva, Artur M S; Pinto, Madalena M M; Kijjoa, Anake

    2017-09-01

    Five previously undescribed metabolites, including acetylquestinol, two prenylated indole 3-carbaldehyde derivatives, an anthranilic acid derivative and an isochromone derivative, were isolated, in addition to eleven known compounds: palmitic acid, ergosterol 5,8-endoperoxide, emodin, physcion, questin, questinol, (11S, 14R)-cyclo(tryptophylvalyl), preechinulin, neoechinulin E, echinulin and eurocristatine, from the culture of the endophytic fungus Eurotium chevalieri KUFA 0006. The structures of the previously undescribed compounds were established based on an extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral analysis as well as HRMS and IR data. In case of 2-(2, 2-dimethylcyclopropyl)-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde and 6, 8-dihydroxy-3-(2S-hydroxypropyl)-7-methylisochromone, the absolute configurations of their stereogenic carbons were established based on comparison of their experimental and calculated ECD spectra. All the compounds, except for palmitic acid and ergosterol 5, 8-endoperoxide, were evaluated for their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, as well as multidrug-resistant isolates from the environment. Emodin not only exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria but also showed strong synergistic association with oxacillin against MRSA Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An antimicrobial alkaloid and other metabolites produced by Penicillium sp. An endophytic fungus isolated from Mauritia flexuosa L.f

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Soares, Elzalina Ribeiro; Silva, Felipe Moura Araujo da; Almeida, Richardson Alves de; Souza, Afonso Duarte Leao de, E-mail: hectorkoolen@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil); Medeiros, Livia Soman de; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima de [Escola Superior de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus - AM (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The alkaloid glandicoline B (1) and six other compounds: ergosterol (2), brassicasterol (3), ergosterol peroxide (4), cerevisterol (5), mannitol (6) and 1-O-{alpha}-D-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from Penicillium sp. strain PBR.2.2.2, a fungus from Mauritia flexuosa roots. The structures of the isolated metabolites were established by spectral analysis. MeOH extract of the fungal mycelium at 500 {mu}g mL{sup -1} exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the compound 1 at 100 {mu}g mL{sup -1} was active against S. aureus, Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli. The relationship between the bioactive properties of the fungus PBR.2.2.2 and those achieved for glandicoline B, as well the potential of this substance as bacteriide is discussed. (author)

  19. Trienylfuranol A and trienylfuranone A-B: metabolites isolated from an endophytic fungus, Hypoxylon submoniticulosum, in the raspberry Rubus idaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Sørensen, Dan; Sumarah, Mark W

    2017-06-01

    A strain of Hypoxylon submonticulosum was isolated as an endophyte from a surface-sterilized leaf of a cultivated raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The liquid culture extract displayed growth inhibition activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a disc diffusion assay. The extract's major component was identified as a new natural product, trienylfuranol A (1S,2S,4R)-1-((1'E,3'E)-hexa-1',3',5'-trienyl)-tetrahydro-4-methylfuran-2-ol (1), by high-resolution LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Two additional new metabolites, trienylfuranones A (2) and B (3), were isolated as minor components of the extract and their structure elucidation revealed that they were biosynthetically related to 1. Absolute stereochemical configurations of compounds 1-3 were confirmed by NOE NMR experiments and by the preparation of Mosher esters. Complete hydrogenation of 1 yielded tetrahydrofuran 7 that was used for stereochemical characterization and assessment of antifungal activity.

  20. Melanin is required for the formation of the multi-cellular conidia in the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi; Huo, Liang; Liu, Heng; Chen, Longfei; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Melanin plays an important role in regulating various biological processes in many fungi. However, its biological role in conidiation remains largely elusive. We report here that conidia production, morphogenesis, integrity, germination and their viability in Pestalotiopsis microspora require the polyketide-derived melanin. A polyketide synthase gene, pks1, was identified and demonstrated responsible for melanin biosynthesis in this fungus. A targeted deletion mutant strain Δpks1 displayed a defect in pigmentation of conidia and had an albino colonial phenotype. Interestingly, Δpks1 produced approximately 6-fold as many conidia as the wild type did, suggesting a negative modulation of melanin on conidia production in this fungus. Moreover, the conidia failed to develop into the normal five-cell morphology, rather the three main-body cells separated via constriction at the original septum position to generate three independent mutant conidia. This result suggests a novel role of melanin in the formation of the multi-cellular conidia. Germ tubes could develop from the three different types of mutant conidia and kept elongating, despite a significantly lower germination rate was observed for them. Still more, the unpigmented conidia became permeable to Calcofluor White and DAPI, suggesting the integrity of the conidia was impaired. Deliberate inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a specific inhibitor, tricyclazole, led to a similar phenotypes. This work demonstrates a new function of fungal melanin in conidial development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Six new metabolites produced by Colletotrichum aotearoa 09F0161, an endophytic fungus isolated from Bredia oldhamii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yi; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Wu, Ming-Der; Hsieh, Sung-Yuan; Liu, Ta-Wei; Lin, Chu-Hung; Yuan, Gwo-Fang; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Six new compounds, colletobredins A-D (1-4) and colletomelleins A and B (5 and 6), along with 12 previously identified compounds, were isolated from the culture broth of Colletotrichum aotearoa BCRC 09F0161, a fungal endophyte residing in the leaves of an endemic Formosan plant Bredia oldhamii Hook. f. (Melastomataceae). The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, HR-ESIMS and extensive 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The effects of some isolates on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were evaluated. All these compounds inhibited NO production in activated macrophages without any cytotoxicity at a concentration of 100 μM. Of these isolates, 1 showed weak NO inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 182.2 μM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on isochroman glycoside metabolites (1-4) from the genus Colletotrichum.

  2. Exploitation of endophytic fungus, Guignardia mangiferae for extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their in vitro biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakumaran, M D; Ramachandran, R; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize highly biocompatible and functionalized silver nanoparticles using endophytic fungi isolated from the leaves of medicinal plants. Among 13 fungi tested, the isolate, Guignardia mangiferae (Bios PTK 4) extracellularly synthesized well-dispersed and extremely stable silver nanoparticles under optimized reaction conditions within 12 h. These nanoparticles were characterized by HR-TEM, SAED, XRD and EDX analyses. G. mangiferae synthesized 5-30 nm sized, spherical shaped silver nanoparticles. Effect of pH on the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied using well diffusion assay; on the basis of particle stability and antibacterial activity, pH 7 was found to be optimum. The leakage of intracellular components has clearly demonstrated that silver nanoparticles damage the bacterial cells by formation of pores, which affect the membrane permeability and finally leads to cell death. In addition, silver nanoparticles exhibited excellent antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles showed IC50 values of 63.37, 27.54 and 23.84 μg/mL against normal African monkey kidney (Vero), HeLa (cervical) and MCF-7 (breast) cells, respectively, at 24 h incubation period. Thus, the obtained results convincingly suggest that silver nanoparticles synthesized from G. mangiferae are highly biocompatible and have wider applicability and they could be explored as promising candidates for a variety of biomedical/pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Combined effects of fungal inoculants and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron on growth, phytohormone contents and endophytic root fungi in Miscanthus × giganteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christoph Stephan; Mrnka, Libor; Frantík, Tomaš; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2017-11-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate main effects and interactions between symbiotic fungi and the cytokinin-like growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in Miscanthus × giganteus. The arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Rhizophagus intraradices (AMF) and the endophyte Piriformospora indica (PI) were chosen as model symbionts. The fungal inoculants and TDZ had no significant effect on plant growth but modulated phytohormone levels in the leaves. TDZ induced accumulation of salicylic acid in controls, but not in plants inoculated with fungi. Leaf concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA) derivatives, auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) precursors and catabolites and numerous cytokinins were increased by R. intraradices but lowered by P. indica. TDZ raised concentrations of ABA compounds, the non-indole auxin phenylacetic acid, jasmonate and some cytokinins, but decreased cis-zeatin and N(6)-(Δ(2)-isopentenyl)adenine levels. Inoculation with AMF reduced abundance of endogenous clampless endophytes. TDZ application strongly reduced formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza and increased occurrence of clamped mycelia (i.e. basidiomycetous endophytes). Our study provides a thorough outline of the phytohormone homeostasis under the combined influence of beneficial inoculants and a growth regulator, highlighting the necessity to study their interaction in the whole plant-microbial context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel 3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one with spiro-butyrolactone and a new isocoumarin isolated from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. YN02-P-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xia-Nan; Chen, Shao-Fei; An, Xiao; Chen, Gang; Wang, Hai-Feng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2017-05-01

    A novel 3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1(2H)-one with spiro-butyrolactone phomol (1) and a new isocoumarin phomasatin (2), together with two known compounds (3-4) were isolated from the solid culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. YN02-P-3. Their structures including the absolute configurations were characterized on the basis of extensive 1D, 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, NOESY), MS, and CD spectral data. Compound 1 showed selective cytotoxic activity against HL-60 cell line with the IC50 value of 29.05 μM.

  5. Effect of phytotoxic secondary metabolites and semisynthetic compounds from endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b on spinach chloroplast photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; García-Méndez, Marbella Claudia; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Macías-Ruvalcaba, Norma Angélica

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of action on the photosynthesis light reactions of three major secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b, isolated from Sapium macrocarpum; and four novel derivatives of coriloxine, a major compound produced by X. feejeensis. The natural phytotoxins include one epoxycyclohexenone derivative, coriloxine (1), and two quinone derivatives (2-3). The semisynthetic derivatives of coriloxine are two cyclohexenone (4-6) and two quinone compounds (5-7). Cyclohexenone (4), (4R,5S,6R)-6-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylcyclohex-2-enone, inhibited ATP synthesis in freshly lysed spinach chloroplasts from water to MV; it also partly inhibited the basal and uncoupled photosynthetic electron transport, and significantly enhanced the phosphorylating electron transport and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, thus demonstrating its action as an uncoupler agent. On the other hand, quinone (7), 2-((4-butylphenyl)amino)-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, inhibited ATP synthesis, and non-cyclic electron transport from water to MV in basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled conditions in a concentration-dependent manner. Hence, (7) behaves as a Hill reaction inhibitor at the PSII electron transport on the water splitting enzyme (OEC), and on the acceptor side between P680 and QA. This mechanism of action was confirmed by chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. These results indicate that coriloxine derivatives 4 and 7 could work as prototype structures for the development of new herbicides. Contrastingly, natural products 1-3, and derivatives 5 and 6 did not show a significant inhibitory effect on ATP synthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced Production of Botrallin and TMC-264 with in Situ Macroporous Resin Adsorption in Mycelial Liquid Culture of the Endophytic Fungus Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyu Luo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, an endophytic fungus from the hybrid “Neva” of Populus deltoides × P. nigra, is a high producer of the bioactive dibenzo-α-pyrones botrallin and TMC-264. However, both the botrallin and TMC-264 produced by Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12 were retained as both intracellular and extracellular products. The aim of this study was to evaluate an in situ macroporous resin adsorption for enhancement of botrallin and TMC-264 production in mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12. Production of botrallin and TMC-264 was most effectively enhanced by macroporous resin DM-301 among the thirteen nonionic macroporous resins tested. The highest botrallin yield (51.47 mg/L, which was 2.29-fold higher than the control at 22.49 mg/L was obtained by adding resin DM-301 at 4.38% (g/mL to the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 4 days for adsorption. The highest TMC-264 yield reached 47.74 mg/L, which was 11.76-fold higher than that of the control (4.06 mg/L, and was achieved by adding DM-301 resin at 4.38% (w/v in the culture broth on day 24 and allowing a period of 6 days for adsorption. The results show that in situ resin adsorption is an effective strategy for enhancing production of botrallin and TMC-264, and also for facilitating their recovery from mycelial liquid culture of Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12.

  7. Biological activities of the fermentation extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurette dos Reis Vieira Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 endophytic fungi isolated from coffee (Coffea arabica L. were cultivated in vitro and their crude extracts tested. The screening was carried out using the agar diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The most effective isolate was Alternaria alternata, and subsequently, its extract was assayed. The total phenolic content was 3.44 μg GAE/mg of the crude extract. For the antibacterial and antifungal activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations (MBC and MFC were determined. The ranges of MIC values were 50-100 μg/mL for S. aureus and 400-800 μg/mL for E. coli. The extract did not show activity in the tested concentrations for C. albicans. The fungal crude extract was assayed for antioxidant activities. Its ability to scavenge DPPH radicals and antioxidant activity by β-carotene/linoleic acid system oxidation was not significant. In addition, antitumor activity was studied using the MTT assay. At a dilution of 400 μg/mL, the extract displayed a cytotoxic activity of approximately 50% towards HeLa cells in vitro. The results indicate that endophytic fungi could be a promising source of bioactive compounds and warrant further study.Total de 22 fungos endofíticos isolados de café (Coffea arabica L. foi cultivado in vitro e seus extratos testados. A triagem foi conduzida pelo método de difusão em agar contra bactérias Gram-positiva, Gram-negativa e uma levedura. O isolado mais efetivo foi Alternaria alternata e, subsequentemente, seu extrato foi analisado. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais do extrato bruto foi de 3,44 μg EAG/mg de extrato. Para os testes de atividade antimicrobiana, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e concentração bactericida e fungicida mínima (CBM e CFM contra Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli e Candida albicans foram determinadas. Resultados da CIM variaram entre 50-100 μg/mL para

  8. Antiproliferative effect of extract from endophytic fungus Curvularia trifolii isolated from the "Veracruz Reef System" in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couttolenc, Alan; Espinoza, Cesar; Fernández, José J; Norte, Manuel; Plata, Gabriela B; Padrón, José M; Shnyreva, Alla; Trigos, Ángel

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that marine fungi are an excellent source of biologically active secondary metabolites, and by 2011, it was reported that over 400 bioactive metabolites were derived from marine fungi. This study establishes the basis for future research on antiproliferative compounds of marine endophytes inhabited in the Veracruz Reef System. Isolation of the 34 fungal strains was carried out by microbiological method from samples of sponges, corals, and other biological material from the Veracruz Reef System. The fungal biomass and broth were separated and extracted with a mixture of solvents MeOH:CHCl3. Characterization and molecular identification of the fungal strains were performed through microbiological methods and the analysis of the ITS-rDNA regions. Antiproliferative activity was tested at a dose of 250 μg/mL on human solid tumor cell lines HBL-100, HeLa, SW1573, T-47D, and WiDr by the SRB assay after 48 h-exposure to the fungal extracts. The extracts from five isolates showed an antiproliferative effect against one or more of the tested cell lines (percentage growth < 50%). The mycelial extract from the isolate LAEE 03 manifested the highest activity against the five cell lines (% PG of 17 HBL-100, 19 HeLa, 23 SW1573, -6 T-47D, and 10 WiDr) and the strain was identified as Curvularia trifolii (Kauffman) Boedijn (Pleosporaceae). The results obtained indicate that the extract from a marine derived C. trifolii has the antiproliferative effect, thus suggesting that this organism is a good candidate for further analysis of its metabolites.

  9. Interaction of Piriformospora indica with Azotobacter chroococcum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Bhuyan, Soubhagya; Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar Mishra, Deepak; Prasad, Ramraj; Kumari, Abha; Chandra Upadhyaya, Kailash; Varma, Ajit; Kumar Yadava, Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities in rhizosphere interact with each other and form a basis of a cumulative impact on plant growth. Rhizospheric microorganisms like Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum are well known for their beneficial interaction with plants. These features make P. indica /A. chroococcum co-inoculation of crops most promising with respect to sustainable agriculture and to understanding the transitions in the evolution of rhizospheric microbiome. Here, we investigated interactions of P. indica with A. chroococcum in culture. Out of five Azotobacter strains tested, WR5 exhibited growth-promoting while strain M4 exerted growth-inhibitory effect on the fungus in axenic culture. Electron microscopy of co-culture indicated an intimate association of the bacterium with the fungus. 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry of P. indica cellular proteins grown with or without WR5 and M4 showed differential expression of many metabolic proteins like enolase-I, ureaseD, the GTP binding protein YPT1 and the transmembrane protein RTM1. Fungal growth as influenced by bacterial crude metabolites was also monitored. Taken together, the results conform to a model where WR5 and M4 influence the overall growth and physiology of P. indica which may have a bearing on its symbiotic relationship with plants. PMID:26350628

  10. Interaction of Piriformospora indica with Azotobacter chroococcum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Bhuyan, Soubhagya; Bandyopadhyay, Prasun; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar Mishra, Deepak; Prasad, Ramraj; Kumari, Abha; Chandra Upadhyaya, Kailash; Varma, Ajit; Kumar Yadava, Pramod

    2015-09-09

    Microbial communities in rhizosphere interact with each other and form a basis of a cumulative impact on plant growth. Rhizospheric microorganisms like Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum are well known for their beneficial interaction with plants. These features make P. indica/A. chroococcum co-inoculation of crops most promising with respect to sustainable agriculture and to understanding the transitions in the evolution of rhizospheric microbiome. Here, we investigated interactions of P. indica with A. chroococcum in culture. Out of five Azotobacter strains tested, WR5 exhibited growth-promoting while strain M4 exerted growth-inhibitory effect on the fungus in axenic culture. Electron microscopy of co-culture indicated an intimate association of the bacterium with the fungus. 2-D gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry of P. indica cellular proteins grown with or without WR5 and M4 showed differential expression of many metabolic proteins like enolase-I, ureaseD, the GTP binding protein YPT1 and the transmembrane protein RTM1. Fungal growth as influenced by bacterial crude metabolites was also monitored. Taken together, the results conform to a model where WR5 and M4 influence the overall growth and physiology of P. indica which may have a bearing on its symbiotic relationship with plants.

  11. Production of taxadiene by engineering of mevalonate pathway in Escherichia coli and endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata TPF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Guangkai; Yuan, Yujie; Tao, Hui; Shi, Xiaofei; Zhong, Xiaofang; Han, Yichao; Fu, Shuai; Fang, Chengxiang; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2017-04-01

    Taxol (paclitaxel) is a diterpenoid compound with significant and extensive applications in the treatment of cancer. The production of Taxol and relevant intermediates by engineered microbes is an attractive alternative to the semichemical synthesis of Taxol. In this study, based on a previously developed platform, the authors first established taxadiene production in mutant E. coli T2 and T4 by engineering of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway. The authors then developed an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) method and verified the strength of heterologous promoters in Alternaria alternata TPF6. The authors next transformed the taxadiene-producing platform into A. alternata TPF6, and the MVA pathway was engineered, with introduction of the plant taxadiene-forming gene. Notably, by co-overexpression of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (Idi), a truncated version of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMG1), and taxadiene synthase (TS), the authors could detect 61.9 ± 6.3 μg/L taxadiene in the engineered strain GB127. This is the first demonstration of taxadiene production in filamentous fungi, and the approach presented in this study provides a new method for microbial production of Taxol. The well-established ATMT method and the known promoter strengths facilitated further engineering of taxaenes in this fungus. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ethylnaphthoquinone derivatives as inhibitors of indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase from the mangrove endophytic fungus Neofusicoccum austral SYSU-SKS024.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui; Zhang, Hongao; Liu, Yena; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of the fungus Neofusicoccum austral SYSU-SKS024 led to the isolation of three new ethylnaphthoquinone derivatives, neofusnaphthoquinone A (1), 6-(1-methoxylethy1)-2,7-dimethoxyjuglone (2), (3R,4R)-3-methoxyl-botryosphaerone D (6), together with six known analogs (3-5 and 7-9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Neofusnaphthoquinone A (1) is the third example of the unsymmetrical naphthoquinone dimer, which is rarely found in natural source. All of the isolates were evaluated for their indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitory activity, compounds 1-6 showed in vitro inhibitory effects against IDO with IC 50 values ranging from 0.11 to 10.92μM. This is the first time naphthoquinone dimer (1), as a novel carbon skeleton possessing IDO inhibitory activity, was reported. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Do ethylene response factorS9 and -14 repress PR gene expression in the interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camehl, Iris; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2010-08-01

    The plant hormone ethylene (ET) plays a crucial role in the signalling network when plants have to respond to biotic stresses. We investigate the beneficial interaction between the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. Recently, we showed that ET signalling and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF)1 are important to balance beneficial and nonbeneficial traits in this symbiosis. 147 ERF genes in Arabidopsis encode transcriptional regulators with a variety of functions involved in development, physiological processes as well as plant/microbe interactions. In the beneficial symbiosis between Arabidopsis and P. indica, overexpression of ERF1 activates defence responses, strongly reduces root colonization and thus abolishes the benefits for the plants. Here we show that additional transcription factors of the ERF family, the ERF DOMAIN PROTEIN9 (ERF9) and the ETHYLENE-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT BINDING FACTOR14 (ERF14) are involved in the interaction between the two symbionts and are required for growth promotion of the host plant. Expression of these genes is upregulated in colonized wild-type roots. Insertional inactivation of ERF9 and ERF14 diminishes the P. indica-induced growth promotion and activates the expression of the PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR)-1 and PR-2 genes. We propose that ERF9 and ERF14 repress PR gene expression in colonized Arabidopsis roots and thus contribute to the establishment of a beneficial interaction.

