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Sample records for endometrial cavity usual

  1. Pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity: usual and unusual manifestations and pitfalls on magnetic resonance imaging

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    Takeuchi, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kenji; Yoshida, Shusaku; Nishitani, Hiromu [University of Tokushima, Department of Radiology, Tokushima (Japan); Uehara, Hisanori [University of Tokushima, Department of Molecular and Environmental Pathology, Tokushima (Japan); Shimazu, Hideki [Oe Kyoudo Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2005-11-01

    The endometrial cavity may demonstrate various imaging manifestations such as normal, reactive, inflammatory, and benign and malignant neoplasms. We evaluated usual and unusual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the uterine endometrial cavity, and described the diagnostic clues to differential diagnoses. Surgically proven pathologies of the uterine endometrial cavity were evaluated retrospectively with pathologic correlation. The pathologies included benign endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial hyperplasia and polyp, malignant endometrial neoplasms such as endometrial carcinoma and carcinosarcoma, endometrial-myometrial neoplasm such as endometrial stromal sarcoma, pregnancy-related lesions in the endometrial cavity such as gestational trophoblastic diseases (hydatidiform mole, invasive mole and choriocarcinoma) and placental polyp, myometrial lesions simulating endometrial lesions such as submucosal leiomyoma and some adenomyosis, endometrial neoplasms simulating myometrial lesions such as adenomyomatous polyp and endometrial lesions arising in the hemicavity of a septate/bicornate uterus, and fluid collections in the uterine cavity (hydro/hemato/pyometra). It is important to recognize various imaging findings in these diseases, in order to make a correct preoperative diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Endometrial carcinoma located in the right septate uterus cavity: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometrial cancer in patients with uterine congenital malformations is exceptional and there are only a few rare cases published in the literature. We report the case of a 67 years-old patient with an endometrial cancer located in the right cavity of a complete septate uterus. Pan African Medical Journal 2015; 22 ...

  3. Impact of endometrial cavity fluid on assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

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    Liu, Shan; Shi, Lin; Shi, Juanzi

    2016-03-01

    The impact of endometrial cavity fluid (ECF) on assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes has not been evaluated in a meta-analysis. To evaluate the impact of ECF on the outcome of ART cycles. PubMed, China Academic Journals Full-text Database, and China Doctoral/Masters Dissertations Full-text Databases were searched for reports published in any language before January 1, 2015, using relevant keywords. Studies were included if they compared the outcome of ART in women with and without ECF. Background information, participants' characteristics, and study outcomes were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Six studies evaluating 5928 ART cycles were included. The pregnancy rate was significantly lower in the group with ECF than in the group without ECF (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55-0.98; P=0.03). The same association was observed if the analysis included only patients with hydrosalpinx (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.15-0.86; P=0.02). The clinical pregnancy rate after ART is significantly lower among patients with ECF than among those without ECF. In addition, if ECF is found in patients with hydrosalpinx, ART cycles should be cancelled after oocyte retrieval. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

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    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma.

  5. Expulsion of Fibroids to the Endometrial Cavity after Magnetic Resonance Imaging-guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Surgery (MRgFUS) Treatment of Intramural Uterine Fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Hyeok; Hong, Gil Pyo; Kim, Yu-Ri; Hong, Da Gyo; Ha, Jae-Eun; Yeom, Jung In; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Hyung-Il; Lee, Kyu-Sup

    2016-12-01

    This report seeks to introduce some cases of the patients who received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery (MRgFUS)-based intramural uterine fibroids treatment where the post-MRgFUS intramural uterine fibroids decreased in its volume and protruded towards the endometrial cavity to be expelled by hysteroscopy. Of the 157 patients who had received MRgFUS treatment in the Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Hospital from March, 2015 to February, 2016; this study examined 6 of the cases where, after high intensity focused ultrasound treatment, intramural uterine fibroids protruded towards the endometrial cavity to be removed by hysteroscopic myomectomy. The high intensity focused ultrasound utilized in the cases were Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla MR (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands) and Sonalleve HIFU system. The volume of fibroids ranged from 26.0 cm3 to 199.5 cm3, averaging 95.6 cm3. The major axis length ranged from 4.0 cm to 8.2 cm, averaging 6.3 cm. Fibroid location in all of the patients was in intramural uterine before treatment but after the high intensity focused ultrasound treatment, the fibroids were observed to protrude towards the endometrial cavity in at least Day 5 or up to Day 73 to allow hysteroscopic myomectomy. In some cases, after an intramural uterine fibroid is treated with MRgFUS, fibroid volume is decreased and the fibroid protrudes towards the endometrial cavity. In this case, hysteroscopic myomectomy can be a useful solution.

  6. Endometrial ablation

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    Hysteroscopy - endometrial ablation; Laser thermal ablation; Endometrial ablation - radiofrequency; Endometrial ablation - thermal balloon ablation; Rollerball ablation; Hydrothermal ablation; Novasure ...

  7. Effect of endometrial cavity fluid on pregnancy rate of fresh versus frozen In Vitro fertilization cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to study the difference in etiology and outcome in terms of implantation rate and abortion rate in fresh (self-stimulated versus frozen (oocyte donation cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF and in transient versus persistent fluid. Material and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Reproductive Medicine of tertiary care center from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were collected retrospectively from the departmental files. Twenty-four patients from fresh IVF-stimulated cycles and 24 from frozen oocyte donation cycle with their endometrium prepared by hormone replacement treatment were included in the study. All patients selected in the study had grade-A embryo transfer of day 3–4 with maximum three embryo transferred. Pregnancy was defined by rising serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin levels performed after 14 days of embryo transfer and further confirmed by ultrasonographic visualization of gestational sac at 6 weeks. All biochemical pregnancies were included in implantation failure. All pregnant patients were followed till the termination of pregnancy and further noted as live birth or abortion. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate was seen more in self-stimulated cycle (62.5% with live birth rate of 50% than hormone replacement treatment cycle, in which clinical pregnancy rate was 45.83% with live birth rate of 33.33%. Clinical pregnancy rate was highest in group with very less fluid in cavity (1–2 mm 63% and with live birth of 52.63%. Clinical pregnancy was seen only in two patients of group B with anterior and posterior (AP diameter of fluid in cavity of 2–3 mm with live birth of only one, whereas in group C, with AP diameter of 3–5 mm, none of the patient conceived. This difference was statistically significant. Clinical pregnancy rate was 65.62% in transient fluid accumulation with live birth rate of 53.25%, which was significantly higher than persistent fluid accumulation

  8. Endometrial Hyperplasia

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    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Endometrial Hyperplasia Home For Patients Search FAQs Endometrial Hyperplasia ... Spanish Endometrial Hyperplasia FAQ147, May 2011 PDF Format Endometrial Hyperplasia Gynecologic Problems What is endometrial hyperplasia? How ...

  9. Feasibility of endometrial assessment after thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahonkallio, Sari J; Liakka, Annikki K; Martikainen, Hannu K; Santala, Markku J

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of endometrial assessment after endometrial thermal ablation. Prospective observational study. A total of 57 women (age 47-52 years), who had undergone endometrial thermal ablation as a treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) 3-10 years (mean 6 years) earlier, were examined with transvaginal ultrasound and saline sonohysterography. Endometrial samples were collected with a Pipelle device. Visualisation of endometrium, access to uterine cavity, change in cavity length, success in outpatient endometrial sampling and success in sonohysterography were evaluated. Endometrial thickness was 4.5mm in amenorrhoeic women (n=17), 5.6mm in eumenorrhoeic women (n=37) and 6.6mm in hypermenorrhoeic women (n=3). An endometrial sample was successfully taken in 44 (77%) women, and in 13 (23%) women endometrial sample taking failed. The length of the uterine cavity compared to the length measured before endometrial thermal ablation was 0.5-5 cm (mean 2 cm) shorter in 34 women, unchanged in four women and longer in five women. The uterine cavity distended regularly in only nine (16%) women. In 14 (25%) women the cavity distended irregularly or only partly, and in 24 (42%) women the uterine cavity did not distend at all, but appeared as a narrow tube. In 10 (18%) women the sonohysterography catheter did not enter the uterine cavity at all. Endometrial assessment is compromised after previous endometrial thermal ablation. Both endometrial sampling and sonohysterography fail quite often, causing problems in diagnosis of abnormal bleeding. Intrauterine adhesions may also decrease the reliability of the endometrial sampling.

  10. Brain Metastases from Endometrial Carcinoma

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    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This paper will focus on knowledge related to brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma. To date, 115 cases were documented in the literature with an incidence of 0.6% among endometrial carcinoma patients. The endometrial carcinoma was usually an advanced-stage and high-grade tumor. In most patients (~90%), brain metastasis was detected after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma with a median interval from diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma to diagnosis of brain metastases of 17 months. Brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma was either an isolated disease limited to the brain only (~50%) or part of a disseminated disease involving also other parts of the body (~50%). Most often, brain metastasis from endometrial carcinoma affected the cerebrum (~75%) and was solitary (~60%). The median survival after diagnosis of brain metastases from endometrial carcinoma was 5 months; however, a significantly better survival was achieved with multimodal therapy including surgical resection or stereotactic radiosurgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and/or chemotherapy compared to WBRT alone. It is suggested that brain imaging studies should be considered in the routine follow up of patients with endometrial carcinoma and that the search for a primary source in females with brain metastases of unknown primary should include endometrial biopsy. PMID:22523707

  11. Endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your hormones increase your risk of endometrial cancer: Estrogen replacement therapy without the use of progesterone History of endometrial polyps Infrequent periods Never being pregnant Obesity Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Starting menstruation at an ...

  12. Endometrial polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007636.htm Endometrial polyps To use the sharing features on this ... or many polyps. Causes The exact cause of endometrial polyps in women is not known. They tend ...

  13. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Endometrial Cancer Key Points Endometrial cancer is a disease ...

  14. Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed at an early stage and can be treated with surgery. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, staging, and treatment for early- and advanced-stage endometrial cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  15. Evaluation of the Risk of Spreading Endometrial Cell by Hysteroscopy: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rievani de Sousa Damião

    2009-01-01

    Results. Four patients were excluded for presenting endometrial cells in PW1. In the 72 patients left, there was no passage of cells for the peritoneal cavity. In group 1, 88% presented secretory endometrial phase with correlation of 80% between hysteroscopy and biopsy. Conclusion. Hysteroscopy performed under a low pressure of CO2 does not cause spreading of endometrial cells into the peritoneal cavity.

  16. Thalidomide in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    Endometrial Adenoacanthoma; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma

  17. Endometrial biopsy

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    Biopsy - endometrium ... The biopsy is normal if the cells in the sample are not abnormal. ... Risks of endometrial biopsy include: Infection Causing a hole in (perforating) the uterus or tearing the cervix (rarely occurs) Prolonged bleeding Slight spotting ...

  18. Early preventive exercises versus usual care does not seem to reduce trismus in patients treated with radiotherapy for cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høgdal, Nina; Juhl, Carsten; Aadahl, Mette; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative radiotherapy, we investigated the benefits and harms of an early exercise regime on trismus. Patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy were centrally randomised to exercises 5-6 times for 45 minutes during and after radiotherapy supervised by a physiotherapist in addition to usual care versus usual care alone. The primary outcome was change in maximal interincisor distance (MID) measured at 5 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes were change in cervical ranges of motion, tissue tightness, and health-related quality of life. Mixed model analysis of repeated measures adjusted for tumour size and operation was conducted to assess the effect of early preventive exercises across time periods. Of the 100 patients included, two patients withdrew and one died before the onset of radiotherapy. The unadjusted mean difference in MID at 12 months after having completed radiotherapy was 0.83 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) -3.64-5.29, p = 0.71) in the exercise intervention group compared with the control group. When adjusted for operation and tumour size, the effect of the exercise intervention on mean MID from baseline to 12-month follow-up was 5.92 mm (95% CI -0.48-12.33, p = 0.07). Of the secondary outcomes, cervical rotation showed a statistically significant deterioration in the exercise group compared with the control group (p = 0.01). No significant effects were observed on the other secondary outcomes. In patients with cancer in the oral cavity or oropharynx, early supervised exercises combined with self-care treatment focusing on mobility exercises to reduce trismus do not seem to provide additional beneficial effects compared with usual care during curative radiotherapy.

  19. Controversies in the Management of Endometrial Carcinoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Mehasseb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial carcinoma is the commonest type of female genital tract malignancy in the developed countries. Endometrial carcinoma is usually confined to the uterus at the time of diagnosis and as such usually carries an excellent prognosis with high curability. Our understanding and management of endometrial cancer have continuously developed. Current controversies focus on screening and early detection, the extent of nodal surgery, and the changing roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy and will be discussed in this paper.

  20. Theories of endometrial carcinogenesis: a multidisciplinary approach.

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    Sherman, M E

    2000-03-01

    Historical observations have suggested that endometrial carcinomas vary in histopathologic appearance and clinical features. More recent, systematic studies have provided epidemiologic, clinicopathologic, and molecular support for these observations. Specifically, studies suggest that the most common type of endometrial carcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, develops from endometrial hyperplasia in the setting of excess estrogen exposure and usually pursues an indolent clinical course. In contrast, a minority of endometrial carcinomas, best represented by serous carcinoma, do not seem to be related to estrogenic risk factors or elevated serum hormone levels, and these tumors seem to develop from atrophic rather than hyperplastic epithelium. We have proposed that serous carcinomas develop from "endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma," a lesion representing malignant transformation of the endometrial surface epithelium. Whereas endometrioid carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia are associated with microsatellite instability and ras and PTEN mutations, serous carcinoma and endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma are associated with p53 mutations and abnormal accumulation of p53 protein. Based on these data regarding the pathogenesis of endometrioid and serous carcinoma, we have proposed a dualistic model of endometrial carcinogenesis incorporating a "classic" estrogen-driven pathway and an "alternative" pathway seemingly unrelated to hormones. It is hoped that further studies may permit the extension and modification of this model and that these advances will lead to improved diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  1. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Endometrial Cancer Key Points Endometrial cancer is a disease ...

  2. Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy lifestyle is recommended after cancer treatment. Several studies have found that obesity, high blood pressure, and diabetes can contribute to long-term health risks for women with type 1 endometrial cancer. A healthy diet and regular exercise can help ...

  3. Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To describe the sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities, and to determine the usefulness of sonohysterography (SH) for predicting endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease(PCOD). 82 patients with PCOD who had vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening and lesion mass on baseline transvaginal sonography were prospectively examined with SH. The SH findings were evaluated for endometrial thickness, the presence of endometrial thickening and lesion mass, echogenicity and surface contour, distensibility of the endometrial cavity, and disruption of endometrial-myometrial interface. These findings were compared with the pathologic findings and the diagnostic accuracy of SH for predicting endometrial abnormalities was assessed. Endometrial abnormalities were identified in 47 (57.3%) of 82 PCOD patients, and their pathologic diagnosis included endometrial carcinoma in 7 cases, hyperplasia in 19 cases (atypical hyperplasia, n=5), and polyp in 21 cases. Of the 35 patients who did not have endometrial abnormalities, there was disordered proliferative endometrium in 18 cases and normal proliferative or secretory endometrium in 17 cases. The SH findings of endometrial carcinoma were endometrial thickening in 5 cases, endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness ranged from 6 mm to 15 mm (mean 9.5 mm). They were characterized as a diffuse polyploid endometrial thickening or a sessile endometrial mass with irregular surface, homogeneous hyperechogenicity, and obliteration of the endometrial cavity. Endometrial hyperplasia appeared as endometrial thickening in 14 cases, endometrial lesion mass in 3 cases, and endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness was between 6.5-10.7 mm (mean 8.2 mm). They showed a diffuse uniform endometrial thickening or a polyploid endometrial lesion mass with homogeneous hyperechogenicity and a regular surface. Endometrial polyps appeared as

  4. Endometrial haemostasis and menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Joanna; Kadir, Rezan A

    2012-12-01

    Under normal physiological circumstances menstruation is a highly regulated, complex process that is under strict hormonal control. During normal menstruation, progesterone withdrawal initiates menstruation. The cessation of menstrual bleeding is achieved by endometrial haemostasis via platelet aggregation, fibrin deposition and thrombus formation. Local endocrine, immunological and haemostatic factors interact at a molecular level to control endometrial haemostasis. Tissue factor and thrombin play a key role locally in the cessation of menstrual bleeding through instigation of the coagulation factors. On the other hand, fibrinolysis prevents clot organisation within the uterine cavity while plasminogen activator inhibitors (PAI) and thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitors control plasminogen activators and plasmin activity. Abnormalities of uterine bleeding can result from imbalance of the haemostatic factors. The most common abnormality of uterine bleeding is heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Modern research has shown that an undiagnosed bleeding disorder, in particular von Willebrand disease (VWD) and platelet function disorders, can be an underlying cause of HMB. This has led to a change in the approach to the management of HMB. While full haemostatic assessment is not required for all women presenting with HMB, menstrual score and bleeding score can help to discriminate women who are more likely to have a bleeding disorder and benefit from laboratory haemostatic evaluation. Haemostatic agents (tranexamic acid and DDAVP) enhance systemic and endometrial haemostasis and are effective in reducing menstrual blood loss in women with or without bleeding disorders. Further research is required to enhance our understanding of the complex interactions of haemostatic factors in general, and specifically within the endometrium. This will lead to the development of more targeted interventions for the management of abnormal uterine bleeding in the future.

  5. Detection of endometrial lesions by degree of linear polarization maps

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    Kim, Jihoon; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2010-02-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of chronic pelvic pain and infertility and is characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the uterine cavity. A novel laparoscopic polarization imaging system was designed to detect endometriosis by imaging endometrial lesions. Linearly polarized light with varying incident polarization angles illuminated endometrial lesions. Degree of linear polarization image maps of endometrial lesions were constructed by using remitted polarized light. The image maps were compared with regular laparoscopy image. The degree of linear polarization map contributed to the detection of endometriosis by revealing structures inside the lesion. The utilization of rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides extended understanding of endometrial lesions. The developed polarization system with varying IPA and the collected image maps could provide improved characterization of endometrial lesions via higher visibility of the structure of the lesions and thereby improve diagnosis of endometriosis.

  6. Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma Presenting As Puberty Menorrhagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Prabhakaran Nair

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal sarcomas are rare uterine tumours usually seen in perimenopausal females. We report here a case of low grade malignant endometrial stromal sarcoma in an adolescent girl, presenting as puberty menorrhagia. She underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic node sampling. She also received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She is disease free at completion of one year of follow-up.

  7. Endometrial ablation: first- vs. second-generation techniques.

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    Angioni, Stefano; Pontis, Alessandro; Nappi, Luigi; Sedda, Federica; Sorrentino, Felice; Litta, Pietro; Haimovich, Sergio; Melis, Gian B

    2016-04-01

    Endometrial ablation is a procedure that surgically destroys (ablates) the lining of the uterus (endometrium). The goal of endometrial ablation is to reduce menstrual flow. In some women, menstrual flow may stop completely. In some cases, endometrial ablation may be an alternative to hysterectomy. There are several techniques used to perform endometrial ablation, including electrical or electrocautery ablation, in which an electric current travels through a wire loop or rollerball is applied to the endometrial lining to cauterize the tissue; hydrothermal ablation, in which heated fluid is pumped into the uterus and destroys the endometrial lining via high temperatures; balloon therapy ablation, in which a balloon at the end of a catheter is inserted into the uterus and filled with fluid, which is then heated to the point that the endometrial tissues are eroded away; radiofrequency ablation in which a triangular mesh electrode is expanded to fill the uterine cavity, at which point the electrode delivers an electrical current and destroys the endometrial lining; cryoablation (freezing), in which a probe uses extremely low temperatures to freeze and destroy the endometrial tissues; and microwave ablation, in which microwave energy is delivered through a slender probe inserted into the uterus and destroys the endometrial lining. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of endometrial ablation performed with first- and second-generation techniques. A literature search in PubMed from January 2000 to September 2015 was performed using the keywords endometrial ablation, menorrhagia, and heavy menstrual bleeding. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials (RCT)/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies written in English from January 2000 to September 2015. There is no evidence that either broad category is more effective than the other in reducing HMB, and there is no evidence that

  8. Pregnancy loss: a rare consequence of premenstrual endometrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases of pregnancy loss - a rare complication of pre-menstrual endometrial biopsy (PMEB) are reported. PMEB is an investigation performed for infertile women to assess ovulation and endometrial factors. It is usually performed during the secretory phase of the cycle. This implies that ovulation and possibly fertilization ...

  9. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

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    ... following protective factors decrease the risk of endometrial cancer: Pregnancy and breast-feeding Estrogen levels are lower during pregnancy and when breast-feeding. The risk of endometrial cancer is lower in women who have had children. ...

  10. [Endometrial adenosarcoma with rhabdomyoblastic differenciation].

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    Haj Salah, Meriem Bel; Mekni, Amina; Ines, Chelly; Haha Bellil, Selma Ben; Bellil, Khedija; Kchir, Nidhamedine; Haouet, Slim; Zaouari, Faouzia; Zitouna, Moncef

    2007-10-01

    Mixed mullerian tumours are uncommon endometrial neoplasms that are composed by a combination of mesencymal elements and epithelial elements. They own their denomination to the mullerian origin of their components wich derive from the paramesonephric ducts. According to the benignity or the malignity of each component, four types of mixed mullerian tumours are individualised. Adenosarcoma is composed of benign glandular elements and sarcomatous, usually low-grade, stromal elements. We report a case of an endometrial adenosarcoma in a 59-year-old woman. Clinicopathological caracteristics and the etiopathogeny of this uncommun neoplasm will be discussed. A 59-year-old women complained metrorrhagia assearated pair since three months. Vaginal examination showed an incresed valure. Copathological U.S and abdominer CT showed an important. No ather turner were detected hysterrchomy with dilated annexetny werre performed. Pathological examan concluded to tummor with animation of mesenchynal and le pthel elements

  11. Obesity and Endometrial Cancer.

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    Shaw, Eileen; Farris, Megan; McNeil, Jessica; Friedenreich, Christine

    Endometrial cancer is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed world. This chapter explores the current epidemiologic evidence on the association between obesity and endometrial cancer risk and mortality. Using body mass index (BMI) as a measure of obesity, we found that obesity (defined as BMI > 30 and endometrial cancer risk, while severe obesity (BMI > 35 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 4.7-fold increase compared to normal-weight women (BMI endometrial cancer risk by 1.5- to twofold. Among both healthy and endometrial cancer patient populations, obesity was associated with a roughly twofold increase in endometrial cancer-specific mortality. This risk reduction was also observed for obesity and all-cause mortality among endometrial cancer patients. In the few studies that assessed risk associated with weight change, an increased endometrial cancer risk with weight gain and weight cycling was observed, whereas some evidence for a protective effect of weight loss was found. Furthermore, early-life obesity was associated with a moderately increased risk of endometrial cancer later in life. There are several mechanisms whereby obesity is hypothesized to increase endometrial cancer risk, including increased endogenous sex steroid hormones, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and adipokines. Further research should focus on histological subtypes or molecular phenotypes of endometrial tumors and population subgroups that could be at an increased risk of obesity-associated endometrial cancer. Additionally, studies on weight gain, loss or cycling and weight loss interventions can provide mechanistic insight into the obesity-endometrial cancer association. Sufficient evidence exists to recommend avoiding obesity to reduce endometrial cancer risk.

  12. Serosal and Endometrial Reconstitution During Myomectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Myomectomy is usually performed when uterine fibroids are associated with infertility. Serosal and endometrial reconstitution are some of the subtle challenges that the gynaecologist has to deal with during myomectomy, in an attempt to minimise postoperative pelvic and intrauterine adhesions. Objective: This ...

  13. Risk of spilling cancer cells during total laparoscopic hysterectomy in low-risk endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Shinohara

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: We conclude that fallopian tubal cauterization is sufficient to provide protection from the dissemination of cancer cells into the peritoneal cavity at the time of TLH for endometrial cancers in early stages.

  14. Nintedanib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-08

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Malignant Uterine Corpus Mixed Epithelial and Mesenchymal Neoplasm; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma

  15. Endometrial adenocarcinoma after endometrial ablation. A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Areia, AL; Branco, M; Frutuoso, C; Oliveira, CF

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a case of endometrial adenocarcinoma after endometrial ablation, emphasizing the importance of close surveillance of these patients, patient selection and education. Even patients with none of the risk factors for endometrial cancer or contraindications to endometrial ablation should be checked carefully.

  16. [OBESITY AND ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOGENESIS].

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    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, P; Parahuleva, P

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the main cancers occurring in industrialized countries. According to the National Cancer Registry in Bulgaria, cancer of the uterine body occupies 8.6% from all cancers in women and ranks second in frequency. It is found that over weight and obesity are a major risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer and the mortality associated with it. Adipose tissue is seen as endocrine organ, synthesizing so called adipocytokine - leptin, adiponectin, vistafin, that play a key role in the carcinogenesis of endometrial cancer and can be used as new markers for establishing the potential risk of this disease. The link between obesity, insulin resistance and endometrial cancer that has been proven, determines it as a socially significant disease. All this makes it necessary to clarify and specify the role of obesity in endometrial carcinogenesis and the development of strategies for the prevention and early diagnosis.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the uterus after endometrial resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnbull, L.; Jumaa, A.; Dhawan, S.; Horsman, A.; Killick, S

    1998-02-01

    The majority of amenorrhoeic and all menstruating women have residual endometrium after endometrial resection. The lack of communication of islands of residual endometrium with the uterine cavity results in haematometra formation, fallopian tube dilatation and possibly free intraperitoneal fluid. (N.C.)

  18. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas Rw; Shiwani, Hunain; Sanner, Juliane Rf; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2017-10-27

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancers in the world. Rates of endometrial cancer are rising, in part because of rising obesity rates. Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous condition in women that can lead to endometrial cancer if left untreated. Endometrial hyperplasia occurs more commonly than endometrial cancer. Progesterone tablets currently used to treat women with endometrial hyperplasia are associated with adverse effects in up to 84% of women. The levonorgestrel intrauterine device (Mirena Coil, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Whippany, NJ, USA) may improve compliance, but it is invasive, is not acceptable to all women, and is associated with irregular vaginal bleeding in 82% of cases. Therefore, an alternative treatment for women with endometrial hyperplasia is needed. Metformin, a drug that is often used to treat people with diabetes, has been shown in some human studies to reverse endometrial hyperplasia. However, the effectiveness and safety of metformin for treatment of endometrial hyperplasia remain uncertain. To determine the effectiveness and safety of metformin in treating women with endometrial hyperplasia. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), and two trials registers from inception to 10 January 2017. We searched the bibliographies of all included studies and reviews on this topic. We also handsearched the conference abstracts of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) 2015 and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) 2015. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cross-over trials comparing metformin (used alone or in combination with other medical therapies) versus placebo or no

  19. Disasters as Usual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albris, Kristoffer

    water levels in the Elbe still reached threatening heights on an annual basis, the next sixty years did not produce any flood event that overran the city's flood defences. In hindsight, Dresden experienced what historians of disaster call a disaster memory gap, whereby the collective memory of what...... are adjusting to a new understanding of the future in which recurring floods may prove to be the rule rather than the exception. In other words, floods have become what I term usual disasters. The ethnographic research that I conducted in 2014-2015 explores how locals, at this specific moment in time, perceive...... the future as being fraught with uncertainty. This has implications both for how people understand themselves as members of society as well as for the relationship between the state and civil society. In other words, floods in Dresden have a social, political and public life. Rather than seeing disasters...

  20. Prediction of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in women with endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koji; Ramzan, Amin A; Gualtieri, Marc R; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Machida, Hiroko; Moeini, Aida; Dancz, Christina E; Ueda, Yutaka; Roman, Lynda D

    2015-11-01

    Although a fraction of endometrial hyperplasia cases have concurrent endometrial carcinoma, patient characteristics associated with concurrent malignancy are not well described. The aim of our study was to identify predictive clinico-pathologic factors for concurrent endometrial carcinoma among patients with endometrial hyperplasia. A case-control study was conducted to compare endometrial hyperplasia in both preoperative endometrial biopsy and hysterectomy specimens (n=168) and endometrial carcinoma in hysterectomy specimen but endometrial hyperplasia in preoperative endometrial biopsy (n=43). Clinico-pathologic factors were examined to identify independent risk factors of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in a multivariate logistic regression model. The most common histologic subtype in preoperative endometrial biopsy was complex hyperplasia with atypia [CAH] (n=129) followed by complex hyperplasia without atypia (n=58) and simple hyperplasia with or without atypia (n=24). The majority of endometrial carcinomas were grade 1 (86.0%) and stage I (83.7%). In multivariate analysis, age 40-59 (odds ratio [OR] 3.07, p=0.021), age≥60 (OR 6.65, p=0.005), BMI≥35kg/m(2) (OR 2.32, p=0.029), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.51, p=0.019), and CAH (OR 9.01, p=0.042) were independent predictors of concurrent endometrial carcinoma. The risk of concurrent endometrial carcinoma rose dramatically with increasing number of risk factors identified in multivariate model (none 0%, 1 risk factor 7.0%, 2 risk factors 17.6%, 3 risk factors 35.8%, and 4 risk factors 45.5%, pendometrial cancer in those with ≥3 risk factors. Older age, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and CAH are predictive of concurrent endometrial carcinoma in endometrial hyperplasia patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetics of Endometrial Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Okuda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancers exhibit a different mechanism of tumorigenesis and progression depending on histopathological and clinical types. The most frequently altered gene in estrogen-dependent endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors is PTEN. Microsatellite instability is another important genetic event in this type of tumor. In contrast, p53 mutations or Her2/neu overexpression are more frequent in non-endometrioid tumors. On the other hand, it is possible that the clear cell type may arise from a unique pathway which appears similar to the ovarian clear cell carcinoma. K-ras mutations are detected in approximately 15%–30% of endometrioid carcinomas, are unrelated to the existence of endometrial hyperplasia. A β-catenin mutation was detected in about 20% of endometrioid carcinomas, but is rare in serous carcinoma. Telomere shortening is another important type of genomic instability observed in endometrial cancer. Only non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors were significantly associated with critical telomere shortening in the adjacent morphologically normal epithelium. Lynch syndrome, which is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of cancer susceptibility and is characterized by a MSH2/MSH6 protein complex deficiency, is associated with the development of non-endometrioid carcinomas.

  2. Role of hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy in women with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makled, Ahmed Khairy; Farghali, Mohamed Mahmoud; Shenouda, Demiana Samir

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy in women with unexplained infertility. Women with unexplained infertility were included in this prospective study, evaluated with transvaginal sonography and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Diagnostic hysteroscopy was performed between the 7th and 11th day of the cycle. The criteria for hysteroscopic findings were based on the cervical canal, uterine cavity, endometrium, visualization of the ostium tubae and lesions of the utero-tubal junction. After the hysteroscopic examination, endometrial biopsy was performed using a Pipelle endometrial suction curette. Patients were classified according to the hysteroscopy results into four groups: patients with no abnormality detected (14), patients with cervical abnormalities (six), patients with endometrial abnormalities (73) and patients with uterine abnormalities (seven). One hundred women with unexplained infertility were included. All patients underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy, except for seven patients: six patients had stenotic external or internal cervical ostium and one had inadequate visualization as the uterine cavity was filled with blood. Based on hysteroscopic findings, 31 patients were finally diagnosed with endometrial polyps; 14 endometritis; 15 endometrial hyperplasia; six submucous myomas; seven intrauterine synechiae (73 cases = endometrial abnormalities group); seven congenital uterine anomalies (uterine abnormalities group), six cervical stenosis (cervical abnormalities group) and 14 women without any uterine abnormalities (no abnormalities group). Analysis of samples obtained using the Pipelle endometrial suction curette was non-diagnostic in 16 cases; the most common endometrial pathological feature detected by this analysis was endometritis (15%). Routine hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy should be used as a basic part of the work-up for women with unexplained infertility.

  3. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinoma in Patients with a Curettage Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yu-Li; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Lin, Ming-Chieh; Huang, Chia-Yen; Hsieh, Chang-Yao; Chen, Chi-An

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia is considered a precursor of endometrial carcinoma, but concurrent endometrial carcinoma in patients with endometrial hyperplasia is seen frequently. Our aim was to examine the risk factors for coexisting endometrial carcinoma in patients with endometrial hyperplasia. Methods: Between January 1996 and September 2006, 77 patients who underwent hysterectomy for endometrial hyperplasia were enrolled retrospectively. We divided the patients into non-endometrial carcinom...

  4. Global microwave endometrial ablation for menorrhagia treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Hojjatollah; Å ebek, Jan; Frattura, Eric; Schenck, Jessica; Prakash, Punit

    2017-02-01

    Thermal ablation is a dominant therapeutic option for minimally invasive treatment of menorrhagia. Compared to other energy modalities for ablation, microwaves offer the advantages of conformal energy delivery to tissue within short times. The objective of endometrial ablation is to destroy the endometrial lining of the uterine cavity, with the clinical goal of achieving reduction in bleeding. Previous efforts have demonstrated clinical use of microwaves for endometrial ablation. A considerable shortcoming of most systems is that they achieve ablation of the target by translating the applicator in a point-to-point fashion. Consequently, treatment outcome may be highly dependent on physician skill. Global endometrial ablation (GEA) not only eliminates this operator dependence and simplifies the procedure but also facilitates shorter and more reliable treatments. The objective of our study was to investigate antenna structures and microwave energy delivery parameters to achieve GEA. Another objective was to investigate a method for automatic and reliable determination of treatment end-point. A 3D-coupled FEM electromagnetic and heat transfer model with temperature and frequency dependent material properties was implemented to characterize microwave GEA. The unique triangular geometry of the uterus where lateral narrow walls extend from the cervix to the fundus forming a wide base and access afforded through an endocervical approach limit the overall diameter of the final device. We investigated microwave antenna designs in a deployed state inside the uterus. The impact of ablation duration on treatment outcome was investigated. Prototype applicators were fabricated and experimentally evaluated in ex vivo tissue to verify the simulation results and demonstrate proof-of-concept.

  5. Risk factors for developing endometrial cancer after benign endometrial sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Michelle L; Weaver, Amy L; Kumar, Sanjeev; Uccella, Stefano; Famuyide, Abimbola O; Cliby, William A; Dowdy, Sean C; Gostout, Bobbie S; Mariani, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    To identify risk factors for endometrial cancer after benign results of endometrial biopsy or dilation and curettage (D&C). Nested case-control study from Rochester Epidemiology Project data. Among 370 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents who received an endometrial cancer diagnosis between 1970 and 2008, we identified 90 patients (24.5%) who had previous benign endometrial biopsy or D&C results (no atypical hyperplasia). We compared them with 172 matched control group participants who had benign endometrial biopsy or D&C results without subsequent endometrial cancer. Using a multivariable conditional logistic regression model, we found that oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was protective (odds ratio [OR] 0.18, 95% CI [CI] 0.08-0.45; Pmorbid obesity (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.18-9.78; Prisk factor, presence of one and two or more risk factors increased the risk of endometrial cancer by 8.12 (95% CI 3.08-21.44) and 17.87 (95% CI 5.57-57.39) times, respectively. Assuming a 2.6% lifetime risk of endometrial cancer, ORs of 8.12 and 17.87 for one and two or more of the four aforementioned risk factors confer a lifetime risk of approximately 18% and 32%, respectively. One fourth of patients with endometrial cancer had previous benign endometrial biopsy or D&C results. Personal history of colorectal cancer, presence of endometrial polyps, and morbid obesity are the strongest risk factors for having endometrial cancer after a benign endometrial biopsy or D&C result, and OCP use is the strongest protective factor. II.

  6. Liquid-based endometrial cytology associated with curettage in the investigation of endometrial carcinoma in a population of 1987 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Ma, Ke; Chen, Rui; Zhao, Jian; Wu, Cheng; Zhang, Naiyi; Ma, Xiuhua; Dong, Ying; Zhu, Sainan; Liao, Qinping

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based endometrial cytology, in comparison with histology. 1987 patients scheduled for hysteroscopy were enrolled in this study. All patients proceeded sequentially through endometrial cytology, hysteroscopy and then dilatation and curettage (D&C). Cytology sampling was performed by brushing the uterus cavity using SAP-1 and the sample was prepared to liquid-based smear using SurePath technology. The slides were stained by Papanicolaou method. All cytological diagnosis was correlated with the D&C histological diagnosis. Cyto-histological correlations were possible in 1672 (89.3%) patients: in 254 (12.8%) patients the D&C was inadequate, in 75 (3.8%) patients the cytology was inadequate, and in 14 (0.7%) patients both were inadequate. In postmenopausal women, 758 of 790 cytologies (96.0%) were adequate, while 586 of 790 histologies (74.2%) were adequate. SAP-1 provided more sufficient materials for cytology than D&C for histology (P endometrial cytology was 86.1%, sensitivity was estimated at 70.3%, specificity at 88.5%, positive predictive value at 48.0% and negative predictive value at 95.2%. Taking endometrial carcinoma as a positive result, the diagnostic accuracy of liquid-based endometrial cytology was 94.4%; sensitivity was estimated at 53.2%, specificity at 98.6%, positive predictive value at 79.8% and negative predictive value at 95.3%. Liquid-based endometrial cytology can be considered a useful method for detecting of endometrial pathology as a first-line approach.

  7. Oxidative stress in endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Zubeldia, María Angeles; Bazo, Ascensión Pérez; Gabarre, Juan José Arbués; Nogales, Agustín García; Palomino, José Carlos Millán

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species seem to be involved in the onset and promotion of carcinogenesis. In 80% of cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma type I, a clear association exists with endometrial hyperplasia, which is considered a key factor in the endometrial oncological spectrum. The presence or absence of atypical cells determines oncological potential. This study explored the behavior of oxidative stress (catalase and malondialdehyde) in endometrial hyperplasia (with or without atypical cells) by comparing it with the oxidative stress existing in both the proliferative and secretory phases. Endometrial specimens from 55 women were used, 32 of which were histologically diagnosed as physiological (17 proliferative and 15 secretory endometria) and 23 as endometrial hyperplasia (18 nonatypical and 5 atypical endometrial hyperplasia). Significant differences were found in the malondialdehyde variable between the proliferative endometrium and the endometrium with atypical hyperplasia (P = 0.0208) and between both types of endometrial hyperplasia (P = 0.0441). The other comparisons were not statistically significant. No changes in catalase activity were observed. Our findings seem to suggest that the presence of atypical cells in endometrial hyperplasia induces a reduction in lipid peroxidation, which could permit survival and growth of these cells. This possible decrease in lipid peroxidation does not seem to be mediated by an increase in endometrial catalase activity.

  8. Human Endometrial Exosomes Contain Hormone-Specific Cargo Modulating Trophoblast Adhesive Capacity: Insights into Endometrial-Embryo Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, David W; Nguyen, Hong P T; Elgass, Kirstin; Simpson, Richard J; Salamonsen, Lois A

    2016-02-01

    Embryo implantation into receptive endometrium requires synergistic endometrial-blastocyst interactions within the uterine cavity and is essential for establishing pregnancy. We demonstrate that exosomes (40-150 nm nanovesicles) released from endometrial epithelial cells are an important component of these interactions. We defined the proteome of purified endometrial epithelial-derived exosomes (Exos) influenced by menstrual cycle hormones estrogen (E; proliferative phase) and estrogen plus progesterone (EP; receptive phase) and examined their potential to modify trophoblast function. E-/EP-Exos were uniquely enriched with 254 and 126 proteins, respectively, with 35% newly identified proteins not previously reported in exosome databases. Importantly, EP-Exos protein cargo was related to fundamental changes in implantation: adhesion, migration, invasion, and extracellular matrix remodeling. These findings from hormonally treated ECC1 endometrial cancer cells were validated in human primary uterine epithelial cell-derived exosomes. Functionally, exosomes were internalized by human trophoblast cells and enhanced their adhesive capacity, a response mediated partially through active focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling. Thus, exosomes contribute to the endometrial-embryo interactions within the human uterine microenvironment essential for successful implantation. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  9. Robotics in Endometrial Cancer Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in women in most of the developed world. The majority of these women with endometrial cancer will be unaffected by their disease. The challenge therefore is for surgical treatment not to be worse than the disease. Robotics has changed the way that we care for women living with endometrial cancer by making low-impact surgical treatment available to more women than was previously possible.

  10. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  11. Structural changes in endometrial basal glands during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, R; Hart, R; Karthigasu, K A; Burke, C

    2010-09-01

    To prospectively observe the changes occurring in endometrial glandular morphology during menstrual shedding and regeneration. Prospective observational study. The academic gynaecological endoscopy unit of a university teaching hospital. Population Thirteen patients investigated for a variety of benign, non-infective gynaecological disorders during the active bleeding phase of the menstrual cycle. The morphological appearances of concurrent histological and scanning electron microscopic images of endometrium taken at different stages of the active bleeding phase of menstruation were studied and correlated with the simultaneous immunohistochemical expression of the Ki-67 proliferation marker and the CD68 marker of macrophage activity. Change in morphology of endometrial glands at various stages of menstruation. Endometrial glands within the basalis show evidence of apoptosis and associated macrophage activity immediately before and during menstruation. There is subsequent destruction and removal of old secretory glandular epithelial elements, and rapid replacement with new narrow glands lined with small epithelial cells. There is no evidence of mitotic cell division or expression of Ki-67 in the glandular cells during this replacement process, but there is evidence of marked macrophage activity prior to glandular cell loss. Early endometrial epithelial repair after menstruation is not a consequence of mitotic cell division. It occurs without evidence of Ki-67 expression. There is structural evidence of programmed cell death and intense macrophage activity associated with glandular remodelling. Dead epithelial cells are shed from the glands and accumulate within the endometrial cavity to be replaced by new small epithelial cells that appear to arise by differentiation of the surrounding stromal cells. We propose that these stromal cells are endometrial progenitor/stem cells.

  12. 21 CFR 884.1100 - Endometrial brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial brush. 884.1100 Section 884.1100 Food... Endometrial brush. (a) Identification. An endometrial brush is a device designed to remove samples of the... endometrial cytology (cells). (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this device are: (1) FDA...

  13. 21 CFR 884.1185 - Endometrial washer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial washer. 884.1185 Section 884.1185 Food... Endometrial washer. (a) Identification. An endometrial washer is a device used to remove materials from the... with negative pressure. This device is used to study endometrial cytology (cells). (b) Classification...

  14. Endometrial CRISP3 is regulated throughout the mouse estrous and human menstrual cycle and facilitates adhesion and proliferation of endometrial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jemma; D'Sylva, Rebecca; Volpert, Marianna; Jamsai, Duangporn; Merriner, Donna Jo; Nie, Guiying; Salamonsen, Lois A; O'Bryan, Moira K

    2015-04-01

    The endometrium (the mucosal lining of the uterus) is a dynamic tissue that undergoes extensive remodeling, secretory transformation in preparation for implantation of an embryo, inflammatory and proteolytic activity during menstruation, and rapid postmenstrual repair. A plethora of local factors influence these processes. Recently, a cysteine-rich protein, CRISP3, a clade of the CRISP, antigen 5, pathogenesis-related (CAP) protein superfamily, has been implicated in uterine function. The localization, regulation, and potential function of CRISP3 in both the human and mouse endometrium is described. CRISP3 localizes to the luminal and glandular epithelium of the endometrium within both species, with increased immunoreactivity during the proliferative phase of the human cycle. CRISP3 also localizes to neutrophils, particularly within the premenstrual human endometrium and during the postbreakdown repair phase of a mouse model of endometrial breakdown and repair. Endometrial CRISP3 is produced by primary human endometrial epithelial cells and secreted in vivo to accumulate in the uterine cavity. Secreted CRISP3 is more abundant in uterine lavage fluid during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Human endometrial epithelial CRISP3 is present in both a glycosylated and a nonglycosylated form in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of endometrial epithelial cells in vitro with recombinant CRISP3 enhances both adhesion and proliferation. These data suggest roles for epithelial and neutrophil-derived CRISP3 in postmenstrual endometrial repair and regeneration. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Evidence that the endometrial microbiota has an effect on implantation success or failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Codoñer, Francisco M; Vilella, Felipe; Valbuena, Diana; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F; Jimenez-Almazán, Jorge; Alonso, Roberto; Alamá, Pilar; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Ramon, Daniel; Simon, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial cells in the human body account for 1-3% of total body weight and are at least equal in number to human cells. Recent research has focused on understanding how the different bacterial communities in the body (eg, gut, respiratory, skin, and vaginal microbiomes) predispose to health and disease. The microbiota of the reproductive tract has been inferred from the vaginal bacterial communities, and the uterus has been classically considered a sterile cavity. However, while the vaginal microbiota has been investigated in depth, there is a paucity of consistent data regarding the existence of an endometrial microbiota and its possible impact in reproductive function. This study sought to test the existence of an endometrial microbiota that differs from that in the vagina, assess its hormonal regulation, and analyze the impact of the endometrial microbial community on reproductive outcome in infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. To identify the existence of an endometrial microbiota, paired samples of endometrial fluid and vaginal aspirates were obtained simultaneously from 13 fertile women in prereceptive and receptive phases within the same menstrual cycle (total samples analyzed n = 52). To investigate the hormonal regulation of the endometrial microbiota during the acquisition of endometrial receptivity, endometrial fluid was collected at prereceptive and receptive phases within the same cycle from 22 fertile women (n = 44). Finally, the reproductive impact of an altered endometrial microbiota in endometrial fluid was assessed by implantation, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth rates in 35 infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (total samples n = 41) with a receptive endometrium diagnosed using the endometrial receptivity array. Genomic DNA was obtained either from endometrial fluid or vaginal aspirate and sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; the resulting sequences were

  16. Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia (EIN In An Endometrial Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devic Ana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN is a monoclonal neoplastic cell proliferation of the endometrium associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. We herein present the case of a 58-year-old female patient who underwent a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy because of the existence of endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia in an endometrial polyp. The patient had irregular uterine bleeding, which lasted 10 days. An endometrial polyp was diagnosed by ultrasound examination. The polyp was located in the isthmus of the uterus, on the back wall, and measured 32 mm × 25 mm. The patient underwent fractional dilation and curettage, and the specimens were subjected to a histopathological examination. The histopathological findings were EIN, endometrioid type, a focus of which was found within the endometrial polyps, as well as the endometrial polyp and proliferative endometrium. The endocervical tissue was normal. Given the age of the patient and the histopathological findings, she underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. The final histopathological findings were EIN, endometrioid type with a focus found within the endometrial polyp; endometrial polyp; simple hyperplasia; chronic inflammation of the uterine cervix; hyperkeratosis of the cervical squamous epithelium; and cervicitis chronica. There was also hydrosalpinx of the left fallopian tube, and cystic follicles in the left ovary. There was no significant morphological change in the right ovary or fallopian tube. The surgical and postoperative course were normal. The patient was sent home on the fifth postoperative day in good general condition. A check-up performed one month after surgery showed normal findings.

  17. The role of endometrial and subendometrial vascularity measured by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound in the prediction of pregnancy during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Chan, Carina Chi Wai; Tang, Oi Shan; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Ho, Pak Chung

    2006-06-01

    A good blood supply to the endometrium is usually considered as an essential requirement for implantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of endometrial and subendometrial vascularity in the prediction of pregnancy during frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Women undergoing FET in natural or clomiphene-induced cycles after the first stimulated IVF treatment were recruited. A three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound examination with power Doppler was performed 1 day after the LH surge to determine endometrial thickness, endometrial pattern, pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of uterine vessels, endometrial volume, vascularization index, flow index and vascularization flow index of endometrial and subendometrial regions. Women in the pregnant group were significantly younger and used less gonadotrophins in their stimulated cycle. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial pattern, uterine PI, uterine RI, endometrial and subendometrial 3D power Doppler flow indices were similar between the nonpregnant and the pregnant groups. The age of women was the only predictive factor for pregnancy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve was around 0.5 for all ultrasound parameters for endometrial receptivity. Vascularity of endometrial and subendometrial layers measured by 3D power Doppler ultrasound is not a good predictor of pregnancy in FET cycles if measured at one time point only.

