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Sample records for endometrium disables embryo-maternal

  1. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  2. Expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor neuropilin-1 at the human embryo-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baston-Buest, Dunja M; Porn, Anne C; Schanz, Andrea; Kruessel, Jan-S; Janni, Wolfgang; Hess, Alexandra P

    2011-02-01

    Angiogenesis is required for successful implantation of the invading blastocyst. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important key player in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling during the implantation process. Besides its well-characterized receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been shown to play an additional role in the signaling process of angiogenesis in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle, as a co-receptor of VEGF. These findings led to the hypothesis that NRP-1 might play a role in the vascular remodeling process during embryo implantation and the establishment of a pregnancy. NRP-1 mRNA transcript and protein expression were investigated in human choriocarcinoma cell lines (JEG-3, Jar and BeWo) aiming to evaluate the expression of NRP-1 in vitro, as well as in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy, by western blot analysis (three samples of each trimester of pregnancy). The localization of NRP-1 in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (five samples of each trimester of pregnancy). NRP-1 transcript and protein were expressed in all cell lines examined. Corresponding to the analysis of human tissue by western blot and the localization by immunohistochemistry, NRP-1 protein higher expressed in samples of early pregnancy in comparison to the end of pregnancy. NRP-1 was expressed in the decidua, villi and invading cytotrophoblast of all samples investigated. This is the first study clearly showing the expression of NRP-1 in human decidua and trophoblast, suggesting an important role for the VEGF co-receptor NRP-1 besides the established receptor VEGFR2 at the embryo-maternal interface during embryonic implantation and placentation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Innate immune defences in the human endometrium

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    Kelly Rodney W

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human endometrium is an important site of innate immune defence, giving protection against uterine infection. Such protection is critical to successful implantation and pregnancy. Infection is a major cause of preterm birth and can also cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Natural anti-microbial peptides are key mediators of the innate immune system. These peptides, between them, have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-viral activity and are expressed at epithelial surfaces throughout the female genital tract. Two families of natural anti-microbials, the defensins and the whey acidic protein (WAP motif proteins, appear to be prominent in endometrium. The human endometrial epithelium expresses beta-defensins 1–4 and the WAP motif protein, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor. Each beta-defensin has a different expression profile in relation to the stage of the menstrual cycle, providing potential protection throughout the cycle. Secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is expressed during the secretory phase of the cycle and has a range of possible roles including anti-protease and anti-microbial activity as well as having effects on epithelial cell growth. The leukocyte populations in the endometrium are also a source of anti-microbial production. Neutrophils are a particularly rich source of alpha-defensins, lactoferrin, lysozyme and the WAP motif protein, elafin. The presence of neutrophils during menstruation will enhance anti-microbial protection at a time when the epithelial barrier is disrupted. Several other anti-microbials including the natural killer cell product, granulysin, are likely to have a role in endometrium. The sequential production of natural anti-microbial peptides by the endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle and at other sites in the female genital tract will offer protection from many pathogens, including those that are sexually transmitted.

  4. "Follicular HCG endometrium priming for IVF patients experiencing resisting thin endometrium. A proof of concept study"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, E G; Kyrou, D; Zervakakou, G

    2013-01-01

    A thin endometrium is one of the most difficult problems encountered in assisted reproduction every day practice. Whether a daily dose of 150 IU HCG for 7 days concomitant with estrogen administration in estrogen replacement cycles can increase the endometrial thickness and improve pregnancy...

  5. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potish, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignant tumor in the female genital tract. Radiation therapy continues to play a major role in the management of endometrial carcinoma, both as primary therapy and as adjuvant treatment. The utility of pelvic external beam therapy and intracavitary therapy is long established. However, the modern era of surgical staging has lead to an appreciation of the role of radiation therapy beyond the pelvis. Radiation therapy has been shown to be of particular benefit in peritoneal and nodal spread. The classic management of endometrial cancer is reviewed and relatively new and somewhat controversial topics, such as preoperative intracavitary therapy followed by external beam therapy are discussed

  6. Epithelial lining of the endometrium during the luteal phase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The endometrium is receptive for the embryo and presents an implantation ... This study is aimed at highlighting an alternation in pinopod expression and to ... underwent two endometrial biopsies 2-7 days after human chronic ...

  7. Phosphoproteomics Analysis of Endometrium in Women with or without Endometriosis

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    Hong-Mei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: That large-scale phosphoproteome quantification has been successfully identified in endometrium tissues of women with or without endometriosis will provide new insights to understand the molecular mechanisms of the development of endometriosis.

  8. Bone in The Endometrium: A Review

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    Khan Sana N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To provide a comprehensive review of the published literature of patients with endo- metrial bone or osseous fragments with a view to critically examine the antecedent clinical presentation, investigations and prognosis after treatment. This systematic review of the literature includes full text articles of published case re- ports and cases series from the following computerized databases: PubMed, Ovid, and Medline between 1928 and 2013. We reviewed a total of 293 patients in 155 case reports and case series. The mean ± SD age at presentation was 32.7 ± 8.9. Approximately 88% of patients had at least one prior surgical uterine evacuation relating to pregnancy termina- tion or loss at a median gestational age of 14 weeks (range of 4-41 weeks. The most common presenting symptom was infertility (56.2%. One hundred twenty- four (66.0% of the 188 patients attempting pregnancy after treatment achieved pregnancy prior to article publication and the majority (82.3% were spontane- ous. Spontaneous miscarriage rate remains high (43%; however, most pregnancies ended in live-birth (55%. Bone fragments in the endometrium are most commonly found after pregnancy termina- tion, present with infertility and/or irregular menses, and upon removal, patients rapidly conceive spontaneously.

  9. Human chorionic ganodotropin binding sites in the human endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Banerjee, J.; Sen, S.; Manna, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    The existence of high-affinity and low-capacity specific binding sites for luteinizing hormone/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has been reported in porcine, rabbit and rat uteri. The authors have identified the hCG binding sites in the human endometrium collected from 35-42-year-old ovulatory and anovulatory women. The binding characteristics of hCG to endometrial tissue preparations from ovulatory and anovulatory women showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed the dissociation constant of specific binding sites in the ovulatory women to be 3.5x10 -10 mol/l and in anovulatory women to be 3.1x10 -10 mol/l. The maximum binding capacity varied considerably between ovulatory and anovulatory endometrium. Among the divalent metal ions tested Zn 2+ effected a remarkable increase in [ 125 I]hCG binding to the endometrium, whereas Mn 2+ showed a marginal increase and other metal ions did not have any effect. Data obtained with human endometrium indicate an influence of the functional state of the ovary on [ 125 I]hCG binding to endometrium. 14 refs., 3 figs

  10. Estrogen signaling in the proliferative endometrium: implications in endometriosis

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    Rita de Cássia Pereira da Costa e Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Even though the physiological role of estrogen in the female reproductive cycle and endometrial proliferative phase is well established, the signaling pathways by which estrogen exerts its action in the endometrial tissue are still little known. In this regard, advancements in cell culture techniques and maintenance of endometrial cells in cultures enabled the discovery of new signaling mechanisms activated by estrogen in the normal endometrium and in endometriosis. This review aims to present the recent findings in the genomic and non-genomic estrogen signaling pathways in the proliferative human endometrium specifically associated with the pathogenesis and development of endometriosis.

  11. [Morphologic characteristics of the endometrium in women with endometriosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopichev, V G; Savitkiĭ, G A; Gorbushin, S M

    1998-01-01

    It was established that in accordance with certain phases of sexual cycle (menstrual cycle in women and estral cycle in rats) on the background of hormone action at follicular and luteal phase the surface of epitheliocytes acquires specific relief (formation and degradation of microvilli appropriately in first and second halves of the cycle, accordingly). Disturbance of cyclic change of the relief of apical surface of epitheliocytes of the endometrium, persistence of high binding activity of the cationic dye and formation of intercellular clefts were demonstrated in developing endometriosis, which significantly interferes with the reproductive function. This was suggested to be an unfavourable result of cytotoxic effect of autoimmune processes that develop due to implantation of cells of endometrium in abdominal cavity and initiation of cooperative cellular response, which seems to be morphologically demonstrated by significant increase in number of macrophages in tissues of the uterus and in menstrual discharge.

  12. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J.; Wiegand, Stanley J.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L.; Brenner, Robert M.; Giudice, Linda C.; Nayak, Nihar R.

    2008-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that ...

  13. G-CSF Intrauterine for Thin Endometrium, and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Tehraninejad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate effects ofG-CSF on a cancelled ART cycle due to thin endometrium.Materials and methods:In a nonrandomized clinical trial from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary university based hospitals fifteen patients undergoing embryo transfer and with the history of cycle cancellation due to thin endometrium were studied. Intrauterine infusion of G-CSF was done on the day of oocyte pick-up or 5 days before embryo transfer. The primary outcome to be measured was an endometrium thickened to at least 6 mm and the secondary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate and consequently take-home baby. All previous cycles were considered as control for each patient.Results:The G-CSF was infused at the day of oocyte retrieval or 5 days before embryo transfer. The endometrial thickness reached from3.593±0.251 mm to 7.120±0.84 mm. The mean age, gravidity, parity, and FSH were 35.13± 9.531 years,3, 1 and32.78± 31.10 mIU/ml, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rate was 20%, and there was one missed abortion, a mother death at 34 weeks, and a preterm labor at 30 weeks due to PROM.Conclusion:G-CSF may increase endometrial thickness in the small group of patients who had no choice except cycle cancellation or surrogacy.

  14. VEGF blockade inhibits angiogenesis and reepithelialization of endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiujun; Krieg, Sacha; Kuo, Calvin J; Wiegand, Stanley J; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Druzin, Maurice L; Brenner, Robert M; Giudice, Linda C; Nayak, Nihar R

    2008-10-01

    Despite extensive literature on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and regulation by steroid hormones, the lack of clear understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis in the endometrium is a major limitation for use of antiangiogenic therapy targeting endometrial vessels. In the current work, we used the rhesus macaque as a primate model and the decidualized mouse uterus as a murine model to examine angiogenesis during endometrial breakdown and regeneration. We found that blockade of VEGF action with VEGF Trap, a potent VEGF blocker, completely inhibited neovascularization during endometrial regeneration in both models but had no marked effect on preexisting or newly formed vessels, suggesting that VEGF is essential for neoangiogenesis but not survival of mature vessels in this vascular bed. Blockade of VEGF also blocked reepithelialization in both the postmenstrual endometrium and the mouse uterus after decidual breakdown, evidence that VEGF has pleiotropic effects in the endometrium. In vitro studies with a scratch wound assay showed that the migration of luminal epithelial cells during repair involved signaling through VEGF receptor 2-neuropilin 1 (VEGFR2-NP1) receptors on endometrial stromal cells. The leading front of tissue growth during endometrial repair was strongly hypoxic, and this hypoxia was the local stimulus for VEGF expression and angiogenesis in this tissue. In summary, we provide novel experimental data indicating that VEGF is essential for endometrial neoangiogenesis during postmenstrual/postpartum repair.

  15. [Surgical treatment of precancer and cancer of endometrium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S; Khadzhiolov, N; Batashki, I

    2007-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate occult presence of endometrial cancer in patients with atypical glandular hiperplasia and to compare the histological prognostic factors according to the status of the lymph nodes and the grading of the occult tumour. 306 patients were evaluated retrospectvely for the period of 1990-2007. They were operated one month after the hostological diagnostic atypical glandular hiperplasia obtained by D&C. All patients were with vaginal bleeding. The patients who had concomitant presence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer were excluded from the study. One hundred patients (group A) with atypical glandular hyperplasia were compared with 206 patients (group B) without atypical glandular hyperplasia obtained by D&C. Mann and Witney test and chi-square test were used for statistical evaluation.. There was no difference between the age and the menopausal status in the two groups, only there was higher parity in group B. In group A patients with atypical glandular hyperlasia we found in 50% endometrial cancer intraoperatively, in 40% endometrial hyperplasia and in 10% normal endometrium. In the second group B were included the patients without atypical hyperplasia from D&C. In group B were found in 6% endometrial cancer in 44% endometrial hyperplasia and in 50% normal endometrium. In 30 patients was performed complete surgical staging. Six patients were with metastatic lymph nodes. All of them were with grading 2 (4 patients) and grading 3 (2 patients), and also with infiltration in the lymph-vascular spaces. Four patients were with nonendometrioid tumours (type 2 endometrial cancer). The careful preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of the endometrium is very important in patients with atypical glandular hyperplasia. It is reasonable to use frozen section in the time of hysterectomy for patients with atypical glandular hyperplasia. If tumour with grading 2/3 nonendometrioid cancer with lymph-vascular space invasion, is found

  16. Localization of alpha-uterine protein in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, C H; Paterson, W F; Sutcliffe, R G

    1982-07-01

    Immunoperoxidase staining was used to investigate the origin of human alpha-uterine protein (AUP). Specific staining was observed in the glandular epithelium of the endometrium during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, and in a patient on an oestrogen-progestagen contraceptive pill. The pattern of staining strongly suggests that AUP is secreted into the uterine lumen. The location and concentration of AUP in the uterus may explain the relative concentrations of AUP in amniotic fluid and maternal serum.

  17. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis differs from that in endometrium from healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sorensen, Boe Sandahl; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system comprises four receptors, HER1-4, and several ligands, and is cyclically expressed in endometrium from healthy fertile women. Our aim is to identify differences in expression of the EGF system between endometriotic and normal endometrium. METHODS......: We previously examined the EGF system in endometrial samples from healthy women (n = 14). Here we examine samples from endometrium (n = 23), endometriomas (n = 10) and peritoneal endometriosis (n = 9) from women with endometriosis (n = 23). mRNA expression of receptors and ligands from the EGF system...... was analyzed by real-time PCR, and proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Endometrial mRNA for HER1-3 was high compared with our previous findings in healthy endometrium, whereas HER4 and the ligands were unchanged. Endometriomas show lower expression of HER1-3 and no HER4 expression...

  18. Tissue integrity is essential for ectopic implantation of human endometrium in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, Annemiek W; Groothuis, Patrick G; Demir, Ayse Y; Maas, Jacques W M; Dunselman, Gerard A J; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Evers, Johannes L H

    2003-01-01

    Not all women with patent tubes develop clinically manifest endometriosis. Quality and quantity of endometrium in retrograde menstruation may be the determining factor in the development of the disease. We hypothesize that retrograde shedding of endometrial fragments with preserved integrity facilitates implantation of endometrium in ectopic locations, resulting in endometriotic lesion development. We evaluate the impact of tissue integrity on the success of endometriosis-like lesion development in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Menstrual and non-menstrual (cyclic) endometrium were collected by biopsy, and either minced or enzymatically dispersed. Spontaneously shed menstrual effluent was collected by a menstrual cup, and cells and tissue were isolated. We evaluated whether infiltration or lesion formation in the CAM occurred after transplantation of endometrium onto the CAM. Transplantation of biopsied menstrual and cyclic endometrium fragments, and of endometrium fragments >1 mm(3) isolated from menstrual effluent, resulted in lesion formation. Transplantation of endometrial cells isolated from menstrual effluent did not lead to lesion formation. After transplantation of digested biopsied cyclic endometrium, infiltration in the CAM but no lesions were observed. In the CAM assay, integrity of tissue architecture determines success of implantation of human endometrium in ectopic locations.

  19. Ultrastructural Modifications of Human Endometrium during the Window of Implantation

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    Maryam Kabir-Salmani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The endometrium is a highly dynamic tissue empowered with the capacity to undergo cyclicdramatic changes in response to ovarian steroid hormones, ultimately aiming to create awindow of receptivity for blastocyst implantation. Intensive research has been performed tounderstand and establish morphological and molecular correlates of embryo implantation.However, it still remains a biological mystery particularly in the human, where ethical andmoral constraints prohibit in vivo testing and the establishment of an ideal in vitro modeling.Rodent models of embryo implantation are largely irrelevant because the process variessignificantly from that in humans. Even among primates, subtle differences exist amongspecies. For maternal preparation of implantation, the endometrial epithelium which issurprisingly hostile towards the embryo implantation, acquires functional status receptiveto blastocyst acceptance during a limited period of cycle days, termed as the ‘window ofimplantation (WOI. This review provides currently available information concernedprimarily with the various ultrastructural modifications of endometrium coordinated withinthe WOI that may signify endometrial receptivity. In the following sections, the dominantfeatures of endometrial differentiation during WOI, including transformations of luminalepithelium, endometrial glands, and stromal decidualization will be discussed from themorphological points of view.

  20. Proteomic analysis of pregnancy-related proteins from pig uterus endometrium during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sunghyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many important molecular events associated with implantation and development occur within the female reproductive tract, especially within the uterus endometrium, during pregnancy periods. The endometrium includes the mucosal lining of the uterus, which provides a suitable site for implantation and development of a fertilized egg and fetus. To date, the molecular cascades in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy periods in pigs have not been elucidated fully. In this study, we compared the functional regulated proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy periods with those in non-pregnant conditions and investigated changes in expression patterns during pregnancy (days 40, 70, and 93 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and western blotting. The functional regulated proteins were identified and discovered from differentially expressed proteins in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy. We discovered 820 protein spots in a proteomic analysis of uterus endometrium tissues with 2-DE gels. We identified 63 of the 98 proteins regulated differentially among non-pregnant and pregnant tissues (matched and unmatched spots. Interestingly, 10 of these 63 proteins are development-, cytoskeleton- and chaperon-related proteins such as transferrin, protein DJ-1, transgelin, galectin-1, septin 2, stathmin 1, cofilin 1, fascin 1, heat shock protein (HSP 90β and HSP 27. The specific expression patterns of these proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy were confirmed by western blotting. Our results suggest that the expressions of these genes involved in endometrium function and endometrium development from early to late gestation are associated with the regulation of endometrium development for maintaining pregnancy.

  1. Stage I carcinoma of the endometrium: Some prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, H.; Lefkofsky, M.M.; Chang, H.S.; Mantel, J.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 446 patients with FIGO stage I adenocarcinoma of the endometrium were treated from 1953 to 1980. The overall actuarial survival was 80.77% at 5 years and 72.16% at 10 years. The 5- and 10-year actuarial survivals for various stages are as follows: stage IA: 82.33% and 73.12%; stage IB: 79.80% and 71.55% (P = .4045); stage IB, grade I: 87l.34% and 79.29%; grade II, 83.11% and 75.52%; grade III, 53.62% and 48.53% (P = .0000); stage IC: for patients receiving preoperative radiation therapy with residual carcinoma in the operative specimen, 86.26% and 79.76%; for specimens containing residual tumor, 76.41% and 68.31% (P = .0802). Patient selection appeared to influence survival

  2. Carcinoma of the endometrium prognostic factors and treatment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Dattatreyudu

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This course will review current staging, prognostic factors, treatment options, rationale and management strategies for patients with endometrial carcinoma. Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common gynecological malignancy in the U.S. About 40,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. The majority of the patients at the time of diagnosis have early stage disease. Staging of endometrial cancer has been modified three times by FIGO over the past 25 years. Materials and Methods: Various treatment options will be reviewed and current available literature on results and complications of various treatments will be discussed. The standard treatment for operable patients with carcinoma of the endometrium is total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingoopherectomy with regional lymph node staging. There is considerable controversy regarding the role of radiation as an adjuvant treatment. Various combinations of surgery and radiation have been used in the past. With better knowledge and understanding of the natural history of the disease and significance of prognostic factors, three different risk groups have been identified; low risk, intermediate risk, high risk. Postoperative radiation has been shown to decrease local failures and improve survival in the majority of the intermediate risk group and high risk group of patients. There is considerable controversy on the role of intravaginal radiation. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the use of High Dose Rate fractionated intravaginal treatment. Results: The results of combined surgery and radiation treatment have been very satisfactory with associated minimal complication rate. The long term published data on results and complications will be discussed. Conclusion: Various treatment strategies for different prognostic groups will be discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of low dose rate versus high dose rate brachytherapy, intracavitary versus external beam radiation therapy will be

  3. Expression of two isoforms of CD44 in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Seif, M W; Campbell, S; Aplin, J D

    1994-10-01

    The distribution of the cell-surface adhesion glycoprotein CD44 in human endometrium was examined by immunofluorescence using six monoclonal antibodies to epitopes common to all forms of the molecule, and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunoreactivity was observed throughout the menstrual cycle in stroma, vessels, glandular, and luminal epithelium. Variations in staining intensity were observed, especially in the epithelial compartment. CD44 was also expressed strongly by decidualized stromal cells of first-trimester pregnancy. No systematic variation of immunoreactivity was observed with stages of the normal cycle, but a fraction (25%) of the specimens lacked reactivity in the epithelium. To determine the molecular size of the epithelial isoform, an immunoprecipitation technique was developed using surface-radioiodinated, detergent-extracted glands. This indicated the presence at the cell surface of a single dominant CD44E species with an approximate molecular mass of 130 kDa. RT-PCR was used to investigate the isoforms present in whole endometrial tissue, isolated gland fragments, and Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cells. Complementary DNA produced from total endometrial mRNA was PCR-amplified across the splice junction between exons 5 and 15. Transcripts corresponding to the hyaluronate receptor CD44H as well as a larger isoform were identified. CD44H was absent, or very scarce, in cDNA from purified gland epithelium. In contrast, Ishikawa cells expressed this form abundantly. The glands and Ishikawa cells also expressed CD44E containing sequences encoded by exons 12, 13, and 14. These data demonstrate the presence of CD44 in human endometrium and decidua, and show that different isoforms of CD44 are associated with tissue compartments in which different functional roles can be anticipated.

  4. Resident Macrophages and Lymphocytes in the Canine Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, M A; Payan-Carreira, R

    2015-10-01

    Resident immune cells play a major role in endometrial immunity and in tissue homoeostasis. This study aimed to analyse the distribution of macrophages, B and T lymphocytes (respectively, Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym) in the canine endometrium throughout the oestrous cycle and in late involution (at the proestrus stage post-parturition). An immunohistochemistry technique was used on samples from 50 post-pubertal healthy female dogs, of which five in late post-partum. The distribution of resident immune cells was analysed in three endometrial layers (superficial, intermediate and basal areas). Mø, B-Lym and T-Lym were demonstrated to reside in the endometrium in all the stages of the canine cycle; their numbers being considerably higher during late involution. T-Lym were scattered in the stroma or amidst the glandular epithelium, constituting the predominant immune cell population in anestrus and proestrus, but decreased in number at all other stages. Endometrial B-Lym remained fairly constant during the canine cycle, although its numbers were higher in late involution. Mø counts were higher during anestrus compared to the other stages, the cells being displaced into the superficial endometrial layer. Mø demonstrated the highest level in late involution samples, forming small aggregates below the surface epithelium. The number of immune cells was not normally distributed, suggesting the influence of individual factors, such as age or parity, not explored herein due to limited sample availability. Still, this study provides important information for the interpretation of endometrial biopsies in dogs and for the understanding of the increased susceptibility to uterine infection during dioestrus found in the bitch. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Presence and localization of bacteria in the bovine endometrium postpartum using fluorescence in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C. C.; Agerholm, J. S.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial invasiveness of the bovine endometrium during the postpartum period. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to endometrial biopsies using probes for Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, Trueperella pyogenes, Escherichia coli...

  6. Trace elements in the human endometrium and decidua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenfeldt, K.; Landgren, B.-M.; Plantin, L.-O.; Diczfalusy, E.

    1977-01-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, 25 trace elements, which are usually present in biological material, were estimated in 31 specimens of human endometrial tissue obtained at various phases of the menstrual cycle and in 14 specimens of decidua from the 12th to 18th week of pregnancy. Among the 13 trace elements invariably found in all specimens, the levels of copper, potassium, rubidium, antimony and zinc were significantly higher and those of bromine, selenium and sodium significantly lower in the endometrium than in the decidua. No difference was found in the levels of gold, calcium, cobalt, cesiuj and iron. Among the 12 trace elements which were found only occasionally, chromium, mercury, silver and cadmium were detected in approximately half and cerium and scandium in approximately one-fourth of the 45 samples studied. Arsenic, barium, lanthanum, molybdenum, samarium and strontium were detected only rarely. The cyclic variations in the endometrial levels of calcium, rubidium and copper were highly significant and those in the levels of gold, cesium, iron, potassium and zinc probably significant. (author)

  7. Disability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  8. Importance of histopathological examination of endometrium in Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Yaminee Rana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common condition affecting women of reproductive age that has significant social and economic impact. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB is defined as abnormal uterine bleeding in the absence of organic disease. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is one of the most commonly encountered gynaecological problems. Objectives: This study is done to evaluate the histopathological pattern of the endometrial biopsies of patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding and its correlation with clinical data. Methods: The present prospective study included evaluation of 208 cases of dysfunctional uterine bleeding in the Department of Pathology, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad over a period of 10 months, from January 2017 to October 2017. Women presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding were included in the study. Those women in which bleeding is secondary to systemic causes, organic causes and due to cervical and vaginal causes were excluded. The specimens were processed, embedded and cut into sections of 3-4 microns. The histopathological patterns were studied. Results: Age distribution varied from 18 years to 70 years, majority of the patients were between 21 to 30 years. Among the cases of DUB, proliferative phase accounted for 66.3% and secretory phase accounted for 21.3%. 18 cases (8.6% of atrophic endometrium, four cases (1.9% of irregular shedding and two cases of luteal phase insufficiency were received. Conclusion: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is a common and debilitating condition in women of reproductive age. Endometrial biopsy could be effectively used as the first diagnostic step in DUB and thus ensures correct management.

  9. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes in endometrium of women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzechocinska, Barbara; Dabrowski, Filip A; Chlebus, Marcin; Gondek, Agata; Czarzasta, Katarzyna; Michalowski, Lukasz; Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Agnieszka; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is caused by derangement of physiological processes of tissue growth, shedding and regeneration. It is known that interplay between metalloproteinases (MMP's) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP's) may play a crucial role in its occurrence. To define if expression of proMMP-2, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in endometrium of women with AUB is dependent on steroid sex hormone concentration and histopathological picture. Endometrial scraps were taken from 21 women with AUB and 19 controls. Samples were evaluated in light microscopy by a certified pathologist. Activity of proMMP-2 and MMP-2 proteins levels were evaluated by gelatin zymography and TIMP-1 by reversed zymography. The results has been correlated with serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations in linear regression model. Expression: of proMMP-2 in endometrium of women with AUB is correlated with estradiol concentration and inversely correlated with progesterone levels. It was significantly higher in women with dysfunctional endometrium (pbleeding (pbleeding.

  10. Carcinoma of the endometrium-prognostic factors and treatment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, Dattatreyudu; Parikh, Suhrid

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common gynecological malignancy in the U.S. As the treatment for endometrial cancer has evolved, FIGO has modified the staging three times over the past 25 years This course will review current staging, prognostic factors, treatment options, rationale and management strategies for patients with endometrial carcinoma. The data regarding local control and survival, and the ongoing clinical trials and controversies will be discussed in depth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Despite the continued controversy regarding the true contribution of extensive surgical staging, the standard treatment for operable patients is total abdominal hysterectomy-bilateral salpingoopherectomy with regional lymph node staging. Various combinations of surgery and radiation have been used in the past, but the precise role of radiation as an adjuvant treatment is not well defined due to lack of well conducted randomized trials. With better knowledge and understanding of the natural history of the disease and significance of prognostic factors, three different risk groups have been identified; low risk, intermediate risk, high risk. Postoperative radiation has been shown to decrease local failures and improve survival in the majority of the intermediate risk group and high risk group of patients. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the use of High Dose Rate fractionated intravaginal treatment, and it probably has a very broad application in optimizing local control, with minimal morbidity. A stage-specific treatment algorithm, including critical pathways for the management of early and advanced endometrial cancer will be presented. RESULTS: As is evident from the long-term published data, the results of combined surgery and radiation treatment have been very satisfactory with minimal complications. CONCLUSION: A thorough assessment of the clinical and surgicopatho-logic prognostic parameters, in the context of the natural history of the

  11. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the endometrium of bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu Py, Po-yin; Salamonsen, L A; Lee, C S; Wright, P J

    2002-03-01

    The relationships between activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the canine uterus and the occurrence of degeneration of the luminal epithelium, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, pyometra and uterine remodelling post partum were determined. Mature bitches (n = 10) were ovariectomized, treated with hormones (oestradiol benzoate, progestagen) and investigated at stages simulating pro-oestrus (n = 2), oestrus (n = 2), dioestrus (n = 2), and mid- (n = 2) and late (n = 2) anoestrus (3 and 9 weeks, respectively, after cessation of treatment with progestagen). Untreated bitches (n = 1 per group) served as controls (Expt 1). An additional 10 ovariectomized bitches, at the end of treatment-induced simulated dioestrus, were treated each day for a further 3 weeks either with the same dose (standard dose, n = 3), a decreased dose (n = 3) or an increased dose (n = 3) of progestagen, or no treatment (withdrawal dose, n = 1). These bitches were then investigated (Expt 2). A suture was placed in the lumen of one uterine horn of another five bitches at ovariectomy. Three of these bitches were treated to induce simulated dioestrus and two bitches served as untreated controls. In the hormone-treated bitches, the suture resulted in cystic endometrial hyperplasia in one bitch and in cystic endometrial hyperplasia with pyometra in two bitches. The control bitches showed no cystic endometrial hyperplasia or pyometra (Expt 3). Four intact bitches were studied at 2 (n = 1), 3 (n = 2) and 11 (n = 1) weeks post partum. Uterine tissues were also collected from two bitches with naturally occurring cystic endometrial hyperplasia with pyometra (Expt 4). All uteri were examined histologically and the activities of MMP-2, -7 and -9 (latent and active forms) were assessed using zymography of extracts of endometrium. In Expts 1 and 2, marked degeneration of the luminal epithelium in six of 25 bitches (simulated mid-anoestrus, withdrawal dose and decreased dose groups) was not associated

  12. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates in normal and malignant human endometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Mandel, U; Svenstrup, B

    1995-01-01

    The simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and T, are tumor-associated antigens of adenocarcinomas. We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn (s-Tn), T, and sialosyl-T (s-T) antigens in normal nonsecretory, early gestational, and malignant human...... and malignant endometrium, and the expression of s-T antigen was positively correlated with E2 levels in serum. Our findings suggest a hormonal influence on expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrates in human endometrium. However, the accumulation of Tn and s-Tn antigens in malignant endometrial cells seem...

  13. Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the rat endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Marcelo; Milton, Flora A; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Almeida-Francia, Camila C D; Cagnon-Quitete, Valeria H A; Tirapelli, Luiz F; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    We described the effects of low- and high-dose ethanol intake on the structure and apoptosis signaling of the uterine endometrium of UChA and UChB rats (animals with voluntary ethanol consumption). Thirty adult female rats, 90 days old, were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): UChA rats fed with 10% (v/v) ethanol ad libitum (free choice for water or ethanol) drinking Chronic ethanol intake leads to structural and molecular alterations in the uterine endometrium of UCh rats, regardless of low- or high-dose consumption, promoting reproductive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An experimental study on tissue reaction of various contrast agents on endometrium, tuber mucosa, and peritoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, In Ae; Park, Jae Hyung; Yoon, Dae Young; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1994-01-01

    To compare the tissue reactions of various water-soluble and oil-based contrast agents on the endometrium, salpingeal mumosa, and peritoneum. Thirty-three rabbits were used for evaluating the histologic reactions of uterine endometrium, salpinx, and peritoneum. Hysterosalpingography(HSG) was underwent in these rabbits by used Lipiodol, Hexabrix, Rayvist. Ultravist-300, Ultravist-370, and normal saline. Pathologic results were obtained in each of the six groups from the uterine endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum without knowledge of the contrast agent used and time interval from HSG. Mild inflammations were observed in the endometrium, salpingeal mucosa, and peritoneum during the first week of HSG in all rabbits in which water-soluble contrast agents were used. Although there was no significant difference in the degree of inflammation among the groups using various contrast agents, the group with oil-based contrast agent(Lipiodol) showed delayed absorption of contrast agent in the peritoneum, frequent intravasation, fat granuloma, peritoneal adhesion, or uterine infarction. Our results suggest that water-soluble contrast agents can be used safely for HSG, but the use of oil-based contrast agent is questional in safety and should be avoid in patients with tubal obstruction, salpingitis, or endometritis

  15. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Driak, D.; Dvorská, M.; Bolehovská, P.; Švandová, Iva; Novotný, J.; Halaška, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 411-415 ISSN 0028-2685 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : Bad * Bid * cancerogenesis * human endometrium Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.865, year: 2014

  16. Definition of the microelemental contents in endometrium and hair of patients with various forms of infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazieva, Sh.S.; Danilova, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Research of human's endometrium condition (a mucous membrane of a cavity of a uterus) is undoubtedly of interest for the solution of some problems of clinical medicine, in particular, infertility reasons. In spite of the fact that endometrium is one of the most accessible tissues to research, and the object of the numerous versatile researches, there are still many questions on its physiology and pathology, in particular, those connected with its preparation for implantation, processes of cellular interactions during implantation and placentation. Today the exclusive role of microcells (MC) in pathology development in human, since infantile age to old age is known. As a result of laborious researches it was possible to establish that MC are regulators of chemical processes of a metabolism, growth and reproduction, immunologic and hormonal activity, and life expectancy. In reproductology, the influence of the some people essential (vital) and toxic MC demands the further detailed studying. The purpose of the present research is studying microelement structure of endometrium and hair of women with various infertility forms, with the subsequent development of a technique aimed at correction of discovered microelementosis. We examined 20 patients with infertility. All patients apart from the traditional complex, general laboratory and endoscopic researches, passed the neutron-activation analysis of microelemental structure of endometrium and hair. The age of patients varied from 21 to 39 years. Duration of infertility (primary and secondary) has made up 3-11 years. The somatic status was complicated with diseases of digestion, endocrynologic, urinary, respiratory and cardiovascular systems, whereas the anemia was observed at 70 % of patients. Endoscopical examinations (laparo-, histero-, falloposcopy) have revealed presence of adhesive process of various degree of expressiveness in an abdominal cavity and a small basin cavity, peritubal adhesive process

  17. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol; Poniedziałek, Barbara; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents

  18. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the endometrium of gilts with different stages of endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roongsitthichai, Atthaporn; Srisuwatanasagul, Sayamon; Koonjaenak, Seri; Tummaruk, Padet

    2011-11-01

    The present study determined the association among the expression of COX-2, stages of endometritis, and types and number of local immune cells infiltrating into the gilts' endometrium. The uterine tissues from 24 Landrace x Yorkshire gilts identified as acute endometritis (n = 7), chronic endometritis (n = 7), and normal endometrium (n = 10) were included. The tissues were prepared for both histological and immunohistochemical investigations. The immunoexpression of COX-2 in every layer of the gilts' endometria was appraised by avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method via image analysis; and was reported as percentage of positive area and staining index. The results revealed that the immunoexpression of COX-2 was found only in the surface epithelial layer. The gilts with acute endometritis possessed higher both percentage of positive area (68.99% versus 4.50% and 3.43%, P < 0.001) and staining index (1.13 versus 0.05 and 0.04, P < 0.001) than those with chronic endometritis and normal endometrium, respectively. Positive correlations between the number of surface epithelial neutrophils and percentage of COX-2 positive area (r = 0.47, P = 0.022), as well as mean staining index (r = 0.44, P = 0.032) were observed. In conclusion, the immunoexpression of COX-2 was found strongest in the gilts with acute endometritis, meanwhile it was not different between those with chronic endometritis and normal endometrium. This suggested that the expression of COX-2 might be dependent not only on the infiltration of local immune cells in the endometrium, but also on the duration of exposure with inflammatory agents.

  19. Metal status in human endometrium: Relation to cigarette smoking and histological lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rzymski, Piotr, E-mail: rzymskipiotr@ump.edu.pl [Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań (Poland); Rzymski, Paweł; Tomczyk, Katarzyna [Department of Mother' s and Child' s Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań (Poland); Niedzielski, Przemysław; Jakubowski, Karol [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Poniedziałek, Barbara [Department of Biology and Environmental Protection, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Rokietnicka 8, 60-806 Poznań (Poland); Opala, Tomasz [Department of Mother' s and Child' s Health, Gynecologic and Obstetrical University Hospital, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań (Poland)

    2014-07-15

    Human endometrium is a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue which undergoes cyclic changes and is potentially sensitive to the various endogenous and exogenous compounds supplied via the hematogenous route. As recently indicated, several metals including Cd, Pb, Cr and Ni represent an emerging class of potential metalloestrogens and can be implicated in alterations of the female reproductive system including endometriosis and cancer. In the present study, we investigated the content of five metals: Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn in 25 samples of human endometrium collected from Polish females undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic curettage of the uterine cavity. The overall mean metal concentration (analyzed using microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry MIP-OES) decreased in the following order: Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd. For the first time it was demonstrated that cigarette smoking significantly increases the endometrial content of Cd and Pb. Concentration of these metals was also positively correlated with years of smoking and the number of smoked cigarettes. Tissue samples with recognized histologic lesions (simple hyperplasia, polyposis and atrophy) were characterized by a 2-fold higher Cd level. No relation between the age of the women and metal content was found. Our study shows that human endometrium can be a potential target of metal accumulation within the human body. Quantitative analyses of endometrial metal content could serve as an additional indicator of potential impairments of the menstrual cycle and fertility. - Highlights: • Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are detectable in human endometrium. • Mean metal content in human endometrium decreases in Cr>Pb>Zn>Ni>Cd order. • Cigarettes smoking increases endometrial content of Cd and Pb. • Lesioned endometrial tissue was characterized by higher metal contents.

  20. Correlation between aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium of symptomatic patients and the presence of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Jr H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr1,2, Clarice Haddad1,2, Julio Casoy11CEPARH, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, Salvador, Bahia, BrazilObjective: To investigate whether aromatase expression in the eutopic endometrium correlates with the presence and severity of endometriosis in patients with infertility and/or dysmenorrhea undergoing laparoscopy and hysteroscopy.Patients: The study involved 106 patients of reproductive age with symptoms of dysmenorrhea and infertility. Sixteen endometriosis-free asymptomatic patients were used as a control group.Methods: Concomitant laparoscopy and hysteroscopy was carried out in all cases. An endometrial biopsy was taken to determine aromatase p450 expression by immunohistochemistry. Endometriosis was staged according to the American Society of Reproductive Medicine classification.Results: Endometriosis was diagnosed by laparoscopy in 92/106 symptomatic patients. In this group, aromatase expression was detected in the eutopic endometrium of 66/92 patients with endometriosis (72% and in 13/14 (95% patients in the symptomatic, endometriosis-free group (P = 0.09. Aromatase expression was not detected in any patients from the control group. In the endometriosis group, aromatase expression was detected in the eutopic endometrium of 28/45 patients (62% with American Society of Reproductive Medicine classification stage 1 of the disease, in 11/14 patients (78% with stage II, 14/20 patients (70% with stage III, and in 12/13 patients (92% with stage IV; however, the difference was only statistically significant between stages I and IV (P = 0.04.Conclusion: Aromatase expression in the endometrium was associated with the presence of dysmenorrhea and infertility irrespective of the presence of endometriosis. When endometriosis was present, however, there was a tendency for aromatase expression to be positively correlated with dysmenorrhea severity.Keywords: aromatase, endometrium, endometriosis, Cox-2, dysmenorrhea

  1. MR imaging of the pelvis in the diagnosis of the endometrium in breast cancer patients in tamoxifen therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, E.; Libera, H.; Forsting, M.; Kimmig, R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the value of MR imaging of the pelvis in the diagnostic work-up of the endometrium in breast cancer patients in tamoxifen therapy. Materials and methods: MR imaging of the pelvis was performed on 24 patients (mean: 62 years, range: 51-74 years) and 30 healthy women (mean: 65 years, range: 51-73 years). The volume of the uterus and cervix and the maximal thickness of the endometrium, junctional zone and myometrium of the uterus were determined and compared to the confidence interval of the parameters in healthy women. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to identify differences in the volume of the uterus and cervix and in the thickness of the uterine wall layers in both groups. Results: A comparison of the volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the uterine wall layers in the two groups yielded no significant differences. The volume of the uterus and cervix showed no statistical differences between the two groups. The maximal height of the endometrium in the patient group showed a mean of 0.6 cm (range: 0.1-2.2 cm), and a mean of 0.4 cm (range: 0.1-1.2 cm) in the group of healthy women. The differences were not statistically significant. In all healthy women the endometrium showed homogeneous signal intensity in the sagittal T2-weighted images. In 12 of the 24 breast cancer patients, the endometrium showed inhomogeneous signal intensity. In 9 of 12 patients with an inhomogeneous endometrium with a thickness equal to or greater than 0.6 cm, histopathology confirmed polyps. In 3 patients endometrium hyperplasia was found. In one patient histopathology revealed a polyp and an endometrium carcinoma in stage T1 a N0. The endometrium carcinoma was not able to be seen via MR imaging. (orig.)