  14. Statistical evaluation of the medium components for the production of high biomass, α-amylase and protease enzymes by Piriformospora indica using Plackett-Burman experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetha, S; Varma, Ajit; Padmavathi, T

    2014-08-01

    Piriformospora indica, a member of basidiomycota is an axenically cultivable endophytic fungus which exerts plant growth promoting effects on its host plant. P. indica is known to produce α-amylase and protease. Since the organism exhibits beneficial role in plant growth promotion, achieving high biomass is immensely essential. Hence to enable the commercial production, screening of medium components is a necessary step. The present paper investigates the screening of medium components using Plackett-Burman experimental design wherein the parameters such as α-amylase, protease and biomass have been examined. The parameters α-amylase, protease and biomass was found to vary from 0.25 to 0.45 mg-1 ml-1 min-1, 0.1 to 0.15 mg-1 ml-1 h-1 and 0.8 to 22.6 g l-1, respectively, in 16 runs which demonstrates the strong influence of the medium components.

  15. The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms from Hyptis marrubioides Epling roots. ... The present study was aimed at isolating and characterizing endophytic strains from the root system of Hyptis marrubioides. Coarse and fine root fragments were ... Keywords: Bacteria, fungus, Lamiaceae, root system ...

  16. Improvement of Soil Properties, Growth of Cucumber and Protection against Fusarium Wilt by Piriformospora indica and Two Industrial Organic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work was focused on characterizing bagasse ash (BA and press mud (PM as soil amendments and to study their effect in combination with the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on Fusarium wilt (FW of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Fo. Whereas BA and PM improved almost all physico-chemical properties of the soil evaluated, seed treatment with P. indica had no such effect. In shake culture in potato dextrose broth (PDB medium amended with aqueous extracts of BA and PM, alone or in combination, production mycelial mass of Fo was significantly decreased by PM extract, while production mycelial mass of P. indica was highly improved. The colonization rate of cucumber roots by P. indica as determined by microscopy was highly increased by increasing amounts of BA, PM and BA+PM added to the soil. Seed treatment of cucumber with P. indica before plant cultivation in non-amended soil significantly decreased the disease severity of FW and improved plant growth. When seed treated with P. indica was sown into soil amended with BA, PM or the combination of both, the disease severity was even more reduced than after seed treatment with P. indica alone. In this respect, amendment with PM was more effective than with BA, and the combinations were more effective than the single treatments. Hence, there is a scope to integrate PM and BA as soil amendments in combination with P. indica for eco-friendly FW management, improving soil properties and growth of cucumber plants.

  17. A poly(A) ribonuclease controls the cellotriose-based interaction between Piriformospora indica and its host Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joy M; Thürich, Johannes; Petutschnig, Elena Kristin; Altschmied, Lothar; Meichsner, Doreen; Sherameti, Irena; Dindas, Julian; Mrozinska, Anna; Paetz, Christian; Scholz, Sandra S; Furch, Alexandra Cu; Lipka, Volker; Hedrich, Rainer; Schneider, Bernd; Svatoš, Aleš; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2018-01-25

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic root-colonizing fungus, efficiently promotes plant growth and induces resistance to abiotic stress and biotic diseases. The fungal cell wall extract induces cytoplasmic calcium [Ca2+]cyt elevation in host plant roots. Here, we show that an elici-tor-active cell wall moiety, released by P. indica into the medium, is cellotriose (CT). CT in-duces a mild defense-like response including the production of reactive oxygen species, changes in membrane potentials and the expression of genes involved in growth regulation and root development. CT based [Ca2+]cyt elevation in Arabidopsis roots does not require BAK1 coreceptor, or the putative Ca2+ channels TPC1, GLR3.3, -2.4 and -2.5 and operates synergistically with the elicitor chitin. We identified an ethylmethane-sulfonate-induced mu-tant ([Ca2+]cyt elevation mutant, cycam) impaired in response to CT, cellooligomers (n = 2, 4-7), but not to chitooligomers (n = 4-8) in roots. The mutant contains a single nucleotide ex-change in the gene encoding for a poly(A) ribonuclease (AtPARN, At1g55870) which de-grades poly(A) tails of specific mRNAs. The wild-type PARN cDNA, expressed under the control of a 35S promoter, complements the mutant phenotype. Our finding of cellotriose as a novel chemical mediator might help to understand the complex P. indica-plant mutual rela-tionship in beneficial symbiosis. {copyright, serif} 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-pathogenic Rhizobium radiobacter F4 deploys plant beneficial activity independent of its host Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Stefanie P; Imani, Jafargholi; Alabid, Ibrahim; Guo, Huijuan; Kumar, Neelendra; Kämpfer, Peter; Hardt, Martin; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Rothballer, Michael; Hartmann, Anton; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-04-01

    The Alphaproteobacterium Rhizobium radiobacter F4 (RrF4) was originally characterized as an endofungal bacterium in the beneficial endophytic Sebacinalean fungus Piriformospora indica. Although attempts to cure P. indica from RrF4 repeatedly failed, the bacterium can easily be grown in pure culture. Here, we report on RrF4's genome and the beneficial impact the free-living bacterium has on plants. In contrast to other endofungal bacteria, the genome size of RrF4 is not reduced. Instead, it shows a high degree of similarity to the plant pathogenic R. radiobacter (formerly: Agrobacterium tumefaciens) C58, except vibrant differences in both the tumor-inducing (pTi) and the accessor (pAt) plasmids, which can explain the loss of RrF4's pathogenicity. Similar to its fungal host, RrF4 colonizes plant roots without host preference and forms aggregates of attached cells and dense biofilms at the root surface of maturation zones. RrF4-colonized plants show increased biomass and enhanced resistance against bacterial leaf pathogens. Mutational analysis showed that, similar to P. indica, resistance mediated by RrF4 was dependent on the plant's jasmonate-based induced systemic resistance (ISR) pathway. Consistent with this, RrF4- and P. indica-induced pattern of defense gene expression were similar. In clear contrast to P. indica, but similar to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, RrF4 colonized not only the root outer cortex but also spread beyond the endodermis into the stele. On the basis of our findings, RrF4 is an efficient plant growth-promoting bacterium.

  19. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes

    OpenAIRE

    Banhara, Aline; Ding, Yi; Kühner, Regina; Zuccaro, Alga; Parniske, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular coloniz...

  20. Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed.

  1. Natural anthraquinone derivatives from a marine mangrove plant-derived endophytic fungus Eurotium rubrum: structural elucidation and DPPH radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Li; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2009-07-01

    There is considerable interest in the isolation of potent radical scavenging compounds from natural resources to treat diseases involving oxidative stress. In this report, four new fungal metabolites including one new bisdihydroanthracenone derivative (1, eurorubrin), two new seco-anthraquinone derivatives [3, 2-O-methyl-9-dehydroxyeurotinone and 4, 2-Omethyl- 4-O-(alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)-9-dehydroxyeurotinone], and one new anthraquinone glycoside [6, 3-O-(alpha-D-ribofuranosyl)- questin], were isolated and identified from Eurotium rubrum, an endophytic fungal strain that was isolated from the inner tissue of the stem of the marine mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus. In addition, three known compounds including asperflavin (2), 2-O-methyleurotinone (5), and questin (7) were also isolated and identified. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. All of the isolated compounds were evaluated for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity.

  2. An efficient transformation system of taxol-producing endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... driven by a fungal promoter (trpC) was used to transform EFY-21 and 50% PEG with 20 mM Ca2+ was found to be suitable for ... Key words: Endophytic fungus, taxol, PEG-mediated transformation, protoplast, regeneration, Ozonium sp. ..... entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium flavoviride strain CG423 to.

  3. Isolation of taxol, an anticancer drug produced by the endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phoma betae, an endophytic fungus, was isolated from the healthy leaves of Ginkgo biloba. The fungus was screened for the production of taxol on a modified liquid medium for the first time. The fungal species were identified by their characteristic culture morphology and molecular analysis. The presence of taxol was ...

  4. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp; Waller, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development.

  5. Exogenous auxin affects the oxidative burst in barley roots colonized by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Magdalena; Nostadt, Robin; Zuccaro, Alga

    2013-04-01

    Beside a cardinal role in coordination of many developmental processes in the plant, the phytohormone auxin has been recognized as a regulator of plant defense. The molecular mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. Using a sensitive chemiluminescence assay, which measures the oxidation of luminol in the presence of H₂O₂ by horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we report here on the ability of exogenously added indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to enhance the suppressive effect of the root endophyte Piriformospora indica on the chitin-elicited oxidative burst in barley roots. Thus, the potential of P. indica to produce free IAA during the early colonization phase in barley might provide the symbiont with a means to interfere with the microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP)-triggered immunity.

  6. Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from a dark septate endophytic fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and their expression patterns under varied metals stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mi; Zhao, Da-Ke; Qiao, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs) were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50). Lead (Pb) exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila.

  7. Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST genes from a dark septate endophytic fungus (Exophiala pisciphila and their expression patterns under varied metals stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Shen

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE, Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50. Lead (Pb exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu and zinc (Zn treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001. Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila.

  8. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  9. Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Camehl, Iris; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes the roots of many plant species including Arabidopsis and promotes their performance, biomass, and seed production as well as resistance against biotic and abiotic stress. Imbalances in the symbiotic interaction such as uncontrolled fungal growth result in the loss of benefits for the plants and activation of defense responses against the microbe. We exposed Arabidopsis seedlings to a dense hyphal lawn of P. indica. The seedlings continue to grow, accumulate normal amounts of chlorophyll, and the photosynthetic parameters demonstrate that they perform well. In spite of high fungal doses around the roots, the fungal material inside the roots was not significantly higher when compared with roots that live in a beneficial symbiosis with P. indica. Fifteen defense- and stress-related genes including PR2, PR3, PAL2, and ERF1 are only moderately upregulated in the roots on the fungal lawn, and the seedlings did not accumulate H2O2/radical oxygen species. However, accumulation of anthocyanin in P. indica-exposed seedlings indicates stress symptoms. Furthermore, the jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) levels were increased in the roots, and consequently PDF1.2 and a newly characterized gene for a 2-oxoglurate and Fe2+ -dependent oxygenase were upregulated more than 7-fold on the dense fungal lawn, in a JAR1- and EIN3-dependent manner. We conclude that growth of A. thaliana seedlings on high fungal doses of P. indica has little effect on the overall performance of the plants although elevated JA and JA-Ile levels in the roots induce a mild stress or defense response.

  10. Withanolide production by fungal endophyte isolated from Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Parthasarathy, Ramalingam

    2017-10-16

    Withanolides, the secondary metabolite from Withania species is used in Ayurvedic medicine and now proved to have potential use in treating cardiovascular, Alzheimer's disease, etc. Its production in plants varies between genotypes with very low yield. For improved industrial commercialisation, there is a need to increase its production. Endophytic fungi are symbiotically associated with plants and can synthesise the same bioactive compounds and natural products as their host plant. There are no reports available on withanolide-producing (endophytic) fungi. The present study identified an endophytic fungus (Taleromyces pinophilus) from leaves of Withania somnifera which produces withanolides in the medium. The structure of withanolide was confirmed by 1H NMR, LC-MS analyses and quantified by HPLC analysis. The fungus produces high amount of withanolide when compared to leaf and root of W. somnifera. The fungus can be exploited to produce the withanolide to meet its demand.

  11. Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2014-06-01

    Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Piriformospora indica-a mutualistic basidiomycete with an exceptionally large plant host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Xiaoyu; Weiss, Michael; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a basidiomycete of the order Sebacinales, representing a model for the study of mutualistic symbiosis and, beyond that, the plant immune system. The fungus colonizes the roots of a wide range of vascular plants, increasing their growth, seed yield and adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. The fungal colonization of roots begins with a biotrophic growth phase, in which living cells are colonized, and continues with a cell death-dependent phase, in which root cells are actively killed by the fungus. The complexity of sebacinalean symbiosis is further enhanced by the presence of endocellular bacteria which may represent significant determinants for a successful outcome of the symbioses. Molecular ecological analyses have revealed an exceptional relevance of sebacinoid fungi in natural ecosystems worldwide. This natural competence could be rooted in their phenotypic adaptability, which, for instance, allows P. indica to grow readily on various synthetic media and to colonize distinct hosts. In molecular and genetic studies, P. indica's mutualistic colonization strategy has been partly unravelled, showing that the jasmonate pathway is exploited for immune suppression and successful development in roots. Research on P. indica supports efforts to make the bioprotective potential of the fungus accessible for agricultural plant production. The decoding of P. indica's genome has revealed its potential for application as bioagent and for targeted improvement of crop plants in biotechnology-based approaches. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2011 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  13. Cytosporones O, P and Q from an endophytic Cytospora sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu, L.M.; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Pfenning, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Cytosporones O, P and Q, together with the known compounds cytosporones B, C, D, E and dothiorelones A, 13, C. and H were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Cytospora sp. during a chemotaxonomic study Of fungal endophytes belonging to the related genera Cytospora and Phomopsis from Brazil...

  14. An efficient transformation system of taxol-producing endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFY-21 (Ozonium sp.) is a newly isolated taxol-producing endophytic fungus from Taxus chinensis var. mairei. In this study, an efficient PEG-mediated transformation of EFY-21 was established and conditions for transformation were evaluated. By the optimized enzyme system, mycelium age, digesting temperature and time ...

  15. Volatile metabolites profiling of a Chinese mangrove endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pestalotiopsis JCM2A4, an endophytic fungus originally isolated from leaves of the Chinese mangrove plant Rhizophora mucronata, produces a mixture of volatile metabolites. As determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/GC-MS), 18 compounds representing all of the hexane ...

  16. Determination and production of antimicrobial compounds by Aspergillus clavatonanicus strain MJ31, an endophytic fungus from Mirabilis jalapa L. using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and TD-GC-MS analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar Mishra

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants are reported as potent producers of diverse classes of secondary metabolites. In the present study, an endophytic fungi, Aspergillus clavatonanicus strain MJ31, exhibiting significant antimicrobial activity was isolated from roots of Mirabilis jalapa L., was identified by sequencing three nuclear genes i.e. internal transcribed spacers ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA, 28S ribosomal RNA (28S rRNA and translation elongation factor 1- alpha (EF 1α. Ethyl acetate extract of strain MJ31displayed significant antimicrobial potential against Bacillus subtilis, followed by Micrococccus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of 0.078, 0.156 and 0.312 mg/ml respectively. In addition, the strain was evaluated for its ability to synthesize bioactive compounds by the amplification of polyketide synthase (PKS and non ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS genes. Further, seven antibiotics (miconazole, ketoconazole, fluconazole, ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and rifampicin were detected and quantified using UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Additionally, thermal desorption-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS analysis of strain MJ31 showed the presence of 28 volatile compounds. This is the first report on A. clavatonanicus as an endophyte obtained from M. jalapa. We conclude that A. clavatonanicus strain MJ31 has prolific antimicrobial potential against both plant and human pathogens and can be exploited for the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds and could be an alternate source for the production of secondary metabolites.

  17. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  18. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  19. Piriformospora indica promotes growth, seed yield and quality of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen-Zhu; Wang, Ting; Shrivastava, Neeraj; Chen, You-Yuan; Liu, Xiaoxi; Sun, Chao; Yin, Yufeng; Gao, Qi-Kang; Lou, Bing-Gan

    2017-06-01

    In current scenario, crop productivity is being challenged by decreasing soil fertility. To cope up with this problem, different beneficial microbes are explored to increase the crop productivity with value additions. In this study, Brassica napus L., an important agricultural economic oilseed crop with rich source of nutritive qualities, was interacted with Piriformospora indica, a unique root colonizing fungus with wide host range and multifunctional aspects. The fungus-treated plants showed a significant increase in agronomic parameters with plant biomass, lodging-resistance, early bolting and flowering, oil yield and quality. Nutritional analysis revealed that plants treated by P. indica had reduced erucic acid and glucosinolates contents, and increased the accumulation of N, Ca, Mg, P, K, S, B, Fe and Zn elements. Low erucic acid and glucosinolates contents are important parameters for high quality oil, because oils high in erucic acid and glucosinolates are considered undesirable for human nutrition. Furthermore, the expression profiles of two encoding enzyme genes, Bn-FAE1 and BnECR, which are responsible for regulating erucic acid biosynthesis, were down-regulated at mid- and late- life stages during seeds development in colonized plants. These results demonstrated that P. indica played an important role in enhancing plant growth, rapeseed yield and quality improvement of B. napus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual symbiosis between Piriformospora indica and Azotobacter chroococcum enhances the artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Saxena, Parul; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Varma, Ajit

    2016-02-01

    At present, Artemisia annua L. is the major source of artemisinin production. To control the outbreaks of malaria, artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are recommended, and hence an ample amount of artemisinin is required for ACTs manufacture to save millions of lives. The low yield of this antimalarial drug in A. annua L. plants (0.01-1.1%) ensues its short supply and high cost, thus making it a topic of scrutiny worldwide. In this study, the effects of root endophyte, Piriformospora indica strain DSM 11827 and nitrogen fixing bacterium, Azotobacter chroococcum strain W-5, either singly and/or in combination for artemisinin production in A. annua L. plants have been studied under poly house conditions. The plant growth was monitored by measuring parameters like height of plant, total dry weight and leaf yield with an increase of 63.51, 52.61 and 79.70% respectively, for treatment with dual biological consortium, as compared to that of control plants. This significant improvement in biomass was associated with higher total chlorophyll content (59.29%) and enhanced nutrition (especially nitrogen and phosphorus, 55.75 and 86.21% respectively). The concentration of artemisinin along with expression patterns of artemisinin biosynthesis genes were appreciably higher in dual treatment, which showed positive correlation. The study suggested the potential use of the consortium P. indica strain DSM 11827 and A. chroococcum strain W-5 in A. annua L. plants for increased overall productivity and sustainable agriculture.

  1. Patents on Endophytic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, M; Gupta, D; Gupta, U; Faraz, R; Sandhu, S S

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are taxonomically and ecologically heterogeneous group of organisms, mainly belonging to the Ascomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Endophytes usually produce the enzymes necessary for the colonization of plant tissues. Endophytes are able to utilize components of plant cells without disturbing host metabolism, which is confirmed by isozyme analysis and studies on substrate utilization. The patents related to enzymes and metabolites produced by endophytic fungi are associated with their ecological significance. Application of metabolites and growth promoting factors produced from endophytic fungi, in the pharmaceutical and agricultural industries, is now well established. The patents on secretion of extracellular enzymes in vitro by endophytic fungi needed for cell wall degradation, support the hypothesis that fungal endophytes represent a group of organisms specialized to live within plant tissue. This review presents the patents granted on different aspects of endophytic fungi for the last 11 years. This expresses the scenario and impact of these patents regarding significance in human society. In the last few years, research and inventions regarding the different aspects of endophytic fungi beneficial for host plant as well as for human beings have been carried out, which is supported by the increasing number of patents granted on endophytic fungi. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a cyclophilin A-like protein from Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Harshesh; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Pal, Ravi Kant; Johri, Atul Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2012-06-01

    Cyclophilins are widely distributed both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes and have a primary role as peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases). This study focuses on the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of a salinity-stress-induced cyclophilin A (CypA) homologue from the symbiotic fungus Piriformospora indica. Crystallization experiments in the presence of 56 mM sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate, 1.34 M potassium phosphate dibasic pH 8.2 yielded crystals that were suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 121.15, b = 144.12, c = 110.63 Å. The crystals diffracted to a resolution limit of 2.0 Å. Analysis of the diffraction data indicated the presence of three molecules of the protein per asymmetric unit (V(M) = 4.48 Å(3) Da(-1), 72.6% solvent content).

  3. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  5. Effects of Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera on growth and yield of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Hossein Kari; Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Jaimand, Kamkar; Rohani, Neda; Varma, Ajit

    2011-02-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a very important plant in the family of Apiaceae. Effects of inoculation of two endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera) in growth, yield and composition of the essential oil of fennel (F. vulgare) were evaluated in pot cultures. Dry fruits were ground with an electric grinder and oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by GC/MS. In pot experiment, the maximum dry weight of the green tissue and root and plant height were obtained with P. indica, and maximum number of umbels per plant and dry weight of 1000 fruits were produced with S. vermifera. The P. indica and S. vermifera inoculation significantly increased oil yield as compared to non-inoculated control plants. GC and GC/MS studies revealed that the level of anethole was increased with P. indica and S. vermifera. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause is a type of fungus called dermatophyte. Yeast and molds also can cause nail infections. Fungal ... more years of exposure to fungi and slower growing nails Sweating heavily Having a history of athlete's ...

  7. Steroids produced by Penicillium herquei, an endophytic fungus isolated from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae); Esteroides produzidos por Penicillium herquei, um fungo endofitico isolado dos frutos de Melia azedarach (Meliaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Andrey Moacir do Rosario [Universidade do Estado do Para, Belem, PA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Naturais], e-mail: andreymoacir@yahoo.com.br; Marinho, Patricia Santana Barbosa; Rodrigues Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS. (author)

  8. Terpenoids from Endophytic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucimar Jorgeane de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.

  9. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  10. Piriformospora indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings during high salt stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Saha, Shreya; Bakshi, Madhunita; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Varma, Ajit; Oelmüller, Ralf; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Piriformospora indica association has been reported to increase biotic as well as abiotic stress tolerance of its host plants. We analyzed the beneficial effect of P. indica association on rice seedlings during high salt stress conditions (200 and 300 mM NaCl). The growth parameters of rice seedlings such as root and shoot lengths or fresh and dry weights were found to be enhanced in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings as compared with non-inoculated control seedlings, irrespective of whether they are exposed to salt stress or not. However, salt-stressed seedlings performed much better in the presence of the fungus compared with non-inoculated control seedlings. The photosynthetic pigment content [chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, and carotenoids] was significantly higher in P. indica-inoculated rice seedlings under high salt stress conditions as compared with salt-treated non-inoculated rice seedlings, in which these pigments were found to be decreased. Proline accumulation was also observed during P. indica colonization, which may help the inoculated plants to become salt tolerant. Taken together, P. indica rescues growth diminution of rice seedlings under salt stress.