  18. International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology in women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness ≥ 4.5 mm: agreement and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladkevicius, P; Installé, A; Van Den Bosch, T; Timmerman, D; Benacerraf, B; Jokubkiene, L; Di Legge, A; Votino, A; Zannoni, L; De Moor, B; De Cock, B; Van Calster, B; Valentin, L

    2018-02-01

    To estimate intra- and interrater agreement and reliability with regard to describing ultrasound images of the endometrium using the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology. Four expert and four non-expert raters assessed videoclips of transvaginal ultrasound examinations of the endometrium obtained from 99 women with postmenopausal bleeding and sonographic endometrial thickness ≥ 4.5 mm but without fluid in the uterine cavity. The following features were rated: endometrial echogenicity, endometrial midline, bright edge, endometrial-myometrial junction, color score, vascular pattern, irregularly branching vessels and color splashes. The color content of the endometrial scan was estimated using a visual analog scale graded from 0 to 100. To estimate intrarater agreement and reliability, the same videoclips were assessed twice with a minimum of 2 months' interval. The raters were blinded to their own results and to those of the other raters. Interrater differences in the described prevalence of most IETA variables were substantial, and some variable categories were observed rarely. Specific agreement was poor for variables with many categories. For binary variables, specific agreement was better for absence than for presence of a category. For variables with more than two outcome categories, specific agreement for expert and non-expert raters was best for not-defined endometrial midline (93% and 96%), regular endometrial-myometrial junction (72% and 70%) and three-layer endometrial pattern (67% and 56%). The grayscale ultrasound variable with the best reliability was uniform vs non-uniform echogenicity (multirater kappa (κ), 0.55 for expert and 0.52 for non-expert raters), and the variables with the lowest reliability were appearance of the endometrial-myometrial junction (κ, 0.25 and 0.16) and the nine-category endometrial echogenicity variable (κ, 0.29 and 0.28). The most reliable color Doppler variable was color score (mean weighted

  19. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  1. Role of MicroRNA in Endometrial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Javed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial carcinoma (EC is a hall mark of gynecological malignancies that usually affects women above the age 50. It is one of the major causes of mortality in females with ever increasing prevalence and the mortality rate is 1.7 to 2.4 per 100000 and each year 10000 death occur due to ECs. MiRNAs regulate the expression of different proto-oncogenes and signaling pathways that are directly or indirectly involved in the development of cancer. Different miRNAs i.e. (miRNA-449, miRNA 370, miRNA-424, and miRNA-152 which gets up or down regulated during endometrial cancer are the potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of EC. Targeting this relationship between the miRNA and signaling pathways may help in the development of new treatment in endometrial cancer. In current study, we reviewed literature from PubMed using miRNA and endometrial cancer as keywords and outlined the synthesis of potent miRNA and role of different miRNAs involved in ECs. The study revealed different sub types of miRNA played crucial role in the development of cancer by up and down regulation of different metabolic pathways. Many evidences have supported that miRNAs play role in control and regulation of different pathways leading to cancer and targeting these pathways may bring changes in the diagnosis as well as in treatment of EC.

  2. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperandrogenism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Nina Sofie Lillegaard; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, but substantial evidence for this remains to be established. We investigated the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in a well characterized group of women...

  3. Long-term risk of endometrial cancer following postmenopausal bleeding and reassuring endometrial biopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, N.C.M.; Sparidaens, E.M.; Brink, J.W. van den; Breijer, M.C.; Boss, E.A.; Veersema, S.; Siebers, A.G.; Bulten, J.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women with postmenopausal bleeding and endometrial thickness >4 mm undergo endometrial sampling to exclude endometrial cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the relative risk of developing endometrial cancer in a prospective cohort after initial work-up for postmenopausal

  4. radiofrequency cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1988-01-01

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  5. Avaliação de morfologia e histologia endometrial de mulheres após a menopausa Assessment of endometrial morphology and histology in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Galvao Wolff

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar ambulatorialmente a morfologia e histologia endometrial de mulheres sem sangramento genital após a menopausa. MÉTODOS: Em estudo descritivo foram selecionadas 52 mulheres, após a menopausa, entre 50 e 60 anos, sem terapia hormonal nos últimos seis meses. Todas foram submetidas a exame ultrassonográfico, histeroscópico e biópsias endometriais. RESULTADOS: Das 52 mulheres selecionadas 32 (61,5% apresentaram ultrassonografia normal, cavidade uterina normal com endométrio atrófico à histeroscopia, confirmada pela biópsia endometrial. Vinte (38,4% apresentaram achados histeroscópicos ou histológicos anormais, sendo que apenas cinco destas mostraram endométrio com espessura superior a cinco milímetros ao ultrassom. CONCLUSÃO: A histeroscopia diagnóstica associada à biópsia aspirativa (Pipelle pode evidenciar alterações não observadas ao ultrassom transvaginal.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate in outpatients , the endometrial morphology and histology of non- bleeding postmenopausal women. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study where 52 menopausal women were selected, between 50 and 60 years of age, who had not used hormone replacement therapy in the last six months and did not present any kind of vaginal bleeding after menopause. These women underwent ultrasound examination, hysteroscopy and biopsy, and then endometrial findings were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 52 women selected, thirty two (61,5% had normal ultrasound, normal uterine cavity with atrophic endometrium, hysteroscopy, confirmed by endometrial biopsy. Twenty (38,4% had hysteroscopuc and histologic alterations and only five women showed by ultrasound an endometrial thickness of more than five millimeters. CONCLUSION: Diagnostic Hysteroscopy associated with aspiration biopsy (Pipelle performed in the day care facility can reveal endometrial alterations that cannot be diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound.

  6. Endometrial injury in women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastri, Carolina O; Lensen, Sarah F; Gibreel, Ahmed; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Ferriani, Rui A; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Martins, Wellington P

    2015-03-22

    Implantation of an embryo within the endometrial cavity is a critical step in assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Previous research has suggested that endometrial injury - intentional damage to the endometrium - can increase the probability of pregnancy in women undergoing ART. To assess the effectiveness and safety of endometrial injury performed before embryo transfer in women undergoing ART. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and ClinicalTrials.gov. The original search was performed in November 2011, and further searches were done in March 2014 and January 2015. Randomised controlled trials comparing intentional endometrial injury before embryo transfer in women undergoing ART, versus no intervention or a sham procedure. Two independent review authors screened studies and extracted data which were checked by a third review author. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias. We contacted and corresponded with study investigators as required and analysed data using risk ratio (RR) and a random-effects model. We assessed the quality of the evidence by using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) criteria. We included 14 trials that included 1063 women in the intervention groups and 1065 women in the control groups. Thirteen studies compared endometrial injury performed between day 7 of the previous cycle and day 7 of the embryo transfer (ET) cycle versus no injury, and one study compared endometrial injury on the day of oocyte retrieval versus no injury. Overall, eight of the 14 included studies were deemed to be at high risk of bias in at least one domain.In studies comparing endometrial

  7. 21 CFR 884.1060 - Endometrial aspirator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial aspirator. 884.1060 Section 884.1060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.1060 Endometrial aspirator. (a) Identification. An endometrial aspirator is a device designed to...

  8. Oncogene alterations in endometrial carcinosarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscuola, Michele; Van de Vijver, Koen; Castilla, María Ángeles; Romero-Pérez, Laura; López-García, María Ángeles; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Oliva, Esther; Palacios Calvo, José

    2013-05-01

    Endometrial carcinosarcomas are aggressive neoplasias composed of high-grade carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. The pathogenesis and specific genetic alterations underlying these tumors are still not well known. We analyzed alterations in oncogenes involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinomas that might represent predictive markers for specific therapies. Immunohistochemistry for HER2 (tyrosine kinase-type cell surface receptor HER2) and c-KIT (tyrosine-protein kinase Kit) and fluorescence in situ hybridization for EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and ALK (anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase) were carried out for 76 endometrial carcinosarcoma samples on sequential tissue microarray sections. Analysis of 238 mutations across 19 common oncogenes was performed on 34 samples using the Sequenom OncoCarta Panel (Sequenom, Hamburg, Germany). We observed EGFR, HER2, and c-KIT expression in 71%, 1.5%, and 2.7% of tumors, respectively. EGFR amplification was detected in 11 of 76 endometrial carcinosarcomas (14.5%). Four samples showed both amplification and aneuploidy (5.2%). ALK amplification together with chromosome 2 polysomy was found in 1.3% of endometrial carcinosarcomas. In total, 23 mutations in 9 different oncogenes were detected in 15 (44.1%) of 34 endometrial carcinosarcomas. Five endometrial carcinosarcomas (14.7%) had 2 or more mutations. Eleven tumors (32.3%) had mutations affecting the PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase)/AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) (6 mutations in PIK3CA (PI3K catalytic alpha polypeptide) and 1 in AKT) and/or RAS/BRAF (serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf) pathway (3 KRAS [kirsten RAS oncogene homolog], 2 NRAS [neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog], and 1 BRAF). Mutations in PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide) and/or KIT were found in 5 endometrial carcinosarcomas (14.7%). Finally, we found mutations in MET (met proto-oncogene [hepatocyte growth factor

  9. Good practice with endometrial ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, R

    1995-07-01

    To provide clear guidelines for the safe and effective performance of endometrial ablation. Representatives of American, Australian, British, and Canadian hysteroscopists were brought together to produce a consensus document of good practice in endometrial ablation. The guidelines were produced after researching the literature, combining the extensive experience of the group, and debating the relevant issues. Endometrial ablation is a new procedure. Correct patient selection is essential in producing good results. Patients must be counseled carefully about the advantages, disadvantages, and potential complications of this approach to the management of menstrual disorders. The main indication for endometrial ablation is heavy menstrual loss in the absence of organic disease. Excessive uterine size, the presence of active pelvic infection, and evidence of malignant and premalignant endometrium are absolute contraindications. Ablation can be produced by electrosurgical resection, rollerball or rollerbarrel ablation and Nd-YAG laser ablation. Severe complications can occur, and techniques should be adopted to avoid uterine perforation, hemorrhage, and excessive fluid absorption. In skilled hands, endometrial ablation can be a safe and effective treatment for menorrhagia.

  10. Endometrial osseous metaplasia-a rare presentation of polymenorrhagia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigar, Asma; Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Hakim, Seema

    2015-04-01

    Endometrial ossification is a rare entity in which bones are found in the uterus. Exact aetiopathogenesis is not known but the most accepted theory is metaplasia of stromal cells into osteoblast cells result in the formation of bones. The possibility of malignant mixed mullerian tumour should be in the mind of clinician and pathologist while making diagnosis. We hereby report an extremely rare case, which is among very few reported cases in the world, in which endometrial ossification presented in a perimenopausal female with polymenorrhagia. A 41-year-old multiparous patient presented with irregular bleeding per vaginum for the past two years. She was found to be a case of endometrial calcification with osseous metaplasia with presence of bones varying from 7mm - 1.5 cms size in the uterine cavity. She was successfully managed by total abdominal hysterectomy.

  11. Role of emmprin in endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Keiichiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin/CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Enriched on the surface of many tumor cells, emmprin promotes tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. We evaluated the clinical importance of emmprin and investigated its role in endometrial cancer. Methods Emmprin expression was examined in uterine normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the biological functions and inhibitory effects of an emmprin knockdown were investigated in HEC-50B and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines. Results The levels of emmprin expression were significantly increased in the endometrial cancer specimens compared with the normal endometrium and endometrial hyperplasia specimens (p p p  Conclusions The present findings suggest that low emmprin expression might be a predictor of favorable prognosis in endometrial cancer patients, and that emmprin may represent a potential therapeutic target for endometrial cancer.

  12. [Relationship of endometrial thickness and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Wu, M

    2017-07-23

    Evaluation of the vaginal bleeding of postmenopausal women is crucial to diagnose endometrial lesions. Endometrial thickness measured by transvaginal ultrasonography provides an important reference for diagnosis. Currently, no specific cut-off value of endometrial thickness has been identified to predict the malignant risk for endometrial thickening and postmenopausal women without any symptoms. Most of resected endometrial specimens from postmenopausal women without any symptoms are diagnosed as benign or normal tissues. It seems that postmenopausal women without any symptoms have no need for general screen or intervention of endometrial cancer.

  13. Endometrial carcinoma; Endometriumkarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, K. [Krankenhaus Martha-Maria, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the method of choice in staging endometrial cancer. Using MRI early tumor invasion (stage IA) can be differentiated from a deep tumor growth (stage IB) of the myometrium with reported sensitivities of 85-95%.Tumor invasion of the uterine cervix can be depicted with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 96%. In demonstrating lymph node metastases MRI shows a sensitivity of 50%, a specificity of 95% and and accuracy of 90%. These diagnostic criteria are decisive for the choice of therapy procedures. So a simple hysterectomy will be performed in early stage IA disease while an extended surgical procedure with pelvic lymphadenectomy and radiotherapy will be considered in advanced stages IB and II disease. Vaginal ultrasound shows lower values in tumor staging with accuracies of 73-95%. Staging accuracies of computed tomography also show lower results with 61-76%. For planning radiotherapy and detection of cancer recurrence MRI is the most valuable tool. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Stadieneinteilung des Endometriumkarzinoms ist die Magnetresonanztomographie Methode der Wahl. Die Sensitivitaeten zur Differenzierung einer oberflaechlichen (Stadium IA) von einer tiefen myometrialen Invasion des Tumors (Stadium IB) liegen bei 85-95%, bei Spezifitaeten von 80-85%. Eine Infiltration der Zervix (Stadium II) kann mit Sensitivitaeten von 80% und Spezifitaeten von 96% nachgewiesen werden. Bei der Detektion von Lymphknotenmetastasen liegen die Sensitivitaeten der MRT bei 50%, bei Spezifitaeten von 95% und Treffsicherheiten von 90%. Die genannten diagnostischen Kriterien bestimmen das therapeutische Vorgehen. Werden fruehe Stadien mit einfacher Hysterektomie behandelt, erfordern die Stadien IB und II kombinierte erweiterte chirurgische Techniken und eine Radiotherapie. Die Treffsicherheiten des vaginalen Ultraschalls (73-93%) und der Computertomographie (61-76%) fuer die Stadieneinteilung des Tumors liegen deutlich niedriger als die Werte fuer

  14. Angiogenesis Following Three-Dimensional Culture of Isolated Human Endometrial Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Esfandiari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity andis the most common gynecologic disorder in women of reproductive age. We have preliminaryevidence that in the presence of a 3-dimensional (3-D fibrin matrix, human endometrial glands,stroma, and neovascularization can develop in vitro, mimicking the earliest stages of endometriosis.The aim of the present study was to determine if angiogenesis can be developed in a 3-D culture ofhuman stromal cells in vitro.Materials and Methods: This was an in vitro study of human endometrial biopsies in 3-D cultureof fibrin matrix and conducted at a university affiliated infertility center. Biopsies were taken fromten normal ovulating women undergoing infertility treatment. The samples obtained from fundusof the uterine cavity were minced, stromal cells isolated and placed in a 3-D fibrin matrix culturesystem. Degree of proliferation of stromal cells, invasion of the fibrin matrix, gland formation, vesselsprouting and immunohistochemical characterization of cellular components were recorded.Results: Three-dimensional culture of human stromal cells formed sheets of cells in the fibrinmatrix. By 3-4 weeks, endothelial cell branching was observed and rudimentary capillary-likestructures formed and endothelial cells confirmed by CD31 immunostaining.Conclusion: These data show that stromal cells from endometrial explants can proliferate andinvade a fibrin matrix in vitro generating new vessels. This procedure represents a controlled,quantifiable model for the study of angiogenesis during the menstrual cycle, and in conditions suchas endometriosis and cancer.

  15. PTEN expression in benign human endometrial tissue and cancer in relation to endometrial cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hannah P; Meeker, Alan; Guido, Richard; Gunter, Marc J; Huang, Gloria S; Luhn, Patricia; d'Ambrosio, Lori; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Sherman, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Clonal loss of PTEN expression occurs frequently in endometrial carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia. Limited data from immunohistochemical studies suggest that PTEN-null appearing endometrial glands are detectable in women without pathologic abnormalities, but the relationship of PTEN expression to endometrial cancer risk factors has not been extensively explored. We evaluated relationships between endometrial cancer risk factors and loss of PTEN expression in a set of benign endometrial samples prospectively collected from women undergoing hysterectomy and in endometrial cancer tissues from a population-based case-control study. We used a validated PTEN immunohistochemical assay to assess expression in epidemiological studies designed to assess benign endometrium [Benign Reproductive Tissue Evaluation Study (n = 73); Einstein Endometrium Study (n = 19)], and endometrial cancer [Polish Endometrial Cancer Study (n = 148)] tissues. Associations between endometrial cancer risk factors (collected via study-specific risk factor questionnaires) and PTEN expression in endometrial tissues were determined using Fisher's exact tests. PTEN loss was detected in 19% of benign endometrial tissues versus 55% in endometrial cancers. NSAID use was statistically significantly associated with PTEN loss in the benign endometrium (p = 0.02). Our data demonstrate that PTEN loss is detectable in endometrial tissues that are benign and malignant, with substantially more frequent loss in endometrial cancer compared with benign endometrium. However, alterations in expression were unrelated to most risk factors in this analysis, except for the association with NSAID use, which may represent a chance finding or reverse causality among patients with endometriosis who may have PTEN pathway abnormalities in eutopic endometrium. Further evaluation of factors associated with PTEN loss and long-term follow-up of women with PTEN-null endometrial glands may be useful in understanding early events

  16. Surgical staging in endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJ; Aalders, JG; Slager, E; Fauser, B; VanGeijn, H; Brolmann, H; Vervest, H

    2005-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most prevalent cancer of the female genital tract. No randomised study exists to prove that pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy increases survival, either by dissecting micrometastases or by altering the adjuvant treatment in all early stage (stage I grade I and 2)

  17. Targeted Therapies in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen Dogan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common genital cancer in developed world. It is generally diagnosed in early stage and it has a favorable prognosis. However, advanced staged disease and recurrences are difficult to manage. There are some common genetic alterations related to endometrial carcinogenesis in similar fashion to other cancers. Personalized medicine, which means selection of best suited treatment for an individual, has gain attention in clinical care of patients in recent years. Targeted therapies were developed as a part of personalized or %u201Ctailored%u201D medicine and specifically acts on a target or biologic pathway. There are quite a number of molecular alteration points in endometrial cancer such as PTEN tumor suppressor genes, DNA mismatch repair genes, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and p53 oncogene which all might be potential candidates for tailored targeted therapy. In recent years targeted therapies has clinical application in ovarian cancer patients and in near future with the advent of new agents these %u201Ctailored%u201D drugs will be in market for routine clinical practice in endometrial cancer patients, in primary disease and recurrences as well.

  18. Gene Tests May Improve Therapy for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe June 2013 Print this issue Gene Tests May Improve Therapy for Endometrial Cancer Send us your comments By analyzing genes in hundreds of endometrial tumors, scientists identified details ... therapies for some patients. Endometrial cancer affects the lining ...

  19. Concurrent Endometrial Carcinoma in Patients with a Curettage Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Chen

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: When patients are diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia, surgical intervention should be performed in those with cytological atypia and higher BMI because of the possibility of coexisting endometrial carcinoma.

  20. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Hall, G. Burt, C. Lingwood, R. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2010-05-23

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  1. Novel Geometries for the LHC Crab Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Hall,G. Burt,C. Lingwood,Robert Rimmer,Haipeng Wang; Hall, B. [CI Lancaster University (Great Britain); Burt, G. [CI Lancaster University (Great Britain); Lingwood, C. [CI Lancaster University (Great Britain); Rimmer, Robert [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The planned luminosity upgrade to LHC is likely to necessitate a large crossing angle and a local crab crossing scheme. For this scheme crab cavities align bunches prior to collision. The scheme requires at least four such cavities, a pair on each beam line either side of the interaction point (IP). Upstream cavities initiate rotation and downstream cavities cancel rotation. Cancellation is usually done at a location where the optics has re-aligned the bunch. The beam line separation near the IP necessitates a more compact design than is possible with elliptical cavities such as those used at KEK. The reduction in size must be achieved without an increase in the operational frequency to maintain compatibility with the long bunch length of the LHC. This paper proposes a suitable superconducting variant of a four rod coaxial deflecting cavity (to be phased as a crab cavity), and presents analytical models and simulations of suitable designs.

  2. Impact of letrozole on ultrasonographic markers of endometrial receptivity in polycystic ovary syndrome women with poor endometrial response to clomiphene citrate despite adequate ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Walid A. Morad

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Letrozole is an effective second-line treatment in women with inadequate endometrial response to CC, as letrozole increased endometrial thickness trilaminar pattern and improved endometrial perfusion.

  3. Trans-vaginal sono-elastography in the differentiation of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Abdel Latif; Magda Shady; Hanan Nabil; Yasser Mesbah

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate efficiency of sono-elastography in differentiation of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Patients and methods: Between January 2014 and January 2015, 45 perimenopausal female patients with endometrial thickness more than 6 mm were examined by TV sono-elastography procedure. Results of ultrasound and elastography were compared with pathological data (reference standard). Strain ratios were compared between typical, atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endome...

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus with a focus on cystic degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Eun; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Lee, Ah Won; Lee, Keun Ho; Kim, Mee Ran [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic findings associated with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Ten pathologically confirmed cases of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma at our institution from January 2007 to April 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative transvaginal ultrasound. Two radiologists came to a consensus regarding the location, size, margin, and echogenicity of the tumor, as well as the presence of intratumoral cystic degeneration and its extent and configuration. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma manifested as an intramural mass protruding into the endometrial cavity (n=6) or as a purely intramural mass (n=4). The maximal diameter of the lesion ranged from 4 to 9.1 cm (mean, 6.2 cm). The imaging features of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma were variable: six cases involved predominantly solid masses containing cystic degeneration, one was a predominantly unilocular cystic mass, two were ill-defined infiltrative solid masses, and one was a well-defined solid mass. Among the seven cases with internal cystic degeneration, five patients showed a multiseptated cystic area or a cystic area with multiple small clusters, while a unilocular cystic area within the tumor was found in two patients. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is associated with variable ultrasonographic findings with regard to the location, margin, and configuration of the lesion. Multiseptated cystic areas and multiple small areas of cystic degeneration are common.

  5. Pathological and molecular diagnosis of bilateral inguinal lymph nodes metastases from low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma: a case report with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Anna Myriam; Girolimetti, Giulia; Cima, Simona; Kurelac, Ivana; Livi, Alessandra; Caprara, Giacomo; Santini, Donatella; Castellucci, Paolo; Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe; Gasparre, Giuseppe; De Iaco, Pierandrea

    2018-01-02

    Extra-abdominal metastases in low grade endometrial carcinoma are rare events. Inguinal lymphatic spread occurs usually in advanced disease and is associated with abdominal lymph nodes involvement. To our knowledge, isolated inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with early endometrial carcinoma have never been described thus far. We present an uncommon case of inguinal lymph node metastasis in a 51-year old patient with early endometrial disease without other metastatic involvement. The metastatic loci were analyzed with the recently validated method of mitochondrial DNA sequencing to demonstrate clonality of the lesions. We describe the first case of inguinal metastasis from intramucous endometrial carcinoma; this case confirms the unpredictable spread of endometrial neoplasia and the importance of both patient's history and physical examination in good clinical practice.

  6. Mig-6 Mouse Model of Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Jeong, Jae-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is a frequently occurring gynecological disorder. Estrogen-dependent endometrioid carcinoma is the most common type of gynecological cancer. One of the major pathologic phenomena of endometrial cancer is the loss of estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) control over uterine epithelial cell proliferation. P4 antagonizes the growth-promoting properties of E2 in the uterus. P4 prevents the development of endometrial cancer associated with unopposed E2 by blocking E2 actions. Mitogen inducible gene 6 (Mig-6, Errfi1, RALT, or gene 33) is an immediate early response gene that can be induced by various mitogens and common chronic stress stimuli. Mig-6 has been identified as an important component of P4-mediated inhibition of E2 signaling in the uterus. Decreased expression of MIG-6 is observed in human endometrial carcinomas. Transgenic mice with Mig-6 ablation in the uterus develop endometrial hyperplasia and E2-dependent endometrial cancer. Thus, MIG-6 has a tumor suppressor function in endometrial tumorigenesis. The following discussion summarizes our current knowledge of Mig-6 mouse models and their role in understanding the molecular mechanisms of endometrial tumorigenesis and in the development of therapeutic approaches for endometrial cancer.

  7. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2004-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive therapy. Methods: 1...

  8. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George

    2003-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive therapy. Methods: 1...

  9. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2006-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy. 1...

  10. Lymph node dissection in atypical endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkın, Salih; Kan, Özgür; Dai, Ömer; Taşkın, Elif A; Koyuncu, Kazibe; Alkılıç, Ayşegül; Güngör, Mete; Ortaç, Fırat

    2017-09-01

    The rate of concomitant endometrial carcinoma in patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia is high. We aimed to investigate the role of lymphadenectomy in deciding adjuvant treatment in patients with concomitant atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. Women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia were enrolled in this retrospective study. Lymph node dissection was performed in only some patients who gave informed consent if their surgeon elected to do so, or if the intraoperative findings necessitated. The final histopathologic evaluations of surgical specimens were compared with endometrial biopsy results. Eighty eligible patients were evaluated. Seventy-two (90%) patients had complex hyperplasia with atypia, and 8 (10%) patients had simple hyperplasia with atypia. Hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed to all patients; 37 also underwent lymph node dissection. Lymph node dissection was extended to the paraaortic region in 9 of 37 patients. The concomitant endometrial carcinoma rate was 50%. Two patients had lymph node metastasis. Among 40 cases of carcinoma, 17 had deep myometrial invasion and/or cervical or ovarian involvement or grade 2 tumors with superficial myometrial invasion on hysterectomy specimens; 27.5% of all carcinomas were stage Ib or higher. The concomitant endometrial carcinoma rate was high in patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Nearly half of these patients had risk factors for extrauterine spread. Lymph node dissection might be helpful to decide adjuvant treatment.

  11. Cycle of conception endometrial biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, A C; Herbert, C M; Maxson, W S; Hill, G A; Pittaway, D E

    1986-08-01

    Although controversial, the diagnosis of luteal phase inadequacy and its therapy may improve reproductive outcome, but an endometrial biopsy in the cycle of conception (COC) might theoretically interrupt an intrauterine pregnancy. Fifty-four biopsies obtained in the COC were identified, and patient outcome was documented. Eleven (20%) of the 54 women who underwent COC biopsy did not deliver viable infants. Two patients had ectopic pregnancies, and nine had early abortions, including one whose biopsy specimen contained an early implantation site and another with a trisomy 16 fetus. Although COC endometrial biopsy did not appear to increase the incidence of fetal wastage, biopsy information provided no predictive information suggestive of ultimate pregnancy outcome. Because no useful information is gained from a COC biopsy, we recommend either that pregnancy be avoided or a sensitive pregnancy test be employed for detection in a cycle in which a biopsy is to be performed.

  12. Hysteroscopy as a standard procedure for assessing endometrial lesions among postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Toffoli Ribeiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Endometrial cancer is the most prevalent type of malignant neoplasia of the genital tract. The objective of this study was to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive values for diagnostic hysteroscopy, in comparison with histopathological tests, for all lesions of the endometrial cavity. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective descriptive study at the public tertiary-level university hospital of Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Diagnostic hysteroscopy was indicated in the following instances: endometrial thickness > 4 mm in asymptomatic patients; postmenopausal bleeding; and irregular endometrium or endometrium difficult to assess from ultrasound, with or without vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound evaluations were carried out no more than three months prior to hysteroscopy. RESULTS: There were 510 patients, with a mean age of 61.1 ± 2.0 years and mean time elapsed since the menopause of 12.7 ± 2.5 years. Endometrial biopsies were performed on 293 patients (57.5%. Histopathological analysis showed that 18 patients presented endometrial carcinoma or typical or atypical hyperplasia, and none of them presented endometrial thickness of less than 8 mm. No significant differences were found between the median thicknesses of the various benign lesions (p > 0.05. In our data, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive values for cancer or hyperplasia were 94.4%, 97.0%, 96.8%, 68% and 99.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that hysteroscopy is valuable as a diagnostic tool for malignant/hyperplastic and benign lesions, except for submucous myomas, for which the sensitivity was only 52.6%.

  13. Office hysteroscopy, transvaginal ultrasound and endometrial histology: a comparison in infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devleta Balić

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS and hysteroscopy in detection of intrauterine pathology in infertile women. Subjects and methods. This retrospective study was conducted in 56 infertile women with abnormal transvaginal ultrasound findings of the uterine cavity which was performed during the midfollicular phase as a part of routine infertility workup. Hysteroscopy was performed between 6th and 10th day of cycle. Results. The mean age of the subjects was 31.9±4.0. The most frequent ultrasound finding was endometrial polyp in 34 (60.7% patients, septate uterus in 8 (14.3% patients, submucosal myoma in 7 (12.5% patients, endometrial hyperplasia in 5 (8.9% patients and Syndroma Ascherman in 2 (3.6% patients. Hysteroscopy confirmed 20 (35.7% polyps, the same number of myomas, septate uterus and Syndroma Ascherman as detected by ultrasound, (7 (12.5%, 8 (14.3% and 2 (3.6%, respectively and 19 (33.9% endometrial hyperplasia. In 46 women with histological excamination, the sensitivity of TVS and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of endometrial polyps were identical - 100%, while the specificity was higher in hysteroscopy than in TVS (92.3% versus 56.4%, p<0.001. The sensitivity of TVS in the diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia was higher than that of hysteroscopy (86.4% versus 22.7%, p<0.001, while specificity was identical, of 100%. Accordance between hysteroscopy and histology was good (k=0.79, between ultrasound and histology was moderete (k=0.59. Conclusion. Hysteroscopy appeared to be more reliable in diagnosis than TVS. The use of a high frequency ultrasound probe leads us to a lack of diagnostic clarity between endometrial polyps and hyperplasia.

  14. Endometrial cancer arising from atypical complex hyperplasia: The significance in an endometrial biopsy and a diagnostic challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Jung Mi; Jeong, Dae Hoon; Kim, Young Nam; Cho, En Bee; Cha, Ju Eun; Sung, Moon Su; Lee, Kyung Bok

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the features of endometrial hyperplasia with concurrent endometrial cancer that had been diagnosed by endometrial sampling. Further, we attempted to identify an accurate differential diagnostic method. Methods We retrospectively studied 125 patients who underwent a diagnostic endometrial biopsy or were diagnosed after the surgical treatment of other gynecological lesions, such as leiomyoma or polyps. Patients were diagnosed between January 2005 and December 2013 at Busan Paik Hospital. Clinical and histopathological characteristics were compared in patients who had atypical endometrial hyperplasia with and without concurrent endometrial cancer. Results The patients were grouped based on the final pathology reports. One hundred seventeen patients were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and eight patients were diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from atypical hyperplasia. Of the 26 patients who had been diagnosed with atypical endometrial hyperplasia by office-based endometrial biopsy, eight (30.8%) were subsequently diagnosed with endometrial cancer after they had undergone hysterectomy. The patients with endometrial cancer arising from endometrial hyperplasia were younger (39.1 vs. 47.2 years, P=0.0104) and more obese (body mass index 26.1±9.6 vs. 23.8±2.8 kg/m2, P=0.3560) than the patients with endometrial hyperplasia. The correlation rate between the pathology of the endometrial samples and the final diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia was 67.3%. Conclusion In patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia, the detection of endometrial cancer before hysterectomy can decrease the risk of suboptimal treatment. The accuracy of endometrial sampling for the diagnosis of concurrent endometrial carcinoma was much lower than that for atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Therefore, concurrent endometrial carcinoma should be suspected and surgical intervention should be considered in young or obese patients who present with

  15. Examestane in advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Kristina; Malander, Susanne; Christensen, René dePont

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in patients with advanced, persistent or recurrent endometrial carcinoma.......We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the aromatase inhibitor exemestane in patients with advanced, persistent or recurrent endometrial carcinoma....

  16. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  17. Soya food intake and risk of endometrial cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong Bing; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Cheng, Jia Rong; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of intake of soya food, a rich source of phytoestrogens, with the risk of endometrial cancer. Design Population based case-control study, with detailed information on usual soya food intake over the past five years collected by face to face interview using a food frequency questionnaire. Setting Urban Shanghai, China. Participants 832 incident cases of endometrial cancer in women aged of 30 to 69 years diagnosed during 1997-2001 and identified from the Shanghai Cancer Registry; 846 control women frequency matched to cases on age and randomly selected from the Shanghai Residential Registry. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for risk of endometrial cancer in women with different intakes of soya foods. Results Regular consumption of soya foods, measured as amount of either soya protein or soya isoflavones, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. Compared with women with the lowest quarter of intake, the adjusted odds ratio of endometrial cancer was reduced from 0.93 to 0.85 and 0.67 with increasing quarter of soya protein intake (P for trend 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed for soya isoflavones and soya fibre intake. The inverse association seemed to be more pronounced among women with high body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusion Regular intake of soya foods is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:15136343

  18. The Emerging Genomic Landscape of Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gallo, Matthieu; Bell, Daphne W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Endometrial cancer is responsible for ~74,000 deaths amongst women worldwide each year. It is a heterogeneous disease that consists of multiple different histological subtypes. In the United States, the majority of deaths from endometrial carcinoma are attributed to the serous and endometrioid subtypes. An understanding of the fundamental genomic alterations that drive serous and endometrioid endometrial carcinomas lays the foundation for the identification of molecular markers that could improve the clinical management of patients presenting with these tumors. CONTENT Herein we review the current state of knowledge of the somatic genomic alterations that are present in serous and endometrioid endometrial tumors. We present this knowledge in a historical context – reviewing the genomic alterations that have been identified over the past two decades or more, from studies of individual genes and proteins, followed by a review of very recent studies that have conducted comprehensive, systematic surveys of genomic, exomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic alterations in serous and endometrioid endometrial carcinomas. SUMMARY The recent mapping of the genomic landscape of serous and endometrioid endometrial carcinomas has resulted in the first comprehensive molecular classification of these tumors and has distinguished four molecular subgroups: a POLE ultramutated subgroup, a hypermutated/microsatellite unstable subgroup, a copy number low/microsatellite stable subgroup, and a copy number high subgroup. This molecular classification may ultimately serve to refine the diagnosis and treatment of women with endometrioid and serous endometrial tumors. PMID:24170611

  19. Effect of intramural fibroid on uterine and endometrial vascularity in infertile women scheduled for in-vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed; El-Mazny, Akmal; Ramadan, Wafaa; Abdelaziz, Suzy; Gad-Allah, Sherine; Saad, Hany; Hussein, Ahmed M; Salah, Emad

    2018-02-01

    To study the effect of intramural fibroids on uterine and endometrial vascularity in infertile women scheduled for in-vitro fertilization (IVF). 3D power Doppler was used to measure the endometrial volume and blood flow indices in 182 women with intramural fibroids not affecting the uterine cavity and compared them to a matched control group without fibroids. There was significantly increased vascularity in the endometrium of the fibroid group as denoted by higher endometrial VI (p = 0.018), FI (p = 0.027) and Endometrial VFI. No significant difference in mean uterine artery RI (p = 0.277) or PI (p = 0.187). Among the fibroid group 62.6% had a fibroid > 4 cm. Women with fibroids > 4 cm had a significantly higher Endometrial FI (p = 0.037), and VFI (p = 0.02). Uterine artery blood flow was not affected, as uterine RI (p = 0.369) and PI (p = 0.321) were not statistically different. Compared with the control group (non fibroid), women with fibroids > 4 cm had significantly higher endometrial VI (p = 0.013), FI (p = 0.004), and VFI (p  4 cm significantly increase endometrial vascularity. This increase in blood flow may be a factor that affects the outcome of IVF.

  20. Isolated Abdominal Wall Metastasis of Endometrial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Luz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman in her mid-60s presented with a bulky mass on the anterior abdominal wall. She had a previous incidental diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma FIGO stage IB following a vaginal hysterectomy. Physical exam and imaging revealed a well circumscribed bulging tumour at the umbilical region, measuring 10 × 9 × 9 cm, with overlying intact skin and subcutaneous tissue. Surgical resection was undertaken, and histological examination showed features of endometrial carcinoma. She began chemotherapy and is alive with no signs of recurrent disease one year after surgery. This case brings up to light an atypical location of a solitary metastasis of endometrial carcinoma.

  1. Case-control study of lifetime alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenreich, Christine M; Speidel, Thomas P; Neilson, Heather K; Langley, Annie R; Courneya, Kerry S; Magliocco, Anthony M; Cook, Linda S

    2013-11-01

    Alcohol consumption is hypothesized to increase the risk of endometrial cancer by increasing circulating estrogen levels. This study sought to investigate the association between lifetime alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk. We recruited 514 incident endometrial cancer cases and 962 frequency age-matched controls in this population-based case-control study in Alberta, Canada, from 2002 to 2006. Participants completed in-person interviews querying lifetime alcohol consumption and other relevant health and lifestyle factors. Participants reported the usual number of drinks of beer, wine, and liquor consumed; this information was compiled for each drinking pattern reported over the lifetime to estimate average lifetime exposure to alcohol. Lifetime average alcohol consumption was relatively low (median intake: 3.9 g/day for cases, 4.9 g/day for controls). Compared with lifetime abstainers, women consuming >2.68 and ≤8.04 g/day alcohol and >8.04 g/day alcohol on average over the lifetime showed 38 and 35 % lower risks of endometrial cancer, respectively (p trend = 0.023). In addition, average lifetime consumption of all types of alcohol was associated with decreased risks. There was no evidence for effect modification by body mass index, physical activity, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy use combined and effects did not differ by type of endometrial cancer (type I or II). This study provides epidemiologic evidence for an inverse association between relatively modest lifetime average alcohol consumption (approximately 1/4 to 1/2 drink/day) and endometrial cancer risk. The direction of this relation is consistent with previous studies that examined similar levels of alcohol intake.

  2. Prevalence of Co-existing Endometrial Carcinoma in Patients with Preoperative Diagnosis of Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadirogullari, Pinar; Atalay, Cemal Resat; Sari, Mustafa Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia has been associated with the presence of concomitant endometrial carcinoma. In this study, patients who were diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia and had hysterectomy, determination of the incidence of endometrial cancer accompanying postoperatively and clinical parameters associated with cancer are aimed. Materials and Methods Endometrial biopsies were taken from patients for various reasons and among them 158 patients diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia from pathologic examination results were retrospectively evaluated. All of the patient’s age, parity, weight, transvaginal ultrasound measured by endometrial thickness, concomitant systemic disease (diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism), tamoxifen use, hormone use and whether in reproductive age or menopause were all questioned. Patients who applied with endometrial cancer, their cervical stromal involvement, lymph node involvement, cytology positivity and omental metastases were examined. Patients were classified according to their stage and grade. Patients who had intraoperative frozen were re-evaluated. Results Fifteen cases with preoperative endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed with endometrial cancer postoperatively, 2 cases had complex hyperplasia without atypia and 13 cases had complex atypical hyperplasia. The rate of preoperative hyperplasia with postoperative endometrial cancer was found to be 10.8% where by 15 cases of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer postoperatively 11 cases were in postmenopausal period. In patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer according to their histologic types 14 cases had endometrioid adenocarcinoma while one patient with preoperative complex hyperplasia without atypia was diagnosed with serous papillary carcinoma postoperatively. Evaluation of stages in patients diagnosed with cancer, 7 cases of patients had stage IA, 7 cases of patients had stage IB, and 7 cases cases of patients with serous papillary carcinoma were

  3. Immunohistochemical Study of ER, PR, Ki67 and p53 in Endometrial Hyperplasias and Endometrial Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjeed, Nayar Musfera Abdul; Khandeparkar, Siddhi Gaurish Sinai; Joshi, Avinash R; Kulkarni, Maithili Mandar; Pandya, Nidhi

    2017-08-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the second most common gynecologic malignancy in the developing countries. Endometrial Hyperplasia (EH) is a precursor to Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma (EMAC). A 23% of Atypical Hyperplasias (AEH) progress to EMAC. This study was undertaken to analyse ER, PR, p53 and Ki67 in EH and endometrial carcinomas and attempt correlation with clinical and histopathological findings. The present study was conducted over a period of seven years. A manual tissue array technique was employed for cases subjected to IHC. Analysis of the expression of IHC markers (ER, PR, p53, Ki67) in EH and endometrial carcinoma was attempted. Results were subjected to statistical analysis. The results were considered to be significant when the p-value endometrial carcinoma were included in the study. EH (75.22%) was more common than endometrial carcinoma (24.78%). Among 28 cases of endometrial carcinomas, EMAC was most common (78.57%) followed by Clear Cell Carcinoma (CCC) (14.28%), and Uterine Serous Carcinoma (USC) (7.14%). ER and PR expression decreased as lesion progressed from EH to EMAC. ER and PR expression was negative in USC and CCC. The p53 expression and mean Ki67 labelling index increased as the severity of lesion increased from EH to endometrial carcinoma. The ER, PR, p53, Ki67 IHC markers may be included in every case of endometrial carcinoma to understand the tumour biological behavior which in turn could help individual treatment strategies.

  4. Novel Geometries for the LHC CRAB Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Ben

    2010-01-01

    In 2017 the LHC is envisioned to increase its luminosity via an upgrade. This upgrade is likely to require a large crossing angle hence a crab cavity is required to align the bunches prior to collision. There are two possible schemes for crab cavity implementation, global and local. In a global crab cavity the crab cavity is far from the IP and the bunch rotates back and forward as it traverses around the accelerator in a closed orbit. For this scheme a two-cell elliptical squashed cavity at 800 MHz is preferred. To avoid any potential beam instabilities all the parasitic modes of the cavities must be damped strongly, however crab cavities have lower order and same order modes in addition to the usual higher order modes and hence a novel damping scheme must be used to provide sufficient damping of these modes. In the local scheme two crab cavities are placed at each side of the IP two start and stop rotation of the bunches. This would require crab cavities much smaller transversely than in the global scheme b...

  5. Primary effusion lymphoma involving three body cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Brimo Fadi; Popradi Gizelle; Michel Rene; Auger Manon

    2009-01-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a human herpes virus-8 (HHV8)-associated large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma localized in body cavities and presenting as pleural, peritoneal, or pericardial lymphomatous effusions. It typically affects immunocompromised patients and usually involves only one body site. We describe herein a case of PEL affecting three body cavity sites in an immunocompetent patient. A 69-year-old HIV-negative man presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and ascites. An exa...

  6. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  7. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie D.; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Soren

    2017-01-01

    on separate dates. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate age-matched (by design) and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for endometrial cancer associated with statin use. The multivariable-adjusted models included parity, hormone replacement therapy......INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions...

  8. Interleukin 11 is upregulated in uterine lavage and endometrial cancer cells in women with endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholls Peter K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin (IL 11 is produced by human endometrium and endometrial cancer tissue. It has roles in endometrial epithelial cell adhesion and trophoblast cell invasion, two important processes in cancer progression. This study aimed to determine the levels of IL11 in uterine lavage fluid in women with endometrial cancer and postmenopausal women. It further aimed to determine the levels of IL11 protein and its signaling molecules in human endometrial cancer of varying grades, and endometrium from postmenopausal women and IL11 signalling mechanisms in endometrial cancer cell lines. Methods IL11 levels in uterine lavage were measured by ELISA. IL11, IL11 receptor(R α, phosphorylated (p STAT3 and SOCS3 were examined by immunohistochemistry in endometrial carcinomas and in control endometrium from postmenopausal women and normal cycling women. The effect of IL11 on pSTAT3/STAT3 and SOCS3 protein abundance in endometrial cancer cell lines and non-cancer endometrial epithelial cells was determined by Western blot. Results IL11 was present in uterine flushings and was significantly higher in women with Grade 1 carcinomas compared to postmenopausal women (p Conclusions The present study suggests that IL11 in uterine washings may be useful as a diagnostic marker for early stage endometrial cancer. It indicates that IL11, along with its specific receptor, IL11Rα, and downstream signalling molecules, STAT3 and SOCS3, are likely to play a role in the progression of endometrial carcinoma. The precise role of IL11 in endometrial cancer remains to be elucidated.

  9. Crab Cavity Development

    CERN Document Server

    Calaga, R; Burt, G; Ratti, A

    2015-01-01

    The HL-LHC upgrade will use deflecting (or crab) cavities to compensate for geometric luminosity loss at low β* and non-zero crossing angle. A local scheme with crab cavity pairs across the IPs is used employing compact crab cavities at 400 MHz. Design of the cavities, the cryomodules and the RF system is well advanced. The LHC crab cavities will be validated initially with proton beam in the SPS.

  10. Intentional Weight Loss and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Hendryx, Michael; Rohan, Thomas; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Thomson, Cynthia A; Felix, Ashley S; Chen, Chu; Barrington, Wendy; Coday, Mace; Stefanick, Marcia; LeBlanc, Erin; Margolis, Karen L

    2017-04-10

    Purpose Although obesity is an established endometrial cancer risk factor, information about the influence of weight loss on endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women is limited. Therefore, we evaluated associations among weight change by intentionality with endometrial cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study. Patients and Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 36,794) ages 50 to 79 years at WHI enrollment had their body weights measured and body mass indices calculated at baseline and at year 3. Weight change during that period was categorized as follows: stable (change within ± 5%), loss (change ≥ 5%), and gain (change ≥ 5%). Weight loss intentionality was assessed via self-report at year 3; change was characterized as intentional or unintentional. During the subsequent 11.4 years (mean) of follow-up, 566 incident endometrial cancer occurrences were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate relationships (hazard ratios [HRs] and 95% CIs) between weight change and endometrial cancer incidence. Results In multivariable analyses, compared with women who had stable weight (± 5%), women with weight loss had a significantly lower endometrial cancer risk (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.95). The association was strongest among obese women with intentional weight loss (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.78). Weight gain (≥ 10 pounds) was associated with a higher endometrial cancer risk than was stable weight, especially among women who had never used hormones. Conclusion Intentional weight loss in postmenopausal women is associated with a lower endometrial cancer risk, especially among women with obesity. These findings should motivate programs for weight loss in obese postmenopausal women.

  11. [Prognostic factors in diagnosed endometrial cancers determining the type of radical surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, S; Tomov, S

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to research and evaluate for 10 years period the most important prognostic factors, related and determining the choice of suitable type of radical surgical treatment. It was performed in diagnosed endometrial cancer patients. We researched 460 patients with endometrial cancer for 10 years period. All of them were operated by radical programme. We evaluated the following prognostic factors: stage, age, histological type, tumor grading, invasion of the tumor in myometrium, tumor volume, peritoneal cytology, LVSI, hormonal receptor status, nuclear grading, DNA--ploidy, the extent of the lymph node dissection (number of lymph nodes) and specific genetic alterations connected with endometrial cancers. The surgical determined stage was the most important prognostic factor. The age was independent factor. The histological type was very important prognostic factor--the endometrioid cancers were with better survival rate (89%) in comparison with the rare papillary-serous and clear cell cancers (30%). The tumor grading and myometrical invasion had a very important prognostic significance. When the patients were with grade 3 and infiltration in the outer third of myometrium--the positive pelvic lymph nodes were 30% and the paraaortal--20%. The tumor volume according to us is an independent prognostic factor. When the diameter of the tumor was less than 2 cm--the metastases in the lymph nodes were 3% and when the diameter was more than 2 cm--the metastases were 18%. If the tumor volume occupied the whole endometrial cavity and invasion in myometrium was deep, we had 40% metastases in the lymph nodes. The peritoneal cytology had a relative risk. The LVSI was independent prognostic factor. The ER and PR were independent prognostic factors. The nuclear grading--according to our results is a significant prognostic factor. The aneuploidy was the strongest independent factor for bad survival after age and stage. The extent (the volume) of the lymph node dissection was

  12. Postoperative radiotherapy for endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Eun Cheol; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Byun, Sang Jun; Park, Seung Gyu; Kwon, Sang Hoon [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To investigate the prognostic factors and effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy alone for endometrial carcinoma. Sixty four patients with stage I?III endometrial cancer (EC) treated with postoperative radiotherapy alone between January 1989 and December 2008 at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center were chosen for the present study. Typically, total hysterectomy, salpingo-oophorectomy and lymphadenectomy were performed on the patient's pelvis. Total dose from 50.4 Gy to 63 Gy was irradiated at pelvis or extended fi eld. Thirteen patients were treated with Co-60 or Ir-192 intracavitary radiotherapy. Follow-up periods were from 7 to 270 months, with a median of 56 months. Five year overall survival (OS) rate was 58.7%, respectively. Five year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 59.2%, respectively. In univariate analysis for OS and DFS, stage, menopausal age, type of operation, serosal invasion, and lymph node involvement were found to be statistically significant. Histologic type was marginally significant. In multivariate analysis for OS and DFS, stage, types of operation, histologic type were also found to be statistically significant. Treatment failure occurred in 14 patients. The main pattern of failure was found to be distant metastasis. Time to distant metastasis was from 3 to 86 months (median, 12 months). There were no grade 3 or 4 complications. Stage, types of operation, and histologic type could be the predictive prognostic factors in patients. We contemplated postoperative radiation as effective and safe treatment method for EC. Additional treatment would be needed to reduce distant metastasis.