  2. «Implantation window» disturbance in patients with hyperplastic processes of endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Parnytska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction There is an increasing interest in the role of hyperplastic processes of endometrium in the “implantation window” disturbance and unsuccessful implantation rate. The endometrium represents a barrier to implantation except under appropriate and defined hormonal conditions. There is no doubt that endometrium has an important role for embryo implantation at early stages of development. Successful implantation requires a functionally normal embryo at the blastocyst stage and receptive endometrium, while the communication between them is also vital. Endometrium shows dynamic and cyclic morphological changes throughout the follicular phase and in the secretory phase. The progesterone-driven differentiative changes in the endometrial epithelium lead to the ‘opening’ of the “window of receptivity” for blastocyst implantation. Morphologically, progesterone-dependent apical cellular protrusions known as pinopods (uterodomes become visible by scanning electron microscopy on 20th–21st days of human menstrual cycle and then are lost. Materials and methods A total of 180 endometrial specimens from women with simple hyperplasia (I gr., endometrial polyps (II gr. and asynchronous endometrium (III gr. have been examined by scanning electron microscopy. Biopsies were obtained from fundus of the uterus and processed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Tissues for light microscopy were fixed in 1,25% glutardialdehyde, embedded in paraffin, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results In I group with simple hyperplasia the ratio of glands and stroma is now increased. Most or all of the endometrial glands are more or less cystically dilated and lined by pseudostratified, highly proliferating epithelium with enlarged, elongated, nuclei in scanty, basophilic cytoplasm. Mitoses are frequent in the epithelium. II group shows endometrial polyps with proliferation of stromal cells incorporating a non-neoplastic glandular

  3. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation. Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals.

  4. Genome-wide expressions in autologous eutopic and ectopic endometrium of fertile women with endometriosis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Meraj A; Sengupta, Jayasree; Mittal, Suneeta; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to obtain a lead of the pathophysiology of endometriosis, genome-wide expressional analyses of eutopic and ectopic endometrium have earlier been reported, however, the effects of stages of severity and phases of menstrual cycle on expressional profiles have not been examined. The effect of genetic heterogeneity and fertility history on transcriptional activity was also not considered. In the present study, a genome-wide expression analysis of autologous, paired eu...

  5. Progesterone-associated proteins PP12 and PP14 in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutanen, E M; Koistinen, R; Seppälä, M; Julkunen, M; Suikkari, A M; Huhtala, M L

    1987-01-01

    Two proteins, designated as PP12 and PP14 were originally isolated from soluble extracts of the human placenta and its adjacent membranes. We have shown that they are synthesized by decidualized/secretory endometrium and not by placenta. Both proteins occur at high concentrations in human amniotic fluid, which is therefore an excellent source for purification. PP12 is a 34-kDa glycoprotein, which has an N-terminal amino acid sequence of Ala-Pro-Trp-Gln-Cys-Ala-Pro-Cys-Ser-Ala. This is identical with that of somatomedin-binding protein purified from the amniotic fluid. PP12 too binds somatomedin-C, or IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor-I). Human secretory endometrium synthesizes and secretes PP12, and progesterone stimulates its secretion. PP14 is a 28-kDa glycoprotein. Its N-terminal sequence shows homology to that of beta-lactoglobulins from various species. We have found PP14 in the human endometrium, serum and milk. Immunologically, PP14 is related to progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PEP), alpha-2 pregnancy-associated endometrial protein (alpha-2, PEG), endometrial protein 15 (EP15), alpha-uterine protein (AUP) and chorionic alpha-2 microglobulin (CAG-2). In ovulatory menstrual cycles, the concentration of PP14 increases in endometrial tissue as the secretory changes advance. In serum, the PP14 concentration begins to rise later than the progesterone levels, and high serum PP14 levels are maintained for the first days of the next cycle. By contrast, no elevation of serum PP14 level is seen in anovulatory cycles. Our results show that progesterone-associated proteins are synthesized by the human endometrium and appear in the peripheral circulation, where they can be quantitatively measured using immunochemical techniques.

  6. Toll-like receptor and antimicrobial peptide expression in the bovine endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlan R Steven

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrium is commonly infected with bacteria leading to severe disease of the uterus in cattle and humans. The endometrial epithelium is the first line of defence for this mucosal surface against bacteria and Toll-like receptors (TLRs are a critical component of the innate immune system for detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. Antimicrobial peptides, acute phase proteins and Mucin-1 (MUC-1 also provide non-specific defences against microbes on mucosal surfaces. The present study examined the expression of innate immune defences in the bovine endometrium and tested the hypothesis that endometrial epithelial cells express functional receptors of the TLR family and the non-specific effector molecules for defence against bacteria. Methods Bovine endometrial tissue and purified populations of primary epithelial and stromal cells were examined using RT-PCR for gene expression of TLRs, antimicrobial peptides and MUC-1. Functional responses were tested by evaluating the secretion of prostaglandin E2 and acute phase proteins when cells were treated with bacterial PAMPs such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoproteins. Results The endometrium expressed TLRs 1 to 10, whilst purified populations of epithelial cells expressed TLRs 1 to 7 and 9, and stromal cells expressed TLRs 1 to 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10. The TLRs appear to be functional as epithelial cells secreted prostaglandin E2 in response to bacterial PAMPs. In addition, the epithelial cells expressed antimicrobial peptides, such as Tracheal and Lingual Antimicrobial Peptides (TAP and LAP and MUC-1, which were upregulated when the cells were treated with LPS. However, the epithelial cells did not express appreciable amounts of the acute phase proteins haptoglobin or serum amyloid A. Conclusion Epithelial cells have an essential role in the orchestration of innate immune defence of the bovine endometrium and are likely to be the key to prevention of

  7. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of papillary proliferation of the endometrium: A single institutional experience

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Cheol Keun; Yoon, Gun; Cho, Yoon Ah; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Papillary proliferation of the endometrium is an unusual lesion that is composed of papillae with fibrovascular stromal cores covered with benign-appearing glandular epithelium. We studied the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of four cases of endometrial papillary proliferations. All patients were postmenopausal. Two lesions were incidental findings in hysterectomy specimens, and two lesions were detected in endometrial curettage specimens. Based on the degree of architect...

  8. Sugar residues content and distribution in atrophic and hyperplastic postmenopausal human endometrium: lectin histochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Gheri, G.; Gheri Bryk, S.; Taddei, G.; Moncini, D.; Noci, I.

    1996-01-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the glycoconjugate saccharidic moieties of the human postmenopausal endometrium (14 atrophic and 15 hyperplastic). For this purpose a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEA I) was used. No differences in lectin binding between atrophic and hyperplastic endometria were observed. This investigation allowed us to provide a basic picture of the oligo...

  9. From the endometrium physiology to a comprehensive strategy for the discovery of ovarian cancer biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Janos L. Tanyi; Nathalie Scholler

    2011-01-01

    The development of comprehensive strategies for biomarker discovery of gynecological cancers is needed. The unique physiology of the female genital track revolves around ovulatory cycles ending by the proteolysis of the endometrium triggered by progesterone decline during the last part of the luteal phase. Building on the known link between incessant ovulation and ovarian cancer, we hypothesize that life-long menstruations could damage neighboring organs such as fallopian tubes, ovaries and p...

  10. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium, a rare aggressive tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajab, Khalil E.; Sandhu, Amarjit K.; Rajeswari, Mangla S.; Malik, A.

    2005-01-01

    This is a report of a young infertile woman with a history of 8 years amenorrhea, who presented with history of vaginal bleeding of 2 months duration. Investigations revealed a small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the endometrium, which penetrated half of the thickness of uterine wall. We have described the clinical progress and management of this rare and highly malignant cancer. A review of the pathological types and behavior of clear cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is presented. (author)

  11. TLR3 and TLR4 expression in healthy and diseased human endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmig Rainer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs play an essential role in the innate immune system by initiating and directing immune response to pathogens. TLRs are expressed in the human endometrium and their regulation might be crucial for the pathogenesis of endometrial diseases. Methods TLR3 and TLR4 expression was investigated during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal endometrium considering peritoneal endometriosis, hyperplasia, and endometrial adenocarcinoma specimens (grade 1 to 3. The expression studies applied quantitative RT-PCR and immunolabelling of both proteins. Results TLR3 and TLR4 proteins were mostly localised to the glandular and luminal epithelium. In addition, TLR4 was present on endometrial dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages. TLR3 and TLR4 mRNA levels did not show significant changes during the menstrual cycle. In patients with peritoneal endometriosis, TLR3 and TLR4 mRNA expression decreased significantly in proliferative diseased endometrium compared to controls. Interestingly, ectopic endometriotic lesions showed a significant increase of TLR3 und TLR4 mRNA expression compared to corresponding eutopic tissues, indicating a local gain of TLR expression. Endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma revealed significantly reduced receptor levels when compared with postmenopausal controls. The lowest TLR expression levels were determined in poor differentiated carcinoma (grade 3. Conclusion Our data suggest an involvement of TLR3 and TLR4 in endometrial diseases as demonstrated by altered expression levels in endometriosis and endometrial cancer.

  12. The features of endometrium receptor apparatus in women with missed abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александра Николаевна Тищенко

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new complex of modern methods of investigation, both the endometrium and immune system changes in local and hormonal status is developed in this article, rehabilitation of reproductive function in patients with the missed abortion is proposed.Methods. The study involved 124 women, including 64 women with diagnosed missed abortion. The comparison group included 30 women with physiological pregnancy who were performed artificial abortion. 30 healthy women in pregravidae period were examined. The clinical and anamnestic, histological and immunological features of the endometrium and its functional activity were investigated.Results. Pathogenetic mechanisms of menstrual dysfunction were defined in women with the missed abortion. The changes in the secretory transformation of the endometrium, a sharp decrease in its receptor and functional activity, confirming the lack of development of the luteal phase are observed. Based on the research, an algorithm for the restoration of menstrual function in women in the postgravidae period is developed and implemented in practice.Conclusions. The data confirmed the feasibility of implementing the proposed examination and treatment of women with the missed abortion

  13. Regulation of connexin26 and connexin43 expression in rat endometrium by ovarian steroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grümmer, R; Chwalisz, K; Mulholland, J; Traub, O; Winterhager, E

    1994-12-01

    A distinct spatial and temporal pattern of connexin26 and connexin43 (cx26 and cx43) expression was observed in the rat endometrium in response to embryo implantation; however, connexin expression was suppressed during the preimplantation period. Pseudopregnant rats did not show connexin mRNA, while artificial decidualization induced by a scratch led to a strong expression of cx26 and cx43 in the endometrium of these animals. In order to examine the regulatory effects of ovarian steroid hormones on connexin expression, ovariectomized rats were treated with progesterone (P) and/or estradiol-17 beta (E2). Untreated, ovariectomized animals expressed mRNA for cx43, but not for cx26. Endometrial expression of mRNA for both connexins was strongly enhanced by E2 treatment; immunolabeling revealed protein for cx26 in the uterine luminal epithelial cells and for cx43 in the uterine stromal cells. P treatment, either alone or in combination with E2, suppressed expression of connexin mRNA. P suppression in the presence of E2 was reversible when P was withdrawn. When administered on Days 0-2 of pregnancy, the antiprogestin onapristone inhibited the effect of P and gave rise to strong expression of both connexin transcripts. These results demonstrate that expression of cx26 and cx43 in the rat uterine endometrium is differentially regulated by E2 and P during early pregnancy.

  14. Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22 modulates alpha 6 integrin expression in the human endometrium

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    Braun Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PMP22, a member of the GAS3 family of tetraspan proteins, is associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Previous studies have shown that PMP22 is expressed in proliferative endometrium, but its function within this tissue is poorly understood. In this study, we first characterized the expression of PMP22 in the human menstrual cycle and began to characterize its function in the endometrium. Methods Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, we characterized the expression of PMP22 in both proliferative and secretory endometrium. Differences in PMP22 expression between proliferative and secretory endometrium were determined using a Mann-Whitney U test. In order to investigate the influence of PMP22 on α6 integrin expression, cells were created that ectopically overexpressed PMP22 or expressed a siRNA to inhibit its expression. These cells were analyzed for changes in integrins and binding to extracellular matrices. Results In this study, we show that PMP22 expression is higher in proliferative phase than secretory phase. Functionally, we have begun to characterize the functional significance of this expression. Previous studies have suggested a link between PMP22 and α6 integrin, and therefore we asked whether PMP22 could associate or potentially modulate the expression of α6 integrin. Expression of both PMP22 and α6 integrin were detectable in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and we show that both proteins can associate and colocalize with each other. To understand if PMP22 directly altered the expression of a6 integrin, we examined cell lines with modulated levels of the protein. Overexpression of PMP22 was sufficient to increase α6 integrin surface expression with a concominant increase in binding to the extracellular matrix laminin, while a reduction in PMP22 suppressed α6 integrin surface expression. Conclusion These findings suggest a physiologic role for PMP22 on the

  15. Peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) modulates alpha 6 integrin expression in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rajiv G; Sudhakar, Deepthi; Hogue, Claire P; Amici, Stephanie; Gordon, Lynn K; Braun, Jonathan; Notterpek, Lucia; Goodglick, Lee; Wadehra, Madhuri

    2011-04-25

    PMP22, a member of the GAS3 family of tetraspan proteins, is associated with a variety of neurological diseases. Previous studies have shown that PMP22 is expressed in proliferative endometrium, but its function within this tissue is poorly understood. In this study, we first characterized the expression of PMP22 in the human menstrual cycle and began to characterize its function in the endometrium. Using a combination of immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR, we characterized the expression of PMP22 in both proliferative and secretory endometrium. Differences in PMP22 expression between proliferative and secretory endometrium were determined using a Mann-Whitney U test. In order to investigate the influence of PMP22 on α6 integrin expression, cells were created that ectopically overexpressed PMP22 or expressed a siRNA to inhibit its expression. These cells were analyzed for changes in integrins and binding to extracellular matrices. In this study, we show that PMP22 expression is higher in proliferative phase than secretory phase. Functionally, we have begun to characterize the functional significance of this expression. Previous studies have suggested a link between PMP22 and α6 integrin, and therefore we asked whether PMP22 could associate or potentially modulate the expression of α6 integrin. Expression of both PMP22 and α6 integrin were detectable in endometrial epithelial and stromal cells, and we show that both proteins can associate and colocalize with each other. To understand if PMP22 directly altered the expression of a6 integrin, we examined cell lines with modulated levels of the protein. Overexpression of PMP22 was sufficient to increase α6 integrin surface expression with a concominant increase in binding to the extracellular matrix laminin, while a reduction in PMP22 suppressed α6 integrin surface expression. These findings suggest a physiologic role for PMP22 on the expression of α6 integrin. We predict that this may be important for the

  16. PRL-3 Is Involved in Estrogen- and IL-6-Induced Migration of Endometrial Stromal Cells From Ectopic Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shifan; Zhou, Yefang; Fang, Xiaoling; She, Xiaoling; Wu, Yilin; Wu, Xianqing

    2016-05-24

    To investigate the role of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) in the 17β-estradiol (E2)- and interleukin 6 (IL-6)-induced migration of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from ectopic endometrium. Ectopic endometrial tissues were collected from patients with endometriosis, and PRL-3 expression in ectopic and eutopic endometrium was examined by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial stromal cells isolated from ectopic endometrium were treated with E2, progesterone (P), IL-6, or sodium orthovanadate (Sov) to inhibit PRL-3. Total RNA and protein were extracted from ESCs after treatment for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Cell migration was assessed using a scratch wound assay. Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 protein was highly expressed in the endometrial glandular cells (EGCs) and ESCs in ectopic endometrium, whereas its weak expression was observed only in EGCs in eutopic endometrium. Both E2 and IL-6 treatment significantly increased PRL-3 messenger RNA and protein expression, and P treatment significantly inhibited PRL-3 expression. However, E2-induced PRL-3 expression in ESCs from ectopic endometrium was significantly blocked by IL-6 antibody. Moreover, E2- and IL-6-enhanced cell migration was completely abrogated by Sov treatment. Furthermore, Sov treatment could significantly promote PTEN expression but inhibit E2- and IL-6-induced p-AKT activation. Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 plays a key role in the E2- and IL-6-induced migration of ESCs from ectopic endometrium, a process that is involved in the PTEN-AKT signaling pathway. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Bad and Bid - potential background players in preneoplastic to neoplastic shift in human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driak, D; Dvorska, M; Bolehovska, P; Svandova, I; Novotny, J; Halaska, M

    2014-01-01

    The most common malignancies of the female genital tract are endometrial carcinomas, whose are generally proceeded by hyperplasia. The maintenance of tissue homeostasis is to great extent governed by apoptosis, whose defects can lead to the preneoplastic and/or cancerous changes. Endometrial apoptosis involves among others three groups of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. First group contains anti-apoptotic proteins (e. g. Bcl-2, Bcl-xL). The other two groups belong to the pro-apoptotic proteins with three (e. g. Bax, Bak) or one (e. g. Bad, Bid) so-called BH domains. Bad and Bid trigger the oligomerization of Bak and Bax protein, which permeabilize the outer mitochondrial wall. Unlike Bid, Bad cannot directly trigger apoptosis. Instead, Bad lowers the threshold at which apoptosis is induced, by binding anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. However, their mutual counterbalance or synergism in the human endometrium has not been reported yet.In this study, the levels of Bid and Bad were measured using SDS-PAGE and Western blotting with specific antibodies, with the aim to analyse expression of Bid and Bad proteins in normal (NE), hyperplastic (HE) and cancerous (CE) endometrium. We demonstrated that Bid expression in CE reached only 47% and 50% of this observed in NE and HE. Conversely, Bad expression in HE reached only 40% and 36% of this observed in NE and CE, respectively. We detected no significant changes of Bid expression between HE and NE, and levels of Bad protein were not different between CE and NE.Trend of Bid and Bad protein expression is clearly opposite in HE and CE. We hypothesise that disrupted apoptotic program in CE seems to be reduced further by lowering levels of direct apoptotic trigger protein Bid. We suggest that the adenocarcinoma tissue of human endometrium thus tries to strengthen its apoptotic effort by lowering the apoptotic threshold via higher Bad levels.

  18. Low prevalence of DNA virus in the human endometrium og endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Munk, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The chronic female disease endometriosis causes debilitating pain and lowered fertility. The aetiology is unknown, but indications of an infectious agent are present. This study investigates the possible involvement of a pathogenic virus in endometriosis patients and controls. DNA was purified from......–10%). The virus prevalence was found to vary slightly when comparing the endometrium of healthy women and women with endometriosis. However, these were not significant differences, and no viruses were identified in endometriotic lesions. These results do not point towards any evidence that endometriosis is caused...

  19. Evaluation of a menstrual cup to collect shed endometrium for in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koks, C A; Dunselman, G A; de Goeij, A F; Arends, J W; Evers, J L

    1997-09-01

    To evaluate whether a menstrual cup is a suitable instrument to collect antegradely shed endometrium for in vitro studies. A prospective, descriptive, cell biological and immunohistochemical study. Tertiary care university medical center. Nine female volunteers with regular cycles. Menstrual effluent was collected with a menstrual cup. Experience with the menstrual cup was described. Cytospin specimens, frozen sections, and cultures were prepared from the obtained menstrual tissue. The acceptability of the menstrual cup. The presence and viability of endometrial tissue was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and culture outcome. All women except one described the menstrual cup as acceptable. Menstrual effluent contained single cells, clumps of cells, and glandlike structures. After 5 days of culture, the endometrial tissue appeared to be viable. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for vimentin in most cytospin specimens, in all cryostat specimens, and in 10 of 17 cultures. Cytokeratin 18 stained most cytospin specimens, all cryostat specimens, and 10 of 17 cultures. Positive staining for BW495/36 was observed in most cytospin specimens, all cryostat specimens, and 11 of 17 cultures. A menstrual cup in an acceptable instrument to collect antegradely shed menstrual tissue. Menstruum contains viable endometrial tissue that can be used for in vitro studies of endometrium and endometriosis.

  20. Chylaskos as a presentation of serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Sequeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old female was presented to the emergency department with intense anorexia, weight loss despite progressive abdominal distension, and dyspnea. Abdomen imagiology workup reveled moderate-volume ascites and a hepatic occupying lesion. Diagnostic paracentesis allowed the drainage of a chylous effusion and cytology analysis identified adenocarcinoma cells. Hepatic metastasis of papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium was confirmed after tomography-guided biopsy. Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant gynecological neoplasm in developed countries and is often classified in types I with endometrioid histology (estrogen-dependent and non endometrioid types II (non-estrogen-dependent. Chylous ascites or chylaskos is a rare presentation on hospital admission. Several etiologies have been described. In adults, solid malignancy is expected to be identified in less than 20% of the cases. A systematic review has found only one case of endometrial carcinoma presenting with chylous ascite. As far as we know, this is the first case report of a serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium presenting with chylaskos.

  1. Presence of bacteria in the endometrium and placentomes of pregnant cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstrup, Cecilia Christensen; Klitgaard, Kirstine; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial invasion of the bovine uterus during the postpartum period occurs in most cows, but the general consensus is that these bacteria are eliminated before the next pregnancy. The pregnant uterus has therefore hitherto been considered a sterile environment, but this assumption has now been challenged by recent studies in humans, which indicate that bacteria can be present in the placenta of term pregnancies without causing abortion. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether bacteria are present in the uterus of pregnant cows. Specimens were taken from the inter-caruncular endometrium and from placentomes of slaughtered pregnant cows (n = 43) and subjected to histology, fluorescence in situ hybridization and massive parallel sequencing. Bacteria were observed in the tissue from 90.7% (39/43) of the cows by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii and Trueperella pyogenes were located within the endometrium, on the endometrial surface and in the caruncular stroma, but their presence was not associated with inflammation. Data from massive parallel sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from a subset of 15 cows indicated that the most abundant bacteria were the families Porphyromonadaceae, followed by Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Our results indicate that the bovine uterus is not a sterile environment during pregnancy as previously assumed and that a cow can carry a pregnancy despite the presence of a few potentially pathogenic bacteria in the uterus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Prostate specific antigen--PSA and histopathological findings of endometrium in women with fibrocystic breast disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radowicki, Stanisław; Kunicki, Michał

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between serum free and total PSA and histopathological findings in women with fibrocystic mastopathy. 176 women with fibrocystic breast disease, aged 18 to 45 years.--Group I: comprised 114 patients with cysts 10 mm in diameter. The control group consisted of 46 healthy women aged 18 - 45 years who had no breast pathology Total PSA (PSA-T) and free PSA (PSA-Free) were measured by an ultra-sensitive fluoroimmunometric DELFIA assay (Prostatus PSA Free/Total Wallac, Turku, Finland). The detection limit for PSA was 0.01 ng/ml. Endometrial samples have been obtained with Pipelle probe between 22 and 24 days of the menstrual cycle. In the control group secretory endometrium was more frequently detected than in the mastopathy group (chi2 = 11,15, p = 0.01). Proliferatory (chi2 = 8.27, p = 0.004) and presecretory endometrium (chi2 = 4.61, p = 0.03) were more frequently detected in the mastopathy group than in controls. We did not find statistically significant relationship between the mean PSA concentrations between the groups in relation to histopathological findings. No relationships between free and total PSA measured in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and endometrial findings were detected in our study. Further research is required to evaluate the relationship between PSA and endometrial findings.

  3. OCT-4 expression in follicular and luteal phase endometrium: a pilot study

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    Huber Johannes C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stem cell marker Octamer-4 (OCT-4 is expressed in human endometrium. Menstrual cycle-dependency of OCT-4 expression has not been investigated to date. Methods In a prospective, single center cohort study of 98 women undergoing hysteroscopy during the follicular (n = 49 and the luteal (n = 40 phases of the menstrual cycle, we obtained endometrial samples. Specimens were investigated for OCT-4 expression on the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Expression of OCT-4 was correlated to menstrual cycle phase. Results Of 89 women sampled, 49 were in the follicular phase and 40 were in the luteal phase. OCT-4 mRNA was detected in all samples. Increased OCT-4 mRNA levels in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 35/49 (71% and 27/40 (68% of women, respectively (p = 0.9. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein was identified in 56/89 (63% samples. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 33/49 (67% and 23/40 (58% of women, respectively (p = 0.5. Conclusions On the mRNA and protein levels, OCT-4 is not differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial OCT-4 is not involved in or modulated by hormone-induced cyclical changes of the endometrium.

  4. From the endometrium physiology to a comprehensive strategy for the discovery of ovarian cancer biomarkers

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    Janos L. Tanyi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of comprehensive strategies for biomarker discovery of gynecological cancers is needed. The unique physiology of the female genital track revolves around ovulatory cycles ending by the proteolysis of the endometrium triggered by progesterone decline during the last part of the luteal phase. Building on the known link between incessant ovulation and ovarian cancer, we hypothesize that life-long menstruations could damage neighboring organs such as fallopian tubes, ovaries and peritoneum via endometrial secretions, and thus endometrium neighboring structures may have developed highly efficient protective strategies that could, in turn, be hijacked by cancer cells for survival and invasion. After literature review, we could classify the molecules involved in ovulation and menstruation pathways in three main categories: proteases, proteases inhibitors and cell-surface protectors. Strikingly, all validated biomarkers for ovarian cancers belong to at least one of these categories. We thus propose the development of comprehensive methods for identification of early diagnostic markers for gynecological cancers using systematical mapping and characterization of surface or soluble molecules belonging to physiological pathways linked to menstruation and differently expressed during luteal cycles.

  5. Women with double primary cancers of the colorectum and endometrium: do they have Lynch syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taejong; Kim, Min Kyu; Lee, Yoo-Young; Choi, Chel Hun; Kim, Tae-Joong; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of women with double primary cancers of the colorectum and endometrium and assess the probability of Lynch syndrome. We identified 15 women with paraffin-embedded blocks available who were diagnosed, treated and followed for double primary colorectal and endometrial cancers at in a single institution between 1994 and 2014. If there was a family history that met the revised Amsterdam criteria for Lynch syndrome, the woman was considered to have 'clinically defined Lynch syndrome'. If immunohistochemical (IHC) loss of expression of mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2) or high microsatellite instability (MSI) was demonstrated in molecular testing, the case was considered 'suspected Lynch syndrome'. The incidence of clinically defined Lynch syndrome according to the revised Amsterdam criteria was 66% (8 of 15). All 8 of the women clinically diagnosed with Lynch syndrome had either abnormal IHC loss or MSI-high, indicating a suspected Lynch syndrome. Furthermore, 27% (4 of 15) experienced second primary colorectal cancer or other Lynch syndrome-related cancers. Overall, 66% (10 of 15) met the criteria for clinically defined Lynch syndrome or suspected Lynch syndrome. Based on our findings, a large percentage (66%) of women with double primary cancers of the colorectum and endometrium are likely to be diagnosed with Lynch syndrome. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Development of organoids from mouse and human endometrium showing endometrial epithelium physiology and long-term expandability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boretto, Matteo; Cox, Benoit; Noben, Manuel; Hendriks, Nikolai; Fassbender, Amelie; Roose, Heleen; Amant, Frédéric; Timmerman, Dirk; Tomassetti, Carla; Vanhie, Arne; Meuleman, Christel; Ferrante, Marc; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    The endometrium, which is of crucial importance for reproduction, undergoes dynamic cyclic tissue remodeling. Knowledge of its molecular and cellular regulation is poor, primarily owing to a lack of study models. Here, we have established a novel and promising organoid model from both mouse and

  7. VCAM-1 on peritoneum and α4β1 integrin in endometrium and their implications in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, Amy K; Atkins, Kristen A; Slack-Davis, Jill K; Stovall, Dale W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression on peritoneal mesothelial cells and α4β1 integrin on eutopic endometrium as possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. It is a case-control study carried out at an academic medical center. Participants are patients with (n=9) and without (n=15) endometriosis. The main outcome measures included VCAM-1 expression on peritoneal mesothelial cells and α4β1 expression on eutopic endometrium using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. Patients with endometriosis were more likely to express VCAM-1 on peritoneal mesothelial cells, both in areas with and without macroscopic disease, compared with patients without endometriosis (9/9 vs. 3/15, Pperitoneal mesothelial cells is associated with endometriosis. This field effect, in addition to the similarity found with regards to the expression of α4β1 integrin in eutopic endometrium between cases and controls, may implicate the expression of VCAM-1 in the peritoneum, and not changes in the eutopic endometrium, as a contributor to the pathogenesis of endometriosis.

  8. False Immunohistochemical Results for Herpesviridae and Other Clusters of Differentiation Due To Biotin Intranuclear Inclusions in the Gestational Endometrium

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    Francesco Rivasi

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions. Immunohistochemical investigations of the gestational endometrium (particularly in pregnancies near to term may yield false results for several herpes viruses, as well as for other immunohistochemical reactions obtained using the ABC method without prior biotin inactivation. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(1.000: 32-37

  9. Dysplastic Ichthyosis Uteri-like changes of the entire endometrium associated with a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

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    Fadare Oluwole

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ichthyosis uteri is an exceedingly rare condition in which the entire surface of the endometrium is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium. Originally described as an endometrial response to iatrogenically-introduced caustic substances, similar changes have since been described in association with a variety of inflammatory conditions of the endometrium. We describe herein a heretofore undescribed example of a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with extensive ichthyosis uteri-like changes of the entire adjacent endometrium. Additionally, the squamous epithelium of the latter also showed multifocal changes diagnostic of a low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The potential genesis of this composite of findings is discussed, as is the neoplastic potential of ichthyosis uteri. It is concluded that a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix extended proximally into the endometrium, and that there was a colonization of a pre-existing ichthyosis uteri by associated human papillomavirus. The possibility of significant cervical pathology should be considered when plaques of squamous epithelium with low grade dysplastic changes are identified in an endometrial biopsy or curettage.

  10. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Ki67 in endometrium of ovulatory menstrual cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, HJMM; Heineman, MJ; Evers, JLH

    2002-01-01

    Background. During the menstrual cycle, a rapid sequence of proliferation, differentiation and cell death occurs in the human endometrium. Mechanisms involved in cell proliferation have been studied extensively. Apoptosis has recently been recognized to be a physiologic phenomenon. The aim of this

  11. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and Ki67 in endometrium of ovulatory menstrual cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Helena J. M. M.; Heineman, Maas J.; Evers, Johannes L. H.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the menstrual cycle, a rapid sequence of proliferation, differentiation and cell death occurs in the human endometrium. Mechanisms involved in cell proliferation have been studied extensively. Apoptosis has recently been recognized to be a physiologic phenomenon. The aim of this

  12. Two protocols to treat thin endometrium with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during frozen embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Zhang, Qiong; Hao, Jie; Xu, Dabao; Li, Yanping

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of two granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) protocols for thin endometrium were investigated. Eighty-two patients were diagnosed with thin endometrium (endometrial scratch subgroups. Compared with previous cycles, endometrial thickness increased from 5.7 ± 0.7 mm to 8.1 ± 2.1 mm after G-CSF treatment (P Endometrial thickness increases were not significantly different between the two subgroups. The G-CSF with endometrial scratch subgroup established nominally higher though non-significant clinical pregnancy and live birth rates than the G-CSF only subgroup (53.8 % versus 42.9% and 38.5% versus 28.6%, respectively). Fifty-two patients underwent FET despite edometrial thickness less than 7 mm, and were included as controls. Significantly higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were observed in the G-CSF group compared with the control group (31.5% versus 13.9%; P Endometrial scracth did not impair G-CSF treatment for thin endometrium and favoured pregnancy and live birth rates. For patients with thin endometrium, embryo transfer cancellation and G-CSF treatment in subsequent FET cycles is beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix Uteri and Endometrium Combined With the Kartagener Syndrome on FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhou, Fan

    2015-11-01

    A 45-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and endometrium underwent FDG PET/CT for staging. No metastasis was found. However, the images revealed bronchiectasis, sinusitis, and situs inversus totalis, which are the triad of Kartagener syndrome.

  14. Gelatinase (MMP-2 and -9 expression profiles during gestation in the bovine endometrium

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    Sato Takashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various molecules participate in implantation and maintaining endometrial function during gestation. The remodeling of endometrial matrices is a necessary process in the coordination of gestational progress. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs like gelatinases (MMP-2 and -9 and collagenase (MMP-1 are considered to play important roles in this process. We examined MMP-2 and -9 expression using zymography, in situ hybridization, real-time PCR, and microarray analysis to clarify their roles in the bovine endometrium during gestation. Methods Endometria, placentomes, and fetal membranes were collected from Japanese black cows that were killed on day 15 to 252 of gestation or during their estrous cycle. The gene expression of MMP-related molecules (mainly MMP-2 and -9 was examined using a custom-made microarray, real-time RT-PCR, and in-situ hybridization. Gelatinase activity was detected by zymography and film in situ zymography. Results Both gelatinases were expressed in the endometrium and fetal tissues throughout gestation. MMP-2 gene expression declined with the progress of gestation, but its intensity was maintained at a high level during the peri-implantation period and increased in late gestation. The expression level of MMP-9 was stably maintained, but was relatively low compared to that of MMP-2. These gene expression patterns matched those detected by zymography for the proteins. Microarray analysis suggested that the functions of MMP-2 during implantation and the last part of gestation are closely related with those of other molecules such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS 1, membrane type 1 (MT1-MMP, and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN. Conclusion We detected MMP-2 and -9 gene expression in the bovine endometrium and placentome throughout gestation. These data suggest that MMP-2 is one of the main endometrial

  15. Expression of the epidermal growth factor system in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Sørensen, B S; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is ubiquitous in humans and plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis, development, proliferation and differentiation. As the endometrium of fertile women is characterized by proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesize a role for the EGF system....... Fourteen premenopausal women had endometrial samples removed on day 6 +/- 1 and day 6 +/- 1 and 12 +/- 1 after ovulation during one menstrual cycle. RNA was extracted and analysed by real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry was performed to localize the components of the EGF system. Human EGF Receptor 1...... (HER1) showed highest expression during the proliferative phase, HER2 and HER4 during the early and HER3 during the late secretory phase. Amphiregulin (AR) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) expression is highest in proliferative phase. Heparin binding (HB)-EGF and betacellulin (BCL) show...

  16. Impact of myomas on the results of transcervical resection of the endometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christian; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Sørensen, Søren Stampe

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate long-term hysterectomy rates after transcervical resection of the endometrium (TCRE) performed by experienced surgeons in the presence and absence of intracavitary myomas. DESIGN: Multicenter case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). PATIENTS......: The study group comprised 456 women with myomas who met the inclusion criteria, and of these, 82 (17.98%) later underwent hysterectomy. The control group comprised 1438 women without myomas, and of these, 284 (19.75%) later underwent hysterectomy. METHODS: From 2001 to 2004, standardized results were...... AND MAIN RESULTS: After TCRE, women with type 2 myomas, compared with those with type 0 myomas, were found to have a significantly higher risk of undergoing hysterectomy (p = .04), and women, including controls, with myomas >3.6 cm in greatest diameter were found to have a significantly higher risk...

  17. Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzin, K; Tekcan, C; Naki, M M; Kayataş, S; Zemheri, E; Kanadikirik, F; Berkman, S

    2006-01-01

    Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary are found in 5% of women with endometrial cancer and 10% of women with ovarian cancer. In the present case, a multigravid 46-year-old woman complained of lower abdominal pain and abdominal distension. She did not define abnormal uterine bleeding. Screening ultrasound revealed a papillary containing structure, irregular, cystic 16 x 15 x 10 cm right ovarian mass. Preoperative endometrial biopsy revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Ascites sampling, radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy and cytologic sampling of the undersurface of the diaphragm were carried out. Intraoperative and histological examinations showed Stage IIIC papillary serous carcinoma and stage IC endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Synchronous genital tract neoplasms constitute a more common clinical problem than would generally be expected.

  18. Genome-wide expressions in autologous eutopic and ectopic endometrium of fertile women with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Meraj A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to obtain a lead of the pathophysiology of endometriosis, genome-wide expressional analyses of eutopic and ectopic endometrium have earlier been reported, however, the effects of stages of severity and phases of menstrual cycle on expressional profiles have not been examined. The effect of genetic heterogeneity and fertility history on transcriptional activity was also not considered. In the present study, a genome-wide expression analysis of autologous, paired eutopic and ectopic endometrial samples obtained from fertile women (n = 18 suffering from moderate (stage 3; n = 8 or severe (stage 4; n = 10 ovarian endometriosis during proliferative (n = 13 and secretory (n = 5 phases of menstrual cycle was performed. Methods Individual pure RNA samples were subjected to Agilent’s Whole Human Genome 44K microarray experiments. Microarray data were validated (P  Results Higher clustering effect of pairing (cluster distance, cd = 0.1 in samples from same individuals on expressional arrays among eutopic and ectopic samples was observed as compared to that of clinical stages of severity (cd = 0.5 and phases of menstrual cycle (cd = 0.6. Post hoc analysis revealed anomaly in the expressional profiles of several genes associated with immunological, neuracrine and endocrine functions and gynecological cancers however with no overt oncogenic potential in endometriotic tissue. Dys-regulation of three (CLOCK, ESR1, and MYC major transcription factors appeared to be significant causative factors in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis. A novel cohort of twenty-eight (28 genes representing potential marker for ovarian endometriosis in fertile women was discovered. Conclusions Dysfunctional expression of immuno-neuro-endocrine behaviour in endometrium appeared critical to endometriosis. Although no overt oncogenic potential was evident, several genes associated with gynecological cancers were

  19. Steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 expression and localization in the endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Carmen J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tetraspan protein epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2, which mediates surface display of diverse proteins, is required for endometrial competence in blastocyst implantation, and is uniquely correlated with poor survival from endometrial adenocarcinoma tumors. Because EMP2 is differentially expressed in the various stages of the murine and human estrous cycle, we tested the hypothesis that the steroid hormones progesterone and estrogen influence EMP2 expression and localization. Methods Frozen human proliferative and secretory endometrium were collected and analyzed for EMP2 expression using SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis. The response of EMP2 to progesterone and estradiol was determined using a combination of real-time PCR, SDS-PAGE/Western blot analysis, and confocal immunofluorescence in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line RL95-2. To confirm the in vitro results, ovariectomized mice were treated with progesterone or estradiol, and EMP2 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results Within normal human endometrium, EMP2 expression is upregulated in the secretory phase relative to the proliferative phase. To understand the role of steroid hormones on EMP2 expression, we utilized RL95-2 cells, which express both estrogen and progesterone receptors. In RL95-2 cells, both estradiol and progesterone induced EMP2 mRNA expression, but only progesterone induced EMP2 protein expression. To compare steroid hormone regulation of EMP2 between humans and mice, we analyzed EMP2 expression in ovarectomized mice. Similar to results observed in humans, progesterone upregulated endometrial EMP2 expression and induced EMP2 translocation to the plasma membrane. Estradiol did not promote translocation to the cell surface, but moderately induced EMP2 expression in cytoplasmic compartments in vivo. Conclusion These findings suggest that targeting of EMP2 to specific locations under the influence of these steroid hormones may

  20. The role of Histopathology, Endometrium Thickness and Obstetric History in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Cengiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the clinical manifestations of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB, ultrasonography findings and compare with histopathological results.Material and Method: A total of 404 women with AUB were classified as; Group I: 18-39 years, Group II: 40-50 years, Group III: >50 years old. Age, parity, bleeding pattern, menstrual history, laboratory results, ultrasonography and histopathological findings were evaluated. Results: Almost half presented with AUB were in the premenopausal group [196 (48.51%], followed by 150(37.13% postmenopausal group and 58(14.36% reproductive age group. The most common bleeding pattern was menometrorrhagia followed by metrorrhagia. Endometrial pathologies were observed in 306 (75.74% and normal menstrual pattern in 98 (24.26% participants of AUB. Endometrium cancer was seen in 7 (1.7% women. In the reproductive period most common pathology was hormonal imbalance pattern. Endometrial polyp was the dominant pathology in premenopausal and postmenopausal age groups. All malignancy cases were in the postmenopausal age group. Malignancy was in 4(19.04% women who gave birth < 3 and in 1(4.76% who had %u22653 children. Four women with vaginal delivery had malignancy whereas no malignancy was seen in women with only cesarean history. Among 109 women who had endometrial thickness 4mm, 30 (10.17% had endometrial hyperplasia, 6(2.03% had endometrium cancer. Discussion: Transvaginal ultrasonography can be used as diagnostic method to evaluate endometrial thickness and differentiate uterine pathologies. However in the case of recurrent uterine bleeding, endometrial sampling should be performed disregarding ultrasonography findings.

  1. Disability and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  2. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...

  3. Processing Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jasmine

    2015-01-01

    This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.