  11. Antimicrobial activity and biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Chen, Juan; Cui, Jin-Long; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi are rich in orchids and have great impacts on their host plants. 53 endophytes (30 isolates from Dendrobium devonianum and 23 endophytic fungi from D. thyrsiflorum) were isolated, respectively, from roots and stems of Dendrobium species. All the fungi were identified by way of morphological and/or molecular biological methods. 30 endophytic fungi in D. devonianum were categorized into 11 taxa and 23 fungal endophytes in D. thyrsiflorum were grouped into 11 genera, respectively. Fusarium was the dominant species of the two Dendrobium species in common. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of fermentation broth of these fungi was explored using agar diffusion test. 10 endophytic fungi in D. devonianum and 11 in D. thyrsiflorum exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among 6 pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus). Out of the fungal endophytes isolated from D. devonianum and D. thyrsiflorum, Phoma displayed strong inhibitory activity (inhibition zones in diameter >20 mm) against pathogens. Epicoccum nigrum from D. thyrsiflorum exhibited antibacterial activity even stronger than ampicillin sodium. Fusarium isolated from the two Dendrobium species was effective against the pathogenic bacterial as well as fungal pathogens. The study reinforced the assumption that endophytic fungi isolated from different Dendrobium species could be of potential antibacterial or antifungal resource.

  12. The Piriformospora indica effector PIIN_08944 promotes the mutualistic Sebacinalean symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akum, Fidele N.; Steinbrenner, Jens; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Imani, Jafargholi; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic and mutualistic microbes actively suppress plant defense by secreting effector proteins to manipulate the host responses for their own benefit. Current knowledge about fungal effectors has been mainly derived from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes with restricted host range. We studied colonization strategies of the root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica that colonizes a wide range of plant species thereby establishing long-term mutualistic relationships. The release of P. indica’s genome helped to identify hundreds of genes coding for candidate effectors and provides an opportunity to investigate the role of those proteins in a mutualistic symbiosis. We demonstrate that the candidate effector PIIN_08944 plays a crucial role during fungal colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. PIIN_08944 expression was detected during chlamydospore germination, and fungal deletion mutants (PiΔ08944) showed delayed root colonization. Constitutive over-expression of PIIN_08944 in Arabidopsis rescued the delayed colonization phenotype of the deletion mutant. PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis showed a reduced expression of flg22-induced marker genes of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and the salicylic acid (SA) defense pathway, and expression of PIIN_08944 in barley reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22 and chitin. These data suggest that PIIN_08944 contributes to root colonization by P. indica by interfering with SA-mediated basal immune responses of the host plant. Consistent with this, PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis also supported the growth of the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis while growth of the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea on Arabidopsis and Fusarium graminearum on barley was not affected. PMID:26579156

  13. The Piriformospora indica effector PIIN_08944 promotes the mutualistic Sebacinalean symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akum, Fidele N; Steinbrenner, Jens; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Imani, Jafargholi; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic and mutualistic microbes actively suppress plant defense by secreting effector proteins to manipulate the host responses for their own benefit. Current knowledge about fungal effectors has been mainly derived from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes with restricted host range. We studied colonization strategies of the root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica that colonizes a wide range of plant species thereby establishing long-term mutualistic relationships. The release of P. indica's genome helped to identify hundreds of genes coding for candidate effectors and provides an opportunity to investigate the role of those proteins in a mutualistic symbiosis. We demonstrate that the candidate effector PIIN_08944 plays a crucial role during fungal colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. PIIN_08944 expression was detected during chlamydospore germination, and fungal deletion mutants (PiΔ08944) showed delayed root colonization. Constitutive over-expression of PIIN_08944 in Arabidopsis rescued the delayed colonization phenotype of the deletion mutant. PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis showed a reduced expression of flg22-induced marker genes of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and the salicylic acid (SA) defense pathway, and expression of PIIN_08944 in barley reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) triggered by flg22 and chitin. These data suggest that PIIN_08944 contributes to root colonization by P. indica by interfering with SA-mediated basal immune responses of the host plant. Consistent with this, PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis also supported the growth of the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis while growth of the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea on Arabidopsis and Fusarium graminearum on barley was not affected.

  14. The Piriformospora indica effector PIIN_08944 promotes the mutualistic Sebacinalean symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Ndifor Akum

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic and mutualistic microbes actively suppress plant defense by secreting effector proteins to manipulate the host responses for their own benefit. Current knowledge about fungal effectors has been mainly derived from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes with restricted host range. We studied colonization strategies of the root endophytic basidiomycete Piriformospora indica that colonizes a wide range of plant species thereby establishing long-term mutualistic relationships. The release of P. indica’s genome helped to identify hundreds of genes coding for candidate effectors and provides an opportunity to investigate the role of those proteins in a mutualistic symbiosis. We demonstrate that the candidate effector PIIN_08944 plays a crucial role during fungal colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots. PIIN_08944 expression was detected during chlamydospore germination, and fungal deletion mutants (Pi∆08944 showed delayed root colonization. Constitutive over-expression of PIIN_08944 in Arabidopsis rescued the delayed colonization phenotype of the deletion mutant. PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis showed a reduced expression of flg22-induced marker genes of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI and the salicylic acid (SA defense pathway, and expression of PIIN_08944 in barley reduced the burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS triggered by flg22 and chitin. These data suggest that PIIN_08944 contributes to root colonization by P. indica by interfering with SA-mediated basal immune responses of the host plant. Consistent with this, PIIN_08944-expressing Arabidopsis also supported the growth of the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis while growth of the necrotrophic fungi Botrytis cinerea on Arabidopsis and Fusarium graminearum on barley was not affected.

  15. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants.

  16. The indole alkaloid meleagrin, from the olive tree endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, as a novel lead for the control of c-Met-dependent breast cancer proliferation, migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Mohamed S; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Elsayed, Heba E; Houssen, Wael E; Haggag, Eman G; Soliman, Randa F; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-01-15

    Fungi of the genus Penicillium produce unique and chemically diverse biologically active secondary metabolites, including indole alkaloids. The role of dysregulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, in the development and progression of breast carcinoma is documented. The goal of this work is to explore the chemistry and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites of the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum cultured from the leaf of the olive tree Olea europea, collected in its natural habitat in Egypt. This fungal extract showed good inhibitory activities against the proliferation and migration of several human breast cancer lines. The CH2Cl2 extract of P. chrysogenum mycelia was subjected to bioguided chromatographic separation to afford three known indole alkaloids; meleagrin (1), roquefortine C (2) and DHTD (3). Meleagrin inhibited the growth of the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-468, BT-474, SK BR-3, MCF7 and MCF7-dox, while similar treatment doses were found to have no effect on the growth and viability of the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Meleagrin also showed excellent ATP competitive c-Met inhibitory activity in Z-Lyte assay, which was further confirmed via molecular docking studies and Western blot analysis. In addition, meleagrin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HGF-induced cell migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Meleagrin treatment potently suppressed the invasive triple negative breast tumor cell growth in an orthotopic athymic nude mice model, promoting this unique natural product from hit to a lead rank. The indole alkaloid meleagrin is a novel lead c-Met inhibitory entity useful for the control of c-Met-dependent metastatic and invasive breast malignancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endophytic Colletrotrichum spp. from Cinchona calisaya wedd. and it's potential quinine production as antibacterial and antimalaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiastuti, Nani; Mutea, Dalli; Sumarlin, La Ode

    2017-02-01

    An endophytic fungus is microorganisms that live inside plant tissues without harming its host and is capable of producing the same secondary metabolites as its host plant. The endophytic fungus is very diverse and important group of microorganisms. The objectives of the study are to identify endophyte Colletotrichum spp. using ITS rDNA analyze, alkaloid cinchona and antibacterial characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA regions and morphology are used to identify the species. The Chloroform extracts of filtrate were analyzed using the High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the production of quinine. There were 13 isolates of Colletotrichum spp as endophytes with associated with Cinchona calisaya Wedd. from fruit (6 isolates), leaf (5 isolates), twig (1 isolate) and root (1 isolate). This is the first report as endophytes are associated with C. calisaya. Based on ITS phylogenetic analysis are introduced of 7 strains Colletotrichum sp, 1 strain closely with C. aegnigma, 2 strains closely C. cordylinicola, 1 strains C arxii, 2 strains nested C. karstii. The Colletotrichum sp. M1 (leaf), M3 (bark), M8 (fruit) and C. karstii M5 (fruit) are potential alkaloid quinine. Five strains of Colletotrichum spp. have antibacterial activity are selected against Staphylococcus aureus and nine Colletotrichum spp. against Escherichia coli. The endophyte identification of Colletotrichum species needs another gene other than ITS rDNA.

  18. A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, promotes tomato growth under organic nitrogen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Rola S; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE) species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-3, have shown the ability to increase plant biomass with an organic nitrogen source. This finding is the first report of S. humicola as an endophyte and could help to improve plant growth with organic nitrogen sources.

  19. A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, promotes tomato growth under organic nitrogen conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola S Mahmoud

    Full Text Available A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-3, have shown the ability to increase plant biomass with an organic nitrogen source. This finding is the first report of S. humicola as an endophyte and could help to improve plant growth with organic nitrogen sources.

  20. Characterization of α-amylase produced by the endophytic strain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sideney Becker Onofre, Dirceu Abatti, Douglas Refosco, Amarildo Antonio Tessaro, Jean Alisson Becker Onofre, Alessandra Buss Tessaro ... compare the yields of α-amylase produced by the endophytic fungus, Penicillium digitatum, strain D1-FB, isolated from Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae), through the solid ...

  1. A new helvolic acid derivative from an endophytic Fusarium sp. of Ficus carica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xi-Ai; Ma, Yang-Min; Zhang, Hong-Chi; Liu, Rui

    2016-11-01

    A new helvolic acid derivative named helvolic acid methyl ester (1), together with two known helvolic acid compounds, helvolic acid (2) and hydrohelvolic acid (3), were isolated from the fermentation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. in Ficus carica leaves. Their structures were elucidated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-3 showed potent antifungal and antibacterial activities.

  2. Acremonium camptosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper draws on morphological and molecular analyses to determinate the systematic position of an interesting endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba, a tree of semideciduous dry tropical forest at El Eden Ecological Reserve. The cultured strain develops the characteristic...

  3. Active anti-acetylcholinesterase component of secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungi of Huperzia serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhejian Wang

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: We isolated 4 compounds from the endophytic fungus L10Q37, among them S1 and S3 are new compounds. 6 compounds were isolated from LQ2F02, all 6 compounds are new compounds. After tested anti acetylcholinesterase activity, S5 has the best activity. Other compounds' anti acetylcholinesterase activity was not better compared with huperzine A.

  4. Dark Septate Endophytes ? všudypřítomní endofyté kořenů rostlin se stále opomíjeným ekofyziologickým potenciálem

    OpenAIRE

    Lukešová, Tereza

    2010-01-01

    5 Abstract In natural ecosystems, all plants coexist with fungi. This results in various plant-fungus symbioses, either mutualistic, parasitic or endophytic. For example, the mycorrhizal symbiosis is a mutualistic association that occurs in ca 70 to 90 % of all terrestrial higher plants. Probably even more widespread association is endophytism, when a fungus colonizes different living plant tissues without causing a strong plant defense response. This bachelor's thesis summarizes some older a...

  5. Molecular characterization of a seed transmitted clavicipitaceous fungus occurring on dicotyledoneous plants (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Ahimsa-Müller, Mahalia A; Markert, Anne; Kucht, Sabine; Gross, Julia; Kauf, Nicole; Kuzma, Monika; Zych, Monika; Lamshöft, Marc; Furmanowa, Miroslawa; Knoop, Volker; Drewke, Christel; Leistner, Eckhard

    2006-08-01

    Ergoline alkaloids (syn. ergot alkaloids) are constituents of clavicipitaceous fungi (Ascomycota) and of one particular dicotyledonous plant family, the Convolvulaceae. While the biology of fungal ergoline alkaloids is rather well understood, the evolutionary and biosynthetic origin of ergoline alkaloids within the family Convolvulaceae is unknown. To investigate the possible origin of ergoline alkaloids from a plant-associated fungus, 12 endophytic fungi and one epibiotic fungus were isolated from an ergoline alkaloid-containing Convolvulaceae plant, Ipomoea asarifolia Roem. & Schult. Phylogenetic trees constructed from 18S rDNA genes as well as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed that the epibiotic fungus belongs to the family Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota) whereas none of the endophytic fungi does. In vitro and in vivo cultivation on intact plants gave no evidence that the endophytic fungi are responsible for the accumulation of ergoline alkaloids in I. asarifolia whereas the epibiotic clavicipitaceous fungus very likely is equipped with the genetic material to synthesize these compounds. This fungus resisted in vitro and in vivo cultivation and is seed transmitted. Several observations strongly indicate that this plant-associated fungus and its hitherto unidentified relatives occurring on different Convolvulaceae plants are responsible for the isolated occurrence of ergoline alkaloids in Convolvulaceae. This is the first report of an ergot alkaloid producing clavicipitaceous fungus associated with a dicotyledonous plant.

  6. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild maize (teosinte has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON. In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense.

  7. Endophytic colonization of tomato plants by the biological control agent Clonostachys rosea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, Anna Kaja; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt

    Fungal endophytes live naturally inside plants without causing symptoms. On the contrary, they can promote plant growth and increase tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. These beneficial effects have increased the agricultural interest for exploitation of fungal isolates with an endophytic life......-style. Clonostachys rosea occurs naturally world-wide and is capable of colonizing many different habitats. The fungus is primarily known as a versatile biological control agent. However, it has also been reported as a plant endophyte in, e.g., soybean, red clover and cacao. The C. rosea isolate IK726 efficiently...... controls seed- and soil-borne diseases and can furthermore promote plant growth. However, it is not known whether IK726 can colonize plants internally and therefore, the objective of the present study was to examine the possibility of an endophytic life-style of IK726 in tomato. Tomato seeds were sown...

  8. Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuccaro, Alga; Lahrmann, Urs; Güldener, Ulrich; Langen, Gregor; Pfiffi, Stefanie; Biedenkopf, Dagmar; Wong, Philip; Samans, Birgit; Grimm, Carolin; Basiewicz, Magdalena; Murat, Claude; Martin, Francis; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-01-01

    .... Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism...

  9. Fungal endophyte Penicillium janthinellum LK5 improves growth of ABA-deficient tomato under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hamayun, Muhammad; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kamran, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Yun, Byung-Wook; Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-11-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) and identified as Penicillium janthinellum LK5. The culture filtrate (CF) of P. janthinellum significantly increased the shoot length of gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant waito-c and normal Dongjin-beyo rice seedlings as compared to control. The CF of P. janthinellum contained GAs (GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA12). To assess endophyte-growth promoting and stress-tolerance potential, the CF along with the propagules of endophyte was applied to tomato-host and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant Sitiens plants under sodium chloride (NaCl) induced salinity stress. Sitiens plants had retarded growth under normal and salinity stress however its growth was much improved during P. janthinellum-association. The endophyte inoculation reduced the membrane injury by decreasing lipid peroxidation as compared to non-inoculated control under salinity. Endophyte-associated Sitiens plants have significantly higher catalase, peroxidase and glutathione activities as compared to control. Endophyte-infected host and Sitiens plants had low level of sodium ion toxicity and high calcium contents in its root as compared to control. P. janthinellum LK5 helped the Sitiens plants to synthesis significantly higher ABA and reduced the level of jasmonic acid to modulate stress responses. The results suggest that endophytes-association can resist salinity stress by producing gibberellins and activating defensive mechanisms of host and Sitiens plants to achieve improved growth.

  10. Structure of RNA-interacting Cyclophilin A-like protein from Piriformospora indica that provides salinity-stress tolerance in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Bhatt, Harshesh; Pal, Ravi Kant; Tuteja, Renu; Garg, Bharti; Johri, Atul Kumar; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-10-01

    Soil salinity problems are widespread around the globe with increased risk of spreading over the years. The fungus Piriformospora indica, identified in Indian Thar desert, colonizes the roots of monocotyledon plants and provides resistance towards biotic as well as abiotic stress conditions. We have identified a cyclophilin A-like protein from P. indica (PiCypA), which shows higher expression levels during salinity stress. The transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing PiCypA develop osmotic tolerance and exhibit normal growth under osmotic stress conditions. The crystal structure and NMR spectroscopy of PiCypA show a canonical cyclophilin like fold exhibiting a novel RNA binding activity. The RNA binding activity of the protein and identification of the key residues involved in the RNA recognition is unique for this class of protein. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a direct evidence of countering osmotic stress tolerance in plant by genetic modification using a P. indica gene.

  11. New insights into the subcellular localization of Tubby-like proteins and their participation in the Arabidopsis-Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marco U; Pai, Subhash; Imani, Jafargholi; Schäfer, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) have been associated with hormone signaling and responses to abiotic and biotic stress in plants. Recently, Arabidopsis thaliana TLP3 was found to translocate from the plasma membrane of cells in response to distinct abiotic stresses, thereby activating cellular signaling. In addition, several AtTLPs were demonstrated to be necessary for normal colonization of roots by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica. Here, we present evidence for the involvement of another two AtTLPs in this interaction. Furthermore, we show that plasma membrane targeting of TLPs might be conserved in other plant species, although we did not find it for all members of the protein family. Finally, the position of a GFP-tag influences the localization of AtTLP3, which needs to be considered when working with TLPs.

  12. Persistence of endophytic fungi in cultivars of Lolium perenne grown from seeds stored for 22 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheplick, Gregory P

    2017-04-01

    Genetic resources for forage crops often consist of seeds of specific species and cultivars in cold storage for future use in breeding and selection programs. Temperate grasses such as Lolium perenne, used worldwide for forage and turf, produce seeds commonly infected by hyphae of an endophytic fungus (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). This research determined whether endophytes could persist and infect seedlings of L. perenne emerging from seeds stored for over two decades. Endophyte-infected seeds (>90% infected) of four cultivars were obtained in 1994 and stored dry in plastic bags at 4°C. Seed germination was tested after 12 yr (for two cultivars) and after 18 and 22 yr (for all cultivars). Seedling leaf sheaths were excised, stained, and examined at 400× for endophytic hyphae to quantify infection frequency (% plants infected) and intensity (mean number of endophytic hyphae per field of view). Seed germination after 22 yr depended on cultivar, ranging from 53 to 78%. Between 58 and 73% of plants grown from seeds stored for 22 yr still contained viable endophytic hyphae. Infection intensity remained at original levels for 18 yr in one cultivar; however, in all cultivars, infection intensity declined significantly between 18 and 22 yr. Persistence of the grass seed-endophyte symbiosis for over 20 yr surpasses all prior records of endophyte longevity within stored seeds. Storage of germplasm of cool-season grass cultivars that contain potentially beneficial fungal endophytes should be possible for several decades under dry, cold conditions. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Antiproliferative, antifungal, and antibacterial activities of endophytic alternaria species from cupressaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S

    2014-09-01

    Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported.

  14. A pilot study of antioxidant potential of endophytic fungi from some Sudanese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiralla, Afra; Mohamed, Ietidal; Thomas, Justinne; Mignard, Benoît; Spina, Rosella; Yagi, Sakina; Laurain-Mattar, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity of ethyl acetate extracts of 21 endophytic fungi isolated from five Sudanese medicinal plants: Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Euphorbia prostrate, Vernonia amygdalina and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Crude extracts of endophytic fungi and their host plants were tested by classical Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method to determine the total phenolic content, also total antioxidant capacity was estimated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging in vitro method. Among the endophytes, endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds demonstrated the highest both total phenolic content in term of gallic acid equivalent [(89.9 ± 7.1) mg GAE/g] and antioxidant activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay [IC50: (18.0 ± 0.1) μg/mL]. A high positive linear correlation (R(2) = 0.999 1) was found between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of endophytic fungi isolated from Vernonia amygdalina. The present study revealed that some endophytic fungi from the five Sudanese medicinal plants could be a potential source of novel natural antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2015 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Linking secondary metabolites to biosynthesis genes in the fungal endophyte Cyanodermella asteris: The anti-cancer bisanthraquinone skyrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Linda; Schafhauser, Thomas; Wibberg, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    far and further elucidation of the individual biosynthetic steps is needed to fully exploit the biotechnological and medicinal potential of these compounds. Here, we identified the bisanthraquinone skyrin as the main pigment of the fungus Cyanodermella asteris, an endophyte that has recently been...

  16. Production of a potential liquid plant bio-stimulant by immobilized Piriformospora indica in repeated-batch fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Nikolay; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina; Flor-Peregrin, Elena; Martos, Vanessa; Reyes, Antonia; Vassileva, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Piriformospora indica, a mycorrhizal-like fungus able to establish associations with roots of a wide range of plants, supporting plant nutrition and increasing plant resistance and tolerance to stress, was shown to solubilise phosphate applied in the form of animal bone char (HABO) in fermentation systems. The process of P solubilisation was caused most likely by proton extrusion and medium pH lowering. The fungal mycelium was successfully immobilized/retained in a polyurethane foam carrier. Further employment of the immobilized mycelium in repeated-batch fermentation process resulted in at least 5 cycles of P solubilization. The concentration of soluble P increased during the experiment with 1.0 and 3.0 g HABO l -1 and at the end of the 5th batch cycle reached 40.8 and 120 mg l -1 , respectively. The resulting final liquid product, without or with solubilized phosphate, was found to significantly increase plant growth and P plant uptake. It can be used as a biostimulant containing microbial plant growth-promoting substances and soluble P derived from renewable sources (HABO) thus supporting the development of sustainable agro-ecosystems.