  13. Cytokine profiling in endometrial secretions : a non-invasive window on endometrial receptivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, C. M.; Kavelaars, A.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Amarouchi, K.; Teklenburg, G.; Gutknecht, D.; Fauser, B. J. C. M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Macklon, N. S.

    Investigation of human embryo implantation requires a non-disruptive means of studying the endometrium during the window of implantation. This stud), describes a novel approach of cytokine profiling in endometrial secretions. Endometrial secretions aspirated prior to embryo transfer from 210 women

  14. Uterine sarcoma Part II—Uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma: The TAG systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huann-Cheng Horng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal tumors are rare uterine tumors (<1%. Four main categories include endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (HG-ESS, and uterine undifferentiated sarcoma (UUS. This review is a series of articles discussing the uterine sarcomas. LG-ESS, a hormone-dependent tumor harboring chromosomal rearrangement, is an indolent tumor with a favorable prognosis, but characterized by late recurrences even in patients with Stage I disease, suggesting the requirement of a long-term follow-up. Patients with HG-ESS, based on the identification of YWHAE-NUTM2A/B (YWHAE-FAM22A/B gene fusion, typically present with advanced stage diseases and frequently have recurrences, usually within a few years after initial surgery. UUS is, a high-grade sarcoma, extremely rare, lacking a specific line of differentiation, which is a diagnosis of exclusion (the wastebasket category, which fails to fulfill the morphological and immunohistochemical criteria of translocation-positive ESS. Surgery is the main strategy in the management of uterine sarcoma. Due to rarity, complex biological characteristics, and unknown etiology and risk factors of uterine sarcomas, the role of adjuvant therapy is not clear. Only LG-ESS might respond to progestins or aromatase inhibitors.

  15. Endometrial thickness as a test for endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Watt, Hilary C; Wald, Nicholas J

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of endometrial thickness measurement as a test for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with vaginal bleeding (symptomatic women). DATA SOURCES: We conducted a literature search using the MEDLINE database from 1991 to 1997, and the key words "vaginal...... ultrasonography" and "endometrial thickness measurement." The review was limited to original research reports written in English, concerning symptomatic women having vaginal ultrasonography before a diagnostic test and not receiving tamoxifen. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 48 studies were identified....... A questionnaire was sent to the corresponding author of each paper requesting supplementary information. Data were included in our analysis if the corresponding author was able to supply information on the median endometrial thickness in unaffected symptomatic women and the endometrial thickness values...

  16. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ENDOMETRIAL HISTOPATHOLOGY IN AUB AND INCIDENCE OF ENDOMETRIAL POLYP IN AUB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka Devi Balakrishnan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB is one of the most common menstrual complaints and a frequent indication for hysterectomy. It can be a manifestation of any number of pathological entities. Causes of AUB ranges from organic pathologies like leiomyoma, polyps, adenomyosis and malignancy to conditions like coagulopathy and drug-induced AUB and aetiologies vary in different age groups. Histopathological evaluation of endometrium is very vital to identify the cause of AUB. The objectives of this study are to, 1. To evaluate the endometrial histopathology in AUB, and 2. To estimate the incidence of endometrial polyp in AUB. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study carried out on 120 women who presented with AUB. Endometrial samples collected were analysed for their histopathological pattern. RESULTS Out of 120 endometrial samples analysed among women of 30-39 years, proliferative endometrium was seen in 43.3% and secretory endometrium in 33.3% and endometrial polyp in 13.3%. In women of 40-49 years, proliferative endometrium in 36.8%, secretory endometrium in 30.9% and disordered proliferative endometrium was seen in 19% of women. The incidence of endometrial polyp was found to be 8.3% in our study. CONCLUSION There is an age-specific relation of abnormal endometrial histopathology. Among abnormal endometrial pathology, disordered proliferative endometrium was more common in perimenopausal age group and endometrial polyps in reproductive age group. The results of this study indicate that benign endometrial histopathology is common in AUB suggesting a role for more conservative therapeutic strategies.

  17. Hysteroscopic findings of endometrial carcinoma. Evaluation of 104 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, O; Antico, F; Palmara, V; Benedetto, V; Panama, S; Nicotina, P A

    2005-01-01

    Retrospective evaluation of hysteroscopic findings in the accurate diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. A retrospective monocentric study from January 1995 to December 2004. One hundred and four patients with hysteroscopic aspects evocative of endometrial carcinoma confirmed by endometrial biopsy during diagnostic hysteroscopy, by surgical hysteroscopic resection pieces or by hysterectomy specimen were included. Among the 104 patients, diagnostic hysteroscopy pointed out endometrial features suggestive of endometrial carcinoma in 102 cases. In two women diagnostic hysteroscopy failed to diagnose endometrial malignancy which was identified on pieces of polyps by surgical hysteroscopic resection. Polypoid proliferations cerebroid in appearance, with ulceration and necrosis, friable and with irregular vessels, represent endometrial findings highly indicative of malignancy. The diagnosis may be missed in cases of focal neoplasias, within endometrial polyps or in conditions of unsatisfactory endouterine visualization.

  18. Bilateral cornual abscess after endometrial ablation following Essure sterilization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Vleugels, M.P.; Kluivers, K.B.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Endometrial ablation is used extensively to treat dysfunctional bleeding. Since the introduction of Essure tubal sterilization, this permanent contraception method has been widely used. Both endometrial ablation and Essure sterilization are procedures reported to have only a few complications. We

  19. Raf-1, a potential therapeutic target, mediates early steps in endometriosis lesion development by endometrial epithelial and stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Elizabeth M; Binkley, Peter A; Ganapathy, Manonmani; Krishnegowda, Naveen K; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Schenken, Robert S; Kirma, Nameer B

    2012-08-01

    Endometriosis is a hormone-sensitive gynecological disorder characterized by the benign growth of endometrial-like tissue in the pelvic cavity. Endometriotic lesions composed of endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and glandular epithelial cells (EEC) are thought to arise from menstrual endometrial tissue reaching the pelvic cavity via retrograde menstruation. The cause of endometriotic lesion formation is still not clear. Recent evidence suggest that cytokines may play a role in the early development of endometriosis lesions. Because cytokines and growth factors signal via the v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (Raf-1) kinase pathway, we have examined the role of Raf-1 in early steps of endometriosis lesion formation, specifically attachment of endometrial cells to peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) and invasion of endometrial cells through PMC (trans-mesothelial invasion). Raf-1 antagonist GW5074 decreased attachment to PMC and trans-mesothelial invasion by primary EEC and ESC. Raf-1 also mediated TGFβ-induced trans-mesothelial invasion by the established, low-invasive EEC line EM42. TGFβ treatment of EEC resulted in Raf-1 phosphorylation at S338 and phosphorylation of ERK, suggesting that TGFβ activates Raf-1 signaling in these cells. GW5074 had little effect on ESC proliferation but inhibited EEC growth significantly under reduced serum conditions. Antagonizing Raf-1 activity and expression via GW5074 and specific Raf-1 small interfering RNA, respectively, did not alter EEC resistance to growth inhibition by TGFβ. Raf-1 inhibition blocked induction of EEC growth by epidermal growth factor. Our data suggest that Raf-1 may mediate pathologic steps involved in early endometriosis lesion formation and may be a mediator of TGFβ and epidermal growth factor actions in endometriosis.

  20. The incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer in 1031 patients with a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: long-term follow-up in a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meurs, Hannah S; Bleeker, Maaike C G; van der Velden, Jacobus; Overbeek, Lucy I H; Kenter, Gemma G; Buist, Marrije R

    2013-10-01

    Concurrent presence of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer in patients with granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) is common, with reported incidences of 25.6% to 65.5%. Consequently, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy is usually recommended in patients with a GCT, but this remains debatable. Our aim was to evaluate the need for hysterectomy in patients with GCTs by studying the incidence of pathologically confirmed endometrial abnormalities at the time of diagnosis of GCT and during follow-up. All cases of GCT between 1991 and 2012 were evaluated for endometrial pathology using the Dutch nationwide network and registry of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). A total of 1031 cases of GCT were identified at a mean ± SD age of 55 ± 17 years. The incidence of GCTs in the period 1991-2012 was 0.61 per 100,000 women per year. Concurrent endometrial cancer at the time of diagnosis of GCT was found in 58 patients (5.9%) and endometrial hyperplasia in 251 patients (25.5%), including complex hyperplasia in 89 patients (9.1%) and simple hyperplasia in 162 patients (16.5%). Long-term follow-up of 490 patients (47.5%) without a hysterectomy showed that endometrial abnormalities were found in 10 patients (2.0%) of which 2 had endometrial cancer. Interestingly, 8 (80%) of the 10 patients with endometrial abnormalities had recurrent GCT at the time of diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer. Our data suggest that after surgical removal of GCT, development of an endometrial abnormality, especially cancer, is very rare. Therefore, hysterectomy is not recommended in patients with a GCT without endometrial abnormalities at the time of diagnosis.

  1. Morules in endometrial carcinoma and benign endometrial lesions differ from squamous differentiation tissue and are not infected with human papillomavirus

    OpenAIRE

    Chinen, K; Kamiyama, K; Kinjo, T; Arasaki, A; Ihama, Y; Hamada, T; Iwamasa, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: Squamous differentiation/squamous metaplasia is often associated with endometrial adenocarcinoma and benign lesions, such as endometrial hyperplasia and chronic endometritis. Morules have distinct histological characteristics, and are referred to as squamous metaplasia or squamoid metaplasia.

  2. Morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in southwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Endometrium remains the most sensitive indicator of ovarian function and endometrial biopsy is one of the diagnostic procedures in endometrial pathology. The current study was carried out to examine the morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria and compare the results ...

  3. Hormonal and molecular aspects of endometrioid endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, Vincentius Hubertus Willibrordus Maria

    2008-01-01

    This thesis concerns the expression and prognostic value of various hormones and molecular markers playing a role n endometrioid endometrial cancer. Especially we were interested in the enzyme aromatase, its expression and (prognostic) role in endometrioid endometrial cancer. Endometrial cancer is

  4. The Effect of Endometrial Thickness on In vitro Fertilization (IVF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of measuring the endometrial thickness and studying the endometrial receptivity in the context of assisted conception remains a contentious issue. A prospective analysis was carried out to determine the effect of endometrial thickness on IVF - embryo transfer / ICSI outcome in dedicated Assisted Reproductive ...

  5. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial suction curette and accessories. 884.1175 Section 884.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Diagnostic Devices § 884.1175 Endometrial suction curette and accessories. (a) Identification. An endometrial...

  6. Predictive Value of Endometrial Thickness in Detecting Endometrial Malignancy in Patients with Postmenopausal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Kaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the place of endometrial thickness in detecting endometrial malignancy in patients with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. Methods: In this study, we retrospectively evaluated hospital records of 380 patients who had undergone endometrial biopsy with the diagnosis of postmenopausal bleeding in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Haseki Training and Research Hospital between January 2008 and January 2012. Results: Analysis of the biopsy specimens revealed benign or premalignant endometrium in 355 of the 380 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with postmenopausal bleeding. The mean endometrial thickness in 25 patient with malign endometrium was 11.6±8.2 mm. In our study, when a endometrial thickness cut-off value of 10.8 mm was taken, the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value was found to be 84%, 52%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: In our study, almost all patients (96% with endometrial thickness of less than 10.8 mm, were free from endometrial malignancy. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:164-7

  7. Expression of leptin receptor in endometrial biopsies of endometrial and ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-López, Luis Fernando; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha Imelda; Zavala-Pompa, Angel; Torres-López, Ernesto; González-Martínez, Blanca Edelia; López-Cabanillas-Lomelí, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    The adipokine leptin plays a critical role in the regulation of reproductive function and there has been growing interest in its potential role in the development of cancers in which obesity is an established risk factor. Serum leptin levels were found to be higher in patients diagnosed with endometrial and ovarian cancer compared to those observed in healthy individuals. This study was conducted to determine the expression of the leptin receptor (Ob-R) in endometrial biopsies of patients diagnosed with endometrial and ovarian cancer. In this preliminary study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the color deconvolution method were used to assess the expression levels of the Ob-R protein in three groups of endometrial tissue: one from patients diagnosed with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma, one from patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer and one from individuals without any diagnosed gynecologic disease (control group). Our results demonstrated that the highest expression of Ob-R protein in endometrial biopsies was detected in the ovarian cancer group (P=0.000). This finding suggests that changes in Ob-R expression may be assessed through the measurement of the optical density of endometrial biopsies and may become a useful tool in preventive screening, particularly for ovarian cancer.

  8. Endometrial pathology by endometrial curettage in menorrhagia in premenopausal age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Shazia; Ibrar, Faiza; Dawood, Nasira Sabiha; Jabeen, Alia

    2010-01-01

    Menorrhagia is objectively defined as blood loss greater than 80 ml or menstrual period lasting longer than 7 days. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is responsible for 80% cases of Menorrhagia. Objective of this study was to find out the endometrial pathology and usefulness of hysterocopic directed endomentrial sampling in patient having menorrhagia in premenopausal age group. This prospective descriptive study was conducted at Unit 1 of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fauji Foundation Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan from January to December 2007. During the study period, 100 patients with menorrhagia in age group 35-50 years were selected after fulfilling the inclusion criteria. These patients were selected from Gynaecology out patient department. After detailed history, examination and ultra sonography, they were admitted and hysteroscopic directed endometrial sampling was done endometrial samples were sent for histopathology to find out the endometrial pathology. The selected patients of my study with menorrhagia were scattered over all premenopusal age groups > 35 years. It was observed that 67 patient were above the age of 40 years. The analysis of histopathology reports of endometrial curettage revealed proliferative endomentrium in 33%, cystic hyperplasia's in 25% and carcinoma endometrium in one case. Cystichyperplasia and proliferative endometrium were found in menorrhagic women over 40 years of age. Adenoicarcinoma was found in a single premenopausal women of 48 years. All patients having menorrhagia above 40 years should be screened for any endometrial pathology. Accurate analysis of endometrial sampling is the key to effective therapy and optimal out come.

  9. Progestin Intrauterine Devices and Metformin: Endometrial Hyperplasia and Early Stage Endometrial Cancer Medical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanodi, Oroma

    2017-07-08

    Globally, endometrial cancer is the sixth leading cause of female cancer-related deaths. Non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia (EH), has a lifetime progression rate to endometrial cancer ranging from less than 5%, if simple without atypia, to 40%, if complex with atypia. Site specific, long-acting intrauterine devices (IUDs) provide fertility sparing, progestin-based EH medical management. It is unclear which IUD is most beneficial, or if progesterone sensitizing metformin offers improved outcomes. For resolution, PubMed searches for "Mirena" or "Metformin," "treatment," "endometrial hyperplasia," or "stage 1 endometrial cancer," were performed, yielding 33 articles. Of these, 19 articles were included. The 60 mg high-dose frameless IUD/20 mcg levonorgestrel has achieved sustained regression of Grade 3 endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia for 14 years. Case series on early stage endometrial cancer (EC) treatment with IUDs have 75% or greater regression rates. For simple through complex EH with atypia, the 52 mg-IUD/10-20 mcg-LNG-14t has achieved 100% complete regression in 6-months. Clearly, IUDs have an outcome advantage over oral progestins. However, studies on metformin for EH, and of progestins or metformin for early stage EC management are underpowered, with inadequate dose ranges to achieve significant differences in, or optimal outcomes for, the treatment modalities. Therefore, outcomes from the feMMe trial for the 52 mg-IUD/10-20 mcg-LNG-14t and metformin will fill a gap in the literature.

  10. Prototype LHC RF cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    A radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a metallic chamber that contains an electromagnetic field. Its primary purpose is to accelerate charged particles. RF cavities can be structured like beads on a string, where the beads are the cavities and the string is the beam pipe of a particle accelerator, through which particles travel in a vacuum.

  11. Intraoperative lymphatic mapping techniques for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mais, Valerio; Cirronis, Maria Giuseppina; Piras, Bruno; Silvetti, Enrico; Cossu, Ester; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2011-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract in developed countries. The primary treatment for women with endometrial cancer is surgical, as well as the staging of the pathological spread pattern of this carcinoma outside of the uterus. A complete surgical staging should include both pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of endometrial cancers are diagnosed at a very early stage owing to the early presentation as abnormal uterine bleeding. In women with early-stage endometrial cancer the systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy may produce additional morbidity without the benefit of appropriate surgical staging. The procedure of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy after lymphatic mapping has been introduced for patients with cancers of various organs in an effort to avoid complete systematic lymphadenectomy whenever possible. In the case of gynecological malignancies, the reliability of the SLN detection procedure has been extensively investigated in vulvar and cervical cancer. This article focuses on the peculiar aspects of intraoperative lymphatic mapping techniques and SLN procedures in endometrial cancer.

  12. Fenretinide: a novel treatment for endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navdha Mittal

    Full Text Available Resistance to progestin treatment is a major hurdle in the treatment of advanced and reoccurring endometrial cancer. Fenretinide is a synthetic retinoid that has been evaluated in clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic and chemo-preventive agent. Fenretinide has been established to be cytotoxic to many kinds of cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that fenretinide decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis in Ishikawa cells, which are an endometrial cancer cell line, in dose dependent manner in-vitro. This effect was found to be independent of retinoic acid nuclear receptor signaling pathway. Further, we have shown that this induction of apoptosis by fenretinide may be caused by increased retinol uptake via STRA6. Silencing of STRA6 was shown to decrease apoptosis which was inhibited by knockdown of STRA6 expression in Ishikawa cells. Results of an in-vivo study demonstrated that intraperitoneal injections of fenretinide in endometrial cancer tumors (created using Ishikawa cells in mice inhibited tumor growth effectively. Immunohistochemistry of mice tumors showed a decrease in Ki67 expression and an increase in cleaved caspase-3 staining after fenretinide treatment when compared to vehicle treated mice. Collectively, our results are the first to establish the efficacy of fenretinide as an antitumor agent for endometrial cancer both in-vitro and in-vivo, providing a valuable rationale for initiating more preclinical studies and clinical trials using fenretinide for the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  13. Stem cell-like properties of the endometrial side population: implication in endometrial regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Masuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human endometrium undergoes cyclical regeneration throughout a woman's reproductive life. Ectopic implantation of endometrial cells through retrograde menstruation gives rise to endometriotic lesions which affect approximately 10% of reproductive-aged women. The high regenerative capacity of the human endometrium at eutopic and ectopic sites suggests the existence of stem/progenitor cells and a unique angiogenic system. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize putative endometrial stem/progenitor cells and to address how they might be involved in the physiology of endometrium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that approximately 2% of the total cells obtained from human endometrium displayed a side population (SP phenotype, as determined by flow cytometric analysis of Hoechst-stained cells. The endometrial SP (ESP cells exhibited preferential expression of several endothelial cell markers compared to endometrial main population (EMP cells. A medium specific for endothelial cell culture enabled ESP cells to proliferate and differentiate into various types of endometrial cells, including glandular epithelial, stromal and endothelial cells in vitro, whereas in the same medium, EMP cells differentiated only into stromal cells. Furthermore, ESP cells, but not EMP cells, reconstituted organized endometrial tissue with well-delineated glandular structures when transplanted under the kidney capsule of severely immunodeficient mice. Notably, ESP cells generated endothelial cells that migrated into the mouse kidney parenchyma and formed mature blood vessels. This potential for in vivo angiogenesis and endometrial cell regeneration was more prominent in the ESP fraction than in the EMP fraction, as the latter mainly gave rise to stromal cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that putative endometrial stem cells are highly enriched in the ESP cells. These unique characteristics suggest that

  14. Capacity of endometrial thickness measurement to diagnose endometrial carcinoma in asymptomatic postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breijer, M. C.; Peeters, J. A. H.; Opmeer, B. C.; Clark, T. J.; Verheijen, R. H. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Timmermans, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Measurement of endometrial thickness is an important tool in the assessment of women with postmenopausal bleeding, but the role of endometrial thickness measurement by ultrasound in asymptomatic women is unclear. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) the normal endometrial

  15. Potential proton beam therapy for recurrent endometrial cancer in the vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Arimura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy mainly has been used in the gynecological field in patients with cervical cancer. The efficacy of proton beam therapy in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer has not yet been determined. A 77-year-old endometrial cancer patient presented with recurrence in the vagina without distant metastasis following hysterectomy. A hard mass measuring 6 cm originated from the apex of the vagina, surrounded the vaginal cavity, and infiltrated the proximal and distal vagina. The patient received proton beam radiotherapy using a less invasive particle treatment system while minimizing the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. The dose to the planning target volume was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) with 37 fractions. The patient was treated with 150-210-MeV proton beams for 53 days. Proton beam therapy led to the disappearance of tumors without any complications except for grade 1 cystitis although evidence of further complications is not available past our 6-month follow-up period. Proton beam therapy may become a useful treatment modality for recurrent endometrial cancer as well as cervical uterine cancer. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Endometrial cancer after endometrial ablation versus medical management of abnormal uterine bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dood, Robert L.; Gracia, Clarisa R.; Sammel, Mary D.; Haynes, Kevin; Senapati, Suneeta; Strom, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective To investigate whether endometrial ablation carries an increased risk or delayed diagnosis of endometrial cancer compared to medical management for abnormal uterine bleeding. Design A multi-centered retrospective cohort study comparing rates of endometrial cancer in women who underwent treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. Design Classification Canadian Task-Force Classification II-2 Setting This study was conducted using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a representative population-based cohort of patients in 495 outpatient General Practitioner practices in the UK. Participants Women >25 years of age with an abnormal uterine bleeding diagnosis between June 1994 and September 2010. Interventions Endometrial ablation, medical management, or both. Measurements and Main Results A total of 234,721 women met study inclusion and exclusion criteria, 4,776 of whom underwent endometrial ablation and the remaining 229,945 underwent medical management. Cox models compared endometrial cancer rates between ablation and medical management groups using hazard ratios (HRs). To investigate a possible diagnostic delay, the median time from bleeding diagnosis to endometrial cancer diagnosis among women who developed endometrial cancer was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. All statistical tests were two-tailed with α=.05. Over a median observation time of 4.07 years (IQR, 1.88-7.17), three and 601 women developed endometrial cancer in the ablation and medical management groups, respectively (ablation HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.15-1.40; p=.17). Median time to diagnosis was 237 and 299 days (ablation IQR, 155-1350; medical management IQR, 144-1,133.5; p=.99) in the ablation and medical management groups, respectively. Adjusted and sensitivity analyses did not change the results. Conclusions No difference was seen in endometrial cancer rates, nor was there a delay in diagnosis when comparing endometrial ablation versus medical management. Further studies

  17. Beam cavity interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, A

    2011-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the rf generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, rf feedback, and feed-forward are described. Examples of digital rf phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  18. Endometrial Biopsy: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Endometrial biopsy can be used to diagnose endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer, and uterine infections. This cost-effective procedure has minimal side effects, and complications are rare. The purpose of this clinical bulletin is to provide clinicians with guidance about endometrial biopsy including the procedure's advantages and disadvantages, indications and contraindications, and side effects. In addition, step-by-step instructions for performing endometrial biopsy, the equipment required, selection of sampling devices, and care before and after the procedure are discussed. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  19. Biomarkers as prognostic factors in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir J Terlikowski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in more developed countries. Approximately 75% of cases are diagnosed at an early stage with a tumor confined to the uterine corpus. Although most patients are cured by surgery alone, about 15-20% with no signs of locally advanced or metastatic disease at primary treatment recurs, with limited responsiveness to systemic therapy. The most common basis for determining the risk of recurrent disease has been classification of endometrial cancers into two subtypes. Type I, associated with a good prognosis and endometrioid histology and type II, associated with a poor prognosis and non-endometrioid histology. This review will focus primarily on the molecular biomarkers that have supported the dualistic model of endometrial carcinoma and help determine which patients would benefit from either adjuvant therapy or more aggressive primary treatment.

  20. Laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennich, Gitte; Rudnicki, M.; Lassen, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThe purpose of the present study was to evaluate learning curves and short-term outcomes following laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer in women of different body mass index (BMI) classes. Material and methodsData from 227 women planned for laparoscopic surgery for presumed...... stage I endometrial cancer were collected retrospectively from a Danish gynecologic oncology unit. Surgery included laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLA). ResultsMedian length of operations was 60 min (range, 30-197) and 120 min (range...... peri- and postoperative outcomes were independent of BMI classes. ConclusionsOur data suggest that laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer is feasible and safe. With increasing surgeon's experience there is a significant decrease in operative time and increase in the number of lymph nodes...

  1. Metformin for endometrial hyperplasia: a Cochrane protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Naomi S; Oliver, Thomas R W; Shiwani, Hunain; Saner, Juliane R F; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Atiomo, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial hyperplasia is a precancerous lesion of the endometrium, commonly presenting with uterine bleeding. If managed expectantly, it frequently progresses to endometrial carcinoma, rates of which are increasing dramatically worldwide. However, the established treatment for endometrial hyperplasia (progestogens) involves multiple side effects and leaves the risk of recurrence. Metformin is the most commonly used oral hypoglycaemic agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus. It has also been linked to the reversal of endometrial hyperplasia and may therefore contribute to decreasing the prevalence of endometrial carcinoma without the fertility and side effect consequences of current therapies. However, the efficacy and safety of metformin being used for this therapeutic target is unclear and, therefore, this systematic review will aim to determine this. Methods and analysis We will search the following trials and databases with no language restrictions: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; PubMed; Google Scholar; ClinicalTrials.gov; the WHO International Trials Registry Platform portal; OpenGrey and the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS). We will include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of use of metformin compared with a placebo or no treatment, conventional medical treatment (eg, progestogens) or any other active intervention. Two review authors will independently assess the trial eligibility, risk of bias and extract appropriate data points. Trial authors will be contacted for additional data. The primary review outcome is the regression of endometrial hyperplasia histology towards normal histology. Secondary outcomes include hysterectomy rate; abnormal uterine bleeding; quality of life scores and adverse reactions to treatments. Ethics and dissemination

  2. Endometrial cocultured cells in assisted reproduction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Bahar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Endometrium, which plays a very important role in reproductive biology and one of the pathologies connected with it as are the problems in the implantation. One of the most important processes for the female fertility are experienced in implantation failure and one of the developed methods for the solution are endometrial coculture application. In this study, to provide knowledge of the types of cells in in vitro monolayer endometrial coculture. Methods: In our study, consisting of 8 fertile and 16 infertile women suffering from recurrent implantation failure were included in two groups. Performing aspiration with negative pressure pipeline endometrial tissue samples were obtained. Intended to carry embryo to the blastocyst stage, Endometrial Epithelial-gland cells (EG and Epithelial stromal (ES cells are obtained, after concluding of the culture was provided to do light microscopic tissue follow of these tissues. Cocultured cells were grouped stained with toluidine blue. Working with the numerical values of the cell types was performed using the Chi-square statistical analysis method. Results: In cocultured, both fertile and cell types derived from the TIB group, with light microscopic examination, were distinguished by morphological characteristics. Each of the two groups, called cells called vacuoles, microvilli and cytoplasmic extension was defined. Conclusion: Both groups, coculture derived from endometrial tissue were examined by light microscope. Thus, the identification of differences between groups was provided classification of cell structures in the coculture and endometrial cocultured practices, was concluded to be beneficial in the embryo's development. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (4: 357-363

  3. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen

    2014-01-01

    HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.......HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....

  4. Ten-year literature review of global endometrial ablation with the NovaSure® device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimpelson RJ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Richard J Gimpelson Mercy Clinic, Minimally Invasive Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mercy Hospital St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: This review examines the peer-reviewed literature describing prospective studies that report amenorrhea rates, patient satisfaction, and surgical reintervention rates following the NovaSure® endometrial ablation procedure. A search of the English-language literature published from 2000 to 2011 was conducted using PubMed. Ten prospective studies, six single-arm NovaSure trials, and four randomized controlled trials comparing the NovaSure procedure with other global endometrial ablation modalities met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The follow-up periods ranged from 6 to 60 months. Amenorrhea rates for the NovaSure procedure ranged from 30.0% to 75.0%. Patients who reported being satisfied with the NovaSure procedure ranged from 85.0% to 94.0%. In randomized controlled trials with other global endometrial ablation modalities, amenorrhea rates at 12 months with the NovaSure procedure ranged from 43.0% to 56.0%, while other modalities ranged from 8% to 24%. In addition, this manuscript reviews the following: the NovaSure technology; use of the NovaSure procedure in the office setting; intraoperative and postoperative pain; effects on premenstrual syndrome (PMS; dysmenorrhea; special circumstances, including presence of uterine disease, history of cesarean delivery, coagulopathy, or use of anticoagulant medication; post-procedure uterine cavity assessment and cancer risk; contraception and pregnancy; and safety. Keywords: abnormal uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, endometrial ablation, NovaSure®

  5. VSV-hIFNbeta-NIS in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Metastatic Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  6. p53 suppresses type II endometrial carcinomas in mice and governs endometrial tumour aggressiveness in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Peter J; Ikenberg, Kristian; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rechsteiner, Markus; Georgiev, Strahil; Fankhauser, Niklaus; Noske, Aurelia; Roessle, Matthias; Caduff, Rosmarie; Dellas, Athanassios; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Krek, Wilhelm; Frew, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    Type II endometrial carcinomas are a highly aggressive group of tumour subtypes that are frequently associated with inactivation of the TP53 tumour suppressor gene. We show that mice with endometrium-specific deletion of Trp53 initially exhibited histological changes that are identical to known precursor lesions of type II endometrial carcinomas in humans and later developed carcinomas representing all type II subtypes. The mTORC1 signalling pathway was frequently activated in these precursor lesions and tumours, suggesting a genetic cooperation between this pathway and Trp53 deficiency in tumour initiation. Consistent with this idea, analyses of 521 human endometrial carcinomas identified frequent mTORC1 pathway activation in type I as well as type II endometrial carcinoma subtypes. mTORC1 pathway activation and p53 expression or mutation status each independently predicted poor patient survival. We suggest that molecular alterations in p53 and the mTORC1 pathway play different roles in the initiation of the different endometrial cancer subtypes, but that combined p53 inactivation and mTORC1 pathway activation are unifying pathogenic features among histologically diverse subtypes of late stage aggressive endometrial tumours. PMID:22678923

  7. The LHC superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Boussard, Daniel; Häbel, E; Kindermann, H P; Losito, R; Marque, S; Rödel, V; Stirbet, M

    1999-01-01

    The LHC RF system, which must handle high intensity (0.5 A d.c.) beams, makes use of superconducting single-cell cavities, best suited to minimizing the effects of periodic transient beam loading. There will be eight cavities per beam, each capable of delivering 2 MV (5 MV/m accelerating field) at 400 MHz. The cavities themselves are now being manufactured by industry, using niobium-on-copper technology which gives full satisfaction at LEP. A cavity unit includes a helium tank (4.5 K operating temperature) built around a cavity cell, RF and HOM couplers and a mechanical tuner, all housed in a modular cryostat. Four-unit modules are ultimately foreseen for the LHC (two per beam), while at present a prototype version with two complete units is being extensively tested. In addition to a detailed description of the cavity and its ancillary equipment, the first test results of the prototype will be reported.

  8. Myopericytoma in nasal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann, Elise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The myopericytomas represent about 1% of the vascular tumors, is relatively common in the region of head and neck, 25% of the cases, and uncommon in the nasal and paranasal cavities. Objective: To describe one case of myopericytoma in nasal cavity. Case Report: We present a case of an adult patient, of the female sex, with complaints of nasal obstruction, pain in the nasal cavities region and eventual epistaxis in the right nasal cavity, which present an angiomatous and easily bleeding, non-pulsatile mass occupying all the right nasal cavity. Final Considerations: The myopericytomas are uncommon vascular tumors, rarely located in the nasal cavity and in the paranasal sinuses. They must be included in the differential diagnosis of the well delimited, vascular and slow growth masses upon computed tomography.

  9. morphological pattern of endometrial biopsies in south

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perimenopausal or postmenopausal woman to evaluate abnormal uterine bleeding and to rule out endometrial cancer2, 3 while in Nigeria, it is used most often in the evaluation of infertility.4,5,6 It also serves to identify other hormonally induced changes in the uterine lining. In general, the biopsy assists in the identification ...

  10. Hysteroscopic Endometrial Resection in the Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a major health problem and it is a substantial cause of ill health in women. Medical treatment has a high failure rate and adverse effects. There are few published data on hysteroscopic endometrial resection (HER) in the management of patients with AUB. Objective: To ...

  11. Factors Influencing Endometrial Thickness in Postmenopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cut‑off values for endometrial thickness (ET) in asymptomatic postmenopausal woman have been standardized. However, there are no comprehensive studies to document how various factors can influence the ET after the age of menopause. Aim: To study the various factors influencing the ET in ...

  12. Type I Versus Type II Endometrial Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Ottesen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Two distinct types of endometrial carcinoma (EC) with different etiology, tumor characteristics, and prognosis are recognized. We investigated if the prognostic impact of comorbidity varies between these 2 types of EC. Furthermore, we studied if the recently developed ovarian cancer...

  13. SENTINEL LYMPH NODES IN ENDOMETRIAL CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    A. I. Berishvili; O. V. Li; T. M. Kochoyan; N. V. Levkina; R. A. Kerimov; S. B. Polikarpova

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) typically is treated surgically. Because of the adjuvant treatment implications, complete surgical staging including lymphadenectomy is recommended for high-risk ECs. Sentinel lymph node mapping has the potential to provide information about lymph node metastasis while avoiding potential complications of extended lymph node dissection.

  14. Oral contraception and risk of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueck AO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfred O Mueck1, Harald Seeger1, Xiangyan Ruan2 1Department of Endocrinology and Menopause, University Women's Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: No placebo-controlled studies concerning hormonal contraception in general have been published, and only investigations on biological mechanisms and observational clinical studies are available. Thus, associations can be described but not their causality. Experimental studies strongly suggest protective effects of the progestagen component of hormonal contraception against development of estrogen-related (type 1 endometrial cancer. In light of this research, it seems biologically plausible that, in more than 20 published studies, a reduction in endometrial cancer risk was achieved in up to 50% of users of combined oral contraceptives (COC, compared with nonusers. Few data exist for progestin-only oral preparations. However, in view of the mechanisms involved, a reduction in cancer risk should also be expected. Whereas hormonal dose-dependency has been investigated in only a few studies, which showed a stronger risk reduction with increasing progestagenic potency, a decreased risk dependent on duration of use has been clearly demonstrated, and after stopping COC this effect has persisted for up to 20 years. Possible confounders, including family history, parity, and smoking, have been investigated in a few studies, with only a minor impact on hormonal effect of endometrial cancer risk, with the exception of obesity, which was a strong risk factor in most but not all studies. There are obvious differences in the incidence of endometrial cancer in women using COC when evaluated in absolute numbers for Western and Asian countries, being about 3–5-fold higher in the US than in Asia. Further research should include the noncontraceptive benefit of COC

  15. Optically measuring interior cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of endometrial thickness to exclude polyps in women with postmenopausal bleeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Anne; Gerritse, Maaike B. E.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Jansen, Frank W.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Veersema, Sebastiaan

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of endometrial thickness measurement with transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) to diagnose endometrial polyps in women with postmenopausal bleeding in whom a carcinoma has been ruled out. METHODS: In women with postmenopausal bleeding, endometrial thickness was

  17. Balão Térmico para Ablação Endometrial: Resultados Preliminares Endometrial Ablation Using a Thermal Balloon: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Viscomi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: os autores mostram a experiência preliminar com o uso do balão térmico para ablação do endométrio em pacientes com queixas de menorragia. Pacientes e Métodos: foram submetidas a este procedimento 20 pacientes. Após exame pélvico completo e ultra-sonografia endovaginal, todas as pacientes foram submetidas à histeroscopia diagnóstica com biópsia de endométrio para excluir causas de malignidade. Das 20 pacientes que se submeteram ao tratamento com balão térmico, 16 foram submetidas em regime ambulatorial com anestesia local. O procedimento teve duração de 8 minutos e 30 segundos. Resultados: duas das 20 pacientes mostraram-se insatisfeitas, mantendo o quadro hemorrágico inalterado, e 18 pacientes referiram melhora da sintomatologia. Não houve complicações do procedimento. Conclusões: o uso do balão térmico para ablação endometrial mostrou-se seguro e eficaz para o tratamento da menorragia de causa benigna.Purpose: to evaluate thermal balloon endometrial ablation in the management of menorrhagia. Study design: twenty patients were submitted to endometrial ablation using the thermal balloon device, between June 1996 and June 1997. Local anesthesia was used in 16 patients. The device was introduced into the uterine cavity. The duration of the procedure was 8 minutes and 30 seconds. Results: two patients (10% did not show improvement of the symptons. Eighteen patients (90% referred improvement of symptoms. There was no complication during and after the procedure. Conclusions: The thermal balloon seems to be safe and efficient in the management of menorrhagia.

  18. The role of human epididymis secretory protein E4 in patients with endometrial cancer and premalignant endometrial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Setenay Arzu; Altınkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Kerimoglu, Özlem Seçilmiş; Tazegül Pekin, Aybike; Akyürek, Fikret; Ilhan, Tolgay Tuyan; Benzer, Nilgün; Unlu, Ali; Yuksel, Hasan; Celik, Cetin

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the concentrations of human epididymis secretory protein E4 (HE4) and Ca-125 in relation to clinicopathologic features in patients with endometrial cancer and premalignant endometrial lesions. Women with abnormal uterine bleeding (n = 167) who underwent endometrial sampling were divided into four groups. Group 1: endometrial cancer (n = 68), group 2: atypical endometrial hyperplasia (n = 12), group 3: endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (n = 39) and group 4: controls (n = 48). Women with endometrial cancer exhibited higher concentrations of HE4 levels than controls (91.4 pmol/L vs. 46.2 pmol/L, p endometrial cancer were 72.7%, 84.4%, 80% and 78.4%, respectively. Preoperative HE4 levels are more elevated in women with endometrial cancer than those with benign endometrium as well as in women with prognostic high-risk factors with endometrial cancer. HE4 may be used as an additional marker in combination with other clinicopathologic features for planning the treatment.

  19. Xenografted tissue models for the study of human endometrial biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, Satu; Zhu, Liyin; Pollard, Jeffrey W

    The human endometrium undergoes extensive morphological, biochemical and molecular changes under the influence of female sex steroid hormones. Besides the fact that estrogen stimulates endometrial cell proliferation and progesterone inhibits this proliferation and induces differentiation, there is limited knowledge about precise molecular mechanisms underlying human endometrial biology. The importance of paracrine signaling in endometrial physiology explains why in vitro culture of endometrial cells has been challenging. Researchers, therefore, have developed alternative experimental in vivo models for the study of endometrial biology. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent developments and work on these in vivo endometrial research models. The in vivo recombinant tissue models in which wild-type endometrial cells are combined with endometrial cells from a gene-targeted mouse strain followed by xenografting to host mice have been critical in confirming the significance of paracrine signaling between the epithelium and stroma in the growth regulation of the endometrium. Additionally, these studies have uncovered differences between the mouse and human, emphasizing the need for the development of experimental models specifically of the human endometrium. Recently, xenotransplants of human endometrial fragments into the subcutaneous space of host mice and endometrial xenografts of dissociated and recombined epithelial and stromal cells beneath the kidney capsule of immunodeficient host mice have proven to be highly promising tools for in vivo research of endometrial functions. For the first time, the latter approach provides an immense opportunity for the application of genome engineering, such as targeted ablation of endometrial genes for example by using CRISPR/CAS9 system. This research will begin to elucidate the functional role of specific genes in this complex tissue. Another advantage of xenotransplantation and xenograft models of the human

  20. Superconducting cavities for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    Above: a 350 MHz superconducting accelerating cavity in niobium of the type envisaged for accelerating electrons and positrons in later phases of LEP. Below: a small 1 GHz cavity used for investigating the surface problems of superconducting niobium. Albert Insomby stays on the right. See Annual Report 1983 p. 51.

  1. Superconducting RF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    It was 20 years ago when the research and development programme for LEP superconducting cavities was initiated. It lasted about 10 years. Today, my aim is not to tell you in great detail about the many innovations made thanks to our research, but I would like to point out some milestones in the development of superconducting cavities where Emilio's influence was particularly important.

  2. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    One of the SPS acceleration cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). On the ceiling one sees the coaxial transmission line which feeds the power from the amplifier, located in a surface building above, to the upstream end of the cavity. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138, 8302397.

  3. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    One of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). The power that is fed into the upstream end of the cavity is extracted at the downstream end and sent into a dump load. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8011289, 8302397.

  4. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation after cancer is important, and efficient rehabilitation requires knowledge of patient's needs. This study aimed to identify short-term rehabilitation needs of women with endometrial and cervical cancer. METHODS: Ninety-six women (82.6%) were included in an exploratory...... with endometrial cancer. Of these, 38 had FIGO-stage 1 disease (73.1%) and 25 were treated with laparoscopic surgery (48.1%). Emotional functioning was significantly worse prior to treatment in both the cancers (p endometrial) and worry constituted an unmet need in 70.7% of cervical...... and 34.7% of endometrial cancer patients. Both the patient groups experienced significant lymphedema post-treatment [endometrial cancer (p = 0.006) and cervical cancer (p = 0.002)]. Further, urological problems were more prevalent post-treatment in endometrial cancer patients (p = 0.018), while sexual...

  5. Current strategies in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzur, Tamar; Kessous, Roi; Weintraub, Adi Y

    2017-07-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in developed countries. There are no uniform recommendations for endometrial cancer screening in the general population. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that the primary physician profoundly understands, and is familiar with the methods for prevention and early detection of endometrial cancer. The aim of this review is to provide the primary physician with a toolbox to reach these goals. We performed a systemic review to summarize the current strategies to diagnose and prevent endometrial cancer. Many published articles from the last years were identified and included. A systematic review that summarizes the important subjects in the diagnosis and prevention of endometrial cancer. Maintaining a high index of suspicion and obtaining endometrial biopsies from all suspected patients is the key for achieving a timely diagnosis.

  6. Enhanced Method for Cavity Impedance Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Marhauser, Robert Rimmer, Kai Tian, Haipeng Wang

    2009-05-01

    With the proposal of medium to high average current accelerator facilities the demand for cavities with extremely low Higher Order Mode (HOM) impedances is increasing. Modern numerical tools are still under development to more thoroughly predict impedances that need to take into account complex absorbing boundaries and lossy materials. With the usually large problem size it is preferable to utilize massive parallel computing when applicable and available. Apart from such computational issues, we have developed methods using available computer resources to enhance the information that can be extracted from a cavities? wakefield computed in time domain. In particular this is helpful for a careful assessment of the extracted RF power and the mitigation of potential beam break-up or emittance diluting effects, a figure of merit for the cavity performance. The method is described as well as an example of its implementation.

  7. Single Atoms in Nearly Concentric Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Adrian Nugraha; Nguyen, Chi Huan; Lewty, Nick; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Quantum Optics Group Team

    2017-04-01

    Strong interaction between photons and neutral single atoms are usually observed in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) systems with high finesse mirrors and small physical volume. We demonstrate another approach that employs a near concentric cavity with relatively low finesse mirrors ( 100) and large physical separation between mirrors ( 10 mm). The transmission spectrum of our CQED system with trapped single atoms is observed to exhibit two resolved normal mode peaks, in which the single atom cooperativity is estimated to be around 0.4. The cooperativity of the system can be improved further by increasing the finesse of the mirrors or moving the cavity closer to the concentric point. The successful realization of concentric CQED systems will open opportunities for scaling up with applications in quantum computing. This work is supported by the National Research Foundation and Ministry of Education, Singapore.

  8. The association between polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Chedumbarum Pillay, O. D.

    2010-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome have an increased risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. AIM: To determine whether people with polycystic ovary syndrome have an increased risk of developing endometrial carcinoma. BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is one of the commonest cancers to occur in women in the Western World and unopposed oestrogen stimulation of the uterus is amongst one of the aetiologies postulated for this condition. It is generally assumed that ...

  9. Dilatation and curettage effect on the endometrial thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davar, Robab; Dehghani Firouzabadi, Razieh; Chaman Ara, Kefayat

    2013-04-01

    Endometrial receptivity is required for successful implantation and pregnancy. Despite the remaining controversy, many studies have shown that ultrasonographic endometrial thickness can be considered as an indicator of endometrial receptivity. The study objective was to investigate the effect of dilatation and curettage on the endometrial thickness. Enrolled in the study were 444 patients visited in Obstetrics & Gynecology clinic of Shahid Sadoughi hospital between Jan. 2011 to Sep. 2012. Only patients whose menstrual cycle was regular were included in study. Patients with myoma, adenomyosis, endometrial polyps or other uterine anomaly, those who smoked, whose BMI was greater than 30 and who were taking medications that could affect endometrial thickness were excluded. Endometrial thickness was measured one day before evolution (n = 444) and 5-7 days after it (n = 444) using transvaginal ultrasonography. The endometrial thicknesses were correlated to the patients' history of dilatation and curettage. Data analysis was done through SPSS software version 16 and using descriptive statistics, independent T-test and Anova. Endometrial thickness in patients who had 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 D&C were 10.00 ± 0.58, 9.83 ± 0.47, 8.90 ± 0.92, 7.42 ± 0.18 and 7.40 ± 0.07, respectively one day before ovulation (spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.33) and 10.62 ± 0.68, 9.64 ± 0.49, 8.48 ± 0.96, 6.32 ± 0.15 and 6.90 ± 0.04, respectively, 5-7 days after ovulation (spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.66) estradiol and progesterone levels, measured in the day of 2nd ultrasonography had not statistic relation with endometrial thickness (P = 0.27 and 0.31). The relation of endometrial thickness and age was not significant (P = 0.54 and 0.06). Dilatation and curettage has a significant effect on the endometrial thinning.

  10. Evaluation of sonographic endometrial patterns and endometrial thickness as predictors of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Singla, Anshuja; Sidana, Anu; Suneja, Amita; Vaid, Neelam B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate whether endometrial patterns and thickness could be used for the prediction of ectopic pregnancy (EP). A prospective study was conducted in a center in India between October 2007 and December 2008. It included 100 women with an early pregnancy confirmed by urine pregnancy testing but for whom an intrauterine gestational sac was not visualized on transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS). The women were divided into an EP group and an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) group depending on the final diagnosis. The endometrial pattern and endometrial thickness were determined by TVS. Sensitivity and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the predictive value. A heterogenous hyperechoic or trilaminar endometrial pattern was noted in 53 (77%) of 69 women in the EP group and 12 (39%) of 31 in the IUP group, and a homogenous hyperechoic pattern in 3 (4%) women in the EP group and 13 (42%) in the IUP group. An endometrial thickness of less than 9.8 mm was predictive of EP (Ppregnancy of unknown location for close supervision. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. PTEN Sequence Analysis in Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma in Slovak Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gbelcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa. ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3, complex hyperplasia (5, atypical complex hyperplasia (7, endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20 and G3 (5, and serous carcinoma (5 were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar.

  12. Effect of lidocaine spray in pain management during office-based endometrial sampling: A randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, H; Aksoy, U; Ozyurt, S; Acmaz, G; Babayigit, M A; Yücel, B; Aydin, T

    2016-01-01

    Office-based endometrial sampling is the most frequently performed gynaecological procedure. The procedure is usually associated with pain and discomfort. Several anaesthetic and analgesic techniques (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracervical block, misoprostol and topical anaesthetics) are used for pain management during endometrial sampling. There is no comprehensive study using lidocaine in spray form; we sought to investigate the analgesic efficacy of 10% lidocaine spray in patients undergoing office-based endometrial biopsy. We conducted a prospective, randomised (lidocaine spray (n = 60) and placebo (n = 60), respectively), double-blind study. The mean pain score during procedure was 3.51 ± 1.51 in the lidocaine spray group and 5.11 ± 1.66 in the placebo group. Lidocaine spray treatment significantly lowered the pain scores compared with placebo (p Lidocaine spray can be accepted as a non-invasive, easy to apply and more comfortable anaesthetic method for office-based endometrial sampling.