  4. Polymerase chain reaction amplification fails to detect aromatase cytochrome P450 transcripts in normal human endometrium or decidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulun, S E; Mahendroo, M S; Simpson, E R

    1993-06-01

    It has been proposed that the biosynthesis of estrogens by the human endometrium may be of physiological significance during the menstrual cycle. Local estrogen production was also suggested to be important in the development of endometrial cancer; however, the presence or absence of aromatase enzyme activity in normal human endometrium is controversial. To address this issue, we used a sensitive technique capable of detecting mRNA transcripts present in only very low copy number. The polymerase chain reaction linked to reverse transcription (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the presence or absence of aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) transcripts in endometrial tissues (n = 7) and endometrial stromal cells (n = 9) under various culture conditions. RNA was isolated from four proliferative and three secretory tissue samples and from cultured endometrial stromal cells isolated from seven proliferative and two secretory endometria. Five sets of cultures were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), estradiol (E2), and forskolin. Additionally, RNA was isolated from decidualized endometrium obtained from a patient with tubal pregnancy. A single stranded cDNA was synthesized from total RNA using Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase and a P450arom-specific oligonucleotide. The single stranded cDNA was used as a template for PCR and was amplified for 20-35 cycles using P450arom-specific primers. RNA from adipose tissue and placenta was amplified to provide positive controls, whereas myometrial RNA was used as a negative control. In two experiments involving two endometrial tissues and three sets of cells in culture, a rat P450arom cRNA was coamplified in each sample as an internal control to demonstrate that the remote possibility of RT-PCR failures in individual test samples cannot account for our negative results. By Southern or slot blot hybridization of the amplified fragments using human and rat P450arom-specific probes, we found no evidence for

  5. Transcriptional expression of type I interferon response genes and stability of housekeeping genes in the human endometrium and endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anna L; Knudsen, Ulla B; Munk, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis is a painful chronic female disease defined by the presence of endometrial tissue implants in ectopic locations. The pathogenesis is much debated, and type I interferons could be involved. The expression of genes of the type I interferon response were profiled by a specific PCR Array...... of RNA obtained from ectopic and eutopic endometrium collected from 9 endometriosis patients and 9 healthy control women. Transcriptional expression levels of selected interferon-regulated and housekeeping genes were investigated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). Stably...... expressed housekeeping genes for valid normalization of transcriptional studies of endometrium and endometriosis have not yet been published. Here, seven housekeeping genes were evaluated for stability using the GeNorm and NormFinder software. A normalization factor based on HMBS, TBP, and YWHAZ expression...

  6. The changes of 18F-FDG uptake and ADC value of the normal endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, Ayumi; Kanasaki, Shuzou; Kitahara, Sawako; Murata, Kiyoshi; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Hayashida, Kohei; Sakashita, Yoko; Hamanaka, Yasuyo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the normal endometrium of reproductive age using positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and Diffusion-weighted MR imaging. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were classified according to the menstrual cycle. On PET/CT, FDG uptake was significant high at the menstrual and ovulatory phase. On diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), ADC value was significant low at the menstrual phase. (author)

  7. Genome-wide expressions in autologous eutopic and ectopic endometrium of fertile women with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Meraj A; Sengupta, Jayasree; Mittal, Suneeta; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2012-09-24

    In order to obtain a lead of the pathophysiology of endometriosis, genome-wide expressional analyses of eutopic and ectopic endometrium have earlier been reported, however, the effects of stages of severity and phases of menstrual cycle on expressional profiles have not been examined. The effect of genetic heterogeneity and fertility history on transcriptional activity was also not considered. In the present study, a genome-wide expression analysis of autologous, paired eutopic and ectopic endometrial samples obtained from fertile women (n=18) suffering from moderate (stage 3; n=8) or severe (stage 4; n=10) ovarian endometriosis during proliferative (n=13) and secretory (n=5) phases of menstrual cycle was performed. Individual pure RNA samples were subjected to Agilent's Whole Human Genome 44K microarray experiments. Microarray data were validated (Pcopy numbers by performing real time RT-PCR of seven (7) arbitrarily selected genes in all samples. The data obtained were subjected to differential expression (DE) and differential co-expression (DC) analyses followed by networks and enrichment analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The reproducibility of prediction based on GSEA implementation of DC results was assessed by examining the relative expressions of twenty eight (28) selected genes in RNA samples obtained from fresh pool of eutopic and ectopic samples from confirmed ovarian endometriosis patients with stages 3 and 4 (n=4/each) during proliferative and secretory (n=4/each) phases. Higher clustering effect of pairing (cluster distance, cd=0.1) in samples from same individuals on expressional arrays among eutopic and ectopic samples was observed as compared to that of clinical stages of severity (cd=0.5) and phases of menstrual cycle (cd=0.6). Post hoc analysis revealed anomaly in the expressional profiles of several genes associated with immunological, neuracrine and endocrine functions and gynecological cancers however with no overt oncogenic

  8. Development of organoids from mouse and human endometrium showing endometrial epithelium physiology and long-term expandability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretto, Matteo; Cox, Benoit; Noben, Manuel; Hendriks, Nikolai; Fassbender, Amelie; Roose, Heleen; Amant, Frédéric; Timmerman, Dirk; Tomassetti, Carla; Vanhie, Arne; Meuleman, Christel; Ferrante, Marc; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2017-05-15

    The endometrium, which is of crucial importance for reproduction, undergoes dynamic cyclic tissue remodeling. Knowledge of its molecular and cellular regulation is poor, primarily owing to a lack of study models. Here, we have established a novel and promising organoid model from both mouse and human endometrium. Dissociated endometrial tissue, embedded in Matrigel under WNT-activating conditions, swiftly formed organoid structures that showed long-term expansion capacity, and reproduced the molecular and histological phenotype of the tissue's epithelium. The supplemented WNT level determined the type of mouse endometrial organoids obtained: high WNT yielded cystic organoids displaying a more differentiated phenotype than the dense organoids obtained in low WNT. The organoids phenocopied physiological responses of endometrial epithelium to hormones, including increased cell proliferation under estrogen and maturation upon progesterone. Moreover, the human endometrial organoids replicated the menstrual cycle under hormonal treatment at both the morpho-histological and molecular levels. Together, we established an organoid culture system for endometrium, reproducing tissue epithelium physiology and allowing long-term expansion. This novel model provides a powerful tool for studying mechanisms underlying the biology as well as the pathology of this key reproductive organ. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characterization of papillary proliferation of the endometrium: A single institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Keun; Yoon, Gun; Cho, Yoon Ah; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2016-06-28

    Papillary proliferation of the endometrium is an unusual lesion that is composed of papillae with fibrovascular stromal cores covered with benign-appearing glandular epithelium. We studied the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of four cases of endometrial papillary proliferations. All patients were postmenopausal. Two lesions were incidental findings in hysterectomy specimens, and two lesions were detected in endometrial curettage specimens. Based on the degree of architectural complexity and extent of proliferation, we classified papillary proliferations histopathologically into "simple" or "complex" growth patterns. Three cases were classified as simple papillary proliferation, and one case was classified as complex papillary proliferation. Simple papillary proliferations were characterized by slender papillae with delicate stromal cores. In contrast, complex papillary proliferations had intracystic papillary projections and cellular clusters with frequent branching and occasional cytological atypia. All cases showed coexistent metaplastic epithelial changes, including mucinous metaplasia, eosinophilic cell change, and ciliated cell metaplasia. One patient with simple papillary proliferations had coexistent well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma. One patient had subsequent hyperplasia without atypia, and another patient had subsequent atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia; both patients underwent total hysterectomy within four months. Our observations are consistent with previous data demonstrating that endometrial papillary proliferations coexist with or develop into atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia or endometrioid carcinoma. It is very important for pathologists to discriminate papillary proliferations from neoplastic lesions (including atypical hyperplasia/endometrioid intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma) and benign mimickers (including papillary

  10. Carcinomas of endometrium and cervix: magnetic resonance assessment of changes following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olega, L.; Cura, J.L. del; Grande, D.; Martinez, B.; Fernandez, A.; Martinez, S.; Martin, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    To present the changes induced at the tissue level in patients subjected to external radiotherapy and brachytherapy to treat carcinomas of endometrium and cervix, as disclosed by magnetic resonance (MR). The MR study dealt with 26 patients 14 with endometrial carcinoma and 12 with cervical carcinoma who were treated with external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. The features assessed retrospectively were bone marrow of the lumbar and sacral spine, pelvic fat, abdominal wall, uterine, junction and size, rectal and bladder wall and pelvic musculature. The most common changes observed after radiotherapy according to our study were changes in signal intensity in the bone marrow of the pelvic bones (88%), followed by changes in the pelvic fat (65.3%). Other radiotherapy-related findings in order of frequency were cervical fibrosis, colitis and cystitis. Radiotherapy induces changes in the tissue of the pelvic structures, and the knowledge of these changes is important in the evaluation of the follow-up studies of these patients. (Author) 12 refs

  11. Sugar residues content and distribution in atrophic and hyperplastic postmenopausal human endometrium: lectin histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, G; Bryk, S G; Taddei, G; Moncini, D; Noci, I

    1996-10-01

    A lectin histochemical study was performed to investigate the glycoconjugate saccharidic moieties of the human postmenopausal endometrium (14 atrophic and 15 hyperplastic). For this purpose a battery of seven horseradish peroxidase-conjugated lectins (PNA, SBA, DBA, WGA, ConA, LTA and UEA I) was used. No differences in lectin binding between atrophic and hyperplastic endometria were observed. This investigation allowed us to provide a basic picture of the oligosaccharidic distribution in postmenopausal endometria. The data on the saccharidic distribution at the postmenopausal endometria showed a large amount of sugar residues at all the investigated sites, i.e. the lining and glandular epithelium, the stroma and the vessels (capillary and large vessels). Furthermore, at the endometrial lining epithelium, at the glands and at the wall of the blood vessels of some postmenopausal women the presence of alpha-L-fucosyl residues which bind via alpha (1-6) linkage to penultimate glucosaminyl residues and/or difucosylated oligosaccharides was demonstrated for the first time.

  12. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J; Duncan, William C; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-04-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB >80 mL/cycle; normal menstrual bleeding (NMB) endometrial TGF-β1 ligand, receptors, and downstream SMADs in women with NMB and HMB. The function and regulation of TGF-β1 were examined using cell culture. TGFB1 mRNA was maximal immediately prior to menses, but no differences detected between women with NMB and HMB at any cycle stage. Histoscoring of TGFB1 revealed reduced staining in the stroma during menses in women with HMB (P endometrial stromal cells (HES; P Endometrial SMAD2 and SMAD3 were lower in women with HMB during menstruation (P scratch assays revealed increased repair in HES cells treated with TGF-β1 versus control (P endometrial stromal cell repair. Decreased TGF-β1 activity may hinder repair of the denuded menstrual endometrium, resulting in HMB. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  13. Hexokinase 2 drives glycogen accumulation in equine endometrium at day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramer, Sarah A; Macedo, Alysson; Klein, Claudia

    2017-01-05

    Secretion of histotroph during the prolonged pre-implantation phase in mares is crucial to pregnancy maintenance, manifested as increased embryonic loss in mares with age-related endometrial degeneration. Glycogen content of uterine histotroph is higher during the progesterone-dominated phase of the estrous cycle in mares, but regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. mRNA expression of glycogen-metabolizing enzymes (HK1, HK2, GSK3B, GYS1, PEPCK, PKM, PYGM) in endometrial samples were compared among mares in anestrus, estrus, and at Day 12 of diestrus and pregnancy. In addition, hexokinase 2 (HK2) activity was assessed using a colorimetric assay. HK2 was the key regulator of glycogen accumulation during diestrus and pregnancy; hexokinase transcript abundance and enzyme activity were significantly higher during diestrus and pregnancy than estrus and anestrus. In addition, despite similar relative transcript abundance, hexokinase activity was significantly greater in the pregnant versus diestrous endometrium. Therefore, we inferred there was regulation of hexokinase activity through phosphorylation, in addition to its regulation at the transcriptional level during early pregnancy. Based on immunohistochemistry, HK2 was localized primarily in luminal and glandular epithelial cells, with weaker staining in stromal cells. Among glycogen metabolizing enzymes identified, expression of HK2 was significantly greater during the progesterone-dominated phase of the cycle.

  14. Involvement of prostaglandins F/sub 2α/ and E1 with rabbit endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlicky, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several growth factors and hormones are thought to play a role in the growth control of endometrial cells. The authors have shown that prostaglandin F/sub 2→/ (PGF/sub 2α/) is a growth factor for primary cultures of rabbit endometrium cultured in chemically-defined serum-free medium and that prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) antagonizes the PGF/sub 2→/ induction of growth. Both [ 3 H]PGF/sub 2α/ and [ 3 H]PGE 1 bind in a time and temperature dependent, dissociable, saturable and specific manner. The binding of [ 3 H]PGF/sub 2α/ and [ 3 H]PGE 1 can be both down and up regulated and is enzyme sensitive. PGE 1 stimulates intracellular cAMP synthesis and accumulation in a time and concentration dependent manner. PGF/sub 2α/ probably exerts its effects through an amiloride-sensitive intermediate. Both PGF/sub 2α/ and PGE 1 are constitutively synthesized by these primary cultures, and they have shown this synthesis to be both drug and hormone sensitive. They hypothesize that it is the ratio, rather than the absolute quantities, of PGF/sub 2α/ and PGE 1 which is of more importance in the regulation of endometrial cell growth. Furthermore, they believe this regulation of endometrial growth plays a role in control of proliferation during the decidual response and that a derangement in the ratio of these prostaglandins may lead to either infertility or hyperplasia. The ability of these cultures to synthesize prostaglandins in a hormonally regulatable manner may be of importance in the study of dysmenorrhea and uterine cramping as caused by the myometrial contracting prostaglandin, PGF/sub 2α/

  15. Steroids Regulate CXCL4 in the Human Endometrium During Menstruation to Enable Efficient Endometrial Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Thiruchelvam, Uma; Madhra, Mayank; Saunders, Philippa T K; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-06-01

    Repair of the endometrial surface at menstruation must be efficient to minimize blood loss and optimize reproductive function. The mechanism and regulation of endometrial repair remain undefined. To determine the presence/regulation of CXCL4 in the human endometrium as a putative repair factor at menses. Endometrial tissue was collected throughout the menstrual cycle from healthy women attending the gynecology department. Menstrual blood loss was objectively measured in a subset, and heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) was defined as >80 mL per cycle. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood. CXCL4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were identified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The function/regulation of endometrial CXCL4 was explored by in vitro cell culture. CXCL4 mRNA concentrations were significantly increased during menstruation. Intense staining for CXCL4 was detected in late secretory and menstrual tissue, localized to stromal, epithelial and endothelial cells. Colocalization identified positive staining in CD68+ macrophages. Treatment of human endometrial stromal and endothelial cells (hESCs and HEECs, respectively) with steroids revealed differential regulation of CXCL4. Progesterone withdrawal resulted in significant increases in CXCL4 mRNA and protein in hESCs, whereas cortisol significantly increased CXCL4 in HEECs. In women with HMB, CXCL4 was reduced in endothelial cells during the menstrual phase compared with women with normal menstrual bleeding. Cortisol-exposed macrophages displayed increased chemotaxis toward CXCL4 compared with macrophages incubated with estrogen or progesterone. These data implicate CXCL4 in endometrial repair after menses. Reduced cortisol at the time of menses may contribute to delayed endometrial repair and HMB, in part by mechanisms involving aberrant expression of CXCL4. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  16. Expression of calbindin-D28k and its regulation by estrogen in the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung Peter CK

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human endometrium resists embryo implantation except during the 'window of receptivity'. A change in endometrial gene expression is required for the development of receptivity. Uterine calbindin-D28k (CaBP-28k is involved in the regulation of endometrial receptivity by intracellular Ca2+. Currently, this protein is known to be mainly expressed in brain, kidneys, and pancreas, but potential role(s of CaBP-28k in the human uterus during the menstrual cycle remain to be clarified. Thus, in this study we demonstrated the expression of CaBP-28k in the human endometrium in distinct menstrual phases. During the human menstrual cycle, uterine expression levels of CaBP-28k mRNA and protein increased in the proliferative phase and fluctuated in these tissues, compared with that observed in other phases. We assessed the effects of two sex-steroid hormones, 17beta-estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4, on the expression of CaBP-28k in Ishikawa cells. A significant increase in the expression of CaBP-28k mRNA was observed at the concentrations of E2 (10(-9 to -7 M. In addition, spatial expression of CaBP-28k protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. CaBP-28k was abundantly localized in the cytoplasm of the luminal and glandular epithelial cells during the proliferative phases (early-, mid-, late- and early-secretory phase of menstrual cycle. Taken together, these results indicate that CaBP-28k, a uterine calcium binding protein, is abundantly expressed in the human endometrium, suggesting that uterine expression of CaBP-28k may be involved in reproductive function during the human menstrual cycle.

  17. Three-dimensional ultrasonography and power Doppler for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mohamed; El-Mazny, Akmal; Ramadan, Wafaa; Hatem, Dina; Abdel-Hafiz, Aly; Hammam, Mohamed; Nada, Adel

    2016-03-16

    Ultrasonography has been extensively used in women suspected of having a gynecological malignancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This cross-sectional study included 78 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding scheduled for hysteroscopy and endometrial curettage. The endometrial thickness (ET), uterine artery pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI), and endometrial volume (EV) and 3D power Doppler vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization flow index (VFI) were measured and compared with hysteroscopic and histopathologic findings. The ET (P benign and malignant endometrium was the VI with an area under the ROC curve of 0.88 at a cutoff value of 0.81%. 3D ultrasonography and power Doppler, especially endometrial VI, may be useful for discrimination between benign and malignant endometrium in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

  18. Physiological Uptake of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in Uterine Endometrium and Myometrium: Correlation with Uterine Motility Evaluated by Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, A.; Nishizawa, S.; Okada, H.; Nakamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Fujimoto, K.; Togashi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) in the uterine endometrium and uterine motility are dependent on menstrual cycle. However, the relationship between them remains unknown. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between radiometabolic activity of 18 F-FDG in the uterus and uterine motility observed by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 65 healthy, fertile women, selected from 229 women who underwent positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), and MRI for cancer screening at our facility. They were divided into three groups according to their menstrual cycle phases: menstrual, follicular-periovulatory, and luteal. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed over the endometrium and myometrium to calculate the standardized uptake value (SUV). Uterine peristalsis and contraction shown by cine MR imaging were evaluated visually, and the correlation between FDG uptake and uterine movements was assessed. Results: After excluding nine patients due to inadequate images, 56 patients (19 follicular-periovulatory, 27 luteal, and 10 menstrual) were analyzed. FDG uptake of the endometrium, frequency of peristalsis, and the presence of sustained contraction varied according to the menstruation cycle, with a tendency toward greater uptake in the menstrual phase, but there was little relationship between the frequency of uterine peristalsis and FDG accumulation in the uterus. Significantly higher FDG accumulation in the endometrium was observed in patients with sustained contractions (3.32±1.47) than in those without contractions (2.45±0.66). Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that FDG accumulation in the endometrium tends to be higher in patients with uterine contraction, although there was no significant correlation between uterine peristalsis and FDG uptake in the uterine myometrium or endometrium

  19. Abundance and Localization of Progesterone Receptor Isoforms in Endometrium in Women With and Without Endometriosis and in Peritoneal and Ovarian Endometriotic Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaiwy, Mohamed A; Dahoud, Wissam; Skomorovska-Prokvolit, Yelena; Yi, Lijuan; Liu, James H; Falcone, Tommaso; Hurd, William W; Mesiano, Sam

    2015-09-01

    Several studies suggest that resistance to progesterone may contribute to the pathophysiology of endometriosis. Progesterone mediates its biological activity via the 2 progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms (PR-A and PR-B). Effects of progesterone are determined by the PR-A:PR-B ratio such that a PR-B-dominant state promotes progesterone signaling, whereas a PR-A-dominant state decreases progesterone responsiveness. Our objective was to compare the abundance and cellular localization of the PR isoforms in endometrium and endometriotic lesions from women with and without peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis. This in vitro study was conducted in a tertiary care facility. Reproductive-age women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (n = 18) and asymptomatic control individuals (n = 20) were prospectively recruited at the late proliferative and the early secretory phases. At laparoscopy, samples of eutopic endometrium, peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis, and disease-free peritoneum were obtained for subsequent immunohistochemical and immunoblot analysis of PR-B and total PR localization and PR-A and PR-B abundance, respectively. The PR-A and PR-B were detected in eutopic endometrium and in peritoneal and ovarian endometriosis but not in disease-free peritoneum from patients with and without endometriosis. In peritoneal endometriosis, PR-A was the predominant isoform detected, whereas both receptors were detected in ovarian endometriosis and eutopic endometrium. In eutopic endometrium, levels of PR-A were significantly elevated in women with endometriosis compared with women without disease, regardless of menstrual phase. The PR-A levels were significantly elevated in ovarian endometriosis compared with peritoneal endometriosis. Endometriotic lesions and eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis are uniform in a PR-A-dominant state. The data suggest that menstrual efflux of a PR-A-dominant endometrial tissue into the peritoneal cavity may play a role in the

  20. Physiological Uptake of 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose in Uterine Endometrium and Myometrium: Correlation with Uterine Motility Evaluated by Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kido, A.; Nishizawa, S.; Okada, H. (Hamamatsu Medical Imaging Center, Hamamatsu Medical Photonics Foundation, Hamakita City, Shizuoka (Japan)); Nakamoto, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Fujimoto, K.; Togashi, K. Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyoto Univ. Hospital, Kyoto City, Kyoto (Japan))

    2009-05-15

    Background: Accumulation of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the uterine endometrium and uterine motility are dependent on menstrual cycle. However, the relationship between them remains unknown. Purpose: To investigate the relationship between radiometabolic activity of 18F-FDG in the uterus and uterine motility observed by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 65 healthy, fertile women, selected from 229 women who underwent positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), and MRI for cancer screening at our facility. They were divided into three groups according to their menstrual cycle phases: menstrual, follicular-periovulatory, and luteal. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed over the endometrium and myometrium to calculate the standardized uptake value (SUV). Uterine peristalsis and contraction shown by cine MR imaging were evaluated visually, and the correlation between FDG uptake and uterine movements was assessed. Results: After excluding nine patients due to inadequate images, 56 patients (19 follicular-periovulatory, 27 luteal, and 10 menstrual) were analyzed. FDG uptake of the endometrium, frequency of peristalsis, and the presence of sustained contraction varied according to the menstruation cycle, with a tendency toward greater uptake in the menstrual phase, but there was little relationship between the frequency of uterine peristalsis and FDG accumulation in the uterus. Significantly higher FDG accumulation in the endometrium was observed in patients with sustained contractions (3.32+-1.47) than in those without contractions (2.45+-0.66). Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that FDG accumulation in the endometrium tends to be higher in patients with uterine contraction, although there was no significant correlation between uterine peristalsis and FDG uptake in the uterine myometrium or endometrium

  1. Intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... below average Development way below that of peers Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized ... Social. Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty ...

  2. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...

  3. Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...

  4. Hypothesis: Co-transfer of genuine embryos and implantation-promoting compounds via artificial containers improve endometrium receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Onder; Acet, Mustafa; Celik, Sudenaz; Sahin, Levent; Koc, Onder; Celik, Nilufer

    2017-06-01

    As with other organs endometrial functions are altered with the advancing age. Age related decrease in reproductive functions leads to decline in the number of oocytes retrieved and the synthesis of endometrial receptivity molecules. Despite the significant improvement in assisted reproductive technologies we do not have so many options to enhance endometrial receptivity. Due to lack of drugs having endometrium receptivity enhancement properties, oocyte donation seems to be the only solution for women with implantation failure. The euploid oocytes come from young and healthy donors may overcome age associated endometrial receptivity defect. Nevertheless, many reasons restrict us from using oocyte donation in women with implantation failure. We, therefore, hypothesized that by mimicking a young blastocyst's effect on endometrium, the transfer of genuine embryos and implantation-promoting compounds together might be the new treatment option for infertile women with recurrent implantation failure. Artificial beads, MI or GV oocytes, and empty zona can be used as a container for intrauterine replacement of implantation-promoting compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of curettage and copper wire on rabbit endometrium: a novel rabbit model of endometrial mechanical injury.

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    Li, Li; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Qiu-Fang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Li-Ying; Shen, Fei; Qiao, Jie; Feng, Huai-Liang

    2011-06-01

    It remains almost a helpless situation for the recurrent implantation failure and pregnancy loss caused by endometrial injury at present. The purpose of this study was to develop a rabbit model of endometrial mechanical injury that could provide a research platform for this difficult clinical predicament. Three experiments were conducted. Experiment 1: Curettages in both uterus horns and copper wire inserting after curettage (double-injury) in one horn. The histological changes were monitored at 0, 24, 48, 72 hours, as well as in 1 and 2 weeks after operation. Experiment 2: Direct copper wire inserting in one horn and double-injury in other horn. The wires in both horns were removed after 2 weeks. The histological changes were recorded at 0, 1 and 2 weeks after wire removal. Experiment 3: Double-injury procedure in one horn was performed and wire was removed after 2 weeks; another horn was remained normal to serve as control. Histological changes were recorded, tissue areas were measured, and proliferation indices (PIs, %) were calculated at 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after wire removal, respectively. The experiments revealed that the injured endometrium by simple curettage or copper wire could be fully repaired. While the endometrial regeneration was severely impaired by double-injury, both areas of endometrium and uterine cavity decreased (P copper wire with comparable clinical index.

  6. Roles of the insulinlike growth factor family in nonpregnant human endometrium and at the decidual: trophoblast interface.

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    Giudice, L C; Irwin, J C

    1999-01-01

    The insulinlike growth factor (IGF) family is believed to be important in endometrial development during the menstrual cycle and in the process of implantation. The mitogenic, differentiative, and antiapoptotic properties of the IGFs and their binding proteins, as well as their spatial and temporal expression in cycling endometrium, suggest that they may participate in endometrial growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and perhaps angiogenesis. IGFBP proteases, which increase IGF bioavailability, have been localized to endometrial stromal cells and to the human cytotrophoblast and likely play important roles in endometrial, decidual, and trophoblast physiology. IGFBP-1 is a major protein product of nonpregnant endometrium during the mid-late secretory phase and occurs in abundance in decidua. Its roles as an IGF-binding protein and as a trophoblast integrin ligand suggest that it may have multiple roles in endometrial development and in interactions between the decidua and the invading trophoblast. Recent evidence suggests that it may have a role in the process of shallow implantation in the clinical disorder of preclampsia. In contrast to knowledge about the roles of IGF peptides, IGFBP proteases, and IGFBPs in normal endometrial development and early human pregnancy, little information is available regarding this family in abnormal endometrial development, in occult endometrial defects, and in uterine receptivity and nonreceptivity.

  7. Disability and Health: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  8. INFLUENCE OF EMBRYO IMPLANTATION ON ENDOMETRIUM IN LUTEAL PHASE OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE

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    Romana Dmitrović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the facts known from embryology, rapid endometrial growth during late luteal phase of the cycle could be expected. In this research, we sought to establish if normal intrauterine pregnancy could be confirmed before gestational sac vizualization, by trans- vaginal ultrasound and hormonal tests. The primary hypothesis was that the endometrial thickness and/or volume in the luteal phase of the cycle, in cycles resulting in normal intra- uterine pregnancy, is significantly different compared to non-conception cycles. We also hypothesized that endometrial thickness and/or volume are different in cycles resulting in normal intrauterine pregnancy compared to cycles resulting in abnormal pregnancy, namely biochemical and ectopic pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion. Additionally, next to endometrial volumes, we decided to measure the endometrium in three planes (thick- ness, length and width, to see if the hypothesized endometrial volume differences could be approximated by this simple surrogate technique, which is available in most parts of the world. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of women enrolled in an assisted reproduction program. Patients were stimulated with standard stimulation protocols. The oocyte retrieval was performed 36 hours after the hCG administration and the embryo was transferred 3 or 5 days later. Patients were first seen on day 20–24 of the cycle , and then on day 27–30 of the cycle. A blood sample was taken, and 3D transvaginal ultrasound was done. Following the completion of study visits, patients with a positive HCG test received phone call check- ups until week 12 of pregnancy, and were stratified according to pregnancy outcome. Results: 80 subjects signed the informed consent form. 4 patients had the IUI in the stimulated cycle, one had ET in spontaneous cycle, and 74 patients had undergone IVF/ET in the stimulated cycle. 63 patients in the stimulated cycles completed the study and

  9. Effect of long-term treatment with steroid hormones or tamoxifen on the progesterone receptor and androgen receptor in the endometrium of ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques

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    Cline J Mark

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The progesterone receptor (PR and androgen receptor (AR belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Two isoforms of PR (A and B have been identified with different functions. The expression of AR, each isoform of PR and their involvement in long-term effects on the endometrium after hormonal replacement therapy (HRT or tamoxifen (TAM treatment is not known. The aims of this study were to determine PR(A+B, PRB and AR distribution by immunohistochemistry in the macaque (Macaca fascicularis endometrium. Ovariectomized (OVX animals were orally treated continuously for 35 months with either conjugated equine estrogens (CEE; medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; the combination of CEE/MPA; or TAM. Treatment with CEE/MPA tended to down-regulate PR in the superficial glands, but increased it in the stroma. TAM treatment increased both the PR and PRB levels in the stroma. Overall, less than 20% of the cells were positive for the PRB isoform and less variation was observed after steroid treatment. AR was found in the stroma, mainly distributed in the basal layer of the endometrium in the OVX and steroid treated groups, but was absent in the TAM treated group. No AR was found in the glandular epithelium. The present data show that long-term hormone treatment affects the PR level, and also the ratio between PRA and PRB in the endometrium.

  10. Efeito da tibolona sobre o endométrio de ratas castradas Effect of tibolone on endometrium of castrated rats

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    José Augusto Soares Pantaleão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso prolongado de alta dose de tibolona na morfologia do endométrio em ratas castradas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 15 ratas Wistar, fêmeas, com idade de oito semanas e peso médio de 250 g. Todas as ratas foram submetidas à ooforectomia bilateral e 30 dias depois foi coletada citologia vaginal, verificando-se o status de menopausa. As ratas foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: o tratado (n=9 recebeu via oral 1 mg tibolona/dia; o controle (n=6 recebeu apenas solução do veículo carboximetilcelulose. Após 20 semanas de tratamento, todos os animais foram sedados e sacrificados por deslocamento cervical. Os úteros foram retirados e fixados em formol 10% tamponado. Ambos os cornos uterinos foram clivados em três regiões (proximal, medial, distal e processados para inclusão em parafina. Cortes histológicos corados com hematoxilina-eosina foram submetidos à análise morfológica e morfométrica. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: espessura do epitélio superficial endometrial, espessura do estroma endometrial, área endometrial, número absoluto de glândulas endometriais e número de glândulas/área endometrial. Os dados obtidos foram comparados mediante o teste t de Student. RESULTADOS: no Grupo Tibolona os úteros se apresentaram bem desenvolvidos e houve aumento significativo (pPURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of long-term use of a high dose of tibolone on the morphology of the endometrium of castrated female rats. METHODS: fifteen female Wistar rats, aged eight weeks and weighting about 250 g were used. All the female rats were submitted to bilateral oophorectomy and 30 days afterwards, vaginal cytology was collected, to verify the menopause status. The female rats were randomly divided in two groups. The Treatment Group (n=9 received 1 mg of tibolone/day orally; the Control Group (n=6 received a solution of carboxymethylcellulose vehicle. After 20 weeks of treatment, all the animals were

  11. Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…

  12. Effects of the estrous cycle, pregnancy and interferon tau on expression of cyclooxygenase two (COX-2 in ovine endometrium

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    Bazer Fuller W

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In sheep, the uterus produces luteolytic pulses of prostaglandin F2α (PGF on Days 15 to 16 of estrous cycle to regress the corpus luteum (CL. These PGF pulses are produced by the endometrial lumenal epithelium (LE and superficial ductal glandular epithelium (sGE in response to binding of pituitary and/or luteal oxytocin to oxytocin receptors (OTR and liberation of arachidonic acid, the precursor of PGF. Cyclooxygenase-one (COX-1 and COX-2 are rate-limiting enzymes in PGF synthesis, and COX-2 is the major form expressed in ovine endometrium. During pregnancy recognition, interferon tau (IFNτ, produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, acts in a paracrine manner to suppress development of the endometrial epithelial luteolytic mechanism by inhibiting transcription of estrogen receptor α (ERα (directly and OTR (indirectly genes. Conflicting studies indicate that IFNτ increases, decreases or has no effect on COX-2 expression in bovine and ovine endometrial cells. In Study One, COX-2 mRNA and protein were detected solely in endometrial LE and sGE of both cyclic and pregnant ewes. During the estrous cycle, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and then decreased to Day 16. During early pregnancy, COX-2 expression increased from Days 10 to 12 and remained higher than in cyclic ewes. In Study Two, intrauterine infusion of recombinant ovine IFNτ in cyclic ewes from Days 11 to 16 post-estrus did not affect COX-2 expression in the endometrial epithelium. These results clearly indicate that IFNτ has no effect on expression of the COX-2 gene in the ovine endometrium. Therefore, antiluteolytic effects of IFNτ are to inhibit ERα and OTR gene transcription, thereby preventing endometrial production of luteolytic pulses of PGF. Indeed, expression of COX-2 in the endometrial epithelia as well as conceptus is likely to have a beneficial regulatory role in implantation and development of the conceptus.

  13. Robot-assisted laparoscopic adenomyomectomy of adenomyotic nodule implanted in the uterine endometrium manifesting as endometrial cancer: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, J H; Jeong, K; Moon, H S

    2017-01-01

    Thickened uterine endometrium with abnormal uterine bleeding highly suggests endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma. A case of 35-year-old nulliparous woman came to our department with endometrial mass manifesting as endometrial cancer. Transrectal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an 8x6 cm multicystic, ill-defined mass compacted at the uterine endometrium, the anterior wall of the uterus, and 3x3 cm heterogenous mass at the left adnexa. The edometrial mass showed multiple septations with enhancement and low-signal intensity on T2-weighted images. After endometrial biopsy was done and simple hyperplasia without atypia was observed at the histopathologic finding, the patient underwent robot-assisted laparoscopy and diagnosed as adenomyoma at the frozen pathology. After adenomyomectomy, permanent pathologic analysis revealed the same result and she recovered without any complications and responded well to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy.

  14. Effect of high ovarian response on the expression of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) in peri-implantation endometrium in IVF women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Zhen; Gao, Min-Zhi; Yao, Li-Hua; Liang, A-Juan; Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Sun, Zhao-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of ovarian stimulation on the expression of EG-VEGF mRNA and protein in peri-implantation endometrium in women undergoing IVF and its relation with endometrial receptivity (ER). Prospective laboratory study. University hospital. Eighteen women in stimulated cycles (SC) as study subjects and 18 women in natural cycles (NC) as controls. Women in SC group were classified with two subgroups, high ovarian response (SC1, n=9) with peak serum E2>5,000 pg/mL and moderate ovarian response (SC2, n=9) with peak serum E2 1,000-5,000 pg/mL. Endometrial biopsies were collected 6 days after ovulation in NC or after oocyte retrieval in SC. Endometrium histological dating was observed with HE staining. EG-VEGF mRNA expression levels determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and protein levels by immunohistochemistry. All endometrial samples were in the secretory phase. The endometrial development in SC1 was 1 to 2 days advanced to NC, and with dyssynchrony between glandular and stromal tissue. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that EG-VEGF protein was predominantly expressed in the glandular epithelial cells and endothelial cells of vessels, and also presented in the stroma. The image analysis confirmed that both the gland and stroma of endometrium in SC1 had a significantly lower EG-VEGF protein expression than that in SC2 and NC endometrium. Moreover, EG-VEGF mRNA levels were significantly lower in SC1 than in NC. Both EG-VEGF protein and mRNA levels had no significant difference between SC2 and NC. Decreased expression of EG-VEGF in the peri-implantation is associated with high ovarian response, which may account for the impaired ER and lower implantation rate in IVF cycles.

  15. Rhodamine B triggers ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, decreases in the number of follicles, 17B-estradiol level, and thickness of endometrium

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    Syiska Atik Maryanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to rhodamine B on ovarian oxidative stress, ovarian follicles, hormone 17beta-estradiol and thickness of endometrium. Methods: A total of 28 female rats were divided into four groups consisting of control; groups treated with rhodamine B at doses of 4.5; 9, and 18 milligram/200 gram body weight. Rhodamine B was administered orally for 36 days with the probe. Analysis of MDA level was done spectrophotometrically. Analysis of the number of ovarian follicles and thickness of endometrium was done histopathologically by hematoxylin eosin staining. Analysis of 17-estradiol level was done by ELISA. Results: Rhodamine B administered in different doses in female rats can increase ovarian MDA levels significantly than the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce the number of primary, secondary, and De Graaf follicles significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce 17-estradiol level significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. The administration of rhodamine B could reduce thickness of endometrium significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that administration of rhodamine B triggered ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, a decrease in the number of follicles, and decreased level of 17-estradiol which ultimately lowered the thickness of endometrium. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 451-457

  16. In vivo and in vitro studies of MUC1 regulation in sheep endometrium.

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    Raheem, Kabir A; Marei, Waleed F A; Campbell, Bruce K; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the expression of mucin 1 (MUC1) mRNA and protein in sheep endometrium at different time points during follicular and luteal phases of estrous cycle, and also determined the effect of steroid hormone treatments and interferon tau (IFNτ) on MUC1 mRNA expression in endometrial cell culture in vitro. In experiment one, 15 Welsh mountain ewes were synchronized to a common estrus and killed at precise stages of estrous cycle corresponding to (1) pre-LH peak, (2) LH peak, (3) post-LH peak, (4) early luteal, and (5) mid-luteal. Reproductive tracts were harvested and mRNA was extracted from the endometrial tissues. Parts of the uterine horns were fixed for immunohistochemistry. In experiment two, mixed populations of ovine endometrial cells (from slaughterhouse material collected at the postovulatory stage of the estrous cycle) were cultured to 70% confluence before treatment with (1) progesterone (P4, 10 ng/mL, for 48 hours), (2) estradiol (E2, 100 pg/mL, for 48 hours), or with (3) E2 priming for 12 hours (100 pg/mL) followed by P4 (10 ng/mL) for 36 hours. These were compared with: (4) IFNτ (10 ng/mL, for 48 hours), and (5) basic medium (Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium /F12) as control. The results showed that MUC1 mRNA and protein expression in sheep endometrium were highest during the midluteal stage and very low during the post-LH period compared with the other stages (P < 0.05). MUC1 immunostaining in the luminal epithelium was apically restricted and was not significantly different across all stages of estrous cycle except at the post-LH peak where it was significantly low. In cell culture, MUC1 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated by both steroids either singly or in combination (P < 0.05), and downregulated in the presence of IFNτ. In conclusion, endometrial MUC1 expression is cyclically regulated by both E2 and P4in vivo and in vitro, and directly downregulated by IFNτ treatment in vitro. Copyright © 2016

  17. Expression of genes associated with immunity in the endometrium of cattle with disparate postpartum uterine disease and fertility

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    Herath Shan

    2009-05-01

    of the endometrium. Conclusion Cattle may maintain fertility by limiting the inflammatory response to postpartum bacterial infection in the endometrium during the first week after parturition.

  18. Different enzymatic antioxidative pathways operate within the sheep caruncular and intercaruncular endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gubory, K H; Faure, P; Garrel, C

    2017-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in the role played by antioxidant enzymes in the regulation of endometrial function in mammals. However, little is known about enzymatic antioxidative pathways involved in conditioning the cyclic and early pregnant endometrium for conceptus attachment and implantation in domestic ruminants. We aimed to investigate changes in activities of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 (SOD1, SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) in sheep caruncles (CAR) and intercaruncles (ICAR) endometrial tissues of cyclic and early pregnant ewes. Irrespective of day of cycle or pregnancy, CAR demonstrated higher activities of SOD1 and SOD2 than in ICAR. On day 12 of the estrous cycle, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX and GR than in CAR tissues. On days 12 and 16 the estrous cycle, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT than in CAR. CAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX on day 18 than on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the estrous cycle. CAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT on day 18 than on days 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the estrous cycle. ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT on day 18 than on days 4, 8, and 16 of the estrous cycle. The activity of CAT in ICAR increased from days 4 and 8 to day 12 of the estrous cycle. The activity of SOD2 in CAR increased from day 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. On day 12 of pregnancy, CAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX than in ICAR. On day 16 of pregnancy, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of GPX than in CAR. The activity of GPX in ICAR increased from day 12 to day 16 of pregnancy. The activity of GPX in CAR increased from day 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. The activity of GR in CAR and ICAR increased from days 12 and 16 to day 18 of pregnancy. On days 16 and 18 of pregnancy, ICAR demonstrated higher activity of CAT than in CAR. The activity of CAT in CAR decreased from day 12 to days 16 and 18 of pregnancy. The activity of CAT in ICAR decreased from day 12 to day 16 of pregnancy and

  19. Light, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study of the effect of low-dose aspirin during the proestrus phase on rat endometrium in the preimplantation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Utku; Baka, Meral; Turgut, Mehmet; Uyanikgil, Yiğit; Ulker, Sibel; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Tavmergen, Erol; Yurtseven, Mine

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate structural alterations in rat endometrium at preimplantation following treatment with aspirin beginning from proestrus by light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemical techniques. Twenty rats were divided into control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10) groups. Experimental rats were treated with low-dose aspirin daily (2 mg/kg/day) during estrus, beginning from the proestrus phase, mated at end of cycle and treated with aspirin. Untreated pregnant rats were the control group. Rats in both groups were sacrificed at the 84th pregnancy hour; the uterus was rapidly removed and dissected free of surrounding adipose tissue. Uteri specimens from nonpregnant rats were transferred into fixative solution and processed for light, electron microscopic and immunohistochemical study. Light and electron microscopy of endometrium from control rats conformed to mid-diestrus phase; endometrial histology of the aspirin-treated group conformed to late diestrus phase. The endometrial layer was significantly thicker in the aspirin-treated group compared to the untreated control group (p <0.001). No significant difference was found in vessel number between groups. Staining with alphaV integrin was more dense in the aspirin-treated group. Based on histologic findings, we suggest low-dose aspirin has positive effects on preparing endometrium before implantation.