  17. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhara, Aline; Ding, Yi; Kühner, Regina; Zuccaro, Alga; Parniske, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi (Glomeromycota) form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs). Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota), raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs) interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs and that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection.

  18. Colonization of root cells and plant growth promotion by Piriformospora indica occurs independently of plant common symbiosis genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eBanhara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM fungi (Glomeromycota form symbiosis with and deliver nutrients via the roots of most angiosperms. AM fungal hyphae are taken up by living root epidermal cells, a program which relies on a set of plant common symbiosis genes (CSGs. Plant root epidermal cells are also infected by the plant growth-promoting fungus Piriformospora indica (Basidiomycota, raising the question whether this interaction relies on the AM-related CSGs. Here we show that intracellular colonization of root cells and intracellular sporulation by P. indica occurred in CSG mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus and in Arabidopsis thaliana, which belongs to the Brassicaceae, a family that has lost the ability to form AM as well as a core set of CSGs. A. thaliana mutants of homologs of CSGs (HCSGs interacted with P. indica similar to the wild-type, suggesting that AM fungi and P. indica exploit different host pathways for infection. Moreover, increased biomass of A. thaliana evoked by P. indica was unaltered in HCSG mutants. We conclude that colonization and growth promotion by P. indica are independent of the CSGs.

  19. Reactive oxygen species generation-scavenging and signaling during plant-arbuscular mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica interaction under stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Nath

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also acts as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant–microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant–microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation and scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  20. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation-Scavenging and Signaling during Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica Interaction under Stress Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Bhatt, Deepesh; Prasad, Ram; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Anjum, Naser A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also act as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant-microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant-microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation, scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  1. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  2. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a sugarcane endophyte, produces antifungal compounds and induces root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léia Cecilia de Lima Fávaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this

  3. Endophytic and Epiphytic Microbes as Sources of Bioactive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Newman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the report by Stierle and Strobel in 1993 on taxol(R production by an endophytic fungus 1, it is possible that a number of the agents now used as leads to treatments of diseases in man, are not produced by the plant or invertebrate host from which they were first isolated and identified.They are probably the product of a microbe in, on or around the macroorganism. At times there is an intricate dance between a precursor produced by a microbe, and interactions within the macroorganism, or in certain cases, a fungus, that ends up with the production of a novel agent that has potential as a treatment for a human disease. This report will give examples from insects, plants and marine invertebrates.

  4. Beauveria bassiana as an endophyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinnon, Aimee C.; Saari, Susanna Talvikki; Moran-Diez, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade there has been increased focus on the potential of endophytic Beauveria bassiana for the biocontrol of insect herbivores. Generally, detection of endophytes is acknowledged to be problematic and recovery method-dependent. Herein, we critically analyse the methodology reported...... for the detection of B. bassiana as endophytes following experimental inoculation. In light of the methodology, we further review the effects of endophytic B. bassiana on insect herbivores. Our review indicated the need for stringent protocols for surface sterilisation including thorough experimental controls....... For molecular detection protocols by PCR, residual DNA from surface inocula must also be considered. The biocontrol potential of B. bassiana endophytes appears promising although both negative and neutral effects on insect herbivores were reported and there remains ambiguity with respect to the location...

  5. Effect of the Extract of Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica CL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of extract on ultrastructure of MRSA and K. pneumoniae cells were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results: The time-kill test revealed that the bacteriocidal activity of the extract was both concentration- and time-dependent. After 12 h treatment, ...

  6. Proteomic analysis of the endophytic fungus Undifilum oxytropis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lh

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Linear ion trap Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The peptides were infused into a hybrid linear ion trap FT-ICR mass spectrometer (LTQ-FT, Thermo, San Jose, CA) through a micro electrospray ion source from an ultra-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC ...

  7. Proteomic analysis of the endophytic fungus Undifilum oxytropis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lh

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... transcriptomics of the model entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. acridum. PLoS Genet. 7(1): e1001264. Gardner DR, Molyneux RJ, Ralph MH (2001). Analysis of swainsonine extraction methods, detection, and measurement in populaions of locoweeds (Oxytropis spp.). J. Agric Food ...

  8. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  9. Biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid amides by an endophytic Penicillium brasilianum found in root bark of Melia azedarach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Taicia Pacheco; da Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2010-03-01

    Biosynthetic studies on brasiliamides, potently convulsive and bacteriostatic compounds from an endophytic Penicillium brasilianum isolated from Melia azedarach (Meliaceae), confirms their phenylpropanoid origin, which is very uncommon in fungi. Feeding experiments with [2-(13)C]- phenylalanine indicated the incorporation of two units of this amino acid on brasiliamide structures. The first step in the phenylpropanoid pathway to those compounds was evaluated through enzymatic bioassays and confirmed the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) participation. The metabolism of phenylalanine in this fungus is discussed.

  10. Isolation of Pandangolide 1 from Cladosporium oxysporum, An Endophyte of the Terrestrial Plant Alyxia reinwardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Hartanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pandangolide 1 was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cladosporium oxysporum cultures. The fungus was originally obtained from Alyxia reinwardtii. The structure of pandangolide 1 was elucidated on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and accurate mass spectrometric data. This is the first report of the isolation of pandangolide 1 from endophytic C. oxysporum derived from a terrestrial host plant

  11. Biochemical and histochemical analyses revealing endophytic Alcaligenes faecalis mediated suppression of oxidative stress in Abelmoschus esculentus challenged with Sclerotium rolfsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shatrupa; Singh, Vivek; Singh, Surendra; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2016-12-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii is a highly aggressive pathogen that causes huge economic losses, especially in temperate climates. Alcaligenes faecalis, particularly in endophytic form, has rarely been used to control this fungus. In this study, endophytic Alcaligenes sp. strain BHU 12, BHU 16 (isolated from Abelmoschus esculentus leaf) and BHU M7 (isolated from Andrographis paniculata leaf) were reported to trigger a wide range of host defenses in Okra plant against the collar-rot pathogen S. rolfsii. Endophytic colonization of the strains in ten days old plants was assessed through re-isolation of the rif-tagged strains on rifampicin augmented nutrient agar media. The ability of the endophytic strains to induce systemic defense responses in above-ground organs was assessed by collecting leaf tissues of the Okra plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions at different time intervals post seedling bacterization with the endophytic biocontrol agents. The pathogen challenged unprimed plants exhibited flaccidity of the stem and leaves at 48 h post infection (hpi) in contrast to the bioprimed and challenged plants. Biochemical and histochemical analyses explained the above phenomenon as activation of phyto-peroxidases leading to an increased metabolism of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), accompanied by activation of the phenylpropanoid network and a subsequent enhancement in plant phenolics. Interestingly, though the maximum increase in the defense pathways was observed in treatments with native endophytes of Okra plant, yet the enhancement in antioxidant pathway due to A. paniculata borne endophytes was also quite significant. Thus, this work clearly demonstrates how Okra plants respond to the "non-hostile" colonization of bacterial endophytes and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of the endophytic strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleutério; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests. PMID:24031320

  13. Phylogenetic Investigation of Endophytic Fusarium Strain Producing Antimicrobial Metabolite Isolated From Himalayan Yew Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayung, K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp. was isolated from yew bark of eastern Himalaya. Ethyl acetate extract from its fermentation broth displayed considerable antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, three Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri and two pathogenic fungi (Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The metabolite showed highest inhibition zone against K. pneumoniae (27 mm and lowest against C. albicans (10 mm. Based on BLAST search analysis of ITS rDNA sequence, the fungus was identified as Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc. Phylogenetic trees were generated by four different methods. Phylogenetic tree generated by UPGMA method was used to establish possible phylogenetic relationships of the fungus with other F. solani isolates those exist as endophytes, pathogens and saprotrophs taken from database. The generated tree showed that all F. solani strains have a common endophytic ancestry which gave rise to six clades that radiate into four evolutionary lineages. The possible phylogenetic relationships of F. solani that exist in different lifestyle have been discussed in each clade.

  14. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M + H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus.

  15. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry eMueller

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in Eastern and Western areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of endophytic fungi obtained from the arid zone invasive plant Opuntia dillenii and the isolation of equisetin, from endophytic Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B; de Silva, E Dilip; Williams, David E; Andersen, Raymond J

    2015-07-10

    Opuntia dillenii is an invasive plant well established in the harsh South-Eastern arid zone of Sri Lanka. Evidence suggests it is likely that the endophytic fungal populations of O. dillenii assist the host in overcoming biotic and abiotic stress by producing biologically active metabolites. With this in mind there is potential to discover novel natural products with useful biological activities from this hitherto poorly investigated source. Consequently, an investigation of the antimicrobial activities of the endophytes of O. dillenii, that occupies a unique ecological niche, may well provide useful leads in the discovery of new pharmaceuticals. Endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized cladodes and flowers of O. dillenii using several nutrient media and the antimicrobial activities were evaluated against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. The two most bioactive fungi were identified by colony morphology and DNA sequencing. The secondary metabolite of the endophyte Fusarium sp. exhibiting the best activity was isolated via bioassay guided chromatography. The chemical structure was elucidated from the ESIMS and NMR spectroscopic data obtained for the active metabolite. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the active compound were determined. Eight endophytic fungi were isolated from O. dillenii and all except one showed antibacterial activities against at least one of the test bacteria. All extracts were inactive against C. albicans. The most bioactive fungus was identified as Fusarium sp. and the second most active as Aspergillus niger. The structure of the major antibacterial compound of the Fusarium sp. was shown to be the tetramic acid derivative, equisetin. The MIC's for equisetin were 8 μg mL(-1) against Bacillus subtilis, 16 μg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). O. dillenii, harbors several endophytic fungi capable of producing

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Grammothele lineata SDL-CO-2015-1, a Jute Endophyte with a Potential for Paclitaxel Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Avizit; Ahmed, Oly; Baten, A K M Abdul; Bushra, Samira; Islam, M Tariqul; Ferdous, Ahlan Sabah; Islam, Mohammad Riazul; Khan, Haseena

    2017-08-17

    Grammothele lineata strain SDL-CO-2015-1, a basidiomycete fungus, was identified as an endophyte from a jute species, Corchorus olitorius var. 2015, and found to produce paclitaxel, a diterpenic polyoxygenated pseudoalkaloid with antitumor activity. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (42.8 Mb with 9,395 genes) of this strain. Copyright © 2017 Das et al.

  18. Antioxidant enzyme activities in maize plants colonized with Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Yadav, Vikas; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2009-03-01

    The bioprotection performance of Piriformospora indica against the root parasite Fusarium verticillioides was studied. We found that maize plants first grown with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica showed improvements in biomass, and root length and number as compared with plants grown with F. verticillioides alone. To validate our finding that inoculation with P. indica suppresses colonization by F. verticillioides, we performed PCR analyses using P. indica- and F. verticillioides-specific primers. Our results showed that inoculation with P. indica suppresses further colonization by F. verticillioides. We hypothesized that as the colonization by P. indica increases, the presence of/colonization by F. verticillioides decreases. In roots, catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were found to be higher in F. verticillioides-colonized plants than in non-colonized plants. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes minimizes the chances of oxidative burst (excessive production of reactive oxygen species), and therefore F. verticillioides might be protected from the oxidative defence system during colonization. We also observed decreased antioxidant enzyme activities in plants first inoculated with F. verticillioides and at day 10 inoculated with P. indica as compared with plants inoculated with F. verticillioides alone. These decreased antioxidant enzyme activities due to the presence of P. indica help the plant to overcome the disease load of F. verticillioides. We propose that P. indica can be used as a bioprotection agent against the root parasite F. verticillioides.

  19. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a cyclophilin A-like protein from Piriformospora indica

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Harshesh; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Pal, Ravi Kant; Johri, Atul Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra; Bhavesh, Neel Sarovar

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophin A like protein from Piriformospora indica involved in salt-stress tolerance was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted X-rays to 2 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2221.

  20. Marked enhancement in the artemisinin content and biomass productivity in Artemisia annua L. shoots co-cultivated with Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Agrawal, Veena

    2013-06-01

    A significant enhancement in artemisinin content, an important anti-malarial compound, has been achieved in Artemisia annua L. shoots by co-cultivating with Piriformospora indica, a mycorrhiza-like fungus. The in vitro shoots derived from nodal cultures of A. annua were implanted on four different culture media namely, (i) Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal, (ii) MS + 5 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), (iii) MS + P. indica and, (iv) MS + 5 μM IBA + P. indica. After 2 months, it was observed that the cultures reared on MS + 5 μM IBA + P. indica showed optimum growth in terms of shoot and root proliferation over those cultured without P. indica. The average shoot number on MS + 5 μM IBA + P. indica was 17.83 ± 1.01 and on MS + P. indica alone was 12.75 ± 1.10. A drastic decline in shoot number was observed without P. indica which was 2.0 ± 0.12 on basal and 4.9 ± 1.52 on 5 μM IBA. Similarly, a maximum average of 16.83 ± 0.82 roots were achieved on MS + 5 μM IBA + P. indica which declined to 10.75 ± 1.02 on MS + P. indica. A further decrease in root number occurred in shoots without P. indica, their average being 2.5 ± 0.12 on basal and 8.91 ± 1.57 on 5 μM IBA. HPLC analysis of the aforesaid cultures revealed that the quantity of artemisinin was significantly higher (1.30 ± 0.03 %) in shoots cultured on 5 μM IBA + P. indica compared to those of control (0.80 ± 0.01 %).

  1. Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales, a pantropical insecticide-producing endophyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F Bills

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nodulisporic acids (NAs are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a

  2. Isolation, diversity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi harboured in Huperzia serrata from Jinggang Mountain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Lai, Zheng; Li, Xi-Xi; Yan, Ri-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Hui-Lin; Zhu, Du

    2016-02-01

    Huperzia serrata has many important medicinal properties with proven pharmacological potential. Some of these properties may be mediated by its endophytic fungi. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we provided a first insights into evaluating the species composition and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi of H. serrata from the regional at Jinggang Mountain in southeastern China. A total number of 885 fungal isolates distributed across 44 genera and 118 putative species were obtained from 1422 fragments of fine H. serrata roots, stems and leaves base on ITS-rDNA sequences BLAST analysis. The endophytic fungi were phylogenetically diverse and species-rich, with high rate of colonization and isolation. The assemble of endophytic fungi consisted mainly of Ascomycota (97.15%), followed by Basidiomycota (1.92%) and unknown fungal species (0.90%). Colletotrichum (64.29%), Phyllosticta (3.39%), Hypoxylon (2.81%), Xylaria (2.25%) and Nigrospora (2.04%) were the most abundant genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Although, roots yielded low abundance strains, the diverse and species-rich were both higher than that of stems and leaves. In addition, out of the 247 endophytic fungi strains determinated, 221 fungal extracts showed AChE inhibition activities in vitro. Among them, 22 endophytic fungi strains achieved high inhibitory activity (≥50%) on AChE which belongs to 13 genera and five incertae sedis strains. Four endophytic fungi designated as JS4 (Colletotrichum spp.), FL14 (Ascomycota spp.), FL9 (Sarcosomataceae spp.) and FL7 (Dothideomycetes spp.) were displayed highly active (≥80%) against AChE, which the inhibition effects were even more intense than the positive control. Our findings highlight that H. serrata grown in Jinggang Mountain harbors a rich and fascinating endophytic fungus community with potential AChE inhibitory activity, which could further broaden the natural

  3. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%-33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures.

  4. Immunomodulatory activity of an extract of the novel fungal endophyte Entrophospora infrequens isolated from Nothapodytes foetida (Wight) Sleumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, S C; Amna, T; Khajuria, A; Gupta, A; Arora, Rajesh; Spiteller, M; Qazi, G N

    2007-09-01

    A novel camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus viz., Entrophospora infrequens was isolated from an important Indian medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida. The present study reports evaluation ofbioactivities of two novel extracts viz., chloroform (CEEI) and methanolic (MEEI) extracts of Entrophospora infrequens with respect to their immunomodulatory potential in vitro and in vivo (in Balb/c mice). The endophyte E. infrequens was found to synthesize camptothecin, which tested positive in CEEI. The immunomodulatory potential of CEEI and MEEI was compared with standard camptothecin (CPT). Doses of the chloroform extract (CEEI) ranging from 12.5-100 mg/kg body weight, significantly (p immunomodulatory potential of this neoteric camptothecin-producing endophyte from Nothapodytes foetida.

  5. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari affects nitrogen transformation processes and related microorganisms in the rice rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Mi; Ma, Hai-Yan; Yang, Teng; Jia, Yong; Zhou, Jun; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari performs an important ecosystem service by assisting its host with acquiring soil nitrogen (N), but little is known regarding how this fungus influences soil N nutrient properties and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. liquidambari on N dynamics, the abundance and composition of N cycling genes in rhizosphere soil treated with three levels of N (urea). Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and diazotrophs were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at four rice growing stages (S0: before planting, S1: tillering stage, S2: grain filling stage, and S3: ripening stage). A significant increase in the available nitrate and ammonium contents was found in the rhizosphere soil of endophyte-infected rice under low N conditions. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the potential nitrification rates, affected the abundance and community structure of AOA, AOB, and diazotrophs under low N conditions in the S1 and S2 stages. The root exudates were determined due to their important role in rhizosphere interactions. P. liquidambari colonization altered the exudation of organic compounds by rice roots and P. liquidambari increased the concentration of soluble saccharides, total free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates. Plant-soil feedback mechanisms may be mediated by the rice-endophyte interaction, especially in nutrient-limited soil.

  7. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  8. HSPRO acts via SnRK1-mediated signaling in the regulation of Nicotiana attenuata seedling growth promoted by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Nicotiana attenuata HSPRO (NaHSPRO) is a negative regulator of seedling growth promoted by the fungus Piriformospora indica. Homologs of NaHSPRO in Arabidopsis thaliana (i.e., AtHSPRO1 and AtHSPRO2) are known to physically interact with the AKINβγ subunit of the SnRK1 complex. To investigate whether NaHSPRO is associated with SnRK1 function during the stimulation of seedling growth by P. indica, we studied N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaGAL83 (as-gal83 plants)--a gene that encodes for the regulatory β-subunit of SnRK1--and plants silenced in the expression of both NaHSPRO and NaGAL83 (ir-hspro/as-gal83 plants). The results showed that P. indica differentially stimulated the growth of both as-gal83 and ir-hspro/as-gal83 seedlings compared with control seedlings, with a magnitude similar to that observed in ir-hspro seedlings. Thus, we showed that, similar to NaHSPRO, NaGAL83 is a negative regulator of seedling growth stimulated by P. indica. We propose that the effect of NaHSPRO on seedling growth is associated with SnRK1 signaling.

  9. Barley leaf transcriptome and metabolite analysis reveals new aspects of compatibility and Piriformospora indica-mediated systemic induced resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molitor, Alexandra; Zajic, Doreen; Voll, Lars M; Pons-K Hnemann, Jorn; Samans, Birgit; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Waller, Frank

    2011-12-01

    Colonization of barley roots with the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales) induces systemic resistance against the biotrophic leaf pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (B. graminis). To identify genes involved in this mycorrhiza-induced systemic resistance, we compared the leaf transcriptome of P. indica-colonized and noncolonized barley plants 12, 24, and 96 h after challenge with a virulent race of B. graminis. The leaf pathogen induced specific gene sets (e.g., LRR receptor kinases and WRKY transcription factors) at 12 h postinoculation (hpi) (prepenetration phase) and vesicle-localized gene products 24 hpi (haustorium establishment). Metabolic analysis revealed a progressing shift of steady state contents of the intermediates glucose-1-phosphate, uridinediphosphate-glucose, and phosphoenolpyruvate 24 and 96 hpi, indicating that B. graminis shifts central carbohydrate metabolism in favor of sucrose biosynthesis. Both B. graminis and P. indica increased glutamine and alanine contents, whereas substrates for starch and nitrogen assimilation (adenosinediphosphate- glucose and oxoglutarate) decreased. In plants that were more B. graminis resistant due to P. indica root colonization, 22 transcripts, including those of pathogenesis-related genes and genes encoding heat-shock proteins, were differentially expressed ?twofold in leaves after B. graminis inoculation compared with non-mycorrhized plants. Detailed expression analysis revealed a faster induction after B. graminis inoculation between 8 and 16 hpi, suggesting that priming of these genes is an important mechanism of P. indica-induced systemic disease resistance.