  13. Recent Advances in Endometrial Cancer [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur-Quan Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, with yearly rates continuing to increase. Most women present with early stage disease; however, advanced disease carries a grave prognosis. As a result, novel therapies are currently under investigation for the treatment of endometrial cancer. These advances include a better understanding of the genetic basis surrounding the development of endometrial cancer, novel surgical therapies, and new molecular targets for the treatment of this disease. This review explores the literature regarding these advancements in endometrial cancer.

  14. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer. Addendum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy. Methods: 1...

  15. Human papillomavirus effect on the development of endometrial polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucuoglu, U; Guler, I; Dogan, H; Biri, A

    2015-01-01

    Although the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with warts arising in different parts of the human body has been well-demonstrated, the association of HPV with endometrial polyps has never been studied in the literature up to now. Detection of the HPV DNA was carried out by using 13 high-risk HPV real-time PCR Kit and five low-risk HPV real-time PCR Kit. Among 50 endometrial polyp samples, one endometrial polyp sample revealed a positive result for the presence of HPV type 18. This first study in the medical literature investigating the possible effect of HPV on the development of endometrial polyps has demonstrated that HPV might have a role in the development of some of the endometrial polyps. If the present authors' hypothesis that endometrial polyps caused by carcinogenic HPV types are prone to proceed to endometrial cancer if left untreated is correct, HPV vaccine has a potential to prevent development of at least some of the endometrial polyps and endometrial cancers.

  16. Geoengineering, Climate Harm, and Business as Usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankunis, F. J.; Peacock, K.

    2014-12-01

    We define geoengineering (GE) as the intentional use of technology to change the planet's climate. Many people believe GE is different in kind rather than degree from any other organized activity in human history. In fact, humans caused changes in the planet's climate long before the industrial age, and all organisms engineer their environments directly or indirectly. The relevant difference between this cumulative and generally inadvertent activity and GE is the presence of intention. Now that science has revealed the extent to which humans can change the climate, however, even the continuance of Business as Usual (BAU) is, in effect, a form of intentional GE, albeit one that will cause significant climate harm, defined as effects such as sea level rise that will impact human well-being. But as with all forms of engineering, the devil is in the details: what forms of GE should be tried first? Some methods, such as large-scale afforestation, are low risk but have long-term payoffs; others, such as aerosol injection into the stratosphere, could help buy time in a warming crisis but have unknown side-effects and little long-term future. Climate change is a world-wide, inter-generational tragedy of the commons. Rational choice theory, the spatial and temporal extension of the problem, poorly fitted moral frameworks, and political maneuvering are all factors that inhibit solutions to the climate tragedy of the commons. The longer that such factors are allowed to dominate decision-making (or the lack thereof) the more likely it is that humanity will be forced to resort to riskier and more drastic forms of GE. We argue that this fact brings an additional measure of urgency to the search for ways to engineer the climate differently so as to avoid climate harm in the most lasting and least risky way.

  17. Exercise Training Prevents Endometrial Hyperplasia and Biomarkers for Endometrial Cancer in Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jarrah, Muhammed; Matalka, Ismail; Aseri, Hasan Al; Mohtaseb, Alia; Smirnova, Irina V; Novikova, Lesya; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa; AlKhateeb, Ahed

    2010-01-01

    Background Endometrial cancer is one of the most common types of gynecologic cancers. The ability of exercise to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer in women with type 2 diabetes has been established, but no studies have examined this link in type 1 diabetes.A randomized, controlled animal study was designed using a standard rat model of type 1 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the ability of exercise to prevent increased levels of endometrial cancer biomarkers, estrogen r...

  18. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  19. SPS RF Cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The picture shows one of the two initially installed cavities. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also gradually increased: by end 1980 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412017X, 7411048X, 7505074.

  20. An immunohistochemical study of feline endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil da Costa, R M; Santos, M; Amorim, I; Lopes, C; Pereira, P Dias; Faustino, A M

    2009-05-01

    Feline endometrial adenocarcinomas are uncommon malignant neoplasms that have to date been poorly characterized. The present immunohistochemical study describes the expression of the pancytokeratins AE1 and AE3, cytokeratin-14, vimentin, alpha-actin, cyclo-oxygenase-2, E-cadherin, beta-catenin, the progesterone receptor, the oestrogen receptor and caveolin-1 within normal feline uterine tissue and tissue from six cats with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Synthesis of cyclo-oxygenase-2 and reduced expression of progesterone receptors may be involved in the neoplastic transformation of feline endometrium. The loss of cellular adhesion that occurs within these tumours does not require down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and nuclear translocation of beta-catenin is not a feature of these neoplasms.

  1. Human Endometrial Transcriptomics: Implications for Embryonic Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eva; Ruíz-Alonso, Maria; Miravet, Jose; Simón, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Human endometrium has been extensively investigated in the search for markers capable of predicting its receptive status. The completion of the Human Genome Project has triggered a rapid development of new fields in molecular biology, the “transcriptomics” being a major turning point in the knowledge acquisition of endometrial receptivity. Based on this, a customized Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) has been developed, which is capable of identifying the genomic signature of receptivity. This diagnostic tool showed that the window of implantation (WOI) is displaced in one out of four patients with implantation failure, allowing the identification of their personalized WOI. This strategy allows performing a personalized embryo transfer (pET) on the day in which the endometrium is receptive. The combination of a systems biology approach and next-generation sequencing will overcome the limitations of microarrays, and will, in the future, allow elucidation of the mechanisms involved in embryo implantation. PMID:25818663

  2. Superconducting TESLA cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, B.; Bandelmann, R.; Bloess, D.; Bonin, B.; Bosotti, A.; Champion, M.; Crawford, C.; Deppe, G.; Dwersteg, B.; Edwards, D. A.; Edwards, H. T.; Ferrario, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Gall, P.-D.; Gamp, A.; Gössel, A.; Graber, J.; Hubert, D.; Hüning, M.; Juillard, M.; Junquera, T.; Kaiser, H.; Kreps, G.; Kuchnir, M.; Lange, R.; Leenen, M.; Liepe, M.; Lilje, L.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W.-D.; Mosnier, A.; Padamsee, H.; Pagani, C.; Pekeler, M.; Peters, H.-B.; Peters, O.; Proch, D.; Rehlich, K.; Reschke, D.; Safa, H.; Schilcher, T.; Schmüser, P.; Sekutowicz, J.; Simrock, S.; Singer, W.; Tigner, M.; Trines, D.; Twarowski, K.; Weichert, G.; Weisend, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wolff, S.; Zapfe, K.

    2000-09-01

    The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron collider TESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with an accelerating gradient of Eacc>=25 MV/m at a quality factor Q0>=5×109. The design goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set to the more moderate value of Eacc>=15 MV/m. In a first series of 27 industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q0 = 5×109 was measured to be 20.1+/-6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering from serious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTF cavities, additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular, an eddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusions and stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. The average gradient of these cavities at Q0 = 5×109 amounts to 25.0+/-3.2 MV/m with the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only a moderate improvement in production and preparation techniques will be needed to meet the ambitious TESLA goal with an adequate safety margin. In this paper we present a detailed description of the design, fabrication, and preparation of the TESLA Test Facility cavities and their associated components and report on cavity performance in test cryostats and with electron beam in the TTF linac. The ongoing research and development towards higher gradients is briefly addressed.

  3. Hydroforming of elliptical cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Activities of the past several years in developing the technique of forming seamless (weldless cavity cells by hydroforming are summarized. An overview of the technique developed at DESY for the fabrication of single cells and multicells of the TESLA cavity shape is given and the major rf results are presented. The forming is performed by expanding a seamless tube with internal water pressure while simultaneously swaging it axially. Prior to the expansion the tube is necked at the iris area and at the ends. Tube radii and axial displacements are computer controlled during the forming process in accordance with results of finite element method simulations for necking and expansion using the experimentally obtained strain-stress relationship of tube material. In cooperation with industry different methods of niobium seamless tube production have been explored. The most appropriate and successful method is a combination of spinning or deep drawing with flow forming. Several single-cell niobium cavities of the 1.3 GHz TESLA shape were produced by hydroforming. They reached accelerating gradients E_{acc} up to 35  MV/m after buffered chemical polishing (BCP and up to 42  MV/m after electropolishing (EP. More recent work concentrated on fabrication and testing of multicell and nine-cell cavities. Several seamless two- and three-cell units were explored. Accelerating gradients E_{acc} of 30–35  MV/m were measured after BCP and E_{acc} up to 40  MV/m were reached after EP. Nine-cell niobium cavities combining three three-cell units were completed at the company E. Zanon. These cavities reached accelerating gradients of E_{acc}=30–35  MV/m. One cavity is successfully integrated in an XFEL cryomodule and is used in the operation of the FLASH linear accelerator at DESY. Additionally the fabrication of bimetallic single-cell and multicell NbCu cavities by hydroforming was successfully developed. Several NbCu clad single-cell and

  4. SPS RF cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. A power of up to 790 kW can be supplied to each giving a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities.

  5. Cavity-enhanced spectroscopies

    CERN Document Server

    van Zee, Roger

    2003-01-01

    ""Cavity-Enhanced Spectroscopy"" discusses the use of optical resonators and lasers to make sensitive spectroscopic measurements. This volume is written by the researcchers who pioneered these methods. The book reviews both the theory and practice behind these spectroscopic tools and discusses the scientific discoveries uncovered by these techniques. It begins with a chapter on the use of optical resonators for frequency stabilization of lasers, which is followed by in-depth chapters discussing cavity ring-down spectroscopy, frequency-modulated, cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, intracavity spectr

  6. A New Diagnostic Test for Endometrial Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Onur; Sheridan, Susan M.; Harter, Josephine; Hinshaw, James Louis; Seo, Songwon; Hartenbach, Ellen M.; Lindheim, Steven; Stewar, Sarah; Kushner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective During saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS), the distension fluid is typically discarded. If cytology analysis could identify those patients with endometrial cancer, many women would be spared from further procedures. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with clinical stage I or II endometrial adenocarcinoma were prospectively recruited preoperatively. Saline-infused sonohysterography was performed by instilling 5 mL of saline, withdrawing and sending for analysis. Saline was reinfused until complete SIS images were obtained and sent separately for cytology. Results Of the 30 women enrolled, SIS was technically successful in 29. Demographics included mean age (60.5 ± 6.99 years), body mass index (35.55 ± 8.18 kg/m2), endometrioid histology (76%), and grade (grade 1, 67%). Prestudy diagnostic method included biopsy (70%), dilatation and curettage (17%), and hysteroscopy (10%). Adequate cytology specimens were obtained in 66% of the 5mL flushes and 72% of the complete SIS collections. Of adequate specimens, the sensitivities to detect endometrial cancer for the 5-mL, complete, and combined fluid samples were 26% (95% confidence interval, 9%–51%), 36% (17%–59%), and 42% (22%–63%). Sensitivity based on the whole study sample (N = 30) was 33% (17%–53%). Statistical significance was not found in the association between a positive test and age, body mass index, grade, diagnostic method, or volume instilled or aspirated. Conclusions Most patients with early endometrial cancer can undergo SIS procedures with adequate cytology specimens obtained from distention media. However, the sensitivity is low, and refinements are necessary before utilizing as a diagnostic test. In cases with positive results, the patient may be able to avoid other costly and painful procedures. PMID:23881100

  7. [Endometrial cancer: Predictive models and clinical impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendifallah, Sofiane; Ballester, Marcos; Daraï, Emile

    2017-12-01

    In France, in 2015, endometrial cancer (CE) is the first gynecological cancer in terms of incidence and the fourth cause of cancer of the woman. About 8151 new cases and nearly 2179 deaths have been reported. Treatments (surgery, external radiotherapy, brachytherapy and chemotherapy) are currently delivered on the basis of an estimation of the recurrence risk, an estimation of lymph node metastasis or an estimate of survival probability. This risk is determined on the basis of prognostic factors (clinical, histological, imaging, biological) taken alone or grouped together in the form of classification systems, which are currently insufficient to account for the evolutionary and prognostic heterogeneity of endometrial cancer. For endometrial cancer, the concept of mathematical modeling and its application to prediction have developed in recent years. These biomathematical tools have opened a new era of care oriented towards the promotion of targeted therapies and personalized treatments. Many predictive models have been published to estimate the risk of recurrence and lymph node metastasis, but a tiny fraction of them is sufficiently relevant and of clinical utility. The optimization tracks are multiple and varied, suggesting the possibility in the near future of a place for these mathematical models. The development of high-throughput genomics is likely to offer a more detailed molecular characterization of the disease and its heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RSS VitalSigns RSS Error processing SSI file Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: English ( ... Problem About 7 million low-income children need sealants. What are sealants? Sealants are thin coatings painted ...

  9. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  10. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  11. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.

  12. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

      While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation...

  13. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  14. The Superconducting TESLA Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Aune, B.; Bloess, D.; Bonin, B.; Bosotti, A.; Champion, M.; Crawford, C.; Deppe, G.; Dwersteg, B.; Edwards, D.A.; Edwards, H.T.; Ferrario, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Gall, P-D.; Gamp, A.; Gössel, A.; Graber, J.; Hubert, D.; Hüning, M.; Juillard, M.; Junquera, T.; Kaiser, H.; Kreps, G.; Kuchnir, M.; Lange, R.; Leenen, M.; Liepe, M.; Lilje, L.; Matheisen, A.; Möller, W-D.; Mosnier, A.; Padamsee, H.; Pagani, C.; Pekeler, M.; Peters, H-B.; Peters, O.; Proch, D.; Rehlich, K.; Reschke, D.; Safa, H.; Schilcher, T.; Schmüser, P.; Sekutowicz, J.; Simrock, S.; Singer, W.; Tigner, M.; Trines, D.; Twarowski, K.; Weichert, G.; Weisend, J.; Wojtkiewicz, J.; Wolff, S.; Zapfe, K.

    2000-01-01

    The conceptional design of the proposed linear electron-positron colliderTESLA is based on 9-cell 1.3 GHz superconducting niobium cavities with anaccelerating gradient of Eacc >= 25 MV/m at a quality factor Q0 > 5E+9. Thedesign goal for the cavities of the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) linac was set tothe more moderate value of Eacc >= 15 MV/m. In a first series of 27industrially produced TTF cavities the average gradient at Q0 = 5E+9 wasmeasured to be 20.1 +- 6.2 MV/m, excluding a few cavities suffering fromserious fabrication or material defects. In the second production of 24 TTFcavities additional quality control measures were introduced, in particular aneddy-current scan to eliminate niobium sheets with foreign material inclusionsand stringent prescriptions for carrying out the electron-beam welds. Theaverage gradient of these cavities at Q0 = 5E+9 amounts to 25.0 +- 3.2 MV/mwith the exception of one cavity suffering from a weld defect. Hence only amoderate improvement in production and preparation technique...

  15. Surface explosion cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Clanet, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We present a fluid dynamics video on cavities created by explosions of firecrackers at the water free surface. We use three types of firecrackers containing 1, 1.3 and 5 g of flash powder. The firecrackers are held with their center at the surface of water in a cubic meter pool. The movies are recorded from the side with a high-speed video camera. Without confinement the explosion produces an hemispherical cavity. Right after the explosion this cavity grows isotropically, the bottom then stops while the sides continue to expand. In the next phase the bottom of the cavity accelerates backwards to the surface. During this phase the convergence of the flow creates a central jet that rises above the free surface. In the last part of the video the explosion is confined in a vertical open tube made of glass and of centimetric diameter. The explosion creates a cylindrical cavity that develops towards the free end of the tube. Depending on the charge, the cavity can either stop inside the tube or at its exit, but nev...

  16. Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocker, Laurens J.L. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kliniek Sint-Jan Radiologie, Brussels (Belgium); Compter, A.; Kappelle, L.J.; Worp, H.B. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Luijten, P.R.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities are a newly recognised entity associated with atherothromboembolic cerebrovascular disease and worse physical functioning. We aimed to investigate the relationship of cerebellar cortical infarct cavities with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischaemia and with vascular risk factors. We evaluated the MR images of 46 patients with a recent vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke and a symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis ≥50 % from the Vertebral Artery Stenting Trial (VAST) for the presence of cerebellar cortical infarct cavities ≤1.5 cm. At inclusion in VAST, data were obtained on age, sex, history of vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke, and vascular risk factors. Adjusted risk ratios were calculated with Poisson regression analyses for the relation between cerebellar cortical infarct cavities and vascular risk factors. Sixteen out of 46 (35 %) patients showed cerebellar cortical infarct cavities on the initial MRI, and only one of these 16 patients was known with a previous vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke. In patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischaemia, risk factor profiles of patients with cerebellar cortical infarct cavities were not different from patients without these cavities. Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities are seen on MRI in as much as one third of patients with recently symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis. Since patients usually have no prior history of vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke, cerebellar cortical infarct cavities should be added to the spectrum of common incidental brain infarcts visible on routine MRI. (orig.)

  17. Biomarkers of endometrial cancer and related gynaecological malignancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeber, L.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    In the Western World, endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC or Type I tumour), accounts for approximately 75% of cases. Type II tumours, of which uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is the most common subtype, are

  18. Histological changes in the endometrial of pregnant Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... gland morphogenesis in animals depleted of uterine glands. (Gray et al., 2001; Carpenter et al., 2003). The aims of the present study are to analyze the endometrial structure, to assess the perimeter of the gland as a novel parameter for morphometric evaluation of changes in the endometrial gland structure ...

  19. Endometrial sampling in infertility: the Ilorin, Nigeria, experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the diagnosis value of endometrium sampling in detecting endometrial pathology and presence or absence of ovulation in infertility patients. A retrospective study of endometrial tissues histopathological slides of infertility patients as recorded in the register of the department of Pathology, ...

  20. Advanced and Recurrent Endometrial Cancer; current concepts of treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H. van Wijk (Heidy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractEndometrial cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in Western Countries. In the United States approximately 39,000 cases will be diagnosed in 2007 and 7,400 deaths will occur. Women have a 2.6% lifetime risk of developing endometrial cancer and it accounts for 6% of all

  1. Biochemical evaluation of endometrial function at the time of implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Anette; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Ravn, Vibeke

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on various endometrial factors assumed to be of importance to implantation and to evaluate their potential clinical value in the assessment of endometrial function at the time of implantation in infertile women in natural and stimulated cycles. DESIGN: Literature...

  2. Molecular cues on obesity signals, tumor markers and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Brown, Danielle; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela M; Lee, Regina; Pattillo, Roland; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R

    2015-01-01

    Tumor markers are important tools for early diagnosis, prognosis, therapy response and endometrial cancer monitoring. A large number of molecular and pathologic markers have been described in types I and II endometrial cancers, which has served to define the main oncogenic, epidemiological, genetic, clinical and histopathological features. Ongoing attempts to stratify biological markers of endometrial cancer are presented. However, data on changes in tumor marker profiles in obesity-related endometrial cancer are scarce. Obesity is a pandemic in Western countries that has an important impact on endometrial cancers, albeit through not very well-defined mechanisms. Although endometrial cancer is more common in Caucasian women, higher mortality is found in African Americans who also show higher incidence of obesity. Here, we describe how obesity signals (estrogen, leptin, leptin induced-molecules, Notch; cytokines and growth factors) could affect endometrial cancer. Leptin signaling and its crosstalk may be associated to the more aggressive and poor prognosis type II endometrial cancer, which affects more postmenopausal and African-American women. In this regard, studies on expression of novel molecular markers (Notch, interleukin-1 and leptin crosstalk outcome) may provide essential clues for detection, prevention, treatment and prognosis.

  3. A 2-decade review of histopathological pattern of endometrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Endometrial biopsy is a commonly performed procedure with a wide range of possible histopathological diagnoses. Objective: To determine the clinical spectrum, frequency and age distribution of endometrial pathologies at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH), Maiduguri. Methods: This was a ...

  4. Human Endometrial CD98 Is Essential for Blastocyst Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Francisco; Simón, Carlos; Quiñonero, Alicia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; González-Muñoz, Elena; Burghardt, Hans; Cervero, Ana; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Palacín, Manuel; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular basis of embryonic implantation is of great clinical and biological relevance. Little is currently known about the adhesion receptors that determine endometrial receptivity for embryonic implantation in humans. Methods and Principal Findings Using two human endometrial cell lines characterized by low and high receptivity, we identified the membrane receptor CD98 as a novel molecule selectively and significantly associated with the receptive phenotype. In human endometrial samples, CD98 was the only molecule studied whose expression was restricted to the implantation window in human endometrial tissue. CD98 expression was restricted to the apical surface and included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains of primary endometrial epithelial cells, as demonstrated by the biochemical association between CD98 and tetraspanin CD9. CD98 expression was induced in vitro by treatment of primary endometrial epithelial cells with human chorionic gonadotropin, 17-β-estradiol, LIF or EGF. Endometrial overexpression of CD98 or tetraspanin CD9 greatly enhanced mouse blastocyst adhesion, while their siRNA-mediated depletion reduced the blastocyst adhesion rate. Conclusions These results indicate that CD98, a component of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, appears to be an important determinant of human endometrial receptivity during the implantation window. PMID:20976164

  5. Histopathological Patterns of Endometrial Lesions in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological Patterns of Endometrial Lesions in Patients with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding in a Cosmopolitan Population. ... Background: Endometrial diseases ranked among the most common gynecological disorders that aff ect women globally. These diseases cut across all age groups and contribute signifi cantly to ...

  6. Isolation and characterization of endometrial luminal epithelial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and characterization of endometrial luminal epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. ... Endometrial lining were digested in trypsin, collagenase and bovine serum albumin dissolved in Hanks balanced solution. The cells were seeded into a 24-well plate at a concentration of 5 × 105 per well, while some were snap ...

  7. Human endometrial CD98 is essential for blastocyst adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Domínguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular basis of embryonic implantation is of great clinical and biological relevance. Little is currently known about the adhesion receptors that determine endometrial receptivity for embryonic implantation in humans. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using two human endometrial cell lines characterized by low and high receptivity, we identified the membrane receptor CD98 as a novel molecule selectively and significantly associated with the receptive phenotype. In human endometrial samples, CD98 was the only molecule studied whose expression was restricted to the implantation window in human endometrial tissue. CD98 expression was restricted to the apical surface and included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains of primary endometrial epithelial cells, as demonstrated by the biochemical association between CD98 and tetraspanin CD9. CD98 expression was induced in vitro by treatment of primary endometrial epithelial cells with human chorionic gonadotropin, 17-β-estradiol, LIF or EGF. Endometrial overexpression of CD98 or tetraspanin CD9 greatly enhanced mouse blastocyst adhesion, while their siRNA-mediated depletion reduced the blastocyst adhesion rate. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that CD98, a component of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, appears to be an important determinant of human endometrial receptivity during the implantation window.

  8. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    Little data exist on the expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-Rs) in human endometrial cancer. EGF-R status was studied in 65 patients with endometrial carcinomas and in 26 women with nonmalignant postmenopausal endometria, either inactive/atrophic endometrium or adenomatous...

  9. Hypoxia and cell cycle deregulation in endometrial carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horrée, N.

    2007-01-01

    Because uterine endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract and 1 of every 5 patients dies of this disease, understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and progression of endometrial carcinoma is important. In general, this thesis can be summarized as a study

  10. An endometrial histomorphometric study of CD56 + natural killer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The number of peripheral blood and endometrial natural killer cells varies greatly during implantation and the first trimester of pregnancy and is thought to play a role in the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy. However, the role of endometrial CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells as an immunological mechanism in ...

  11. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17β-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  12. Endometrial safety of ultra-low-dose estradiol vaginal tablets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, James; Nachtigall, Lila; Ulrich, Lian G

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.......To evaluate the endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma rate after 52-week treatment with ultra-low-dose 10-microgram 17ß-estradiol vaginal tablets in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy....

  13. Molecular cues on obesity signals, tumor markers and endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Brown, Danielle; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela M.; Lee, Regina; Pattillo, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Tumor markers are important tools for early diagnosis, prognosis, therapy response and endometrial cancer monitoring. A large number of molecular and pathologic markers have been described in types I and II endometrial cancers, which has served to define the main oncogenic, epidemiological, genetic, clinical and histopathological features. Ongoing attempts to stratify biological markers of endometrial cancer are presented. However, data on changes in tumor marker profiles in obesity-related endometrial cancer are scarce. Obesity is a pandemic in Western countries that has an important impact on endometrial cancers, albeit through not very well-defined mechanisms. Although endometrial cancer is more common in Caucasian women, higher mortality is found in African Americans who also show higher incidence of obesity. Here, we describe how obesity signals (estrogen, leptin, leptin induced-molecules, Notch; cytokines and growth factors) could affect endometrial cancer. Leptin signaling and its crosstalk may be associated to the more aggressive and poor prognosis type II endometrial cancer, which affects more postmenopausal and African-American women. In this regard, studies on expression of novel molecular markers (Notch, interleukin-1 and leptin crosstalk outcome) may provide essential clues for detection, prevention, treatment and prognosis. PMID:25781554

  14. Obesity and age at diagnosis of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevadunsky, Nicole S; Van Arsdale, Anne; Strickler, Howard D; Moadel, Alyson; Kaur, Gurpreet; Levitt, Joshua; Girda, Eugenia; Goldfinger, Mendel; Goldberg, Gary L; Einstein, Mark H

    2014-08-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for development of endometrial cancer. We hypothesized that obesity might also be associated with an earlier age at endometrial cancer diagnosis, because mechanisms that drive the obesity-endometrial cancer association might also accelerate tumorigenesis. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed from 1999 to 2009 at a large medical center in New York City. The association of body mass index (BMI) with age at endometrial cancer diagnosis, comorbidities, stage, grade, and radiation treatment was examined using analysis of variance and linear regression. Overall survival by BMI category was assessed using Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. A total of 985 cases of endometrial cancer were identified. The mean age at endometrial cancer diagnosis was 67.1 years (±11.9 standard deviation) in women with a normal BMI, whereas it was 56.3 years (±10.3 standard deviation) in women with a BMI greater than 50. Age at diagnosis of endometrioid-type cancer decreased linearly with increasing BMI (y=67.89-1.86x, R=0.049, Page of nonendometrioid cancers was not found (P=.12). There were no differences in overall survival by BMI category. Obesity is associated with earlier age at diagnosis of endometrioid-type endometrial cancers. Similar associations were not, however, observed with nonendometrioid cancers, consistent with different pathways of tumorigenesis. II.

  15. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilu Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE+ and without luminal epithelium (LE− were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP+ donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP− wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE− fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE+ fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE+ lesions compared with LE− lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP+ microvessels grew outside the LE− lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  16. Efficacy of Foley's Catheter and the Effect of Histopathology, Age and Endometrial Thickness Relative to the Measured Outcomes in Menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadia, Zaheera; Farrukh, Robina; Rasool, Madiha Ghulam

    2017-07-01

    Menorrhagia adversely affects the quality of life. Hysterectomy is the definitive treatment for menorrhagia however, a number of conservative alternatives are available. Hysterectomy is the definitive treatment for menorrhagia however, a number of conservative alternatives are available. A thermal balloon is an effective but costly option. We used a Foley's catheter as an alternative to commercially available thermal balloons. If effective, it will provide a cheap alternative to the thermal balloon. A Foley's catheter was placed in the uterine cavity for 10 minutes using 0.9% saline. The measured outcomes were amenorrhea, eumenorrhea, oligomenorrhea or failure of the therapy. Endometrial thickness, age and endometrial biopsy results were also measured to determine if these variables had any effects on the outcome. Out of the total 42 participants, nearly half had amenorrhea (42.9%, n=18). Furthermore, 28.6% had oligomenorrhea (n=12) and 26.2% experienced eumenorrhea (n=11). Only one participant failed to respond (2.4%, n=1). There were no differences in outcomes between the different forms of histopathology. This means that thermal balloon therapy is effective in causing amenorrhea. No significant relationships existed between participants' measured outcomes and a model containing predictor variables (age and endometrial thickness), R=0.313, R2=0.098, p=0.141. A Foley's catheter is effective with reasonable measured outcomes in cases of menorrhagia.

  17. Endometrial blood flow measured by xenon 133 clearance in women with normal menstrual cycles and dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, I.S.; McCarron, G.; Hutton, B.; Macey, D.

    1987-01-01

    Endometrial blood flow was measured through the menstrual cycle in nonpregnant women (28 studies of 17 women with normal menstrual cycles and 32 studies of 20 women with dysfunctional uterine bleeding) with use of a clearance technique in which 100 to 400 microCi of the gamma-emitting isotope, xenon 133 in saline solution was instilled into the uterine cavity. The mean (+/- SEM) endometrial blood flow in normal cycles was 27.7 +/- 2.6 ml/100 gm/min, with a significant elevation in the middle to late follicular phase, followed by a substantial fall and a secondary slow luteal phase rise that was maintained until the onset of menstruation. There was a significant correlation between plasma estradiol levels and endometrial blood flow in the follicular but not the luteal phase. Blood flow patterns in women with ovulatory dysfunctional bleeding were similar to normal, except for a significantly lower middle follicular rate. Women with anovulatory dysfunctional bleeding exhibited exceedingly variable flow rates.

  18. Endometrial cancer and obesity: epidemiology, biomarkers, prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Amanda Nickles; Arriba, Lucybeth Nieves; Frasure, Heidi E; von Gruenigen, Vivian E

    2009-07-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the Western world and is strongly associated with obesity. Despite the fact that most cases are diagnosed in early, more favorable stages, endometrial cancer incidence and mortality rates are on the rise. Morbidly obese women with endometrial cancer are more likely to die of their co-morbidities and also of their cancers when compared to their leaner cohorts. Given the increasing rates of morbid obesity in the United States, it is essential to develop appropriate screening tools and guidelines to reduce cancer morbidity and death amongst this group. Through an analysis of the existing literature, we present a review of the epidemiologic trends in obesity and endometrial cancer, discuss the promising role of screening biomarker studies, review prevention efforts and modifiable risk factors, and ways in which health outcomes and quality of life for endometrial cancer survivors may be optimized.

  19. Vaginal cuff brachytherapy in endometrial cancer - a technically easy treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Sebastià; Andres, Ignacio; Lopez-Honrubia, Veronica; Berenguer, Roberto; Sevillano, Marimar; Jimenez-Jimenez, Esther; Rovirosa, Angeles; Arenas, Meritxell

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological cancers among women in the developed countries. Vaginal cuff is the main location of relapses after a curative surgical procedure and postoperative radiation therapy have proven to diminish it. Nevertheless, these results have not translated into better survival results. The preeminent place of vaginal cuff brachytherapy (VCB) in the postoperative treatment of high- to intermediate-risk EC was given by the PORTEC-2 trial, which demonstrated a similar reduction in relapses with VCB than with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), but VCB induced less late toxicity. As a result of this trial, the use of VCB has increased in clinical practice at the expense of EBRT. A majority of the clinical reviews of VCB usually address the risk categories and patient selection but pay little attention to technical aspects of the VCB procedure. Our review aimed to address both aspects. First of all, we described the risk groups, which guide patient selection for VCB in clinical practice. Then, we depicted several technical aspects that might influence dose deposition and toxicity. Bladder distension and rectal distension as well as applicator position or patient position are some of those variables that we reviewed.

  20. Glycodelin in endometrial flushing fluid and endometrial biopsies from infertile and fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Lindhard, Anette; Skovlund, Vibeke Ravn

    2011-01-01

    To investigate in the natural cycle just before IVF, whether glycodelin levels in endometrial flushing fluid obtained days LH+1 and LH+7 can be used in predicting pregnancy in the following IVF cycle, and whether there are differences in women with tubal factor infertility compared to women...

  1. Validation of REM score to predict endometrial cancer in patients with ultrasound endometrial abnormalities: results of a new independent dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotti, Francesco; Capriglione, Stella; Terranova, Corrado; Montera, Roberto; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Lopez, Salvatore; Luvero, Daniela; Gianina, Antonelli; Aloisi, Alessia; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Angioli, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    The risk of endometrial malignancy (REM) score is a model formulated in a previous single-center validation study, which has been shown to predict endometrial cancer in women with ultrasound endometrial abnormalities based on multiple features (clinical, ultrasound and laboratorial). The purpose of this study was to validate the performance of REM score in an external validation setting. A population-based database with patients, who underwent elective hysteroscopy for ultrasound endometrial abnormalities between 2013 and 2016 at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Campus Bio-medico of Rome, was used. Starting from January 2013 to June 2016, 330 patients were enrolled for hysteroscopy. Thirty-two patients were excluded due to Asherman syndrome or cervical stenosis. Therefore, a total of 298 patients were considered for the analysis. Based on pathologic examination, 102 patients were found to have endometrial cancer, and 196 had benign endometrial disease. Using the predefined cutoff of 0.3185, identified in the previous publication, in this independent cohort of patients we correctly classified 93/102 patients with endometrial cancer and 187/196 with benign disease, reporting an overall sensitivity and specificity of 93.9 and 95.4% (PPV = 0.91, NPV = 0.95), respectively. REM score showed a high positive predictive value for endometrial cancer prediction. However, before REM score can be applied in daily clinical practice, data from randomized controlled trials are needed.

  2. The additional value of endometrial sampling in the early detection of endometrial cancer in women with Lynch syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder-Woolderink, J. M.; De Bock, G. H.; Sijmons, R. H.; Hollema, H.; Mourits, M. J. E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Based on previous studies, standard gynecological screening consisting of annual transvaginal ultrasonography (TVU) was added with endometrial sampling in women with Lynch syndrome (LS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the additional value of endometrial sampling in detecting

  3. Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Anthony; Johnson, Nick; Kitchener, Henry C; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 2, 2007. The role of radiotherapy (both pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and vaginal intracavity brachytherapy (VBT)) in stage I endometrial cancer following hysterectomy remains controversial. Objectives To assess the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Specialised Register to end-2005 for the original review, and extended the search to January 2012 for the update. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared post-operative adjuvant radiotherapy (either EBRTor VBT, or both) versus no radiotherapy or VBT in women with stage I endometrial cancer. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials and extracted data to a specifically designed data collection form. The primary outcome was overall survival. Secondary outcomes were endometrial cancer-related deaths, locoregional recurrence and distant recurrence. Meta-analyses were performed using Cochrane Review Manager Software 5.1. Main results We included eight trials. Seven trials (3628 women) compared EBRT with no EBRT (or VBT), and one trial (645 women) compared VBTwith no additional treatment. We considered six of the eight trials to be of a high quality. Time-to-event data were not available for all trials and all outcomes. EBRT (with or without VBT) compared with no EBRT (or VBT alone) for stage I endometrial carcinoma significantly reduced locoregional recurrence (time-to-event data: five trials, 2965 women; Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.36, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.25 to 0.52; and dichotomous data: seven trials, 3628 women; Risk Ratio (RR) 0.33, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.47). This reduced risk of locoregional recurrence did not translate into improved overall survival (time-to-event data: five trials, 2

  4. Aspirin use and endometrial cancer risk and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Blake, Erin A; Matsuo, Koji; Sood, Anil K; Brasky, Theodore M

    2018-01-01

    The role of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) as a chemo-preventive and adjuvant therapeutic agent for cancers is generating attention. Mounting evidence indicates that aspirin reduces the incidence and mortality of certain obesity-related cancers, particularly colorectal cancer. In endometrial cancer, previous studies examining the effect of aspirin remain inconsistent as to the reduction in the risk of endometrial cancer. While some evidence indicates protective effects in obese women, other studies have showed a potential deleterious effect of these medications on endometrial cancer outcomes. However, exposure measurement across studies has been inconsistent in recording dose, duration, and frequency of use; thus making comparisons difficult. In this article, we review the evidence for the association between endometrial cancer and obesity, the pharmacological differences between regular- and low-dose aspirin, as well as the potential anti-tumor mechanism of aspirin, supporting a possible therapeutic effect on endometrial cancer. A proposed mechanism behind decreased cancer mortality in endometrial cancer may be a result of inhibition of metastasis via platelet inactivation and possible prostaglandin E 2 suppression by aspirin. Additionally, aspirin use in particular may have a secondary benefit for obesity-related comorbidities including cardiovascular disease in women with endometrial cancer. Although aspirin-related bleeding needs to be considered as a possible adverse effect, the benefits of aspirin therapy may exceed the potential risk in women with endometrial cancer. The current evidence reviewed herein has resulted in conflicting findings regarding the potential effect on endometrial cancer outcomes, thus indicating that future studies in this area are needed to resolve the effects of aspirin on endometrial cancer survival, particularly to identify specific populations that might benefit from aspirin use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of Adhesion, Proliferation, and Invasion of Primary Endometriosis and Endometrial Stromal and Ovarian Carcinoma Cells by a Nonhyaluronan Adhesion Barrier Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan P. Renner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a chronic disease of women in the reproductive age, defined as endometrial cells growing outside of the uterine cavity and associated with relapses. Relapses are hypothesized to correlate with incomplete surgical excision or result from nonrandom implantation of new endometrial implants in adjacent peritoneum. Thus, surgical excision could lead to free endometriotic cells or tissue residues, which readhere, grow, and invade into recurrent lesions. Barrier agents are frequently used to prevent postoperative adhesions. We tested if the absorbable cell adhesion barrier gel Intercoat consisting of polyethylene oxide and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose could inhibit cellular adhesion, proliferation, and invasion of primary endometriosis and endometrial cells. Due to an association of endometriosis with ovarian carcinoma, we tested two ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Prior to cell seeding, a drop of the barrier gel was placed in cell culture wells in order to test inhibition of adherence and proliferation or coated over a polymerized collagen gel to assay for prevention of invasion. Results showed that the barrier gel significantly inhibited cell adherence, proliferation, and invasion of endometriosis and endometrial stromal cells as well as ovarian carcinoma cells in culture. Our findings could help to prevent local cell growth/invasion and possible consequent recurrences.

  6. Inhibition of adhesion, proliferation, and invasion of primary endometriosis and endometrial stromal and ovarian carcinoma cells by a nonhyaluronan adhesion barrier gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Stefan P; Strissel, Pamela L; Beckmann, Matthias W; Lermann, Johannes; Burghaus, Stefanie; Hackl, Janina; Fasching, Peter A; Strick, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease of women in the reproductive age, defined as endometrial cells growing outside of the uterine cavity and associated with relapses. Relapses are hypothesized to correlate with incomplete surgical excision or result from nonrandom implantation of new endometrial implants in adjacent peritoneum. Thus, surgical excision could lead to free endometriotic cells or tissue residues, which readhere, grow, and invade into recurrent lesions. Barrier agents are frequently used to prevent postoperative adhesions. We tested if the absorbable cell adhesion barrier gel Intercoat consisting of polyethylene oxide and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose could inhibit cellular adhesion, proliferation, and invasion of primary endometriosis and endometrial cells. Due to an association of endometriosis with ovarian carcinoma, we tested two ovarian carcinoma cell lines. Prior to cell seeding, a drop of the barrier gel was placed in cell culture wells in order to test inhibition of adherence and proliferation or coated over a polymerized collagen gel to assay for prevention of invasion. Results showed that the barrier gel significantly inhibited cell adherence, proliferation, and invasion of endometriosis and endometrial stromal cells as well as ovarian carcinoma cells in culture. Our findings could help to prevent local cell growth/invasion and possible consequent recurrences.

  7. Obesity and prognosis in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B; Connor, J P; Andrews, J I; Davis, C S; Buller, R E; Sorosky, J I; Benda, J A

    1996-04-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that morbid obesity as measured by the Quetelet index has no influence on survival in endometrial cancer. A retrospective study of 492 women with endometrial carcinoma was performed. Age, height, weight, Quetelet index, stage, cell type, grade, node status, peritoneal cytologic findings, and depth of myometrial invasion were analyzed for influence on survival. Mean Quetelet index was 34 (range 16 to 89). Quetelet index was 40 in 22%. Five percent of those with a Quetelet index > 40 had positive nodes, but 64% of patients with a Quetelet index > 40 did not have lymph node sampling done. Lack of sampling of lymph nodes in the entire group had no adverse effect on survival. In a proportional hazards regression model for time from diagnosis to death from disease, grade, node status, myometrial invasion, and stage had highly significant effects. When Quetelet index was analyzed as a continuous variable, as Quetelet index increased, time to recurrence was significantly increased (p = 0.0136), and significance was approached for survival (p = 0.0645). Quetelet index was strongly related to grade (p = 0.013), depth of myometrial invasion (p = 0.031), negative cytologic findings (p = 0.004), and stage (p = 0.011) with obese patients having better differentiated, less invasive tumors of lower stage with negative washings. Morbid obesity positively affects survival in endometrial carcinoma. This effect is accounted for by the association of obesity with less aggressive disease. Morbid obesity is not associated with increased death from other causes. Lack of sampling of negative lymph nodes does not adversely affect survival.

  8. Laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennich, Gitte; Rudnicki, Martin; Lassen, Pernille D

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate learning curves and short-term outcomes following laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer in women of different body mass index (BMI) classes. Data from 227 women planned for laparoscopic surgery for presumed stage I endometrial cancer were collected retrospectively from a Danish gynecologic oncology unit. Surgery included laparoscopic hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLA). Median length of operations was 60 min (range, 30-197) and 120 min (range, 60-230), depending on whether PLA was included. The median pelvic lymph node yield was 18 (range, 7-42). For staging with PLA there was a learning curve when measured as operative time as well as lymph node yield, and a level of proficiency was not reached after 40 operations. The women had a perioperative complication rate of 4.5% and a median hospital stay of one night. Postoperative complication rate was 12%, comprising vaginal cuff hematoma (3.1%), vaginal cuff rupture (0.9%), trocar hernia (1.3%), ureter lesion (0.4%), bowel lesion (0.4%), reoperation (0.9%) and other complications (4.5%). All peri- and postoperative outcomes were independent of BMI classes. Our data suggest that laparoscopic surgery for early endometrial cancer is feasible and safe. With increasing surgeon's experience there is a significant decrease in operative time and increase in the number of lymph nodes harvested. In experienced hands, either operative time, complications or length of stay are not affected by increasing BMI, even when women are morbidly obese. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Management of elderly women with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggemann, Holm; Ignatov, Tanja; Burger, Elke; Costa, Serban Dan; Ignatov, Atanas

    2017-09-01

    Elderly women with endometrial cancer receive less therapy in comparison with their younger counterparts. The exact reason(s) for this treatment strategy remains unclear. We performed a multicenter, retrospective registry-based study of 1550 patients with endometrial cancer. The outcome measure was the reason for not performing the indicated treatment. Median follow-up was 76.8months. A total of 1550 women were eligible for analysis: 353 (22.7%) were younger than 60years, 521 (33.6%) 61-70years, 515 (33.2%) 71-80years, and 161 (10.4%) were aged 81years old and older. Elderly women were more likely to have non-endometrioid, undifferentiated endometrial cancer at an advanced stage. Patients younger than 60years were more likely to receive lymphadenectomy, brachytherapy, external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and systemic therapy compared with the group of patients aged older than 70years. We investigated the reason why elderly women were undertreated. The rate of indicated therapies that were not recommended by the physicians proportionally increased with an increase in patient age. Interestingly, the rate of contraindications because of performance status and/or medical disease also increased proportionally with increasing patient age. Notably, in the groups of patients older than 70years, patient refusal was a very uncommon reason for failure to perform the indicated therapy. Elderly women with EC are more likely undertreated because the therapy was not recommended by the physicians based on performance status and medical diseases rather than patient refusal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels and metalloproteinase 2 and 9 activation by Hexachlorobenzene in human endometrial stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Florencia; Bastón, Juan Ignacio; Vaccarezza, Agustina; Singla, José Javier; Pontillo, Carolina; Miret, Noelia; Farina, Mariana; Meresman, Gabriela; Randi, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an organochlorine pesticide that induces toxic reproductive effects in laboratory animals. It is a dioxin-like compound and a weak ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity. Experimental studies indicate that exposure to organochlorines can interfere with both hormonal regulation and immune function to promote endometriosis. Altered expression of metalloproteinases (MMPs) in patients with endometriosis, suggests that MMPs may play a critical role. In the endometriotic lesions, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) produced by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), binds to its EP4 receptor (EP4), and via c-Src kinase induces MMPs activation, promoting endometriosis. We examined the HCB action on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and expression, COX-2 levels, PGE2 signaling, and the AhR involvement in HCB-induced effects. We have used different in vitro models: (1) human endometrial stromal cell line T-HESC, (2) primary cultures of Human Uterine Fibroblast (HUF), and (3) primary cultures of endometrial stromal cells from eutopic endometrium of control (CESC) and subjects with endometriosis (EESC). Our results show that HCB enhances MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in T-HESC, HUF and ESC cells. The MMP-9 levels were elevated in all models, while the MMP-2 expression only increased in ESC cells. HCB enhanced COX-2 and EP4 expression, PGE2 secretion and the c-Src kinase activation in T-HESC. Besides, we observed that AhR is implicated in these HCB-induced effects. In conclusion, our results show that HCB exposure could contribute to endometriosis development, affecting inflammation and invasion parameters of human endometrial cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Late-onset endometrial ablation failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Wortman

    2017-07-01

    While the short term safety and efficacy of these devices has been reported in numerous clinical trials we only recently are becoming aware of the high incidence of late-onset endometrial ablation failures (LOEAFs associated with these procedures. Currently, about a quarter of women who undergo a GEA procedure will eventually require a hysterectomy while an unknown number have less than satisfactory results. In order to reduce these suboptimal outcomes physicians must better understand the etiology and risk factors that predispose a patient toward the development of LOEAF as well as current knowledge of patient and procedure selection for EA as well as treatment options for these delayed complications.

  12. Experimental investigation of cavity flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeland, Tore

    1998-12-31

    This thesis uses LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and Laser Sheet flow Visualisation to study flow inside three different cavity configurations. For sloping cavities, the vortex structure inside the cavities is found to depend upon the flow direction past the cavity. The shape of the downstream corner is a key factor in destroying the boundary layer flow entering the cavity. The experimental results agree well with numerical simulations of the same geometrical configurations. The results of the investigations are used to find the influence of the cavity flow on the accuracy of the ultrasonic flowmeter. A method to compensate for the cavity velocities is suggested. It is found that the relative deviation caused by the cavity velocities depend linearly on the pipe flow. It appears that the flow inside the cavities should not be neglected as done in the draft for the ISO technical report on ultrasonic flowmeters. 58 refs., 147 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Association between visceral fat, IL-8 and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortea, Razvan; Mihu, Dan; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    In endometrial cancer, visceral obesity, as a risk factor, is associated with a chronic inflammatory process, confirmed by the elevation of serum inflammatory markers in obese patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between visceral fat, assessed by ultrasonography, and the systemic levels of interleukin (IL)-8 in patients with endometrial cancer. This study also evaluated the usefulness of abdominal ultrasonography in assessing the visceral fat correlated with systemic inflammatory status, as an alternative method to identify patients at risk of endometrial cancer. The study was a case-control analysis including two groups of patients: Group I: 44 patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer; group II: 44 patients with no gynecological pathology. The diagnosis of endometrial cancer was performed following histopathological examination that evaluated the tissue material obtained through endometrial biopsy. These patients underwent ultrasound examination by which intraperitoneal fat was determined. IL-8 levels were determined for each patient. The Student's t-test was used for the comparison of the means and the Mann-Whitney test for rank comparison of two independent samples. In patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer, the visceral fat area evaluated by ultrasound was significantly larger (pendometrial cancer group were significantly elevated (pendometrial cancer.

  14. Carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer: involvement of genetics and epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Kouji; Yanokura, Megumi; Iida, Miho; Masuda, Kenta; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    Endometrial cancer is increasing worldwide and the number of patients with this disease is likely to continue to grow, including younger patients. Many endometrial cancers show estrogen-dependent proliferation, but the carcinogenic mechanisms are unknown or not completely explained beyond mutations of single oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Possible carcinogenic mechanisms include imbalance between endometrial proliferation by unopposed estrogen and the mismatch repair (MMR) system; hypermethylation of the MMR gene hMLH1; mutation of PTEN, β-catenin and K-ras genes in type I endometrial cancer and of HER-2/neu and p53 genes in type II endometrial cancer; hypermethylation of SPRY2, RASSF1A, RSK4, CHFR and CDH1; and methylation of tumor suppressor microRNAs, including miR-124, miR-126, miR-137, miR-491, miR-129-2 and miR-152. Thus, it is likely that the carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer involve both genetic and epigenetic changes. Mutations and methylation of MMR genes induce various oncogenic changes that cause carcinogenesis, and both MMR mutation in germ cells and methylation patterns may be inherited over generations and cause familial tumorigenesis. Determination of the detailed carcinogenic mechanisms will be useful for prevention and diagnosis of endometrial cancer, risk assessment, and development of new treatment strategies targeting MMR genes. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M; Olson, Sara H; Risch, Harvey A; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10-5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk.