  20. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma originating from the uterine endometrium: a report on magnetic resonance features of 2 cases with very rare and aggressive tumor

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    Natsuko Makihara

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC of the female genital tract are aggressive and uncommon tumors, which usually involve the uterine cervix and ovary, and are seen very rarely in the endometrium. Only less than 10 cases of large cell NEC (LCNEC of the endometrium have been reported in the literature and their radiological findings are not well described. We report here two cases of pathologically proven LCNEC of the uterine endometrium. In both cases, the uterine body was enlarged and the tumor occupied part of the uterine cavity. Endometrial mass exhibited heterogeneous high intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR images, and diffusion-weighted MR images revealed high intensity throughout the tumor, consistent with malignancy. LCNEC is a highly malignant neoplasm without particular findings in terms of diagnostic imaging and pathology, so its preoperative definitive diagnosis is very difficult. However, when laboratory test, pathologic diagnosis and MR imaging suggest a poorly differentiated uterine malignancy, positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan should be performed as a general assessment to help with diagnosis.

  1. Laser capture microdissection and cDNA array analysis of endometrium identify CCL16 and CCL21 as epithelial-derived inflammatory mediators associated with endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Rebecca L

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the pathophysiology of chemokine secretion in endometriosis may offer a novel area of therapeutic intervention. This study aimed to identify chemokines differentially expressed in epithelial glands in eutopic endometrium from normal women and those with endometriosis, and to establish the expression profiles of key chemokines in endometriotic lesions. Methods Laser capture microdissection isolated epithelial glands from endometrial eutopic tissue from women with and without endometriosis in the mid-secretory phase of their menstrual cycles. Gene profiling of the excised glands used a human chemokine and receptor cDNA array. Selected chemokines were further examined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results 22 chemokine/receptor genes were upregulated and two downregulated in pooled endometrial epithelium of women with endometriosis compared with controls. CCL16 and CCL21 mRNA was confirmed as elevated in some women with endometriosis compared to controls on individual samples. Immunoreactive CCL16 and CCL21 were predominantly confined to glands in eutopic and ectopic endometrium: leukocytes also stained. Immunoreactive CCL16 was overall higher in glands in ectopic vs. eutopic endometrium from the same woman (P Conclusion This study provides novel candidate molecules and suggests a potential local role for CCL16 and CCL21 as mediators contributing to the inflammatory events associated with endometriosis.

  2. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  3. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the endometrium of patients with repeated implantation failure after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, A; Goruk, N Y; Tunc, S Y; Agaçayak, E; Alabalik, U; Yalinkaya, A; Gül, T

    2014-01-01

    To compare the immunohistochemical expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients with normal fertile controls. The study group consisted of primary infertile patients with RIF and normal fertile controls between January 2011 and February 2013. Endometrial samples received at the luteal phase were exposed to immunohistochemical staining for EMMPRIN antibodies. EMMPRIN expression of endometrial glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells were evaluated. The main outcome measure was defined as immunohistochemical score with regard to the severity and extent of staining. The study group consisted of 26 primary infertile patients, whereas the control group consisted of 40 normal fertile controls. The fertile group was found to have stronger expression of EMMPRIN than the study group when endometrial glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells were evaluated with regards to the severity of staining (p EMMPRIN in the endometrial cells of the patients with RIF compared with fertile healthy controls. We suggest that reduced EMMPRIN expression in the human endometrium may lead to poor endometrial receptivity.

  4. Lack of evidence from HPLC 32P-post-labelling for tamoxifen-DNA adducts in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, P L; Sardar, S; Crooks, N; Neven, P; Van Hoof, I; Ugwumadu, A; Bourne, T; Tomas, E; Hellberg, P; Hewer, A J; Phillips, D H

    1999-02-01

    Tamoxifen is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer in women. It is also a potent carcinogen in rat liver and forms covalent DNA adducts in this tissue. A previous study exploring DNA adducts in human endometria, utilizing thin layer chromatography 32P-postlabelling, found no evidence for adducts in tamoxifen-treated women [Carmichael,P.L., Ugwumadu,A.H.N., Neven,P., Hewer,A.J., Poon,G.K. and Phillips,D.H. (1996) Cancer Res., 56, 1475-1479]. However, subsequent work utilizing HPLC 32P-post-labelling [Hemminki,K., Ranjaniemi,H., Lindahl,B. and Moberger,B. (1996) Cancer Res., 56, 4374-4377] suggested that very low levels could be detected. We have sought to investigate this question further by reproducing the HPLC methodology at two centres, and analysing endometrial DNA from 20 patients treated with 20 mg/day tamoxifen for between 22 and 65 months. Liver DNA isolated from tamoxifen-treated rats was used as a positive control. We found no convincing evidence for tamoxifen-derived DNA adducts in human endometrium. HPLC elution profiles of post-labelled DNA from tamoxifen-treated women were indistinguishable from those obtained with DNA from 14 untreated women and from six women taking toremifene, an analogue of tamoxifen.

  5. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN and its related extracellular matrix degrading enzymes in the endometrium during estrous cycle and early gestation in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoe Misa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN regulates several biological functions involving the modulation of cell behaviors via cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. According to its diverse functions, we hypothesized that EMMPRIN may play an important role in endometrial remodeling and establishment of pregnancy in cow. Methods In this study, endometrial tissues from the cyclic cows during before ovulation, after ovulation and middle of estrous cycle; and pregnant endometrial tissues from Day 19 to 35 of gestation have been used. Expression of mRNA was analyzed by RT-PCR, qPCR and in situ hybridization whereas protein expression by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Results EMMPRIN mRNA was expressed in both cyclic and pregnant endometrium and significantly higher in the endometrium at Day 35 of gestation than the cyclic endometrium. In Western blot analysis, an approximately 65 kDa band was detected in the endometrium, and approximately 51 kDa in the cultured bovine epithelial cells and BT-1 cells, respectively. Both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry data showed that EMMPRIN was primarily expressed in luminal and glandular epithelium with strong staining on Day 19 conceptus. At Day 19 of gestation, expression of EMMPRIN mRNA on luminal epithelium was decreased than that observed at middle of estrous cycle, however, on Day 30 of gestation, slightly increased expression was found at the site of placentation. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 and MMP-14 mRNA were mainly detected in stroma and their expression also decreased at Day 19 of gestation however it was also expressed at the site of placentation at Day 30 of gestation as observed for EMMPRIN. Expression of MMP-1 or -9 mRNA was very low and was below the detection limit in the cyclic and pregnant endometrium. Conclusion EMMPRIN from the luminal epithelium may regulate the expression of stromal MMP-2 and -14

  6. Facing up to disability

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Shakespeare

    2013-01-01

    Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They succ...

  7. Papillary proliferation of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of 59 cases of simple and complex papillae without cytologic atypia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Philip P C; Irving, Julie A; McCluggage, W Glenn; Clement, Philip B; Young, Robert H

    2013-02-01

    Papillary proliferation of the endometrium (PPE) without cytologic atypia is uncommon and has only been studied in detail by Lehman and Hart in 2001. On histologic examination, PPE ranges from simple papillae with fibrovascular cores, often involving the surface of endometrial polyps, to complex intracystic proliferations; some consider the latter to be analogous to nonatypical complex hyperplasia. To further characterize PPE, with emphasis on the risk of and features associated with concurrent or subsequent neoplasia, the clinicopathologic features of 59 cases without cytologic atypia were studied. The cases were classified into 2 groups according to the degree of architectural complexity and extent of proliferation. Group 1 consisted of those with localized simple papillae. Simple papillae were defined as those with short, predominantly nonbranching stalks; those with occasional secondary branches and/or detached papillae were also included in this group. Localized proliferations were those with 1 or 2 foci involving the surface or the subjacent glands of polyps or nonpolypoid endometrium. Group 2 consisted of those with complex papillae and/or those with diffuse and crowded intracystic papillae. Complex papillae were those with either short or long stalks, with frequent secondary and complex branches. Diffuse proliferation was defined as presence of 3 or more foci within a specimen or involvement of >50% of the endometrial polyp by simple or complex PPE. Any coexistent or subsequent hyperplasia of conventional type (World Health Organization classification) or adenocarcinoma was recorded. The age of patients ranged from 23 to 82 years (median, 53 y); 36 (61%) were postmenopausal. The majority presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Sixteen patients (27%) were receiving hormonal preparations including 5 who were treated with a progestogen for preexisting endometrial hyperplasia or low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The histologic diagnosis of PPE was made

  8. Dynamics of synthetic activity of RNA and glycoproteins in epithel cells of endometrium in heifers after ovulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivko, J.; Grafenau, P.; Uhrin, V.; Kopecny, V.

    1998-01-01

    Synchronized heifers (n=9) of Black Pied HF breed were slaughtered on 3rd, 6th and 9th day of sexual cycle (first day of estrus = 0). Excisions from basal part (A) and functional part (B) of uteri were taken immediately after killing and were processed for autoradiographic analyses. The samples of endometrium were incubated for 20 minutes in isotonic medium with 100 micro Ci uridine (5 -3H) additive with specific activity 740 GBq/mM (UVVVR Prague) to study the RNA synthesis. The endometrium samples were incubated for 60 minutes, and 240 minutes in isotonic medium with 100 micro Ci L-(6-3 H) fucose with specific activity 0.55-1.1 TBqImM (Amersham Int., G.B.) for autoradiographic analysis of the glycoprotein synthesis. The samples were fixed, dehydrated and embedded in Epon 812 after the incubation. The prepared cuts were covered with photographic emulsion and stored in dark box in a refrigerator at 5øC. They were developed in the developer ORWO D 19, stained with methylene blue and examined through the light microscope after one month exposition. We found out by the autoradiographic analysis that the activity of RNA synthesis in cells of the surface epithel is of rising tendency from 3rd to 9th day. The intensity of RNA synthesis does not change in the functional zone during the early lutheal phase, it rises in the basal layer on 6th day, but on 9th day it is the same as on 3rd day. The autoradiographical analysis showed that the activity of RNA synthesis in cells of the surface epithel is of rising tendency from 3rd to 9th day The intensity of RNA synthesis in functional zone does not change during the early lutheal phase, it rises in the basal layer on 6th day, but on 9th day it is the same as on 3rd day. The glycoproteins are synthetised mainly by the Golgi apparatus in supranuclear sphere in the cells of surface epithel and in glandular cells. The glycoproteins were not observed in apical regions of cells on 3rd day of cycle, however, they are intensively

  9. Involvement of prostaglandins F/sub 2. cap alpha. / and E/sub 1/ with rabbit endometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlicky, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several growth factors and hormones are thought to play a role in the growth control of endometrial cells. The authors have shown that prostaglandin F/sub 2..-->../ (PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../) is a growth factor for primary cultures of rabbit endometrium cultured in chemically-defined serum-free medium and that prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) antagonizes the PGF/sub 2..-->../ induction of growth. Both (/sup 3/H)PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 1/ bind in a time and temperature dependent, dissociable, saturable and specific manner. The binding of (/sup 3/H)PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 1/ can be both down and up regulated and is enzyme sensitive. PGE /sub 1/ stimulates intracellular cAMP synthesis and accumulation in a time and concentration dependent manner. PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ probably exerts its effects through an amiloride-sensitive intermediate. Both PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 1/ are constitutively synthesized by these primary cultures, and they have shown this synthesis to be both drug and hormone sensitive. They hypothesize that it is the ratio, rather than the absolute quantities, of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 1/ which is of more importance in the regulation of endometrial cell growth. Furthermore, they believe this regulation of endometrial growth plays a role in control of proliferation during the decidual response and that a derangement in the ratio of these prostaglandins may lead to either infertility or hyperplasia. The ability of these cultures to synthesize prostaglandins in a hormonally regulatable manner may be of importance in the study of dysmenorrhea and uterine cramping as caused by the myometrial contracting prostaglandin, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../.

  10. Endometrium evaluation with high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging in patients submitted to uterine leiomyoma embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Monica Amadio Piazza [Post-graduation Program in Abdominal Imaging, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nasser, Felipe [Intervention Radiology Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zlotnik, Eduardo; Messina, Marcos de Lorenzo [Gynecology and Obstetrics Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb [Magnetic Resonance Unit, Imaging Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the endometrial alterations related to embolization of uterine arteries for the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis (pelvic pain and/or uterine bleeding) by means of high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance. This is a longitudinal and prospective study that included 94 patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis, all of them treated by embolization of the uterine arteries. The patients were submitted to evaluations by high-field magnetic resonance of the pelvis before and 6 months after the procedure. Specific evaluations were made of the endometrium on the T2-weighted sequences, and on the T1-weighted sequences before and after the intravenous dynamic infusion of the paramagnetic contrast. In face of these measures, statistical analyses were performed using Student's t test for comparison of the results obtained before and after the procedure. An average increase of 20.9% was noted in the endometrial signal on T2-weighted images obtained after the uterine artery embolization procedure when compared to the pre-procedure evaluation (p=0.0004). In the images obtained with the intravenous infusion of paramagnetic contrast, an average increase of 18.7% was noted in the post-embolization intensity of the endometrial signal, compared to the pre-embolization measure (p<0.035). After embolization of the uterine arteries, there was a significant increase of the endometrial signal on the T2-weighted images and on the post-contrast images, inferring possible edema and increased endometrial flow. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings.

  11. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the normal endometrium: temporal and spatial variations of the apparent diffusion coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornasa, Francesca; Montemezzi, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) is increasingly used in the diagnosis of endometrial disease. No complete knowledge, however, exists yet of the influence of physiology on the endometrial apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values on which DWI is based. Purpose: To establish whether the ADC values measured with DWI in the endometrium of healthy reproductive-aged women significantly vary from the early proliferative to the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle and between the fundus and the isthmus of the uterus. Material and Methods: In 17 women the endometrial ADC values measured on the fifth menstrual day, both at the fundus and at the isthmus of the uterus, were compared to the values obtained on the 14th day before the subsequent cycle. In 81 women (menstrual day: fifth through 21st) the endometrial ADC values measured at the fundus were compared to the values obtained at the isthmus of the uterus. All examinations were performed with a 1.5 T magnet (b values: 0 and 800 mm/s 2 ). The results were analyzed by means of Student's t-test per paired data. Results: The endometrial ADC values measured on the fifth day of the menstrual cycle were lower than those obtained in the periovulatory phase both at the fundus (mean 0.923 vs. 1.256 x 10 - 3 mm 2 /s) and at the isthmus (mean 1.297 vs. 1.529 x 10 - 3 mm 2 /s) of the uterus. The endometrial ADC values measured at the fundus of the uterus were lower than those obtained at the isthmus (mean 1.132 vs. 1.420 x 10 - 3 mm 2 /s) through the menstrual cycle. All these differences were highly significant (P < 0.001) at statistical analysis. Conclusion: Physiological variations occurring in endometrial ADC values of healthy women should be considered by the radiologists when interpreting DWI examinations in patients with endometrial disease

  12. Imaging techniques for evaluation of the uterine cavity and endometrium in premenopausal patients before minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueholm, Margit; Lundorf, Erik; Olesen, Frede

    2002-06-01

    A literature review compared the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS) hysterosonographic examination (HSE), hysteroscopy (HY), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in abnormalities of the uterine cavity and endometrium in premenopausal patients referred to surgery and women with abnormal uterine bleeding. The studies varied much in terms of patient selection, number of observers, blinding and experience of observers, and definition of abnormality criteria. The diagnostic effectiveness of the techniques reviewed varied: TVS only reached intermediate quality levels as a diagnostic tool for exclusion of uterine cavity abnormalities and no data support that MRI, TVS, HY, or HSE may exclude hyperplasia without concomitant endometrial sampling. HY and HSE were equally effective and apparently outperformed TVS, especially for identification of polyps. However, all techniques carried a significant number of false positive results. MRI does not satisfy current diagnostic demands for detection of endometrial abnormalities, but it is sufficiently accurate for submucous myoma (SM) evaluation. TVS, HSE, and HY carry much observer variation as opposed to MRI. In experienced hands TVS should be a first choice modality, but its precision and consistency fall short of current needs and it should therefore be supplemented by other techniques. HSE or HY performed by experienced clinicians should be used as supplements to TVS for exclusion of polyps. MRI can be recommended as the first choice modality for exact evaluation of SM uterine in-growth before advanced minimal invasive treatment of myomas. Clinicians should be aware that modern imaging techniques may yield highly idiosyncratic results when used by inexperienced staff, and efforts should be made to reduce such observer variation. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader will be able to describe the diagnostic strengths and weaknesses of the

  13. Endometrium evaluation with high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging in patients submitted to uterine leiomyoma embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Monica Amadio Piazza; Nasser, Felipe; Zlotnik, Eduardo; Messina, Marcos de Lorenzo; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial alterations related to embolization of uterine arteries for the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis (pelvic pain and/or uterine bleeding) by means of high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance. This is a longitudinal and prospective study that included 94 patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis, all of them treated by embolization of the uterine arteries. The patients were submitted to evaluations by high-field magnetic resonance of the pelvis before and 6 months after the procedure. Specific evaluations were made of the endometrium on the T2-weighted sequences, and on the T1-weighted sequences before and after the intravenous dynamic infusion of the paramagnetic contrast. In face of these measures, statistical analyses were performed using Student's t test for comparison of the results obtained before and after the procedure. An average increase of 20.9% was noted in the endometrial signal on T2-weighted images obtained after the uterine artery embolization procedure when compared to the pre-procedure evaluation (p=0.0004). In the images obtained with the intravenous infusion of paramagnetic contrast, an average increase of 18.7% was noted in the post-embolization intensity of the endometrial signal, compared to the pre-embolization measure (p<0.035). After embolization of the uterine arteries, there was a significant increase of the endometrial signal on the T2-weighted images and on the post-contrast images, inferring possible edema and increased endometrial flow. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings

  14. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  15. Expression of NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) is increased in the endometrium of women with endometrial cancer and women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiomo, William; Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Chapman, Caroline; Metzler, Veronika M; Abouzeid, Jad; Latif, Ayşe; Chadwick, Amy; Kitson, Sarah; Sivalingam, Vanitha N; Stratford, Ian J; Rutland, Catrin S; Persson, Jenny L; Ødum, Niels; Fuentes-Utrilla, Pablo; Jeyapalan, Jennie N; Heery, David M; Crosbie, Emma J; Mongan, Nigel P

    2017-11-01

    Women with a prior history of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of endometrial cancer (EC). To investigate whether the endometrium of women with PCOS possesses gene expression changes similar to those found in EC. Patients with EC, PCOS and control women unaffected by either PCOS or EC were recruited into a cross-sectional study at the Nottingham University Hospital, UK. For RNA sequencing, representative individual endometrial biopsies were obtained from women with EC, PCOS and a woman unaffected by PCOS or EC. Expression of a subset of differentially expressed genes identified by RNA sequencing, including NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), was validated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR validation (n = 76) and in the cancer genome atlas UCEC (uterine corpus endometrioid carcinoma) RNA sequencing data set (n = 381). The expression of NQO1 was validated by immunohistochemistry in EC samples from a separate cohort (n = 91) comprised of consecutive patients who underwent hysterectomy at St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, between 2011 and 2013. A further 6 postmenopausal women with histologically normal endometrium who underwent hysterectomy for genital prolapse were also included. Informed consent and local ethics approval were obtained for the study. We show for the first that NQO1 expression is significantly increased in the endometrium of women with PCOS and EC. Immunohistochemistry confirms significantly increased NQO1 protein expression in EC relative to nonmalignant endometrial tissue (P < .0001). The results obtained here support a previously unrecognized molecular link between PCOS and EC involving NQO1. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparison of clinicopathologic variables in coexistence cancers of the endometrium and ovary: A review of 55 cases in an academic center in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Sadidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The coexistence primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary are relatively uncommon. The purpose of this study was to characterize patients diagnosed primary synchronous endometrial and ovarian cancer (SEOC, endometrial cancer (EC with ovarian metastasis, and ovarian cancer (OC with endometrial metastasis and compare clinicopathologic variables and prognosis. Materials and Methods: All the patients with diagnosis of both endometrium and OC, who hospitalized between 2002 and 2012 in an academic center affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences, were evaluated with respect to different clinicopathologic variables, follow-up times, and outcomes. Results: Fifty-five patients had been diagnosed with both endometrium and OC. 17, 26, and 12 patients were diagnosed as SEOC, EC, and OC, respectively. The frequency of abnormal uterine bleeding was significantly lower in OC (16.7% compared to others (58.8% in SEOC and 53.8% in EC. However, the abdominal/pelvic pain was significantly higher in OC (50% compared to others (35.3% in SEOC and 34.6% in EC (P < 0.05. Complex atypical hyperplasia (87.5%, endometriosis (88.8%, and endometrioid carcinoma (54.5% was observed most in SEOC group. The duration of follow-up time was between 3 and 171 months with a mean of 16 months. There was no death in SEOC who followed. Survivals of patients between three group were statistically significant (P = 0.032. Conclusion: Our results showed that overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS of SEOC patients is better than those with EC and OC (P = 0.032.

  17. Enhanced proapoptotic gene expression of XAF1, CASP8 and TNFSF10 in the bovine endometrium during early pregnancy is not correlated with augmented apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, A E; Schulke, K; Unterseer, S; Reichenbach, H D; Reichenbach, M; Büttner, M; Wolf, E; Meyer, H H D; Ulbrich, S E

    2010-03-01

    Bovine trophoblast cells release interferon-tau (IFNT), a type I IFN, as the pregnancy recognition signal. Since type I IFNs exert growth inhibitory and proapoptotic actions, the effect of the conceptus on components of the apoptosis pathways was determined in the bovine endometrium during the periimplantation period. Uteri of Simmental heifers were flushed post mortem at days 12, 15, and 18 of cycle or pregnancy for the recovery of conceptuses and the sampling of ipsilateral endometrial tissue at slaughter for quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, caspase activity and TUNEL assays. Endometrium samples of pregnant animals revealed increased transcript levels for the proapoptotic genes XAF1 (day 15: 2.9-fold; day 18: 15.1-fold; p=0.005) and CASP8 (day 18: 2.4-fold; p=0.007). The mRNA expression increased significantly with the day of the cycle for the proapoptotic genes FASLG, TNFSF10, TNF and TNFSF1A (p=0.004, p=0.006, p=0.001 and p=0.007) and the antiapoptotic gene BIRC4 (p=0.03). We detected high amounts of FASLG transcripts in day 18 conceptuses (16-fold higher than day 18 endometria). This finding was validated at the protein level by immunohistochemistry. To further analyse the endometrial activation of the caspase cascade, the activities of initiator caspase 8 and effector caspases 3/7 were determined luminometrically. No difference between pregnant and cyclic animals was found for either caspase activity. Additionally, a TUNEL assay showed no increase of apoptotic cells in the pregnant endometrium. In conclusion, although the bovine conceptus induces the expression of proapoptotic genes, neither an activation of a caspase cascade nor an increase of apoptotic cells was noticed. These results suggest inhibitory mechanisms preventing endometrial cells from programmed cell death. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of PGR, HBEGF, ITGAV, ITGB3 and SPP1 genes in eutopic endometrium of infertile women with endometriosis during the implantation window: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broi, Michele G Da; Rocha, Carlos V; Meola, Juliana; Martins, Wellington P; Carvalho, Filomena M; Ferriani, Rui A; Navarro, Paula A

    2017-09-01

    Alterations in endometrial receptivity may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis-related infertility. The literature has suggested that patients with endometriosis present progestin resistance, which could affect embryo implantation. We question the presence of alterations in the expression of the progesterone receptor gene (PGR) and the genes related to endometrium-embryo interaction regulated by progesterone. This pilot study compared the expression of PGR, HBEGF, ITGAV, ITGB3, and SPP1 genes in eutopic endometrium during the implantation window (IW) in infertile women with endometriosis with that observed in the endometrium of fertile and infertile controls. In this prospective case-control study, endometrial biopsies were performed during the IW in patients aged between 18 and 45 years old, with regular cycles and without endocrine/systemic dysfunctions, divided into endometriosis (END), infertile control (IC) and fertile control (FC) groups. Total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and gene expression analysis by Real-Time PCR were performed. We assessed the size of the difference that our series was powered to detect. From the 687 patients who underwent diagnostic videolaparoscopy or tubal ligation at the University Hospital, 130 were eligible. Of these, 32 had endometrial samples collected, with 17 confirmed in the IW. Fifteen samples (5 END, 5 IC and 5 FC) were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the expression of any studied gene. Our sample size allowed us to identify or discard large differences (two standard deviations) among the groups. Endometriosis doesn't cause large changes in the endometrial expression of PGR, HBEGF, ITGAV, ITGB3 and SPP1 during the IW.

  19. Enhanced expression of the stemness-related factors OCT4, SOX15 and TWIST1 in ectopic endometrium of endometriosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Proestling

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence suggests that endometrial-derived stem cells, spilled in the peritoneal cavity via retrograde menstruation, are key players in the establishment of endometriotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of the stemness-related factors OCT4, SOX15, TWIST1 and DCAMLK1 in women with and without endometriosis. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine stromal and epithelial expression of OCT4, SOX15, TWIST1 and DCAMLK1 in endometriosis patient (EP endometrium (n = 69 and endometriotic tissue (n = 90 and in control endometrium (n = 50. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of OCT4, SOX15 TWIST1 and DCAMLK1 was performed in paired samples of EP endometrium and endometriotic tissue. Co-immunofluorescence staining was performed for OCT4 and SOX15. For statistical analyses we used unpaired t-test, Fisher combination test and Spearman test. For paired analyses, paired t-test and McNemar test were used. Results We detected a significant correlation between the expression of the established stem cell marker OCT4 and the stemness-related markers SOX15 (p < 0.001 and TWIST1 (p = 0.002 but not DCAMLK1. We showed a colocalization of SOX15 and OCT4 in epithelial and stromal cells of endometriotic tissue by coimmunofluorescence. A concordant expression of OCT4 and SOX15 in the same sample was observed in epithelial cells of the endometriotic tissue (71.7%. The expression of stemness-related factors was not associated with proliferative or secretory phase of the menstrual cycle in endometriosis patients but was found to be differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle in the control group. Increased expression of epithelial OCT4, SOX15 and TWIST1 was detected in endometriotic tissue compared to EP endometrium in paired (p = 0.021, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 and unpaired analysis (p = 0.040, p < 0.001 and p = 0.001. Conclusion Our findings

  20. Differential gene expression profiling of endometrium during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between a repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shiori; Kanahara, Hiroko; Takahashi, Toru; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2017-03-23

    Repeat breeding directly affects reproductive efficiency in cattle due to an increase in services per conception and calving interval. This study aimed to investigate whether changes in endometrial gene expression profile are involved in repeat breeding in cows. Differential gene expression profiles of the endometrium were investigated during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows using microarray analysis. The caruncular (CAR) and intercaruncular (ICAR) endometrium of both ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns to the corpus luteum were collected from RB (inseminated at least three times but not pregnant) and non-RB cows on Day 15 of the estrous cycle (4 cows/group). Global gene expression profiles of these endometrial samples were analyzed with a 15 K custom-made oligo-microarray for cattle. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the cellular localization of proteins of three identified transcripts in the endometrium. Microarray analysis revealed that 405 and 397 genes were differentially expressed in the CAR and ICAR of the ipsilateral uterine horn of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. In the contralateral uterine horn, 443 and 257 differentially expressed genes were identified in the CAR and ICAR of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes involved in development and morphogenesis were mainly up-regulated in the CAR of RB cows. In the ICAR of both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns, genes related to the metabolic process were predominantly enriched in the RB cows when compared with non-RB cows. In the analysis of the whole uterus (combining the data above four endometrial compartments), RB cows showed up-regulation of 37 genes including PRSS2, GSTA3 and PIPOX and down-regulation of 39 genes including CHGA, KRT35 and THBS4 when compared with non-RB cows. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CHGA, GSTA3 and PRSS2 proteins

  1. SSA Disability Claim Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The dataset includes fiscal year data for initial claims for SSA disability benefits that were referred to a state agency for a disability determination. Specific...

  2. Disability Income Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.

  3. Disability and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Over a billion people, about 15% of the world's population, have some form of disability. Between 110 million ... disability. This corresponds to about 15% of the world's population. Between 110 million (2.2%) and 190 million ( ...

  4. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F Donoghue

    Full Text Available Progestins provide safe, effective and cheap options for contraception as well as the treatment of a variety of gynaecological disorders. Episodes of irregular endometrial bleeding or breakthrough bleeding (BTB are a major unwanted side effect of progestin treatment, such that BTB is the leading cause for discontinued use of an otherwise effective and popular medication. The cellular mechanisms leading to BTB are poorly understood. In this study, we make the novel finding that the large, dilated, thin walled vessels characteristic of human progestin-treated endometrium include both blood and lymphatic vessels. Increased blood and lymphatic vessel diameter are features of VEGF-D action in other tissues and we show by immunolocalisation and Western blotting that stromal cell decidualisation results in a significant increase in VEGF-D protein production, particularly of the proteolytically processed 21 kD form. Using a NOD/scid mouse model with xenografted human endometrium we were able to show that progestin treatment causes decidualisation, VEGF-D production and endometrial vessel dilation. Our results lead to a novel hypothesis to explain BTB, with stromal cell decidualisation rather than progestin treatment per se being the proposed causative event, and VEGF-D being the proposed effector agent.

  5. In vivo imaging of estrogen receptor concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using FES PET - influence of menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Yoshida, Yoshio; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Itoh, Harumi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to measure estrogen receptor (ER) concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using 16α-[ 18 F]fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES) positron emission tomography (PET) and to investigate the relationship between changes in these parameters with the menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen levels. Methods: Sixteen female healthy volunteers were included in this study. After blood sampling to measure endogenous estrogen level, FES PET image was acquired 60 min postinjection of FES. After whole-body imaging of FES PET, averaged standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the endometrium and myometrium were measured, and the relationship between FES uptake and menstrual cycle or endogenous estrogen level was evaluated. Results: Endometrial SUV was significantly higher in the proliferative phase than in the secretory phase (6.03±1.05 vs. 3.97±1.29, P=.022). In contrast, there was no significant difference in myometrial SUV when the proliferative and secretory phases were compared (P=.23). Further, there was no correlation between SUV and endogenous estrogen level in the proliferative phase. Conclusions: The change of ER concentration relative to menstrual cycle as characterized by FES PET was consistent with those from previous reports that used an immunohistochemical technique. These data suggest that FES PET is a feasible, noninvasive method for characterizing changes in ER concentration

  6. In vivo imaging of estrogen receptor concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using FES PET - influence of menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsucchy@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Mori, Tetsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Yoshio [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to measure estrogen receptor (ER) concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-17{beta}-estradiol (FES) positron emission tomography (PET) and to investigate the relationship between changes in these parameters with the menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen levels. Methods: Sixteen female healthy volunteers were included in this study. After blood sampling to measure endogenous estrogen level, FES PET image was acquired 60 min postinjection of FES. After whole-body imaging of FES PET, averaged standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the endometrium and myometrium were measured, and the relationship between FES uptake and menstrual cycle or endogenous estrogen level was evaluated. Results: Endometrial SUV was significantly higher in the proliferative phase than in the secretory phase (6.03{+-}1.05 vs. 3.97{+-}1.29, P=.022). In contrast, there was no significant difference in myometrial SUV when the proliferative and secretory phases were compared (P=.23). Further, there was no correlation between SUV and endogenous estrogen level in the proliferative phase. Conclusions: The change of ER concentration relative to menstrual cycle as characterized by FES PET was consistent with those from previous reports that used an immunohistochemical technique. These data suggest that FES PET is a feasible, noninvasive method for characterizing changes in ER concentration.

  7. A single preovulatory administration of ulipristal acetate affects the decidualization process of the human endometrium during the receptive period of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Albarrán, Saúl; Durand, Marta; Barrera, David; Vega, Claudia; Becerra, Rocio García; Díaz, Lorenza; García-Quiroz, Janice; Rangel, Claudia; Larrea, Fernando

    2018-04-27

    In order to get further information on the effects of ulipristal acetate (UPA) upon the process of decidualization of endometrium, a functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes in endometrium (DEG) from UPA treated-versus control-cycles of normal ovulatory women was performed. A list of 1183 endometrial DEG, from a previously published study by our group, was submitted to gene ontology, gene enrichment and ingenuity pathway analyses (IPA). This functional analysis showed that decidualization was a biological process overrepresented. Gene set enrichment analysis identified LIF, PRL, IL15 and STAT3 among the most down-regulated genes within the JAK STAT canonical pathway. IPA showed that decidualization of uterus was a bio-function predicted as inhibited by UPA. The results demonstrated that this selective progesterone receptor modulator, when administered during the periovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, may affect the molecular mechanisms leading to endometrial decidualization in response to progesterone during the period of maximum embryo receptivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Carcinoma of the endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, B M

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of endometrial cancer is highest among relatively affluent Caucasians. Although it has a comparatively low mortality rate compared with other gynaecological cancers, it is capable of aggressive behaviour. Endometrial cancer is uncommon in premenopausal women. The incidence rises with age and is significantly increased when there is exposure to unopposed estrogen, including hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Even when HRT is given in the form of estrogen and cyclical progesterone there is probably some increased risk. The long term use of tamoxifen for breast cancer is also associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer. Transvaginal ultrasound and pipelle or hysteroscopy endometrial biopsies are tending to replace the traditional dilation and curettage in establishing a diagnosis. 90% of endometrial tumours are surgically resectable on presentation. This remains the first line management--minimally, a total abdominal hysterectomy and bi-lateral salpingo oophorectomy. Prognostic factors include the histological grade, the depth of invasion of the myometrium, the presence or absence of lymph-vascular space invasion and involved regional nodes, tumour volume, and the presence or absence of involvement of the cervix. The pelvis is a major anatomical site at risk of recurrence, and since cytotoxic chemotherapy and hormone therapies have limited effectiveness, radiotherapy is the adjuvant therapy of choice where adverse prognostic factors are present. A move towards more radical surgery--the addition of lymphadenectomy with a total abdominal hysterectomy and bi-lateral salpingo oophorectomy, may modify the value of adjuvant therapy and has highlighted the need to demonstrate the exact place of post operative radiotherapy in the management of endometrial cancer. The ASTEC trial in the UK, run by the Medical Research Council, has the dual aims of determining the benefit of lymphadenectomy and of post operative adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with endometrial cancer confined to the corpus. Patients who are not medically fit for surgery or who have inoperable disease are managed with radical radiotherapy but the results in both these groups are inferior to those obtained with radical surgery. Spread outside the pelvis to para-aortic nodes may still be salvaged with local irradiation, but systemic disease is incurable and treatment is largely palliative including consideration of local irradiation, hormone therapy or chemotherapy for symptomatic relief. As reliable techniques for diagnosis are refined an even larger proportion of patients will be diagnosed with early disease. This, together with the development of new cytotoxic agents and sophisticated radiotherapy techniques to reduce normal tissue morbidity, will require the establishment of further clinical trials to refine optimal management.

  9. Integrated Disability Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Angeloni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to increase awareness regarding the wide and universal significance of disability, as well as the important benefits of an Integrated Disability Management (IDM approach. The scientific basis for IDM is explored in the first place through an analysis of its relationship to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. The conceptual paradigm of the ICF shares an ideological position with the IDM approach in that they are both underpinned by dynamic and multidimensional constructions of disability, which imply equally holistic and interdisciplinary responses. The IDM approach can be applied across a diversity of human situations to provide solutions that reflect the multifaceted and widespread nature of disability. The IDM approach is intended as a strategy capable of handling: inclusion of people with disabilities, active aging of human resources, health and safety in the workplace, prevention of disabilities and various diseases, return-to-work, absenteeism, and presenteeism.

  10. Facing up to disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Shakespeare

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They successfully demanded that disability be seen as a matter of equal opportunities and human rights, a shift which has now been described in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This is a global treaty which has so far been signed by 155 states and passed into law by 127.

  11. Adapting Art Instruction for Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jennifer M.; Janeczko, Donna

    1991-01-01

    This article presents adaptations for teaching art to students with disabilities. Various techniques, methods, and materials are described by category of disability, including students with mental disabilities, visual impairments, hearing impairments, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and physical disabilities. (JDD)

  12. NMR-based metabonomics for understanding the influence of dormant female genital tuberculosis on metabolism of the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, E; Jothiramajayam, M; Dutta, M; Chakravorty, D; Joshi, M; Srivastava, S; Mukherjee, A; Datta Ray, C; Chakravarty, B N; Chaudhury, K

    2016-04-01

    Does investigation of metabolic perturbations in endometrial tissue of women with dormant genital tuberculosis (GTB) during the window of implantation (WOI) assist in improving the understanding of endometrial receptivity? In dormant GTB cases significant alterations in endometrial tissue metabolites occur, largely related to energy metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis in dormant GTB cases. As an intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis strongly influences the metabolism of host cells causing metabolic dysregulation. It is also accepted that dormant GTB impairs the receptive status of the endometrium. Global metabolic profiling is useful for an understanding of disease progression and distinguishing between diseased and non-diseased groups. Endometrial tissue samples were collected from patients reporting at the tertiary infertility care center during the period September 2011-March 2013. Women having tested positive for GTB were considered as the study group (n = 24). Normal healthy women undergoing sterilization (n = 26) and unexplained infertile women with repeated IVF failure (n = 21) volunteered to participate as controls. Endometrial tissue samples were collected 6-10 days after confirmation of ovulation. PCR and BACTEC-460 culture were used for diagnosing GTB. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra of tissue were recorded using a 700 MHz Bruker Avance AV III spectrometer. Following phase and baseline correction of all NMR spectra by Bruker Topspin 2.1 software, spectral peak alignment of the data was performed. Multivariate analysis was applied to all spectra and individual metabolites identified and multiple correlation analysis was performed. Leucine, isoleucine, acetate, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, methionine, lysine, creatine, glycogen, glycine, proline and choline were found to be significantly increased (P < 0.05) in endometrial tissue of women with dormant GTB compared with unexplained infertile women with repeated

  13. HTRA3 expression in non-pregnant rhesus monkey ovary and endometrium, and at the maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Findlay Jock K

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTRA3 is a recently identified member of the mammalian serine protease family HTRA (high temperature requirement factor A. In both the rodent and the human HTRA3 is transcribed into two mRNA species (long and short through alternative splicing. We have previously shown that HTRA3 is expressed in the mature rat ovary and may be involved in folliculogenesis and luteinisation. HTRA3 is also upregulated during mouse and human placental development. The current study investigated whether HTRA3 is also localised in the primate ovary (rhesus monkey n = 7. In addition, we examined the non-pregnant rhesus monkey endometrium (n = 4 and maternal-fetal interface during early pregnancy (n = 5 to further investigate expression of HTRA3 in primate endometrium and placentation. Methods HTRA3 mRNA levels in several rhesus monkey tissues was determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Protein expression and localisation of HTRA3 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Long and short forms of HTRA3 mRNA were detected in the ovary, aorta, bladder, small intestine, skeletal muscle, heart and uterus but not the liver nor the kidney. HTRA3 protein was immunolocalised to the oocyte of all follicular stages in the rhesus monkey ovary. Protein expression in mural and cumulus granulosa cells of late secondary follicles increased significantly compared to granulosa cells of primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Mural and cumulus granulosa cells of antral follicles also showed a significant increase in expression. Staining intensity was higher in the granulosa-lutein cells compared to the theca-lutein cells of corpora lutea (n = 3. In the non-pregnant monkey endometrium, HTRA3 was detected in the glandular epithelium. The basalis endometrial glands showed higher staining intensity than functionalis endometrial glands. During early pregnancy, strong staining for HTRA3 protein was seen in both maternal decidual cells and glands. Conclusion We

  14. Embryo-maternal communication during the first 4 weeks of equine pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stout, Tom A E

    2016-01-01

    The first month of equine pregnancy covers a period of rapid growth and development, during which the single-cell zygote metamorphoses into an embryo with a functional circulation and precursors of many important organs, enclosed within extraembryonic membranes responsible for nutrient uptake and

  15. Aberrant expression of epithelial leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive cells in the eutopic endometrium in endometriosis and implications in deep-infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallvé-Juanico, Júlia; Suárez-Salvador, Elena; Castellví, Josep; Ballesteros, Agustín; Taylor, Hugh S; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Santamaria, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    To characterize leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5-positive (LGR5 + ) cells from the endometrium of women with endometriosis. Prospective experimental study. University hospital/fertility clinic. Twenty-seven women with endometriosis who underwent surgery and 12 healthy egg donors, together comprising 39 endometrial samples. Obtaining of uterine aspirates by using a Cornier Pipelle. Immunofluorescence in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue from mice and healthy and pathologic human endometrium using antibodies against LGR5, E-cadherin, and cytokeratin, and epithelial and stromal LGR5 + cells isolated from healthy and pathologic human eutopic endometrium by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transcriptomic characterization by RNA high sequencing. Immunofluorescence showed that LGR5 + cells colocalized with epithelial markers in the stroma of the endometrium only in endometriotic patients. The results from RNA high sequencing of LGR5 + cells from epithelium and stroma did not show any statistically significant differences between them. The LGR5 + versus LGR5 - cells in pathologic endometrium showed 394 differentially expressed genes. The LGR5 + cells in deep-infiltrating endometriosis expressed inflammatory markers not present in the other types of the disease. Our results revealed the presence of aberrantly located LGR5 + cells coexpressing epithelial markers in the stromal compartment of women with endometriosis. These cells have a statistically significantly different expression profile in deep-infiltrating endometriosis in comparison with other types of endometriosis, independent of the menstrual cycle phase. Further studies are needed to elucidate their role and influence in reproductive outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Categorizing clients with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lena; Amby, Finn

    Danish governments have continuously proclaimed goals of raising the employment rate for people with disabilities, most recently in the publication “10 goal for social mobility” (Government 2016). In spite of this, the employment rate for people with disabilities has been more than 30 percent less...... than that of people without disabilities for more than a decade (Larsen & Høgelund 2015). An explanation of this difference could be the limited connection between these general goals, the employment laws and the actual implementation of the goals in the job centers (Amby 2015). Earlier Danish studies...... have by large focused on employment and disability at the stage where the client already has been categorized as having a disability (e.g. Møller & Stone 2013). This study offers new insight to the field in a Danish context by exploring the process in which people with disabilities are categorized...