  10. A cell wall extract from Piriformospora indica promotes tuberization in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) via enhanced expression of Ca(+2) signaling pathway and lipoxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Gururani, Mayank Anand; Prasad, Ram; Verma, Ajit

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is an axenically cultivable phytopromotional endosymbiont that mimics capabilities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This is a basidiomycete of the Sebacinaceae family, which promotes growth, development, and seed production in a variety of plant species. We report that the cell wall extract (CWE) from P. indica induces tuberization in vitro and promotes tuber growth and yield in potato. The CWE altered the calcium signaling pathway that regulates tuberization process. An increase in tuber number and size was correlated with increased transcript expression of the two Ca(2+)-dependant proteins (CaM1 and St-CDPK1) and the lipoxygenase (LOX) mRNA, which are known to play distinct roles in potato tuberization. External supplementation of Ca(2+) ions induced a similar set of tuberization pathway genes, indicating presence of an active Ca(2+) in the CWE of P. indica. Since potato tuberization is directly influenced by the presence of microflora in nature, the present study provides an insight into the novel mechanism of potato tuberization in relation to plant-microbe association. Ours is the first report on an in vitro tuber-inducing beneficial fungus.

  11. Effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on root development and distribution of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of petroleum contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Javad; Hajabbasi, Mohammad Ali; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-05-01

    The root systems of most terrestrial plants are confronted to various abiotic and biotic stresses. One of these abiotic stresses is contamination of soil with petroleum hydrocarbon, which the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils is dependent on the ability of plant roots to development into the contaminated soils. Piriformospora indica represents a recently discovered fungus that transfers considerable beneficial impact to its host plants. A rhizotron experiment was conducted to study the effects of P. Indica inoculation on root distribution and root and shoot development of maize (Zea mays L.) in the presence of three patterns of petroleum contamination in the soil (subsurface contamination, continuous contamination and without contamination (control)). Root distribution and root and shoot development were monitored over time. The final root and shoot biomass and the final TPH concentration in the rhizosphere were determined. Analysis of digitized images which were prepared of the tracing of the appeared roots along the front rhizotrons showed the depth and total length of root network in the contamination treatments were significantly decreased. Although the degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of maize was significant, but there were no significant differences between degradation of TPH in the rhizosphere of +P. indica plants in comparison to -P. indica plants.

  12. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Kamel Mousa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone, and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside. Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  13. Cytotoxic Naphthoquinone and Azaanthraquinone Derivatives from an Endophytic Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nargis Sultana; Sohrab, Md Hossain; Rana, Md Sohel; Hasan, Choudhury Mahmood; Jamshidi, Shirin; Rahman, Khondaker Miraz

    2017-04-28

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract obtained from the culture of the endophytic fungus Fusarium solani resulted in the isolation of one new naphthoquinone, 9-desmethylherbarine (1), and two azaanthraquinone derivatives, 7-desmethylscorpinone (2) and 7-desmethyl-6-methylbostrycoidin (3), along with four known compounds. Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis, as well as a direct comparison of spectral data with those of known compounds. Azaanthraquinones 2 and 3 showed cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines, MDA MB 231, MIA PaCa2, HeLa, and NCI H1975. A molecular docking study suggested DNA interactions as the mode of action of these naphthoquinones and azaanthraquinones.

  14. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503

  15. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcrip...

  16. Endophytic Trichoderma gamsii YIM PH30019: a promising biocontrol agent with hyperosmolar, mycoparasitism, and antagonistic activities of induced volatile organic compounds on root-rot pathogenic fungi of Panax notoginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Lian Chen

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the endophytic fungus T. gamsii YIM PH30019 may have a good potential as a biological control agent against notoginseng phytodiseases and can provide a clue to further illuminate the interactions between Trichoderma and phytopathogens.

  17. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

  18. New insight into the stereochemistry of botryosphaeridione from a Phoma endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Shi-Qiong; Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, An-Ling; Zhang, Qiang; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2012-05-01

    A dihydronaphthalene-2,6-dione derivative, isolated from Phoma sp. LN-16, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, was identified by spectroscopic data as a previously reported compound, botryosphaeridione (1). The relative configuration was reassigned by quantum chemical analysis of experimental 13C NMR and NOESY data. The first unequivocal assignment of its absolute configuration was made by using circular dichroism spectra and computational model B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ as (-)-(5R,6S)-1, and was also established by means of X-ray diffraction. Also, this is the first time that a trinor-eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Phoma genus.

  19. Endophyte Chaetomium globosum D38 Promotes Bioactive Constituents Accumulation and Root Production in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia miltiorrhiza is known for tanshinones and salvianolic acids, which have been shown to have a protective effect against ROS, especially for cardiovascular diseases and other various ailments of human organs. Due to the low yield of tanshinones and their analogs in S. miltiorrhiza, multiple stimulation strategies have been developed to improve tanshinones production in plant tissue cultures. Endophytic fungi have been reported to form different relationships with their host plants, including symbiotic, mutualistic, commensalistic, and parasitic interactions. Thus we take the assumption that endophytic fungi may be a potential microbial tool for secondary metabolism promotion in medicinal plants. We recently isolated Chaetomium globosum D38 from the roots of S. miltiorrhiza and our study aimed to examine the effects of this live endophytic fungus D38 and its elicitor on the accumulation of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures of S. miltiorrhiza. Our results revealed that C. globosum D38 mainly colonized in the intercellular gap of xylem parenchyma cells of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots during the long term co-existence without any toxicity. Moreover, both of the live fungus and its mycelia extract could increase the production of tanshinones, especially for dihydrotanshinone I and cryptotanshinone. The effect of the mycelia extract was much stronger than that of the live fungus on tanshinones synthesis, which significantly increased the transcriptional activity of those key genes in tanshinone biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, the live C. globosum D38 could also be made into biotic fertilizer used for S. miltiorrhiza seedlings culture, which not only significantly promoted the growth of the host plant, but also notably enhanced the accumulation of tanshinones and salvianolic acids. We thus speculated that, in the soil environment D38 could form bitrophic and mutual beneficial interactions with the host and enhance the plant growth and its

  20. The rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC. Lev. localization and impact on anatomy of the host plant Geranium sanguineum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Biruliova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the rust fungus Uromyces geranii (DC. Lev. influence on the anatomy of the vegetative organs of the host plantGeranium sanguineumL. (Geraniaceae were conducted. The local and endophytic arrangement of U. geraniiin the tissues of the host plant were identified. The tissues hypertrophy and organs deformation in G. sanguineum were revealed as a consequences of the fungus U. geraniiinfluence as well as increment of pericyclic ring sclerenchyma lignification in the stem. While the mature aecia and uredinia on the stem cause the epidermis tears and fill the primary cortex up to the stele.

  1. Co-synergism of endophyte Penicillium resedanum LK6 with salicylic acid helped Capsicum annuum in biomass recovery and osmotic stress mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-03-01

    Water-deficiency adversely affects crop growth by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) at cellular level. To mitigate such stressful events, it was aimed to investigate the co-synergism of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and symbiosis of endophytic fungus with Capsicum annuum L. (pepper). The findings of the study showed that exogenous SA (10⁻⁶ M) application to endophyte (Penicillium resedanum LK6) infected plants not only increased the shoot length and chlorophyll content but also improved the biomass recovery of pepper plants under polyethylene glycol (15%) induced osmotic stress (2, 4 and 8 days). Endophyte-infected plants had low cellular injury and high photosynthesis rate. SA also enhanced the colonization rate of endophyte in the host-plant roots. Endophyte and SA, in combination, reduced the production of ROS by increasing the total polyphenol, reduce glutathione, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase as compared to control plants. Osmotic stress pronounced the lipid peroxidation and superoxide anions formation in control plants as compared to endophyte and SA-treated plants. The endogenous SA contents were significantly higher in pepper plants treated with endophyte and SA under osmotic stress as compared to control. Endophytic fungal symbiosis and exogenous SA application can help the plants to relieve the adverse effects of osmotic stress by decreasing losses in biomass as compared to non-inoculated plants. These findings suggest that SA application positively impact microbial colonization while in combination, it reprograms the plant growth under various intervals of drought stress. Such symbiotic strategy can be useful for expanding agriculture production in drought prone lands.

  2. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

  3. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for endophytic hilar tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Pierro, G B; Tartaglia, N; Aresu, L

    2014-01-01

    To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients.......To analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) for endophytic hilar tumors in low-intermediate (ASA I-II) risk patients....

  4. Isolation and characterization of beneficial indigenous endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any damage to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. The present study was carried out to analyze the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with Amaranthus hybridus, Solanum lycopersicum and Cucurbita maxima.

  5. Bacterial Endophyte Colonization and Distribution within Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam L. Kandel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant endosphere contains a diverse group of microbial communities. There is general consensus that these microbial communities make significant contributions to plant health. Both recently adopted genomic approaches and classical microbiology techniques continue to develop the science of plant-microbe interactions. Endophytes are microbial symbionts residing within the plant for the majority of their life cycle without any detrimental impact to the host plant. The use of these natural symbionts offers an opportunity to maximize crop productivity while reducing the environmental impacts of agriculture. Endophytes promote plant growth through nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, nutrient acquisition, and by conferring tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Colonization by endophytes is crucial for providing these benefits to the host plant. Endophytic colonization refers to the entry, growth and multiplication of endophyte populations within the host plant. Lately, plant microbiome research has gained considerable attention but the mechanism allowing plants to recruit endophytes is largely unknown. This review summarizes currently available knowledge about endophytic colonization by bacteria in various plant species, and specifically discusses the colonization of maize plants by Populus endophytes.

  6. Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HENY HERNAWATI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hernawati H, Wiyono S, Santoso S (2011 Leaf endophytic fungi of chili (Capsicum annuum and their role in the protection against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae. Biodiversitas 12: 187-191. The objectives of the research were to study the diversity of leaf endophytic fungi of chili, and investigate its potency in protecting host plants against Aphis gossypii Glov. Endophytic fungi were isolated from chili leaves with two categories: aphid infested plants and aphid-free plants, collected from farmer’s field in Bogor, West Java. Abundance of each fungal species from leave samples was determined by calculating frequency of isolation. The isolated fungi were tested on population growth of A. gossypii. The fungal isolates showed suppressing effect in population growth test, was further tested on biology attributes i.e. life cycle, fecundity and body length. Five species of leaf endophytic fungi of chili were found i.e. Aspergillus flavus, Nigrospora sp., Coniothyrium sp., and SH1 (sterile hypha 1, SH2 (sterile hypha 2. Eventhough the number of endophytic fungi species in aphid-free and aphid-infested plant was same, the abundance of each species was different. Nigrospora sp., sterile hyphae 1 and sterile hyphae 2 was more abundant in aphid-free plants, but there was no difference in dominance of Aspergillus flavus and Coniothyrium sp. Nigrospora sp., SH1 and SH2 treatment reduced significantly fecundity of A. gossypii. Only SH2 treatment significantly prolonged life cycle and suppress body length, therefore the fungus had the strongest suppressing effect on population growth among fungi tested. The abundance and dominance of endophytic fungal species has relation with the infestation of A. gossypii in the field.

  7. Endophytic infection alleviates Pb{sup 2+} stress effects on photosystem II functioning of Oryza sativa leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xuemei, E-mail: lxmls132@163.com [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034 (China); Zhang, Lihong, E-mail: lihongzhang132@163.com [Environmental Science Department of Liaoning University,Shenyang 110036 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chl fluorescence parameters of endophyte-infected rice under Pb{sup 2+} stress were tested. • The efficiency and stability of PSII are markedly affected by Pb{sup 2+} stress. • Endophyte infection improved photosynthetic system activity under Pb{sup 2+} stress. • JIP-test is a suitable tool for monitoring of Pb{sup 2+} stress. • Endophyte infection may increase tolerance to Pb{sup 2+} in rice. - Abstract: The aims of this study were to examine the effect of Pb{sup 2+} stress on the primary reaction of photosynthesis and to assess the potential benefits of endophytic infection on the Pb{sup 2+} tolerance of rice seedlings. Rice inoculated with an endophytic fungus (E+) and non-inoculated (E−) were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μM Pb{sup 2+}. The responses to Pb{sup 2+} stress were characterized by the analysis of Chl a fluorescence. A comparison of E− with E+ rice seedlings, as evaluated by their performance index (PI{sub ABS} and PI{sub tot}), revealed the inhibitory effects of Pb{sup 2+} on photosystem II (PSII) connectivity, the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), and on the J step of the induction curves, which is associated with an inhibition of electron transport from the quinone acceptor Q{sub A} to Q{sub B}. Furthermore, the changes of the donor and the acceptor parameters of PSII were greater in E− than in E+ under Pb{sup 2+} stress. These observations suggest that the efficiency and stability of PSII are markedly affected by Pb{sup 2+} stress, and the photosynthetic energy conservation in E+ was more effective than in E−. We showed that endophytic infection plays an important role in enhancing the photosynthetic mechanism of rice seedlings exposed to Pb{sup 2+} stress.

  8. Plant-Fungus Marriages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. Plant-Fungus Marriages. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 33-44. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/04/0033-0044. Keywords. Fungi ...

  9. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  10. Piriformospora indica Root Colonization Triggers Local and Systemic Root Responses and Inhibits Secondary Colonization of Distal Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J.; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants. PMID:23922705

  11. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pedrotti

    Full Text Available Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  12. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  13. Mechanisms of bamboo witches' broom symptom development caused by endophytic/epiphytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-04-01

    Aciculosporium take causes continuous shoot growth but maintains normal leaf-arrangement and branching patterns in the host plant, which eventually resulting in witches' broom disease of bamboo. An in situ hybridization technique with a species-specific oligonucleotide probe was recently used to demonstrate that endophytic mycelia of A. take is predominantly distributed in the intercellular spaces of the shoot apical meristem of the host. Endophytic hyphae in meristematic tissues, which may produce auxin, are responsible for continuous primordium initiation within the shoot apex. Here I examine another bamboo witches' broom causal fungus, Heteroepichloë sasae. Both species are biotrophic and belong to family Clavicipitaceae: however, H. sasae does not cause continuous shoot growth. Histological study showed that H. sasae mycelia were distributed superficially, even on shoot apical meristems. These observations suggest that when their stromata develop, endophytic A. take destroys shoot apical meristem and epiphytic H. sasae chokes the shoot apex of the host. Stromata formation consequently causes lateral bud outgrowth because of release from apical dominance. This process repeats and eventually results in the witches' broom symptoms.

  14. 3-hydroxypropionic acid as an antibacterial agent from endophytic fungi Diaporthe phaseolorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastianes, Fernanda L S; Cabedo, Nuria; El Aouad, Noureddine; Valente, Angela M M P; Lacava, Paulo T; Azevedo, João L; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline A; Cortes, Diego

    2012-11-01

    Endophytic fungi are considered a rich source of active compounds resulting from their secondary metabolism. Fungi from marine environment grow in a habitat with unique conditions that can contribute to the activation of metabolic pathways of synthesis of different unknown molecules. The production of these compounds may support the adaptation and survival of the fungi in the marine ecosystem. Mangroves are ecosystems situated between land and sea. They are frequently found in tropical and subtropical areas and enclose approximately 18.1 million hectares of the planet. The great biodiversity found in these ecosystems shows the importance of researching them, including studies regarding new compounds derived from the endophytic fungi that inhabit these ecosystems. 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) has been isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Diaporthe phaseolorum, which was obtained from branches of Laguncularia racemosa. The structure of this compound was elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. In bioassays, 3-HPA showed antimicrobial activities against both Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The structure of this antibiotic was modified by the chemical reaction of Fischer-Speier esterification to evaluate the biologic activity of its chemical analog. The esterified product, 3-hydroxypropanoic ethyl ester, did not exhibit antibiotic activity, suggesting that the free carboxylic acid group is important to the pharmacological activity. The antibiotic-producing strain was identified with internal transcribed spacer sequence data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of antibacterial activity by 3-HPA against the growth of medically important pathogens.

  15. The Subcellular Localization of Tubby-Like Proteins and Participation in Stress Signaling and Root Colonization by the Mutualist Piriformospora indica1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marco Uwe; Bissue, Jeff Kweku; Zocher, Kathleen; Attard, Agnès; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Becker, Katja; Imani, Jafargholi; Eichmann, Ruth; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tubby and Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) were first discovered in mammals, where they are involved in the development and function of neuronal cells. Due to their importance as plasma membrane (PM)-tethered transcription factors or mediators of vesicle trafficking, their lack causes obesity and other disease syndromes. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding of the carboxyl-terminal Tubby domain attaches these proteins to the PM and vesicles and is essential for function. TLPs are conserved across eukaryotic kingdoms including plants, suggesting fundamental biological functions of TLPs. Plant TLPs possess an amino-terminal F-box domain that distinguishes them from other eukaryotic TLPs. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes 11 AtTLPs that fall into six phylogenetic clades. We identified the significance of AtTLPs for root colonization of Arabidopsis by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica. Our results further indicate conserved phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding sites in the Tubby domains that are required for PM anchoring of AtTLPs. More detailed studies revealed phospholipase C-triggered release of AtTLP3 from the PM, indicating a conserved mechanism as reported for mammalian Tubby and TLP3. We further show that hydrogen peroxide stimulates the release of AtTLP3 from the PM, presumably for activating downstream events. Different from mammalian homologs, the amino-terminal part of almost all AtTLPs has nucleocytosolic and plastidial localization patterns. Thus, it is tempting to assume that TLPs translate reactive oxygen species currents into signaling not only for transcriptional regulation in the nucleus but also affect plastid-associated functions after release from the PM. PMID:22751378

  16. The subcellular localization of Tubby-like proteins and participation in stress signaling and root colonization by the mutualist Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Marco Uwe; Bissue, Jeff Kweku; Zocher, Kathleen; Attard, Agnès; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Becker, Katja; Imani, Jafargholi; Eichmann, Ruth; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    Tubby and Tubby-like proteins (TLPs) were first discovered in mammals, where they are involved in the development and function of neuronal cells. Due to their importance as plasma membrane (PM)-tethered transcription factors or mediators of vesicle trafficking, their lack causes obesity and other disease syndromes. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding of the carboxyl-terminal Tubby domain attaches these proteins to the PM and vesicles and is essential for function. TLPs are conserved across eukaryotic kingdoms including plants, suggesting fundamental biological functions of TLPs. Plant TLPs possess an amino-terminal F-box domain that distinguishes them from other eukaryotic TLPs. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes 11 AtTLPs that fall into six phylogenetic clades. We identified the significance of AtTLPs for root colonization of Arabidopsis by the mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica. Our results further indicate conserved phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding sites in the Tubby domains that are required for PM anchoring of AtTLPs. More detailed studies revealed phospholipase C-triggered release of AtTLP3 from the PM, indicating a conserved mechanism as reported for mammalian Tubby and TLP3. We further show that hydrogen peroxide stimulates the release of AtTLP3 from the PM, presumably for activating downstream events. Different from mammalian homologs, the amino-terminal part of almost all AtTLPs has nucleocytosolic and plastidial localization patterns. Thus, it is tempting to assume that TLPs translate reactive oxygen species currents into signaling not only for transcriptional regulation in the nucleus but also affect plastid-associated functions after release from the PM.

  17. Fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari affects nitrogen transformation processes and related microorganisms in the rice rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo eYang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari performs an important ecosystem service by assisting its host with acquiring soil nitrogen (N, but little is known regarding how this fungus influences soil N nutrient properties and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. liquidambari on N dynamics,the abundance and composition of N cycling genes in rhizosphere soil treated with three levels of N (urea. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and diazotrophs were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at four rice growing stages (S0: before planting, S1: tillering stage, S2: grain filling stage, and S3: ripening stage. A significant increase in the available nitrate and ammonium contents was found in the rhizosphere soil of endophyte-infected rice under low N conditions. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the potential nitrification rates (PNR, affected the abundance and community structure of AOA, AOB and diazotrophs under low N conditions in the S1 and S2 stages. The root exudates were determined due to their important role in rhizosphere interactions. P. liquidambari colonization altered the exudation of organic compounds by rice roots and P. liquidambari increased the concentration of soluble saccharides, total free amino acids and organic acids

  18. Comparison of the chemistry and diversity of endophytes isolated from wild-harvested and greenhouse-cultivated yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Robert O.; Kaur, Amninder; Todd, Daniel A.; Egan, Joseph M.; El-Elimat, Tamam; Graf, Tyler N.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    With this study, we explored the identity and chemistry of fungal endophytes from the roots of yerba mansa [Anemopsis californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn. (Saururaceae)], a botanical traditionally used to treat infection. We compared the diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from a wild-harvested A. californica population, and those from plants cultivated for one year in a greenhouse environment. The wild-harvested population yielded thirteen fungal strains (eleven unique genotypes). Of the extracts prepared from these fungi, four inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus by >25% at 20 µg/mL, and three inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ≥20% at 200 µg/mL. By comparison, A. californica roots after one year of cultivation in the greenhouse produced only two unique genotypes, neither of which displayed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus Chaetomium cupreum isolated from wild-harvested A. californica yielded a new antimicrobial spirolactone, chaetocuprum (1). An additional fourteen known compounds were identified using LC-MS dereplication of the various fungal endophytes. This study provides new insights into the identity and chemistry of A. californica fungal endophytes, and demonstrates the importance of considering growing conditions when pursuing natural product drug discovery from endophytic fungi. PMID:25642298

  19. Exploitation of endophytes for sustainable agricultural intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cocq, Kate; Gurr, Sarah J; Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2017-04-01

    Intensive agriculture, which depends on unsustainable levels of agrochemical inputs, is environmentally harmful, and the expansion of these practices to meet future needs is not economically feasible. Other options should be considered to meet the global food security challenge. The plant microbiome has been linked to improved plant productivity and, in this microreview, we consider the endosphere - a subdivision of the plant microbiome. We suggest a new definition of microbial endophyte status, the need for synergy between fungal and bacterial endophyte research efforts, as well as potential strategies for endophyte application to agricultural systems. © 2016 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY PUBLISHED BY BRITISH SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  20. Identification of Endophytic Fungi of Medicinal Herbs of Lauraceae and Rutaceae with Antimicrobial Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Yuan Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine taxonomical features and antimicrobial activities of 156 isolates of endophytic fungi collected from twigs of medicinal plants of Lauraceae (67 isolates and Rutaceae (89 isolates in central and northern Taiwan. The 156 isolates of fungi were classified into 35 genera in 19 families based on morphological characteristics of mycelia and asexual/sexual spores, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis of rDNA LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. The most common endophytes were in the taxa of Colletotrichum, Guignardia, Hypoxylon, Nigrospora, Phomopsis and Xylaria, and the most common hosts were Citrus and Zanthoxylum of Rutaceae and Cinnamomum of Lauraceae. Molecular phylogenetic analysis showed that xylariaceous isolates could be separated into Xylaria and Hypoxylon groups based on rDNA of LSU D1/D2 and ITS regions. Four isolates of endophytic fungi including Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10, Ophioceras tenuisporum isolate CI02, Xylaria cubensis isolate LA04 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 were tested for antimicrobial activities using a dual culture method and Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 and Cyanodermella sp. isolate TR09 showed better antimicrobial activity against 12 plant pathogens including 9 fungi and 3 bacteria. Spraying Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa plants with culture filtrates of the endophytic fungus Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 significantly reduced severity of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum under greenhouse conditions. This study suggests that the Lasmenia sp. isolate CB10 may be of potential for management of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage.