  16. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  17. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    See photo 8302397: View from the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138. Giacomo Primadei stands on the left.

  18. Cavities/Tooth Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharp pain when eating or drinking something sweet, hot or cold Visible holes or pits in your teeth Brown, black or white staining on any surface of a tooth Pain when you bite down When to see a dentist You may not be aware that a cavity is forming. That's why it's important to have regular dental ...

  19. Niobium superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.

  20. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  1. LEP superconducting cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.

  2. Obesity-associated endometrial and cervical cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenyi; Chen, Chen; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that obesity (body mass index-BMI>30) and overweight (BMI>25) directly associated with risk of many cancers. The association of obesity with cancer risks may be explained by the alterations in the metabolism of endogenous hormones, production of specific proteins and cytokines, adipose related inflammatory reactions, and genetic factors. This review aims to illustrate the link between obesity and occurrence and prognosis of endometrial and cervical cancers. Convincing scientific evidence shows that nutrition and lifestyle factors initiate the development of obesity with excessive adipose tissues, which trigger production of hormones, cytokines and other factors to promote growth of cancer cells. Obese women with either endometrial or cervical cancer, especially in postmenopausal period, have shown a significantly higher mortality. This is mainly due to that the obese women are more vulnerable in cancer occurrence and they are more likely to miss routine cancer screening, putting them at a greater risk for delayed diagnosis of these cancers and deteriorate prognosis. Thus, healthcare providers should pay particular attention to this more vulnerable group of women.

  3. Contemporary Clinical Management of Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen E. Dinkelspiel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the contemporary management of endometrial cancer is straightforward in many ways, novel data has emerged over the past decade that has altered the clinical standards of care while generating new controversies that will require further investigation. Fortunately most cases are diagnosed at early stages, but high-risk histologies and poorly differentiated tumors have high metastatic potential with a significantly worse prognosis. Initial management typically requires surgery, but the role and extent of lymphadenectomy are debated especially with well-differentiated tumors. With the changes in surgical staging, prognosis correlates more closely with stage, and the importance of cytology has been questioned and is under evaluation. The roles of radiation in intermediate-risk patients and chemotherapy in high-risk patients are emerging. The therapeutic index of brachytherapy needs to be considered, and the best sequencing of combined modalities needs to balance efficacy and toxicities. Additionally novel targeted therapies show promise, and further studies are needed to determine the appropriate use of these new agents. Management of endometrial cancer will continue to evolve as clinical trials continue to answer unsolved clinical questions.

  4. Adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaal, Khadra; Al Moundhri, Mansour; Bryant, Andrew; Lopes, Alberto D; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2014-05-15

    Approximately 13% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer present with advanced stage disease (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage III/IV). The standard treatment of advanced endometrial cancer consists of cytoreductive surgery followed by radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, or both. There is currently little agreement about which adjuvant treatment is the safest and most effective. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adjuvant chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy or chemoradiation, and to determine which chemotherapy agents are most effective in women presenting with advanced endometrial cancer (FIGO stage III/IV). We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Collaborative Review Group's Trial Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 10 2013), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to November 2013. Also we searched electronic clinical trial registries for ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adjuvant chemotherapy compared with radiotherapy or chemoradiation in women with FIGO stage III and IV endometrial cancer. Two review authors selected trials, extracted data, and assessed trials for risk of bias. Where necessary, we contacted trial investigators for relevant, unpublished data. We pooled data using the random-effects model in Review Manager (RevMan) software. We included four multicentre RCTs involving 1269 women with primary FIGO stage III/IV endometrial cancer. We considered the trials to be at low to moderate risk of bias. All participants received primary cytoreductive surgery. Two trials, evaluating 620 women (83% stage III, 17% stage IV), compared adjuvant chemotherapy with adjuvant radiotherapy; one trial evaluating 552 women (88% stage III, 12% stage IV) compared two chemotherapy regimens (cisplatin/doxorubicin/paclitaxel (CDP) versus cisplatin/doxorubicin (CD) treatment) in women who had all undergone adjuvant radiotherapy; and one trial contributed no data

  5. Contemporary Clinical Management of Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelspiel, Helen E.; Wright, Jason D.; Lewin, Sharyn N.; Herzog, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Although the contemporary management of endometrial cancer is straightforward in many ways, novel data has emerged over the past decade that has altered the clinical standards of care while generating new controversies that will require further investigation. Fortunately most cases are diagnosed at early stages, but high-risk histologies and poorly differentiated tumors have high metastatic potential with a significantly worse prognosis. Initial management typically requires surgery, but the role and extent of lymphadenectomy are debated especially with well-differentiated tumors. With the changes in surgical staging, prognosis correlates more closely with stage, and the importance of cytology has been questioned and is under evaluation. The roles of radiation in intermediate-risk patients and chemotherapy in high-risk patients are emerging. The therapeutic index of brachytherapy needs to be considered, and the best sequencing of combined modalities needs to balance efficacy and toxicities. Additionally novel targeted therapies show promise, and further studies are needed to determine the appropriate use of these new agents. Management of endometrial cancer will continue to evolve as clinical trials continue to answer unsolved clinical questions. PMID:23864861

  6. Hypoxia and Angiogenesis in Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Horrée

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α plays an essential role in the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia, triggering biologic events associated with aggressive tumor behavior. Methods: Expression of HIF-1α and proteins in the HIF-1α pathway (Glut-1, CAIX, VEGF in paraffin-embedded specimens of normal (n = 17, premalignant (n = 17 and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (n = 39 was explored by immunohistochemistry, in relation to microvessel density (MVD. Results: HIF-1α overexpression was absent in inactive endometrium but present in hyperplasia (61% and carcinoma (87%, with increasing expression in a perinecrotic fashion pointing to underlying hypoxia. No membranous expression of Glut-1 and CAIX was noticed in inactive endometrium, in contrast with expression in hyperplasia (Glut-1 0%, CAIX 61%, only focal and diffuse and carcinoma (Glut-1 94.6%, CAIX 92%, both mostly perinecrotically. Diffuse HIF-1α was accompanied by activation of downstream targets. VEGF was significantly higher expressed in hyperplasias and carcinomas compared to inactive endometrium. MVD was higher in hyperplasias and carcinomas than in normal endometrium (p < 0.001. Conclusion: HIF-1α and its downstream genes are increasingly expressed from normal through premalignant to endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, paralleled by activation of its downstream genes and increased angiogenesis. This underlines the potential importance of hypoxia and its key regulator HIF-1α in endometrial carcinogenesis.

  7. Results of surgical treatment of atypical endometrial hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Gornykh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of surgical treatment in 132 patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia have been studied. Post-operative diagnosis was: en- dometrial cancer – in 19 %, atypical hyperplasia – in 35 %, simple and complex hyperplasia – in 33 %, only atrophic endometrial changes – in 13 % of patients. The tumor was within the endometrium in 5 patients, the superficial invasion of the myometrium (1–2 mm were in 8 patients, invasion to half of the myometrium – in 9 patients, invasion of more than half of the myometrium – in 3 patients. The questions of tactics of treatment of atypical endometrial hyperplasia is under discussion.

  8. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO consensus conference on endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Nicoletta; Creutzberg, Carien; Amant, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The first joint European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11-13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary...... panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared three clinically-relevant questions about endometrial cancer relating to the following four areas: Prevention and screening, surgery, adjuvant treatment and advanced and recurrent...

  9. The incidence of endometrial hyperplasia and cancer in 1031 patients with a granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: long-term follow-up in a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, Hannah S.; Bleeker, Maaike C. G.; van der Velden, Jacobus; Overbeek, Lucy I. H.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Buist, Marrije R.

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent presence of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer in patients with granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) is common, with reported incidences of 25.6% to 65.5%. Consequently, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and hysterectomy is usually recommended in patients with a GCT, but this remains debatable. Our

  10. Single cavity Fabry-Perot modulator enhancements and integrated vertically coupled cavity light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daxin

    Fabry-Perot modulators with Multi-Quantum Wells (MQWs) cavities have been studied with great interest during recent years. Usually operating as intensity modulators, these devices have very high modulation contrast ratios, can be operated at very high speed, can be easily made into two dimensional arrays and can be integrated with silicon ICs. They are thus very promising for optical interconnects, optical switching and image processing applications. But before these modulators are to be used in real applications, there are several issues that need to be solved, including the parasitic phase modulation, the bandwidth of such modulators and the alignment of modulator operation wavelength with the wavelength of lasers or light emitting diodes. In this work, the phase properties of Fabry-Perot reflection modulators will be discussed first and an experimental method using a modified Michelson interferometer to characterize the exact phase change will be demonstrated. It is demonstrated that the phase of the reflection light beam from a Fabry-Perot modulator is determined not only by the refractive index change inside the cavity but also by the absorption change inside the cavity. With the purpose of expanding the limited bandwidth of such modulator, devices with short passive cavities are designed and fabricated, the results are described and trade-offs between modulation depth and bandwidth will be discussed. In order to solve the problem of alignment and expand the functionality of Fabry-Perot modulators further, vertically coupled cavity devices with each cavity being electrically controlled independently have been developed. Both a coupled cavity modulator and an integrated light emitting diode with a transmission Fabry-Perot modulator are demonstrated; the first device enhances the modulation bandwidth while the second device has the potential of combining the advantage of high speed operation of MQWs modulators with the long lifetime and low cost of light

  11. Field stabilization of Alvarez-type cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Du

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Alvarez-type cavities are commonly used to reliably accelerate high quality hadron beams. Optimization of their longitudinal field homogeneity is usually accomplished by post-couplers, i.e., additional rods being integrated into the cavity. This paper instead proposes to use the stems that keep the drift tubes for that purpose. As their individual azimuthal orientations do not change the cavity’s undisturbed operational mode, they comprise a set of free parameters that can be used to modify higher mode field patterns. The latter have significant impact on the robustness of the operational mode with respect to eventual perturbations. Several optimized stem configurations are presented and benchmarked against each other. The path to obtain these configurations is paved analytically and worked out in detail through simulations. It is shown also by measurements that the method provides for flat field distributions and very low field tilt sensitivities without insertion of post-couplers.

  12. Endometrial stem/progenitor cells: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, Caroline E.; Schwab, Kjiana E.; Deane, James A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The existence of stem/progenitor cells in the endometrium was postulated many years ago, but the first functional evidence was only published in 2004. The identification of rare epithelial and stromal populations of clonogenic cells in human endometrium has opened an active area of research on endometrial stem/progenitor cells in the subsequent 10 years. METHODS The published literature was searched using the PubMed database with the search terms ‘endometrial stem cells and menstrual blood stem cells' until December 2014. RESULTS Endometrial epithelial stem/progenitor cells have been identified as clonogenic cells in human and as label-retaining or CD44+ cells in mouse endometrium, but their characterization has been modest. In contrast, endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been well characterized and show similar properties to bone marrow MSCs. Specific markers for their enrichment have been identified, CD146+PDGFRβ+ (platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta) and SUSD2+ (sushi domain containing-2), which detected their perivascular location and likely pericyte identity in endometrial basalis and functionalis vessels. Transcriptomics and secretomics of SUSD2+ cells confirm their perivascular phenotype. Stromal fibroblasts cultured from endometrial tissue or menstrual blood also have some MSC characteristics and demonstrate broad multilineage differentiation potential for mesodermal, endodermal and ectodermal lineages, indicating their plasticity. Side population (SP) cells are a mixed population, although predominantly vascular cells, which exhibit adult stem cell properties, including tissue reconstitution. There is some evidence that bone marrow cells contribute a small population of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. The discovery of specific markers for endometrial stem/progenitor cells has enabled the examination of their role in endometrial proliferative disorders, including endometriosis, adenomyosis and Asherman

  13. The influence of infertility treatment on the prognosis of endometrial cancer and atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Mari; Fujimoto, Akihisa; Osuga, Yutaka; Minaguchi, Takeo; Kawana, Kei; Yano, Tetsu; Kozuma, Shiro

    2013-02-01

    Many patients with endometrial cancer have no children when diagnosed, and thus are reluctant to undergo hysterectomy, hoping to preserve their fertility. Their requirement is met, at least partially, with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate that brings good response rate in the treatment of endometrial cancer in the early stage and atypical complex endometrial hyperplasia (EC/ACEH). Actually, a number of successful pregnancies after the conservative treatment have been reported. To conceive, many of them need infertility treatment because of ovulation disorders which might have induced the cancer with unopposed estrogens. However, on the other side, hyperestrogenic status caused by ovulation induction or controlled ovarian stimulation might promote the progression and the recurrence of the disease. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of infertility treatment after conservative therapy for EC/ACEH, to confirm the significance of fertility-sparing therapy. The patients with EC/ACEH who achieved complete response after high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate were eligible for this retrospective study. Characteristics of the patients, whether they underwent infertility treatment, conceived, or relapsed, and the interval from complete response to conception or recurrence were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical outcomes of 36 patients were investigated. Twenty-six of them desired to conceive soon after complete response. All of them underwent infertility treatment, and 16 women delivered healthy babies. Kaplan-Meyer curve and log-rank test analysis revealed that women who achieved live birth had a significantly lower risk of recurrence than those without live birth. There was not a significant difference between the patients with and without infertility treatment. Use of ovulation induction drugs after conservative treatment of endometrial cancer did not increase the recurrence of the disease. Moreover, resulting pregnancy seems to have an

  14. Changeability of Oral Cavity Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Surdacka, Anna; Strzyka?a, Krystyna; Rydzewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Objectives In dentistry, the results of in vivo studies on drugs, dental fillings or prostheses are routinely evaluated based on selected oral cavity environment parameters at specific time points. Such evaluation may be confounded by ongoing changes in the oral cavity environment induced by diet, drug use, stress and other factors. The study aimed to confirm oral cavity environment changeability. Methods 24 healthy individuals aged 20?30 had their oral cavity environment prepared by having p...

  15. Pure compared with mixed serous endometrial carcinoma: two different entities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, T.; Ham, M.A. van; Wiersma van Tilburg, J.M.; Zomer, S.F.; Bol, M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : To analyze whether mixed compared with pure uterine papillary serous carcinoma histology affects clinical outcome, and to assess uterine papillary serous carcinoma for its association with the precursor lesion endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma. METHODS: : A multi-institution

  16. Role of pelvic lymphadenectomy in stage 1A endometrial carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hossam Hassan Aly Hassan El Sokkary

    2013-10-31

    Oct 31, 2013 ... 1A endometrial carcinoma diagnosed preoperatively by pelvic ultrasonography and ... Endogenous risk factors include obesity, early menarche, ..... node resection in endometrioid corpus cancer: a study of 12,333 · patients.

  17. Primary low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the omentum

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Clair; Juliet Wolford; Sonia Veran-Taguibao; Grace Kim; Eskander, Ramez N.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights ? Extra-uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma may arise in endometriosis. ? Abdominal exploration for extra pelvic endometriosis is warranted. ? Representative endometriotic implants should be resected and/or biopsied if clinically suspicious.

  18. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and Mucocele of the Appendix: An Unusual Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kalogiannidis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendiceal mucocele is a rare clinical entity, which is however quite often associated with mucinous ovarian tumor. The coexistence of mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and endometrial adenocarcinoma has not been reported before. A 49-year-old woman presented to our clinic with postmenopausal bleeding and no other symptom. Endometrial biopsy revealed endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type (grade I. Preoperative CT scanning revealed an appendiceal mucocele, and a colonoscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and appendectomy. The final histopathological examination showed a mucinous cystadenoma of the appendix and confirmed the diagnosis of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. The coexistence of appendiceal mucocele and female genital tract pathology is rare. However, gynecologists should keep a high level of suspicion for such possible coexistence. Both the diagnostic approach and the therapeutic management should be multidisciplinary, most importantly with the involvement of general surgeons.

  19. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia: Case Report with Literature Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [8]. Roth and Taylor (1966) demonstrated the presence of acid mucopolysaccharides, thereby supporting the capability of mature endometrial stromal cells to undergo cartilaginous metaplasia in response to chronic inflammation or trauma. The.

  20. Endometrial cancer, types, prognosis, female hormones and antihormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G

    2011-01-01

    . Prognosis is also dependent on tumor differentiation and stage, and treatment should be adjusted accordingly. In this paper, the different types of endometrial cancer, staging, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and their relationship to estrogen and other female hormones are reviewed....

  1. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  2. Endometrial and acute myeloid leukemia cancer genomes characterized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program reveal details about the genomic landscapes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and endometrial cancer. Both provide new insights into the molecular underpinnings of these cancers.

  3. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...... in BMI during childhood was positively associated with endometrial cancer but no differences between the different growth periods were detected in models adjusted for baseline BMI. The hazard ratios for the associations with overall growth during childhood per 0.1 z-score increase were 1.15 (95...

  4. Progesterone receptor levels independently predict survival in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    1995-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) contents were determined by biochemical (dextran charcoal-coated (DCC) assay) and immunohistochemical (ICA) methods in biopsies from 145 primary endometrial adenocarcinomas and those with eligible receptor measurements were analyzed with respect...

  5. miR-200 Regulates Endometrial Development During Early Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainigi, Monica A.; Word, R. Ann; Kraus, W. Lee; Mendelson, Carole R.

    2016-01-01

    For successful embryo implantation, endometrial stromal cells must undergo functional and morphological changes, referred to as decidualization. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate implantation and decidualization are not well defined. Here we demonstrate that the estradiol- and progesterone-regulated microRNA (miR)-200 family was markedly down-regulated in mouse endometrial stromal cells prior to implantation, whereas zinc finger E-box binding homeobox-1 and -2 and other known and predicted targets were up-regulated. Conversely, miR-200 was up-regulated during in vitro decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. Knockdown of miR-200 negatively affected decidualization and prevented the mesenchymal-epithelial transition-like changes that accompanied decidual differentiation. Notably, superovulation of mice and humans altered miR-200 expression. Our findings suggest that hormonal alterations that accompany superovulation may negatively impact endometrial development and decidualization by causing aberrant miR-200 expression. PMID:27533790

  6. Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, T.; Geels, Y.P.; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Zomer, S.F.; Tilburg, J.M. van; Snijders, M.P.; Siebers, A.G.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and

  7. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Working with Your Treatment Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Uterine/Endometrial Cancer Working with Your Treatment Team Working with Your Treatment Team During your treatment, you will come in contact ... Factors Symptoms Medical Evaluation Your Cervical Cancer Diagnosis Working with your Treatment ... Staging Radiation Therapy Chemotherapy Cancer ...

  8. Optimization of photonic crystal cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole

    2017-01-01

    We present optimization of photonic crystal cavities. The optimization problem is formulated to maximize the Purcell factor of a photonic crystal cavity. Both topology optimization and air-hole-based shape optimization are utilized for the design process. Numerical results demonstrate...... that the Purcell factor of the photonic crystal cavity can be significantly improved through optimization....

  9. Accessory liver lobe in the left thoracic cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Serdar; Soylu, Lutfi

    2009-06-01

    Accessory liver of the thoracic cavity is usually asymptomatic, and its incidental detection is extremely rare. In this study, an unusual case of an accessory liver lobe of the thoracic cavity in a 26-year-old woman is described. A chest roentgenogram and thoracic computed tomographic scan revealed a mass in the left thoracic cavity. Left posterolateral thoracotomy was performed by removing a 10 x 8 x 5 cm(3) mass separated from lung. The arterial and venous supply of the mass originated from the abdomen. The diaphragm was found to be intact. The pathologist reported a normal hepatic tissue. This report presented a very rare occurrence of accessory liver in the thoracic cavity.

  10. Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor, alternative method of measuring cavity microphonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasz Plawski; G. Davis; Hai Dong; J. Hovater; John Musson; Thomas Powers

    2005-09-20

    As is well known, mechanical vibration or microphonics in a cryomodule causes the cavity resonance frequency to change at the vibration frequency. One way to measure the cavity microphonics is to drive the cavity with a Phase Locked Loop. Measurement of the instantaneous frequency or PLL error signal provides information about the cavity microphonic frequencies. Although the PLL error signal is available directly, precision frequency measurements require additional instrumentation, a Cavity Resonance Monitor (CRM). The analog version of such a device has been successfully used for several cavity tests [1]. In this paper we present a prototype of a Digital Cavity Resonance Monitor designed and built in the last year. The hardware of this instrument consists of an RF downconverter, digital quadrature demodulator and digital processor motherboard (Altera FPGA). The motherboard processes received data and computes frequency changes with a resolution of 0.2 Hz, with a 3 kHz output bandwidth.

  11. Biomarkers of endometrial cancer and related gynaecological malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Seeber, L.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    In the Western World, endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. Endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC or Type I tumour), accounts for approximately 75% of cases. Type II tumours, of which uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is the most common subtype, are less common. Since classification as EEC or UPSC has therapeutic and prognostic implications, it is important to make the proper diagnosis. UPSC share their aggressive clinical behaviour and their ...

  12. Inverse Relationship between Progesterone Receptor and Myc in Endometrial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Kavlashvili

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy, is a hormonally-regulated disease. Response to progestin therapy positively correlates with hormone receptor expression, in particular progesterone receptor (PR. However, many advanced tumors lose PR expression. We recently reported that the efficacy of progestin therapy can be significantly enhanced by combining progestin with epigenetic modulators, which we term "molecularly enhanced progestin therapy." What remained unclear was the mechanism of action and if estrogen receptor α (ERα, the principle inducer of PR, is necessary to restore functional expression of PR via molecularly enhanced progestin therapy. Therefore, we modeled advanced endometrial tumors that have lost both ERα and PR expression by generating ERα-null endometrial cancer cell lines. CRISPR-Cas9 technology was used to delete ERα at the genomic level. Our data demonstrate that treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi was sufficient to restore functional PR expression, even in cells devoid of ERα. Our studies also revealed that HDACi treatment results in marked downregulation of the oncogene Myc. We established that PR is a negative transcriptional regulator of Myc in endometrial cancer in the presence or absence of ERα, which is in contrast to studies in breast cancer cells. First, estrogen stimulation augmented PR expression and decreased Myc in endometrial cancer cell lines. Second, progesterone increased PR activity yet blunted Myc mRNA and protein expression. Finally, overexpression of PR by adenoviral transduction in ERα-null endometrial cancer cells significantly decreased expression of Myc and Myc-regulated genes. Analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA database of endometrial tumors identified an inverse correlation between PR and Myc mRNA levels, with a corresponding inverse correlation between PR and Myc downstream transcriptional targets SRD5A1, CDK2 and CCNB1. Together, these data

  13. Ornithine decarboxylase as a therapeutic target for endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Im Kim

    Full Text Available Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC a key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is often overexpressed in cancers and contributes to polyamine-induced cell proliferation. We noted ubiquitous expression of ODC1 in our published endometrial cancer gene array data and confirmed this in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA with highest expression in non-endometrioid, high grade, and copy number high cancers, which have the worst clinical outcomes. ODC1 expression was associated with worse overall survival and increased recurrence in three endometrial cancer gene expression datasets. Importantly, we confirmed these findings using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR in a validation cohort of 60 endometrial cancers and found that endometrial cancers with elevated ODC1 had significantly shorter recurrence-free intervals (KM log-rank p = 0.0312, Wald test p = 5.59e-05. Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO a specific inhibitor of ODC significantly reduced cell proliferation, cell viability, and colony formation in cell line models derived from undifferentiated, endometrioid, serous, carcinosarcoma (mixed mesodermal tumor; MMT and clear cell endometrial cancers. DFMO also significantly reduced human endometrial cancer ACI-98 tumor burden in mice compared to controls (p = 0.0023. ODC-regulated polyamines (putrescine [Put] and/or spermidine [Spd] known activators of cell proliferation were strongly decreased in response to DFMO, in both tumor tissue ([Put] (p = 0.0006, [Spd] (p<0.0001 and blood plasma ([Put] (p<0.0001, [Spd] (p = 0.0049 of treated mice. Our study indicates that some endometrial cancers appear particularly sensitive to DFMO and that the polyamine pathway in endometrial cancers in general and specifically those most likely to suffer adverse clinical outcomes could be targeted for effective treatment, chemoprevention or chemoprevention of recurrence.

  14. Colloquium: cavity optomechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Monday 14 November 2011, 17:00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Université de Genève Cavity optomechanics: controlling micro mechanical oscillators with laser light Prof. Tobias Kippenberg EPFL, Lausanne Laser light can be used to cool and to control trapped ions, atoms and molecules at the quantum level. This has lead to spectacular advances such as the most precise atomic clocks. An outstanding frontier is the control with lasers of nano- and micro-mechancial systems. Recent advances in cavity optomechanics have allowed such elementary control for the first time, enabling mechanical systems to be ground state cooled leading to readout with quantum limited sensitivity and permitting to explore new device concepts resulting from radiation pressure.  

  15. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-10-20

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  16. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  17. Transcript expression in endometrial cancers from Black and White patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G Larry; Allard, Jay; Gadisetti, Chandramouli V R; Litzi, Tracy; Casablanca, Yovanni; Chandran, Uma; Darcy, Kathleen M; Levine, Douglas A; Berchuck, Andrew; Hamilton, Chad A; Conrads, Thomas P; Risinger, John I

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that differences in molecular features of endometrial cancers between racial groups may contribute to the poorer survival in Blacks. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether gene expression among endometrial cancers is different between Blacks and Whites. Fresh frozen tumors from 25 Black patients were matched by stage, grade, and histology to endometrial cancer specimens from 25 White patients. Each case was macrodissected to produce specimens possessing a minimum of 75% cancer cellularity. A subset of 10 matched pairs was also prepared using laser microdissection (LMD) to produce specimens possessing a minimum of 95% cancer cells. Total RNA isolated from each sample was analyzed using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and binary class comparison analyses. Unsupervised analysis of the 50 endometrial cancers failed to identify global gene expression profiles unique to Black or White patients. In a subset analysis of 10 matched pairs from Blacks and Whites prepared using LMD and macrodissection, unsupervised analysis did not reveal a unique gene expression profile associated with race in either set, but associations were identified that relate to sample preparation technique, histology and stage. Our microarray data revealed no global gene expression differences and identified few individual gene differences between endometrial cancers from Blacks and Whites. More comprehensive methods of transcriptome analysis could uncover RNAs that may underpin the disparity of outcome or prevalence of endometrial cancers in Blacks and Whites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of PTEN in endometrial liquid-based cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorito, Alessia; Zappacosta, Roberta; Capanna, Serena; Gatta, Daniela Mariapia; Rosini, Sandra; Schmitt, Fernando Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cytology offers a reliable alternative to biopsy in endometrial cancer detection and it may be useful in obtaining material to study prognostic and predictive markers. Over the years, new sampling devices have been developed. Molecular alterations in endometrial cancers were previously described using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues with particular attention, in endometrioid carcinomas, to the PTEN-PI3K pathway. PTEN evaluation could be useful in endometrial carcinomas for selecting patients for target therapies. We studied 51 endometrial samples collected using the Endogyn device and 71 obtained with the Endoflower dispositive device, and processed using liquid-based cytology. Most of the cases were matched with a corresponding histological biopsy. The overall accuracy of Endoflower was 100%. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) for PTEN were performed using monoclonal antibody 6H2.1 from DAKO. The IHC showed PTEN-null glands in 4 cases. The same cancers were negative in ICC. Among the 10 carcinomas on cytology, PTEN-null glands were found in 1 case. All the normal endometrium control cases were positive in cytology and histology. Our results suggest that endometrial devices provide useful material for the diagnosis and evaluation of PTEN expression. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. USP14 is a predictor of recurrence in endometrial cancer and a molecular target for endometrial cancer treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Pulver, Tanya; Heilmann, Wiebke; Mooneyham, Ashley; Mullany, Sally; Zhao, Xianda; Shahi, Maryam; Richter, James; Klein, Molly; Chen, Liqiang; Ding, Rui; Konecny, Gottfried; Kommoss, Stefan; Winterhoff, Boris; Ghebre, Rahel; Bazzaro, Martina

    2016-01-01

    .... Most endometrial cancer cases are diagnosed at an early stage and have good prognosis. Unfortunately a subset of patients with early stage and low grade disease experience recurrence for reasons that remain unclear...

  20. Adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer after hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nick; Bryant, Andrew; Miles, Tracie; Hogberg, Thomas; Cornes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial adenocarcinoma (womb cancer) is a malignant growth of the lining (endometrium) of the womb (uterus). It is distinct from sarcomas (tumours of the uterine muscle). Survival depends the risk of microscopic metastases after surgery. Adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy improves survival from some other adenocarcinomas, and there is evidence that endometrial cancer is sensitive to cytotoxic therapy. This systematic review examines the effect of chemotherapy on survival after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Objectives To assess efficacy of adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 2010, registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with any other adjuvant treatment or no other treatment. Data collection and analysis We used a random-effects meta-analysis to assess hazard ratios (HR) for overall and progression-free survival and risk ratios (RR) to compare death rates and site of initial relapse. Main results Five RCTs compared no additional treatment with additional chemotherapy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. Four trials compared platinum based combination chemotherapy directly with radiotherapy. Indiscriminate pooling of survival data from 2197 women shows a significant overall survival advantage from adjuvant chemotherapy (RR (95% CI) = 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)). Sensitivity analysis focused on trials of modern platinum based chemotherapy regimens and found the relative risk of death to be 0.85 ((0.76 to 0.96); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) = 25; absolute risk reduction = 4% (1% to 8%)). The HR for overall survival is 0.74 (0.64 to 0.89), significantly

  1. miR-451 deficiency is associated with altered endometrial fibrinogen alpha chain expression and reduced endometriotic implant establishment in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren B Nothnick

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial glandular and stromal components in ectopic locations and affects as many as 10% of all women of reproductive age. Despite its high prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis remains poorly understood. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, are mis-expressed in endometriosis but a functional role in the disease pathogenesis remains uncertain. To examine the role of microRNA-451 (miR-451 in the initial development of endometriosis, we utilized a novel mouse model in which eutopic endometrial fragments used to induce endometriosis were deficient for miR-451. After induction of the disease, we evaluated the impact of this deficiency on implant development and survival. Loss of miR-451 expression resulted in a lower number of ectopic lesions established in vivo. Analysis of differential protein profiles between miR-451 deficient and wild-type endometrial fragments revealed that fibrinogen alpha polypeptide isoform 2 precursor was approximately 2-fold higher in the miR-451 null donor endometrial tissue and this elevated expression of the protein was associated with altered expression of the parent fibrinogen alpha chain mRNA and protein. As this polypeptide contains RGD amino acid "cell adhesion" motifs which could impact early establishment of lesion development, we examined and confirmed using a cyclic RGD peptide antagonist, that endometrial cell adhesion and endometriosis establishment could be respectively inhibited both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduced miR-451 eutopic endometrial expression does not enhance initial establishment of these fragments when displaced into the peritoneal cavity, that loss of eutopic endometrial miR-451 expression is associated with altered expression of fibrinogen alpha chain mRNA and protein, and that RGD cyclic peptide antagonists inhibit establishment of endometriosis

  2. Primary Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ; Report of a rare disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the endometrium, whether primary or secondary to cervical cancer, is a rare entity. Primary endometrial squamous cell carcinoma in situ is even more uncommon; it usually occurs in postmenopausal women and has a strong association with pyometra. We report a 60-year-old multiparous postmenopausal woman who presented to the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital, New Delhi, India, in May 2014 with a lower abdominal swelling corresponding in size to a pregnancy of 26 gestational weeks and vaginal discharge of one year’s duration. A total abdominal hysterectomy with a bilateral salpingooophorectomy was performed, which revealed an enlarged uterus with pyometra. Histopathology showed that the entire endometrial lining had been replaced with malignant squamous cells without invasion of the myometrium. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumour cells were positive for p63 with a high Ki-67 labelling index. No adjuvant therapy was required and the patient was disease-free at a seven-month follow-up.

  3. Endometrial metaplasia: correlation of histological and cytological specimens obtained from 103 cases undergoing hysterectomy for endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomine, Y; Watanabe, S; Ohishi, Y; Tamiya, S; Sugishima, S; Kobayashi, H; Oda, Y; Kaku, T

    2014-04-01

    To assess the frequency of endometrial metaplasia in histological and cytological specimens from the same cases, and to determine the relationship between various types of metaplasia and clinicopathological findings. We reviewed 103 histological specimens diagnosed as endometrioid adenocarcinoma, in which endometrial smears had been obtained before surgery. We examined the correlation between the frequency of endometrial metaplasia occurring in association with carcinoma in both histological and cytological specimens. The categories of metaplasia were eosinophilic metaplasia, squamous metaplasia, mucinous metaplasia, ciliated cell metaplasia and others. We compared the incidence of endometrial metaplasia with the clinicopathological findings for each case. Endometrial metaplasia was recognized in 90 (87.4%) of the histological and 80 (77.7%) of the cytological specimens of 103 specimens, with the respective frequency of subtypes as follows: eosinophilic metaplasia (36.0% and 43.7%), squamous metaplasia (70.9% and 68.0%), mucinous metaplasia (38.8% and 19.4%), ciliated cell metaplasia (22.3% and 2.9%) and others (11.7% and 0%). Mixed subtypes were seen in 58.3% and 41.7% of histological and cytological specimens, respectively. In histology, mucinous metaplasia was significantly more frequent in G1-G2 than G3 carcinomas (P = 0.0089). Ciliated cell metaplasia was significantly related to endometrial hyperplasia (P = 0.0068). In cytology, eosinophilic and mucinous metaplasia were significantly associated with G1-G2 cases (P = 0.0061 and P = 0.0385). Endometrial metaplasia was seen in 87.4% of the histological and 77.7% of the cytological specimens. Where routine endometrial cytopathology is practiced, it is important to understand the detailed histological and cytological features of these changes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Endometrial stem cell-derived G-CSF attenuates endometrial fibrosis via Sonic Hedgehog transcriptional activator Gli2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaona; Zhang, Yanling; Pan, Yibin; He, Shilin; Dai, Yongdong; Zhu, Bingqing; Wei, Cheng; Xin, Liaobing; Xu, Wenzhi; Xiang, Chunsheng; Zhang, Songying

    2018-01-10

    Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is characterized by endometrial fibrosis, which ultimately leads to menstrual abnormalities, infertility and recurrent miscarriages. The Shh/Gli2 pathway plays a critical role in tissue fibrogenesis and regeneration; Gli2 activation induces profibrogenic effects in various tissues, such as the liver and kidney. However, the role of Gli2 in endometrial fibrosis remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that activated Gli2 promotes endometrial fibrosis. Endometrial samples from moderate and severe IUA patients exhibited significantly enhanced expression of Gli2 compared with normal endometrial samples and mild IUA samples. Transfection with overactive Gli2 plasmids induced higher fibrosis-related protein expression, while blocking Gli2 signaling with cyclopamine caused the opposite effect in ESCs, including inducing cell-cycle arrest. Menstrual-derived stem cell conditioned medium (MenSCs-CM) reduced endometrial fibrosis by reducing Gli2 protein levels and causing cell-cycle arrest in ESCs through G-CSF. The effect was weakened after neutralization with a G-CSF antibody. Gli2 overexpression reduced the effects of MenSC-CM and G-CSF on fibrosis and cell-cycle progression in vitro. The antifibrotic effect of G-CSF was also observed in murine model. These findings demonstrate that Gli2 signaling promotes endometrial fibrosis, and the inhibition of Gli2 through MenSCs-secreted G-CSF may be of therapeutic value for managing endometrial fibrosis. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The Effect of Copper on Endometrial Receptivity and Induction of Apoptosis on Decidualized Human Endometrial Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Jose P; Cotán, David; Jurado, Inmaculada; Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; Sánchez-Martín, Pascual; Savaris, Ricardo F; Tan, Justin; Sánchez-Alcázar, Jose A; Tan, Seang L; Horcajadas, José Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) have been widely used to prevent pregnancies with great efficacy during decades. It has been demonstrated that IUD alters the endometrial gene expression, but there is no scientific data about how copper, a metal commonly used in these devices, by itself, is able to influence the processes of endometrial receptivity and apoptosis in decidualized human endometrial stromal cells. Five endometrial samples were obtained from fertile women and processed by a standard protocol to obtain human endometrial stromal cells for in vitro studies. Stromal cells were cultured in vitro and decidualized for 8 days. At day 6, copper was added to the treatment group or camptothecin as positive control for apoptosis until day 8. Five endometrial samples were used in each group. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of copper in apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry, to visualize the apoptotic microtubule network during apoptosis by immunofluorescence, and finally to determine the gene expression profile of a panel of 192 genes related to endometrial receptivity and immune system by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Copper, compared to the decidualized group, induced changes in the gene expression by an order of magnitude in 49 genes (42 up- and 9 downregulated). This alteration in the decidualization gene signature by copper includes 19 genes involved in the endometriosis pathology and others related to other gynecological disorders such as preeclampsia and infertility. Our results indicate that copper does not increase the apoptosis level induced by the decidualization treatment. However, copper alters the gene expression of some biomarkers of endometrial receptivity and immune response.

  6. Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote proliferation of endometrial cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita S Subramaniam

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy worldwide; yet the tumor microenvironment, especially the fibroblast cells surrounding the cancer cells, is poorly understood. We established four primary cultures of fibroblasts from human endometrial cancer tissues (cancer-associated fibroblasts, CAFs using antibody-conjugated magnetic bead isolation. These relatively homogenous fibroblast cultures expressed fibroblast markers (CD90, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin and hormonal (estrogen and progesterone receptors. Conditioned media collected from CAFs induced a dose-dependent proliferation of both primary cultures and cell lines of endometrial cancer in vitro (175% when compared to non-treated cells, in contrast to those from normal endometrial fibroblast cell line (51% (P<0.0001. These effects were not observed in fibroblast culture derived from benign endometrial hyperplasia tissues, indicating the specificity of CAFs in affecting endometrial cancer cell proliferation. To determine the mechanism underlying the differential fibroblast effects, we compared the activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Erk pathways in endometrial cancer cells following treatment with normal fibroblasts- and CAFs-conditioned media. Western blot analysis showed that the expression of both phosphorylated forms of Akt and Erk were significantly down-regulated in normal fibroblasts-treated cells, but were up-regulated/maintained in CAFs-treated cells. Treatment with specific inhibitors LY294002 and U0126 reversed the CAFs-mediated cell proliferation (P<0.0001, suggesting for a role of these pathways in modulating endometrial cancer cell proliferation. Rapamycin, which targets a downstream molecule in PI3K pathway (mTOR, also suppressed CAFs-induced cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Cytokine profiling analysis revealed that CAFs secrete higher levels of macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, RANTES and vascular

  7. TRANSVAGINAL SONOGRAPHY COMBINED WITH SALINE CONTRAST SONOHYSTEROGRAPHY IN EVALUATING THE UTERINE CAVITY IN PREMENOPAUSAL PATIENTS WITH ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. M. Premleel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To evaluate whether saline contrast sonohysterography (SCSH improved the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS for predicting endometrial abnormality in premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. PATIENTS AND METHODS The uterine cavity was evaluated with TVS and SCSH in 60 premenopausal patients with abnormal uterine bleeding. All 58 patients underwent operative hysteroscopy or hysterectomy within 4 months which provided a detailed description of the uterine cavity and was used as the true value for exclusion of polyps and submucous myomas. RESULT Out of 60 patients, 45 had uterine abnormalities on TVS and SCSH and rest of the patients who appeared normal but had other abnormalities such as ovarian haemorrhagic cyst. Out of the 45 patients, 9 patients had submucous myomas and 9 were diagnosed as endometrial polyp. The findings were confirmed using hysterectomy/hysteroscopy/endometrial sampling. CONCLUSION The use of TVS without saline contrast left nine submucosal fibroids and five in nine of the polyps undiagnosed in referred patients with complaints of abnormal bleeding. It also helps in reducing the rate of more invasive procedures such as hysteroscopy. However, studies carried out for longer duration and large study population are required to validate our findings

  8. Letter to the Editor: Morphological appearances of the uterine cavity on ultrasound scan prior to the development of intrauterine adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tejal; Saridogan, Ertan; Dooley, Michael; Jurkovic, Davor

    2017-02-25

    Endometrial trauma caused by surgery or infection can result in the development of intrauterine adhesions. In standard clinical practice there are several methods which can be used to diagnose adhesions in symptomatic women, but there are no descriptions of morphological features which precede their formation. As a result, there is currently no effective treatment which could be used to prevent development of intrauterine adhesions in high-risk women. This case series describes distinctive appearances of the uterine cavity which were observed on transvaginal ultrasound scans in a group of symptomatic women prior to the development of intrauterine adhesions. All women had undergone surgical evacuation of retained placenta or products of conception prior to the examination and they all developed similar changes within the endometrial cavity before intrauterine adhesions were detected on follow up examinations. These findings indicate that in some women there is a time delay between endometrial trauma and development of adhesions which could facilitate development of strategies for their secondary prevention in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the endometrial inflammatory response to induced infectious endometritis in susceptible mares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette; Woodward, Elizabeth; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of immunomodulatory therapy (glucocorticoids (GC) and mycobacterium cell wall extract (MCWE)) on the endometrial gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in susceptible mares with induced infectious endometritis. Endometrial gene expr...

  10. Exercise Programme in Endometrial Cancer; Protocol of the Feasibility and Acceptability Survivorship Trial (EPEC-FAST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.; Lopes, A.; Das, N.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.; Galaal, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity has been associated with impaired quality of life and poorer outcomes in endometrial cancer survivors. Lifestyle interventions promoting exercise and weight reduction have been proposed for survivorship care. However, studies evaluating exercise programmes for endometrial

  11. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO consensus conference on endometrial cancer: Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colombo, Nicoletta; Creutzberg, Carien; Amant, Frederic; Bosse, Tjalling; González-Martín, Antonio; Ledermann, Jonathan; Marth, Christian; Nout, Remi; Querleu, Denis; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sessa, Cristiana

    2015-01-01

    ...) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11-13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer...

  12. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO Consensus Conference on Endometrial Cancer: diagnosis, treatment and follow-up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colombo, N; Creutzberg, C; Amant, F; Bosse, T; González-Martín, A; Ledermann, J; Marth, C; Nout, R; Querleu, D; Mirza, M R; Sessa, C

    2016-01-01

    ...) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11-13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer...

  13. The morbidity of treatment for patients with stage I endometrial cancer : Results from a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creutzberg, CL; van Putten, WLJ; Koper, PC; Lybeert, MLM; Jobsen, JJ; Warlam-Rodenhuis, CC; De Winter, KAJ; Lutgens, LCHW; van den Bergh, ACM; van der Steen-Banasik, E; Beerman, H; van Lent, M

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the treatment complications for patients with Stage I endometrial cancer treated with surgery and pelvic radiotherapy (RT) or surgery alone in a multicenter randomized trial. Methods and Materials: The Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Carcinoma (PORTEC) trial

  14. Reproducibility of current classifications of endometrial endometrioid glandular proliferations : further evidence supporting a simplified classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordi, Jaume; Bergeron, Christine; Hardisson, David; McCluggage, W. Glenn; Hollema, Harry; Felix, Ana; Soslow, Robert A.; Oliva, Esther; Tavassoli, Fattaneh A.; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Wells, Michael; Nogales, Francisco F.

    AimsTo compare the reproducibility of the current (2003) World Health Organization (WHO), endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN) and European Working Group (EWG) classifications of endometrial endometrioid proliferations. Methods and resultsNine expert gynaecological pathologists from Europe

  15. Endometrial cancer risk prediction including serum-based biomarkers : results from the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortner, Renée T.; Hüsing, Anika; Kühn, Tilman; Konar, Meric; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Severi, Gianluca; Fournier, Agnès; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06929528X; Peeters, Petra H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger T.; Gavrilyuk, Oxana; Quirós, J. Ramón; Maria Huerta, José; Ardanaz, Eva; Larrañaga, Nerea; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Butt, Salma Tunå; Borgquist, Signe; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Gunter, Marc; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer risk prediction models including lifestyle, anthropometric and reproductive factors have limited discrimination. Adding biomarker data to these models may improve predictive capacity; to our knowledge, this has not been investigated for endometrial cancer. Using a nested

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of endometrial biopsy in relation to the amount of tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, C.; Visser, N.C.M.; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.; Putten, L.J.M. van der; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: For the diagnostic workup of postmenopausal bleeding, histological examination of the endometrium is frequently performed. Failure of endometrial sampling due to insufficient material is often reported but objective criteria for quality assessment of endometrial biopsies are lacking. The aim

  17. Long-term impact of preeclampsia on maternal endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallum, Sara; Pinborg, Anja; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is mainly dependent on oestrogen exposure. Preeclampsia has shown to reduce oestrogen levels hence preeclampsia may affect later endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 523 Danish women with endometrial cancer and 52 299controls during...... 1978-2010. The association between preeclampsia and later endometrial cancer was evaluated overall and according to preeclampsia onset and type of endometrial cancer in conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: We observed no overall association between preeclampsia and endometrial cancer risk...... (OR=1.11 (95% CI 0.68-1.81)). This was true for all endometrial cancer subtypes. In an analysis of preeclampsia onset, however, we report a markedly increased risk of endometrial cancer following early-onset preeclampsia (OR=2.64 (95% CI 1.29-5.38)). CONCLUSIONS: Although we report no obvious...

  18. ISR RF cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    In each ISR ring the radiofrequency cavities were installed in one 9 m long straight section. The RF system of the ISR had the main purpose to stack buckets of particles (most of the time protons)coming from the CPS and also to accelerate the stacked beam. The installed RF power per ring was 18 kW giving a peak accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The system had a very fine regulation feature allowing to lower the voltage down to 75 V in a smooth and well controlled fashion.

  19. Comparing four methods to estimate usual intake distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, O.W.; Dekkers, A.L.; Geelen, A.; Haubrock, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Ocke, M.C.; Harttig, U.; Boeing, H.; Veer, van 't P.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aim of this paper was to compare methods to estimate usual intake distributions of nutrients and foods. As ‘true’ usual intake distributions are not known in practice, the comparison was carried out through a simulation study, as well as empirically, by application to data

  20. Chemopreventive effects of metformin on obesity-associated endometrial proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Celestino, Joseph; Schmandt, Rosemarie; McCampbell, Adrienne S; Urbauer, Diana L; Meyer, Larissa A; Burzawa, Jennifer K; Huang, Marilyn; Yates, Melinda S; Iglesias, David; Broaddus, Russell R; Lu, Karen H

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is a significant contributing factor to endometrial cancer risk. We previously demonstrated that estrogen-induced endometrial proliferation is enhanced in the context of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigate whether pharmacologic agents that modulate insulin sensitivity or normalize insulin levels will diminish the proliferative response to estrogen. Zucker fa/fa obese rats and lean controls were used as models of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Insulin levels were depleted in ovariectomized rats following treatment with streptozotocin, or modulated by metformin treatment. The number of BrdU-incorporated cells, estrogen-dependent proliferative and antiproliferative gene expression, and activation of mTOR and ERK1/2 MAPK signaling were studied. A rat normal endometrial cell line RENE1 was used to evaluate the direct effects of metformin on endometrial cell proliferation and gene expression in vitro. Streptozotocin lowered circulating insulin levels in obese rats and decreased the number of BrdU-labeled endometrial cells even in the presence of exogenous estrogen. Treatment with the insulin-sensitizing drug metformin attenuated estrogen-dependent proliferative expression of c-myc and c-fos in the obese rat endometrium compared to untreated controls and was accompanied by inhibition of phosphorylation of the insulin and IGF1 receptors (IRβ/IGF1R) and ERK1/2. In vitro studies indicated metformin inhibited RENE1 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that drugs that modulate insulin sensitivity, such as metformin, hinder estrogen-mediated endometrial proliferation. Therefore, these drugs may be clinically useful for the prevention of endometrial cancer in obese women. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prognostic significance of miR-205 in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihriban Karaayvaz

    Full Text Available microRNAs have emerged as key regulators of gene expression, and their altered expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Thus, microRNAs have potential as both cancer biomarkers and/or potential novel therapeutic targets. Although accumulating evidence suggests the role of aberrant microRNA expression in endometrial carcinogenesis, there are still limited data available about the prognostic significance of microRNAs in endometrial cancer. The goal of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of selected key microRNAs in endometrial cancer by the analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.Total RNAs were extracted from 48 paired normal and endometrial tumor specimens using Trizol based approach. The expression of miR-26a, let-7g, miR-21, miR-181b, miR-200c, miR-192, miR-215, miR-200c, and miR-205 were quantified by real time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were quantified using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 5.0.The expression levels of miR-200c (P<0.0001 and miR-205 (P<0.0001 were significantly increased in endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that high levels of miR-205 expression were associated with poor patient overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.377; Logrank test, P = 0.028. Furthermore, decreased expression of a miR-205 target PTEN was detected in endometrial cancer tissues compared to normal tissues.miR-205 holds a unique potential as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer.