  17. Disability testing and retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    This Paper studies the design of retirement and disability policies. It illustrates the often observed exit from the labour force of healthy workers through disability insurance schemes. Two types of individuals, disabled and leisure-prone ones, have the same disutility for labour and cannot be distinguished. They are not, however, counted in the same way in social welfare. Benefits depend on retirement age and on the (reported) health status. We determine first- and second-best optimal benef...

  18. Mothers with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...

  19. Predictors of disability retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T

    1997-12-01

    Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.

  20. Disability and global development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Joan; Lord, Janet; Defranco, Allison

    2012-07-01

    The United States invests billions of taxpayer dollars each year into foreign assistance programs that foster international diplomacy and development directed toward improving the quality of life for people around the world. These programs develop economies and combat poverty, promote democracy and governance, build new infrastructure, advance and protect human rights, among other development goals. The United States cannot effectively accomplish the goals of foreign assistance programs unless it undertakes measures to ensure that the programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The United States has been a leader in advancing the rights of people with disabilities and must continue to promote disability rights through its international development work. Overseas economic development will not be successful unless people with disabilities are included. Because of the significant number of people with disabilities in developing countries, if they are not included, the very economic growth the United States is trying to foster will be hindered. The goals of democracy and governance programs cannot be achieved without the inclusion of people with disabilities. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions for people with disabilities that undermine access to justice and full participation in society. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. What is the optimal means of preparing the endometrium in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, Eva R; Cantineau, Astrid E P; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Macklon, Nick S; Cohlen, Ben J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) enables surplus embryos derived from IVF or IVF-ICSI treatment to be stored and transferred at a later date. In recent years the number of FET cycles performed has increased due to transferring fewer embryos per transfer and improved laboratory techniques. Currently, there is little consensus on the most effective method of endometrium preparation prior to FET. METHODS Using both MEDLINE and EMBASE database a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature was performed. Case-series, case-control studies and articles in languages other than English, Dutch or Spanish were excluded. Those studies comparing clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates as well as live birth rates in (i) true natural cycle FET (NC-FET) versus modified NC-FET, (ii) NC-FET versus artificial cycle FET (AC-FET), (iii) AC-FET versus artificial with GnRH agonist cycle FET and (iv) NC-FET versus artificial with GnRH agonist cycle FET were included. Forest plots were constructed and relative risks or odds ratios were calculated. RESULTS A total of 43 publications were selected for critical appraisal and 20 articles were included in the final review. For all comparisons, no differences in the clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or live birth rate could be found. Based on information provided in the articles no conclusions could be drawn with regard to cancellation rates. CONCLUSIONS Based on the current literature it is not possible to identify one method of endometrium preparation in FET as being more effective than another. Therefore, all of the current methods of endometrial preparation appear to be equally successful in terms of ongoing pregnancy rate. However, in some comparisons predominantly retrospective studies were included leaving these comparisons subject to selection and publication bias. Also patients' preferences as well as cost-efficiency were not addressed in any of the included studies. Therefore, prospective randomized

  2. Synchronous Primary Cancers of the Endometrium and Ovary With the Same Histopathologic Type Versus Endometrial Cancer With Ovarian Metastasis: A Single Institution Review of 72 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bese, Tugan; Sal, Veysel; Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Tokgozoglu, Nedim; Demirkiran, Fuat; Turan, Hasan; Ilvan, Sennur; Arvas, Macit

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of women with simultaneous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas having the same histopathologic type. A review of medical records from 1997 to 2015 identified 72 patients with simultaneous carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary with the same histopathologic type. Patients with synchronous primary cancers of endometrium and ovary (SCEOs) were compared with patients with primary endometrial cancer with ovarian metastasis (ECOM). Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Clinicopathological variables including categorical data were analyzed by χ(2) or Fisher exact test and continuous data by a Student t test. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed and compared by using the log-rank test. A univariate and multivariate analysis of 72 patients with SCEO with the same histopathologic type revealed that SCEO is an independent prognostic factor of 10-year overall survival. There were 31 patients in the SCEO group and 41 patients in the ECOM group. With a mean follow-up time of 68.2 months, the 10-year overall survival rates were 61.3% and 36.6% in SCEO and ECOM groups, respectively (P = 0.029). Age, menopausal status, stage of ovarian cancer, performing lymphadenectomy, grade of endometrial tumor, omental metastasis, and residual tumor were found to be significant risk factors for recurrence in the synchronous group. The differentiation between SCEO and ECOM is of great clinical importance while our results showed a better prognosis for patients with SCEO compared with patients with ECOM. More aggressive therapeutic approaches may be considered for patients with SCEO who are older, postmenopausal, and/or have advanced grade of endometrial tumor, omental metastasis, and residual tumor. Lymphadenectomy should be performed in every patient with SCEO.

  3. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  4. Molecular-genetic aspects of the endometrium state on the day of the tentative implantation window in women with recurrent miscarriage in the programs of assisted reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Golovatyuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 50% of pregnant women after the programs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART face the problem of recurrent miscarriage (RMC, especially in the first trimester. Significant role in the development of RMC has infectious factor and chronic inflammation in the endometrium. The aim: to reveal the peculiarities of immune response mRNA genes of the inflammatory component expression in the period of the tentative implantation window (TIW in women with RMC in ART programs. Material and methods. The main group consisted of 240 patients with RMC in ART programs; the control group included 100 conditionally healthy fertile women. On the ground of PCR reverse transcription, the mRNA of the IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, Foxp3, TLR9, IL-2Rα cytokine genes was examined in endometrial samples obtained with the help of  biopsy on the TIW day. Results. Analysis of the transcriptional profile of the immune response genes in the endometrium on TIW day revealed that the relative level of mRNA expression of the IL-1β, IL-2, Foxp3, TLR9, IL-2Rα genes did not differ significantly in the main and control groups. Statistically significant decrease in mRNA expression of IL-10 gene was observed in women with RPL. Conclusions. A feature of mRNA expression of the inflammatory component of the immune response in TIW period in women with RMC in ART programs is a decrease in the expression level of the IL-10 gene mRNA, which may be one of the reasons for the unfavorable outcomes of the onset  pregnancy.

  5. Negotiating hearing disability and hearing disabled identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2012-01-01

        Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...

  6. Disability Employment 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…

  7. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-09-01

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  8. Disciplining Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Kevin P.

    This report discusses disciplining children with disabilities in schools, in the context of the legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Practical concepts are explained in terms of the school's responsibility to: (1) maintain a safe environment; (2) teach a code of discipline to all students; (3) use the…

  9. The Disabled: Media's Monster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Robert; And Others

    1982-01-01

    From the early nineteenth century to the present, horror, gangster, and adventure films, television, the comics, and newspapers have shown physical and mental disabilities to connote murder, violence, and danger. Such false portrayals have promoted negative public attitudes toward people with disabilities. (Author/MJL)

  10. Creating a disability mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S E

    1992-01-01

    People with disabilities have, for the most part, failed to identify with each other as a group. This has been detrimental because it has built a sense of isolation when a camaraderie based upon existing commonalities could have been developed. During the past ten to twenty years, there has been a great deal of discussion about appropriate language to use when discussing disability issues. This discussion has been a part of a larger debate concerning the existence of a disability culture. I believe that there is indeed a disability culture and I am a proponent of identifying and passing on stories which contribute to that culture. I have chosen to use mythology to convey this message and have begun with a focus on heroes - people who do something out of the ordinary. It is contended that almost all people with disabilities have performed heroic activities because of the pervasive discrimination encountered by each individual with a disability. Creating a disability mythology is an attempt to recognize and promote heroes within the disabled community and to advocate the importance of telling other people how positive change has occurred through instances of individual heroism.

  11. Senior and Disabilities Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Division of Senior and Disabilities Services DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Assistance Senior Benefits Program Medicare Substance Abuse Treatment Alaska Tribal Child Welfare Compact ; Senior and Disabilities Services Page Content Director Duane Mayes photo image. Duane Mayes Director

  12. Beauty and Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    People often hold stereotypical notions about disability, assuming people with significant disabilities offer little in terms of friendship or contribution. Some are even repulsed by that person's physical appearance. Such responses, evident within the Christian community as well, fail to acknowledge the inherent worth of the person as created in…

  13. Defining Disability: Understandings of and Attitudes Towards Ableism and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carli Friedman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Disabled people, amidst political and social gains, continue to experience discrimination in multiple areas. Understanding how such discrimination, named here as ableism, operates is important and may require studying perspectives of people who do not claim a disability identity.  Ableism may be expressed in a number of ways, and examining how a particular group, in this case siblings of disabled people, understand and value disability may contribute to overall understandings about how ableism works. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore relationships between siblings of disabled people's broad societal understandings of disability and their attitudes towards it. In order to tease out this relationship further we have also examined factors that impact how people define disability. Using both social psychological and sociological approaches, we have contextualized individual attitudes as providing additional new information about social meanings of disability, and set this study's results against the larger backdrops of debates over meanings of disability within Disability Studies. In our research, participants revealed complex understandings of disability, but most often defined disability as preventing or slowing action, as an atypical function, a lack of independence, and as a socially constructed obstacle. Participants' unconscious (implicit disability attitudes significantly related to their understandings of disability as lacking independence, impairment, and/or in relation to the norm, and their conscious (explicit disability attitudes. Moreover, longer employment in a disability-related industry was correlated with defining disability as a general difference, rather than as slowing or limiting of tasks.

  14. Infertility: Inability or Disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Khetarpal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability.

  15. Geriatic Disability Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.

  16. Disability impact and coping in mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, M Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the disability impact on parenting and caregiving is important for intervention. The present study was designed to understand the differences in perceived disability impact and related coping in mothers having children with intellectual disabilities alone compared to those having children with intellectual disabilities and additional disabilities. Accordingly, 30 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and 30 mothers of children with intellectual and additional disabilities were assessed for disability impact and coping. Group differences for disability impact were present in specific domains but not overall. Despite variations in coping pattern, both positive and negative coping strategies were observed in both groups. The results may imply that the impact of intellectual disability is so pervasive that except in certain domains mothers may not perceive the further impact of additional disabilities. Positive coping does not rule out negative coping strategies. These findings have specific relevance to service delivery in a cultural context.

  17. Anesthesia for intellectually disabled

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Chaudhary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period. Proper understanding of the associated problems along with a considerate and unhurried approach are the essentials of anesthetic management of these patients.

  18. Sexual rights and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2011-03-01

    This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.

  19. What is an Intellectual Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... learning and becoming an independent person. What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...

  20. mRNA-binding protein TIA-1 reduces cytokine expression in human endometrial stromal cells and is down-regulated in ectopic endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalok, Hakan Mete; Aydin, Ebru; Saglam, Ozlen; Torun, Aysenur; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Lalioti, Maria D; Kristiansson, Helena; Duke, Cindy M P; Choe, Gina; Flannery, Clare; Kallen, Caleb B; Seli, Emre

    2014-12-01

    Cytokines and growth factors play important roles in endometrial function and the pathogenesis of endometriosis. mRNAs encoding cytokines and growth factors undergo rapid turnover; primarily mediated by adenosine- and uridine-rich elements (AREs) located in their 3'-untranslated regions. T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA-1), an mRNA-binding protein, binds to AREs in target transcripts, leading to decreased gene expression. The purpose of this article was to determine whether TIA-1 plays a role in the regulation of endometrial cytokine and growth factor expression during the normal menstrual cycle and whether TIA-1 expression is altered in women with endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial tissue obtained from women without endometriosis (n = 30) and eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with endometriosis (n = 17) were immunostained for TIA-1. Staining intensities were evaluated by histological scores (HSCOREs). The regulation of endometrial TIA-1 expression by immune factors and steroid hormones was studied by treating primary cultured human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) with vehicle, lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α, IL-6, estradiol, or progesterone, followed by protein blot analyses. HESCs were engineered to over- or underexpress TIA-1 to test whether TIA-1 regulates IL-6 or TNF-α expression in these cells. We found that TIA-1 is expressed in endometrial stromal and glandular cells throughout the menstrual cycle and that this expression is significantly higher in the perimenstrual phase. In women with endometriosis, TIA-1 expression in eutopic and ectopic endometrium was reduced compared with TIA-1 expression in eutopic endometrium of unaffected control women. Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-α increased TIA-1 expression in HESCs in vitro, whereas IL-6 or steroid hormones had no effect. In HESCs, down-regulation of TIA-1 resulted in elevated IL-6 and TNF-α expression, whereas TIA-1 overexpression resulted in decreased IL-6 and TNF-α expression. Endometrial

  1. Simple and complex hyperplastic papillary proliferations of the endometrium: a clinicopathologic study of nine cases of apparently localized papillary lesions with fibrovascular stromal cores and epithelial metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, M B; Hart, W R

    2001-11-01

    The clinicopathologic features of nine cases of papillary proliferation of the endometrium devoid of malignant nuclear features were studied. The patients ranged in age from 33 to 71 years (median 57 years). All were postmenopausal, except the youngest. The most common symptom was postmenopausal bleeding. Two patients were receiving hormonal replacement therapy and two were taking megestrol acetate. Two lesions were incidental findings in a hysterectomy specimen. Seven were diagnosed in endometrial biopsy or curettage specimens. In six cases (67%) the lesion involved an endometrial polyp. In all cases the papillae had fibrovascular stromal cores and variable degrees of branching. Two architectural patterns were found. A simple papillary pattern with involvement of only a few glands and little epithelial proliferation occurred in five cases, including three that were entirely intracystic. A complex papillary pattern with more extensive involvement of endometrial glands, a greater degree of branching of the papillae, and cellular tufting occurred in four cases. One or more metaplastic epithelial changes occurred in all cases, including endocervical-type mucinous metaplasia in nine cases (90%), eosinophilic cell change in eight (89%), ciliated cell change in seven (70%), focal squamous metaplasia in two cases (22%), and hobnail cell change in two (22%). Mitotic figures were found in three cases. In four lesions (44%), all with a complex papillary pattern, the proliferating cells had mild nuclear atypia. Three of these patients underwent hysterectomy within 5 months. Simple nonpapillary hyperplasia and two endometrial polyps were found in one patient, complex nonpapillary hyperplasia in one, and atrophic endometrium in the other. Two patients had additional endometrial samplings within 4 months that contained small residual simple papillary lesions. One of these had another biopsy at 16 months that showed only atrophy. One patient had no subsequent diagnostic or

  2. Who occupies disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Pollard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Locating occupational therapy within gendered and racialized systems of power, the authors consider the intersectional nature of critical disability studies discourse and the need for occupational therapy to incorporate such values into practice. This article discusses ways in which occupational therapy as a profession and individual therapists can align with or resist the economic determination which has come to dominate medical systems. It considers some of the political background to the history of the profession and its relationship with power. This positioning of the profession is explored against the impact of neoliberal economic policy on health, rights, service delivery and disability, and against some key issues, the pressure of ageing populations and the positon of occupational therapists as women professionals. Current policies present a critical challenge to central occupational therapy tenets. Occupational therapists may find themselves working both in alliance with disabled people and disability activists, and against them.

  3. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  4. Disabilities and Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about learning more about kids who have disabilities.  Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH).   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  5. Disabilities - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese ... Iraqi Health Outreach Project: Social Security Disability (SSD) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) ...

  6. Disability and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk behaviors and higher rates of premature death. Secondary conditions Secondary conditions occur in addition to (and ... Provide evidence-based guidelines for assessment and treatment. Data and research Include people with disabilities in health ...

  7. Living with a disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Louise Norman; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Tjørnhøj-thomsen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    highlighted as affecting quality of life. The use of social tactics to avoid confrontation with certain aspects of their disability was common among participants. Conclusions: Across disabilities, caregiving, dependency, understanding and acceptance, and discrimination and prejudice were all important aspects......Purpose: We explored which shared aspects of social relations were considered important to the quality of life of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 years living with a disability. We examined how social relations were experienced as affecting quality of life and social participation. Materials...... and methods: Fifteen focus groups involving 48 persons with disabilities were conducted using photo elicitation, preference ranking and props. Focus group interviews were supplemented with seven individual interviews with individuals unable to participate in focus groups. All focus group interviews...

  8. Facts about Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...

  9. Sports and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H

    2010-03-01

    Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Colour analysis of the equine endometrium: comparison of spectrophotometry and computer-assisted analysis of photographs within the L*a*b* colour space system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, S; Handler, J

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare two different methods of quantifying the colour of the luminal surface of the equine endometrium and to relate the results to histopathological evidence of inflammation and fibrosis. The mucosal surfaces of 17 equine uteri obtained from an abattoir were assessed using a spectrophotometer and by computer-assisted analysis of photographs. Values were converted into L(*)a(*)b(*) colour space. Although there was significant correlation between the two methods of quantification, variations in 'brightness', 'red' and 'yellow' values were noted. Within a given uterus, measurements using the spectrophotometer did not differ significantly. Using photographic analysis, brightness differed between horns, although no differences in chromaticity were found. Histopathological classification of changes within endometria corresponded to measured differences in colour. Extensive fibrosis was associated with increased brightness and decreased chromaticity using both methods. Inflammation correlated with reduced chromaticity, when measured by spectrophotometry, and with reduced brightness and yellow values, when assessed photographically. For this technique to gain wider acceptance as a diagnostic tool, e.g. for the endoscopic evaluation of uterine mucosae in vivo, standardised illumination techniques will be required so that colours can be compared and interpreted accurately. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Estradiol-promoted accumulation of receptor in nuclei of porcine endometrium cells. Immunogold electron microscopy of resting and estradiol-stimulated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, W D; Jakob, F; Thole, H; Engel, P; Jungblut, P W

    1992-01-01

    Endometrium was collected by curettage from castrated pigs, either untreated or exposed to estradiol in vivo by intrauterine injection, and processed for electron microscopy. The resin LR Gold was used for embedding, and sections were floated on droplets of 10 nm diameter gold particles, coated with the immunoglobulin-G1 (IgG1) fraction or its Fab2 fragment of a monospecific polyclonal antiserum raised in goats against the C-terminal half of the estradiol receptor. On average, only one gold particle per microns 2 became attached in the cytoplasmic area of untreated cells, whereas four were found over the nuclear area. These figures rose to 2-3/microns 2 and 15-26/microns 2, respectively, within 10 min after exposure to estradiol. The labeling intensities of nuclei in cell clusters and of coprocessed nuclei released from cells ruptured during curettage were identical in all situations. Nuclear pores were frequently tagged after estradiol treatment. The proportions of tagging densities in nuclei of untreated and estradiol-exposed cells corresponded to those of receptor contents measured in extracts of isolated nuclei by ligand binding. This correlation was not seen for the cytoplasmic compartment of untreated cells, the scarce tagging of which is interpreted by hidden antigenic determinants. Our morphological analyses support the conclusions drawn from biochemical data (Sierralta et al., 1992) of an estradiol-promoted translocation of receptor from the cytoplasm into the nucleus.

  12. A pilot cohort study of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in the treatment of unresponsive thin endometrium resistant to standard therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, N; Kim, A; Michaeli, T; Lee, H-J; Shohat-Tal, A; Lazzaroni, E; Barad, D H

    2013-01-01

    Is thin endometrium unresponsive to standard treatments expandable by intrauterine perfusion with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)? This cohort study is supportive of the effectiveness of G-CSF in expanding chronically unresponsive endometria. In a previous small case series, we reported the successful off-label use of G-CSF in four consecutive patients, who had previously failed to expand their endometria beyond 6.9 mm with the use of standard treatments. In a prospective observational cohort pilot study over 18 months, we described 21 consecutive infertile women with endometria women had, based on age-specific FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone, an objective diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve and had failed 2.0 ± 2.1 prior IVF cycles elsewhere. With 5.2 ± 1.9 days between G-CSF perfusions and embryo transfers, endometrial thickness increased from 6.4 ± 1.4 to 9.3 ± 2.1 mm (P inventors on a number of awarded and still pending U.S. patents, none related to the materials presented here. N.G. is on the board of a medically related company, not in any way associated with the data presented here.

  13. Late follicular phase administration of levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive changes the secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marta; Seppala, Markku; Cravioto, Ma Del Carmen; Koistinen, Hannu; Koistinen, Riitta; González-Macedo, José; Larrea, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    This study examined serum glycodelin concentrations and endometrial expression during the luteal phase following oral administration of levonorgestrel (LNG) at different stages of the ovarian cycle. Thirty women were recruited and allocated into three groups. All groups were studied during two consecutive cycles, a control cycle and the treatment cycle. In the treatment cycle, each woman received two doses of 0.75 mg LNG taken 12 h apart on days 3-4 before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Group 1), at the time of LH rise (Group 2) and 48 h after the rise in LH was detected (Group 3). Serum progesterone (P) and glycodelin were measured daily during the luteal phase, and an endometrial biopsy was taken at day LH +9 for immunohistochemical glycodelin-A staining. In Group 1, serum P levels were significantly lower, serum glycodelin levels rose earlier and endometrial glycodelin-A expression was weaker than in Groups 2 and 3, in which no differences were found between control and treatment cycles. Levonorgestrel taken for emergency contraception (EC) prior to the LH surge alters the luteal phase secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium. Based on the potent gamete adhesion inhibitory activity of glycodelin-A, the results may account for the action of LNG in EC in those women who take LNG before the LH surge.

  14. Glycoprotein CD44 expression in normal, hyperplasic and neoplastic endometrium. An immunohistochemical study including correlations with p53, steroid receptor status and proliferative indices (PCNA, MIB1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorianakou, N; Ioachim, E; Mitselou, A; Kitsou, E; Zagorianakou, P; Stefanaki, S; Makrydimas, G; Agnantis, N J

    2003-01-01

    We have studied by immunohistochemistry the presence and localization of CD44, estrogen and progesterone receptors, p53 and proliferative associated indices (MIB1, PCNA) in archival endometrial tissue, in order to determine their diagnostic and prognostic value as well as the possible correlations between them. We examined 186 samples of endometrial tissue (100 endometrial carcinomas of endometrioid type, 40 cases of hyperplasia and 46 of normal endometrium). Patient records were examined for FIGO stage, grade, and depth of myometrial invasion, histology, and lympho-vascular space invasion. Strong membranous immunostaining (> 10% of neoplastic cells) was observed in 45% of the carcinomas. A statistically significant correlation was found in the expression of protein in stromal cells, when compared with epithelial cells (p failed to show any statistical correlation with tumor grade or with vessel invasion. The expression of the protein was lower in FIGO Stage II compared with Stage I (p = 0.03). A positive relation of CD44 expression with progesterone receptor status (p = 0.02) was detected. CD44 expression was also positively associated with the proliferation associated with the proliferative index MIB1 (p = 0.001). CD44 is closely related to the secretory phase of the normal menstrual cycle and its expression is decreased in hyperplasia (simple or complex with or without atypia) and in cancer cases. These observations suggest that decreased CD44 expression might be functionally involved in the multiple mechanisms of the development and progression of endometrial lesions.

  15. Hypoxia-controlled EphA3 marks a human endometrium-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell that supports vascular growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine To

    Full Text Available Eph and ephrin proteins are essential cell guidance cues that orchestrate cell navigation and control cell-cell interactions during developmental tissue patterning, organogenesis and vasculogenesis. They have been extensively studied in animal models of embryogenesis and adult tissue regeneration, but less is known about their expression and function during human tissue and organ regeneration. We discovered the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α-controlled expression of EphA3, an Eph family member with critical functions during human tumour progression, in the vascularised tissue of regenerating human endometrium and on isolated human endometrial multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (eMSCs, but not in other highly vascularised human organs. EphA3 affinity-isolation from human biopsy tissue yielded multipotent CD29+/CD73+/CD90+/CD146+ eMSCs that can be clonally propagated and respond to EphA3 agonists with EphA3 phosphorylation, cell contraction, cell-cell segregation and directed cell migration. EphA3 silencing significantly inhibited the ability of transplanted eMSCs to support neovascularisation in immunocompromised mice. In accord with established roles of Eph receptors in mediating interactions between endothelial and perivascular stromal cells during mouse development, our findings suggest that HIF-1α-controlled expression of EphA3 on human MSCs functions during the hypoxia-initiated early stages of adult blood vessel formation.

  16. Differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and -2 by insulin in the baboon (Papio anubis endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazleabas Asgerally T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of insulin on expression and synthesis of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 in the baboon endometrium in vitro. Methods Baboon endometrial explants collected from cycling, ovariectomized, steroid-treated, simulated-pregnant and pregnant animals were cultured for 48 h in the presence or absence of insulin, with or without estradiol, progesterone and hCG. Results Insulin clearly inhibited IGFBP-1 production and mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas IGFBP-2 synthesis was not significantly affected. The inhibitory effects of insulin on IGFBP-1 were more evident in explants of non-pregnant tissue or tissue away from the implantation site. In the absence of insulin, synthesis of IGFBP-1 was induced in explants with low levels of de novo synthesis whereas IGFBP-2 synthesis was inhibited. This effect was potentiated by steroids and hCG in the explant cultures. Conclusion Insulin differentially regulates endometrial IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 secretion in the baboon.

  17. Generalist genes and learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia

    2005-07-01

    The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  19. Disability and the Services for the Disabled in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Cambaz Ulas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey there are approximately 8.5 million (% 12.3 disabled people. While the ratio of orthopedic, visual, auditory, speech, and talking disabilities and mental disability is 2.6%, the ratio of the people who have chronic diseases is 9.7% In our country, by the beginning of 1982 Constitution, there have been a lot of legal regulations. If the services for disabled persons considered as social security-related legislation for care, healthcare, education, employment and practices; the legal regulation on the year 2005 (The Disability Law no. 5378 has covered many blankness and also evolved the services to the disabled people. However, despite these recent legal regulation it is questionable that if the services for the disabled are adequate or not. In this review, the services, which offered to the disabled people, are evaluated as the topics mentioned above. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 483-488

  20. Madness as disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sander L

    2014-12-01

    How does society imagine mental illness? Does this shift radically over time and with different social attitudes as well as scientific discoveries about the origins and meanings of mental illness? What happens when we begin to think about mental illness as madness, as a malleable concept constantly shifting its meaning? We thus look at the meanings associated with 'general paralysis of the insane' in the nineteenth century and autism today in regard to disability. In this case study we examine the claims by scholars such as the anthropologist Emily Martin and the psychiatrist Kay Jamison as to the relationship between mental illness, disability and creativity. Today, the health sciences have become concerned with mental illness as a form of disability. How does this change the meaning of madness for practitioners and patients? © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Disability and 'care'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how the ‘care’ of able-bodied employees and managers (observers) affects their relationships with colleagues with cerebral palsy. Disability researchers have established that ‘help’ and ‘care’ may cause feelings of dependency with the recipient. However, few workplace studies...... have investigated the potential negative consequences of ‘caring for’ colleagues with disabilities. Through open-ended interviews conducted in 2013 in 13 Danish work organizations with 13 employees with cerebral palsy and 62 observers, the study examines how the relational aspect of ‘care’ may result...... in relationships between colleagues of ‘parent–child’ or ‘helper–helpless’. The study thus clarifies the inherent contradictions embedded in the dynamics of organizational behaviour in relation to employees with disabilities, namely that workplaces may hire a person with physical limitations (perhaps to deflect...

  2. Disability Studies, Disabled People and the Struggle for Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mike; Barnes, Colin

    2010-01-01

    This paper traces the relationship between the emergence of disability studies and the struggle for meaningful inclusion for disabled people with particular reference to the work of a pivotal figure in these developments: Len Barton. It is argued that the links between disability activism and the academy were responsible for the emergence of…

  3. Encouraging the Development of Disability Allies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy J.; Assadi, Jennifer L.; Herriott, Todd K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors advocate for a constructionist interpretation of disability, grounded in a social justice perspective, by discussing disability paradigms, factors that influence attitudes and attitude change regarding disability, and disability ally development and behaviors.

  4. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…

  5. Disability Inclusion in the Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-12-28

    People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities – a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce.  Created: 12/28/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 12/28/2016.

  6. Understanding Intellectual Disability through Rasopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...

  7. Disability Inclusion in the Workplace

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities – a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce.

  8. 2017 Annual Disability Statistics Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, E. A.; Houtenville, A. J.

    2018-01-01

    The "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium" and its compliment, the "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement," are publications of statistics about people with disabilities and about the government programs which serve them. The "Compendium" and "Supplement" are designed to serve as a summary of government…

  9. Disability Management in Small Firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, David

    1991-01-01

    Notes that American research has paid relatively little attention to prospects for adapting disability management practices to financial and management environment of smaller employers. Compares large and small firms in terms of employer disability practices and characteristics of disabled workers; discusses barriers to rehabilitation and…

  10. Influence of energy balance on the antimicrobial peptides S100A8 and S100A9 in the endometrium of the post-partum dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swangchan-Uthai, Theerawat; Chen, Qiusheng; Kirton, Sally E; Fenwick, Mark A; Cheng, Zhangrui; Patton, Joe; Fouladi-Nashta, Ali A; Wathes, D Claire

    2013-01-01

    Uterine inflammation occurs after calving in association with extensive endometrial remodelling and bacterial contamination. If the inflammation persists, it leads to reduced fertility. Chronic endometritis is highly prevalent in high-yielding cows that experience negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation. This study investigated the effect of NEB on the antimicrobial peptides S100A8 and S100A9 in involuting uteri collected 2 weeks post partum. Holstein-Friesian cows (six per treatment) were randomly allocated to two interventions designed to produce mild or severe NEB (MNEB and SNEB) status. Endometrial samples were examined histologically, and the presence of neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and natural killer cells was confirmed using haematoxylin and eosin and immunostaining. SNEB cows had greater signs of uterine inflammation. Samples of previously gravid uterine horn were used to localise S100A8 and S100A9 by immunohistochemistry. Both S100 proteins were present in bovine endometrium with strong staining in epithelial and stromal cells and in infiltrated leucocytes. Immunostaining was significantly higher in SNEB cows along with increased numbers of segmented neutrophils. These results suggest that the metabolic changes of a post-partum cow suffering from NEB delay uterine involution and promote a chronic state of inflammation. We show that upregulation of S100A8 and S100A9 is clearly a key component of the early endometrial response to uterine infection. Further studies are warranted to link the extent of this response after calving to the likelihood of cows developing endometritis and to their subsequent fertility. PMID:23533291

  11. High dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of endometrium carcinoma; Tratamento de cancer do endometrio com braquiterapia de alta taxa de dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisen, Salim; Carvalho, Heloisa A.; Nadalin, Wladimir [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    1995-11-01

    One hundred and four patients with histologic proven carcinoma of the endometrium were referred to our department for treatment. The median age was 65.5 years and the median follow-up was 38 months. Ninety-five was pos-menopaused, 7 peri and 2 were pre-menopaused. Sixteen patients were staged (pos-surgery) IA, 5 GI, 8 G2 and 3 G3. Thirty and four stage IB, 10 G1, 18 G2 and 1 G3. Twenty-five were stage IC, 9 G1, 9 G2 and 7 G3. Six were stage IIA, 2 GI, 3 G2 and 1 G3. Eight were stages IIB, 1 G1,3 G2 and 4 G3. Nine were stage IIA, 2 GI, 5 G2, 2 G3. Three were stage IIIB, 2 GI and 1 G2. One was stage III C G3, and two were IVA G3. Depending of the extension of the disease, patients underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpino-ooforectomy, or total hysterectomy and bilateral salpino-ooforectomy plus omentectomy or Werthein-Megs technique. All the patients IA and IB have no evidence of disease (NED). Twenty-four patients IC are NED and one presented distant metastasis. From the IIB patients, 6 are NED, one shown progressive local disease (PLD) and one died from disease. From the patients IIIA, 7 are NED, one DM and one PLD. From the IIIB patients one is NED and TWO are PLD. From the IIIC patient is NED two months after treatment and the IVA patients are NED three and four month after treatment. Eight patients have shown mild complications of treatment. The results of survival and complications are similar to the therapeutic with low dose rate brachytherapy, with the advantage of an outpatient treatment, without the inconvenience of impatient regime. (author). 22 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Measurement of uterine natural killer cell percentage in the periimplantation endometrium from fertile women and women with recurrent reproductive failure: establishment of a reference range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Mariee, Najat; Jiang, Lingming; Liu, Yingyu; Wang, Chi Chiu; Li, Tin Chiu; Laird, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Uterine natural killer cells are the major leukocytes present in the periimplantation endometrium. Previous studies have found controversial differences in uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure compared with fertile controls. We sought to compare the uterine natural killer cell percentage in women with recurrent reproductive failure and fertile controls. This was a retrospective study carried out in university hospitals. A total of 215 women from 3 university centers participated in the study, including 97 women with recurrent miscarriage, 34 women with recurrent implantation failure, and 84 fertile controls. Endometrial biopsy samples were obtained precisely 7 days after luteinization hormone surge in a natural cycle. Endometrial sections were immunostained for CD56 and cell counting was performed by a standardized protocol. Results were expressed as percentage of positive uterine natural killer cell/total stromal cells. The median uterine natural killer cell percentage in Chinese ovulatory fertile controls in natural cycles was 2.5% (range 0.9-5.3%). Using 5th and 95th percentile to define the lower and upper limits of uterine natural killer cell percentage, the reference range was 1.2-4.5%. Overall, the groups with recurrent reproductive failure had significantly higher uterine natural killer cell percentage than the controls (recurrent miscarriage: median 3.2%, range 0.6-8.8%; recurrent implantation failure: median 3.1%, range 0.8-8.3%). However, there was a subset of both groups (recurrent miscarriage: 16/97; recurrent implantation failure: 6/34) that had lower uterine natural killer cell percentage compared to fertile controls. A reference range for uterine natural killer cell percentage in fertile women was established. Women with recurrent reproductive failure had uterine natural killer cell percentages both above and below the reference range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Porcine calbindin-D9k gene: expression in endometrium, myometrium, and placenta in the absence of a functional estrogen response element in intron A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisinger, J; Jeung, E B; Simmen, R C; Leung, P C

    1995-01-01

    The expression of Calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) in the pig uterus and placenta was measured by Northern blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Progesterone (P4) administration to ovariectomized pigs decreased CaBP-9k mRNA levels. Expression of endometrial CaBP-9k mRNA was high on pregnancy Days 10-12 and below the detection limit on Days 15 and 18. On Day 60, expression could be detected at low levels. In myometrium and placenta, CaBP-9k mRNA expression was not detectable by Northern analysis using total RNA. Reverse-transcribed RNA from both tissues demonstrated the presence of CaBP-9k transcripts by means of PCR. The partial CaBP-9k gene was amplified by PCR and cloned to determine the sequence of intron A. In contrast to the rat CaBP-9k gene, the pig gene does not contain a functional estrogen response element (ERE) within this region. A similar ERE-like sequence located at the identical location was examined by gel retardation analysis and failed to bind the estradiol receptor. A similar disruption of this ERE-like sequence has been described in the human CaBP-9k gene, which is not expressed at any level in placenta, myometrium, or endometrium. It is concluded that the pig CaBP-9k gene is regulated in these reproductive tissues in a manner distinct from that in rat and human tissues. The regulation is probably due to a regulatory region outside of intron A, which in the rat gene contains the key cis element for uterine expression of the CaBP-9k gene.

  14. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  15. Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)

  16. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...

  17. Othering, ableism and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    in 13 different work organisations. The primary finding of the study is that observers spontaneously refer to other ‘different’ people (e.g., transvestites, homosexuals, immigrants) when talking about a colleague with impairments. This finding suggests that disability is simultaneously a discursive...... discourses of ableism (which automatically produce difference) and tolerance and inclusiveness (which automatically render it problematic to talk about difference)....

  18. Rural People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... actually be at an advantage in terms of effective health information exchange in care coordination, due to local ... those patients with a disability had received an exercise recommendation at a doctor ... sponsors health promotion workshops designed to be provided by organizations ...

  19. Dyslexia: Disability or Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Redford, a veteran 5th grade teacher, addresses the question of whether, in the case of students with dyslexia, "it's time to ditch the disability classification and replace it with more positive language that embraces and appreciates [the condition] as a 'neurodifference' instead." Her answer is no--at least in the current education…

  20. Youth with Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Kooiker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Jeugd met beperkingen. Taking part in society in an ordinary way is not self-evident for children and young people with a physical or intellectual disability. They often encounter more obstacles in going to school, finding a job and in their leisure time than other people of

  1. Efeitos da terapia estro-raloxifeno sobre o endométrio de ratas Effects of combined estrogen and raloxifene therapy on rat endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vieira Santos Moraes

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos dos estrogênios conjugados eqüinos (Ece e do raloxifeno (Ral, isoladamente ou associados, sobre o endométrio de ratas adultas. MÉTODOS: foram utilizadas 56 ratas adultas, ooforectomizadas, divididas aleatoriamente em sete grupos: GCont (controle; GEce (Ece 50 µg/kg; GEce/25 (Ece 25 µg/kg; GRal/0,75 (Ral 0,75 µg/kg; GRal/0,4 (Ral 0,4 mg/kg; GEce-Ral (50/0,75 - (Ece 50 µg/kg + Ral 0,75 mg/kg e GEce-Ral (25/0,4 - (Ece 25 µg/kg + Ral 0,4 mg/kg. As drogas foram administradas por gavagem durante 21 dias consecutivos. Ao final da administração todos os animais foram anestesiados e fragmentos dos úteros removidos, fixados em formol a 10% e processados para inclusão em parafina. Os cortes obtidos foram corados por HE e submetidos à avaliação histomorfométrica. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: espessura do epitélio superficial, número de glândulas endometriais/mm² e número de vasos sangüíneos presentes no miométrio/mm². Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a análise estatística de ANOVA seguida pelo teste de Tukey-Kramer. RESULTADOS: nos grupos controle (Gcont e tratados isoladamente com raloxifeno (GRal/0,75 e GRal/0,4 o endométrio mostrou-se atrófico. Já nos grupos tratados com Ece isoladamente foi observado endométrio muito desenvolvido, sendo este efeito mais acentuado no grupo que recebeu 50 µg/kg, no qual encontramos aumento da espessura do epitélio superficial e da lâmina própria e no número de glândulas endometriais e de vasos sanguíneos. Notamos também proliferação endometrial nos grupos que receberam a associação de Ece e Ral (GEce-Ral - 50/0,75 e (GEce-Ral - 25/0,4. CONCLUSÃO: o raloxifeno parece bloquear parcialmente a ação do estrogênio no endométrio de ratas adultas castradas.PURPOSE: to evaluate the effects of conjugated equine estrogens (CEE and raloxifene (Ral, alone or combined, on the rat endometrium. METHODS: fifty-six adult rats were ovariectomized and

  2. Prednisolone Trial: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial of prednisolone for women with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and raised levels of uterine natural killer (uNK cells in the endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drury Jo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic recurrent miscarriage is defined as 3 consecutive pregnancy losses with no contributing features found on investigations. At present there are no treatments of proven efficacy for idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. Uterine natural killer (uNK cells, the most predominant leucocyte in the endometrium are adjacent to foetal trophoblast cells and thought to be involved in implantation. The exact mechanisms of how uNK cells affect implantation are not clear but are probably through the regulation of angiogenesis. Multiple studies have shown an association between high density of uterine natural killer cells and recurrent miscarriage. We have shown that prednisolone reduces the number of uNK cells in the endometrium. The question remains as to whether reducing the number of uNK cells improves pregnancy outcome. Methods We propose a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of prednisolone with a pilot phase to assess feasibility of recruitment, integrity of trial procedures, and to generate data to base future power calculations. The primary aim is to investigate whether prednisolone therapy during the first trimester of pregnancy is able to improve live birth rates in patients with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and raised uNK cells in the endometrium. Secondary outcomes include conception rate, karyotype of miscarriage, miscarriages (first and second trimester, stillbirths, pregnancy complications, gestational age at delivery, congenital abnormality and side effects of steroids. The trial has 2 stages: i screening of non-pregnant women and ii randomisation of the pregnant cohort. All patients who fit the inclusion criteria ( Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28090716

  3. Experimental model for endometriosis. Comparative histological study between the ectopic and eutopic endometrium Modelo experimental de endometriose: estudo histológico comparativo entre o endométrio estópico e o eutópico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cézar Alencar de Lima Rezende

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Thyrty-six rats werw implanted with endometrial squares (2 X 2mm to the left parietal peritoneum and the right uterine horn was tied. The rats were mated for 20 days and then sacrificed. Topic and ectopic endometrial histological pattern were compared. There was a correlation between the histological pattern of the autografted endometrium and the eutopic endometrium im most rats, pregnant or not. This suggests that both responded in a similar way to the same endocrine stimuli. The experimental model for endometriosis admiting the histological correlation between the uterine endometrium and the ectopic is factible and it is easy to be repetead.Trinta e seis ratas foram submetidas a implante cirúrgico de retalho endometrial quadrangular (2 x 2mm no peritônio parietal esquerdo e ligadura do corno uterino direito. As ratas foram acasaladas por 20 dias e logo após sacrificadas. Foram comparados o padrão histológico do endométrio eutópico e do ectópico.Houve correspondência entre o padrão histológico do endométrio auto-transplantado e o endométrio eutópico na maioria das ratas, prenhes ou não, sugerindo que ambos responderam de forma semelhante aos mesmo estímulos endócrinos. O modelo experimental de endometriose na rata, permitindo a correlação histológica entre o endométrio uterino e o ectópico, é viável e de fácil repetição.