  1. Altered allocation to roots and shoots in the endophyte-infected seedlings of Puccinellia distans (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnoleski, M; Olejniczak, P; Górzyńska, K; Kozłowski, J; Lembicz, M

    2013-03-01

    Endophytes play an important role in ecological and evolutionary processes in plants and have marked economic value. Seed-transmitted fungal endophytes are conventionally regarded as mutualistic symbionts, but their fitness consequences for the offspring of the host are not clear. Puccinellia distans infected with the fungus Epichloë typhina (E+) produces seeds that are several times smaller than normal (E-). This observation suggests that the E+ seedlings face a developmental disadvantage. Our growth chamber experiments compared the germination rates of the small E+ and large E- seeds of P. distans and examined the biomass allocation of seedlings to roots and shoots. The E+ seedlings germinated more slowly and maintained shorter shoots and a smaller root biomass for 30-50 days after sowing. Despite this disadvantage, the E+ plants more quickly increased their total size, attaining a larger shoot and whole-plant biomass. The shoot:root biomass ratio increased more rapidly through time in the E+ seedlings, attaining a value nine times higher in the E+ than the E- group 50 days after sowing. Such differences between the E+ and E- seedlings were not explained by the growth allometry between shoots and roots. The seedlings of P. distans infected with the Epichloë endophyte were initially handicapped by their postponed emergence, but this disadvantage was quickly overcome by their superior growth capacity. The decrease in the relative allocation to roots may indicate that endophytes increase the performance of roots as resource-acquiring organs and/or reduce the role of roots in protection against herbivores. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Thiodiketopiperazines from the marine-derived fungus Phoma sp. OUCMDZ-1847.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fandong; Wang, Yi; Liu, Peipei; Dong, Tianhan; Zhu, Weiming

    2014-01-24

    Three new thiodiketopiperazines, named phomazines A-C (1-3), along with 10 known analogues (4-13), were isolated from the fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus, Phoma sp. OUCMDZ-1847, associated with the mangrove plant Kandelia candel. The structures including the absolute configurations of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by spectroscopic, X-ray crystallographic, and Mosher's methods along with quantum ECD and (13)C NMR calculations. Compounds 2, 4, 5, 11, and 12 showed cytotoxicities against the HL-60, HCT-116, K562, MGC-803, and A549 cell lines with IC50 values in the range 0.05 to 8.5 μM.

  3. Xanthepinone, an antimicrobial polyketide from a soil fungus closely related to Phoma medicaginis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liermann, Johannes C; Kolshorn, Heinz; Opatz, Till; Thines, Eckhard; Anke, Heidrun

    2009-10-01

    The isolation, biological characterization, and structure elucidation of xanthepinone, a novel antifungal metabolite isolated from the broth of submerged cultures of a soil fungus, are described. Xanthepinone inhibits the conidial germination of Magnaporthe grisea (2 microg/mL), Phytophthora infestans (5 microg/mL), and Botrytis cinerea (10 microg/mL) while showing only weak antibacterial activity; cytotoxicity was not observed up to 50 microg/mL. Molecular taxonomy revealed that the producing strain is close to species in the genus Phoma as well as to uncultured soil fungi and endophytes.

  4. Metabolites from the fungus Phoma sp. 7210, associated with Aizoon canariense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingqiu; Hussain, Hidayat; Dräger, Siegfried; Schulz, Barbara; Kurtán, Tibor; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Flörke, Ulrich; Krohn, Karsten

    2010-08-01

    A new metabolite, 3,16-diketoaphidicolan (1), was isolated together with four known compounds: aphidicolin (2), 17-acetyl-aphidicolin (3), (+)-eupenoxide (4), and phomoxanthone A (5) from the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. The structure of the new compound 1 was determined by spectroscopic methods (mainly extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments and by mass spectral measurements) and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Its absolute configuration was assigned by means of the solid-state CD/TDDFT approach comparing the solid-state CD spectrum with the TDDFT-calculated one on the X-ray geometry.

  5. A Fatty Acid Glycoside from a Marine-Derived Fungus Isolated from Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Mei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1 by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  6. A fatty acid glycoside from a marine-derived fungus isolated from mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan-Bo; Wang, Hui; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Zheng, Bo; Yang, Tao; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2012-03-01

    To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY and HMBC) and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  7. A Fatty Acid Glycoside from a Marine-Derived Fungus Isolated from Mangrove Plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Li Mei; Hao-Fu Dai; Tao Yang; Bo Zheng; Wen-Jian Zuo; Yan-Bo Zeng; Hui Wang

    2012-01-01

    To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC) and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphyl...

  8. Application of inorganic carrier-based formulations of fluorescent pseudomonads and Piriformospora indica on tomato plants and evaluation of their efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, M V R K; Kumar, V; Saharan, K; Srivastava, R; Sharma, A K; Prakash, A; Sahai, V; Bisaria, V S

    2011-08-01

    Fluorescent pseudomonads are widely used as bioinoculants for improving plant growth and controlling phytopathogenic fungi. Piriformospora indica (Pi), a symbiotic root endophyte, also has beneficial effects on a number of plants. The present study focuses on the improvement of growth yields of tomato plants and control of Fusarium wilt using inorganic carrier-based formulations of two fluorescent pseudomonad strains (R62 and R81) and Pi. The inorganic carrier-based formulations of pseudomonad strains and Pi were tested for plant growth promotion of tomato plants under glass house and field conditions. In controlled glass house experiments, 8·8-fold increase in dry root weight and 8·6-fold increase in dry shoot weight were observed with talcum powder-based consortium formulation of R81 and Pi. Field trial experiments ascertained the glfass house results with a considerable amount of increase in plant growth responses, and amongst all the treatments, R81 + Pi treatment performed consistently well in field conditions with an increase of 2·6-, 3·1- and 3·9-fold increase in dry root weight, shoot weight and fruit yield, respectively. The fluorescent pseudomonad R81 and Pi also acted as biocontrol agents, as their treatments could control the incidence of wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato plants under glass house conditions. The culture broths of pseudomonads R62, R81 and Pi were successfully used for development of talcum- and vermiculite-based bioinoculant formulations. In controlled glasshouse experiments, the talcum-based bioinoculant formulations performed significantly better over vermiculite-based formulations. In field experiments the talcum-based consortium formulation of pseudomonad R81 and Pi was most effective. This study suggests that the formulations of pseudomonad strains (R62 and R81) and Pi can be used as bioinoculants for improving the productivity of tomato plants. The application of such formulations is a step

  9. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, I. C. P.; SANTIN, R. de C. M.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Rosa, O. P. P.; Dias, A. C. F.; QUECINE, M. C.; Azevedo,J.L. de; A.T.S. Matsumura

    2012-01-01

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus ...

  10. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  11. (MDR) Bacterial Activity of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from the Mang

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MDR) bacterial potential of culturable endophytes from A. corniculatum in Beibu Gulf, China. Methods: The plant parts were collected from healthy-looking A. corniculatum. The endophytes were isolated and identified by colonial morphology and ...

  12. Interaction with ectomycorrhizal fungi and endophytic Methylobacterium affects nutrient uptake and growth of pine seedlings in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjanen, Johanna; Koskimäki, Janne J; Sutela, Suvi; Ardanov, Pavlo; Suorsa, Marja; Niemi, Karoliina; Sarjala, Tytti; Häggman, Hely; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2014-09-01

    Tissues of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) contain several endophytic microorganisms of which Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 is a dominant species throughout the year. Similar to other endophytic bacteria, M. extorquens is able to colonize host plant tissues without causing any symptoms of disease. In addition to endophytic bacteria, plants associate simultaneously with a diverse set of microorganisms. Furthermore, plant-colonizing microorganisms interact with each other in a species- or strain-specific manner. Several studies on beneficial microorganisms interacting with plants have been carried out, but few deal with interactions between different symbiotic organisms and specifically, how these interactions affect the growth and development of the host plant. Our aim was to study how the pine endophyte M. extorquens DSM13060 affects pine seedlings and how the co-inoculation with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi [Suillus variegatus (SV) or Pisolithus tinctorius (PT)] alters the response of Scots pine. We determined the growth, polyamine and nutrient contents of inoculated and non-inoculated Scots pine seedlings in vitro. Our results show that M. extorquens is able to improve the growth of seedlings at the same level as the ECM fungi SV and PT do. The effect of co-inoculation using different symbiotic organisms was seen in terms of changes in growth and nutrient uptake. Inoculation using M. extorquens together with ECM fungi improved the growth of the host plant even more than single ECM inoculation. Symbiotic organisms also had a strong effect on the potassium content of the seedling. The results indicate that interaction between endophyte and ECM fungus is species dependent, leading to increased or decreased nutrient content and growth of pine seedlings. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  14. Do Endophytes Promote Growth of Host Plants Under Stress? A Meta-Analysis on Plant Stress Mitigation by Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Hyungmin; Hsieh, Marian; Kandel, Shyam L; Cantillo, Johanna; Doty, Sharon L; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2018-02-01

    Endophytes are microbial symbionts living inside plants and have been extensively researched in recent decades for their functions associated with plant responses to environmental stress. We conducted a meta-analysis of endophyte effects on host plants' growth and fitness in response to three abiotic stress factors: drought, nitrogen deficiency, and excessive salinity. Ninety-four endophyte strains and 42 host plant species from the literature were evaluated in the analysis. Endophytes increased biomass accumulation of host plants under all three stress conditions. The stress mitigation effects by endophytes were similar among different plant taxa or functional groups with few exceptions; eudicots and C4 species gained more biomass than monocots and C3 species with endophytes, respectively, under drought conditions. Our analysis supports the effectiveness of endophytes in mitigating drought, nitrogen deficiency, and salinity stress in a wide range of host species with little evidence of plant-endophyte specificity.

  15. A new species of Pseudorobillarda, an endophyte from Thuja occidentalis in Canada, and a key to the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Vladimir; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Pseudorobillarda monica sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The endophyte was isolated from living leaves and bark of twigs of a Thuja occidentalis bonsai (>90 years old) at the Montréal Botanical Garden and ornamental trees in Montréal urban plantations. This pycnidial fungus is typical of the genus in morphology but clearly differs from other species in Pseudorobillarda by the distinct size of the conidiomata and the shape and size of conidia and paraphyses. Its taxonomic placement is discussed and a key to the species of Pseudorobillarda is provided.

  16. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mtpupo@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-09-15

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  17. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from conifer needles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi, in particular endophytes are a promising source of new antimicrobial compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the extracts of conifer needle fungal endophytes for antimicrobial activity and taxonomically place fungi producing ones to determined active metabolites. Seventy three strains of endophytic fungi ...

  18. Interactions among endophytic bacteria and fungi: effects and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants benefit extensively by harbouring endophytic microbes. They promote plant growth and confer enhanced resistance to various pathogens. However, the way the interactions among endophytes influence the plant productivity has not been explained. Present study experimentally showed that endophytes isolated from ...

  19. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  20. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Sherameti, Irena; Bakshi, Madhunita; Mrozinska, Anna; Ludwig, Anatoli; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771) published by Vahabi et al. (2015) in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  1. Study of Acid Phosphatase in Solubilization of Inorganic Phosphates by Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshagiri, Swetha; Tallapragada, Padmavathi

    2017-01-02

    Phosphorus is an essential plant macronutrient present in the soil. Only a small portion of phosphorus in soil is taken up by plants and the rest of it becomes unavailable to plants as it is immobilized. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms play a vital role in converting the insoluble form of phosphates to the soluble form. The present paper reports the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate, single super phosphate, zinc phosphate and aluminum phosphate by Piriformospora indica with the production of organic acids as well as acid phosphatase. The amount of phosphate released (4.73 mg ml-1) and titratable acidity (0.12%) was found to be the highest in the case of single super phosphate as compared to other phosphate sources. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of oxalic acid, lactic acid, citric acid and succinic acid in the media. Highest phosphatase activity was observed with the cell membrane extract of the organism in the presence of zinc phosphate.

  2. Microarray analyses during early and later stages of the Arabidopsis/Piriformospora indica interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabat Vahabi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of the roots of different plant species by Piriformospora indica results in better plant performance and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. An increase of the biomass and seed yield is other beneficial effect of P. indica for the host plants. The interaction of P. indica with Arabidopsis thaliana roots is a unique model system to study symbiotic relationships. We describe a co-cultivation system which allows us to investigate the effects of fungal exudates on the root transcriptome before and after the establishment of a physical contact, and during early phases of root colonization. We present a detailed protocol which facilitates easy reproduction of the results (NCBI GEO accession number GSE58771 published by Vahabi et al. (2015 in BMC Plant Biology [1].

  3. Evaluation of different densities of auxin and endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mentha piperita and Thymus vulgaris are two important species of the family Lamiaceae. Two distinct experiments were conducted and examined; the first evaluate the effect of different auxin levels on M. piperita and T. vulgaris growth, while the second examined the effect of two fungi Piriformospora indica and Sebacina ...

  4. Insect Pathogenic Fungi as Endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonjely, S; Barelli, L; Bidochka, M J

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore some of the evolutionary, ecological, molecular genetics, and applied aspects of a subset of insect pathogenic fungi that also have a lifestyle as endophytes and we term endophytic insect pathogenic fungi (EIPF). We focus particularly on Metarhizium spp. and Beauveria bassiana as EIPF. The discussion of the evolution of EIPF challenges a view that these fungi were first and foremost insect pathogens that eventually evolved to colonize plants. Phylogenetic evidence shows that the lineages of EIPF are most closely related to grass endophytes that diverged c. 100MYA. We discuss the relationship between genes involved in "insect pathogenesis" and those involved in "endophytism" and provide examples of genes with potential importance in lifestyle transitions toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been coopted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. The interactions of EIPF with their host plants are discussed in some detail. The genetic basis for rhizospheric competence, plant communication, and nutrient exchange is examined and we highlight, with examples, the benefits of EIPF to plants, and the potential reservoir of secondary metabolites hidden within these beneficial symbioses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time. PMID:26529087

  6. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Chowdhary

    antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

  7. Jasmonic acid is involved in the signaling pathway for fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation of Atractylodes lancea plantlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Jasmonic acid (JA) is a well-characterized signaling molecule in plant defense responses. However, its relationships with other signal molecules in secondary metabolite production induced by endophytic fungus are largely unknown. Atractylodes lancea (Asteraceae) is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that produces antimicrobial volatiles oils. We incubated plantlets of A. lancea with the fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12. to research how JA interacted with other signal molecules in volatile oil production. Results Fungal inoculation increased JA generation and volatile oil accumulation. To investigate whether JA is required for volatile oil production, plantlets were treated with JA inhibitors ibuprofen (IBU) and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The inhibitors suppressed both JA and volatile oil production, but fungal inoculation could still induce volatile oils. Plantlets were further treated with the nitric oxide (NO)-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), the H2O2 inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI) and catalase (CAT), and the salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. With fungal inoculation, IBU did not inhibit NO production, and JA generation was significantly suppressed by cPTIO, showing that JA may act as a downstream signal of the NO pathway. Exogenous H2O2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of cPTIO on JA generation, indicating that NO mediates JA induction by the fungus through H2O2-dependent pathways. With fungal inoculation, the H2O2 scavenger DPI/CAT could inhibit JA generation, but IBU could not inhibit H2O2 production, implying that H2O2 directly mediated JA generation. Finally, JA generation was enhanced when SA production was suppressed, and vice versa. Conclusions Jasmonic acid acts as a downstream signaling molecule in NO- and H2O2-mediated volatile oil accumulation induced by endophytic fungus and has a complementary

  8. Jasmonic acid is involved in the signaling pathway for fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation of Atractylodes lancea plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Cheng-Gang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jasmonic acid (JA is a well-characterized signaling molecule in plant defense responses. However, its relationships with other signal molecules in secondary metabolite production induced by endophytic fungus are largely unknown. Atractylodes lancea (Asteraceae is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant that produces antimicrobial volatiles oils. We incubated plantlets of A. lancea with the fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12. to research how JA interacted with other signal molecules in volatile oil production. Results Fungal inoculation increased JA generation and volatile oil accumulation. To investigate whether JA is required for volatile oil production, plantlets were treated with JA inhibitors ibuprofen (IBU and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. The inhibitors suppressed both JA and volatile oil production, but fungal inoculation could still induce volatile oils. Plantlets were further treated with the nitric oxide (NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO, the H2O2 inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI and catalase (CAT, and the salicylic acid (SA biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid. With fungal inoculation, IBU did not inhibit NO production, and JA generation was significantly suppressed by cPTIO, showing that JA may act as a downstream signal of the NO pathway. Exogenous H2O2 could reverse the inhibitory effects of cPTIO on JA generation, indicating that NO mediates JA induction by the fungus through H2O2-dependent pathways. With fungal inoculation, the H2O2 scavenger DPI/CAT could inhibit JA generation, but IBU could not inhibit H2O2 production, implying that H2O2 directly mediated JA generation. Finally, JA generation was enhanced when SA production was suppressed, and vice versa. Conclusions Jasmonic acid acts as a downstream signaling molecule in NO- and H2O2-mediated volatile oil accumulation induced by endophytic fungus and has

  9. Phytohormones in plant-endophyte interactions: investigating the role of these compounds in the recruitment of tomato root fungal endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzotti, Andrea; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Collinge, David B.

    Endophytes are microbes capable of colonizing the inner part of different plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. In some cases, they have beneficial effects for the host plant. The role of endophytes in biological control of plant pathogens, in induction of plant abiotic stress tolerance...... and in enhancement of plant growth has strongly increased the focus on the isolation of novel endophytic species. In order to implement the use of specific endophytes in agriculture, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in the plant-endophyte interactions. Phytohormones play a significant role...... in this interaction, but little is known about the specific way by which they influence the recruitment and the colonization of the host tissues. The aim of the current project is to go deeper into the role of these signalling compounds in plant-endophyte interactions. The isolation of endophytic fungi from tomato...

  10. Mitigation of antagonistic effects on plant growth due to root co-colonization by dark septate endophytes and ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2013-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are very common root colonizers of woody plant species. Ascomycetes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are the main representatives of DSE fungi in forest ecosystems. PAC and mycorrhizal fungi share the same habitat, but interactions among PAC, mycorrhizal fungi and plants are poorly understood. We compared the effects of single and dual inoculation of Norway spruce seedlings with PAC and the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme on host growth, degree of mycorrhization and density of endophytic PAC biomass. Single colonization by H. crustuliniforme or PAC significantly reduced plant biomass. Dual colonization reduced or neutralized plant growth depression caused by single fungal colonization. The degree of mycorrhization was independent on PAC colonization, and mycorrhization significantly reduced endophytic PAC biomass. Plant biomass of dually colonized plants positively correlated with PAC biomass. These results demonstrate the ability of dual inoculation of PAC and H. crustuliniforme to neutralize plant growth depression caused by single fungal inoculation. Our explanations of enhanced plant growth in dually inoculated plants are the inhibition of PAC during root colonization by the ECM mantle and ECM-mediated access to plant growth-promoting nutrients resulting from the mineralization of the potting medium by PAC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Anti-phytopathogenic activity of sporothriolide, a metabolite from endophyte Nodulisporium sp. A21 in Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ling-Ling; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Liu, Ying-Jie; Yang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jin-Long; Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Shen, Li; Liu, Jun-Yan; Ye, Yong-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum caused multiple plant diseases resulting in severe loss of crop production. Increasing documents endorsed that endophytes are a striking resource pool for numerous metabolites with various bioactivities such as anti-fungal. Here we reported the characterization and anti-phytopathogenic activity of sporothriolide, a metabolite produced by Nodulisporium sp. A21-an endophytic fungus in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Among the total twenty-five endophytic fungi isolated from the healthy leaves of G. biloba, the fermentation broth (FB) of the strain A21 was found potently inhibitory activity against R. solani and S. sclerotiorum using mycelia growth inhibition method. A21 was then identified as Nodulisporium sp., the asexual stage of Hypoxylon sp., by microscopic examination and ITS rDNA sequence data comparison. Under the bioassay-guided fractionation, sporothriolide was isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the FB of A21, whose structure was established by integrated interpretation of HR-ESI-MS and (1)H- and (13)C-NMR. Furthermore, the crystal structure of sporothriolide was first reported. In addition, sporothriolide was validated to be potently antifungal against R. solani, S. sclerotiorum and inhibit conidium germination of Magnaporthe oryzae in vitro and in vivo, indicating that it could be used as a lead compound for new fungicide development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SSR Markers for Trichoderma virens: Their Evaluation and Application to Identify and Quantify Root-Endophytic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Geistlinger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using biological fertilizers and pesticides based on beneficial soil microbes in order to reduce mineral fertilizers and chemical pesticides in conventional agriculture is still a matter of debate. In this regard, a European research project seeks to elucidate the role of root-endophytic fungi and to develop molecular tools to trace and quantify these fungi in the rhizosphere and root tissue. To do this, the draft genome sequence of the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma virens (T. virens was screened for simple sequence repeats (SSRs and primers were developed for 12 distinct loci. Primers were evaluated using a global collection of ten isolates where an average of 7.42 alleles per locus was detected. Nei’s standard genetic distance ranged from 0.18 to 0.27 among the isolates, and the grand mean of haploid diversity in AMOVA analysis was 0.693 ± 0.019. Roots of tomato plants were inoculated with different strains and harvested six weeks later. Subsequent PCR amplification identified root-endophytic strains and co-colonization of roots by different strains. Markers were applied to qPCR to quantify T. virens strains in root tissue and to determine their identity using allele-specific melting curve analysis. Thus, the root-endophytic lifestyle of T. virens was confirmed, strains in roots were quantified and simultaneous colonization of roots by different strains was observed.