  2. Palbociclib has antitumour effects on Pten-deficient endometrial neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosil, Maria Alba; Mirantes, Cristina; Eritja, Núria; Felip, Isidre; Navaridas, Raúl; Gatius, Sònia; Santacana, Maria; Colàs, Eva; Moiola, Cristian; Schoenenberger, Joan Antoni; Encinas, Mario; Garí, Eloi; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers. The frequency of PTEN alterations is particularly high in endometrial carcinomas. Loss of PTEN leads to dysregulation of cell division, and promotes the accumulation of cell cycle complexes such as cyclin D1-CDK4/6, which is an important feature of the tumour phenotype. Cell cycle proteins have been presented as key targets in the treatment of the pathogenesis of cancer, and several CDK inhibitors have been developed as a strategy to generate new anticancer drugs. Palbociclib (PD-332991) specifically inhibits CDK4/6, and it has been approved for use in metastatic breast cancer in combination with letrazole. Here, we used a tamoxifen-inducible Pten knockout mouse model to assess the antitumour effects of cyclin D1 knockout and CDK4/6 inhibition by palbociclib on endometrial tumours. Interestingly, both cyclin D1 deficiency and palbociclib treatment triggered shrinkage of endometrial neoplasias. In addition, palbociclib treatment significantly increased the survival of Pten-deficient mice, and, as expected, had a general effect in reducing tumour cell proliferation. To further analyse the effects of palbociclib on endometrial carcinoma, we established subcutaneous tumours with human endometrial cancer cell lines and primary endometrial cancer xenografts, which allowed us to provide more translational and predictive data. To date, this is the first preclinical study evaluating the response to CDK4/6 inhibition in endometrial malignancies driven by PTEN deficiency, and it reveals an important role of cyclin D-CDK4/6 activity in their development. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. p16 is Consistently Expressed in Endometrial Tubal Metaplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Horree

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell cycle proteins and HIF-1α with downstream factors are often abberrantly expressed in (preneoplastic tissue. Methods: Paraffin-embedded specimens of inactive endometrium with TM (n=15, ovarian inclusion cysts (n=6, cervix with TM (tubal metaplasia (n=3, Fallopian tubes (n=7, cycling endometrium (n=9 and a ciliated cell tumor of the ovary were stained for p16 and LhS28. 39 Endometrioid endometrial carcinomas and 5 serous endometrial carcinomas were stained for p16. Additionally, inactive endometrium (n=15 was immunohistochemically stained for p21, p27, p53, cyclin A, cyclin D1, cyclin E, HIF-1α, CAIX, Glut-1 and MIB-1. Results: A mosaic pattern of expression of p16 was seen throughout in all cases of endometrial TM (15/15, in 2/6 of the ovarian inclusion cysts with TM, in all (3/3 cervical TM and focal in 5/7 of Fallopian tube cases. Mosaic expression was also seen in a ciliated cell tumor of the ovary and in 18/39 of endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, and diffuse p16 expression was seen in 5/5 serous carcinomas. In comparison with normal endometrium, TM areas in the endometrium showed significantly increased expression of HIF-1α, cyclin E, p21 and cyclin A, and decreased expression of p27. Membranous expression of CAIX and Glut-1 was only seen in TM areas, pointing to functional HIF-1α. Conclusion: As p16 is consistently expressed in TM, less and only patchy expressed in the normal Fallopian tube, is paralleled by aberrant expression of cell cycle proteins, HIF-1α, CAIX and Glut-1 and resembles the pattern of p16 expression frequently seen in endometrial carcinomas, we propose endometrial TM to be a potential premalignant endometrial lesion.

  4. Differentiation of the endometrial macrophage during pregnancy in the cow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian J Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of conceptus alloantigens necessitates changes in maternal immune function. One player in this process may be the macrophage. In the cow, there is large-scale recruitment of macrophages expressing CD68 and CD14 to the uterine endometrium during pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, the function of endometrial macrophages during pregnancy was inferred by comparison of the transcriptome of endometrial CD14(+ cells isolated from pregnant cows as compared to that of blood CD14(+ cells. The pattern of gene expression was largely similar for CD14(+ cells from both sources, suggesting that cells from both tissues are from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. A total of 1,364 unique genes were differentially expressed, with 680 genes upregulated in endometrial CD14(+ cells as compared to blood CD14(+ cells and with 674 genes downregulated in endometrial CD14(+ cells as compared to blood CD14(+ cells. Twelve genes characteristic of M2 activated macrophages (SLCO2B1, GATM, MRC1, ALDH1A1, PTGS1, RNASE6, CLEC7A, DPEP2, CD163, CCL22, CCL24, and CDH1 were upregulated in endometrial CD14(+ cells. M2 macrophages play roles in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Consistent with a role in tissue remodeling, there was over-representation of differentially expressed genes in endometrium for three ontologies related to proteolysis. A role in apoptosis is suggested by the observation that the most overrepresented gene in endometrial CD14(+ cells was GZMA. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that at least a subpopulation of endometrial macrophages cells differentiates along an M2 activation pathway during pregnancy and that the cells are likely to play roles in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis, and apoptosis.

  5. Aromatase in human endometrial carcinoma and hyperplasia. Immunohistochemical, in situ hybridization, and biochemical studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, K.; Sasano, H.; Harada, N.; Ozaki, M.; Niikura, H.; Sato, S.; Yajima, A.

    1995-01-01

    The expression of P450 aromatase and other steroidogenic enzymes were evaluated in 42 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas, 23 endometrial hyperplasias, and 7 normal endometrial specimens. These findings were correlated with clinicopathological findings to elucidate the possible biological significance of in situ estrogen production in the development of human endometrial carcinoma. Only weak aromatase immunoreactivity was observed in vascular walls and myometrial cells. In contrast, strong ar...

  6. Expression and clinical significance of annexin A2 and human epididymis protein 4 in endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lu; Gao, Yiping; Li, Xiao; Cai, Mingbo; Wang, Huimin; Zhuang, Huiyu; Tan, Mingzi; Liu, Shuice; Hao, Yingying; Lin, Bei

    2015-09-11

    It is well-known that the treatment and monitoring methods are limited for advanced stage of endometrial carcinoma. Biological molecules with expression changes during tumor progression become potential therapeutic targets for advanced stage endometrial carcinoma. Annexin A2 (ANXA2) has been reported to be overexpressed in recurrent endometrial carcinoma, and the expression of human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is upregulated in endometrial carcinoma. What's more, ANXA2 and HE4 interacted in ovarian cancer and promoted the malignant biological behavior. We speculated that their interaction may exist in endometrial carcinoma as well. We evaluated the expression and the correlation relationship of ANXA2 and HE4 in endometrial carcinoma. The expression of ANXA2 and HE4 protein in 84 endometrial carcinoma, 30 endometrial atypical hyperplasia, and 18 normal endometrial tissue samples were then measured using an immunohistochemical assay in paraffin embedded endometrial tissues. The structural relationship between ANXA2 and HE4 was explored by immunoprecipitation and double immunofluorescent staining. ANXA2 and HE4 co-localized in both endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cells. ANXA2 and HE4 were expressed in 95.2 % and 85.7 % of the the endometrial carcinoma, respectively, which were significantly higher than normal endometrium (55.6 % and 16.7 %, both p endometrial carcinoma (p endometrial carcinoma. Expression levels of ANXA2 and HE4 were closely related to the malignant biological behavior of endometrial carcinoma, and ANXA2 was an independent risk factor for poor prognosis. The expression of ANXA2 and HE4 can affect each other.

  7. Canine Uterine Leiomyoma with Epithelial Tissue Foci, Adenomyosis, and Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George S. Karagiannis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old Labrador Retriever bitch with a history of intermittent, sanguineous vaginal discharge of a six-month duration was presented. During exploratory laparotomy, two well-delineated, intramural masses were identified bilaterally in the uterine horns. Histopathologic examination of the mass on the left horn showed that it was a typical leiomyoma. However, the second mass appeared with an unusual coexistence of histological lesions, involving epithelial tissue foci, mild focal adenomyosis, and cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Interestingly, such combination was never encountered before in dogs. Although uterine leiomyoma is quite usual in the reproductive system of female dogs, this case resembled relevant cases of human uterine adenomyomas in morphology, and thus it was offered a similar tentative diagnosis.

  8. Low serum progesterone on the day of embryo transfer is associated with a diminished ongoing pregnancy rate in oocyte donation cycles after artificial endometrial preparation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarta, E; Mariani, G; Holtmann, N; Celada, P; Remohí, J; Bosch, E

    2017-12-01

    Is there a relationship between serum progesterone (P) and endometrial volume on the day of embryo transfer (ET) with ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) in artificial endometrium preparation cycles? Patients with serum P endometrial volume was not related with OPR. A window of optimal serum P levels during the embryo implantation period has been described in artificial endometrium preparation cycles. A very low endometrial volume is related to poor reproductive outcome. Prospective cohort study with 244 patients who underwent ET in an oocyte donation cycle after an artificial endometrial preparation cycle with estradiol valerate and vaginal micronized progesterone (400 mg/12 h). The study period went from 22 February 2016 to 25 October 2016 (8 months). Sample size was calculated to detect a 20% difference in OPR (35-55%) between two groups according to serum P levels in a two-sided test (80% statistical power, 95% confidence interval (CI)). Patients undergoing their first/second oocyte donation cycle, aged 6.5 mm and 1-2 good quality transferred blastocysts. A private infertility centre. Serum P determination and 3D ultrasound of uterine cavity were performed on the day of ET. Endometrial volume measurements were taken using a virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL™) system. The primary endpoint was OPR beyond pregnancy week 12. About 211 of the 244 recruited patients fulfilled all the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Mean serum P on the day of embryo transfer was 12.7 ± 5.4 ng/ml (Centiles 25, 9.2; 50, 11.8; 75,15.8). OPRs according to serum P quartiles were: Q1: 32.7%; Q2: 49.1%; Q3: 58.5%; Q4: 50.9%. The OPR of Q1 was significantly lower than Q2-Q4: 32.7% versus 52.8%; P = 0.016; RR (95% CI): 0.62 (0.41-0.94). The mean endometrial volume was 3.4 ± 1.9 ml. Serum P on the day of ET did not correlate with endometrial volume. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for all the potential confounders, showed that OPR significantly lowered between women with serum P

  9. Utility of thin-layer preparations in the endometrial cytology: evaluation of benign endometrial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yoshiaki; Kouda, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Moriya, Takuya; Yanoh, Kenji; Tsukayama, Choutatsu; Miyake, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Eiji

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the use of thin-layer cytologic (TLC) preparation compared to conventional cytologic preparation (CCP) in the normal endometrium (proliferative, secretory, atrophic) and endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD). During a 6-month period, we compiled 158 cases by collecting a direct endometrial sample using the Uterobrush. The material comprised 40 cases of proliferative endometrium, 42 cases of secretory endometrium, 46 cases of atrophic endometrium, and 30 cases of EGBD. The following points were investigated: (1) number of endometrial epithelial cell clumps; (2) presence of TLC > CCP cases on number of epithelial cell clumps; (3) number of condensed cluster of stromal cells; (4) presence of TLC > CCP cases on number of condensed cluster of stromal cells; (5) presence of metaplastic clumps with irregular protrusion-containing condensed stromal cluster; (6) presence of a clear background; (7) presence of blood vessel in TLC; (8) presence of blood vessel of length more than diameter of a field in object x20 glasses in TLC. (1) In all phases, the number of epithelial cell clumps per a unit area of a preparation of TLC is greater than in CCP. (2) Cells (condensed cluster of stromal cells and metaplastic clumps with irregular protrusion-containing condensed stromal cluster) of useful and adequate numbers for a diagnosis of EGBD were observed in TLC. (3) In all phases, TLC was significantly higher than CCP on the appearance of a clear background. (4) The proliferative endometrium and secretory endometrium were highly significant in comparison with atrophic endometrium and EGBD, respectively, in terms of the occurrence of a blood vessel of length more than diameter of a field in object x20 glasses. Although the preparation area of TLC is smaller than that of CCP, the preparation has a clean background so that an accurate report on the patient's condition is possible. Therefore, TLC preparation is a useful tool for

  10. A Rare Case of Endometrial Cancer Metastatic to the Sigmoid Colon and Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Hubers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic endometrial cancer to the small bowel or colon has been described but is quite rare. We present a case of metastatic endometrial cancer with synchronous metastases to the colon and jejunum identified three years after surgical treatment of early stage endometrial cancer.

  11. Diagnosis of Cardiac Metastasis from Endometrial Cancer by F-18 FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Khan, S; Behr, S; Aparici, C Mari

    2014-09-01

    We report a case of a 59-year-old woman with right ventricular metastasis of undifferentiated endometrial cancer. Cardiac metastasis from endometrial cancer is a very rare finding. The case demonstrates that undifferentiated endometrial cancer is capable of metastasizing, presumably through a hematogenous route, to unexpected distant organs. These unexpected sites should not be undermined in the restaging and surveillance of these patients.

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  16. Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometrial stromal nodules are rare. They represent less than a quarter of endometrial stromal tumors. Clement and Scully described as variants of endometrial stromal nodules two types of tumor ressembling ovarian sex cord tumors. Type I is tumor that resembles focally an ovarian sex cord tumor which can be ...

  17. Is aromatase cytochrome P450 involved in the pathogenesis of endometrioid endometrial cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, VHWM; Thijssen, JHH; Hollema, H; Donker, GH; Santema, JG; Van Der Zee, AGJ; Heineman, MJ

    2005-01-01

    Prospectively, the relationship between androgen levels in the utero-ovarian circulation, aromatase activity in endometrial and body fat tissue, and the presence or absence of endometrioid endometrial cancer was studied in postmenopausal women. In 43 women with endometrioid endometrial cancer and 8

  18. Oral cavity eumycetoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Alborghetti Nai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is a pathological process in which eumycotic (fungal or actinomycotic causative agents from exogenous source produce grains. It is a localized chronic and deforming infectious disease of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones. We report the first case of eumycetoma of the oral cavity in world literature. CASE REPORT: A 43-year-old male patient, complaining of swelling and fistula in the hard palate. On examination, swelling of the anterior and middle hard palate, with fistula draining a dark liquid was observed. The panoramic radiograph showed extensive radiolucent area involving the region of teeth 21-26 and the computerized tomography showed communication with the nasal cavity, suggesting the diagnosis of periapical cyst. Surgery was performed to remove the lesion. Histopathological examination revealed purulent material with characteristic grain. Gram staining for bacteria was negative and Grocott-Gomori staining for the detection of fungi was positive, concluding the diagnosis of eumycetoma. The patient was treated with ketoconazole for nine months, and was considered cured at the end of treatment. CONCLUSION: Histopathological examination, using histochemical staining, and direct microscopic grains examination can provide the distinction between eumycetoma and actinomycetoma accurately.

  19. Evaluation of endometrial and subendometrial vascularization and endometrial volume by 3-D power Doppler ultrasound and its relationship with age and pregnancy in intrauterine insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, V; Sanfrutos, L; Pérez-Medina, T; Álvarez, P; Zapardiel, I; Bueno, B; Godoy-Tundidor, S; Bajo-Arenas, J M

    2011-01-01

    To measure endometrial volume and endometrial-subendometrial vascularization by 3-D power Doppler ultrasound in patients undergoing cycles of artificial insemination with ovarian stimulation, to evaluate their relationship with patients' age and pregnancy development. We included patients with primary and secondary infertility of one year of evolution. We measured vascular indexes and endometrial volume by 3-D power Doppler ultrasound. Seventy-nine consecutive cycles were studied. Endometrial volume average was 4.7 ± 2.66 ml. We did not find any difference between the endometrial volumes in women who did versus did not become pregnant (9 vs. 70 women, respectively). The endometrial vascular index was significantly higher in patients aged between 31 and 33 years old. In patients between the ages of 31 and 33, both the endometrial flow index (FI; p = 0.017) and the endometrial vascular FI (p = 0.013) were higher. At the subendometrial area, the vascular FI was lower in women older than 33 years old (p = 0.024), while the FI was higher in patients that achieved pregnancy (p = 0.047). Endometrial volumes were independent of pregnancy development. Endometrial and subendometrial vascularization FIs were significantly higher in younger women. The subendometrial FI was significantly higher in patients who achieved pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Does risk of endometrial cancer for women without a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair gene depend on family history of endometrial cancer or colorectal cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Rajani; Jenkins, Mark A; Lindor, Noralane M; Le Marchand, Loïc; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Newcomb, Polly A; Hopper, John L; Win, Aung Ko

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether risk of endometrial cancer for women without a germline mutation in a DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene depends on family history of endometrial or colorectal cancer. We retrospectively followed a cohort of 79,166 women who were recruited to the Colon Cancer Family Registry, after exclusion of women who were relatives of a carrier of a MMR gene mutation. The Kaplan-Meier failure method was used to estimate the cumulative risk of endometrial cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for association between family history of endometrial or colorectal cancer and risk of endometrial cancer. A total of 628 endometrial cancer cases were observed, with mean age at diagnosis of 54.4 (standard deviation: 15.7) years. The cumulative risk of endometrial cancer to age 70 years was estimated to be 0.94% (95% CI 0.83-1.05) for women with no family history of endometrial cancer, and 3.80% (95% CI 2.75-4.98) for women with at least one first- or second-degree relative with endometrial cancer. Compared with women without family history, we found an increased risk of endometrial cancer for women with at least one first- or second-degree relative with endometrial cancer (HR 3.66, 95% CI 2.63-5.08), and for women with one first-degree relative with colorectal cancer diagnosed at age cancer is associated with a family history of endometrial cancer or early-onset colorectal cancer for women without a MMR gene mutation, indicating for potential underlying genetic and environmental factors shared by colorectal and endometrial cancers other than caused by MMR gene mutations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasound characteristics of endometrial cancer as defined by the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) consensus nomenclature - A prospective multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elisabeth; Fischerova, Daniela; Valentin, Lil; Testa, Antonia Carla; Franchi, Dorella; Sladkevicius, Povilas; Frühauf, Filip; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Mascilini, Floriana; Fruscio, Robert; Haak, Lucia Anna; Opolskiene, Gina; Pascual, Maria Angela; Alcazar, Juan Luis; Chiappa, Valentina; Guerriero, Stefano; Carlson, Joseph; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Leone, Francesco Paolo Giuseppe; De Moor, Bart; Bourne, Tom; van Calster, Ben; Installe, Arnaud; Timmerman, Dirk; Verbakel, Jan Y; Van den Bosch, Thierry

    2017-09-25

    To describe the sonographic features of endometrial cancer in relation to stage, grade, and histological type using the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA) terminology. Prospective multicenter study on 1714 women with endometrial cancer undergoing a standardized transvaginal grayscale and Doppler ultrasound examination by an experienced ultrasound examiner using a high-end ultrasound system. Clinical and sonographic data were entered into a web-based protocol. We assessed how strongly sonographic characteristics, according to IETA, were associated to outcome at hysterectomy, i.e. tumor stage, grade, and histological type. After excluding 176 women (no or delayed hysterectomy, final diagnosis other than endometrial cancer, or incomplete data), 1538 women were included in our statistical analysis. Median age was 65 years (range 27-98), and median BMI 28.4 (range 16-67), 1378 (89.7%) women were postmenopausal, and 1296 (84.2%) reported abnormal vaginal bleeding. Grayscale and color Doppler features varied according to grade and stage. High-risk tumors (stage 1A, grade 3 or non-endometrioid or ≥ stage 1B) were less likely to have regular endometrial myometrial border (difference of -23%, 95% CI -27 to -18%), whilst they were larger (mean endometrial thickness; difference of +9 mm, 95% CI +8 to +11 mm), more frequently had non-uniform echogenicity (difference of +10%, 95% CI +5 to +15%), a multiple, multifocal vessel pattern (difference of +21%, 95% CI +16 to +26%), and a moderate or high color score (difference of +22%, 95% CI +18 to +27%), than low-risk tumors. Grayscale and color Doppler ultrasound features are associated with grade and stage, and differ between high and low risk endometrial cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Water clusters in nonpolar cavities

    OpenAIRE

    Vaitheeswaran, Subramanian; Yin, Hao; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.; Hummer, Gerhard

    2004-01-01

    We explore the structure and thermodynamics of water clusters confined in nonpolar cavities. By calculating the grand-canonical partition function term by term, we show that small nonpolar cavities can be filled at equilibrium with highly structured water clusters. The structural and thermodynamic properties of these encapsulated water clusters are similar to those observed experimentally in the gas phase. Water filling is highly sensitive to the size of the cavity and the strength of the int...

  3. Swelling of positronium confined in a small cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Consolati

    Full Text Available The electron density at the positron (contact density in the ground state positronium (Ps formed in condensed matter is generally found to be lower than in vacuum. This is usually attributed to microscopic electric fields which polarize Ps, by acting on the two particles of the atom. In this paper we quantitatively investigate an opposite effect. It is due to the confinement of Ps in small cavities existing in the host solid (e.g. free volume in polymers, which increases the contact density. Although this phenomenon is greater, the smaller is the size of the cavity, Ps polarization seems to play anyway a predominant role.

  4. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI, an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002. For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%. However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78. Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06, and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58. In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10-5. Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk.

  5. Pólipos endometriais Endometrial polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alberto Nogueira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Os pólipos endometriais são lesões benignas, com baixo potencial de malignização. No período reprodutivo seu diagnóstico é obtido nas pacientes sintomáticas, com sangramento uterino anormal ou infertilidade. Na pós-menopausa em sua maioria são assintomáticos, podendo estar associados a sangramento anormal em torno de um terço dos casos. São mais freqüentes na pós-menopausa e os fatores de risco para câncer de endométrio não têm sido associados da mesma maneira, como de risco para pólipos endometriais, embora sejam hormônio-dependentes, como nas pacientes usuárias do tamoxifeno, por exemplo. Seu diagnóstico definitivo é realizado pelo exame histológico com amostra obtida de maneira mais eficiente por biópsia dirigida por meio da histeroscopia, assim como seu tratamento mais efetivo é a ressecção histeroscópica. Pólipos podem apresentar recorrência após tratamento. A polipectomia é altamente satisfatória na pós-menopausa, tem menor taxa de sucesso em mulheres sintomáticas no período reprodutivo e melhora as taxas de fertilidade em mulheres inférteis.Endometrial polyps are benign lesions, with a low potential of malignancy. In the reproductive period their diagnosis is established in symptomatic patients with abnormal uterine bleeding or infertility. Postmenopausal women are mostly asymptomatic but in approximately one third of the cases there is an association with abnormal bleeding. They are more frequent after the menopause and risk factors of cancer of the endometrium have not been associated in the same way as risk for endometrial polyps, although they are hormone-dependent as in patients in use of tamoxifen, for instance. Their definitive diagnosis is established by hysteroscopy-guided biopsy and their most effective treatment is hysteroscopic resection. Polyps may recur after treatment. Polypectomy is highly satisfactory after the menopause, is less successful in symptomatic women in the reproductive

  6. Dewetting Transitions in Protein Cavities *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tom; Hua, Lan; Huang, Xuhui; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard; Berne, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous analysis of the solvation of protein active sites, a drying transition was observed in the narrow hydrophobic binding cavity of Cox-2. With the use of a crude metric that often seems able to discriminate those protein cavities that dry from those that do not, we made an extensive search of the pdb, and identified five other proteins that, in molecular dynamics simulations, undergo drying transitions in their active sites. Because such cavities need not desolvate before binding hydrophobic ligands they often exhibit very large binding affinities. This paper gives evidence that drying in protein cavities is not unique to Cox-2. PMID:20225258

  7. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  8. The significance of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika M. Żyła

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers experienced by women throughout the world. It is also the most common malignancy within the female reproductive system, representing 37.7% of all disorders. The incidence increases with age, and is diagnosed most frequently in women between 45 and 65 years old. In the last few years, numerous studies have been performed to identify tumour biomarkers. Biomarkers include not only protein routinely used as tumour markers but also genes and chromosomes. The limiting factor in the use of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer is their lack of specificity. However, specific markers for endometrial cancer are the subject of much research attention. Although moderately elevated levels of markers are present in a number of inflammatory or non-malignant diseases, significantly increased levels of markers indicate the development of cancer. Recently, research has been focused on the identification of molecular changes leading to different histological subtypes of endometrial cancer. In this paper the authors reviewed several currently investigated markers. Progress in these investigations is very important in the diagnostics and treatment of endometrial cancer. In particular, the identification of novel mutations and molecular profiles should enhance our ability to personalise adjuvant treatment with genome-guided targeted therapy.

  9. Obesity and endometrial cancer survival: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, H; Irwin, M L

    2013-05-01

    Although it is known that obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer and is linked to higher mortality rates in the general population, the association between obesity and mortality among endometrial cancer survivors is unclear. We performed a medline search using exploded Mesh keywords 'endometrial neoplasms/' and ('body mass index/' or 'obesity/') and ('survival analysis/' or 'mortality/' or (survivor* or survival*).mp.). We also inspected bibliographies of relevant papers to identify related publications. Our search criteria yielded 74 studies, 12 of which met inclusion criteria. Four of the included studies reported a statistically or marginally significant association between obesity and higher all cause mortality among endometrial cancer survivors after multivariate adjustment. The suggestive association between body mass index and higher all cause mortality among women with endometrial cancer was comparable to the magnitude of association reported in prospective studies of healthy women. Of the five studies that examined progression-free survival and the two studies reporting on disease-specific mortality, none reported an association with obesity. Future studies are needed to understand disease-specific mortality, the importance of obesity-onset timing and whether mechanisms of obesity-related mortality in this population of women differ from those of the general population.

  10. Obesity risk awareness in women with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Elizabeth V; Raker, Christina A; Clark, Melissa A; Stuckey, Ashley R

    2017-04-01

    To assess whether women with endometrial cancer could accurately classify their weight and identify the association between obesity and risk of endometrial, breast, and colon cancers. This was an IRB-approved (Project No. 14-0075), survey-based cross-sectional study of women ages 18-80 years with a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Patients were at least 6 months from hysterectomy and 3 months from chemotherapy or radiation. Statistical analysis was completed using Fisher's exact test, T test, ANOVA, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, or Kruskal-Wallis test. P values were two-tailed with P obese, compared to 32.0% of women with BMI 35.0-39.99 kg/m(2), and 72.7% of women with BMI >40.0 kg/m(2). Ability to correctly classify weight correlated significantly with education level (P = 0.02). Less than half of women identified obesity as a risk factor for breast (49.6%), colon (48.1%), and endometrial cancer (44.4%). 77% of all patients had discussed weight with their primary care doctor, and 38% had discussed weight with their oncologist (P obese women with endometrial cancer surveyed were unable to accurately classify their weight. Given the inconsistency between patient weight and perception of cancer risk, this represents an opportunity for gynecologic oncologists to educate their patients about weight control.

  11. Obesity and endometrial cancer survival: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, H; Irwin, ML

    2013-01-01

    Although it is known that obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer and is linked to higher mortality rates in the general population, the association between obesity and mortality among endometrial cancer survivors is unclear. We performed a medline search using exploded Mesh keywords ‘endometrial neoplasms/’ and (‘body mass index/’ or ‘obesity/’) and (‘survival analysis/’ or ‘mortality/’ or (survivor* or survival*).mp.). We also inspected bibliographies of relevant papers to identify related publications. Our search criteria yielded 74 studies, 12 of which met inclusion criteria. Four of the included studies reported a statistically or marginally significant association between obesity and higher all cause mortality among endometrial cancer survivors after multivariate adjustment. The suggestive association between body mass index and higher all cause mortality among women with endometrial cancer was comparable to the magnitude of association reported in prospective studies of healthy women. Of the five studies that examined progression-free survival and the two studies reporting on disease-specific mortality, none reported an association with obesity. Future studies are needed to understand disease-specific mortality, the importance of obesity-onset timing and whether mechanisms of obesity-related mortality in this population of women differ from those of the general population. PMID:22710929

  12. Serum endocan levels in endometrial and ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloglu, Esra; Kumtepe, Yakup; Aksoy, Hulya; Topdagi Yilmaz, Emsal Pınar

    2017-09-01

    Ovarian and endometrial carcinomas are the two most common malignancies of the female reproductive system. Endocan is a proteoglycan that is specific to vascular endothelial cells. Increased serum levels have been reported in some tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate serum endocan levels in cases of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Levels of serum endocan were assessed in 27 patients with endometrial cancer and 20 with ovarian cancer, and in 38 control subjects with benign ovarian or endometrial disorders. Thirty-five healthy subjects were also included. Serum endocan levels were measured using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum CA-125 levels were also measured in the patient and control groups. All patients had detectable serum endocan levels among endometrial and ovarian cancer groups except six cases. However, in the benign and healthy control groups, all endocan levels were undetectable except for two cases in the benign group and three in the healthy control group. Serum endocan levels were significantly higher in the entire patient group than in the controls (Pendometrial cancer and ovarian cancer were higher than in both the control groups (Pendometrial disorders do not lead to expression of endocan, malignant cases can result in measurable endocan levels. This may be useful in differentiating benign and malign diseases of the endometrium or ovary. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The significance of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żyła, Monika M.; Wilczyński, Jacek R.; Kostrzewa, Marta; Księżakowska-Łakoma, Kinga; Nowak, Marek; Stachowiak, Grzegorz; Szyłło, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common cancers experienced by women throughout the world. It is also the most common malignancy within the female reproductive system, representing 37.7% of all disorders. The incidence increases with age, and is diagnosed most frequently in women between 45 and 65 years old. In the last few years, numerous studies have been performed to identify tumour biomarkers. Biomarkers include not only protein routinely used as tumour markers but also genes and chromosomes. The limiting factor in the use of markers in the diagnosis of endometrial cancer is their lack of specificity. However, specific markers for endometrial cancer are the subject of much research attention. Although moderately elevated levels of markers are present in a number of inflammatory or non-malignant diseases, significantly increased levels of markers indicate the development of cancer. Recently, research has been focused on the identification of molecular changes leading to different histological subtypes of endometrial cancer. In this paper the authors reviewed several currently investigated markers. Progress in these investigations is very important in the diagnostics and treatment of endometrial cancer. In particular, the identification of novel mutations and molecular profiles should enhance our ability to personalise adjuvant treatment with genome-guided targeted therapy. PMID:27980530

  14. The accuracy of endometrial sampling in women with postmenopausal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hanegem, Nehalennia; Prins, Marileen M. C.; Bongers, Marlies Y.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Sahota, Daljit Singh; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Timmermans, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) can be the first sign of endometrial cancer. In case of thickened endometrium, endometrial sampling is often used in these women. In this systematic review, we studied the accuracy of endometrial sampling for the diagnoses of endometrial cancer, atypical hyperplasia and

  15. Efficacy of Foley’s Catheter and the Effect of Histopathology, Age and Endometrial Thickness Relative to the Measured Outcomes in Menorrhagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, Robina; Rasool, Madiha Ghulam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Menorrhagia adversely affects the quality of life. Hysterectomy is the definitive treatment for menorrhagia however, a number of conservative alternatives are available. Aim Hysterectomy is the definitive treatment for menorrhagia however, a number of conservative alternatives are available. A thermal balloon is an effective but costly option. We used a Foley’s catheter as an alternative to commercially available thermal balloons. If effective, it will provide a cheap alternative to the thermal balloon. Materials and Methods A Foley’s catheter was placed in the uterine cavity for 10 minutes using 0.9% saline. The measured outcomes were amenorrhea, eumenorrhea, oligomenorrhea or failure of the therapy. Endometrial thickness, age and endometrial biopsy results were also measured to determine if these variables had any effects on the outcome. Results Out of the total 42 participants, nearly half had amenorrhea (42.9%, n=18). Furthermore, 28.6% had oligomenorrhea (n=12) and 26.2% experienced eumenorrhea (n=11). Only one participant failed to respond (2.4%, n=1). There were no differences in outcomes between the different forms of histopathology. This means that thermal balloon therapy is effective in causing amenorrhea. No significant relationships existed between participants’ measured outcomes and a model containing predictor variables (age and endometrial thickness), R=0.313, R2=0.098, p=0.141. Conclusion A Foley’s catheter is effective with reasonable measured outcomes in cases of menorrhagia. PMID:28892979

  16. Critical analysis of cases of endometrial carcinoma of the uterine corpus incidentally diagnosed after incomplete surgery for other indications. Three case reports and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gajewska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Incidental diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma after the operation for presumed benign disease is rare. At present, there are no recognized guidelines on optimal management of uterine malignancy diagnosed after incomplete surgery for other indications and the reported experience is limited. Although the risk of histological diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma in the uterus removed for pre-operatively diagnosed benign disease is very low, one should always bear in mind that it may indeed occur. Omission of certain diagnostic procedures prior to hysterectomy may result in incidental finding of a malignancy at or after surgery, even when preoperative imaging studies reveal benign disease. Many centres develop their own strategies, although in most cases the adnexa and cervix are removed and thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity is performed. Also, in view of the technical difficulties involved in removing the uterus and adnexa via the vagina and a potential high risk of cancer either developing in the cervical stump or disseminated from inadvertently morcellated uterine fragments, one should carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of supracervical hysterectomy. We present three patients with endometrial carcinoma diagnosed after hysterectomy, who subsequently underwent completion surgery. A review of the literature follows, which presents opinions from international centres.

  17. Association of the apolipoprotein E 2 allele with concurrent occurrence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana I; Krikunova, Ludmila I; Ryabchenko, Nikolay I; Mkrtchyan, Liana S; Khorokhorina, Vera A; Salnikova, Lyubov E

    2015-01-01

    Genes encoding proteins with antioxidant properties may influence susceptibility to endometrial hyperplasia (EH) and endometrial carcinoma (ECa). Patients with EH (n = 89), EH concurrent with ECa (n = 76), ECa (n = 186), and healthy controls (n = 1110) were genotyped for five polymorphic variants in the genes involved in metabolism of lipoproteins (APOE Cys112Arg and Arg158Cys), iron (HFE Cys282Tyr and His63Asp), and catecholamines (COMT Val158Met). Patients and controls were matched by ethnicity (all Caucasians), age, body mass index (BMI), and incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The frequency of the APOE E 2 allele (158Cys) was higher in patients with EH + ECa than in controls (P = 0.0012, P(Bonferroni) = 0.018, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.49-4.45). The APOE E 4 allele (112Arg) was more frequently found in patients with EH than in controls and HFE minor allele G (63Asp) had a protective effect in the ECa group, though these results appeared to be nonsignificant after correction for multiple comparisons. The results of the study indicate that E 2 allele might be associated with concurrent occurrence of EH and ECa.

  18. Association of the Apolipoprotein E 2 Allele with Concurrent Occurrence of Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes encoding proteins with antioxidant properties may influence susceptibility to endometrial hyperplasia (EH and endometrial carcinoma (ECa. Patients with EH (n = 89, EH concurrent with ECa (n = 76, ECa (n = 186, and healthy controls (n = 1110 were genotyped for five polymorphic variants in the genes involved in metabolism of lipoproteins (APOE Cys112Arg and Arg158Cys, iron (HFE Cys282Tyr and His63Asp, and catecholamines (COMT Val158Met. Patients and controls were matched by ethnicity (all Caucasians, age, body mass index (BMI, and incidence of hypertension and diabetes. The frequency of the APOE E 2 allele (158Cys was higher in patients with EH + ECa than in controls (P = 0.0012, PBonferroni = 0.018, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.49–4.45. The APOE E 4 allele (112Arg was more frequently found in patients with EH than in controls and HFE minor allele G (63Asp had a protective effect in the ECa group, though these results appeared to be nonsignificant after correction for multiple comparisons. The results of the study indicate that E 2 allele might be associated with concurrent occurrence of EH and ECa.

  19. GLUT-1 Expression in Proliferative Endometrium, Endometrial Hyperplasia, Endometrial Adenocarcinoma and the Relationship Between GLUT-1 Expression and Prognostic Parameters in Endometrial Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canpolat, Tuba; Ersöz, Canan; Uğuz, Aysun; Vardar, Mehmet Ali; Altintaş, Aytekin

    2016-01-01

    Malignant cells show increased glucose uptake in in vitro and in vivo studies. This uptake is mediated by glucose transporter proteins. GLUT-1 is the most common transporter protein, and its expression is reported to be increase in many human cancers. The aim of this study is to determine the GLUT-1 overexpression in benign, hyperplastic, and malignant endometrial tissues, to evaluate the usefulness of GLUT-1 expression in endometrial hyperplasia, and to determine its role in the neoplastic progression to endometrioid type adenocarcinoma. We also aimed to analyze prognostic clinical parameters, predict prognosis, and survival. We examined immunohistochemical expression of GLUT-1 in 91 cases of endometrial hyperplasia, 100 cases of endometrioid type adenocarcinoma, and 10 proliferative endometrial tissues. The percentage of positive cells and staining intensity were assessed in a semi quantitative fashion and scored (1+ to 3+). GLUT-1 immunoreactivity was not present in proliferative endometrium. Twenty-nine (31.9%) of 91 endometrial hyperplasia cases showed positive immunoreactivity, of which only six were cases of hyperplasia without atypia while 23 of them were cases with atypia. We found GLUT-1 positivity of 95% in endometrioid type adenocarcinoma. GLUT-1 overexpression was not significantly correlated with any of the clinicopathological parameters except histological grade in endometrioid adenocarcinoma; the survival was not found to be correlated with GLUT-1 expression. GLUT-1 immunostaining may be useful in distinguishing hyperplasia without atypia from hyperplasia with atypia; GLUT-1 overexpression is a consistent feature of endometrioid adenocarcinoma. A correlation between GLUT -1 expression and tumor grade has been found, although other prognostic parameters and survival has no meaningful correlation.

  20. Management of stage II endometrial adenocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, E.L.; Jones, H.W. III

    1988-03-01

    Charts of 36 patients with clinical stage II endometrial adenocarcinoma over ten years were reviewed. All were staged before any treatment, in accordance with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) guidelines. Although details of treatment varied, two main protocols were used. Fourteen patients were treated with the standard protocol involving external whole-pelvis radiation, followed by intracavitary cesium and then hysterectomy. In 1981, a modified protocol was introduced, which called for a hysterectomy immediately following intrauterine and vaginal cesium. External radiation therapy was given only to those patients found to have deep myometrial invasion or cervical involvement. Of 14 patients treated by this protocol, seven had no surgical indication for postoperative external radiation. There was no increase in recurrence in these patients, and the five-year survival rate was 76% for patients treated with the modified protocol compared with 65% for those who had standard therapy. Morbidity related to external radiation therapy occurred in two patients with the standard protocol and one patient who received pelvic radiation on the modified protocol.

  1. Endometrial Adenocarcinoma with Concomitant Left Atrial Myxoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa N. Abaid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atrial myxomas are the most common primary heart tumors and predominantly considered to be benign lesions. Case Study: We report a case involving a 77-year-old woman who presented with a pelvic mass. She was found to have a primary endometrial cancer and primary lung cancer with concomitant metastatic adrenal gland and mesenteric lesions. Her prior medical history also included an untreated 4.0 × 2.0-cm left atrial myxoma which was identified on CT scan during the workup of her pelvic mass. Results: A clinical decision was made to proceed with surgery for the pelvic mass with a subsequent recommendation for left atrial mass resection. Currently, the patient is scheduled to begin chemotherapy for primary lung cancer. Conclusion: The reported incidence of uterine cancer and a concurrent atrial myxoma is very rare. Consequently, the manner and timing in which treatment should be provided is imprecise. In the present case, the risk for cardiac complications was high, but given the presence of a partial bowel obstruction and the need to diagnose the primary site of her metastatic malignancy, the decision was made to proceed with exploratory abdominal surgery.

  2. Properties of quarter-wavelength coaxial cavity for triode-type thermionic RF gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgasin, Konstantin; Mishima, Kenta; Zen, Heishun; Yoshida, Kohei; Negm, Hani; Omer, Muhamed; Kii, Toshiteru; Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Masuda, Kai; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2017-09-01

    A quarter-wavelength coaxial cavity with a longitudinal radio-frequency power supply was fabricated and tested. The cavity was designed as a pre-buncher for a thermionic triode-type radio-frequency gun of a mid-infrared free electron laser facility. The triode structure was formed to ensure the reduction of the back-bombarding effect, which usually appears in thermionic radio-frequency guns. The coaxial cavity was tested using a tungsten dispenser cathode. From the results of the cold test, a cavity voltage of about 25 kV can be attained, which corresponds to designed characteristics. In contrast, the hot test showed a sudden drop in voltage, resulting in an unstable operation. The small dimensions of the cavity caused some low-field effects, which led to multipactoring. In this paper, we report the tested characteristics of the pre-bunching cavity.

  3. Vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides a vertical cavity laser comprising a grating layer comprising an in-plane grating, the grating layer having a first side and having a second side opposite the first side and comprising a contiguous core grating region having a grating structure, wherein an index......, an index of refraction of the second low-index layer or air being less than 2; and a thickness of the cap layer and a thickness of the grating layer, and a pitch and a duty cycle of the grating structure are selected to obtain a resonance having a free-space resonance wavelength in the interval 300 nm to 3...... microns, the cap layer comprises an active region configured to generate or absorb photons at the free-space resonance wavelength by stimulated emission or absorption when a sufficient forward or reverse bias voltage is applied across the active region, a thickness of the first low-index layer is less...

  4. Shock induced cavity collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Jonathan; Doyle, Hugo; Tully, Brett; Betney, Matthew; Foster, Peta; Ringrose, Tim; Ramasamy, Rohan; Parkin, James; Edwards, Tom; Hawker, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Results from the experimental investigation of cavity collapse driven by a strong planar shock (>6km/s) are presented. Data from high speed framing cameras, laser backlit diagnostics and time-resolved pyromety are used to validate the results of hydrodynamic front-tracking simulations. As a code validation exercise, a 2-stage light gas gun was used to accelerate a 1g Polycarbonate projectile to velocities exceeding 6km/s; impact with a PMMA target containing a gas filled void results in the formation of a strong shockwave with pressures exceeding 1Mbar. The subsequent phenomena associated with the collapse of the void and excitation of the inert gas fill are recorded and compared to simulated data. Variation of the mass density and atomic number of the gas fill is used to alter the plasma parameters furthering the extent of the code validation.

  5. Dissociative Depression is Resistant to Treatment-As-Usual

    OpenAIRE

    Vedat ?ar

    2015-01-01

    A new concept introduced by the author, the dissociative depression differs from primary depression in symptomatology, course and treatment response. Being related to traumatization in childhood, dissociative depression tends to be chronic and is usually classified as treatment-resistant due to its limited response to biological interventions. Trauma-focused psychotherapy targeting dissociative psychopathology leads to positive results. However, such patients are usually undertreated in terms...

  6. Infertility and incident endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis from the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H P; Cook, L S; Weiderpass, E; Adami, H-O; Anderson, K E; Cai, H; Cerhan, J R; Clendenen, T V; Felix, A S; Friedenreich, C M; Garcia-Closas, M; Goodman, M T; Liang, X; Lissowska, J; Lu, L; Magliocco, A M; McCann, S E; Moysich, K B; Olson, S H; Petruzella, S; Pike, M C; Polidoro, S; Ricceri, F; Risch, H A; Sacerdote, C; Setiawan, V W; Shu, X O; Spurdle, A B; Trabert, B; Webb, P M; Wentzensen, N; Xiang, Y-B; Xu, Y; Yu, H; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Brinton, L A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nulliparity is an endometrial cancer risk factor, but whether or not this association is due to infertility is unclear. Although there are many underlying infertility causes, few studies have assessed risk relations by specific causes. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of 8153 cases and 11 713 controls from 2 cohort and 12 case-control studies. All studies provided self-reported infertility and its causes, except for one study that relied on data from national registries. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Nulliparous women had an elevated endometrial cancer risk compared with parous women, even after adjusting for infertility (OR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.59–1.94). Women who reported infertility had an increased risk compared with those without infertility concerns, even after adjusting for nulliparity (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.13–1.33). Among women who reported infertility, none of the individual infertility causes were substantially related to endometrial cancer. Conclusions: Based on mainly self-reported infertility data that used study-specific definitions of infertility, nulliparity and infertility appeared to independently contribute to endometrial cancer risk. Understanding residual endometrial cancer risk related to infertility, its causes and its treatments may benefit from large studies involving detailed data on various infertility parameters. PMID:25688738

  7. Infertility and incident endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis from the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium (E2C2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H P; Cook, L S; Weiderpass, E; Adami, H-O; Anderson, K E; Cai, H; Cerhan, J R; Clendenen, T V; Felix, A S; Friedenreich, C M; Garcia-Closas, M; Goodman, M T; Liang, X; Lissowska, J; Lu, L; Magliocco, A M; McCann, S E; Moysich, K B; Olson, S H; Petruzella, S; Pike, M C; Polidoro, S; Ricceri, F; Risch, H A; Sacerdote, C; Setiawan, V W; Shu, X O; Spurdle, A B; Trabert, B; Webb, P M; Wentzensen, N; Xiang, Y-B; Xu, Y; Yu, H; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Brinton, L A

    2015-03-03

    Nulliparity is an endometrial cancer risk factor, but whether or not this association is due to infertility is unclear. Although there are many underlying infertility causes, few studies have assessed risk relations by specific causes. We conducted a pooled analysis of 8153 cases and 11 713 controls from 2 cohort and 12 case-control studies. All studies provided self-reported infertility and its causes, except for one study that relied on data from national registries. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Nulliparous women had an elevated endometrial cancer risk compared with parous women, even after adjusting for infertility (OR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.59-1.94). Women who reported infertility had an increased risk compared with those without infertility concerns, even after adjusting for nulliparity (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.13-1.33). Among women who reported infertility, none of the individual infertility causes were substantially related to endometrial cancer. Based on mainly self-reported infertility data that used study-specific definitions of infertility, nulliparity and infertility appeared to independently contribute to endometrial cancer risk. Understanding residual endometrial cancer risk related to infertility, its causes and its treatments may benefit from large studies involving detailed data on various infertility parameters.

  8. Age at Last Birth in Relation to Risk of Endometrial Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Pike, Malcolm C.; Karageorgi, Stalo; Deming, Sandra L.; Anderson, Kristin; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A.; Cai, Hui; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Chen, Chu; Doherty, Jennifer; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Lacey, James V.; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; Mack, Thomas; Matsuno, Rayna K.; McCann, Susan; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Olson, Sara H.; Rastogi, Radhai; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Risch, Harvey; Robien, Kim; Schairer, Catherine; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Strom, Brian L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Ursin, Giske; Webb, Penelope M.; Weiss, Noel S.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Hannah P.; Yu, Herbert; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-01-01

    Childbearing at an older age has been associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer, but whether the association is independent of the number of births or other factors remains unclear. Individual-level data from 4 cohort and 13 case-control studies in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium were pooled. A total of 8,671 cases of endometrial cancer and 16,562 controls were included in the analysis. After adjustment for known risk factors, endometrial cancer risk declined with increasing age at last birth (Ptrend < 0.0001). The pooled odds ratio per 5-year increase in age at last birth was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.90). Women who last gave birth at 40 years of age or older had a 44% decreased risk compared with women who had their last birth under the age of 25 years (95% confidence interval: 47, 66). The protective association was similar across the different age-at-diagnosis groups and for the 2 major tumor histologic subtypes (type I and type II). No effect modification was observed by body mass index, parity, or exogenous hormone use. In this large pooled analysis, late age at last birth was independently associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer, and the reduced risk persisted for many years. PMID:22831825

  9. Morphometry of Glenoid Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha T

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Knowledge of the shape and dimensions of the glenoid are important in the design and fitting of glenoid components for total shoulder arthroplasty. An understanding of variations in normal anatomy of the glenoid is essential while evaluating pathological conditions like osseous Bankart lesions and osteochondral defects. Methods: This study was done on 202 dry, unpaired adult human scapulae of unknown sex belonging to the south Indian population. Three glenoid diameters were measured, the superior-inferior diameter, anterior-posterior diameter of the lower half and the anterior-posterior diameter of the upper half of the glenoid. Based on a notch present on the anterior glenoid rim, variations in the shape of the glenoid cavity were classified as inverted comma shaped, pear shaped and oval. Results: The average superior-inferior diameter on right and the left sides were 33.67±2.82mm and 33.92±2.87mm respectively. The average anterior-posterior diameter of the lower half of the right glenoid was 23.35±2.04mm and that of the left was 23.02±2.30mm. The mean diameter of the upper half of the right glenoid was 16.27±2.01mm and that of the left was 15.77±1.96mm. Conclusion: The dimensions of the glenoid observed in the present study were lesser than those recorded in the studies done on other populations. This fact may be taken into consideration while designing glenoid prostheses for the south Indian population. The current study recorded a higher percentage of glenoid cavities having the glenoid notch as compared to earlier studies. While evaluating defects/lesions of the glenoid, this fact could be useful.