  4. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is Disability a Health Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We welcome Andrew Haig's critique of our paper, "Disability & Health: A research agenda" in Social Inclusion. Our paper sought to identify research priorities to better understand, provide enhanced services and a better quality of life for people with disabilities, particularly in relation to their health and wellbeing. Haig's critique makes several important points that deserve serious consideration. His comments reflect a view of the relationship between disability and health which is different from the one we have espoused. Specifically, Haig argues that (a disability is a health problem, (b medical rehabilitation should be separated from Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR, and (c the evidence base for medical rehabilitation is much stronger than for CBR. We address each of these points below arguing that while some types of disability clearly result from health problems; often disability is not experienced as a health problem; and sometimes, disability in interaction with restricted access is the cause of health problems.

  6. Pressing Issues of Disability Employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabunova Aleksandra Anatol’evna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disability employment is a major tool for creating inclusive society. In Russia, the main obstacles to employment of the disabled are imperfect statutory measures aimed at improving competitiveness of this population group in the labor market; low prestige of jobs for people with disabilities; the employers’ unwillingness to hire disabled people. The purpose of this study is to determine the barriers disabled people face on the labor market and to justify the expedience of investing public funds in activities aimed at promoting disabled employment. Works of Russian and foreign authors, national statistics, results of sociological surveys of the population and people with disabilities conducted on the territory of the Vologda Oblast in 2013–2015 represent the information base of the study. The article reviews the impact of employment quotas for the disabled; in particular, it has been established that the number of the employed under such quotas during the period from 2008 to 2014 has declined. Based on the results of domestic research the authors have determined the reasons underlying lack of effectiveness of this social policy tool. One of the problems of promoting disability employment is training and re-training of the disabled. According to official statistics, only 38% of the employed disabled who live in a city are employed in the area of their specialty. At the same time, the results of research h of Russian authors show that training of an expert (even with consideration of their health capacities pays off within 4 years. Using the example of the Vologda Oblast, the authors show that annual tax revenues in employment of the disabled to jobs with wages close to the regional average may reach 33 million rubles. They also estimate the approximate regional cost of workplace equipment for the disabled. Finally, the authors propose a list of key courses of action on increasing competitiveness of the disabled in the labor market

  7. Prostitution, disability and prohibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-01-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...... arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception....

  8. Prostitution, disability and prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-06-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Neurological abnormalities predict disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...

  10. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin transporters, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 1 and 9, and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 and 5A1 in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwanhee Jang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective Prostaglandins (PGs function in various reproductive processes, including luteolysis, maternal pregnancy recognition, conceptus development, and parturition. Our earlier study has shown that PG transporters ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 4 (ABCC4 and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 (SLCO2A1 are expressed in the uterine endometrium in pigs. Since several other PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 are known to be present in the uterine endometrium, this study investigated the expression of these PG transporters in the porcine uterine endometrium and placenta. Methods Uterine endometrial tissues were obtained from gilts on day (D 12 and D15 of the estrous cycle and days 12, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 114 of pregnancy. Results ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 mRNAs were expressed in the uterine endometrium, and levels of expression changed during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Expression of ABCC1 and ABCC9 mRNAs was localized mainly to luminal and glandular epithelial cells in the uterine endometrium, and chorionic epithelial cells during pregnancy. Conceptuses during early pregnancy and chorioallantoic tissues from mid to late pregnancy also expressed these PG transporters. Estradiol-17β increased the expression of ABCC1 and SLCO5A1, but not ABCC9 and SLCO4C1 mRNAs and increasing doses of interleukin-1β induced the expression of ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 mRNAs in endometrial explant tissues. Conclusion These data showed that several PG transporters such as ABCC1, ABCC9, SLCO4C1, and SLCO5A1 were expressed at the maternal-conceptus interface, suggesting that these PG transporters may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy by regulating PG transport in the uterine endometrium and placenta in pigs.

  12. 78 FR 26509 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... inclusion of individuals with disabilities on the teams that develop the cloud and Web technologies... Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...

  13. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  14. Poverty, disability and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Martínez Ríos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that persons with disabilities represent 15% of the world population. There is a strong link between poverty and disability. Population with disabilities is among the most disadvantaged and discriminated. However, development economic theories have forgotten essential matters about this population, contributing towards their invisibility and poverty. The Capability Approach from a Human Rights based approach brings us a new dimension. The extraordinary costs that arise from a disability and from the psychological, physical and social barriers that persons with disabilities face, contribute to their poverty, lack of freedom and vulneration of human rights, as put forward by current studies on this subject. International co-operation becomes a very valuable tool to be used for the promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and overcoming poverty.

  15. Determination of estradiol, estrone and progesterone in serum and human endometrium in correlation to the content of steroid receptors and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity during menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Gollwitzer, M.; Eiletz, J.; Pachaly, J.

    1977-01-01

    A study has been carried out to compare the influence of estradiol estrone and progesterone on the estradiol and progesterone receptor levels and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity in human endometrium. The steroid hormone concentrations were measured simultaneously in both serum and endometrial tissue. The estradiol receptor levels were highest during the early proliferative phase and were inversely correlated to the endometrial tissue and serum concentrations of estradiol and progesterone. The highest progesterone binding capacity was found in endometrical cytosol during the late proliferative phase (midcycle) of the menstrual cycle. The midcycle peak of the progesterone receptor level correlated well with the first peak of the serum and tissue concentrations of estradiol. During,the luteal phase, in contrast to the proliferative phase, the progesterone receptor level decreased whereas serum progesterone concentrations were high. Estrone concentrations were higher in secretory than proliferative endometrium and were correlated to the increase of progesterone receptor content and 17β-HSD activity during early secretory phase. The 17β-HSD activity was approximately 10-fold higher during the early secretory than during the proliferative phase. The progesterone receptor level was highly correlated to the specific 17β-HSD activity of the microsomal fraction whereas a significant inverse correlation between the enzyme activity and the estradiol receptor level was observed. (orig.) [de

  16. Feminism and Women with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA LAURA SERRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Women with disabilities are doubly discriminated against and socially excluded: through gender and disability. In order to perform an in-depth analysis of their actual situation, it is necessary to understand which models have been able to provide legal and political answers to this issue. Hence, the feminist model can be identified, on the basis of which we might elaborate upon its possible ties with the social model of disability. This study shows the correctness of feminist conclusions when dealing with inequality between men and women, but it also proves the inaccurateness of feminism in its approach on women with disabilities.

  17. Disabilities Information Flow: A Disabilities Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bin; Allison, Colin; Nicholl, J. Ross; Moodley, Luke; Roberts, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The Disabilities Information Flow (DIF) project at the University of St Andrews has sought to provide a means of efficiently managing all student disabilities information within the institution and provide appropriate role-based service interfaces for all staff who need to routinely interact with this information. This paper describes the software…

  18. The World Report on Disability and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…

  19. Prevalence of disability in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.

  20. Just What Is the Disability Perspective on Disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, Tom

    2016-05-01

    In the helpful article "Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology," Joseph Stramondo adds to the critique of actually existing bioethics and explains why disability activists and scholars so often find fault with the arguments of bioethicists. He is careful not to stereotype either community-rightly, given that bioethicists endorse positions as disparate as utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and feminist ethics, among others. Although Stramondo never explicitly mentions utilitarians or liberals, it seems probable that these are the main targets of his discontent. The disability community, as he concedes, is also a broad church. Yet for this reason, I do not believe that you can read off positions on bioethics questions from either disability embodiment or disability organization affiliation. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  1. The Disabled: Ready, Willing and Able.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act, which bans discrimination against the disabled by private-sector employers. Describes the hiring practices and experiences of several companies that have employed disabled people. (JOW)

  2. Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest #407. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)

  3. Disability disclosure and workplace accommodations among youth with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Leck, Joanne; Shen, Winny; Stinson, Jennifer

    2018-03-20

    Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach. Our results showed the timing of when youth disclosed their disability to their employer depended on disability type and severity, comfort level, type of job, and industry. Youth's strategies and reasons for disclosure included advocating for their needs, being knowledgeable about workplace rights, and accommodation solutions. Facilitators for disclosure included job preparation, self-confidence, and self-advocacy skills, and having an inclusive work environment. Challenges to disability disclosure included the fear of stigma and discrimination, lack of employer's knowledge about disability and accommodations, negative past experiences of disclosing, and not disclosing on your own terms. Our findings highlight that youth encounter several challenges and barriers to disclosing their condition and requesting workplace accommodations. The timing and process for disclosing is complex and further work is needed to help support youth with disclosing their condition. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and employers should emphasize the importance of mentoring and leadership programs to give youth the confidence and self-advocacy skills needed to disclose and ask for accommodations in the workplace. Clinicians should advocate for the inclusion of youth with disabilities in the workforce and educate employers on the importance of doing so. Youth with disabilities need more opportunities for employment training and particularly how to disclose their disability and request workplace accommodations.

  4. Review: Disabled Addicted Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Hemmati

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Women have suffered from drug abuse for conturies, although formal Treatment assistance for women has been recognized as important only during the past few decades. The nature and underlying reasons for women's drug abuse differ from men’s behavior in many ways. It is finally understood that research on men will not simply translate into effective solutions for women as well. Here deal with the many issues that can arise in working with disabled women suffered from drug abuse because biologically, Culturally, and socially, their experience is different from that of men and other women and key theme For this discourse is that a woman who suffered from drug abuse is first and foremost a woman. Disabled women also have specific issues that must acknowledge and incorporate into the counseling, social work and other experince, so, here review is based on more than 25 years of the collective experience and firsthand knowledge of Monique Cohen and their Counselors at The CASPAR outpatient Clinic in Cambridge, Massachusett (2000 about women with drug abuse and alcoholism. The clinic Provides omprehensive substance abuse treatment to Individuals and Families struggling with either one or multiple addictions.

  5. Intellectual disability and homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, C; Picard, S

    2011-04-01

    The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Disability evaluation of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, C V

    2001-08-01

    These cases represent individuals who feel they have a severe impairment and are "disabled." They have been labeled with fibromyalgia. They are truly distressed. Their symptoms, their courses, are more chronic and refractory than those of medically ill patients, and they are high users of medical services, laboratory investigations, and surgical procedures. These patients see multiple providers simultaneously and frequently switch physicians. They are difficult to care for, and they reject psychosocial factors as an influence on their symptoms. Such persons "see themselves as victims worthy of a star appearance on the Oprah Winfrey show. A sense of bitterness emerges...." Shorter, a historian, believes that fibromyalgia is "heaven-sent to doctors as a diagnostic label for pain patients who display an important neurotic component in their illness. Our culture increasingly encourages patients to conceive vague and nonspecific symptoms as evidence of real disease and to seek specialist help for them; and the rising ascendancy of the media and the breakdown of the family encourage patients to acquire the fixed belief that they have a given illness...." Regarding the finding of "disability," this is a social construct, and many authors believe it is society and the judicial system who must decide who can work. To remain objective, the physician should report the objective clinical information. Physicians need not and should not sit in judgment of the veracity of another human being.

  7. Disability and the Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system…

  8. Disability Studies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…

  9. Disability due to gouty arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2012-01-01

    Gout-related disability is an underestimated and understudied problem. More qualitative and quantitative studies are needed that examine the concept of disability in gout and its impact on patients’ lives, both during and between disease flares. Moreover, future studies should try to identify

  10. Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, J. C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…

  11. Disability and the Open City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Brendan

    2001-01-01

    Contributes to the social theorization of physical access for people with disabilities by critically exploring how Ulrich Beck's "reflexive modernisation" thesis might be applied to the geographical understanding of disability. Demonstrates how Beck's theoretical framework can be used to enrich people's understanding of the genesis and mediation…

  12. Understanding intellectual disability through RASopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Disability Case Adjudication and Review System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DICARS is the legacy system supporting business processes in the Disability Quality Branches (DQBs). It supports quality reviews of DDS disability determinations....

  14. Disability as infra-critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    and we examine parts of the historical background for the production of authority in the context of managing disability as exception during polling. In doing so we point out that as the organization of electoral processes evolves, new potentialities for infra-critique also emerge.......This article investigates how disability can work analytically as a ‘critique from within’. Our case is the accommodation of citizens with disabilities during the voting process in Denmark. Here disability makes explicit how Danish democracy is produced as disability rubs up against implicit...... this offers. We analyze an incident at a polling booth during the 2013 Danish Municipal election. This renders visible some of the complex socio-material processes through which citizens and the Danish state co-enact and co-authorize one another. We highlight how ‘detachments’ are vital to such processes...

  15. Defining disability: metaphysical not political.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Christopher A

    2013-08-01

    Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British

  16. Neurological legal disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishna H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.

  17. Disability, sameness, and equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to research examining the work situations of employees with disabilities. This is performed by demonstrating how able-bodied norms affect the work lives of employees with cerebral palsy in Danish work organizations. Thus, this article investigates how able-bodied managers...... and employees talk about their co-workers with cerebral palsy and examines the narratives of diversity among able-bodied managers and employees when they discuss the work situation of their colleagues with cerebral palsy. The empirical point of departure is six weeks of participant observations in two work...... organizations along with interviews conducted in 13 work organizations with 19 managers and 43 colleagues who work with an employee with cerebral palsy on a daily basis. The article finds two dominating narratives regarding diversity that have to do with being either ‘different but the same’ or ‘just different...

  18. Intellectual Disability and Parenthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isack Kandel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.

  19. Rehabilitation time before disability pension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Støver Morten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. Methods A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. Results The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. Conclusions There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.

  20. Rehabilitation time before disability pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støver, Morten; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Sund, Erik R; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2012-10-30

    The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.

  1. Disabled people - rehabilitation with sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sport was used to complement  therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the  ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.

  2. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which ... disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. ... their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it ...

  3. Disability Discrimination and the right of disabled persons to access

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    StudentLab

    jurisprudence of the United States of America as well as to guidelines provided ... gender discrimination, but also disability discrimination especially, in the workplace, ..... Montalti and Bellengère "Is a right to affirmative action the solution to the.

  4. The Global Context of Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine O'Rourke - Lang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed

  5. Bad Bedfellows: Disability Sex Rights and Viagra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzell, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The disability rights movement grounds material critiques of the treatment of people with disabilities in a social constructionist perspective, locating disability in the social rather than physical realm, and demedicalizing the concept of disability. However, this conceptualization is threatened by the medicalization of non-normative erections as…

  6. From "Learning Disability to Intellectual Disability"--Perceptions of the Increasing Use of the Term "Intellectual Disability" in Learning Disability Policy, Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluley, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…

  7. Migraine disability and its recognition and assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dowson

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe main aim of this thesis is to investigate the clinical significance of headache-related disability; the clinical importance of assessing disability, the means of recognising the patients with severe disability and the development of new ways to assess headache-related disability

  8. Toward a Theory of Disability and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschick, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a theory of the connections between disabilities and gender, arguing that because bodies are so central to gender, people with disabilities are vulnerable to being denied gender recognition. Though both sexes experience devaluation and discrimination when disabled, being disabled further diminishes women's already devalued status. For…

  9. Can Disability Studies and Psychology Join Hands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkin, Rhoda; Pledger, Constance

    2003-01-01

    Although the field of disabilities studies incorporates psychology within its interdisciplinary purview, it embodies a distinct perspective consonant with the new paradigm of disability. Although psychology has begun embracing diversity, disability remains marginalized. Examines the foundational ideas of disability studies, training in disability…

  10. How Are Learning Disabilities Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Research Goals Activities and Advances Scientific Articles Find a Study Resources and Publications For Patients and Consumers For Researchers and Health Care Providers Home Health A to Z List Learning Disabilities Condition Information How is it diagnosed? Share ...

  11. Science Careers and Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda, Sue; Cremer, Bob

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes proceedings and student experiences at the 1980 Science Career Workshop for Physically Disabled Students at the Lawrence Hall of Science (University of California). Includes a description of the key-note speaker's topics, and other workshop activities. (DS)

  12. Office of Disability Employment Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Facebook Twitter RSS Email Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) Menu About ODEP ... LABOR DEPARTMENT Español A to Z Index Agencies Office of Inspector General Leadership Team Contact Us Subscribe ...

  13. The Transformation of Disabilities Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the five major characteristics of the transformation era and describes how intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities organizations can apply specific transformation strategies associated with each characteristic. Collectively, the characteristics and strategies provide a framework for transformation…

  14. Theme: Serving Individuals with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Marty; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for…

  15. Learning Disabilities Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provides the most current information on research, practice, theory, issues, and trends to broaden understanding and improve ... These services make LDA the leading resource for information on learning disabilities. Learn more about: Auditory Processing ... Processing Disorder ...

  16. Leadership and learning disability nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise

    Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment.

  17. About Learning Disabilities and NF

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complica- tions of NF1 include: • Learning disabilities: Although intelligence is usually within the normal range, 50-60% ... and the ability to access meaning from the printed word. 5 Recent findings suggest that a high ...

  18. SOCIAL JUSTICE FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazire Diker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to question the living conditions of disabled people in the 21st century from  the framework of social justice. The concept of “social justice” has a long history, influenced  by the works of numerous writers including Rawls (1971, Miller (1999, Reeves (2005, Fainstein (2009, Marcuse (2009 and Harvey (1992, 2009 and by the recent debates on  inequality, diversity, segregation, exclusion, and discrimination. The debates on segregation, exclusion and discrimination are generally focused on inequalities in terms of economic,  ethnic and gender dimensions; however, in these debates, there is very little reference to unequal opportunities of disabled people. On the other hand, the diversity issue is generally discussed with respect to ethnic and cultural elements, again with very little concern for the  rights of disabled people. In many developing countries, including Turkey, a legal framework  for addressing disability issues has started to be put in place. Awareness among governments and society of the needs and rights of people with disabilities is growing. In the  last decade in Turkey, the difficulties faced by disabled people have started to be taken into  consideration seriously. Before that, the only information about the disabled population could  be obtained from General Population Census in Turkey. In 2002 “Turkey Disability Survey” was carried out collectively by the State Institute of Statistics and the Presidency of  Administration on Disabled People. In this survey, it has been targeted to estimate the number of disabled people and comprehend their socio-economic characteristics, their  problems in social life, expectations, types and causes of disability, regional differences and also the proportion of population having chronic illnesses. After this survey, many projects  have started to be realized in order to propose strategies for eliminating discrimination in  Turkey. In this paper, we will

  19. Analysing the disability- sexuality controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Sibanda

    2015-01-01

    Sexuality is one of the many phenomena which are least openly discussed particularly in the African culture. Sexuality is conceived variously in different cultures and disability is seen as a threat to sexuality in many of the cultures. Meanwhile, sexuality is regarded as a central theme in the development of self-esteem and self-identity since it has been conceived within the bodily perfection and bodily beauty complexes. Thus, the way sexuality is conceived for people with disabilities form...

  20. Supporting Children with Learning Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    John k. McNamara

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...

  1. Information Access for Disabled Students

    OpenAIRE

    Cypaite, Asta; Šerkšnien, Justina; Rudžioniene, Jurgita

    2008-01-01

    Disabled students who makes relatively small part of the academic society are in risk to disappear among all other students, due to their communication and mobility difficulties have less possibilities to satisfy their needs, ensuring their rights to qualitative studies, equal opportunities in the labor market and social integration. A topic about information accessibility for disabled students is extremely important because of their information exclusion in their study process at the un...

  2. Mood disorders in intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Anne D

    2006-09-01

    This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.

  3. 77 FR 8234 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and Rehabilitation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... seeks to: (1) Improve the quality and utility of disability and rehabilitation research; (2) determine...; (3) identify research gaps; (4) identify mechanisms of integrating research and practice; and (5... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-- Disability...

  4. Modes of ordering disability: students living with visual disabilities in the Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Näslund, Rebecka; Qais Al Said, Shariffa Khalid

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how a group of students with visual disabilities speak about becoming disabled and living with disability in relation to: material entities, practices, and their own expectations regarding the future in the Sultanate of Oman. It draws upon individual interviews among six adults with visual disabilities. The article outlines, from a material semiotics approach, how various forms of modes of ordering enact disability. An interdisciplinary approach, informed by disability s...

  5. The role of disability self-concept in adaptation to congenital or acquired disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Kathleen R

    2014-02-01

    Current theories of adaptation to disability do not address differences in adaptation to congenital or acquired disability. Although people with congenital disabilities are generally assumed to be better adapted than people with acquired disabilities, few studies have tested this, and even fewer have attempted to explain the mechanisms behind these differences. This study tested the proposition that whether a disability is congenital or acquired plays an important role in the development of the disability self-concept (consisting of disability identity and disability self-efficacy), which in turn, affects satisfaction with life. It was predicted that disability self-concept would be better developed among people with congenital, compared with acquired disabilities, predicting greater satisfaction with life in those with acquired conditions. 226 participants with congenital and acquired mobility disabilities completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring satisfaction with life, self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and demographic information. Self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and income were significant predictors of satisfaction with life. Congenital onset predicted higher satisfaction with life; disability identity and disability self-efficacy, but not self-esteem, partially mediated the relationship. Findings highlight the distinction between adaptation to congenital versus acquired disability and the importance of disability self-concept, which are underresearched constructs. Results suggest that rather than attempting to "normalize" individuals with disabilities, health care professionals should foster their disability self-concept. Possible ways to improve disability self-concept are discussed, such as involvement in the disability community and disability pride. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Ethical analysis of the concept of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    2004-06-01

    The concept of disability from an ethical viewpoint was examined. Whether disability results from the way society is built and the way ideas and judgments considering disability are established in a communal interaction was discussed (i.e., is disability socially created and constructed?). Although views on disability emphasizing its social nature are basically sound, they are also insufficient because they fail to consider the normative dimension attached to the concept of disability. The core of the concept of disability is ethical, which is why a moral philosophical examination of the concept is needed. Three possible ethical theories of disability (universal, objective, subjectivist, and communitarian) are briefly presented and discussed and a preliminary outline of a basis for a sound ethical model of disability presented.

  7. Tourette syndrome and learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klug Marilyn G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Learning disabilities are frequently comorbid with TS. Using the largest sample of TS patients ever reported, we sought to identify differences between subjects with TS only and subjects with TS and a comorbid learning disability. Methods We used the Tourette Syndrome International Consortium database (TIC to compare subjects with comorbid Tourette Syndrome and learning disabilities (TS + LD to subjects who did not have a comorbid learning disability (TS - LD. The TIC database contained 5,500 subjects. We had usable data on 5,450 subjects. Results We found 1,235 subjects with TS + LD. Significant differences between the TS + LD group and the TS - LD group were found for gender (.001, age onset (.030, age first seen (.001, age at diagnosis (.001, prenatal problems (.001, sibling or other family member with tics (.024, two or more affected family members (.009, and severe tics (.046. We used logistic modeling to identify the optimal prediction model of group membership. This resulted in a five variable model with the epidemiologic performance characteristics of accuracy 65.2% (model correctly classified 4,406 of 5,450 subjects, sensitivity 66.1%, and specificity 62.2%. Conclusion Subjects with TS have high prevalence rates of comorbid learning disabilities. We identified phenotype differences between the TS - LD group compared to TS + LD group. In the evaluation of subjects with TS, the presence of a learning disability should always be a consideration. ADHD may be an important comorbid condition in the diagnosis of LD or may also be a potential confounder. Further research on etiology, course and response to intervention for subjects with TS only and TS with learning disabilities is needed.

  8. Sexuality and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jodi; Downes, Alison; Blum, Nathan; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Amad is a wonderful 16-year-old young man from Syria who has recently relocated to the United States from his war-torn native country. In his last few years in Syria, he was primarily at home with his mother, and they sought refuge with a maternal aunt in the United States seeking asylum and treatment of Amad's disability.At 8 years of age, he had intelligence testing in the United Arab Emirates, which showed a verbal intelligence score on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) of 68 and a performance of 64. His working memory was 67 and his processing speed was 65. On arrival in the United States, his achievement was roughly at a third-grade level in Arabic. In the year and a half that he has been in the United States, he quickly improved his English skills, which he learned as a toddler. His father remains in Syria unable to safely immigrate and his mother is raising him alone in the United States with the help of her sister.They come to you for an urgent care visit because Amad recently was accused of sexual harassment by two girls at his high school. He is in a substantially separate program but is included for lunch and technology. While in the computer laboratory, he repeatedly approached the girls and asks them to "date" him, and on 1 occasion sat behind 1 girl and repeatedly reached out to stroke her long blonde hair.His mother is distraught because she recently found out that Amad also has a Facebook page and had been attempting to contact the same two girls on social media. The girls' parents recently threatened to file criminal harassment charges and Amad's mother comes to you asking for help with making Amad stop this activity. What would you do next?

  9. A Persian Alice in Disability Literature Wonderland: Disability Studies in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin H. Goodrich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exploring major requisites to establish an Iranian disability studies, the aim of this study is to determine how a local literature of disability can be formed in Iran, as well as how the Iranian and global disability studies might interchange disability knowledge. In an analysis of the responses to a qualitative questionnaire, three themes emerged: rudimentary resources, disability literature, and political prerequisites. Accordingly, human and financial resources, a bank of Farsi and English literature on disability, as well as developing academic relations between Iranian and international disability scholars (as an outcome of improving the Iran-USA political affairs are essential to form a local disability studies in Iran and to engage it in the global discussions of disability studies. Keywords: disability, global disability studies, Iran

  10. Disability reconsidered: the paradox of physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, Susan E; Sharby, Nancy

    2011-12-01

    The purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to explore models of disability from the perspective of the academic discipline of disability studies (DS), (2) to consider the paradox of improving functional capacities while valuing disability as diversity, (3) to identify how physical therapy's use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) disablement model intersects with various disability models, and (4) to apply this broader understanding of disability to physical therapist practice, education, and research. The DS literature has been critical of rehabilitation professionals, particularly targeting the medical model of disability. In contrast, advocates for a social model of disability recognize disability as diversity. It is paradoxical for physical therapy to simultaneously work to ameliorate disability while celebrating it as diversity. The ICF biopsychosocial disablement model offers a mechanism to practice within this paradox and suggests that it is no longer sufficient to conceptualize disability as a purely individual matter that requires attention in isolation from the impact of the larger society.

  11. Comparison of Body Image between Disabled Athletes, Disabled Non-Athletes and Non-Disable Non-Athletes Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.

  12. 75 FR 9821 - Disability Determinations by State Agency Disability Examiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Disabled Under the Statutory Definition? Under the Act, we have full power and authority to make rules and.... Sections 205(a), 702(a)(5), and 1631(d)(1). In addition, we have the power to promulgate regulations that... How we evaluate symptoms, including pain. * * * * * (b) * * * In cases decided by a State agency...

  13. Disability Is Not Measles: New Research Paradigms in Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Marcia H., Ed.; Bach, Michael, Ed.

    This book is the product of a forum titled New Research Directions and Paradigms, held at the Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency in Australia in August 1992. The book presents 13 chapters, all written within a critical paradigm for disability research which critiques the reification of…

  14. Neurological abnormalities predict disability: the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis And DISability) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poggesi, A.; Gouw, A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pracucci, G.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Blahak, C.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Schmidt, R.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Scheltens, P.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed

  15. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo

    2012-01-01

    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  16. Comparison of different application systems and CT- assisted treatment planning procedures in primary endometrium cancer: Is it technically possible to include the whole uterus volume in the volume treated by brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mock, U.; Knocke, Th.; Fellner, C.; Poetter, R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is regarded as the definitive component of treatment for inoperable patients with endometrium cancer. In published series the whole uterus has been claimed to represent the target volume independently of the individual tumor spread. The purpose of this work is to compare different planning and application procedures and to analyze the target volumes (whole uterus), treatment volumes and their respective relation for the given various conditions. Material and Methods: In ten patients with primary endometrium cancer the correlation between target- and treatment volume was analysed based on standard one-channel applicators or individual Heyman applicators. A comparative analysis of target volumes resulting from two different planning procedures of Heyman applications was performed. CT was carried out after insertion of the Heyman ovoids. Target volume was estimated by measuring the uterus size at different cross sections of the CT images. Dose calculation was performed with (PLATO-system) or without (NPS-system) transferring these data directly to the planning system. We report on the differences in treatment volumes resulting from the two application and planning systems. Results: The mean value of the uterus volume was 180 ccm (range 57 ccm to 316 ccm). Four out of 10 patients had an asymmetric uterus configuration with a side-difference (in longitudinal or transversal direction) of more than 1 cm. On average 70% (range 48-95%) of the uterus volume was included by the treatment volume when Heymann applicators were used compared to 45 % (range 25-89%) when standard one channel applicators were used. This represents an improvement of 25% (range from 11%-35%). By utilizing the more sophisticated way of treatment planning a more adequate coverage of the uterus volume was achieved in five out of ten patients. The treated volume increased on the average by 20 % (range 11 %-32%). In three cases changes in the irradiation volume were less than 5%. In

  17. Where We Are: Disability and Accessibility--Moving beyond Disability 2.0 in Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tara; Dolmage, Jay; Price, Margaret; Lewiecki-Wilson, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The authors' perception, as specialists at the intersection of disability studies and composition studies, is that disability has arrived--in the sense that it is now on most peoples' radar. Most have come to think of it as "Disability 2.0": the state where acceptance of disabled students and teachers as belonging in our…

  18. Disability:beyond individualization, psychologisation and medicalization

    OpenAIRE

    Haydon-Laurelut, Mark Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about disabled people has and continues to be dominated by the medical and allied professions and inevitably this provides only one story of disabled life: a story of a problem seeking solutions (Grue, 2015). The rehabilitative professions write most of what is read and written about disability. As a family therapist I wondered how family therapy might be constructing disability? If, as Michalko (2012) has noted, medicine finds a home in all kinds of places to what extent has it mad...

  19. Disability and Depression in Thor Comic Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Elizabeth Germaine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores disability and depression, especially as they relate to masculinity and power, within Thor comics.  Societal interpretations of disability are also discussed in terms of comics' ability to both challenge and reinforce these interpretations; further, aspects of comics design are investigated within the symbolic realm of disability and depression, illustrating the portrayal of disability and depression via characteristics such as color, panels, and facial expressions.

  20. Disability Insurance Benefits and Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Gruber

    2000-01-01

    Disability Insurance (DI) is a public program that provides income support to persons unable to continue work due to disability. The difficulty of defining disability, however, has raised the possibility that this program may be subsidizing the early retirement of workers who are not truly disabled. A critical input for assessing the optimal size of the DI program is therefore the elasticity of labor force participation with respect to benefits generosity. Unfortunately, this parameter has be...

  1. A Fuzzy Approach to Classify Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Manghirmalani; Darshana More; Kavita Jain

    2012-01-01

    The endeavor of this work is to support the special education community in their quest to be with the mainstream. The initial segment of the paper gives an exhaustive study of the different mechanisms of diagnosing learning disability. After diagnosis of learning disability the further classification of learning disability that is dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia are fuzzy. Hence the paper proposes a model based on Fuzzy Expert System which enables the classification of learning disability...

  2. A Social Constructionist Approach to Disability: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…

  3. Disabled Veterans on the Job Front.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    The Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) administered by the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration arranges training and placement for disabled veterans in local job service offices. These employees then assist in placing other disabled veterans on jobs. Some typical DVOP success stories are described. (MF)

  4. Disability and the Moral Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Discussions of disability should be within a clearly-defined moral framework if the disabled person's rights are to be translated into society's duty to the disabled. An ethical system based on modern versions of utilitarianism is suggested as a moral framework, supplemented by prescriptions based on social justice and respect. (Author/CB)

  5. Work Shifts and Disability: A National View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Harriet B.; Altman, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    More than one-fifth of employed persons with disabilities work late or rotating shifts, about the same as nondisabled workers. Day workers with disabilities receive lower hourly wages than nondisabled workers. Except for men, nonday workers with disabilities receive wages similar to their nondisabled counterparts. (Contains 27 references.)…

  6. Temporal Structure of Adaptation to Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Antonak, Richard F.

    1991-01-01

    Used cross-sectional design to collect data on phases of adaptation to disability as measured by the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory among 112 inpatients and 92 outpatients at rehabilitation facilities. Results generally support the existence of a psychosocial adaptation process to physical disability. Incongruities between the…

  7. Discourses of Disability in the "Digest."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Presents an account of the discourse of disability in the "Reader's Digest" during its first 30 years (1922-1952). Concludes that the construction of disability in the "Digest" raises important questions that should enter the field of disability studies. (PM)

  8. Disability and Identity: The Challenge of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Nocon, Andrew; Small, Neil; Wright, John

    2008-01-01

    Through examining the case of people with epilepsy (which, as we demonstrate, has an ambiguous status in relation to both popular and academic conceptions of disability) we explore the fluid, negotiable and contingent nature of identity and, in particular, the identification as "disabled". Disability, we argue, cannot be reduced to either biology…

  9. IDEA and Disciplining Children with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Sherry L.

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments offered a welcome shield for disabled students who found themselves unfairly disciplined within their school placements. Highlights the disagreements that continue over the bill's interpretation, and the fight by advocates for the disabled to limit unreasonable suspensions and…

  10. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  11. Workplace Discrimination and the Perception of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, William R.; Reid, Christine A.; McMahon, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the employment discrimination experienced by Americans "regarded as" disabled (but not medically verified as such), using the Integrated Mission System of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Claimants who were perceived as disabled, as contrasted with those with documented disabilities, were more likely…

  12. Romanian Approach to Media Portrayals of Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciot, Melania-Gabriela; Van Hove, Geert

    2010-01-01

    There is a wide range of media representations of disability, but not just because of the societal stigma. They are a function of norms of journalism as well as biases among people with disabilities themselves. This article is a contribution to the issue of social representation of persons with disabilities from a Romanian perspective, which will…

  13. Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education DHSS State of Alaska Home ; Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education Page Content Untitled Document Patrick Reinhart : follow GCDSE to 40404 The Governor's Council on Disabilities & Special Education is pleased to award

  14. Identification of Learning Disabled Bilingual Hispanic Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan

    1983-01-01

    The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)

  15. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...

  16. Access to Employment: People with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Reports the findings of Lou Harris and Associates (1987) on what employers are doing to employ people with disabilities and what their experiences with disabled employees have been. Presents strategies that provide a model for addressing the needs of the disabled population and provide them with opportunities. (JS)

  17. Violence Exposure among Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…

  18. Evaluating groups in learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, S H

    Groupwork can be effective in meeting a range of needs presented by students with profound learning disabilities. This article describes the process involved in setting up groups for these students, and includes examples of a group session and methods for evaluating groupwork.

  19. Controversial Issues in Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Selma C.

    The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…

  20. Memory Deficits in Learning Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, John D.; Driscoll, Rosemary L.

    Memory storage and retrieval of learning disabled (LD) and normal children at two age levels (8-9 years and 11-12 years) were compared using a multitrial free recall paradigm. Stimuli were two lists of 20 high frequency nouns. Each child was tested individually on both lists on different days; one presentation was blocked, one random with…

  1. Psychological Assessment of the Disabled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Donald A.

    The paper examines issues, philosophy and guidelines for psychological assessment of the disabled. Focused on are: (1) adjustments in testing procedures and (2) applicability of standard norms with commonly used psychological test instruments for the assessment of ability, interest, and personality. The importance of accurate assessment for…

  2. The Danish Neck Disability Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; O'Neill, Lotte; Kongsted, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To (1) translate and culturally adapt and (2) determine the clinimetric properties of the Danish 8-item Neck Disability Index (NDI-8) in primary sector patients (PSPs) and secondary sector patients (SSPs). Methods: Analyses included 326 patients with neck pain. Validity and reliability...

  3. Caring for the Disabled Employee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    lives of disabled people (Barnes & Mercer 2005, Paterson & Hughes 2010). A recurrent theme in this study’s transcribed and coded interviews was not an awareness of bullying and harassment, as other studies have found (e.g., Fevre et al. 2013), but rather how managers and employees without impairments...

  4. Benefits for People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...

  5. Learning Disability: Experience of Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…

  6. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  7. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  8. Hyperactivity, Learning Disabilities, and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee

    1984-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)

  9. An Analysis Of The UK Disability Discrimination Act And The Inadequacy Of Its Definitions Of Disability And Disabled Person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Alzughaibi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract My research will focus on some of the more pertinent changes that need to take place on a societal level in order to better serve disabled people and allow them to participate in all facets of community life. I will argue that three of the most significant changes that must take place include educating society on disabilities and disabled persons creating and enforcing better laws that truly help disabled persons and expanding the definitions of disability and disabled person to include a broader spectrum of ailments inflictions and handicaps. The changes which I support will be presented in a research-driven paper. I will highlight the current UK disability laws in place and point out some of their shortcomings. Then I will explore the worldview of society as a whole as it pertains to disabled peoples and suggest changes that need to take place and how educators can help facilitate these changes. Finally I will explain the shortcomings of the most common definitions used for disability and disabled persons and offer alternatives that incorporate a broader range of people and ailments. My audience will be any citizen whose political jurisdiction is under the UK disability mandate although anyone from any society would benefit from reading my paper due to the universality of this topic.

  10. Measuring Disability: Comparing the Impact of Two Data Collection Approaches on Disability Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sabariego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  11. Shakespeare on old age and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, H

    2000-01-01

    The plays of William Shakespeare were reviewed for references to disabilities, aging and disability, and older characters with disabilities. Shakespeare's references draw from traditional cultural notions about older people with disabilities. These traditional notions include people with physical disabilities being evil, the entertainment value of disabilty, and those who were mentally ill being wild and animal-like. He viewed the aging process as disabling and old age as a time when individuals lost some abilities to function, particularly when it came to mental capacity and physical mobility. His writings show that he used disability as a literary tool to add dimension to characters and set them apart. Contemporary literature continues to share some of Shakespeare's view on aging and disability but also departs from them in important ways. For example, contemporary treatment of disabilities and aging places more emphasis on the human side of the affects of aging and disabilities. Disabilities and aging are not cast in the same negative terms as Shakespeare used.

  12. Disability associated with alcohol abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-11-01

     Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. GIS Application Management for Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongkaw, Sasalak

    2017-08-01

    This research aimed to develop and design Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for facilitating disabled people by presenting some useful disabled information on the Google Map. The map could provide information about disabled types of people such as blind, deaf and physical movement. This research employed the Multiview 2 theory and method to plan and find out the problems in real world situation. This research used many designing data structure methods such as Data Flow Diagram, and ER-Diagram. The research focused into two parts: server site and client site which included the interface for Web-based application. The clear information of disable people on the map was useful for facilitating disabled people to find some useful information. In addition, it provided specialized data for company and government officers for managing and planning local facilities for disabled people in the cities. The disable could access the system through the Internet access at any time by using mobile or portable devices.

  14. Implementation of Automata Theory to Improve the Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...

  15. Returning to work after disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, P Roger

    2002-06-01

    After a workplace injury or disability, there is a period of hardship and adjustment for the injured party as well as all stakeholders in the workers' compensation process. Ultimately, however, return to work is considered. The author reviews this often challenging exercise from the Canadian perspective and stresses the need for timely intervention, honest communication, the coordination of information and resources--and the need for flexibility. A case study on low back pain is included.

  16. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...

  17. Fruit flies and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.

  18. [Longevity, disease, and duration of disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S

    1996-12-01

    Disability and the resulting lowered quality of life are serious issues accompanying increased longevity. Active life expectancy #(8) can be to used to distinguish the number of years without disability from the number with disability; increases were found in both in longevity #(9, 19). With the same rate of age-related new disability in the cohorts between 1970 and 1990, the total disability increased three fold #(11). In elderly patients I showed that 1) the duration of disability of those at a specific age at death (predeath) #(1) increased with age, and it decreased in those who remained without disability, 2) the cumulative number of days of disability for patients who died at a specific age (a convolution function of predeath and mortality) #(2), approached a normal distribution, which is consistent with the central limit theorem, 3) competing risk with chronic disease in a patient greatly affects the incidence and duration of disability, 4) using the central limit theorem we can predict that preventing dementia will retard premature rectangularization of the disability-free survival curve, and will thus reduce the total disability, 5) disability is an example of how variation and selection of chronic diseases (disease Darwinism) can alter population structure. Insights into the evolution of senescence #(14-21), pleiotropy, and slower rates of molecular evolution in the core than at the border #(26, 27), reveal that the central nervous system is relatively robust and conservative for pleiotropy and may senesce relatively slowly, which support a new way of thinking #(3, 4) about old age. To minimize disability, public knowledge and education about an ideal lifestyle and the evolution of senescence is essential.