  13. Microarray analysis of Endophyte-infected and Endophyte-free tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumont.] can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that is asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. Total...

  14. Bioprospecting of antimicrobial activity of extracts of endophytic fungi from Bauhinia guianensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Eduardo A A; Pina, Jeferson R S; Feitosa, André O; Carvalho, Josiwander M; Borges, Fábio C; Marinho, Patrícia S B; Marinho, Andrey M R

    Antibiotic resistance results in higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays and increased mortality and is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world. Therefore, this study aims to search for new antimicrobial agents through bioprospecting of extracts of endophytic fungi from Bauhinia guianensis, a typical Amazonian plant used in combating infections. Seventeen (17) fungi were isolated and as result the methanolic extract of the fungus Exserohilum rostratum showed good activity against the bacteria tested. The polyketide monocerin was isolated by the chromatographic technique, identified by NMR and MS, showing broad antimicrobial spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using an endophytic fungal supernatant of Raphanus sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from supernatant of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from the healthy leaves of Raphanus sativus is studied. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The structural analysis is done by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD method. The stability of AgNPs is studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS method. The size and shape of AgNPs are observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM and found to be spherical with an average particles size of 4–30 nm. Further, these AgNPs have been found to be highly toxic against human pathogenic bacteria, suggesting the possibility of using AgNPs as efficient antibacterial agents.

  16. Production of unusual dispiro metabolites in Pestalotiopsis virgatula endophyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Olsen, Lars; Stærk, Dan

    2011-01-01

    . Analysis of the fermentation medium extract was performed using an HPLC-PDA-MS-SPE-NMR hyphenated system, which led to the identification of a total of eight metabolites (1-8), six of which are new. Most of the metabolites are structurally related and are derivatives of benzo[c]oxepin, rare among natural......The endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgatula, derived from the plant Terminalia chebula and previously found to produce a large excess of a single metabolite when grown in the minimal M1D medium, was induced to produce a variety of unusual metabolites by growing in potato dextrose broth medium...... supported by time-dependent density-functional theory calculations (B3LYP/TZVP level). This work demonstrates that a largely complete structure elucidation of numerous metabolites present in a raw fermentation medium extract can be performed by the HPLC-SPE-NMR technique using only a small amount...

  17. SECONDARY METABOLITE OF Aspergillus fumigatus, ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT Garcinia griffithii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Indah

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The endophytic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the tissues of the fruits of Garcinia griffithii. The fungalstrain was identified from the colony, and it was characteristic of cell morphology. The ethyl acetate extracts derivedfrom fungus cultures showed major spots on TLC under UV light, which was continued to the isolation of thesecondary metabolites. The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated on the basis of NMR analyses (1H-NMR,13C-NMR, HMQC, HMBC and H-H COSY. The compounds were identified as: 4,6-dihydroxy, 3,8a-dimethyl-1-oxo-5-(3’-oxobutan-2’-yl-1,4,4a,5,6,8a-hexahydronaphthalen-2-yl-1”,2”-dimethyl-5”-(2”’-methylprop-1”’-enylcyclopentanecarboxylate.

  18. Chromosome-End Knockoff Strategy to Reshape Alkaloid Profiles of a Fungal Endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Simona; Phillips, Timothy D; Panaccione, Daniel G; Farman, Mark L; Schardl, Christopher L

    2016-08-09

    Molecular genetic techniques to precisely eliminate genes in asexual filamentous fungi require the introduction of a marker gene into the target genome. We developed a novel strategy to eliminate genes or gene clusters located in subterminal regions of chromosomes, and then eliminate the marker gene and vector backbone used in the transformation procedure. Because many toxin gene clusters are subterminal, this method is particularly suited to generating nontoxic fungal strains. We tested this technique on Epichloë coenophiala, a seed-transmissible symbiotic fungus (endophyte) of the important forage grass, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The endophyte is necessary for maximal productivity and sustainability of this grass but can produce ergot alkaloids such as ergovaline, which are toxic to livestock. The genome sequence of E. coenophiala strain e19 revealed two paralogous ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene clusters, designated EAS1 and EAS2. EAS1 was apparently subterminal, and the lpsB copy in EAS2 had a frame-shift mutation. We designed a vector with a fungal-active hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph), an lpsA1 gene fragment for homologous recombination at the telomere-distal end of EAS1, and a telomere repeat array positioned to drive spontaneous loss of hph and other vector sequences, and to stabilize the new chromosome end. We transformed E. coenophiala with this vector, then selected "knockoff" endophyte strains, confirmed by genome sequencing to lack 162 kb of a chromosome end including most of EAS1, and also to lack vector sequences. These ∆EAS1 knockoff strains produced no detectable ergovaline, whereas complementation with functional lpsB restored ergovaline production. Copyright © 2016 Florea et al.

  19. Molecular approaches to screen bioactive compounds from endophytic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vasundhara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are capable of producing plant associated metabolites and their analogs with therapeutic value. In order to identify the potential endophytic isolates producing bioactive compounds, one need to screen all isolated endophytes, which may run into hundreds. Isolation of endophytic fungi is relatively a simple process; but screening of the isolated fungi for required metabolite production is a cumbersome process. Endophytic fungi producing plant associated metabolites may contain genes involved in the entire biosynthetic pathway(s. Therefore, ascertaining the presence of key enzymes of a particular biosynthetic pathway could serve as a molecular marker for screening of these endophytes to produce that metabolite. In absence of entire biosynthetic pathways in endophytic fungi, plant genes associated with that metabolic pathway could serve as markers. This review focuses on the impact of molecular approaches to screen the endophytic fungi for the production of bioactive compounds. An attempt has been made on screening of anticancer compounds like taxol (paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin and camptothecin using molecular markers. The advantages of molecular approaches over conventional methods to screen endophytic fungi and also identification of endophytic fungi are also discussed.

  20. Identification of two fungal endophytes associated with the endangered orchid Orchis militaris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Elena; Gastaldo, Andrea; Tondello, Alessandra; Baldan, Barbara; Villani, Mariacristina; Squartini, Andrea

    2010-03-01

    A survey of the endangered orchid Orchis militaris populations was carried out in north-eastern Italy. The occurrence of fungal root endophytes was investigated by light and electron microscopies and molecular techniques. Two main sites of presence were individuated in the Euganean Hills, differing as to the percentage of flowering individuals and of capsules completing maturity. Fluorescence microscopy revealed an intracellular cortical colonization by hyphal pelotons. Two ITS PCR products co-amplified. Sequencing revealed for the former an identity and a high similarity (99%) with a Tulasnellaceae (Basidiomycota) fungus found within tissues of the same host in independent studies in Hungary and Estonia, suggesting an interesting case of tight specificity throughout the Eurosiberian home range. The second amplicon had 99% similarity with Tetracladium species (Ascomycota) recently demonstrated as potential endophytes. TEM revealed two different hyphal structures. Double fungal colonization appears to occur in Orchis militaris and the possible requirement of a specific fungal partner throws light on the causes of this plant's rarity and threatened status.

  1. Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Kari; Young, Carolyn A; Helander, Marjo; Schardl, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    The closely linked fitness of the Epichloë symbiont and the host grass is presumed to align the coevolution of the species towards specialization and mutually beneficial cooperation. Ecological observations demonstrating that Epichloë-grass symbioses can modulate grassland ecosystems via both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this. In many cases the detected ecological importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Now, modern genetic and molecular techniques enable the precise studies on evolutionary origin of endophytic Epichloë species, their coevolution with host grasses and identification the genetic variation that explains phenotypic diversity in ecologically relevant characteristics of Epichloë-grass associations. Here we briefly review the most recent findings in these areas of research using the present knowledge of the genetic variation that explains the biosynthetic pathways driving the diversity of alkaloids produced by the endophyte. These findings underscore the importance of genetic interplay between the fungus and the host in shaping their coevolution and ecological role in both natural grass ecosystems, and in the agricultural arena.

  2. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S Golo

    Full Text Available Destruxins (DTXs are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918 did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas and Cucumis sativus (cucumber plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods.

  3. Spatial Segregation and Aggregation of Ectomycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi in the Seedlings of Two Quercus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Hidaka, Amane; Kadowaki, Kohmei; Toju, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus–fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high-throughput investigation of fungus–fungus interactions in plant root systems. PMID:24801150

  4. Genotype-specific responses of Bromus erectus to elevated CO{sub 2} at different levels of biodiversity and endophyte infection - a field experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinger, T.; Groppe, K.; Schmid, B. [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland)]|[Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-06-01

    In 1994 we initiated a long-term field experiment in a calcareous grassland to study the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on individuals, populations, and communities. Clonal replicates of 54 genotypes of the dominant grass Bromus erectus were grown in communities planted at three levels of biodiversity (5-, 12-, 31-species plots) and exposed to ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. The same genotypes were also individually grown in tubes within the field plots. Some genotypes were infected by the endophytic fungus Epichloee typhina. Elevated CO{sub 2} had no significant effects on plant growth, however, there was large variation among genotypes in all measured characters. A significant CO{sub 2}-by-genotype interaction was found for leaf length in the competition-free tubes. Infection by the endophyte led to the abortion of all inflorescences but increased vegetative growth, especially under competitive conditions.

  5. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Jung, Hee-Young; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Lee, In-Jung

    2012-01-12

    Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host plant growth and alleviate

  6. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host

  7. Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Esther Puente; Ching Y. Li; Yoav Bashan

    2009-01-01

    A plant-bacterium association of the cardon cactus (Pachycereus pringlei) and endophytic bacteria promotes establishment of seedlings and growth on igneous rocks without soil. These bacteria weather several rock types and minerals, unbind significant amounts of useful minerals for plants from the rocks, fix in vitro N2. produce...

  8. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  9. Isolation, quantity distribution and characterization of endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation was undertaken in order to document the spectrum of endophytes colonizing healthy leaves of sugar beet cultivars in Xinjiang Province (China) and to determine the degree of colonization at three growth stages. From the 360 sugar beet leaf and root segments incubated, 221 bacterial isolates, ...

  10. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    João Marcelo Lima

    5Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”/Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. Received 27 November, 2015; Accepted 23 May, 2016. Endophytic and epiphytic fungi isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms and Cyperus ligularis. L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were ...

  11. Phyllosticta capitalensis, a widespread endophyte of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wikee, S.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.; Nakashima, C.; Motohashi, K.; Chukeatirote, E.; Alias, S.A.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Hyde, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    Phyllosticta capitalensis is an endophyte and weak plant pathogen with a worldwide distribution presently known from 70 plant families. This study isolated P. capitalensis from different host plants in northern Thailand, and determined their different life modes. Thirty strains of P. capitalensis

  12. Isolation, quantity distribution and characterization of endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... The present investigation was undertaken in order to document the spectrum of endophytes colonizing healthy leaves of sugar beet cultivars in Xinjiang Province (China) and to determine the degree of colonization at three growth stages. From the 360 sugar beet leaf and root segments incubated, 221.

  13. Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic filamentous actinobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and bioactivity of endophytic filamentous actinobacteria from tropical medicinal plants. ... In addition, metabolites of nine isolates inhibited caspase 3, a protein related to neurodegenerative diseases, and three inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a protein related to diabetes. Based on their ...

  14. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  15. Genomic DNA extraction and barcoding of endophytic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Patricia L; Hennell, James R; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2012-01-01

    Endophytes live inter- and/or intracellularly inside healthy aboveground tissues of plants without causing disease. Endophytic fungi are found in virtually every vascular plant species examined. The origins of this symbiotic relationship between endophytes go back to the emergence of vascular plants. Endophytic fungi receive nutrition and protection from their hosts while the plants benefit from the production of fungal secondary metabolites, which enhance the host plants' resistance to herbivores, pathogens, and various abiotic stresses. Endophytic fungi have attracted increased interest as potential sources of secondary metabolites with agricultural, industrial, and medicinal use. This chapter provides detailed protocols for isolation of genomic DNA from fungal endophytes and its use in polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region between the conserved flanking regions of the small and large subunit of ribosomal RNA for barcoding purposes.

  16. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M Egan; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A.; Kellogg, Joshua J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech., Nadja B.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 funga...

  17. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  18. Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

    2009-09-01

    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

  19. WRKY6 restricts Piriformospora indica-stimulated and phosphate-induced root development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Vahabi, Khabat; Bhattacharya, Samik; Sherameti, Irena; Varma, Ajit; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Baldwin, Ian; Johri, Atul Kumar; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2015-12-30

    Arabidopsis root growth is stimulated by Piriformospora indica, phosphate limitation and inactivation of the WRKY6 transcription factor. Combinations of these factors induce unexpected alterations in root and shoot growth, root architecture and root gene expression profiles. The results demonstrate that P. indica promotes phosphate uptake and root development under Pi limitation in wrky6 mutant. This is associated with the stimulation of PHOSPHATE1 expression and ethylene production. Expression profiles from the roots of wrky6 seedlings identified genes involved in hormone metabolism, transport, meristem, cell and plastid proliferation, and growth regulation. 25 miRNAs were also up-regulated in these roots. We generated and discuss here a list of common genes which are regulated in growing roots and which are common to all three growth stimuli investigated in this study. Since root development of wrky6 plants exposed to P. indica under phosphate limitation is strongly promoted, we propose that common genes which respond to all three growth stimuli are central for the control of root growth and architecture. They can be tested for optimizing root growth in model and agricultural plants.

  20. Variation in endophytic fungi from roots and leaves of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAUL BAYMAN; LIGIA L. LEBRO; RAYMOND L. TREMBLAY; JEAN D. LODGE

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about non-mycorrhizal endophytic fungi in tropical orchids; still less is known about how endophytes vary within and between individual orchid plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from roots and leaves of epiphytic and lithophytic orchids in the genus Lepanthes; seven species, from rainforests in Puerto Rico, were sampled. The endophytes observed...

  1. Behavior Performance of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Fungal Endophyte-Infected and Uninfected Perennial Ryegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; K.S. Pike

    1992-01-01

    The behavior and performance of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on fungal endophyte-infected and endophyte-free perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., was investigated in the laboratory and field. Aphids did not select endophyte-free over endophyte-infected leaf sheaths and stem segments in petri dish preference tests....

  2. Conversion of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum magna to a nonpathogenic, endophytic mutualist by gene disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, R.S.; Ranson, J.C.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hygromycin-resistant transformants of the cucurbit pathogen Colletotrichum magna (teleomorph: Glomerella magna) were generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. A rapid pathogenicity assay involving watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings was developed and 14,400 REMI transformants were screened and assessed for their ability to cause disease, colonize plant tissues, and confer disease resistance against wild-type C. magna. A total of 176 nonpathogenic REMI mutants capable of colonizing cucurbit plants were isolated and assigned to three groups based on their ability to confer disease resistance: phenotype A, 80 to 100% disease protection; phenotype B, 10 to 65% disease protection; and phenotype C, 0 to 4% disease protection. Molecular and genetic analyses of one REMI mutant (R1) indicated that the nonpathogenic phenotype A resulted from a single-site integration. R1 showed a 1:1 segregation of hygromycin resistance and nonpathogenicity and all hygromycin-resistant progeny were nonpathogenic. The integrated vector and 5.5 kb of flanking fungal genomic DNA were isolated from R1 and designated pGMR1. To verify that pGMR1 contained pathogenicity gene sequences, a wild-type isolate of C. magna was transformed with pGMR1 to induce gene disruptions by homologous integration. Approximately 47% of the pGMR1 transformants expressed phenotype A, indicating homologous integration and gene disruption.

  3. Diterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Botryosphaeria sp. P483 of the Chinese Herbal Medicine Huperzia serrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Mei Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new tetranorlabdane diterpenoids, named botryosphaerins G (1 and H (2, were isolated from the solid fermentation products of Botryosphaeria sp. P483 along with seven known tetranorlabdane diterpenes (3–9. Their structures were elucidated by extensive analysis, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS. Their absolute configuration was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses using the anomalous scattering of Cu Kα radiation. All of the isolated compounds were tested for activity against phytopathogenic fungi and nematodes. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antifungal activity and compound 2 showed weak nematicidal activity.

  4. New p-terphenyls from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Wuringege; Li, Sui-Jun; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wei, Wei; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Five new p-terphenyls named prenylterphenyllin D (1), prenylterphenyllin E (2), 2'-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (3), 4-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (4) and 3'-O-methylterphenyllin (5) together with seven known compounds (6-12), were isolated from cultures of Aspergillus sp. YXf3. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR analyses. The NMR and MS data of 5 is reported for the first time, as its structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. Compounds 6 and 7 were distinguished from each other on the basis of 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 8 showed antibacterial activities against X. oryzae pv. oryzicola Swings and E. amylovora with the same MIC values of 20μg/mL while 10 exhibited activities against E. amylovora with an MIC value of 10μg/mL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of zofimarin production by an endophytic fungus, Xylaria sp. Acra L38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichanan, Jirapan; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Pongtharangkul, Thunyarat; Isarangkul, Duangnate; Meevootisom, Vithaya

    2014-01-01

    To optimize the medium for high zofimarin production, sucrose maltose, glucose, tryptone and peptone were used in an orthogonal array design experiment, where the highest value of zofimarin produced was 25.6 μg/mL. This value was about 3 times higher than that obtained with Czapek yeast extract (CzYE) culture medium. A study with Plackett-Burman design showed that sucrose, maltose, glucose and NaNO3 were significant factors in zofimarin production. Further studies using central composite design (CCD) showed the significance of glucose and the interactions of these critical components affecting zofimarin production. Multiple regression analysis of the data yielded a poor fit as shown by the mismatch of the model with these variable factors. When a polynomial equation was applied, the maximum zofimarin production was predicted to be 201.9 μg/mL. Experimental verification yielded a much lower amount of zofimarin, at around 70 μg/mL. Reconsideration of the CCD data and repetition of some runs with high zofimarin production resulted in reproducible zofimarin yield at 79.7 μg/mL. Even though the amount was lower than the predicted value, the medium optimization study was considered to be quite successful as the yield increased to around 8 times that obtained with the original CzYE culture medium.

  6. Gene Clusters for Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in the Grass-Endophytic Fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum

    OpenAIRE

    Spiering, Martin J.; Moon, Christina D.; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2005-01-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same ...

  7. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using an endophytic fungus, Penicillium oxalicum having potential antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sukla; Debnath, Gopal; Das, Aparajita Roy; Krishna Saha, Ajay; Das, Panna

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of the extracellular mycelium extract of Penicillium oxalicum isolated from Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. It was characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The characterization confirms the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Both silver nanoparticles and combination of silver nanoparticles with streptomycin showed activity against the four bacteria. The results suggested that P. oxalicum offers eco-friendly production of silver nanoparticles and the antibacterial activity may find application in biomedicine.

  8. Endophytic fungi associated with endogenous Boswellia sacra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAIFELDIN A.F. EL-NAGERABI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El-Nagerabi SAF, Elshafie AE, AlKhanjari SS. 2014. Endophytic fungi associated with endogenous Boswellia sacra. Biodiversitas 15: 22-28. Endophytic fungi associated with leaves and stem tissues of Boswellia sacra growing in Dhofar Mountains of Oman were investigated from May 2008 through October 2011. The biological diversity, tissue-preference and seasonal variations of fungi were evaluated. Forty-three species and 3 varieties of fungi were recovered as new records from this plant. Of these isolates, 35 species are new reports to the mycoflora of Oman, whereas 12 species were added to the list of fungal flora of the Arabian Peninsula. The genus Alternaria (12 species is the most prevalent genus recovered from 12.5-83.3% of the screened leaves and stem samples, followed by Aspergillus (5 species, 3 varieties, 6.9-86.1%, Mycelia sterilia (76.4%, Rhizopus stolonifer (62.5%, Drechslera (3 species, 40.3-54.2%, Cladosporium (3 species, 20.8-52.8%, Curvularia lunata (38.8%, Chaetomium (2 species, 15.3-26.3%, Penicillim spp. (9.8-27.8%, Fusarium (9 species, 6.9-27.8%, Ulocladium consortiale (27.8%, Mucor hiemalis (19.5%, and the remaining species (Scytalidium thermophilum, Phoma solani, Taeniolella exilis, and Botryodiplodia theobromae exhibited very low levels of incidence (4.2-11.1%. Endophytic colonization of the leaf tissues was greater (43 species, 3 varieties comparable to stem tissues (25 species. This indicates heterogeneity and tissue-preference, with no evidence of seasonal variation. Therefore, the isolation of many fungal species and sterile mycelia supports the biodiversity of the endophytic fungi invading B. sacra and the high possibility of isolating more fungal species using advanced molecular techniques.