  10. PGK1 and GRP78 overexpression correlates with clinical significance and poor prognosis in Chinese endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Suiqun; Xiao, Yanyi; Li, Danqing; Jiang, Qingping; Zhu, Litong; Lin, Dan; Jiang, Huiping; Chen, Wei; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Chunhua; Fang, Weiyi; Lin, Li

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this study was to measure the expression patterns of PGK1 and GRP78 in normal endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma, and associations between their combined effects and the pathological features of endometrial carcinoma. We used 30 normal endometrial tissue samples and 130 endometrial carcinoma samples, and separately evaluated PGK1 and GRP78 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. Scores ranging from 0 to 9 were obtained by multiplying the percentage of positive cells by the staining intensity (0-3). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased PGK1 and GRP78 expression in the cytoplasm of endometrial carcinoma cells compared with that in normal endometrial tissues. High PGK1 expression positively correlated with the FIGO stage ( P endometrial carcinoma patients ( P endometrial carcinoma patients correlated significantly with the lymph node status ( P endometrial carcinoma progression.

  11. Timing of Intrauterine Manipulator Insertion During Minimally Invasive Surgical Staging and Results of Pelvic Cytology in Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Hiroko; Casey, Jacob P; Garcia-Sayre, Jocelyn; Jung, Carrie E; Casabar, Jennifer K; Moeini, Aida; Kato, Kazuyoshi; Roman, Lynda D; Matsuo, Koji

    2016-02-01

    Considering the hypothetical concern of retrograde tumor spread to the peritoneal cavity by insertion of an intrauterine manipulator, we examined the correlation between the timing of manipulator insertion and the results of pelvic cytology during total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) in endometrial cancer. Case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University-based hospitals. Stage I to IV endometrial cancer patients who underwent TLH in which an intrauterine manipulator was used. Medical records were reviewed for patient demographics, surgical details, and tumor characteristics. Archived medical record review. A total of 333 patients was identified. Cases were divided into those with intrauterine manipulator insertion after pelvic cytology sampling (Group 1, n = 103) and those with intrauterine manipulator insertion before pelvic cytology sampling (Group 2, n = 230). Types of intrauterine manipulator were similar across the 2 groups (p = .77). There was no statistical difference in the results of pelvic cytology between the 2 groups: Group 1 versus 2, atypical cells 2.9% versus 4.8% and malignant cells 5.8% versus 9.6% (p = .36). Uterine perforation related to intrauterine manipulator insertion was seen in 1.0% and .4% of each group (p = .52). In a multivariate analysis controlling for demographics and tumor characteristics, advanced-stage disease remained an independent risk factor associated with increased risk of atypical and malignant cells (adjusted odds ratio, 10.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.44-23.8; p cytology. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Multivariate assessment of cervical invasion of endometrial carcinoma. Comparison of transvaginal ultrasonography, hysteroscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Yasunari; Yamada, Shinako; Miyagi, Yuji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1997-07-01

    From 1991 to 1995, 71 patients with endometrial cancer at Okayama University Medical School underwent transvaginal ultrasonography with a 6.5-MHz transducer, MRI at 1.5 T, and hysteroscopy using a rigid hysteroscope. The findings of these examinations were compared against pathologic results. The sensitivity/specificity/accuracy were 0.73/0.89/0.86 for transvaginal ultrasonography, 0.73/0.88/0.85 for MRI, and 0.73/0.80/0.79 for hysteroscopy. The coefficient values for transvaginal ultrasonography/MRI/hysteroscopy were 0.69/0.62/-0.21 and 1.99/1.89/0.79 in quantification theory second family analysis and logistic regression, respectively. Misdiagnosed cases had the following factors: large tumor volume; tumor near the internal os; tumor descending from the uterine cavity; polypoid tumor in the endocervix; artifacts due to the use of a cervix dilator made from stems of the seaweed Laminaria japonica; endocervical glandular involvement only; and atypical signals on MRI. For the preoperative assessment of cervical invasion, transvaginal ultrasonography and MRI were the most reliable. Hysteroscopy was least reliable, because of a large number of false-positive results. The use of these examinations in combination, especially transvaginal ultrasonography and MRI, would be of great value in surgical planning for endometrial cancer, considering the factors responsible for misdiagnosis. (K.H.)

  13. Microscopic endometrial perivascular epithelioid cell nodules: a case report with the earliest presentation of a uterine perivascular epithelioid cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chia-Lang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Perivascular epithelioid cell (PEC tumors (PEComas are a family of related mesenchymal tumors composed of PECs which co-express melanocytic and smooth muscle markers. Although their distinctive histologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and genetic features have been clearly demonstrated, their histogenesis and normal counterpart remain largely unknown. Precursor lesions of PEComas have rarely been reported. We herein describe a tuberous sclerosis patient with microscopic PEC nodules in the endometrium of adenomyosis, pelvic endometriosis, an ovarian endometriotic cyst, and the endometrium of the uterine cavity. The nodules showed a mixture of spindle-shaped and epithelioid cells concentrically arranged around small arteries. The cells exhibited uniform nuclei, light eosinophilic cytoplasm, and immunoreactivity with HMB-45 and CD10. Some nodules revealed continuity with a PEComa in the myometrium. These findings support microscopic endometrial PEC nodules possibly being precursor lesions of uterine PEComas. The wide distribution of the nodules in the pelvis may be related to the multicentricity of PEComas in tuberous sclerosis patients. Owing to the immunoreactivity with CD10, microscopic endometrial PEC nodules may be misinterpreted as endothelial stromal cells unless melanocytic markers are stained. To the best of our knowledge, this is a case with the earliest manifestation of PEC lesions occurring in the endometrium. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/9658280017862643

  14. Endometrial Effects of Prolonged Therapy with the Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator Ulipristal Acetate: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary; Elkas, John; Armstrong, Alicia Y; Nieman, Lynnette K

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to a selective progesterone receptor modulator (ulipristal acetate) in a patient with benign metastasizing leiomyoma did not result in endometrial hyperplasia or neoplasia. A woman with history of benign metastasizing leiomyoma underwent medical treatment for 5 years with ulipristal acetate. Endometrial biopsies were performed at established intervals to monitor for intraepithelial neoplasia or progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAECs). The patient tolerated UPA therapy well; there was no evidence of hyperplasia or proliferative changes associated with progesterone-associated endometrial changes. In this case prolonged exposure to ulipristal acetate did not result in premalignant or malignant endometrial pathology.

  15. Tubal Pregnancy Associated with Endometrial Carcinoma after In Vitro Fertilization Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesim Bayoglu Tekin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial carcinoma is rarely seen during reproductive ages and commonly related to infertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, and obesity. Pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma is even rarer and this is the second case reported in the literature concerning tubal pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma. We present a case of a 36-year-old woman with a history of PCOS, infertility, and several attempts of ovulation induction and in vitro fertilization, who was diagnosed with tubal pregnancy and a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma. We also review the literature about pregnancy associated endometrial carcinoma in the first trimester.

  16. Intrauterine manipulation does not adversely influence the direction and frequency of endometrial waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gestel, Iris; Ijland, Marga M; Willekes, Christine; Evers, Johannes L H; Hoogland, Henk J

    2008-11-01

    To investigate whether intrauterine manipulation affects the direction or alters the frequency of endometrial wavelike activity. Prospective observational study. University hospital-based fertility clinic. Thirty-six patients undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI). Ultrasound observation before and after IUI. Endometrial wave type and endometrial wave frequency before and after IUI. There was no difference in the direction and frequency of endometrial waves before and after IUI in 36 patients. Although the induction of uterine contractions by intrauterine manipulation has been suggested in the literature, the present study shows no contractions or induction of unfavorable (fundus to cervix) endometrial wavelike activity in 36 patients undergoing IUI.

  17. Endometrial polyp in an African wild dog (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H S; Park, N Y

    2006-11-01

    An 8-year-old female African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) from a zoo in Gyeonggi province, Republic of Korea presented with a 3.0 x 2.0 x 2.5 cm in size, smooth-surfaced, solitary pedunculated mass protruding into the uterine lumen. Microscopically, the mass was covered with epithelium, contained endometrial gland tissue, and was dilated in the vascularised stroma. Within the mass, there was extensive diffuse haemorrhage with several blood vessels apparently plugged with fibrin. At the base of the mass, the spaces lined with epithelium near the attachment of the stalk were interpreted to be glandular structures. There were segments of cuboidal epithelium found on the surface of the mass, which was similar to the lining the uterus. A diagnosis of an endometrial polyp was made based on the gross and histology findings. This is the first case report of a spontaneous endometrial polyp in an African wild dog.

  18. Mutations of the KRAS oncogene in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Niklińska

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and clinicopathological significance of KRAS point mutation in endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. We analysed KRAS in 11 cases of complex atypical hyperplasia and in 49 endometrial carcinomas using polymerase chain reaction associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFPL. Point mutations at codon 12 of KRAS oncogene were identified in 7 of 49 (14,3% tumor specimens and in 2 of 11 (18,2% hyperplasias. No correlation was found between KRAS gene mutation and age at onset, histology, grade of differentiation and clinical stage. We conclude that KRAS mutation is a relatively common event in endometrial carcinogenesis, but with no prognostic value.

  19. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, Lea L; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    , estrogen plus progestin or tibolone for a minimum of one year. Risk of endometrial cancer was compared to placebo or never users and measured as relative risk, hazard or odds ratio. RESULTS: 28 studies were included. The observational literature found an increased risk among users of estrogen alone......BACKGROUND: In 1975, estrogen only was found to be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. In November 2015, NICE guidelines on hormone therapy were published that did not take this risk into account. AIM: This systematic literature review assesses the safety of estrogen plus...... progestin therapy according to the risk of endometrial cancer, while considering both regimen and type of progestin. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched, resulting in the identification of 527 published articles on menopausal women with intact uteri treated with estrogen only...

  20. Endometrial Ablation for Aplastic Anemia-Associated Menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Shaheen; Abdullah, Amer; Hurwitz, Joshua; Stedman, Jennifer K; Samuelson, Robert; Shahabi, Shohreh

    2015-05-01

    Aplastic anemia is characterized by bone marrow failure and pancytopenia. In women, this can lead to menorrhagia secondary to thrombocytopenia which may require treatment depending on its severity. We report a patient with aplastic anemia-associated menorrhagia requiring emergency inpatient endometrial ablation due to transfusion dependence. A 42-year-old G3P3003 female presented with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and metrorrhagia. Her subsequent bone marrow biopsy revealed aplastic anemia. Her menometrorrhagia progressively worsened and she remained transfusion dependent. In the hospital, the patient underwent an uneventful endometrial ablation to control her vaginal bleeding. Patient reports only minor spotting after the procedure. Endometrial ablation is a safe and effective technique of treating acute menorrhagia in patients with aplastic anemia. It can reduce vaginal bleeding and decrease transfusion dependence.

  1. Plasma oestrogens in postmenopausal women with endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Lyndrup, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study plasma levels of estrogens and androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in postmenopausal patients with endometrial cancer. DESIGN: Patients and controls were matched for age, body mass index, parity and years since menopause. SETTING......: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Fifty postmenopausal patients with endometrial cancer and 54 matching controls. MEASUREMENTS: Plasma levels of SHBG, FSH, oestrone, oestradiol, oestrone-sulphate, dehydro-epiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone...... for the effect of body mass, age, years since menopause, parity, and levels of SHBG and FSH. CONCLUSION: Patients with endometrial cancer exhibit increased plasma levels of oestradiol and oestrone. Speculatively, these oestrogens may result from an increased oestrone conversion from androstenedione, an increased...

  2. ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO Consensus Conference on Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicoletta; Creutzberg, Carien; Amant, Frederic; Bosse, Tjalling; González-Martín, Antonio; Ledermann, Jonathan; Marth, Christian; Nout, Remi; Querleu, Denis; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sessa, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The first joint European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) consensus conference on endometrial cancer was held on 11–13 December 2014 in Milan, Italy, and comprised a multidisciplinary panel of 40 leading experts in the management of endometrial cancer. Before the conference, the expert panel prepared three clinically-relevant questions about endometrial cancer relating to the following four areas: prevention and screening, surgery, adjuvant treatment and advanced and recurrent disease. All relevant scientific literature, as identified by the experts, was reviewed in advance. During the consensus conference, the panel developed recommendations for each specific question and a consensus was reached. Results of this consensus conference, together with a summary of evidence supporting each recommendation, are detailed in this article. All participants have approved this final article. PMID:26645990

  3. Serum tetranectin and CA125 in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, M S; Høgdall, C K; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CA125 and tetranectin (TN) are prognostic markers in ovarian cancer. This study examines the values of these markers in endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TN and CA125 were determined preoperatively in 99 patients with primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma and evaluated in relat......BACKGROUND: CA125 and tetranectin (TN) are prognostic markers in ovarian cancer. This study examines the values of these markers in endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TN and CA125 were determined preoperatively in 99 patients with primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma and evaluated....../ml was not an independent factor when stage was introduced. TN levels were within the normal range in all patients and did not show any association with tumor grade, stage or survival. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed the role of CA125 as a prognostic factor in endometrial cancer and may be of aid in pointing out patients...

  4. Role of epigenomics in ovarian and endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Curtis; Matei, Daniela E; Huang, Tim H-M; Nephew, Kenneth P

    2010-06-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and while constituting only 3% of all female cancers, it causes 14,600 deaths in the USA annually. Endometrial cancer, the most diagnosed and second-most fatal gynecologic cancer, afflicts over 40,000 US women annually, causing an estimated 7780 deaths in 2009. In both advanced ovarian and endometrial carcinomas, the majority of initially therapy-responsive tumors eventually evolve to a fully drug-resistant phenotype. In addition to genetic mutations, epigenetic anomalies are frequent in both gynecologic malignancies, including aberrant DNA methylation, atypical histone modifications and dysregulated expression of distinct microRNAs, resulting in altered gene-expression patterns favoring cell survival. In this article, we summarize the most recent hypotheses regarding the role of epigenetics in ovarian and endometrial cancers, including a possible role in tumor 'stemness' and also evaluate the possible therapeutic benefits of reversal of these oncogenic chromatin aberrations.

  5. Relationship between DNA Mismatch Repair Deficiency and Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Masuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cases of endometrial cancer are associated with a familial tumor and are referred to as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC or Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome is thought to be induced by germline mutation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR gene. An aberration in the MMR gene prevents accurate repair of base mismatches produced during DNA replication. This phenomenon can lead to an increased frequency of errors in target genes involved in carcinogenesis, resulting in cancerization of the cell. On the other hand, aberrant DNA methylation is thought to play a key role in sporadic endometrial carcinogenesis. Hypermethylation of unmethylated CpG islands in the promoter regions of cancer-related genes associated with DNA repair leads to the cell becoming cancerous. Thus, both genetic and epigenetic changes are intricately involved in the process through which cells become cancerous. In this review, we introduce the latest findings on the DNA mismatch repair pathway in endometrial cancer.

  6. The expression of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 proteins regulating endometrial remodeling in the porcine endometrial tissues during follicular and luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Boo-Keun; Park, Choon-Keun

    2017-09-01

    Endometrial remodeling is important for successful embryo development and implantation in pigs. Therefore, this study investigated change of proteins regulating endometrial remodeling on follicular and luteal phase in porcine endometrial tissues. The endometrial tissue samples were collected from porcine uterus during follicular and luteal phase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), myoglobin and cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2) proteins were expressed by immnofluorescence, immunoblotting, and determined by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/MS. We found that VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 were strongly localized in endometrial tissues during luteal phase, but not follicular phase. The protein levels of VEGF, myoglobin and CRP2 in endometrial tissues were higher than luteal phase (P < 0.05). These results may provide understanding of intrauterine environment during estrous cycle in pigs, and will be used in animal reproduction for developing specific biomarkers in the future. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Frequency Tuning for a DQW Crab Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Verdú-Andrés, Silvia; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, Rama; Capatina, Ofelia; Leuxe, Raphael; Skaritka, John; Wu, Qiong; Xiao, Binping; Zanoni, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The nominal operating frequency for the HL-LHC crab cavities is 400.79 MHz within a bandwidth of ±60kHz. Attaining the required cavity tune implies a good understanding of all the processes that influence the cavity frequency from the moment when the cavity parts are being fabricated until the cavity is installed and under operation. Different tuning options will be available for the DQW crab cavity of LHC. This paper details the different steps in the cavity fabrication and preparation that may introduce a shift in the cavity frequency and introduces the different tuning methods foreseen to bring the cavity frequency to meet the specifications.

  8. Robotic surgery in supermorbidly obese patients with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Jean-Marie; Goodheart, Michael J; McDonald, Megan; Hansen, Jean; Reyes, Henry D; Button, Anna; Bender, David

    2015-07-01

    Morbid obesity is a known risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the overall feasibility of robotic-assisted surgical staging for endometrial cancer as well as the benefits of robotics compared with laparotomy. However, there have been few reports that have evaluated robotic surgery for endometrial cancer in the supermorbidly obese population (body mass index [BMI], ≥50 kg/m(2)). We sought to evaluate safety, feasibility, and outcomes for supermorbidly obese patients who undergo robotic surgery for endometrial cancer, compared with patients with lower body mass indices. We performed a retrospective chart review of 168 patients with suspected early-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma who underwent robotic surgery for the management of their disease. Analysis of variance and univariate logistic regression were used to compare patient characteristics and surgical variables across all body weights. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the impact of body weight on recurrence-free and overall survival. The mean BMI of our cohort was 40.9 kg/m(2). Median follow up was 31 months. Fifty-six patients, 30% of which had grade 2 or 3 tumors, were supermorbidly obese with a BMI of ≥50 kg/m(2) (mean, 56.3 kg/m(2)). A comparison between the supermorbidly obese and lower-weight patients demonstrated no differences in terms of length of hospital stay, blood loss, complication rates, numbers of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes retrieved, or recurrence and survival. There was a correlation between BMI and conversion to an open procedure, in which the odds of conversion increased with increasing BMI (P = .02). Offering robotic surgery to supermorbidly obese patients with endometrial cancer is a safe and feasible surgical management option. When compared with patients with a lower BMI, the supermorbidly obese patient had a similar outcome, length of hospital stay, blood loss, complications, and numbers of lymph

  9. Infant Feeding and the Incidence of Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena A.; Maxwell, G. Larry; Hankinson, Susan E.; Michels, Karin B.

    2010-01-01

    Biological mechanisms could support both an inverse and a direct association between exposure to breast milk in infancy and the risk of cancer. Having been breast-fed has been investigated in relation to the risk of breast and other cancer sites, and conflicting results have been reported. The association between infant feeding and the risk of endometrial cancer has not been explored. From 1976 to 2004, we followed 74,757 cancer-free participants in the Nurses’ Health Study who had not undergone hysterectomy. Information on infant feeding was self-reported by study participants. A total of 708 incident cases of endometrial cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. After adjusting for age, family history of endometrial cancer, birth weight, premature birth, and birth order, the incidence of endometrial cancer was not associated with ever having been breast-fed (hazards ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.79–1.11) or duration of having been breast-fed [hazards ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.11 (0.80–1.54), 0.84 (0.62–1.13), 1.02 (0.79–1.31), respectively, for ≤3, 4–8, and ≥9 months of having been breastfed; P for trend = 0.88]. There was no significant effect modification by menopausal status, anthropometric factors (somatotype at age 5 or 10 years, body mass index at age 18 years, or current body mass index), or by other early-life exposures (birth weight, premature birth or exposure to parental smoking in childhood). Additional adjustment for adulthood risk factors of endometrial cancer did not materially change the results. Having been breast-fed was not associated with the incidence of endometrial cancer in this cohort, but statistical power for analyses restricted to premenopausal women was limited. PMID:18541614

  10. Apelin levels are higher in obese patients with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkaya, S Ozlem; Nergiz, Sümeyra; Küçük, Mert; Yüksel, Hasan

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum concentrations of apelin, a newly discovered adipocytokine, in relation with tumor markers, metabolic profile and clinicopathologic features of patients with endometrial cancer. A total of 46 women with endometrial cancer and 44 controls were eligible for the study. Clinicopathologic features and metabolic profile as well as apelin-36 levels were evaluated in each subject. Women with endometrial cancer exhibited higher serum concentrations of apelin levels than controls (215.1 ± 59.8 pg/mL vs 177.3 ± 55.2 pg/mL, P = 0.002). Apelin levels were significantly correlated positively with body mass index, fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment index (P obese (body mass index ≥ 30) and non-obese women, apelin levels remained higher in women with endometrial cancer in the obese group (P = 0.006, 243.5 ± 49.2 pg/mL vs 200.5 ± 52.7 pg/mL, respectively); whereas these levels were similar in the non-obese group (P = 0.879, 161.9 ± 37.5 pg/mL vs 159.6 ± 51.3, respectively). After adjustment for all possible confounding factors, age, apelin levels > 160 pg/mL, and diabetes mellitus were found to be associated with risk of endometrial cancer. The data of the present study suggest that higher levels of circulating apelin are associated with an increased risk of developing endometrial cancer in obese women. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Bokhman Redux: Endometrial cancer "types" in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Adrian A; Felix, Ashley S; Cohn, David E

    2017-02-01

    In 1983 Jan V. Bokhman, M.D. published a landmark paper entitled "Two Pathogenetic Types of Endometrial Carcinoma" in which an enduring dualistic view of endometrial cancer was first proposed. "Type I" cancers are thought to represent estrogen driven mostly low grade endometrioid tumors strongly associated with obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. "Type II" cancers represent higher grade non-endometrioid tumors for which the latter associations are less significant. Basic tenets of this dichotomy including significant prognostic differences have been abundantly confirmed by later literature. The construct has in turn contributed a useful framework for decades of teaching and scientific advancement across disciplines. However, recent large epidemiologic studies indicate a more complex web of risk factors with obesity and hormones likely playing an important role across the entire endometrial cancer histologic and clinical spectrum. Moreover, high quality molecular data and refinements in pathologic classification challenge any simplistic classification of endometrial cancer. For example, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) recently defined four clinically distinct endometrial cancer types based on their overall mutational burden, specific p53, POLE and PTEN mutations, microsatellite instability and histology. Additionally, new histologic categories with clear prognostic implications have been accepted and it is becoming evident from an epidemiologic point of view that metabolic factors may play an important role in endometrial cancer overall. While Bokhman's intuitive dualistic model remains relevant when working with large registries and databases lacking granular information; most other efforts should integrate clinical, pathological and molecular specifics into more nuanced classifications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood body mass index growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate; Ulrich, Lian G; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-01-15

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer; however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6-14 years and born 1930-1989 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z scores. Using linear spline multilevel models, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1,020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain in BMI during childhood was positively associated with endometrial cancer but no differences between the different growth periods were detected in models adjusted for baseline BMI. The hazard ratios for the associations with overall growth during childhood per 0.1 z score increase were 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.24) for all endometrial cancers, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.21) for estrogen-dependent cancers, 1.16 (95% CI: 1.06-1.26) for endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.84) for non-estrogen-dependent cancers. Growth in BMI in early life is positively linked to later endometrial cancer risk. We did not identify any sensitive childhood growth period, which suggests that excess gain in BMI during the entire childhood period should be avoided. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  13. Stem cell-like differentiation potentials of endometrial side population cells as revealed by a newly developed in vivo endometrial stem cell assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Endometrial stem/progenitor cells contribute to the cyclical regeneration of human endometrium throughout a woman's reproductive life. Although the candidate cell populations have been extensively studied, no consensus exists regarding which endometrial population represents the stem/progenitor cell fraction in terms of in vivo stem cell activity. We have previously reported that human endometrial side population cells (ESP, but not endometrial main population cells (EMP, exhibit stem cell-like properties, including in vivo reconstitution of endometrium-like tissues when xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. The reconstitution efficiency, however, was low presumably because ESP cells alone could not provide a sufficient microenvironment (niche to support their stem cell activity. The objective of this study was to establish a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay employing cell tracking and tissue reconstitution systems and to examine the stem cell properties of ESP through use of this assay.ESP and EMP cells isolated from whole endometrial cells were infected with lentivirus to express tandem Tomato (TdTom, a red fluorescent protein. They were mixed with unlabeled whole endometrial cells and then transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized immunodeficient mice. These mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone for eight weeks and nephrectomized. All of the grafts reconstituted endometrium-like tissues under the kidney capsules. Immunofluorescence revealed that TdTom-positive cells were significantly more abundant in the glandular, stromal, and endothelial cells of the reconstituted endometrium in mice transplanted with TdTom-labeled ESP cells than those with TdTom-labeled EMP cells.We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo endometrial tissue reconstitution. Using this assay, we demonstrated that ESP

  14. Stem Cell-Like Differentiation Potentials of Endometrial Side Population Cells as Revealed by a Newly Developed In Vivo Endometrial Stem Cell Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kaoru; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Masuda, Hirotaka; Yamasaki, Akiko; Uchida, Sayaka; Oda, Hideyuki; Uchida, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Background Endometrial stem/progenitor cells contribute to the cyclical regeneration of human endometrium throughout a woman's reproductive life. Although the candidate cell populations have been extensively studied, no consensus exists regarding which endometrial population represents the stem/progenitor cell fraction in terms of in vivo stem cell activity. We have previously reported that human endometrial side population cells (ESP), but not endometrial main population cells (EMP), exhibit stem cell-like properties, including in vivo reconstitution of endometrium-like tissues when xenotransplanted into immunodeficient mice. The reconstitution efficiency, however, was low presumably because ESP cells alone could not provide a sufficient microenvironment (niche) to support their stem cell activity. The objective of this study was to establish a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay employing cell tracking and tissue reconstitution systems and to examine the stem cell properties of ESP through use of this assay. Methodology/Principal Findings ESP and EMP cells isolated from whole endometrial cells were infected with lentivirus to express tandem Tomato (TdTom), a red fluorescent protein. They were mixed with unlabeled whole endometrial cells and then transplanted under the kidney capsule of ovariectomized immunodeficient mice. These mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone for eight weeks and nephrectomized. All of the grafts reconstituted endometrium-like tissues under the kidney capsules. Immunofluorescence revealed that TdTom-positive cells were significantly more abundant in the glandular, stromal, and endothelial cells of the reconstituted endometrium in mice transplanted with TdTom-labeled ESP cells than those with TdTom-labeled EMP cells. Conclusions/Significance We have established a novel in vivo endometrial stem cell assay in which multi-potential differentiation can be identified through cell tracking during in vivo endometrial tissue

  15. Cytological assessment of endometrial washings obtained with an insemination cannula and its histological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Reeni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometrial cytopathology is a powerful tool for the detection of a wide variety of benign atypias, inflammatory changes, and infectious organisms. It is also helpful for the cytohormonal evaluation of patients and the detection of endometrial malignancies. Aims: The present study was carried out to assess the sensitivity and specificity of endometrial cytology performed by using an insemination cannula. Materials and Methods: Endometrial aspiration using an insemination cannula was done in 60 cases who presented with dysuterine bleed, infertility, or postmenopausal bleed. The cytological evaluation of endometrial smears was correlated with histopathological findings with reference to cyclic endometrium, atypical hyperplasia, and endometrial malignancies. Results: There were 35 patients in the reproductive and 25 in the menopausal age groups. The sample was inadequate in four cases but there was an overall 100% correlation between cytological and histological findings of cyclic endometrium, atypical hyperplasia, and endometrial malignancy. The sensitivity and specificity of endometrial aspiration was 83.3 and 95.4% respectively, with two false negative and false positive cases. Conclusions: Endometrial aspiration cytology was found to be a safe outpatient procedure in the diagnosis of normal and abnormal endometrium for patients of all ages.The present study emphasizes the need for endometrial screening in postmenopausal patients to enable the detection of endometrial malignancies at an early stage.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Dhakal, Pashupati [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Matalevich, Joseph R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Myneni, Ganapati Rao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical stability of bulk Nb cavity is an important aspect to be considered in relation to cavity material, geometry and treatments. Mechanical properties of Nb are typically obtained from uniaxial tensile tests of small samples. In this contribution we report the results of measurements of the resonant frequency and local strain along the contour of single-cell cavities made of ingot and fine-grain Nb of different purity subjected to increasing uniform differential pressure, up to 6 atm. Measurements have been done on cavities subjected to different heat treatments. Good agreement between finite element analysis simulations and experimental data in the elastic regime was obtained with a single set of values of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. The experimental results indicate that the yield strength of medium-purity ingot Nb cavities is higher than that of fine-grain, high-purity Nb.

  17. Technical tasks in superconducting cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kenji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-11-01

    The feature of superconducting rf cavities is an extremely small surface resistance on the wall. It brings a large energy saving in the operation, even those are cooled with liquid helium. That also makes possible to operate themselves in a higher field gradient comparing to normal conducting cavities, and brings to make accelerators compact. These merits are very important for the future accelerator engineering which is planed at JAERI for the neutron material science and nuclear waste transmutation. This machine is a high intensity proton linac and uses sc cavities in the medium and high {beta} sections. In this paper, starting R and D of proton superconducting cavities, several important technical points which come from the small surface resistance of sc cavities, are present to succeed it and also differences between the medium and high - {beta} structures are discussed. (author)

  18. Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinoma: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Georgios-Marios; Manousopoulou, Georgia; Battista, Marco-Johannes; Salloum, Ioannis; Chrelias, Georgios; Chrelias, Charalampos

    2017-01-01

    Synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancer (SEOC) is a rare instance but it accounts for 50–70% of all synchronous female genital tract tumors. We report three cases of women who were diagnosed with SEOC and underwent surgical staging. All cases were of the endometrioid subtype, grade 1, both in the ovarian and endometrial component. Two of them were stage Ia/Ia, and the third was stage Ib/Ib. More than 2 years after the diagnosis, all patients were alive and recurrence-free. The present report critically discusses the main characteristics, risk factors, and management of patients with SEOCs. PMID:28878658

  19. Synchronous Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinoma: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios-Marios Makris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancer (SEOC is a rare instance but it accounts for 50–70% of all synchronous female genital tract tumors. We report three cases of women who were diagnosed with SEOC and underwent surgical staging. All cases were of the endometrioid subtype, grade 1, both in the ovarian and endometrial component. Two of them were stage Ia/Ia, and the third was stage Ib/Ib. More than 2 years after the diagnosis, all patients were alive and recurrence-free. The present report critically discusses the main characteristics, risk factors, and management of patients with SEOCs.

  20. Understanding obesity and endometrial cancer risk: opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, Rosemarie E; Iglesias, David A; Co, Ngai Na; Lu, Karen H

    2011-12-01

    Worldwide, obesity has become a major public health crisis. Overweight and obesity not only increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus but also are now known risk factors for a variety of cancer types. Among all cancers, increasing body mass index is associated most strongly with endometrial cancer incidence and death. The molecular mechanisms underlying how adipose tissue and obesity contribute to the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer are becoming better understood and have revealed a number of rational strategies, both behavioral and pharmaceutical, for the prevention of both primary and recurrent disease. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  1. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Møller, Ann M; Palle, Connie

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) has become a widely used approach for women with endometrial cancer and has replaced laparotomy. It has been questioned if the increased costs are justified by superior surgical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine......-anaesthesia care unit was shorter for patients undergoing RALH. CONCLUSIONS: RALH appears advantageous for women treated for endometrial cancer in terms of post-operative complications. We recommend the use of the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical outcomes for quality assessment. FUNDING: departmental only...

  2. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interactions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Ravn, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell......(3) on endometrial epithelial cells examined by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial pinopodes visualized by scanning electron microscopy. RESULT(S): Eleven of 16 human blastocysts attached to control cultures, whereas none of 10 blastocysts attached when Org 31710 was added to the culture medium (P...... statistical significance. The presence of swollen microvilli, precursors of endometrial pinopodes, was significantly reduced on cultures with Org 31710 (P=.03). CONCLUSION(S): The study presents a model for human blastocyst-endometrial interactions responding to an anti-P drug. The exact mechanism...

  3. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interacttions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Ravn, V

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell......(3) on endometrial epithelial cells examined by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial pinopodes visualized by scanning electron microscopy. RESULT(S): Eleven of 16 human blastocysts attached to control cultures, whereas none of 10 blastocysts attached when Org 31710 was added to the culture medium (P...... statistical significance. The presence of swollen microvilli, precursors of endometrial pinopodes, was significantly reduced on cultures with Org 31710 (P=.03). CONCLUSION(S): The study presents a model for human blastocyst-endometrial interactions responding to an anti-P drug. The exact mechanism...

  4. Life-style and metformin for the prevention of endometrial pathology in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Carlo; Abbà, Chiara; Ambroggio, Simona; Brucato, Tiziana; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2013-02-01

    In western women, the endometrium is frequently exposed, even after menopause, to the endogenous hormonal stimulation. Such a stimulation increases the risk of pathologic conditions such as endometrial hyperplasia and type I (endometrioid) endometrial adenocarcinoma. Metabolic syndrome, obesity, insulin resistance and type II diabetes promote the endometrial stimulation, and are recognized risk factors for endometrial cancer. Furthermore, chronic hyperinsulinemia linked both to obesity and metabolic syndrome influences endometrial proliferation through direct and indirect actions. Intentional weight loss, calorie restriction and physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of the endometrial pathology. Biological mechanisms include reduction in insulin and sex steroid hormone levels. In addition to life-style modifications, the antidiabetic metformin may be proposed as preventive agent. Metformin reduces the metabolic syndrome, lowers insulin and testosterone levels in postmenopausal women, and it is a potent inhibitor of endometrial cancer cell proliferation.

  5. Boron gettering on cavities induced by helium implantation in Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueta, F.; Alquier, D.; Ventura, L.; Dubois, Ch.; Jérisian, R.

    2001-10-01

    In this paper, we shed light on the strong interaction between the cavity layer induced by helium implantation and boron. First of all, we evidence the impact of He gettering step on a boron-diffused profile. In order to study the boron-cavity interaction, we had used uniformly boron-doped wafers implanted with helium at high dose and anneal using usual furnace annealing (FA) as well as rapid thermal annealing. Then, to avoid any precipitation phenomena, conditions were chosen to not exceed the boron solid solubility value. Our experimental results exhibit a large trapping of boron within the cavity layer. This trapping occurs since the early stage of the annealing. These results enable us to have better understanding of this He gettering step as well as its interaction with boron atoms, which are of great interest for device.

  6. Association of obesity-related genetic variants with endometrial cancer risk: a report from the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Genetics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Ryan J; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Long, Jirong; Cai, Qiuyin; Wen, Wanqing; Xu, Wang-Hong; Cai, Hui; He, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2011-11-15

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for endometrial cancer, the most common gynecologic malignancy. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple genetic markers for obesity. The authors evaluated the association of obesity-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with endometrial cancer using GWAS data from their recently completed study, the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Genetics Study, which comprised 832 endometrial cancer cases and 2,049 controls (1996-2005). Thirty-five SNPs previously associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at a minimum significance level of ≤5 × 10(-7) in the US National Human Genome Research Institute's GWAS catalog (http://genome.gov/gwastudies) and representing 26 unique loci were evaluated by either direct genotyping or imputation. The authors found that for 22 of the 26 unique loci tested (84.6%), the BMI-associated risk variants were present at a higher frequency in cases than in population controls (P = 0.0003). Multiple regression analysis showed that 9 of 35 BMI-associated variants, representing 7 loci, were significantly associated (P ≤ 0.05) with the risk of endometrial cancer; for all but 1 SNP, the direction of association was consistent with that found for BMI. For consistent SNPs, the allelic odds ratios ranged from 1.15 to 1.29. These 7 loci are in the SEC16B/RASAL, TMEM18, MSRA, SOX6, MTCH2, FTO, and MC4R genes. The associations persisted after adjustment for BMI, suggesting that genetic markers of obesity provide value in addition to BMI in predicting endometrial cancer risk.

  7. Expression of EZH2 in endometrial carcinoma and its effects on proliferation and invasion of endometrial carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuting; Zhang, Jing; Guan, Huai

    2017-12-01

    Expression of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been implicated in cancer pathology, but research on its mechanistic activity is limited. The present study sought to assess the levels expression of EZH2 in patients with endometrial carcinoma (EC) and to explore the effects of EZH2 downregulation on the biological behavior of endometrial carcinoma RL-952 cells. Samples were obtained from a total of 104 patients with EC and an immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of EZH2 in cancer and adjacent tissues. The relationship between the expression of EZH2 and the clinicopathological features was analyzed. Endometrial carcinoma RL-952 cells were transfected with chemically synthesized siRNA to conduct targeting inhibition of EZH2 expression. The expression levels of EZH2 protein were detected by immunoblotting. MTT and Transwell assays were used to detect the changes of cell proliferation and invasion after EZH2 downregulation. Of the 104 cases of endometrial carcinoma samples, 71 cases showed positive expression of EZH2, with an expression rate of 68.27%. In 104 cases of adjacent tissue samples, 25 cases showed positive expression of EZH2, with an expression rate of 24.03%. The expression of EZH2 in endometrial carcinoma tissue was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissue (Pendometrial carcinoma tissue was not correlated with the menopausal status and age of patients (P>0.05), but was correlated with the histological grade, depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (Pendometrial carcinoma and can enhance the proliferative activity of endometrial carcinoma RL-952 cells and promote cell invasion.

  8. Endometrial changes during ulipristal acetate use: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Milliano, Inge; Van Hattum, Dominique; Ket, Johannes C F; Huirne, Judith A F; Hehenkamp, Wouter J K

    2017-07-01

    Ulipristal acetate is increasingly used for several clinical indications, like emergency contraception and pre-treatment of uterine fibroids. It has mixed progesterone agonist and antagonist effects in the myometrium and endometrium. Due to its progesterone antagonistic effect, an unopposed estrogen effect could occur which could cause (pre-)malignant lesions in the endometrium. Several studies have been performed to evaluate this possible increased risk for endometrial malignancies when using ulipristal acetate. The specific spectrum of morphological changes due to ulipristal acetate, named progesterone receptor modulator associated endometrial changes (PAEC), occurs to be reversible after discontinuing ulipristal acetate. In this systematic review we provide a detailed overview of the literature on histopathological endometrial changes and imaging characteristics of the endometrium in ulipristal acetate users. We performed an extensive search in Embase.com, Wiley/Cochrane Library and PubMed in accordance with the prisma guidelines. All studies published as full papers in peer reviewed journals using ulipristal acetate reporting on endometrial changes were included, independent of clinical indication, dosage taken and duration of therapy. No language restrictions were applied. Ten studies with a total of 1450 participants were included. Seven were randomized clinical trials and three prospective cohort studies. A quality assessment of all included studies was performed. In only five of ten studies an endometrial biopsy was performed during treatment. All of these studies described specific histological non-physiological endometrial changes (PAEC) due to ulipristal acetate, varying from 41 to 78.8% of all patients. Three of these studies also performed follow-up biopsies after discontinuing ulipristal acetate. The percentage of PAEC decreased from 62% to 0%, 78.8% to 0% and from 59% to 6-7% after the treatment period. In six of 1450 women (0.4%) endometrial

  9. Can magnetic resonance spectroscopy differentiate endometrial cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Cai, Shifeng; Han, Xue; Liu, Qingwei; Xin, Yinghui [Shandong University, Department of Radiology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan (China); Li, Changzhong; Yang, Chunrun [Shandong University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan (China); Sun, Xichao; Zong, Yuanyuan [Shandong University, Department of Pathology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Jinan (China); Fu, Caixia [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Siemens MRI Center, Shenzhen (China)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate whether the choline-containing compounds (Cho) obtained from three-dimensional {sup 1}H magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy can differentiate endometrial cancer (ECa) from benign lesions in endometria or in submucosa (BLs-ESm) and is associated with the aggressiveness of ECa. Fifty-seven patients (ECa, 38; BLs-ESm, 19) underwent preoperative multi-voxel MR spectroscopy at 3.0 T. The ratio of the sum of the Cho peak integral to the sum of the unsuppressed water peak integral (Cho/water) and the coefficient of variation (CV) used to describe the variability of Cho/water in one lesion were calculated. Mean Cho/water (±standard deviation [SD]) was (3.02 ± 1.43) x 10{sup -3} for ECa and (1.68 ± 0.33) x 10{sup -3} for BLs-ESm (p < 0.001). Mean Cho/water was (4.42 ± 1.53) x 10{sup -3} for type II ECa and (2.65 ± 1.17) x 10{sup -3} for type I ECa (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences among different stages of ECa (p = 0.107) or different grades of ECa (p = 0.142). The Cho/water was positively correlated with tumour stage (r = 0.386, p = 0.017) and size (r = 0.333, p = 0.041). The CV was also positively correlated with tumour stage (r = 0.537, p = 0.001) and size (r = 0.34, p = 0.037). The Cho/water can differentiate ECa from BLs-ESm and differentiate type II from type I ECa, but cannot differentiate different stages of ECa or different grades of ECa. Cho/water increased with the increase of tumour stage and size. (orig.)

  10. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjón, José V.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Romero, José E.; Collins, D. Louis; Robles, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV) is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden. PMID:25328511

  11. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  12. Transferring a cavity field entangled state in cavity QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Liu [Anhui Key Laboratory of Information Material and Devices, School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Guo Guangcan [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2005-08-01

    We propose a scheme for transferring an entanglement of zero- and one-photon states from one cavity to another. The scheme, which has 100% success probability, is mainly based on a two-mode cavity dispersively interacting with a three-level atom in the {lambda} configuration and does not involve Bell-state measurement. This scheme can also be used to teleport an unknown atomic state.

  13. Histological changes in the endometrial of pregnant Sprague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-20

    Jun 20, 2011 ... This study describes a changed uterine morphometry and its application to the endometrial structure of a pregnant rat. The number and the size of uterine gland and blood vessels changed during the pregnancy period of the rat. This effect on day 15 was significantly changed in the different groups.

  14. Isolation and characterization of endometrial luminal epithelial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... (2008). The endometrium. Reproductive medicine & assisted reproductive techniques series, 2nd edition, Informa Health care UK. Ltd, United Kingdom. Pp 88. Arnold JT, Kaufman DG, Seppala M & Lessey BA. (2001). Endometrial stromal cells regulate epithelial cell growth in vitro: a new co- culture model.

  15. Small non-coding RNA deregulation in endometrial carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravo, Maria; Cordella, Angela; Rinaldi, Antonio; Bruno, Giuseppina; Alexandrova, Elena; Saggese, Pasquale; Nassa, Giovanni; Giurato, Giorgio; Tarallo, Roberta; Marchese, Giovanna; Rizzo, Francesca; Stellato, Claudia; Biancardi, Rossella; Troisi, Jacopo; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Zullo, Fulvio; Weisz, Alessandro; Guida, Maurizio

    2015-03-10

    Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) represent a heterogeneous group of <200nt-long transcripts comprising microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and small-nucleolar-RNAs (snoRNAs) involved in physiological and pathological processes such as carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Aberrant sncRNA expression in cancer has been associated with specific clinical phenotypes, grading, staging, metastases development and resistance to therapy.Aim of the present work is to study the role of sncRNAs in endometrial carcinogenesis. Changes in sncRNA expression were identified by high-throughput genomic analysis of paired normal, hyperplastic and cancerous endometrial tissues obtained by endometrial biopsies (n = 10). Using smallRNA sequencing and microarrays we identified significant differences in sncRNA expression pattern between normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium. This led to the definition of a sncRNA signature (129 microRNAs, 2 of which not previously described, 10 piRNAs and 3 snoRNAs) of neoplastic transformation. Functional bioinformatics analysis identified as downstream targets multiple signaling pathways potentially involved in the hyperplastic and neoplastic tissue responses, including Wnt/β-catenin, and ERK/MAPK and TGF-β-Signaling.Considering the regulatory role of sncRNAs, this newly identified sncRNA signature is likely to reflect the events leading to endometrial cancer, which can be exploited to dissect the carcinogenic process including novel biomarkers for early and non-invasive diagnosis of these tumors.

  16. Predictors of limph node metastasis in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, Florin Laurentiu; Irimie, Alexandru; Costin, Nicolae; Achimas-Cadariu, Patriciu; Lisencu, Ioan Cosmin

    2013-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. The adequate surgical staging proposed by FIGO (International Federation for Gynaecology and Obstetrics) advocates lymphadenectomy; however, it does not establish the indications, the type and the extent of lymphadenectomy, thus generating multiple controversies. Retrospective, analytical study of patients treated surgically for endometrial adenocarcinoma in the Oncological Institute "Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă" Cluj-Napoca (IOCN) between January 2008 and December 2012 - 709 cases eligible for the study. 206 pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphadenectomies were performed, the average number of excised lymph nodes being 15.6. Overall in 4.4% of patients the lymph nodes were affected by metastases. The presence of each risk factor analysed was statistically significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p<0.05). Age above 55 years was statistically significantly associated (p<0.05) with the presence of negative prognostic factors in the study. The analysed histopathological and clinical prognostic factors were statistically significantly associated with lymphatic dissemination in endometrial cancer. We recommend treating endometrial cancer in tertiary centres by surgeons or gynaecologists-oncologists with experience in extensive peritoneal and retroperitoneal surgery.

  17. Role of pelvic lymphadenectomy in stage 1A endometrial carcinoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hossam Hassan Aly Hassan El Sokkary

    2013-10-31

    Oct 31, 2013 ... late menopause, low parity, polycystic ovary syndrome, estro- gen secreting tumors, and family history, ... ation therapy.4 The median age for diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma is about 60 years. Abnormal ... IIIC Metastasis to pelvic or paraaortic lymph nodes. IVA Tumor invasion of the bladder and/or ...

  18. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The uterus undergoes intense remodeling in pregnancy and subsequent involution in the postpartum period. One of the anatomical changes that occur in the gravid endometrium is increased glandular density. Parity has been shown to be protective against certain endometrial pathologies probably as a result of retained ...

  19. Endometrial carcinoma: MR staging and causes of error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, P V; Farina, R; Coronella, M; Ruggeri, C; Palmucci, S; Montana, A; Milone, P; Zarbo, G; Caltabiano, R; Lanzafame, S; Politi, G; Ettorre, G C

    2013-04-01

    This study was undertaken to prospectively determine the diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in detecting myometrial and cervical invasion and lymph node involvement in endometrial carcinoma and to identify the causes of errors in staging endometrial carcinoma. Twenty consecutive patients with a histological diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma underwent preoperative MR imaging. MR findings were compared with surgical staging, considered as the standard of reference. In assessing myometrial invasion, MR imaging showed 70% accuracy, 80% sensitivity, 40% specificity, 80% positive predictive value (PPV), and 40% negative predictive value (NPV). In detecting cervical invasion, MR imaging had 95% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, 94.4% specificity, 66.7% PPV, and 100% NPV. In evaluating lymph node involvement, MR imaging showed 100% accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. Errors in evaluating myometrial invasion were caused by polypoid tumour, adenomyosis and leiomyomas, whereas those in evaluating cervical invasion were caused by dilatation and curettage. MR imaging is a reliable technique for preoperative evaluation of endometrial carcinoma. Its main limitation is differentiating between stage IA and IB carcinomas, which is not highly important for surgical planning. Cooperation between the gynaecologist and radiologist is mandatory to avoid staging errors.