  19. [The burden of disability in Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Calogero; Albensi, Caterina; Giordani, Laura; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Sanou Sobze, Martin; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation services for disabled persons are lacking in countries with limited economic resources. Reliable and objective data are needed to plan for their implementation and to determine the burden of disability in these countries. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in June 2013 among people living in Dschang Health District, in the West region of Cameroon, to collect information about socio-demographic aspects of physically disabled subjects and health determinants of disabilities. Data was collected using a standard questionnaire in French. In total, 159 physically disabled subjects were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 36 years [± SD 17.26], 55.9% of subjects were female, and 33.8% had a low educational-level. The most frequently reported disabilities were orthopaedic problems (mainly fractures) [45.8%], infectious diseases [29.1%]), and neurological disabilities (mainly hemiplegia [33.3%], hemiparesis [23.8%], and monoplegia [23.8%]). The main causes of disability were trauma due to traffic accidents (17.8%) and inappropriate medical interventions (14.5%). Disability was related to age and 50% of participants experienced social discrimination. Disabled subjects with low-incomes (from 50.000 to 200.000 XAF) were required to pay for rehabilitative care (XAF 10.000 to 100.000), and up to 83% had appealed for improved quality of Rehabilitation Medicine. Although Law n. 83/013 for the protection of persons with disabilities in Cameroon dates back to 1983, the results of this study show that disabled people, and children in particular, are still marginalized, vulnerable and have little chance of recovery. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the quality and availability of rehabilitative care services , with programmatic interventions that ensure implementation of existing laws, improve access to rehabilitative services, provide disabled persons with the necessary specialty medical products, and eliminate barriers to their social

  20. Understanding suicide and disability through three major disabling conditions: Intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Margaret J; Bergmark, Brian; Kreshover, Samantha; Elias, Eileen; Plummer, Caitlin; O'Keefe, Eileen

    2010-04-01

    Disability is not a category of disease but rather relates to the physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or mental disorders that substantially limit one or more major life activities. These functional limitations have been found to be predictive of suicide, with psychiatric comorbidities increasing the risk for suicide. Enormous gaps exist in the understanding of the relationship between disability and suicide. We reviewed the current literature addressing the prevalence of and risk factors for suicide among persons with three major disabling conditions and identify priorities for future research. We performed a literature review investigating the relationship between three major disabilities (intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis) and suicide. To ensure thorough evaluation of the available literature, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar with terms including "suicide," "disability," "intellectual disability," "spinal cord injury," "multiple sclerosis," and permutations thereof. By this method we evaluated 110 articles and included 21 in the review. Suicide rates are significantly higher among persons with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury than in the general population. A more nuanced picture of suicide rates and risk factors exists for the intellectual disability population, in which it appears that rates of suicide risk factors are higher than among the general population while suicide rates may be lower. The highest rates of suicide are reported among study populations of persons with multiple sclerosis, followed by persons with spinal cord injury, and then individuals with intellectual disability. Suicide among persons with disabilities is a complex and pressing public health concern. Urgent research priorities include (1) valid estimates of suicide rates among persons with disabilities by age cohort; (2) assessment of the predictive importance of suicide risk factors; and (3) determination of best

  1. Prevalence of Disability and Disability Type Among Adults--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carroll, Dianna D; Zhang, Qing C; Stevens, Alissa C; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A

    2015-07-31

    Understanding the prevalence of disability is important for public health programs to be able to address the needs of persons with disabilities. Beginning in 2013, to measure disability prevalence by functional type, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), added five questions to identify disability in vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS to assess overall prevalence of any disability, as well as specific types of disability among noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Across all states, disabilities in mobility and cognition were the most frequently reported types. State-level prevalence of each disability type ranged from 2.7% to 8.1% (vision); 6.9% to 16.8% (cognition); 8.5% to 20.7% (mobility); 1.9% to 6.2% (self-care) and 4.2% to 10.8% (independent living). A higher prevalence of any disability was generally seen among adults living in states in the South and among women (24.4%) compared with men (19.8%). Prevalences of any disability and disability in mobility were higher among older age groups. These are the first data on functional disability types available in a state-based health survey. This information can help public health programs identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among U.S. adults and better target appropriate interventions to reduce health disparities.

  2. Disability and the education system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what

  3. Being Disoriented: Uncertain Encounters with Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C. Parrey

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Disorienting encounter with disability are those in which the meaning of disability is an open question, and in which our relation to it is questionable. This essay explores the relationship between disability and disorientation on conceptual but also concrete levels. First, I examine the connection between disability and disorientation within disability studies. Second, I provide a preliminary sketch of disorientation through what I call ontic disruption and ontological disorientation. Third, I take up Leder's (1990 articulation of bodily disappearance and embodied dysappearance to address ableist violence. Finally, I develop the notion of dysorientation — a prolonged, persistent or recurrent sense of disorientation — as a useful concept for understanding experiences of ableism but also as a significant meeting point between impairment and disability.

  4. Disability and masculinity in South African autosomatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipenga, Ken J

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu's The language of me and William Zulu's Spring will come , the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.

  5. Disability and masculinity in South African autosomatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken J. Lipenga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu’s The language of me and William Zulu’s Spring will come, the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.

  6. Situational leadership and persons with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Christopher G

    2007-01-01

    Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.

  7. THE CONGENITAL MOTOR DISABILITY EXPERIENCED AS COMMONSENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Viluckienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article applies Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically grounded sociological perspective to explore how persons with a congenital motor disability or having a disability ever since their childhood construct and maintain their significant social reality through subjective meanings and how they interpret their disabled bodies. Their personal narratives are based on qualitative in-depth interviews and suggest that these persons face the disability only during secondary socialization, after internalization of social typifications of disabled body of negative meaning, the overcoming of which and successful socialization requires the involvement into new social group or community, i.e., into a positive social structure, confirming their identity. This article performs cognitive function and contributes to the social workers‘ understanding and knowledge building in order to get a re-evaluating the social needs of people with congenital physical disability.

  8. Psychotherapy with people with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zafošnik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.

  9. Nurse Educator Attitudes Toward People With Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Lori; Houser, Rick

    As educators strongly influence the attitudes of their students, the purpose of this study was to determine nurse educator attitudes toward people with disabilities. Inadequate education of health professionals is a known barrier to care for people with disability. Continuing calls for improved education of health professionals compel an assessment of nurse educator attitudes. This was a cross-sectional, correlational web-based survey of nurse educators (n = 126). Nurse educator attitudes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. Nurse educators held discriminatory attitudes toward people with disabilities, though most preferred a biopsychosocial model of disability. Forty-four percent lacked knowledge of disability-related aims, objectives, or outcomes within the curriculum. To advance equity in health care, nurse educators must confront personal bias and teach competent care of people with disabilities.

  10. Sexuality among People with Physical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Elbozan Cumurcu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical disability is termed as disturbance or defect which impede or eliminate human body’s ability by disturbing human structure and shape. Physical disability may occur due to neonatal, natal or postnatal causes. People with physical disability have some natural needs as everyone. They are known to have difficulties in many areas of life. In society, sexual lives of these individuals are treated as an unknown and ignored issue, and moreover it has been assumed that they have no such needs. Disabled patients experience many troubles in their life domains including sexuality. This article provides information about physical disability and sexuality, and difficulties with which disabled people faces in their sexual life and overviews literature on this topic.

  11. Endométrio na janela de implantação em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos Endometrium in women with polycystic ovary syndrome during the window of implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ione Maria Ribeiro Soares Lopes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O endométrio humano é submetido a uma complexa série de mudanças proliferativas e secretórias em cada ciclo menstrual e exibe somente pequeno período de receptividade, conhecido como "janela de implantação", necessário para a nidação do blastocisto no útero. O processo da implantação ocorre de forma sequencial, levando ao estabelecimento da gravidez. Alterações morfofuncionais durante este período podem impedir ou dificultar a implantação. Por este motivo, o estudo do endométrio nesta fase é importante para o aprimoramento de terapias que possam interferir nos mecanismos envolvidos na interção materno-embrionária. Várias doenças ginecológicas, incluindo a síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP, estão associadas à diminuição da fecundidade e da receptividade uterinas. Apesar de recentes avanços nas técnicas de reprodução assistida, permitindo a seleção de embriões de alta qualidade, a taxa de implantação continua baixa e não tem aumentado suficientemente nas últimas décadas. O presente artigo tem como objetivo revisar os aspectos endometriais da "janela de implantação" em mulheres com a síndrome dos ovários policísticos, focando especialmente as moléculas de adesão. Para tanto, nos valemos da análise de 105 artigos publicados em revistas indexadas no PUBMED nos últimos 50 anos (até maio de 2011. Como conclusão, a receptividade endometrial parece ser o maior fator limitante no estabelecimento da gestação em grande número de doenças ginecológicas, incluindo a SOP, e o tratamento para melhorar as taxas de implantação possivelmente será nessa direção.The human endometrium undergoes to a complex series of prolifertive and secretory changes in each menstrual cycle and displays only a short period of receptivity, known as the "window of implantation", necessary for the implantation of the blastocyst in the uterus. The implantation process occurs in a sequential manner, leading to the

  12. Valuing Employees with Disabilities: A Chain Effect of Pro-Disability Climate on Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenell Lynn-Senter Wittmer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous organizational research has focused heavily on organizational commitment, for employees in general, as well as for specific minority groups. However, there is a large gap in the research literature concerning the organizational commitment of people with disabilities. The current study contributes to the literature both by investigating the predictors of reported organizational commitment of people with disabilities, as well by examining organizational-level predictors, rather than individual-level phenomena. Additionally, rather than examining legal or compliance issues related to people with disabilities, as is found in most previous research, the current study examines contextual predictors of organizational commitment, pro-disability climate, pro-disability technology, and availability of flexible work arrangements. Structural equation modeling results suggest that there is a chain effect of pro-disability climate, which impacts the organizational commitment of people with disabilities through pro-disability technology and flexible work arrangements. Implications for both research and human resource practitioners are discussed.

  13. Disability Is a Feminist Issue: Bringing Together Women’s and Gender Studies and Disability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Piepmeier

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tracks a series of conversations between a women's and gender studies professor and two of her undergraduate students, all of whom are interested in disability studies. We explore the links between disability and feminism, and to think through the possibilities of having disability studies become part of the academy. Our primarily positive interactions with the academic institution and our interest in disability studies has led to our argument that disability is in fact a feminist issue. Disability studies has allowed each of us to re-conceptualize our own relationships to feminist theory, and shaped our ability to envision a better academic environment for all students.  Keywords: feminist disability studies, intersectionality, pedagogy, mental disability

  14. 75 FR 39423 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Policy and Measurement; Overview Information and Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal... Knowledge and Experts in Disability and Rehabilitation Research: Overview Information and Notice Inviting... between income support programs, poverty, disability, and employment success; the [[Page 39425...

  15. Disabled and Unmarried? Marital Chances Among Disabled People in Nineteenth-Century Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Haage

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To marry and form a household of one’s own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.

  16. 20 CFR 404.1511 - Definition of a disabling impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of a disabling impairment. 404... Definition of a disabling impairment. (a) Disabled workers, persons disabled since childhood and, for months... disabling impairment is an impairment (or combination of impairments) which, of itself, is so severe that it...

  17. Disability as Cultural Difference: Implications for Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…

  18. An inexorable rise in intellectual disability?

    OpenAIRE

    Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the number of people with intellectual disabilities applying for care. The results are contained in this report. Our inventory reveals that demand for intellectual disability care has risen by an average of 9% pe...

  19. Adolescents with intellectual disability and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack

    2005-09-08

    It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  20. Adolescents with Intellectual Disability and Suicidal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joav Merrick

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.

  1. The effect of disability disclosure on the graduation rates of college students with disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Robyn Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on postsecondary graduation rates indicated that college students with disabilities have lower graduation rates than students without disabilities. As many college students do not disclose their disability to their institution upon enrollment, the effect of the timing of disability disclosure on graduation rates warranted examination. This study was a quantitative study of 14,401 undergraduate students at one large research university in the years 2002, 2003, and 2004, of w...

  2. The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK : Helping or Hindering Employment Amongst the Disabled?

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David N.F.; Heitmüller, Axel

    2005-01-01

    The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. This paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the US, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are low ...

  3. Are you disabled? Social and cultural factors in understanding disability in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    Rolston, Yansie

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of the under-researched subject of disability in Trinidad and Tobago and presents an understanding of the concepts and contestations of disability as it is lived and experienced by disabled people in T&T. In it disability is explored in the context of identity construction, power relations and self-empowerment, and takes into account the ways in which that identity is shaped by historical events, cultural relations, social interactions and political structures.\\ud \\...

  4. Congressional Statistics: Disability Insurance for December 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — While Social Security is best known for providing retirement benefits, the program also provides Disability Insurance (DI) protection to workers and their families...

  5. Periodic Continuing Disability Review Case Backlog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) conducts periodic CDRs to ensure that only those beneficiaries who remain disabled continue to receive monthly benefits. The...

  6. Predictors of life disability in trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Esther S; Flessner, Christopher A; Grant, Jon E; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has investigated disability and functional impairment in trichotillomania (TTM) subjects. This study examined the relationships between hair pulling (HP) style and severity and disability while controlling for mood severity. Disability was measured in individual life areas (work, social, and family/home life) instead of as a total disability score as in previous studies. One hundred fifty three adult hair pullers completed several structured interviews and self-report instruments. HP style and severity, as well as depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with work, social, and family/home life impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of life impairment. Depressive severity was a significant predictor for all SDS life areas. In addition, interference/avoidance associated with HP was a predictor for work and social life disability. Distress from HP was a significant predictor of social and family/home life disability. Focused HP score and anxiety were significant predictors of family/home life disability. As expected, depression in hair pullers predicted disability across life domains. Avoiding work and social situations can seriously impair functioning in those life domains. Severity of distress and worry about HP may be most elevated in social situations with friends and family and thus predict impairment in those areas. Finally, since HP often occurs at home, time spent in focused hair pulling would have a greater negative impact on family and home responsibilities than social and work life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  8. Disability in a Human Rights Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Degener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is a modern human rights treaty with innovative components. It impacts on disability studies as well as human rights law. Two innovations are scrutinized in this article: the model of disability and the equality and discrimination concepts of the CRPD. It is argued that the CRPD manifests a shift from the medical model to the human rights model of disability. Six propositions are offered why and how the human rights model differs from the social model of disability. It is further maintained that the CRPD introduces a new definition of discrimination into international public law. The underlying equality concept can be categorized as transformative equality with both individual and group oriented components. The applied methodology of this research is legal doctrinal analysis and disability studies model analysis. The main finding is that the human rights model of disability improves the social model of disability. Three different models of disability can be attributed to different concepts of equality. The medical model corresponds with formal equality, while the social model with substantive equality and the human rights model can be linked with transformative equality.

  9. A New Theoretical Approach to Postsecondary Student Disability: Disability-Diversity (Dis)Connect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Katherine C.

    2016-01-01

    Disability is often viewed as an obstacle to postsecondary inclusion, but not a characteristic of student diversity. Additionally, current theoretical frameworks isolate disability from other student diversity characteristics. In response, a new conceptual framework, the Disability-Diversity (Dis)Connect Model (DDDM), was created to address…

  10. 75 FR 39429 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... would deprive the disability and rehabilitation community in the U.S. of knowledge from many other... Project (DRRP)-- International Exchange of Knowledge and Experts in Disability and Rehabilitation Research... priority for a DRRP entitled International Exchange of Knowledge and Experts in Disability and...

  11. Is There Really a Difference? Distinguishing Mild Intellectual Disability from "Similar" Disability Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Satsangi, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Students with mild intellectual disability generally garner less individual attention in research, as they are often aggregated with students with moderate and severe intellectual disability or students with other high incidence disabilities. This study used the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to look at the personal…

  12. Enacting Disability: How Can Science and Technology Studies Inform Disability Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galis, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss how science and technology studies (STS) can inform disability studies and challenge dominant approaches, such as the medical and the social models, in the ordering and representation of disability. Disability studies and STS have followed somewhat parallel paths in the history of ideas. From a positivist approach to…

  13. The Nature of Interactions between Students with Severe Disabilities and Their Friends and Acquaintances without Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita

    1994-01-01

    This study of 20 elementary-school children with severe disabilities examined differences in their interactions with friends without disabilities compared with interactions with acquaintances without disabilities. Friends and acquaintances did not differ in developmental level, language age, functional movement, or social competence. Group…

  14. 75 FR 22767 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Disabilities Act, or individuals with disabilities who are eligible for the vocational rehabilitation program... vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs, or other programs serving transition-age youth with disabilities. (b... preference, or invitational through a notice in the Federal Register. The effect of each type of priority...

  15. Attitudes towards People with Disabilities--What Do People with Intellectual Disabilities Have to Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr McEvoy, Sandra; Keenan, Emer

    2014-01-01

    Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities have traditionally been very negative, resulting in people with intellectual disabilities being treated badly by other. This claim was explored by conducting focus groups with adults who have an intellectual disability to find out about their everyday experiences in different places and using…

  16. Happiness Disabled: Sensory Disabilities, Happiness and the Rise of Educational Expertise in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Pieter; Söderfeldt, Yva

    2014-01-01

    To date, the historical entanglement of disability and happiness has not been considered an object worth of historical inquiry. Nor has the intersection of disability and emotions been used as a lens to examine the history of disability. Our paper aims at filling this academic void by analysing a wide range of philosophical, anthropological,…

  17. Disability Awareness Training with a Group of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…

  18. 76 FR 33744 - Final Priority; National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... living for individuals with disabilities and their families. Types of Priorities When inviting... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number: 84.133A-09] Final Priority; National Institute on Disability... . Through the implementation of the Plan, NIDRR seeks to: (1) Improve the quality and utility of disability...

  19. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  20. [A comparison of opinions about disabled sports between students of University in Szczecin and disabled athletes ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dywejko, Barbara; Rotter, Iwona; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Sport among disabled people is becoming more and more popular. It is happening mostly due to the growing number of sports centres for the disabled, and the widespread popularization of this form of activity by organi- zations working for the benefit of disabled people. Also, the mass media play an important role in the process. The aim of the study a comparison of the knowledge and opinions about disabled sports of physical education students and disabled athletes. The research was conducted using two dif- ferent questionnaires. One of them was given to students of Physical Education, the other to members of a disabled sports club, "Start". The questionnaires consisted of two sections: a personal profile, and 17 questions about disabled sports. 45 full-time students of Physical Education at the University of Szczecin: 30 (66.7%) women and 15 (33.3%) men. The average age of the group was 23.6 years. The second group, from the disabled sports club, consisted of 33 people, 18 (54.5%) women and 15 (45.5%) men; the aver- age age of the participants was 28.6 years. Among the disabled people, 10 (30.3%) people were unable to name any disabled athlete; among the. group of able-bodied students, there were 33 (73.3%) people who were not able to do the same thing. According to students, disabled people do sports mainly for rehabilitation purposes (51.1%). According to the disabled students' group, however, sport for disabled people means satisfaction and higher self-esteem (36.36%). When it comes to the best source of information on the subject, television proved to be the best one among the media. The able-bodied students rated their knowledge of disabled sports as satisfactory (66.7%), while only 6% of disabled students considered the knowledge of able-bodied people about disabled sports to be satisfactory. 1. The knowledge about disabled sports among students of physical education is superficial. The disabled also do not possess an extensive knowledge about disabled sports

  1. Interactivity in work with disabled

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva; Hasselblad, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother...... and the special teacher that conducted the sessions. Following the gift to the mother of a video recording that depicted the young adult’s progress as a result of the sessions it was found that upon viewing he was able to recognize himself and associate to his activities. Further, when watching alongside his...

  2. 20 CFR 718.204 - Total disability and disability causation defined; criteria for determining total disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation... Section 718.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL... than those listed in Table B1 (Males) or Table B2 (Females) in Appendix B to this part for an...

  3. Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications for health ... communities often only learnt about disability following the birth of a disabled child. ... to education and the availability of transport, particularly amongst caregivers ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cleft Lip and Palate MalaCards: x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type March of Dimes: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Merck Manual Consumer Version: Intellectual Disability Orphanet: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Patient ...

  5. The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK: helping or hindering employment among the disabled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Heitmueller, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. Exploiting both pooled and longitudinal data, this paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the USA, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are higher uncertainty around litigation costs, low levels of general awareness about the Act among disabled people and employers, and a lack of financial support.

  6. SFRO booklets - The radiotherapy of cancers: of anal canal (Anus), brain, mediastinum, pancreas, lung, prostate, rectum, breast, upper aero-digestive tract (ENT cancers), cervix, endometrium (cervical cancers), and bladder for a better understanding of radiotherapy, sarcoma radiotherapy - To better understand your treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Thomas; Mornex, Francoise; Peiffert, Didier; Thariat, Juliette; Faivre, Jean-Christophe; Huguet, Florence; Vendrely, Veronique; Barillot, Isabelle; Janoray, Guillaume; Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Antoni, Delphine; Crehange, Gilles; Meillan, Nicolas; Pichon, Baptiste; Biau, Julian; Pointreau, Yoann; Mirabel, Xavier; Leysalle, Axel; Claren, Audrey; Cartier, Lysian; Chand, Mari-Eve; Jacob, Julian; Renard-Oldrini, Sophie; Le Pechoux, Cecile; Ducassou, Anne; Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Lagrange, Jean Leon; Molina, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    This document gathers several booklets which, for different types of cancers, propose information regarding the anatomy and location of the cancer, its diagnosis, possible treatments, secondary effects during treatment, some practical advices, issues related to the post-treatment period, associations and other resources which can be useful for patient information, and a glossary of the main terms used for this cancer and its treatment. Cancer types are anal canal (Anus), brain, mediastinum, pancreas, lung, prostate, rectum, breast, upper aero-digestive tract (ENT cancers), cervix, endometrium (cervical cancers), and bladder cancers

  7. SELF-ESTEEM OF DISABLED AND ABLED : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...

  8. Learning Disabilities and Emotional Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysberg, Leehu; Kasler, Jon

    2017-07-04

    The literature is conflicted around the subject of the emotional abilities of individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLDs): While many claim cognitive challenges are associated with emotional difficulties, some suggest emotional and interpersonal abilities are not compromised in such disorders and may help individuals compensate and cope effectively with the challenges they meet in learning environments. Two studies explored differences in emotional intelligence (EI) between young adults with and without SLD. Two samples (matched on gender, approximate age, and program of study; n = 100, and unmatched; n = 584) of college students took self-report and performance-based tests of EI (Ability-EI) as well as a measure of self-esteem and demographics associated with college performance (e.g.: SAT scores, gender, etc.). The results showed that while SAT scores and ability emotional intelligence (Ability-EI) were associated with college GPA, Ability-EI did not differ between the two groups, while self-report measures of EI and self-esteem did show differences, with the group with learning disabilities ranking lower. The effects remained stable when we controlled for demographics and potential intervening factors. The results suggest that EI may play a protective role in the association between background variables and college attainment in students with SLD. The results may provide a basis for interventions to empower students with SLD in academia.

  9. "Challenging Disabling Attitudes, Building an Inclusive Society": Considering the Role of Education in Encouraging Non-Disabled Children to Develop Positive Attitudes towards Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Angharad E.

    2009-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…

  10. Disability and Spanish University: Protection of university students with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Álvarez Robles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Right to education is a fundamental right, internationally recognized. However, this assumption is conditioned by personal circumstances, details, of the holder. In any case, we should emphasize the double dimension of this, firstly the right to receive education/teaching, secondly its consideration as a channel of integration and social participation. It is due to this situation, the involvement of the public powers, in order to implement and develop of this right, must be promoted.   The application of the right to education to people that suffer disabilities has got a great degree of importance under The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, held in New York in December 2006. At that time the international community implications were really consolidated. This situation has changed dramatically with the economic crisis that we are suffering in recent times. This is the main reason for the present study, an appeal to implement and apply regulation about disabilities at University studies trough the reform of their statutes and by the increase of the level of the information and training of their workers, especially professors. The universalization of rights, such as education, faces difficulties in achieving its fullness as all holders differ with respect to other recipients of this right. The challenge of this work is to visualize the situation in a very specific environment, university education, and in a very precise context that is the Kingdom of Spain. However, globalization should assume ownership the main problems and challenges identified in this work.  It will be checked in the prolix character of legislation that rules theright af everyone, although you were different to be the holder of the right to education. The existence of a huge number of authorities who supports an inclusive model collides with exogenous difficulties, especially the lack of means, but also endogenous, as the lack of involvement of any of the

  11. Insult to Injury: Disability, Earnings, and Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Perry

    2012-01-01

    This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…

  12. Would Rethinking Learning Disabilities Benefit Kuwait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim

    2009-01-01

    Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of…

  13. Graphical user interfaces and visually disabled users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll, L.H.D.; Waterham, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    From February 1992 until the end of 1993, the authors ((IPO) Institute for Perception Research) participated in a European ((TIDE) Technology Initiative for Disabled and Elderly) project which addressed the problem arising for visually disabled computer-users from the growing use of Graphical User

  14. Expanding Opportunities for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangreco, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…

  15. Social Justice, Disability, and Rehabilitation Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.

    2012-01-01

    The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…

  16. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  17. A Belgian Approach to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Cheryl W.

    The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…

  18. Supporting Extracurricular Involvement for Youth with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Moss, Colleen K.

    2009-01-01

    Trying out for the school play. Performing in the band. Joining a sports team or club. These experiences are memorable parts of middle and high school life. For many students with disabilities, however, these everyday school experiences remain elusive. Although the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) clearly states that IEP teams…

  19. Moral Philosophy, Disability, and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, E. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Disability and dependence are integral to the human experience and yet have been largely marginalized or denigrated within Western philosophy. Joining a growing counter narrative from the disability studies movement, several mainstream moral philosophers are helping to redress this error. In this essay, the author discusses ideas from four such…

  20. Remembering Memories about Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Maury; Gresham, Pamela; Fouts, Bonnia

    2011-01-01

    Preservice general education classroom teachers in an inclusion course were asked to describe their own earliest memories of students with disabilities in school. Substantial literature links early memories to subsequent thoughts and attitudes. Subjects also completed the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities attitude…

  1. Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphin, Henry C., Jr., Ed.; Lavine, Jennie, Ed.; Chan, Roy Y., Ed.

    2017-01-01

    Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives. It is vital that learning opportunities are available on a global scale, regardless of individual disabilities or differences, and to create more inclusive educational practices. "Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility" is a comprehensive reference source for…

  2. Creative interactive play for disabled children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti, Patrizia; Pollini, Alessandro; Rullo, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    tools as well as interactive collaborative environments may represent a unique opportunity for disable children to full engage in play and have fun. The Creative Interactive Play workshop presents a collection of innovative interactive technologies and case studies for inclusive play and discusses...... the challenges and opportunities they can bid to disabled children....

  3. Disabled Children: The Right to Feel Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mepham, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…

  4. Neurogenetic and Neurodevelopmental Pathways to Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews ongoing research designed to specify the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotypes of specific genetic etiologies of learning disability. The genetic disorders at the focus of the research include reading disability, neurofibromatosis type 1, Tourette syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Implications for identifying…

  5. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  6. Socioeconomic circumstances of children with disabilities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with disabilities are an integral part of Zimbabwean society. However these children face insurmountable challenges that hinder their human and social capital development. The current study used a mixed methodology approach to examine the socioeconomic circumstances of children living with disabilities ...

  7. [From care to consideration of disabled people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chossy, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.

  8. Adaptive Technologies for Accommodating Persons with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliss, Jane; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Eight articles review the progress achieved in making library computing technologies and library services accessible to people with disabilities. Adaptive technologies, automated conversion into Braille, and successful programs that demonstrate compliance with the American with Disabilities Act are described. A resource list is included. (EA)

  9. Astronomy and Inclusion: resouces for disabled populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Beatriz; Ortiz Gil, Amelia

    2015-08-01

    Commission 46 proposed, in 2012, the creation of an interdisciplinary WG in which astronomers work together with educators and disability specialists to develop new teaching and learning strategies devoted to generate resources of impact among disabled populations, which are usually away from astronomy. We present some of the achivements and new challenges.

  10. Health Problems of Mentally Disabled Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yildirim Sari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150

  11. "Emancipatory Disability Research": Project or Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Colin

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the core principles and implications of emancipatory disability research. It suggests the emancipatory research paradigm has begun to transform the material and social relations of research production and concludes by suggesting that emancipatory disability should be perceived as a process rather than a…

  12. Using Movies To Teach Students about Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses using movies to teach students about disabilities. It addresses considerations in choosing movies, gauging the accuracy of the portrayal, and identifying positive images and negative stereotypes. A checklist for evaluating positive and negative representations is provided, along with a format to assess disability portrayal…

  13. Hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2011-05-01

    Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.

  14. Employment of the Disabled in Large Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabby, Rami

    1983-01-01

    Large corporations are in a unique position to employ the disabled, but they sometimes lack the motivation to do so. The author discusses elements of a corporate policy for the disabled, ways of formulating and disseminating it, assignment of responsibility, changes in management attitudes, and the special case of the multinational company.…

  15. Assistive Devices for Students with Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Lech; Sedlak, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of devices that can assist students with disabilities. Highlights recently developed devices for students with specific learning disabilities, and with vision, hearing, health, physical, and speech and language impairments. The devices can help rehabilitate, reeducate, facilitate normalcy, or augment current functioning. (GLR)

  16. Disability Case Review of Administrative Law Judge Hearing Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Disability Case Review is a post-effectuation quality review of administrative law judge (ALJ) disability hearing decisions. This dataset includes results from...

  17. Disability and the Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke O’Brien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A higher proportion of working- age persons receive disability assistance in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands than in other European countries. Whereas current research emphasizes the connection between disability assistance and rates of labor force exit, to date there has been no exploration of how welfare state context influences individual self-reported disability. Using nationally representative data from 15 countries (n = 88, 478, I find that residents of generous welfare states are significantly more likely to report a disability net of self-reported health, sociodemographic, and labor force characteristics and, notably, that this association extends to younger and more educated workers. I argue that welfare state context may directly shape what it means to be disabled, which may have consequences for evaluations of welfare state performance and social exclusion.

  18. Early Intervention in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.

  19. Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    The deeply entrenched, sometimes heated conflict between the disability movement and the profession of bioethics is well known and well documented. Critiques of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are probably the most salient and most sophisticated of disability studies scholars' engagements with bioethics, but there are many other topics over which disability activists and scholars have encountered the field of bioethics in an adversarial way, including health care rationing, growth-attenuation interventions, assisted reproduction technology, and physician-assisted suicide. The tension between the analyses of the disabilities studies scholars and mainstream bioethics is not merely a conflict between two insular political groups, however; it is, rather, also an encounter between those who have experienced disability and those who have not. This paper explores that idea. I maintain that it is a mistake to think of this conflict as arising just from a difference in ideology or political commitments because it represents a much deeper difference-one rooted in variations in how human beings perceive and reason about moral problems. These are what I will refer to as variations of moral psychology. The lived experiences of disability produce variations in moral psychology that are at the heart of the moral conflict between the disability movement and mainstream bioethics. I will illustrate this point by exploring how the disability movement and mainstream bioethics come into conflict when perceiving and analyzing the moral problem of physician-assisted suicide via the lens of the principle of respect for autonomy. To reconcile its contemporary and historical conflict with the disability movement, the field of bioethics must engage with and fully consider the two groups' differences in moral perception and reasoning, not just the explicit moral and political arguments of the disability movement. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  20. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of disabled HVDC transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestad, Oeystein; Linhjell, Dag

    2006-02-01

    An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been

  2. Identification and assessment of students with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschly, D J

    1996-01-01

    Students with disabilities or suspected disabilities are evaluated by schools to determine whether they are eligible for special education services and, if eligible, to determine what services will be provided. In many states, the results of this evaluation also affect how much funding assistance the school will receive to meet the students' special needs. Special education classification is not uniform across states or regions. Students with identical characteristics can be diagnosed as disabled in one state but not in another and may be reclassified when they move across state or school district lines. Most disabilities with a clear medical basis are recognized by the child's physician or parents soon after birth or during the preschool years. In contrast, the majority of students with disabilities are initially referred for evaluation by their classroom teacher (or parents) because of severe and chronic achievement or behavioral problems. There is evidence that the prevalence of some disabilities varies by age, the high-incidence disabilities such as learning disabilities and speech-language disabilities occur primarily at the mild level, the mild disabilities exist on broad continua in which there are no clear demarcations between those who have and those who do not have the disability, and even "mild" disabilities may constitute formidable barriers to academic progress and significantly limit career opportunities. Problems with the current classification system include stigma to the child, low reliability, poor correlation between categorization and treatment, obsolete assumptions still in use in treatment, and disproportionate representation of minority students. Both African-American and Hispanic students are disproportionately represented in special education but in opposite directions. The disproportionately high number of African Americans in special education reflects the fact that more African-American students than white students are diagnosed with

  3. Efecto del levonorgestrel como anticonceptivo oral de emergencia en la ovulación, el endometrio y los espermatozoides Effect of levonorgestrel in the ovulation, endometrium, and spermatozoa for emergency oral contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor J. Suárez

    2010-06-01

    doesn’t affect the spermatozoa in their migration or egg-penetration capacities. No morphological or molecular alterations in the endometrium that could interfere with the implantation of the fertilized egg have been demonstrated. There is no actual scientific evidence available supporting that the use of levonorgestrel for EOC is abortive.

  4. Developmental language and speech disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A

    2001-09-01

    Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.

  5. Dating persons with physical disabilities: the perceptions of South Africans without disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Xanthe; Swartz, Leslie; Carew, Mark Thomas; Braathen, Stine Hellum; Chiwaula, Mussa; Rohleder, Poul

    2018-02-01

    There is good reason to believe that the attitudes of persons without disability towards dating a person with a physical disability might be unfavourable. However, in general, and in the Global South in particular, there is a dearth of research in this area. This study sought to take the first step in addressing this lack of enquiry, by surveying the attitudes of a general population sample in South Africa towards dating people with physical disabilities, using a vignette. Data from 1723 survey respondents were analysed thematically. Findings reveal largely negative attitudes towards people with physical disabilities. Respondents without disability perceived numerous barriers to dating a person with a physical disability, including social stigma, anxiety and concerns about the burden of care they believed such a relationship would place upon them. However, there was some evidence to suggest that some positive attitudes do exist, and a few respondents were open to dating a person with physical disabilities. Findings contribute to a nuancing and expanding of the 'myth of asexuality' among physically disabled people by showing that people with physical disabilities are actively desexualised by persons without disability. Future research is needed to explore how the inclusive attitudes, of which we did find evidence here, can be further cultivated.

  6. Children with intellectual disability and hospice utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T

    2017-02-01

    Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.

  7. Prevalence of Mathematic Disability in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Talepasand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: One of the issues that have consistently been the concern for the health affair specialists and cure and massive social governors in health fields is the rate of disorders prevalence, diseases and the related subjects to epidemiology. Purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mathematic disability amongst primary schools of Karaj. Methods: Totally 432 students were selected with multi-stage sampling method. Participants completed Raven test, Frostig Visual-Perception test and Wepman Auditory discrimination test, Rutter behavioral questionnaire and Iran Key-math test. In order to diagnosis mathematic disability, inter criterion was normal quotient intelligence and out criteria were to have one of visual perception, auditory and behavioral problems. The participants whose total standard scores in Iran Key-math test were one standard deviation below the mean were selected as a mathematical disability (MD. Results: The mathematic disability prevalence in primary students was estimated 0.46%. In addition, proportion of mathematic disability prevalence was not function of gender or grade. Discussion: The findings demonstrated that the prevalence of mathematic disability is much less than the previous researches. A possible explanation was that inappropriate screening co morbid disorders with the mathematic disability. The theoretical implications of findings are discussed in detail.

  8. [Work disability in public press professions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akermann, S

    2002-09-01

    In this study more than 1,000 cases of long-term disability among members of the press and media were evaluated. Mental disorders were the main cause of disability in almost every fourth case. In women psychiatric illnesses were even more important. The most common diagnosis was that of a depressive disorder which accounted for more than half of all psychiatric cases. The causes of disability of other insurance systems such as the German social security scheme and the pension and disability plan for the medical profession were compared. Mental illnesses are the leading cause of disability in white collar workers and orthopaedic illnesses, especially disorders of the vertebral column, are the leading cause in blue collar workers, as one might have expected. In females mental disorders are even more common than in men whereas men tend to have more cardiovascular problems than women. In this study also some interesting features regarding disability caused by various illnesses after long-term follow-up were found. This opens unknown perspectives allowing new assessment of diseases and eventually will enable the actuary to price medical diagnoses for disability insurance.

  9. Sexual Health of Polish Athletes with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Plinta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine sexual functioning of Polish athletes with disabilities (including paralympians. The study encompassed 218 people with physical disabilities, aged between 18 and 45 (149 men and 69 women. The entire research population was divided into three groups: Polish paralympians (n = 45, athletes with disabilities (n = 126 and non-athletes with disabilities (n = 47. The quality of sexual life of Polish paralympians was measured by using the Polish version of Female Sexual Function Index and International Index of Erectile Function. Clinically significant erectile dysfunctions were most often diagnosed in non-athletes (83.33% with 50% result of severe erectile dysfunctions, followed by athletes and paralympians with comparable results of 56.98% and 54.17% respectively (p = 0.00388. Statistically significant clinical sexual dysfunctions concerned lubrication, orgasm as well as pain domains, and prevailed among female non-athletes (68.42%, 68.42% and 57.89%. Practising sports at the highest level has a favourable effect on the sexuality of men and women with physical disabilities. Men with physical disabilities manifest more sexual disorders than women, an aspect which should be considered by health-care professionals working with people with disabilities.

  10. Utilitarianism and the disabled: distribution of resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mark S

    2002-02-01

    Utilitarianism is more convincing than resource egalitarianism or welfare egalitarianism as a theory of how resources should be distributed between disabled people and nondisabled people. Unlike resource egalitarianism, utilitarianism can redistribute resources to the disabled when they would benefit more from those resources than nondisabled people. Unlike welfare egalitarianism, utilitarianism can halt redistribution when the disabled would no longer benefit more than the nondisabled from additional resources. The author considers one objection to this view: it has been argued, by Sen and others, that there are circumstances under which utilitarianism would unfairly distribute fewer resources to the physically disabled than to nondisabled people, on the ground that the disabled would derive less benefit from those resources. In response, the author claims that critics of utilitarianism have fallaciously exaggerated the circumstances under which the disabled would benefit less than the nondisabled from additional resources. In those limited circumstances in which the disabled really would benefit less from resources, the author argues, it does not seem unfair to distribute fewer resources to them.

  11. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  12. The Trouble with Disability in Shakespeare Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Wilson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some instances of disability in Shakespeare's works and some instances of Disability Studies in Shakespeare studies. Contrary to the claims of the Disabled Shakespeares project, there is no historical basis for the modern language of "disability" in Shakespeare's texts, as illustrated with a philology of the term; this does not, however, invalidate the viable uses of disability theory in Shakespeare studies. Developing a typology of these uses (historical, methodological, critical, theoretical, this article discusses the opportunities and liabilities of each approach but concludes that a better vocabulary can be found in Erving Goffman's theory of stigma (which inspired Disability Studies but, in many ways, is more conceptually and ethically buoyant. The main goal in this article is not to argue against a Disability Studies approach to Shakespeare but, instead, to use those readings as evidence of the imperfect even if well-intentioned ways we respond to the encounter with stigma in Shakespeare's works – a phenomenon of literary criticism that is remarkably resonant with the similarly imperfect even if well-intentioned ways we respond to the encounter with stigma in our everyday lives.