  9. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  10. Maize endophytic bacteria as mineral phosphate solubilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, C S; Figueiredo, J E F; Oliveira, C A; Dos Santos, V L; Gomes, E A; Ribeiro, V P; Barros, B A; Lana, U G P; Marriel, I E

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, we demonstrated the in vitro activity of endophytic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Fifty-five endophytic PSB that were isolated from sap, leaves, and roots of maize were tested for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and produce organic acid. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene showed that the isolates were from the genus Bacillus and different species of Enterobacteriaceae. The phosphate solubilization index on solid medium and phosphate solubilization in liquid medium varied significantly among the isolates. There was a statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) for both, the values of phosphate-solubilizing activity and pH of the growth medium, among the isolates. Pearson correlation was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) between P-solubilization and pH (R = -0.38), and between the gluconic acid production and the lowering of the pH of the liquid medium at 6 (R = 0.28) and 9 days (R = 0.39). Gluconic acid production was prevalent in all the PSB studied, and Bacillus species were most efficient in solubilizing phosphate. This is the first report on the characterization of bacterial endophytes from maize and their use as potential biofertilizers. In addition, this may provide an alternative strategy for improving the phosphorus acquisition efficiency of crop plants in tropical soils.

  11. Endophytic bacteria with potential for bioremediation of petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic microorganisms live inside plants and show no apparent damage for the host. They often assist in plants' survival and facilitate their growth, or they can metabolize organic contaminants. This study aimed to isolate and identify the endophytic bacteria of plants present in impacted areas, as well as to test their ...

  12. Diversity of fungal endophytes and their bioactive metabolites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 13 endophytic fungi isolates were obtained and grouped into seven genera based on the morphological traits, indicating endophytic fungi in Shorea thumbuggaia, Boswellia ovalifoliolata, Pterocarpus santalinus were diverse and abundant. Fusarium, Penicillium, Aspergillus and Colletotrichum were the dominant ...

  13. Plant growth promoting potential of endophytic bacteria isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic microorganisms are able to promote plant growth through various mechanisms, such as production of plant hormones and antimicrobial substances, as well as to provide the soil with nutrients, for instance, inorganic phosphate. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria isolated from ...

  14. Screening mycotoxins for quorum inhibition in a biocontrol bacterial endophyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. Bacteria communicate via cell-dependent signals, which are r...

  15. Endophytic Fungi as Novel Resources of natural Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwari Rajamanikyam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fungal endophytes constitute a major part of the unexplored fungal diversity. Endophytic fungi (EF are an important source for novel, potential and active metabolites. Plant-endophyte interaction and endophyte -endophyte interactions study provide insights into mutualism and metabolite production by fungi. Bioactive compounds produced by endophytes main function are helping the host plants to resist external biotic and abiotic stress, which benefit the host survival in return. These organisms mainly consist of members of the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Oomycota. Recently, the genome sequencing technology has emerged as one of the most efficient tools that can provide whole information of a genome in a small period of time. Endophytes are fertile ground for drug discovery. EFare considered as the hidden members of the microbial world and represent an underutilized resource for new therapeutics and compounds. Endophytes are rich source of natural products displaying broad spectrum of biological activities like anticancer, antibacterial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-arthritis and anti-inflammatory.

  16. antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from conifers needles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ravnikar, Matjaž

    2015-03-11

    Mar 11, 2015 ... Fungi, in particular endophytes are a promising source of new antimicrobial compounds. The aim of this study was to screen the extracts of conifer needle fungal endophytes for antimicrobial activity and taxonomically place fungi producing ones to determined active metabolites. Seventy three strains of.

  17. Comparative study of in vitro antioxidant activity of foliar endophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endophytic fungi that reside in plant tissues are a potential source of secondary metabolites with biological activities. In our study, we investigated the detection of the antioxidant activity of the crude fungal extract of the genera Cladosporium, Alternaria, Aspergillus and Penicillium: endophytic fungi isolated from the leaves of ...

  18. Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored a strategy to use endophytic fungi for promoting the growth of the medicinal plant, Euphorbia pekinensis. The growth of E. pekinensis was examined in pot culture following inoculation of. E. pekinensis with endophytic fungal strains (Fusarium spp.) from E. pekinensis (E4 and E5) and those not from E.

  19. Identification and phytochemical screening of Endophytic fungi from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify some endophytic fungi, which were associated with the stems of Phragmanthera capitata (Loranthaceae), and to determine the phytochemical composition of their extracts. Methodology and results: The isolation of endophytic fungi was made on PDA medium (Potato ...

  20. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus eGarcias-Bonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ and δ subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

  1. Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds.

  2. Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by endophytic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Merging biotechnology with biological control: Banana Musa tissue culture plants enhanced by ... Fungal endophytes are microorganisms that colonize plant tissue internally for at least part of their life cycle to form mutualistic relationships with their host plants, including antagonism to pests and diseases. These endophytes.

  3. Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

  4. An endophytic/pathogenic Phoma sp. from creosote bush producing biologically active volatile compounds having fuel potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobel, Gary; Singh, Sanjay K; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Mitchell, Angela M; Geary, Brad; Sears, Joe

    2011-07-01

    A Phoma sp. was isolated and characterized as endophytic and as a pathogen of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) growing in the desert region of southern Utah, USA. This fungus produces a unique mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including a series of sesquiterpenoids, some alcohols and several reduced naphthalene derivatives. Trans-caryophyllene, a product in the fungal VOCs, was also noted in the VOCs of this pungent plant. The gases of Phoma sp. possess antifungal properties and is markedly similar to that of a methanolic extract of the host plant. Some of the test organisms with the greatest sensitivity to the Phoma sp. VOCs were Verticillium, Ceratocystis, Cercospora and Sclerotinia while those being the least sensitive were Trichoderma, Colletotrichum and Aspergillus. We discuss the possible involvement of VOC production by the fungus and its role in the biology/ecology of the fungus/plant/environmental relationship with implications for utilization as an energy source. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of vanilla-endophytic bacteria (Vanilla planifolia with in vitro biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Vanillae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Jiménez-Quesada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanilla sp. genus belongs to Orchidaceae family, and V. planifolia, V. pompona and V. tahitensis. are species of commercial interest. The quality classification of vanilla is made according to the length of the capsule and vanillin content, which is used to make food and beverage, as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry and for the production of cosmetics and perfumes, among others. Currently, root rot caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyporum f. sp. Vanillae is considered to be the biggest problem facing vanilla production, causing 30 to 52% of plant death, attacking adventitious roots and preventing this plant is able to absorb water and nutrients. The fungus cannot be eradicated by the action of chemicals that damage the viability of the plants, and because the cultivation of vanilla in agroforestry systems without the application of agrochemicals is an activity that is gaining interest among small producers country. It is for this reason why was studied the ability of control of vanilla endophytic bacteria isolated from samples from Corcovado, Puriscal, Dota and Guápiles, by testing in vitro antagonism between asylee bacteria and fungus F. oxysporum, giving results about promising candidate B1M11 to respond to pathogen attack, which was corroborated by the appearance of a halo of inhibition of fungal growth on plate.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties.

  7. [Endophytic fungi in rose (Rosa hybrida) in Bogota, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Salazar, Catalina; Cepero de Garcia, María Caridad

    2005-06-01

    We have investigated the presence of endophytic fungi associated with rose plants (Rosa hybrida) in Colombia. Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of ten ornamental roses plants from gardens cultured in malt extract, peptone, yeast extract agar plates (MPY). We sampled 560 leaves fragments, 56 per sample. Endophytic fungi comprised 92 isolates (16.4%); of these isolates, 41 were classified as sterile mycelium (without reproductive structures that allowed their identification), 31 isolates were identified to genus or to species, and 20 isolates could not be identified at all. The identified endophytic fungi were as follow: Nigrospora oryzae, Aureobasidium spp, Acremonium spp. The fungi Nodulisporium sp, Gliocladium virens, Cladosporium sp, Alternaria sp, Phoma sp and Chaetomium globosum were represented by one isolate each. Since the endophytic fungi are known for their capacity to produce metabolites with biological activity, it is possible that the microorganisms found in this study have potential as antagonist of rose pathogens.

  8. Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution.

  9. The maturation zone is an important target of Piriformospora indica in Chinese cabbage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheqin; Tian, Zhihong; Chen, Peng Jen; Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin Hui; Cai, Daguang; Oelmüllar, Ralf; Yeh, Kai Wun

    2013-11-01

    The mutualistic symbiont Piriformospora indica exhibits a great potential in agriculture. The interaction between P. indica and Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. Chinensis) results in growth and biomass promotion of the host plant and in particular in root hair development. The resulting highly bushy root phenotype of colonized Chinese cabbage seedlings differs substantially from reports of other plant species, which prompted the more detailed study of this symbiosis. A large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) data set was obtained from a double-subtractive EST library, by subtracting the cDNAs of Chinese cabbage root tissue and of P. indica mycelium from those of P. indica-colonized root tissue. The analysis revealed ~700 unique genes rooted in 141 clusters and 559 singles. A total of 66% of the sequences could be annotated in the NCBI GenBank. Genes which are stimulated by P. indica are involved in various types of transport, carbohydrate metabolism, auxin signalling, cell wall metabolism, and root development, including the root hair-forming phosphoinositide phosphatase 4. For 20 key genes, induction by fungal colonization was confirmed kinetically during the interaction by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Moreover, the auxin concentration increases transiently after exposure of the roots to P. indica. Microscopic analyses demonstrated that the development of the root maturation zone is the major target of P. indica in Chinese cabbage. Taken together, the symbiotic interaction between Chinese cabbage and P. indica is a novel model to study root growth promotion which, in turn, is important for agriculture and plant biotechnology.

  10. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  11. Dark septate endophyte decreases stress on rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Gomes dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract Abiotic stress is one of the major limiting factors for plant development and productivity, which makes it important to identify microorganisms capable of increasing plant tolerance to stress. Dark septate endophytes can be symbionts of plants. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of dark septate endophytes isolates to reduce the effects of water stress in the rice varieties Nipponbare and Piauí. The experiments were performed under gnotobiotic conditions, and the water stress was induced with PEG. Four dark septate endophytes were isolated from the roots of wild rice (Oryza glumaepatula collected from the Brazilian Amazon. Plant height as well as shoot and root fresh and dry matter were measured. Leaf protein concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity were also estimated. The dark septate endophytes were grown in vitro in Petri dishes containing culture medium; they exhibited different levels of tolerance to salinity and water stress. The two rice varieties tested responded differently to inoculation with dark septate endophytes. Endophytes promoted rice plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of a water deficit. Decreased oxidative stress in plants in response to inoculation was observed in nearly all inoculated treatments, as indicated by the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Dark septate endophytes fungi were shown to increase the tolerance of rice plants to stress caused by water deficiency.

  12. Dark septate endophyte decreases stress on rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Silvana Gomes Dos; Silva, Paula Renata Alves da; Garcia, Andres Calderin; Zilli, Jerri Édson; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    Abiotic stress is one of the major limiting factors for plant development and productivity, which makes it important to identify microorganisms capable of increasing plant tolerance to stress. Dark septate endophytes can be symbionts of plants. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of dark septate endophytes isolates to reduce the effects of water stress in the rice varieties Nipponbare and Piauí. The experiments were performed under gnotobiotic conditions, and the water stress was induced with PEG. Four dark septate endophytes were isolated from the roots of wild rice (Oryza glumaepatula) collected from the Brazilian Amazon. Plant height as well as shoot and root fresh and dry matter were measured. Leaf protein concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity were also estimated. The dark septate endophytes were grown in vitro in Petri dishes containing culture medium; they exhibited different levels of tolerance to salinity and water stress. The two rice varieties tested responded differently to inoculation with dark septate endophytes. Endophytes promoted rice plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of a water deficit. Decreased oxidative stress in plants in response to inoculation was observed in nearly all inoculated treatments, as indicated by the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Dark septate endophytes fungi were shown to increase the tolerance of rice plants to stress caused by water deficiency. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Communities of Cultivable Root Mycobionts of the Seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea Are Dominated by a Hitherto Undescribed Pleosporalean Dark Septate Endophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohník, Martin; Borovec, Ondřej; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses, a small group of submerged marine macrophytes, were reported to lack mycorrhizae, i.e., the root-fungus symbioses most terrestrial plants use for nutrient uptake. On the other hand, several authors detected fungal endophytes in seagrass leaves, shoots, rhizomes, and roots, and an anatomically and morphologically unique dark septate endophytic (DSE) association has been recently described in the roots of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Nevertheless, the global diversity of seagrass mycobionts is not well understood, and it remains unclear what fungus forms the DSE association in P. oceanica roots. We isolated and determined P. oceanica root mycobionts from 11 localities in the northwest Mediterranean Sea with documented presence of the DSE association and compared our results with recent literature. The mycobiont communities were low in diversity (only three species), were dominated by a single yet unreported marine fungal species (ca. 90 % of the total 177 isolates), and lacked common terrestrial and freshwater root mycobionts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the dominating species represents a new monotypic lineage within the recently described Aigialaceae family (Pleosporales, Ascomycota), probably representing a new genus. Most of its examined colonies developed from intracellular microsclerotia occupying host hypodermis and resembling microsclerotia of terrestrial DSE fungi. Biological significance of this hitherto overlooked seagrass root mycobiont remains obscure, but its presence across the NW Mediterranean Sea and apparent root intracellular lifestyle indicate an intriguing symbiotic relationship with the dominant Mediterranean seagrass. Our microscopic observations suggest that it may form the DSE association recently described in P. oceanica roots.

  14. Promoting role of an endophyte on the growth and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, a rare and threatened medicinal Orchidaceae plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fu-sheng; Lv, Ya-li; Zhao, Yue; Guo, Shun-xing

    2013-09-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus, commonly known as "Jewel Orchid", is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. The existence of A. formosanus is currently threatened by habitat loss, human and animal consumption, etc. The highly potent medicinal activity of A. formosanus is due to its secondary metabolites, especially kinsenosides and flavonoids. This orchid also has a unique mycorrhizal relationship. Most adult orchids rely on endophytes for mineral nutrition and have complex interactions with them, which are related to plant growth, yield and changes in secondary metabolites. This study investigated the promoting role of F-23 fungus (genus Mycena) on the biomass and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of A. formosanus in pot culture. The following were observed after 10 weeks of symbiotic cultivation: increased shoot height, shoot dry weight, and leaf numbers by 16.6%, 31.3%, and 22.5%, respectively; increased contents of kinsenosides, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by 85.5%, 226.1%, and 196.0%, respectively; some hyphae in epidermal cells dyed red and/or reddish brown by safranine; and, significantly reduced number of starch grains in cortical cells. Moreover, F-23 fungus significantly improved the kinsenoside and flavonoid contents of A. formosanus. These findings supported the reports that endophytes can alter the production of secondary metabolites in their plant hosts, although further physiological, genetic and ecological analyses are warranted.

  15. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  16. Montagnuphilones A-G, Azaphilones from Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, a Fungal Endophyte of Submerged Roots of Persicaria amphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Xu, Ya-Ming; Sandberg, Dustin C; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-01-27

    Seven azaphilones, montagnuphilones A-G (1-7), together with previously known azaphilones 8-11, were encountered in Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, an endophytic fungus isolated from submerged roots of Persicaria amphibia. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of their MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Among these, none were found to be cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells up to 100.0 μM, but 8, 5, and 2 showed NO inhibitory activity with IC 50 values of 9.2 ± 0.9, 25.5 ± 1.1, and 39.6 ± 1.8 μM, respectively.

  17. Safety of Malaysian marine endophytic fungal extract S2 from a brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides

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    Siti Alwani Ariffin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vivo acute toxicity and antioxidant activity of the marine endophytic fungus extract S2 isolated from Turbinaria conoides. Methods: Two doses (100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the S2 extract were administered to rats orally for acute toxicity and antioxidant test. The body weight, relative weight of six organs, haematological, biochemical and antioxidant properties were investigated on Day 14. Results: A single oral dose treatment did not cause any mortality or observable adverse effects in rats. No significant variations in the body and organ weights between the control and the treated groups were observed. Heamatological analysis and clinical blood chemistry also did not reveal any toxic effects of the extract. The total white blood cell count and haemoglobin levels were increased. The levels of total serum cholesterol in males treated with 100 and 400 mg/kg were significantly (P<0.05 decreased (1.28 and 1.34 mmol/L respectively compared to control (1.55 mmol/L rats. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. This study showed strong evidence of the non-toxic effects of S2 extract. Furthermore the extract exhibited significant (P<0.05 antioxidant activity through increased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes in serum, liver and kidney. Conclusions: The research findings from the present study showed the potential of marine natural products particularly in Malaysia as a source of bioactive compounds. Marine endophytic fungi as a potential source of anticancer drugs with great potential as they are potent yet safe, thus deserving further extensive investigation.

  18. Endophytic fungi associated with endogenous Boswellia sacra

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    SAIFELDIN A.F. EL-NAGERABI1,♥,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi associated with leaves and stem tissues of Boswellia sacra growing in Dhofar Mountains of Oman were investigated from May 2008 through October 2011. The biological diversity, tissue-preference and seasonal variations of fungi were evaluated. Forty-three species and 3 varieties of fungi were recovered as new records from this plant. Of these isolates, 35 species are new reports to the mycoflora of Oman, whereas 12 species were added to the list of fungal flora of the Arabian Peninsula. The genus Alternaria (12 species is the most prevalent genus recovered from 12.5-83.3% of the screened leaves and stem samples, followed by Aspergillus (5 species, 3 varieties, 6.9-86.1%, Mycelia sterilia (76.4%, Rhizopus stolonifer (62.5%, Drechslera (3 species, 40.3-54.2%, Cladosporium (3 species, 20.8-52.8%, Curvularia lunata (38.8%, Chaetomium (2 species, 15.3-26.3%, Penicillim spp. (9.8-27.8%, Fusarium (9 species, 6.9-27.8%, Ulocladium consortiale (27.8%, Mucor hiemalis (19.5%, and the remaining species (Scytalidium thermophilum, Phoma solani, Taeniolella exilis, and Botryodiplodia theobromae exhibited very low levels of incidence (4.2-11.1%. Endophytic colonization of the leaf tissues was greater (43 species, 3 varieties comparable to stem tissues (25 species. This indicates heterogeneity and tissue-preference, with no evidence of seasonal variation. Therefore, the isolation of many fungal species and sterile mycelia supports the biodiversity of the endophytic fungi invading B. sacra and the high possibility of isolating more fungal species using advanced molecular techniques.

  19. Biosynthesis of Anti-Proliferative Gold Nanoparticles Using Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum Strain Isolated from Neem (A. indica) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Absar; Julius, Anju; Syed, Asad; Khan, Shadab; Kharat, Mahesh; Pai, Kalpana; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a simple, rapid, environment friendly approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) fungal endophyte, which based upon morphological and cultural characteristics was eventually identified as Fusarium oxysporum. The aqueous precursor (HAuCl4) solution when reacted with endophytic fungus resulted in the biosynthesis of abundant amounts of well dispersed gold nanoparticles of 10-40 nm with an average size of 22nm. These biosynthesized gold nanoparticles were then characterized by standard analytical techniques such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activity of these nanoparticles was checked against three different cell types including breast cancer (ZR-75-1), Daudi (Human Burkitt's lymphoma cancer) and normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), where it was found that our gold nanoparticles are anti-proliferative against cancer cells but completely safe toward normal cells. In addition to this, assessment of toxicity toward human RBC revealed less than 0.1 % hemolysis as compared to Triton X-100 suggesting safe nature of our biosynthesized gold nanoparticles on human cells. Also, our nanoparticles exhibited no anti-fungal (against Aspergillus niger) or anti-bacterial [against Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis & Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria] activity thus suggesting their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. The present investigation opens up avenues for ecofriendly, biocompatible nanomaterials to be used in a wide variety of application such as drug delivery, therapeutics, theranostics and so on.

  20. Endophytic Detection in Selected European Herbal Plants.

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    Goryluk-Salmonowicz, Agata; Piórek, Monika; Rekosz-Burlaga, Hanna; Studnicki, Marcin; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław

    2016-08-26

    A total of 181 cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates were collected from stems of 13 species of herbs inhabiting Europe (Poland): Chelidonium majus L., Elymus repens L., Erigeron annuus L., Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne, Foeniculum vulgare L., Geranium pratense L., Humulus lupulus L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Mentha arvensis L., Papaver rhoeas L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Solidago gigantea L. and Vinca minor L. The isolates were screened for their antifungal activity and fifty three were found to inhibit fungal growth. Of these, five had strong antifungal properties. These selected isolates were identified as: Pseudomonas azotoformans, P. cedrina, Bacillus subtilis group and Erwinia persicina.