  13. Learning disabilities in Darier's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodiuk-Gad, R; Lerner, M; Breznitz, Z; Cohen-Barak, E; Ziv, M; Shani-Adir, A; Amichai, B; Zlotogorski, A; Shalev, S; Rozenman, D

    2014-03-01

    Neuropsychiatric features and intellectual difficulties have been reported in studies of Darier's disease. Learning disabilities have never been reported or evaluated systematically in these patients. To assess the prevalence of learning disabilities in 76 patients with Darier's disease, and cognitive functioning in 19 of them. The data were collected by two methods: a questionnaire, as part of a larger study on the clinical characteristics of 76 patients; and neuropsychological measures for the assessment of learning disabilities in 19 of them. Thirty-one of the 76 patients reported learning disabilities (41%) and 56 (74%) reported a family history of learning disabilities. Significant differences were found between the 19 patients evaluated on cognitive tasks and a control group of 42 skilled learners on subtraction and multiplication tasks. Six (32%) of the 19 were identified as having reading difficulties and five (26%) exhibited low performance on the Concentration Performance Test. All patients had general cognitive ability in the average range. Findings suggest an association between Darier's disease and learning disabilities, a heretofore unreported association, pointing to the need to obtain personal and family history of such disabilities in order to refer cases of clinical concern for further study. © 2013 The Authors Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. Disability as diversity in Fortune 100 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Phoebe; Monaco, Gregory; Schmeling, James; Schartz, Helen; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the inclusion of people with disabilities in the diversity policies of the most successful businesses in the United States, we examined the publicly available workforce and supplier diversity policies of the top 100 companies on Fortune Magazine's 2003 list of the 500 most profitable companies in the nation. The majority of these companies have extensive information about their diversity policies and practices available on their corporate website. The information was used to categorize the policies into those that include people with disabilities, do not define diversity, and enumerate what is meant by diversity (e.g. in terms of race or gender) but do not expressly mention disability. In addition, we looked beyond the diversity policies to information available on corporate websites relating to a variety of diversity initiatives. Findings suggest that the majority of the companies that top the Fortune 500 list have developed and implemented diversity policies. Of these, 42% have diversity policies that include people with disabilities in the definition of a diverse workforce. Furthermore, 47% of companies with workplace diversity policies discuss diversity in a way that neither expressly includes nor excludes people with disabilities. Far fewer (15%) supplier diversity policies include disability in the definition of diversity, but a significant number of companies use criteria that allow a business owner with a disability to benefit from the company's supplier diversity program. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. On Being Transminded: Disabling Achievement, Enabling Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dalke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We write collaboratively, as a recent graduate and long-time faculty member of a small women’s liberal arts college, about the mental health costs of adhering to a feminist narrative of achievement that insists upon independence and resiliency.  As we explore the destabilizing potential of an alternative feminist project, one that invites different temporalities in which dis/ability emerges and may be addressed, we work with disability less as an identity than as a generative methodology, a form of relation and exchange. Mapping our own college as a specific, local site for the disabling tradition of “challenging women,” we move to larger disciplinary and undisciplining questions about the stigma of mental disabilities, traversing the tensions between institutionalizing disability studies and the field’s promise of destabilizing the constrictions of normativity. Keywords: academia, dis/ability, disability studies, education, feminism, identity studies, mad pride, mad studies, mental health, mental illness, queer studies, temporality, women’s colleges

  16. PUBLIC POLICIES REGARDING PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Barbu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives of the study: the study aims to analyze public policies regarding people with disabilities. The research methods used are the qualitative research method and the observation method. Results and implications of the study: children, and as they continue to become adults, in the short term, in order to diminish suicide attempts, they must be monitored so that the traceability of the integration of persons with disabilities can be determined from the moment of their institutionalization. In the long run, these people with disabilities will integrate and from sustained people will become supporters of social health, unemployment and pension insurance institutions, relevant to the change process.

  17. Sexual health for people with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastgate, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability experience the same range of sexual needs and desires as other people. However, they experience many difficulties meeting their needs. They may be discouraged from relieving sexual tension by masturbating. They face a high risk of sexual abuse. They are likely not to be offered the full range of choices for contraception and sexual health screening. Poor education and social isolation may increase their risk of committing sexual offences. However, with appropriate education and good social support, people with intellectual disability are capable of safe, constructive sexual expression and healthy relationships. Providing such support is an essential part of supporting people with intellectual disability.

  18. Disability Discrimination and Obesity: The Big Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Stuart W; Snook, Jeremé

    2015-12-01

    Obesity discrimination in employment and recruitment has become a topic of focus for research examination with increasing reports of discrimination by colleagues and managers. Whilst a limited number of legal cases have emerged, disability law is consulted in line with the expectation of anti-discriminatory practices at work. In line with disability law, whether obesity is defined as a disability or not has an impact on the outcome of a court ruling. Ambiguity when defining obesity through either the medical or social model means there are many questions that remain unanswered which might lead to inconsistency in court rulings.

  19. Disability: a voice in Australian bioethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Christopher

    2003-06-01

    The rise of research and advocacy over the years to establish a disability voice in Australia with regard to bioethical issues is explored. This includes an analysis of some of the political processes and engagement in mainstream bioethical debate. An understanding of the politics of rejected knowledge is vital in understanding the muted disability voices in Australian bioethics and public policy. It is also suggested that the voices of those who are marginalised or oppressed in society, such as people with disability, have particular contribution to make in fostering critical bioethics.

  20. Disability and the post-2015 development agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardi, Rachele; Njelesani, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the extent to which disability has been recognized and included in two main documents produced to date as part of the United Nations Post-2015 Development agenda process. This is the process that is defining the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which will succeed the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) after the latter reach their target date in 2015. The two documents examined in the article are the Outcome Document (July 2014) of the Open Working Group (OWG) on SDGs and the Report (August 2014) of the Intergovernmental Committee of Experts on Sustainable Development Financing (ICESDF). The OWG consisted of 30 seats shared by 70 UN Member States and was in charge of proposing goals and targets for the SDGs. The ICESDF worked in parallel to the OWG and its report proposed options on an effective financing strategy. The article emphasizes the importance of including persons with disabilities in the Post-2015 Agenda, especially in view of the latter's overarching focus on eradicating poverty. The inclusion of persons with disabilities is being recognized in the Post-2015 Agenda discussions as central to achieving sustainable development. Disability has been explicitly mentioned in the OWG and ICESDF documents. Although the results so far have been very good, more work still needs to be done to ensure that these explicit references are maintained in the final version of the SDGs, which will be adopted in September 2015. Furthermore, the new framework needs to have a stronger human rights foundation on which to ground these references and future indicators. Light for the World is an international confederation of national development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) aiming at an inclusive society, where the rights of persons with disabilities are realized without discrimination. Through a rights-based approach, Light for the World supports 175 programs in 25 countries in the areas of prevention of blindness, rehabilitation, inclusive

  1. Improving care for people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sue

    2014-11-25

    People with learning disabilities have poorer health than the general population and experience health inequalities - partly as a result of problems with accessing health services. Health services have a duty to address health inequalities, by making reasonable adjustments to their services so they are more accessible to people with learning disabilities, but this does not always happen. Failure to make reasonable adjustments can have significant adverse effects for people with learning disabilities and their families. Nurses are well placed to implement reasonable adjustments, many of which are simple to do and can save lives.

  2. The economic costs of childhood disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Mark; Allin, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Childhood disabilities entail a range of immediate and long-term economic costs that have important implications for the well-being of the child, the family, and society but that are difficult to measure. In an extensive research review, Mark Stabile and Sara Allin examine evidence about three kinds of costs-direct, out-of-pocket costs incurred as a result of the child's disability; indirect costs incurred by the family as it decides how best to cope with the disability; and long-term costs associated with the child's future economic performance. Not surprisingly, the evidence points to high direct costs for families with children with disabilities, though estimates vary considerably within these families. Out-of-pocket expenditures, particularly those for medical costs, for example, are higher among families with children with a special health care need. An important indirect cost for these families involves decisions about employment. Stabile and Allin examine several studies that, taken together, show that having a child with disabilities increases the likelihood that the mother (and less often the father) will either curtail hours of work or stop working altogether. Researchers also find that having a child with disabilities can affect a mother's own health and put substantial strains on the parents' relationship. In the longer term, disabilities also compromise a child's schooling and capacity to get and keep gainful employment as an adult, according to the studies Stabile and Allin review. Negative effects on future well-being appear to be much greater, on average, for children with mental health problems than for those with physical disabilities. Stabile and Allin calculate that the direct costs to families, indirect costs through reduced family labor supply, direct costs to disabled children as they age into the labor force, and the costs of safety net programs for children with disabilities average $30,500 a year per family with a disabled child. They note

  3. Survival, Disability Rights, and Solidarity: Advancing Cyberprotest Rhetoric through Disability March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Mann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Disability March (DM was an online contingent of the 2017 Women's March on Washington which allowed protestors who could not attend physical marches due to disabilities to create profiles and descriptions on the website disabilitymarch.com. In this thematic analysis of the 2,251 profiles created through DM, I found emergent themes related to disability disclosure, support for broad health care coverage, support for human rights, and opposition to the new political administration. Comments supporting these themes demonstrated that DM functioned as a unique form of cyberprotest that upheld disabled perspectives through solidarity. This study demonstrates that disability cyberprotest movements like DM may promote disabled individuals within broader protest discourse and contemporary policy issues that are often essential to the survival and well-being of marginalized individuals.

  4. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2013-01-01

    and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...

  5. Parental Stress in Families of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yun-Ju

    2018-01-01

    Parents of children with disabilities often experience a higher level of stress than parents of children without disabilities, regardless of categories of disabilities. Understanding parental stressors can lead to appropriate interventions and supports for these parents and their children with disabilities. This article discusses issues of…

  6. Mathematics and Metacognition in Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2009-01-01

    A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…

  7. 76 FR 17403 - Proposed Priorities: Disability in the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Disabilities, 34, 76-80. Lightfoot, E., Hill, K., & LaLiberte, T. (2010). The inclusion of disability as a... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA: 84.133A-09] Proposed Priorities: Disability in the Family AGENCY... Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program administered by NIDRR. Specifically, this...

  8. Assessment and Documentation Considerations for Postsecondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Jennifer H.; Lindstrom, Will

    2011-01-01

    In order to gain access to accommodations and services at colleges and universities, students with learning disabilities must provide documentation of their disabilities, and as students with learning disabilities access higher education at increasing rates, the need for documentation of their disabilities and its impact becomes even more…

  9. Disability associated with low back pain in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain is sufficiently disabling and a common cause of disability particularly during the productive middle years of adult life. Disability implies interference with daily activities. Objective: To assess and document the disability associated with low back pain in terms of sick leave days, interference with ...

  10. Alternative Spaces of "Work" and Inclusion for Disabled People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Wilton, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Western governments have emphasized paid work as a key route to social inclusion for disabled people. Although the proportion of disabled people in "mainstream" employment has increased in recent decades, rates remain significantly below those for non-disabled people. Moreover, disabled workers continue to face discrimination and a lack of…

  11. Executive Functioning and Figurative Language Comprehension in Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Kaplan, Shani

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the research was to examine executive functioning and figurative language comprehension among students with learning disabilities as compared to students without learning disabilities. As part of the research, we examined 20 students with learning disabilities and 21 students with no learning disabilities, both groups of students…

  12. Adolescents with specific learning disabilities - perceptions of specific learning disabilities in the environment of secondary schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on adolescents with specific learning disabilities in the milieu of secondary schools. It is divided into a theoretical part and an empirical part. The first part introduces a topic of specific learning disabilities in the developmental stage of adolescence. It first describes the most relevant aspects of adolescent development. The attention is then paid to typical manifestations of specific learning disabilities in adolescence, and also to secondary symptoms usually conne...

  13. Personality patterns and vocational interests of learning disabled and nonlearning disabled high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    There is a lack of research based data in the field of learning disabilities, especially at the secondary level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate personality configuration patterns and vocational interests through the administration of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Abbreviated Version (AV) and the Self-Directed Search, Form E (EASY) for learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (NLD) students. The sample included 90 LD students and 100 Non-LD stud...

  14. Survival, Disability Rights, and Solidarity: Advancing Cyberprotest Rhetoric through Disability March

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin W. Mann

    2018-01-01

    Disability March (DM) was an online contingent of the 2017 Women's March on Washington which allowed protestors who could not attend physical marches due to disabilities to create profiles and descriptions on the website disabilitymarch.com. In this thematic analysis of the 2,251 profiles created through DM, I found emergent themes related to disability disclosure, support for broad health care coverage, support for human rights, and opposition to the new political administration. Comments su...

  15. [From disability to the adunatos: some thoughts on disability and somatoform pain disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli Noci, C; Barras, V; Stiefel, F

    2013-02-13

    Disability, especially if related to a psychiatric disorder, such as somatoform pain disorder, is characterized by medical, psychological, relational, social and societal, as well as financial and political aspects. This manuscript, part of a PhD thesis which reflects on a possible dialogue between an ancient text and the modern conceptualization of disability, tries to address the phenomenological, historical and political dimensions of disability.

  16. Anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled and non-disabled children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, N.; Minhas, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled and non-disabled children and to find the association of anxiety and depression with demographic characteristics in district Sheikhupura. Method: A cross sectional comparative study was conducted to find differences in the level of anxiety and depression in both groups of mothers i.e. among mothers of disabled and non-disabled children. A convenient sampling technique was used to select 340 mothers belonging to both groups (n = 170 in each group). Urdu version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess anxiety and depression in mothers. Data was analyzed using ANCOVA (SPSS version 17). Results: The Results of ANCOV A revealed statistically significant differences (p < .001) in the level of anxiety and depression in both groups of mothers. Majority of mothers (78%) belonging to children with disability had anxiety. Only 52% mothers belonging to non-disabled children had anxiety. Similarly, as compared to 46% mothers of non-disabled children, 76% mothers belonging to children with disability had depression. Correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive relationship of anxiety and depression with mothers' age (p < .05) and statistically significant inverse relationship with disabled child's age, mothers educational (p < .0 I) ana family income status. Conclusion: As the disabled child advances in age, mother better understands the demands of raising a disabled child and thus can cope with these demands affectively and with lesser anxiety. Implications of the study would assist psychologists in devising techniques for reducing level of anxiety and depression in mothers of disabled children. (author)

  17. Disability on campus: a perspective from faculty and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Cheryl L; Anderson, Kim M; Howald, Carol L; Henson, Lee; Gregg, Bonnie E

    2012-01-01

    To identify employee perceptions regarding disability-related workplace issues in Institutions of Higher Education (IHE). Faculty and staff (N=1,144) at a large, Midwestern university. A voluntary on-line survey of disability-related employment issues was developed by the university's Chancellor's Committee of Persons with Disabilities. Item responses were analyzed using descriptive and Pearson chi-square statistical methods. Fifteen percent of faculty and staff respondents were found to have disabilities, with 26% reporting experience of job discrimination, and 20% reporting harassment because of their disability. Results indicated significant differences on gender, employment standing (i.e., faculty or staff) and disability status (i.e., with or without a disability), in regard to perceptions of disability acceptance, campus accessibility, disability awareness, ADA policy, and knowledge of work accommodation procedures. Recommendations for IHEs are provided to promote a welcoming and inclusive campus that ultimately supports work success for persons with a disability.

  18. The Employment Situation of the Disabled People in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Greve, Jane

    The main aim of this paper is to provide relevant information about the labour market situation of disabled people in Denmark. The paper is based on combined survey and register information about approximately 8,000 disabled and non-disabled persons. The paper presents a descriptive analysis...... of disabled peoples’ labour market participation. The findings suggest that the employment ratio of the disabled people is significantly lower than for non-disabled. When it comes to persons in employment only minor differences can be noted between jobs held by the disabled and non-disabled. In conclusion......, it is argued that there seem to be a potential for an improvement of the employment rate of disabled people that may be enhanced through more emphasis on education and vocational rehabilitation measures as well as more flexible working conditions for disabled people....

  19. Stigma as a barrier to employment: mental disability and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Teresa L

    2005-01-01

    In a controversial expansion of workplace civil rights, the 1990 Americans with Disability Act (ADA) extended anti-discrimination protection to individuals with "mental impairments." One of the most critical barriers to the employment of individuals with mental disabilities is the degree of social stigma such disabilities incur, and there is compelling evidence that employers have stigmatizing attitudes and have discriminated against those with mental disabilities. This study examines the role played by stigma in employers' response to the 1990 Americans with Disability Act (ADA). A stratified sample of one hundred ninety employers were surveyed in 1996-1997 in a major Southern metropolitan area. Telephone interviews were completed with one hundred seventeen employers (response rate of 61.6%). The article describes employers' experiences with employees with mental disabilities and accommodations, specific employment practices, and attitudes towards those with mental disabilities. Stigma played an important role in conformity to the ADA (operationalized as either hiring or having specific recruiting policies for hiring individuals with mental disabilities). Furthermore, employers expressing coercive (fear of a lawsuit) as opposed to normative (belief that it is the right thing to do) rationales for compliance were more likely to hold stigmatized attitudes. Employers' beliefs about mental disability form a crucial foundation for truly supportive work environments (those that value difference and diversity), and further research is needed to determine if over time the ADA is successful in changing attitudes as well as behavior.

  20. Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they continue to struggle. Read More "Dyslexic" Articles In Their Own Words: Dealing with Dyslexia / Decoding Dyslexia, a Common Learning Disability / What is Dyslexia? / Special Education and Research ...

  1. Mainstreaming disability in education beyond 2015

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-02-14

    Feb 14, 2015 ... business owners in sustainable development activities could serve as an anchor for mainstreaming disability beyond .... includes the story of Hephaestus, a Greek god with .... advancement of technology, especially in remote.

  2. Disability in the UN cluster system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Perry

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cluster system offers space for raising awareness among humanitarian actors and for putting disability on the agenda, but it impairs local and cross-cutting dynamics at field level.

  3. Non-disability Repository for Evidentiary Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains data that supports the electronic storage of paper documents or electronic files not addressed by other initiatives such as electronic Disability (eDib) and...

  4. THE IMPACTS OF MENTAL DISABILITY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    individuals, ultimately resulting in reluctance to seek help and delay in rehabilitation. .... appropriately, and social stigma associated with the disability. ... and others, hence their significant others feel shame, self-blame and mistrust; leading to.

  5. SCHOOL INTEGRATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioara-Bianca BUBOIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to education is a fundamental right that should not be and can not be denied to any child regardless of his condition of normality or deviation from it. The historic route of educational policies regarding the children with disabilities experienced a positive evolution, from denying the possibility of attending a mainstream school, to current policies of integration and inclusion based on the idea of equal opportunities The rejection of what is considered atypical, unknown, strange, unusual, is the result of perpetuating stereotypes, prejudices regarding the disability, constituting signs of less advanced societies. Is the duty of society to accept children / people with disabilities as part of the reality that surrounds us, and try by all means not to turn a disable child into one normal child, but to normalize the conditions of his life, to give him the possibility to live the same social and school experiences that live any other typically child.

  6. Mortality in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Lauer, Emily; Hoghton, Matt

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews why an understanding of mortality data in general, and in relation to people with intellectual disabilities in particular, is an important area of concern, and introduces the papers in this Special Edition.

  7. The Medicaid Medically Improved Group, Losing Disability...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in, The Medicaid Medically Improved Group, Losing Disability Status and Growing Earnings, published in Volume 4, Issue 1 of the...

  8. Introducing disability studies to occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Pamela; Ricafrente-Biazon, Melissa; Russo, Ann; Chu, Ke Yun; Sud, Suman; Koerner, Lori; Vittoria, Karen; Landgrover, Alyssa; Olowu, Tosin

    2005-01-01

    This article is a work of collaborative ethnography about teaching and learning disability studies within the context of an occupational therapy graduate program. In spring 2004,14 occupational therapy students were introduced to disability studies by their cultural anthropologist (nonoccupational therapist) course instructor. During the one-credit course, they were expected to complete readings, watch films, attend guest lectures, and make a site visit. The occupational therapy students were required to write a journal to record personal reactions and new insights gained from these experiences. This article focuses on a thematic analysis of the students' journaled responses to the film "Dance Me to My Song," and a site visit to a local Independent Living Center. Students were expected to analyze these experiences from both disability studies and occupational therapy perspectives. The article addresses philosophical and practical differences between occupational therapy and disability studies and identifies opportunities for collaboration between occupational therapists and independent living specialists.

  9. Sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Li, Eria Ping

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the experience of the first generation of sibling advocates in Hong Kong. A qualitative approach was adopted and six sibling advocates of people with intellectual disabilities from one non-government organization were interviewed. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method and content analysis. Findings revealed that the six participants were reactive in the process of taking up the caregiver responsibility and they performed three functions: to advocate for more service provision, to improve service quality, and to facilitate communication between individual service units and family members of people with intellectual disabilities. All of the participants expressed that they needed support from service providers when they tried to function as the sibling advocates. Strategies to promote the involvement of siblings of people with intellectual disabilities as advocates are discussed and it is expected that more siblings of people with intellectual disabilities will be supported to have a higher level of involvement in advocacy.

  10. Malnutrition and disability: unexplored opportunities for collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, N; Challenger, E; Berman-Bieler, R; Farkas, A; Yilmaz, N; Schultink, W; Clark, D; Kaplan, C; Kerac, M

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing international interest in the links between malnutrition and disability: both are major global public health problems, both are key human rights concerns, and both are currently prominent within the global health agenda. In this review, interactions between the two fields are explored and it is argued that strengthening links would lead to important mutual benefits and synergies. At numerous points throughout the life-cycle, malnutrition can cause or contribute to an individual’s physical, sensory, intellectual or mental health disability. By working more closely together, these problems can be transformed into opportunities: nutrition services and programmes for children and adults can act as entry points to address and, in some cases, avoid or mitigate disability; disability programmes can improve nutrition for the children and adults they serve. For this to happen, however, political commitment and resources are needed, as are better data. PMID:25309998

  11. National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... assistance and related activities to maximize the full inclusion and integration into society, employment, independent living, family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities of all ages; promoting the transfer of, use ...

  12. Disability and Bureaucratic Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Abrams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a hybrid actor-network theory/phenomenological approach to a frequent bother in the lives of disabled persons: bureaucratic forms. I argue that these forms are key sites where disabled personhood emerges, something I examine through the lens of what philosopher Annemarie Mol calls ‘ontological politics’. To be disabled is to be entered into the bureaucratic form of life. These forms translate human existence into a categorize-able, transportable and combinable object, to be administered through ‘centers of calculation’. Combining Heidegger’s fundamental ontology with Latour’s theory of paperwork, I suggest that these forms represent disability in terms of ‘objective presence’, as a mere pre-existing thing, rather than a human way of being. I conclude with suggestions for further phenomenological research that takes embodied difference as its point of departure.

  13. What Are the Symptoms of Learning Disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are common indicators? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are the indicators of learning disabilities? Many children have difficulty with reading, writing, or other learning-related tasks at some point, ...

  14. Work disability resulting from chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Allaire, Saralynn H; Reisine, Susan T

    2005-03-01

    To describe current programs and policies for addressing work disability among adults with chronic health conditions, and to identify opportunities for new research aimed at reducing the problem. The authors conducted secondary data analysis and a literature review. Millions of Americans with a chronic health condition have a work disability or are at risk of developing one. This public health problem is costing hundreds of billions of dollars a year nationally in lost productivity and diminishing the quality of life of millions of Americans. The medical care system, employers, and government--three traditional sources of help for adults with chronic health problems--are not sufficiently oriented toward the primary or secondary prevention of work disability. New research is urgently needed to reduce the burden of work disability on individuals and society.

  15. Osteogenesis imperfecta in childhood: impairment and disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelbert, R. H.; van der Graaf, Y.; van Empelen, R.; Beemer, F. A.; Helders, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    To determine clinical characteristics in children with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) regarding impairment (range of joint motion and muscle strength) and disability (functional skills) in relation to the different types of the disease, and to study the correlation between characteristics of

  16. Embracing the New Disability Rights Paradigm: The Importance of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) commenced operation. The CRPD has created a dynamic new disability rights paradigm that empowers disability people's organizations and creates a new paradigm for disability scholars. This paper analyses the impact of the CRPD and provides practical guidance as…

  17. The Role of Learning Disability Nurses in Promoting Cervical Screening Uptake in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Jennifer L.; Coulson, Neil S.

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that the uptake of cervical screening by women with intellectual disabilities (commonly known as learning disabilities within UK policy frameworks, practice areas and health services) is poor compared to women without intellectual disabilities. The present study explored learning disability nurses' experiences of supporting women…

  18. Predicting Vision-Related Disability in Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ricardo Y; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Costa, Vital P; Wu, Zhichao; Medeiros, Felipe A

    2018-01-01

    To present a new methodology for investigating predictive factors associated with development of vision-related disability in glaucoma. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two hundred thirty-six patients with glaucoma followed up for an average of 4.3±1.5 years. Vision-related disability was assessed by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) at baseline and at the end of follow-up. A latent transition analysis model was used to categorize NEI VFQ-25 results and to estimate the probability of developing vision-related disability during follow-up. Patients were tested with standard automated perimetry (SAP) at 6-month intervals, and evaluation of rates of visual field change was performed using mean sensitivity (MS) of the integrated binocular visual field. Baseline disease severity, rate of visual field loss, and duration of follow-up were investigated as predictive factors for development of disability during follow-up. The relationship between baseline and rates of visual field deterioration and the probability of vision-related disability developing during follow-up. At baseline, 67 of 236 (28%) glaucoma patients were classified as disabled based on NEI VFQ-25 results, whereas 169 (72%) were classified as nondisabled. Patients classified as nondisabled at baseline had 14.2% probability of disability developing during follow-up. Rates of visual field loss as estimated by integrated binocular MS were almost 4 times faster for those in whom disability developed versus those in whom it did not (-0.78±1.00 dB/year vs. -0.20±0.47 dB/year, respectively; P disability developing over time (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.70; P = 0.013). In addition, each 0.5-dB/year faster rate of loss of binocular MS during follow-up was associated with a more than 3.5 times increase in the risk of disability developing (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.56-8.23; P = 0.003). A new methodology for classification and analysis

  19. Disability history: suggested readings--an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Scholars in Disability history and Disability studies have produced a substantive corpus of works in the last two decades. The range of topics represent the diverse nature of this field. This essay is intended as an introductory historiography, and thus presents only a narrow sampling of books. It includes general works in both Disability history and Disability studies, focusing primarily on three topics in Disability history: representation, science/technology/eugenics, and memoirs.

  20. Memory Processes in Learning Disability Subtypes of Children Born Preterm

    OpenAIRE

    McCoy, Thomasin E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Richman, Lynn C.; Nopoulos, Peg C.; Bell, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified language or perceptual-motor learning disability (n = 13). Between-group comparisons indicate no significant differences in immediate auditory...

  1. Estimating the economic cost of disability in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinan, John; Gannon, Brenda; Lyons, Seán

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the extra economic costs of disability seems a logical step towards alleviating elements of social exclusion for people with disabilities. This paper estimates the economic cost of disability in Ireland in terms of the additional spending needs that arise due to disability. It defines and estimates models of the private costs borne by families with individuals who have a disability in Ireland when compared to the wider population, both in general and by severity of illness. Our mod...

  2. ICTs and Montessori for Learning Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Drigas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the Montessori philosophy and examines how this learning theory currently gives credence to cognitive processes of the mind, as suitable intervention used to the training of children with learning disabilities. Furthermore, Montessori’s system and materials in combination with the support of new technologies as well as their implementation on various kinds of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs have great successes regarding the support of disability and the enhancement of learning process.

  3. Intellectual disability sport and Paralympic classification

    OpenAIRE

    Anna van Dijk; Klára Daďová; Irena Martínková

    2017-01-01

    Sometimes it might seem that elite disability sport, especially as represented by the Paralympic Movement, is only for athletes with an amputation, or a spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsied or blind athletes, rather than for athletes with an intellectual disability (ID). However, after we set out the various opportunities open to ID athletes, that offer different kinds of sporting engagement, we find interesting and alarming issues with respect to the elite competitive event offer for athl...

  4. Reporting about disability evaluation in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anner, Jessica; Kunz, Regina; Boer, Wout de

    2014-01-01

    To compare the official requirements of the content of disability evaluation for social insurance across Europe and to explore how the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is currently applied, using the rights and obligations of people with disabilities towards society as frame of reference. Survey. We used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview members of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security (EUMASS), who are central medical advisors in social insurance systems in their country. We performed two email follow-up rounds to complete and verify responses. Fifteen respondents from 15 countries participated. In all countries, medical examiners are required to report about a claimant's working capacity and prognosis. In 14 countries, medical reports ought to contain information about socio-medical history and feasible interventions to improve the claimant's health status. The format of medical reporting on working capacity varies widely (free text, semi- and fully structured reports). One country makes a reference to the ICF in their reports on working capacity, others consider doing so. Official requirements on medical reporting about disability in social insurance across Europe follow the frame of four features: work capacity, socio-medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. There is an increasing trend to make formal or informal reference to the ICF in the reports about working capacity. The four features and the ICF may provide common references across countries to describe disability evaluation, facilitating national and international research. Implications for Rehabilitation Reporting about disability in social insurance in different countries is about work capacity, social medical history, feasibility of intervention and prognosis of disability. Formats of reporting on work capacity vary among countries, from free text to semi-structured report forms to fully structured

  5. Excessive online computer use and learning disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    Online gaming has become a very popular leisure activity among adolescents. Research suggests that a small minority of adolescents may display problematic gaming behaviour and that some of these individuals may be addicted to online games, including those who have learning disabilities. This article begins by examining a case study of a 15-year old adolescent with a learning disability who appeared to be addicted to various computer and internet applications. Despite the potential negative ef...

  6. Tutorials in university students with a disability

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Gairín Sallán; José Luís Muñoz Moreno

    2013-01-01

    This article places an emphasis on the importance of tutorials for students with a disability in universities. It presented the most significant results of the study of tutorials carried out in help services, units or offices for students with a disability inmore than 45 Spanish universities, in relation to promotion, reception, completion and graduation. The contributions highlight the importance of organising a response through a Tutorial Action Plan made up of the stages of motivation and ...

  7. Ability or Disability - Design for Whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    The dilemma addressed is how private homes and their residents change when the home becomes a hybrid of both workspace and private space. When assistive technologies designed for institutions enter the home, the everyday practices of disabled persons and their relatives change in interaction...... are shaped in the interplay with everyday life in private homes. Through an emphasis on embodiment, script and domestication, the authors illustrate how relations are developed or not developed between the disabled person and the non-human artefacts....

  8. Disability and Survival in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Kohler, M; Clarenbach, C F; Bahler, C; Brack, T; Russi, E W; Bloch, K E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive impairment of muscle function, respiratory failure and premature death. Longitudinal data on the course of physical disability and respiratory function are sparse. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively assess physical impairment and disability, respiratory function and survival in DMD patients over several years in order to describe the course of the disease with current care. METHODS: In 43 patients with DMD, aged 5-35 years, yearly a...

  9. Functional disability in elderly with dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainã Alves Fagundes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dementia represents one of the major causes of disability and dependence in old age and can affect functional capacity in all areas of occupational performance, including basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL, respectively, leisure, social participation and others. Objectives: To characterize the functional disability level in elderly people with dementia and verify the existence of correlation between functionality and the stage or type of dementia. Method: Quantitative, exploratory, cross-sectional study, with a sample of 25 caregivers of elderly with dementia. For the characterization of the participants were used structured questionnaires and to assess functional disability, the Disability Assessment Scale for Dementia - DAD was applied. Results: Greater incapacity was observed in the IADL sub item. This finding is compatible with the literature on the hierarchy in functional decline in the elderly: decline begins in IADL, while BADL remain unaffected for a longer period. There was no significant correlation between the type of dementia, age or gender and disability. It was verified through the Spearman coefficient (rho = 0.87, a significant correlation of high magnitude between functional disability and stage of dementia (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: Such findings reiterate the importance of giving priority to early detection and prevention of the functional decline, which is the manifestation of vulnerability among the elderly.

  10. Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders: disability, pain intensity and fear of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Grande-Alonso, Mónica; López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; López-López, Almudena; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; La Touche, Roy

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to compare and correlate disability, pain intensity, the impact of headache on daily life and the fear of movement between subgroups of patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD). A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients diagnosed with chronic painful TMD. Patients were divided into: 1) joint pain (JP); 2) muscle pain (MP); and 3) mixed pain. The following measures were included: Craniomandibular pain and disability (Craniofacial pain and disability inventory), neck disability (Neck Dsiability Index), pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), impact of headache (Headache Impact Test 6) and kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11). A total of 154 patients were recruited. The mixed pain group showed significant differences compared with the JP group or MP group in neck disability (p craniomandibular pain and disability (p Neck disability was a significant covariate (37 % of variance) of craniomandibular pain and disability for the MP group (β = 0.62; p neck disability (β = 0.40; p craniomandibular pain and disability. Mixed chronic pain patients show greater craniomandibular and neck disability than patients diagnosed with chronic JP or MP. Neck disability predicted the variance of craniofacial pain and disability for patients with MP. Neck disability and kinesiophobia predicted the variance of craniofacial pain and disability for those with chronic mixed pain.

  11. Inclusion of disability-related content in nurse practitioner curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Blunt, Elizabeth; Marozsan, Heather; Wetzel-Effinger, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    To examine the integration of disability-content in a national sample of nurse practitioner curricula. Responses of National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) members to an online 34-item survey designed to assess disability-related content included in nurse practitioner (NP) curricula; populations of people with disabilities addressed; models of disability; and resources used to teach about disability, facilitators and barriers to inclusion of disability, and respondents' assessment of the adequacy of coverage of disability in their programs. A survey used previously to assess integration of disability content in undergraduate nursing programs was modified to make it relevant to NP curricula. Nursing faculty and people with disability validated the survey to ensure its completeness and sensitivity to the disability community. Participating programs represent 111 (33.6%) NP programs. Lack of disability-related content reported by NP faculty in the majority of programs suggests that there is considerable room for improvement in efforts to address this often vulnerable population. Because people with disabilities can be found in any setting where health care is provided, all NPs need to be prepared to care for people with disabilities across the life span. Strategies need to be developed and implemented to increase the awareness of NP faculty about the health issues of people with disabilities and integration of disability-related content without disrupting existing overloaded NP curricula. © 2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  12. Epigenetic Etiology of Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Shigeki; Bérubé, Nathalie G; Zhou, Zhaolan; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Battaglioli, Elena; Scandaglia, Marilyn; Barco, Angel

    2017-11-08

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition associated with impaired cognitive and adaptive behaviors. Many chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators have been genetically associated with ID disorders (IDDs). Here we review how alterations in the function of histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers, and methyl-DNA binding proteins contribute to neurodevelopmental defects and altered brain plasticity. We also discuss how progress in human genetics has led to the generation of mouse models that unveil the molecular etiology of ID, and outline the direction in which this field is moving to identify therapeutic strategies for IDDs. Importantly, because the chromatin regulators linked to IDDs often target common downstream genes and cellular processes, the impact of research in individual syndromes goes well beyond each syndrome and can also contribute to the understanding and therapy of other IDDs. Furthermore, the investigation of these disorders helps us to understand the role of chromatin regulators in brain development, plasticity, and gene expression, thereby answering fundamental questions in neurobiology. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3710773-10$15.00/0.

  13. What are the specific disability and limitation types underlying responses to the BRFSS disability questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Joshua; Balte, Pallavi; Clarkson, John; Nitcheva, Daniela; Graham, Catherine Leigh; McDermott, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Researchers rely on resources such as BRFSS data to understand the health status of people with disability. However, the survey data rely on a limited definition of disability resulting in imprecise inferences about the nature of disability. Understanding how health varies among people with different types of disability is vital to tailoring interventions for improving health and eliminating disparities. The purpose of this study was to utilize state added follow-up questions in the 2011 South Carolina BRFSS to describe the specific health conditions and limitations attributed to their disability and to compare health status across different types of disability. Participants reporting a disability were asked to name health condition(s) causing disability and describe their disability-related limitations. Descriptive statistics were calculated using weighted proportions. Logistic regression was used to model the associations of specific health conditions and limitations with the outcomes of self-rated general health and mental health status, controlling for demographic factors. The 5 most commonly reported health condition categories were (weighted percentage): musculoskeletal (68.56%); pulmonary (10.41%); neurologic (8.48%); heart disease (8%) and mental health (7.31%). The 5 most commonly reported limitation categories were: mobility/balance limitations (46.29%); pain (23.22%); breathing problems (12.36%); general weakness/fatigue (9.57%) and limited lifting (8.24%). There was substantial variation in the degree of association between categories of conditions and limitations and the outcomes of self-rated physical and mental health. Researchers and practitioners should consider variability in the nature of disability when designing interventions to improve the health of people with a disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A survey on awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 真二; 今野, 和夫; SHIBUYA, Shinji; KONNO, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The awareness of parents about friendship between their children with an intellectual disability and children without a disability is an important factor for their children to make friends without a disability. A questionnare survey was used to parents of upper secondary department of special schools for students with an intellectual disability. They thought that their children had fewer opportunities to get involved with children without a disability. Many of them wished that their children ...

  15. Contrasting properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography imaging of human normal endometrium tissues and uterine leiomyoma tissues in ex vivo study combined with microneedle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, P. C.; Ye, M.; Wei, H. J.; Wu, G. Y.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.; Zhou, L. P.

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to monitor and contrast the diffusion of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles’ (NPs) penetration and accumulation in human normal endometrium (NE) tissues and uterine leiomyoma (UL) tissues combined with microneedles (MN) in vitro using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectral. Continuous OCT and DR spectra monitoring showed that, after application of ZnO or TiO2 NPs, the OCT signal intensities of NE and UL both increase with time, and the TiO2 NPs tend to produce a greater signal enhancement than ZnO NPs in the same type of tissue. And for the same type of NPs, they penetrate faster in NE tissue compared with UL tissue. In addition, the use of MN can significantly enhance the penetration of topically applied ZnO or TiO2 NPs in the tissue. The attenuation coefficients of NE tissue are about 5.01  ±  0.35 mm-1 for ZnO NPs treatment at 195 min and 4.62  ±  0.29 mm-1 for ZnO NPs/MN at 179 min, 4.73  ±  0.30 mm-1 for TiO2 NPs at 183 min, 4.05  ±  0.25 mm-1 for TiO2 NPs/MN at 147 min when the penetration process reached the stable state. And the attenuation coefficients of UL tissue are about 5.0  ±  0.34 mm-1 for ZnO NP treatment at 191 min and 4.20  ±  0.26 mm-1 for ZnO NPs/MN at 169 min, 4.33  ±  0.27 mm-1 for TiO2 NPs at 176 min, 3.53  ±  0.20 mm-1 for TiO2 NPs/MN at 141 min when the penetration process reached the stable state. This suggests that TiO2 NPs penetrate faster and reach the maximum amount of penetration earlier than ZnO NPs with the same condition. The results of attenuation coefficients and reflectance intensity of NE and UL tissue suggests that the accumulation of the TiO2 or ZnO NPs in both NE and UL tissue greatly influenced the tissue optical properties.

  16. Contrasting properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography imaging of human normal endometrium tissues and uterine leiomyoma tissues in ex vivo study combined with microneedle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, P C; Wei, H J; Guo, Z Y; Zhou, L P; Ye, M; Wu, G Y; Yang, H Q; Xie, S S; He, Y H

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to monitor and contrast the diffusion of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles’ (NPs) penetration and accumulation in human normal endometrium (NE) tissues and uterine leiomyoma (UL) tissues combined with microneedles (MN) in vitro using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectral. Continuous OCT and DR spectra monitoring showed that, after application of ZnO or TiO 2 NPs, the OCT signal intensities of NE and UL both increase with time, and the TiO 2 NPs tend to produce a greater signal enhancement than ZnO NPs in the same type of tissue. And for the same type of NPs, they penetrate faster in NE tissue compared with UL tissue. In addition, the use of MN can significantly enhance the penetration of topically applied ZnO or TiO 2 NPs in the tissue. The attenuation coefficients of NE tissue are about 5.01  ±  0.35 mm −1 for ZnO NPs treatment at 195 min and 4.62  ±  0.29 mm −1 for ZnO NPs/MN at 179 min, 4.73  ±  0.30 mm −1 for TiO 2 NPs at 183 min, 4.05  ±  0.25 mm −1 for TiO 2 NPs/MN at 147 min when the penetration process reached the stable state. And the attenuation coefficients of UL tissue are about 5.0  ±  0.34 mm −1 for ZnO NP treatment at 191 min and 4.20  ±  0.26 mm −1 for ZnO NPs/MN at 169 min, 4.33  ±  0.27 mm −1 for TiO 2 NPs at 176 min, 3.53  ±  0.20 mm −1 for TiO 2 NPs/MN at 141 min when the penetration process reached the stable state. This suggests that TiO 2 NPs penetrate faster and reach the maximum amount of penetration earlier than ZnO NPs with the same condition. The results of attenuation coefficients and reflectance intensity of NE and UL tissue suggests that the accumulation of the TiO 2 or ZnO NPs in both NE and UL tissue greatly influenced the tissue optical properties. (paper)

  17. 75 FR 27324 - National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR)-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... improve rehabilitation outcomes for underserved populations; (4) identify research gaps; (5) identify.... (CIRRIE, 2009). It has been used as a source of data for systematic reviews on diverse disability and... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR...

  18. 78 FR 22817 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ..., family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities, especially... telephones, tablets, and e-book readers. The rapid development and deployment of IT innovations further... disabilities. References Center for Universal Design (1997). The Principles of Universal Design. Retrieved from...

  19. Shared and unique risk factors underlying mathematical disability and reading and spelling disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Esther M.; Viersen, Sietske van; de Bree, Elise H.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    High comorbidity rates have been reported between mathematical learning disabilities (MD) and reading and spelling disabilities (RSD). Research has identified skills related to math, such as number sense (NS) and visuospatial working memory (visuospatial WM), as well as to literacy, such as

  20. 77 FR 24934 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Disability and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... living, family support, and economic and social self-sufficiency of individuals with disabilities.... Employment status of the civilian population by sex, age, and disability status, not seasonally adjusted... determination that their benefits justify their costs (recognizing that some benefits and costs are difficult to...