  20. Evaluation of Ovarian Lesions Inducing Endometrial Hyperplasia or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Excessive and prolonged estrogenic stimulation results in endometrial hyperplasias or endometrioid adenocarcinomas. One of the major reasons for an excess endogenous estrogen production is estrogen secreting ovarian lesions which could either be neoplastic or non-neoplastic. Aims: This was a study ...

  1. Risk of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen (Flora); J. Benraadt (J.); J.W.W. Coebergh (Jan Willem); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); C.H.F. Gimbrère (Charles); R. Otter (Renée); L.J. Scheuten (Leo); R.A. Damhuis (Ronald); M. Bontenbal (Marijke); A.I. Diepenhorst; A.W. van den Belt-Dusebout (Alexandra); H. van Tinteren (Harm)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractSince large trials have been set up to assess whether tamoxifen decreases the risk of breast cancer in healthy women, it has become important to investigate the drug's potential adverse effects, including occurrence of endometrial cancer. We undertook a case-control study in the

  2. ASPECTS OF SURGERY IN OVARIAN AND ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALDERS, JG; NEIJT, JP

    1993-01-01

    In ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer the surgeon plays an important role in both the staging procedure and in the removal of as much of the tumour as possible. Although uniform treatment policies have not been developed, a better understanding of the pattern of spread in both tumours allows for

  3. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of selected genes in endometrial carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chieh Chen

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Promoter methylation of ZNF177, COL14A1, HOXA9, DPYSL4, and TMEFF2 genes is a frequent epigenetic event in EC. Furthermore, the epigenetic hypermethylation of TMEFF2 may be a valuable marker for identifying undetected EC within endometrial hyperplasia.

  4. Switch in FOXA1 status associates with endometrial cancer progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Løberg Tangen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transcription factor Forkhead box A1 (FOXA1 is suggested to be important in hormone dependent cancers, although with little data for endometrial cancer. We investigated expression levels of FOXA1 in primary and metastatic endometrial cancer in relation to clinical phenotype, and transcriptional alterations related to FOXA1 status. METHODS: Protein expression of FOXA1 was explored by immunohistochemistry in 529 primary and 199 metastatic endometrial carcinoma lesions. mRNA levels from corresponding 158 fresh frozen primary and 42 metastatic lesions were analyzed using Agilent Microarrays (44k in parallel. RESULTS: Low FOXA1 protein expression in primary tumors significantly correlated with low FOXA1 mRNA, high age, non-endometrioid histology, high grade, loss of ERα and PR and poor survival (all p-values <0.05. Through a Connectivity Map search, HDAC inhibitors were suggested as potential treatment for patients with low FOXA1 expression. An increase in FOXA1 expression was observed from primary to metastatic lesions and it correlated with CDKN2A expression in metastases. CONCLUSION: Low FOXA1 is associated with poor survival and suggests a potential for HDAC inhibitors in endometrial carcinoma. A switch in FOXA1 expression from primary to metastatic lesions is observed and gene expression indicates a link between FOXA1 and CDKN2A in metastatic lesions.

  5. Reproducibility of measurement of myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putten, L.J.M. van der; Vijver, K. van der; Bartosch, C.; Davidson, B.; Gatius, S.; Matias-Guiu, X.; McCluggage, W.G.; Toledo, G.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Bulten, J.

    2017-01-01

    Myometrial invasion (MI) as a percentage (%MI), categorized into <50 or >/=50 %, is an important predictor of prognosis in endometrial carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that tumor-free distance (TFD) to serosa and the absolute depth of invasion (DOI) might be stronger predictors of prognosis.

  6. [Overweight, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension in endometrial cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Chávez, Tania L N; Vilar-Compte, Diana; de Nicola-Delfín, Luigina; Meneses-García, Abelardo

    2013-01-01

    in postmenopausal women, the excess of fat has been associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension in patients with endometrial cancer. we collected demographic, clinical, laboratory and histopathological information from the electronic records of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer in the period from January 2009 to July 2011. Subsequently descriptive analysis of the information was done. a total of 274 records. The average age of patients was 54 years. The 50.4 % were postmenopausal. At the time of diagnosis, 112 cases (48.6 %) were in clinical stage I. Of all patients, 104 (37.9 %) had diabetes mellitus, 122 (44.5 %) hypertension, 194 (72.6 %) were overweight or obese, and 24 cases were registered with the metabolic syndrome. in regards to this diagnosis the results show a higher incidence of overweight and obesity compared with other countries. It is necessary to conduct further studies to assess the relationship of excess fat as a risk factor for endometrial cancer.

  7. Endometrial Osseous Metaplasia: Case Report with Literature Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non‑epithelial metaplastic and related changes. • Smooth muscle metaplasia. • Osseous metaplasia. • Cartilaginous metaplasia. • Fatty change. • Glial tissue. • Foam cell change. Clinically, the symptoms range from a casual finding in an otherwise asymptomatic woman to menstrual irregularities.[1,2]. Endometrial Osseous ...

  8. Histopathological Patterns of Endometrial Lesions in Patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    gynecological disorders that affect women globally.[1]. These diseases cut across all age groups and contribute significantly to increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Most females with endometrial diseases present with abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB).[1,2]. Thus, AUB justify the need for urgent diagnosis. This is so ...

  9. Endometrial Biopsy and Hystopathological Diagnosis - A 10 year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Appropriate diagnosis is the mainstay of proper and effective management. For an appropriate histopathological diagnosis to be made, an accurate record of clinical details including sex is essential. The completeness or otherwise of data supplied by clinicians submitting endometrial biopsy specimen was ...

  10. Progesterone receptors in development and metatstais of endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Hanekamp (Eline)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractMany women may acquire endometrial cancer during their life. The vast majority of these women will be cured because of early detection of the disease. As in most types of cancer however, the main cause of death lies in metastasis of the primary tumor to other sites in the body. In

  11. Endometrial osseous metaplasia: case report with literature review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endometrial osseous metaplasia is a rare pathological condition with mature bone in the endometrium and can be a cause for menorrhagia and infertility as bone in the endometrium acts like intrauterine contraceptive device. We report one such case with brief review of literature in a 28‑year‑old woman presenting with ...

  12. An Audit of Endometrial Hyperplasias at the Lagos University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Introduction: There has been much controversy and confusion surrounding the endometrial hyperplasias stemming from the use of a wide variety of terminologies and also from the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the various entities. The current classification by the World Health Organization ...

  13. Human embryo-conditioned medium stimulates in vitro endometrial angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, K.; Koolwijk, P.; Weiden, R.M.F. van der; Nieuw Amerongen, G. van; Plaisier, M.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van; Helmerhorst, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Successful implantation and placentation depend on the interaction between the endometrium and the embryo. Angiogenesis is crucial at this time. In this article we investigate the direct influence of the human embryo on in vitro endometrial angiogenesis. Design: In vitro study. Setting:

  14. Endometrial pathology in a teaching hospital in North Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight hundred and eighty two slides of cases of endometrial disorders recorded in the register of the Department of Pathology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, North Central Nigeria were reviewed. Clinical data on each of the cases was retrieved from request cards. The pathological reports and clinical data ...

  15. Recirculation usually precedes malignant edema in middle cerebral artery infarcts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Ståhl, N; Schalén, W

    2012-01-01

    In patients with large middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarcts, maximum brain swelling leading to cerebral herniation and death usually occurs 2-5 days after onset of stroke. The study aimed at exploring the pattern of compounds related to cerebral energy metabolism in infarcted brain tissue....

  16. 19 CFR 134.14 - Articles usually combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Articles Subject to Marking § 134.14 Articles usually combined. (a... indicating the country of origin of the article appears in a place on the article so that the name will be.... (b) Example. Labels and similar articles so marked that the name of the country of origin of the...

  17. Cognitive-behavioural therapy v. usual care in recurrent depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, H.J.; de Jonge, P.; Ormel, J.

    2008-01-01

    We examined in a primary care sample whether acute-phase cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) would be more effective than usual care for patients with multiple prior episodes of depression. Depression outcome was based on a 3-monthly administered Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) during a 2-year

  18. Gain-assisted broadband ring cavity enhanced spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Mahmoud A.; Adib, George A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-02-01

    Incoherent broadband cavity enhanced spectroscopy can significantly increase the effective path length of light-matter interaction to detect weak absorption lines over broad spectral range, for instance to detect gases in confined environments. Broadband cavity enhancement can be based on the decay time or the intensity drop technique. Decay time measurement is based on using tunable laser source that is expensive and suffers from long scan time. Intensity dependent measurement is usually reported based on broadband source using Fabry-Perot cavity, enabling short measurement time but suffers from the alignment tolerance of the cavity and the cavity insertion loss. In this work we overcome these challenges by using an alignment-free ring cavity made of an optical fiber loop and a directional coupler, while having a gain medium pumped below the lasing threshold to improve the finesse and reduce the insertion loss. Acetylene (C2H2) gas absorption is measured around 1535 nm wavelength using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gain medium. The system is analyzed for different ring resonator forward coupling coefficient and loses, including the 3-cm long gas cell insertion loss and fiber connector losses used in the experimental verification. The experimental results are obtained for a coupler ratio of 90/10 and a fiber length of 4 m. The broadband source is the amplified spontaneous emission of another SOA and the output is measured using a 70pm-resolution optical spectrum analyzer. The absorption depth and the effective interaction length are improved about an order of magnitude compared to the direct absorption of the gas cell. The presented technique provides an engineering method to improve the finesse and, consequently the effective length, while relaxing the technological constraints on the high reflectivity mirrors and free-space cavity alignment.

  19. Cytological Study of Grade 3 Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of Endometrial Origin: Cytoarchitecture and Features of Cell Clusters Assessed With Endometrial Brushing Cytology--Focusing on a comparison with endometrioid adenocarcinoma Grade 1, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Naruaki; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Morishita, Akihiro; Tsukada, Hitomi; Nakazawa, Kazumi; Miyazawa, Masaki; Mikami, Mikio; Nakamura, Naoya; Sato, Shinkichi

    2015-06-20

    Aim of study was to clarify the cytological characteristics of grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma of endometrial origin (G3 EA) by endometrial brushing cytology. The subjects were 11 patients in whom G3 EA was diagnosed by review of preoperative cytological specimens obtained at our hospital and related institutions between 2000 and 2010. These patients were investigated with respect to the preoperative cytological diagnosis, background changes, cell cluster patterns, and individual cellular findings. Background changes were classified as inflammatory or tumorous, while cell clusters were classified as overlapping cell cluster, sheet-like cell cluster, clump of high dense gland, papillary, or other cell cluster. Cellular findings were investigated by comparing the incidence of squamous and clear cell metaplasia, the nuclear rounding rate, and the nuclear area with the findings in a control group (35 patients with G1-2 EA). Background changes were classified as inflammatory in 63.6% and necrotic in 36.4%. The cell clusters were classified as overlapping cell cluster in 44.8%, cell cluster in 21.7%, clump of high dense gland in 10.0%, papillary in 4.0%, and other cell cluster in 19.5%. The incidence of squamous and clear cell metaplasia was 27.2% and 18.1%, respectively. The mean nuclear rounding rate was 0.97, and the mean nuclear area was 55.98 µm2. Investigation of the cytoarchitecture of G3 EA with endometrial brushing cytology revealed overlapping cell cluster and tumor cells of a relatively uniform size. These findings suggest that it is necessary to recognize that there are differences between the cytological findings of G3 EA and the usual features of G1-2 EA.

  20. What characterizes the 'usual' preoperative education in clinical contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Hyde, Abbey

    2005-12-01

    The literature on preoperative education is dominated by studies that employ experimental designs to measure the effects of structured programs on patient outcomes. These studies predominantly compare structured preoperative educational interventions with the usual care that patients receive. However, the notion of what the "usual" care comprises is largely elusive and unexplored. This study aimed to understand how the usual preoperative education is practiced in a number of surgical clinical units at one particular hospital in Ireland. Twelve experienced surgical nurses were interviewed in depth. A qualitative strategy resembling grounded theory was employed to analyze the data. The findings indicated that the content and quality of the preoperative education that patients received depended largely upon the individual nurse caring for the patient. Although there was a generic content of preoperative education that all participants identified as important, this related to physical and technical issues, and to the transmission of administrative or procedural information. Perspectives on the process of delivering preoperative education were diverse. The vast majority did not relate to the formal language of the discourses of teaching and learning; nonetheless, their descriptions of engaging in their work indicated the application of some elements of educational theory. The data suggested that the use of teaching tools was inconsistent, depending on their availability and the practices of individual nurses. On the whole, the usual care as described by participants in our study may be characterized as uneven, variable, and mutable. We conclude by raising some methodological issues relating to the use of the usual care in control groups in experimental studies on preoperative education.

  1. Endometrial polyp or neoplasia? A case-control study in women with polyps at ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambadauro, P; Martínez-Maestre, M Á; Schneider, J; Torrejón, R

    2015-06-01

    To identify factors associated with endometrial neoplasia in women diagnosed with endometrial polyp at transvaginal ultrasound. Within a population of 1390 consecutive patients undergoing hysteroscopy following an ultrasonographic diagnosis of polyps, we compared the cases with a final diagnosis of endometrial neoplasia with controls with benign endometrial polyps. The controls were selected randomly in a ratio of 4 : 1 (controls : cases). Bivariate statistical analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to measure the association between various variables and endometrial neoplasia. Sixteen cases of endometrial neoplasia were compared to 64 controls with confirmed benign endometrial polyps. All cases of neoplasia were among symptomatic women, while 40.62% of women with benign polyps had been referred to hysteroscopy after a routine ultrasound and were asymptomatic. Women with endometrial neoplasia were significantly older (mean age 64.19 ± 9.382 vs. 52.03 ± 9.846 years; p neoplasia were postmenopausal status and bleeding as a main symptom. At multivariate analysis with logistic regression, the only factors showing a statistically significant association with endometrial neoplasia were older age (odds ratio 1.102; 95% confidence interval 1.015-1.198) and bleeding (odds ratio 13.7; 95% confidence interval 1.486-126.278). When polyps are diagnosed at ultrasound, bleeding and an older age are independently associated with endometrial neoplasia. A significant proportion of asymptomatic women is referred to hysteroscopy because of a polyp seen at routine ultrasound, although malignancy is highly unlikely in these cases.

  2. Ultrasound in assisted reproduction: a call to fill the endometrial gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko-Klement, Anat; Tepper, Ronnie

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound offers essential details and an overall view of the anatomic features of the reproductive organs, as well as physiologic assessment. There is still a great gap, however, in our understanding and interpretation of endometrial sonographic findings. Endometrial thickness, growth, and sonographic patterns have been repeatedly tested and compared with pregnancy rates in IVF cycles, yielding conflicting results. Generally, the data accrued so far suggest refraining from clinical decisions based solely on endometrial thickness. The three-layer ultrasound pattern reflects normal follicular/proliferative dynamics, and its presence in the pre-hCG period was reported to carry a better outcome: Significantly higher clinical pregnancy rates were found in patients with this pattern on the day of hCG administration among IVF cohorts. Subendometrial contractility (endometrial "waves") offers a tool that can be used in cases of repeated implantation failure in patients reporting cramps around the planned time of embryo transfer, or as a reassuring modality to assess uterine quiescence during preparations for embryo transfer. We support the creation of an integrated endometrial score incorporating conservative endometrial measurements, endometrial-myometrial junction studies, and endometrial contractility, as well as new concepts that remain to be tested, such as endometrial surface area. Such scores may enable us to improve the effectiveness of endometrial ultrasound imaging in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of differential genetic expression in endometrial polyps of postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncon, J K; Meola, J; Candido-Dos-Reis, F J; Poli-Neto, O B; Nogueira, A A; Rosa-E-Silva, J C

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the expression of four genetic markers (PTEN, BCL2, MLH1, and CTNNB1), linked to endometrial carcinogenesis, in endometrial polyps of patients with and without postmenopausal bleeding in order to determine whether symptomatic endometrial polyps have a genetic phenotype similar to that of endometrial cancer. Samples were obtained hysteroscopically from endometrial polyps of postmenopausal patients, and the expression of genetic markers involved in the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer (PTEN, BCL2, MLH1, and CTNNB1) was analyzed. The expression of these markers was then compared between patients with and without symptoms, which was characterized as postmenopausal bleeding. Other clinical characteristics of the patients, such as duration of menopause, polyp size, presence of systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking habits were also analyzed. Samples from a total of 60 patients were obtained, as calculated for a test power of 0.80. No statistical differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the two groups concerning the expression of the studied endometrial cancer risk factor genes, or with regard to the clinical aspects evaluated. The study found no evidence that symptomatic endometrial polyps have a similar phenotype to type 1 endometrial cancer; further studies are needed in order to establish whether endometrial polyps are in fact true cancer precursors, or simply raise cancer incidence due to a detection bias.

  4. Biological effects of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on human endometrial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, Eduardo; de la Fuente, María; Ferrando, Marcos; Quintana, Fernando; Larreategui, Zaloa; Matorras, Roberto; Orive, Gorka

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the biological outcomes of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on human endometrial fibroblasts in culture. PRGF was obtained from three healthy donors and human endometrial fibroblasts (HEF) were isolated from endometrial specimens from five healthy women. The effects of PRGF on cell proliferation and migration, secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), procollagen type I and hyaluronic acid (HA) and contractility of isolated and cultured human endometrial fibroblasts (HEF) were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed in order to compare the effects of PRGF with respect to control situation (T-test or Mann-Whitney U-test). We report a significantly elevated human endometrial fibroblast proliferation and migration after treatment with PRGF. In addition, stimulation of HEF with PRGF induced an increased expression of the angiogenic factor VEGF and favored the endometrial matrix remodeling by the secretion of procollagen type I and HA and endometrial regeneration by elevating the contractility of HEF. These results were obtained for all PRGF donors and each endometrial cell line. The myriad of growth factors contained in PRGF promoted HEF proliferation, migration and synthesis of paracrine molecules apart from increasing their contractility potential. These preliminary results suggest that PRGF improves the biological activity of HEF in vitro, enhancing the regulation of several cellular processes implied in endometrial regeneration. This innovative treatment deserves further investigation for its potential in "in vivo" endometrial development and especially in human embryo implantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ulipristal acetate: critical review about endometrial and ovulatory effects in emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzanega, Bruno; Gizzo, Salvatore; Di Gangi, Stefania; Cosmi, Erich; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-06-01

    The effectiveness of emergency contraception (EC) is usually estimated by comparing the number of observed pregnancies to that of expected pregnancies after unprotected intercourse. Second-generation selective progesterone receptors modulators have been developed and evaluated for EC use. Among these compounds, ulipristal acetate (UPA) has been proven to share the same antiprogestin activity as mifepristone, and as with mifepristone, UPA has been demonstrated to be effective up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. The UPA is more effective than levonorgestrel (LNG) in preventing the appearance of clinically evident pregnancies. The LNG delays ovulation only when taken at the beginning of the fertile period; taken later, it is ineffective on ovulation, while it has been proven to impair the subsequent luteal function. The effectiveness of LNG decreases as time elapses and is limited to 72 hours after unprotected intercourse. The UPA maintains consistent effectiveness for 5 days after unprotected intercourse, and this effectiveness is independent on which of these 5 days it is taken. The ability of UPA to delay ovulation decreases progressively as ovulation approaches and is null at the time of the luteinizing hormone (LH) peak: 1 to 2 days before ovulation, UPA behaves as a placebo. The persistent effectiveness of the drug cannot be due to antiovulatory action, as it decreases sharply as LH approaches its peak level. The effectiveness is most likely due to the dramatic endometrial effects of the drug that are produced regardless of when it is taken. These effects are consistently present, as the threshold for altering endometrial morphology is lower than the threshold for altering folliculogenesis.

  6. Is the endometrial evaluation routinely required in patients with adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolina, Jessica; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Gadducci, Angiolo; Scollo, Paolo; Lorusso, Domenica; Giorda, Giorgio; Breda, Enrico; Savarese, Antonella; Candiani, Massimo; Zullo, Fulvio; Mangili, Giorgia

    2015-02-01

    Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common estrogen-secreting ovarian tumors; perhaps due to the persistent hyperestrogenism, a wide spectrum of associated endometrial pathologies ranging from endometrial hyperplasia to carcinoma has been documented in patients with GCTs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of endometrial pathologies in a large series of GCT patients treated in MITO centers. A retrospective multi-institutional review of patients with granulosa cell tumors of the ovary treated or referred to MITO centers was conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the patient population and to assess the association of GCT and endometrial abnormalities at the time of diagnosis; multivariate regression analysis was also performed to identify independent predictors of endometrial abnormalities. A total of 150 patients with primary adult GCT was identified. During the preoperative assessment, endometrial pathology was found in 35.9% of symptomatic patients and in 90.9% of asymptomatic women with endometrial thickening at transvaginal ultrasound. At the time of surgery, hyperplasia was documented in 29.2% of patients, whereas endometrial cancer occurred in 7.5% of patients. Almost all of the patients (97.6%) with endometrial hyperplasia were older than 40years. All patients with endometrial cancer were older than 40years and postmenopausal. Endometrial carcinoma/atypical hyperplasia were commonly observed in GCT patients >40years; based on these data, endometrial sampling should be performed in symptomatic women at least 40years of age. In asymptomatic women <40years, endometrial sampling is of low yield. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endometrial stromal sarcomas and related neoplasms: new developments and diagnostic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Lien; Chiang, Sarah; Lee, Cheng-Han

    2018-02-01

    Our understanding of endometrial stromal sarcomas has evolved dramatically since their earliest descriptions from over a century ago. Initial studies focused on establishing the relationship between histological appearances of endometrial stromal sarcomas and their clinical outcomes. Studies performed in the last decade have uncovered several recurrent cytogenetic aberrations occurring in low- and high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas bear close histopathological resemblance to proliferative-type endometrial stroma, and approximately half harbour t(7;17)(p15;q21) resulting in JAZF1-SUZ12 gene fusion. Less common JAZF1-PHF1, EPC1-PHF1, MEAF6-PHF1, and MBTD1-CXorf67 fusions have also been reported. The term 'high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma' was recently re-introduced in the classification of endometrial stromal tumours after the discovery of t(10;17)(q22;p13) resulting in YWHAE-NUTM2A/B fusion and is associated with distinct morphological characteristics. This review highlights the evolution of endometrial stromal sarcoma classification schemes over time and describes the salient clinicopathological and molecular features of endometrial stromal nodule, low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma, and undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. It also describes the recent characterisation of endometrial stromal sarcoma with t(X;22)(p11;q13) resulting in ZC3H7B-BCOR fusion, a noteworthy entity due to its close histological resemblance to myxoid leiomyosarcoma. We also provide insights into common challenging scenarios encountered when assessing endometrial stromal lesions in daily surgical pathology practice. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. SRF Cavity Fabrication and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, W

    2014-07-17

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for highgradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10μg/g. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2μg/g to prevent degradation of the Q-value under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Defects may be detected by quality control methods such as eddy current scanning and identified by a number of special methods. Conventional and alternative cavity fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and Electron-Beam Welding (EBW). The welding of half-cells is a delicate...

  9. Niobium LEP 2 accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    An accelerating cavity from LEP. This could be cut open to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities were used in an upgrade of the LEP accelerator to double the energy of the particle beams.

  10. Genistein aglycone: a new therapeutic approach to reduce endometrial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitto, Alessandra; Granese, Roberta; Triolo, Onofrio; Villari, Daniela; Maisano, Daniele; Giordano, Domenico; Altavilla, Domenica; Marini, Herbert; Adamo, Elena Bianca; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; D'Anna, Rosario; Squadrito, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    Endometrial hyperplasia without cytological atypia is commonly treated with progestins, but other treatment regimes may be available with equivalent efficacy and low side effects. A randomized double-blind, placebo and progesterone-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of genistein aglycone in reducing endometrial hyperplasia. A group of 56 premenopausal women with non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia were enrolled and received: genistein aglycone (n=19; 54 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (n=19; 10 mg/day on days 16-25 of the menstrual cycle) or placebo (n=18) for 6 months. Hysteroscopy was performed with biopsies and symptomology assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months of administration. The effect on estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) expression in uterine biopsies were assessed after 3 and 6 months. For each treatment follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and progesterone (PG) levels were also evaluated. After 6 months, 42% of genistein aglycone-administered subjects had a significant improvement of symptoms (histologically confirmed in the 29%) compared to 47% of norethisterone acetate subjects (histologically confirmed in the 31%), but only 12% in the placebo group with 19% exhibiting worsening symptoms and increased endometrial thickness. No significant differences were noted for hormone levels for any treatment, but immunohistochemical analysis revealed significantly reduced staining for ER-alpha and PR and enhanced ER-beta1 staining in genistein-administered subjects associated with a complete regression of bleeding. These results suggest that genistein aglycone might be useful for the management of endometrial hyperplasia without atypia in women that cannot be treated with progestin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Endometrial metaplasias and reactive changes: a spectrum of altered differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Alina; Preda, Ovidiu; Nogales, Francisco F

    2011-02-01

    Endometrial metaplasias and changes (EMCs) are conditions frequently overlooked and misdiagnosed. The aim of this review is to update current issues and provide a classification with a practical clinicopathological approach. Hormonal or irritative stimuli are the main inducing factors of EMCs, although some metaplasias have a mutational origin. EMCs vary from reactive, degenerative lesions to those able to associate with malignancy or those having a preneoplastic potential. The most common types of EMCs are ciliated tubal metaplasia (CTM) and mucinous metaplasia (MM), which occur in simple and complex glands, and possibly these architectural changes hold the same prognostic significance as they do in hyperplastic endometrioid lesions. Immunohistochemically, CTM is positive for LhS28, bcl-2, PAX2 and p16(INK4A). Complex CTM is likely to be a precursor of ciliated endometrioid-type carcinomas. MMs should be evaluated architecturally, taking into account that their atypicality is minimal. The differentiation between complex MM and mucinous carcinoma may be extremely difficult. Surface complex, papillary MM in endometrial polyps can be considered as benign. Intestinal-type endometrial MM is rare and its presence should prompt further investigation of associated lesions in the endocervix. Endometrial squamous metaplasia (ESS) is often linked to chronic irritative situations. It should be differentiated from secondary involvement by a human papilomavirus-related cervical lesion. Morular metaplasia is a mutational phenomenon with a distinct phenotype that helps to differentiate it from ESS. Morules are benign, hormonally inert structures that are often markers of complex endometrioid glandular architecture, and they are associated with an attenuated malignancy. Endometrial reactive changes are commonly associated with desquamation or hormonal imbalance. The frequent, p16(INK4A) positive, benign surface papillary syncytial change may be misdiagnosed, in some cases, as

  12. The outcome of endometrial carcinoma surveillance by ultrasound scan in women at risk of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma and familial colorectal carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dove-Edwin, Isis; Boks, Dominique; Goff, Sheila; Kenter, Gemma G.; Carpenter, Robert; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Thomas, Huw J. W.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinoma is the most common extracolonic malignancy associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma syndrome (HNPCC). The risk of endometrial carcinoma in HNPCC mutation carriers is approximately ten times that of the general population, and endometrial

  13. LEP Radio Frequency Copper Cavity

    CERN Document Server

    The pulse of a particle accelerator. 128 of these radio frequency cavities were positioned around CERN's 27-kilometre LEP ring to accelerate electrons and positrons. The acceleration was produced by microwave electric oscillations at 352 MHz. The electrons and positrons were grouped into bunches, like beads on a string, and the copper sphere at the top stored the microwave energy between the passage of individual bunches. This made for valuable energy savings as it reduced the heat generated in the cavity.

  14. Single and Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivinskaya, Aliaksandra; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Shyroki, Dzmitry M.

    2013-01-01

    of photonic crystal filters. The second part focuses on some aspects of photonic crystals fabrication and relevant applications, such as nitrogen defect technology in diamond, silicon nitride free standing membranes, photonic crystals structures in silicon, photonic crystals for optical sensing....... for analysis and design of photonic crystal devices, such as 2D ring resonators for filters, single and coupled nanobeam cavities, birefringence in photonic crystal cavities, threshold analysis in photonic crystal lasers, gap solitons in photonic crystals, novel photonic atolls, dynamic characteristics...

  15. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) endometrial cancer clinical trials planning meeting: taking endometrial cancer trials into the translational era.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creutzberg, C.L.; Kitchener, H.C.; Birrer, M.J.; Landoni, F.; Lu, K.H.; Powell, M.; Aghajanian, C.; Edmondson, R.; Goodfellow, P.J.; Quinn, M.; Salvesen, H.B.; Thomas, G.; Ottevanger, N.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The second Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Endometrial Cancer Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was held on December 1, 2012, and included international multidisciplinary representatives of the 24 member groups. The aims were to review recent advances in molecular pathology of

  16. Identifying High-Risk Women for Endometrial Cancer Prevention Strategies: Proposal of an Endometrial Cancer Risk Prediction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Sarah J; Evans, D Gareth; Crosbie, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    Already the fourth most common cancer in women in the developed world, the incidence of endometrial cancer is increasing rapidly, in line with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Relatively few studies have been undertaken of risk-reducing interventions aimed at limiting the impact of the disease on both individuals and the health service. Those that have been performed have demonstrated only modest results due to their application in relatively unselected populations. A validated risk prediction model is therefore urgently required to identify individuals at particularly high risk of endometrial cancer who may benefit from targeted primary prevention strategies and to guide trial eligibility. On the basis of a systematic review of the literature, the evidence for inclusion of measures of obesity, reproduction, insulin resistance, and genetic risk in such a model is discussed, and the strength of association between these risk factors and endometrial cancer is used to guide the development of a pragmatic risk prediction scoring system that could be implemented in the general population. Provisional cutoff values are described pending refinement of the model and external validation in large prospective cohorts. Potential risk-reducing interventions are suggested, highlighting the need for future studies in this area if the increasing tide of endometrial cancer is to be stemmed. Cancer Prev Res; 10(1); 1-13. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. The incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a four-year population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Sung Yuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia (EH and endometrial cancer (EC in the Republic of Korea using national insurance claim data generated from 2009 to 2012. Materials and Methods Data that were generated from 2009 to 2012 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample database. The data from women who were assigned diagnosis codes representing EH or EC within 1 month of being assigned codes that corresponded to procedures that included endometrial biopsies and several types of gynecologic surgeries to obtain endometrial pathology samples, were selected for analysis. Results Data from 2,477,424 women were entered into the database between 2009 and 2012, and the data from 1,868 women with EH and 868 women with EC were extracted for analysis. The mean ages of the patients were 44.1 ± 0.4 years for those with EH and 52.7 ± 0.6 years for those with EC. The EH and EC incidence rates were 37 per 100,000 woman-years and 8 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. The EH and EC incidence rates peaked when the women were in their late forties and fifties, respectively. Conclusions The EH and EC incidence rates determined in this study were somewhat lower than those determined from previous studies. Further studies are required that adjust the data for race, menopausal hormone therapy, and obesity.

  18. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Endometrial Cancer Clinical Trials Planning Meeting: taking endometrial cancer trials into the translational era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzberg, Carien L; Kitchener, Henry C; Birrer, Michael J; Landoni, Fabio; Lu, Karen H; Powell, Melanie; Aghajanian, Carol; Edmondson, Richard; Goodfellow, Paul J; Quinn, Michael; Salvesen, Helga B; Thomas, Gillian

    2013-10-01

    The second Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) Endometrial Cancer Clinical Trials Planning Meeting was held on December 1, 2012, and included international multidisciplinary representatives of the 24 member groups. The aims were to review recent advances in molecular pathology of endometrial cancer, focusing on molecular-based therapy, and to identify key hypotheses and issues to be addressed through international collaborative clinical trials. Reviews and summaries of current knowledge were presented followed by parallel working group sessions for surgery, adjuvant and systemic therapy, and translational research. Plenary discussions were held to integrate translational and clinical issues, and a final discussion session to agree on key trial concepts. Proposals to take forward on the following trials were agreed: (1) lymphadenectomy to direct adjuvant treatment in women with high-risk endometrial cancer, including a sentinel node substudy; (2) conservative therapy for low-risk endometrial cancers in morbidly obese women with high surgical risks and for fertility-sparing treatment in premenopausal patients; (3) adjuvant therapy for women with early-stage carcinosarcoma. A proposal was made that a GCIG Early Phase Consortium be developed to serve as an international platform for rapid assessment of biomarkers.

  19. Diet and endometrial cancer: a focus on the role of fruit and vegetable intake, Mediterranean diet and dietary inflammatory index in the endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Fasanelli, Francesca; Milanese, Dario; Sciannameo, Veronica; Fiorini, Laura; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2017-11-13

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer in European women. The major risk factors for endometrial cancer are related to the exposure of endometrium to estrogens not opposed to progestogens, that can lead to a chronic endometrial inflammation. Diet may play a role in cancer risk by modulating chronic inflammation. In the framework of a case-control study, we recruited 297 women with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer and 307 controls from Northern Italy. Using logistic regression, we investigated the role of fruit and vegetable intake, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) in endometrial cancer risk. Women in the highest quintile of vegetable intake had a statistically significantly lower endometrial cancer risk (adjusted OR 5th quintile vs 1st quintile: 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.68). Women with high adherence to the MD had a risk of endometrial cancer that was about half that of women with low adherence to the MD (adjusted OR: 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.86). A protective effect was detected for all the lower quintiles of DII, with the highest protective effect seen for the lowest quintile (adjusted OR 5th quintile vs 1st quintile: 3.28, 95% CI 1.30-8.26). These results suggest that high vegetable intake, adherence to the MD, and a low DII are related to a lower endometrial cancer risk, with several putative connected biological mechanisms that strengthen the biological plausibility of this association.

  20. Autologous cell therapy with CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells for refractory Asherman's syndrome and endometrial atrophy: a pilot cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Xavier; Cabanillas, Sergio; Cervelló, Irene; Arbona, Cristina; Raga, Francisco; Ferro, Jaime; Palmero, Julio; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Simón, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Could cell therapy using autologous peripheral blood CD133+ bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) offer a safe and efficient therapeutic approach for patients with refractory Asherman's syndrome (AS) and/or endometrial atrophy (EA) and a wish to conceive? In the first 3 months, autologous cell therapy, using CD133+ BMDSCs in conjunction with hormonal replacement therapy, increased the volume and duration of menses as well as the thickness and angiogenesis processes of the endometrium while decreasing intrauterine adhesion scores. AS is characterized by the presence of intrauterine adhesions and EA prevents the endometrium from growing thicker than 5 mm, resulting in menstruation disorders and infertility. Many therapies have been attempted for these conditions, but none have proved effective. This was a prospective, experimental, non-controlled study. There were 18 patients aged 30-45 years with refractory AS or EA were recruited, and 16 of these completed the study. Medical history, physical examination, endometrial thickness, intrauterine adhesion score and neoangiogenesis were assessed before and 3 and 6 months after cell therapy. After the initial hysteroscopic diagnosis, BMDSC mobilization was performed by granulocyte-CSF injection, then CD133+ cells were isolated through peripheral blood aphaeresis to obtain a mean of 124.39 million cells (range 42-236), which were immediately delivered into the spiral arterioles by catheterization. Subsequently, endometrial treatment after stem cell therapy was assessed in terms of restoration of menses, endometrial thickness (by vaginal ultrasound), adhesion score (by hysteroscopy), neoangiogenesis and ongoing pregnancy rate. The study was conducted at Hospital Clínico Universitario of Valencia and IVI Valencia (Spain). All 11 AS patients exhibited an improved uterine cavity 2 months after stem cell therapy. Endometrial thickness increased from an average of 4.3 mm (range 2.7-5) to 6.7 mm (range 3.1-12) ( ITALIC! P = 0

  1. The effect of the nasopharyngeal air cavity on x-ray interface doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, W. K.; Wu, P. M.; Leung, H. T.; Lo, T. C.; Chung, C. W.; Kwong, Dora L. W.; Sham, S. T.

    1998-03-01

    We investigated the impact of air cavities in head and neck cancer patients treated by photon beams based on clinical set-ups. The phantom for investigation was constructed with a cubic air cavity of located at the centre of a solid water slab. The cavity cube was used to resemble an extreme case for the nasal cavity. Apart from measuring the dose profiles and central axis percentage depth dose distribution, the dose values in voxels at regions around the air cavity were obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. A mean dose value was taken over the voxels of interest at each depth for evaluation. Single-field results were added to study parallel opposed field effects. For parallel opposed fields at 4, 6 and 8 MV, the mean dose at regions near the lateral interfaces of the cavity cube were decreased by 1 to 2% due to the lack of lateral scatter, while the mean dose near the proximal and distal interfaces was increased by 2 to 4% due to the greater transmission through air. Secondary build-up effects at points immediately beyond the air cavity cube are negligible using field sizes greater than . For most head and neck treatment, the field sizes are usually or greater, and most cavity volumes are smaller than our chosen dimensions. Therefore, the influence of closed air cavities on photon interface doses is not significant in clinical treatment set-ups.

  2. High Glucose-Mediated STAT3 Activation in Endometrial Cancer Is Inhibited by Metformin: Therapeutic Implications for Endometrial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Wallbillich

    Full Text Available STAT3 is over-expressed in endometrial cancer, and diabetes is a risk factor for the development of type 1 endometrial cancer. We therefore investigated whether glucose concentrations influence STAT3 expression in type 1 endometrial cancer, and whether such STAT3 expression might be inhibited by metformin.In Ishikawa (grade 1 endometrial cancer cells subjected to media with low, normal, or high concentrations of glucose, expression of STAT3 and its target proteins was evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. Ishikawa cells were treated with metformin and assessed with cell proliferation, survival, migration, and ubiquitin assays, as well as Western blot and qPCR. Expression of apoptosis proteins was evaluated with Western blot in Ishikawa cells transfected with a STAT3 overexpression plasmid and treated with metformin. A xenograft tumor model was used for studying the in vivo efficacy of metformin.Expression of STAT3 and its target proteins was increased in Ishikawa cells cultured in high glucose media. In vitro, metformin inhibited cell proliferation, survival and migration but induced apoptosis. Metformin reduced expression levels of pSTAT3 ser727, total STAT3, and its associated cell survival and anti-apoptotic proteins. Additionally, metformin treatment was associated with increased degradation of pSTAT3 ser727. No change in apoptotic protein expression was noticed with STAT3 overexpression in Ishikawa cells. In vivo, metformin treatment led to a decrease in tumor weight as well as reductions of STAT3, pSTAT3 ser727, its target proteins.These results suggest that STAT3 expression in type 1 endometrial cancer is stimulated by a high glucose environment and inhibited by metformin.

  3. Value of endometrial thickness assessed by transvaginal ultrasound for the prediction of endometrial cancer in patients with postmenopausal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Amelie; Ebner, Florian; Bauer, Emanuel; Janni, Wolfgang; Friebe-Hoffmann, Ulrike; Pellegrino, Miriam; De Gregorio, Nikolaus; Friedl, Thomas W P

    2017-08-01

    Histological confirmation of endometrial cancer by dilatation/curettage (D/C) in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) can be challenging due to anesthesiological and/or surgical risks. Thus, less invasive methods for diagnostics are required to identify patients with minimal risk for endometrial cancer (EC) to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention. The objective of this single-center cohort study was to assess the diagnostic validity of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) measurements of endometrial thickness (ET) in patients with PMB for the detection of EC. A retrospective analysis of data from patients presenting between January 2005 and August 2014 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Ulm, Germany, with PMB and subsequent D/C was performed. Complete data with TVUS documentation of ET and histological results of tissue samples were available from 254 patients. In addition, data on age, body mass index (BMI), ASA-score, diabetes, hypertension, and hematological laboratory values (for a smaller subsample) were recorded. To identify independent risk factors, a multivariate logistic regression with endometrial cancer as binary response variable (yes/no) was performed. Diagnostic efficacy data for different ET cutoff points (≤1 to ≤26 mm) were obtained by a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant independent predictive value for age and ET. However, none of the analyzed ET cutoff points showed optimal diagnostic validity, as all cutoff points with sensitivity rates above 90% (≤1 to ≤5 mm) had false positive rates of 70% and higher. There is no ET cutoff point that provides good diagnostic accuracy and/or reliably excludes the presence of endometrial cancer in patients with PMB. Thus, our data analysis supports the actual German approach of histological evaluation of any PMB to confirm or exclude EC.

  4. Consolidity: Moving opposite to built-as-usual systems practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrah, Hassen Taher

    2013-01-01

    With the recent uncovering of the mystery of consolidity as an inner property of systems, it is demonstrated that this notion is an indispensable pillar of systems modeling, analysis, design and building. Based on the opposite mathematical relation between consolidity versus stability and controllability, a new conceptual life cycle (change pathway) graph for natural and man-made built-as-usual systems is presented and thoroughly discussed. For the conceptual cycle development progress, it is...

  5. Deciphering the proteomic signature of human endometrial receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Gómez, Tamara; Quiñonero, Alicia; Antúnez, Oreto; Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Bellver, Jose; Simón, Carlos; Domínguez, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    Are there any proteomic differences between receptive (R) and non-receptive (NR) endometrial receptivity array (ERA)-diagnosed endometria obtained on the same day of a hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) treatment cycle? There is a different proteomic signature between R and NR ERA-diagnosed endometrium obtained on the same day of HRT cycles. The human endometrial transcriptome has been extensively investigated in the last decade resulting in the development of a new diagnostic test based on the transcriptomic signature of the window of implantation (WOI). Much less is known about the proteomics derived from the transcripts present during the WOI. This study was a basic proteomic analysis of human endometrial biopsies taken from twelve IVF patients. Human endometrial biopsies were collected during HRT cycles after 5 days of progesterone (P) administration, and diagnosed as receptive (R; n = 6) or non-receptive (NR; n = 6) by the ERA test. Endometrial proteins were extracted, labelled and separated using differential in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). Proteins were identified using mass spectrometry, followed up by in silico analysis. Validation studies using western blots and immunolocalization were performed for the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) and annexin A6 (ANXA6) proteins. DIGE analysis followed by protein identification by MALDI-MS and database searches revealed 24 differentially expressed proteins in R versus NR samples. In silico analysis showed two pathways which were significantly different between R and NR samples. Expression of PGRMC1 and ANXA6 was validated and localized by western blots and immunohistochemistry. These results highlight these proteins as key targets likely to be important in the comprehension of human endometrial receptivity. This was mainly a descriptive study with no functional studies on the proteins found. We also used a low number of human endometrial samples for the DIGE analysis. This study identified the

  6. Do Endometrial Movements Affect The Achievement of Pregnancy during Intrauterine Insemination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to assess the effect of endometrial movements on pregnancy achievement in intrauterine insemination (IUI cycles. Materials and Methods: The population of this observational study was composed of unexplained infertility couples undergoing first-time IUI with clomiphene citrate between September 2010 and October 2011. Not only endometrial movements, but also thickness, volume, pattern, and echogenic change of endometrium were analyzed prospectively in prediction of pregnancy. Results: The total number of 241 cycles of IUI with 49 intrauterine pregnancies (20.3% was analyzed. Pregnancy was not related to endometrial thickness and endometrial volume, but significantly related to endometrial movements associated with the number of contraction, strong movement, cervicofundal direction, and hyperechoic change (p<0.05. Pregnant group showed higher cervicofundal movement rate (89.8 vs. 75.5%. Conclusion: For IUI cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate in unexplained infertility women, endometrial movements on the day of IUI could be a predictor of pregnancy.

  7. Computer morphometry: experience in the study of clinical value in endometrial precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kh. Bishtavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of simple endometrial hyperplasia (SEH, complex endometrial hyperplasia (CEH, atypical endometrial hyper- plasia (AEH, and endometrial cancer (EC is associated with a number of difficulties, frequently giving rise to different interpretations of the same histology specimens.Objective: to assess the possibilities of computed morphometry in endometrial hyperplasia.Subjects and methods. The investigation included 35 patients, including 12 with SEH, 11 with CEH, 7 with AEH, and 5 with EC. Endome- trial computed morphometry was performed using the ImageScope Color.Conclusion. The morphometric changes in endometrial hyperplasia, which are expressed in quantitative indicators, are much more diverse than their schematic image in the current classification, which may be a reason for a difference between the diagnoses.

  8. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Pashupati [JLAB; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Kneisel, Peter K. [JLAB; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  9. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  10. Impact of Simple Ovarian Cysts on the Interpretation of Endometrial Thickness in Women with Postmenopausal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famuyide, Abimbola O; Shazly, Sherif A M; Makdisi, Peter B; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Breitkopf, Daniel M; Hopkins, Matthew R; Laughlin-Tommaso, Shannon K

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence that premenopausal hormones may persist for variable time after menopause. Histological specimens from postmenopausal women support the presence of follicular growth at that age. Residual ovarian function may explain postmenopausal bleeding (PMB), which is not associated with endometrial pathology. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of sonographic diagnosis of simple ovarian cysts on the association between thickened endometrium and endometrial pathology in women with PMB. Data were retrospectively collected from medical records of women who underwent office hysteroscopy for PMB between January 2007 and October 2011. Women with sonographic reports within 3 months of presentation were included. Endometrial thickness and the presence of a simple ovarian cyst (≤5 cm) were documented by reviewing sonographic reports. Diagnosis of endometrial pathology was abstracted according to pathology reports or hysteroscopic impression. Endometria with hyperplasia, cancer, or polyps were considered pathological. Of 836 women with PMB, 356 had recent transvaginal sonography and were included in the analysis. Pathological endometrium was documented in 129 (36.2%) women, including 29 (8.2%) with endometrial cancer. In women with PMB and no evidence of a simple ovarian cyst, endometrial thickness was an independent predictor of endometrial pathology and endometrial cancer with adjusted OR = 1.13 (95% CI = 1.07-1.19) and 1.16 (95% CI = 1.07-1.25), respectively. In the presence of simple ovarian cysts, the adjusted ORs for endometrial thickness as a predictor of endometrial pathology were 1.06 (95% CI = 0.90-1.25) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.62-1.14), respectively. The presence of simple ovarian cysts (≤5 cm) tempers the value of endometrial thickness in predicting endometrial pathology in women with PMB.

  11. Adult granulosa cell tumor associated with endometrial carcinoma: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Eke Ahizechukwu C; Eleje George U; Ikpeze Okechukwu C; Ukah Cornelius O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction If strict criteria for the diagnosis of carcinoma are used and all patients with granulosa cell tumors are considered, the best estimate of the incidence of associated endometrial carcinomas is under 5%. In patients with granulosa cell tumors, estrogen-dependent endometrial cancers are rarely found, and most of these endometrial cancers are well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas that carry a good prognosis when detected early. Case presentation We report the ca...

  12. Consequences of loss of progesterone receptor expression in development of invasive endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hanekamp, Eline; Blok, Leen; Gielen, Susanne; Smid-Koopman, Ellen; Kühne, Liesbeth; Ruiter, Petra; Chadha-Ajwani, Savi; Brinkmann, Albert; Grootegoed, Anton; Burger, Curt; Huikeshoven, Frans

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: In endometrial cancer, loss of progesterone receptors (PR) is associated with more advanced disease. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of progesterone and the loss of its receptors (PRA and PRB) in development of endometrial cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A 9600-cDNA microarray analysis was performed to study regulation of gene expression in the human endometrial cancer subcell line Ishikawa PRAB-36 by the progestagen medroxy progesterone acetate (MPA)...

  13. Effects of platelet-rich plasma in a model of bovine endometrial inflammation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, M G; C.; Perrini; Esposti, P.; Corradetti, B.; Bizzaro, D.; Riccaboni, P.; Fantinato, E.; Urbani, G.; Gelati, G.; Cremonesi, F.; Lange-Consiglio, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Endometritis reduces fertility and is responsible for major economic losses in beef and dairy industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative therapy using platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP was tested in vivo, after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. Methods Bovine endometrial cells were cultured until passage (P) 10 with 5?% or 10?% PRP. Effect of PRP on endometrial cell proliferation and on the expression of genes [prostaglandin-...

  14. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Leśniczak; Grzegorz Krasomski; Przemysław Oszukowski; Tomasz Stetkiewicz; Piotr Woźniak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases...

  15. Frequency of endometrial cancer and atypical hyperplasia in infertile women undergoing hysteroscopic polypectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Koji; Sugiyama, Rie; Motoyama, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Rikikazu

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to determine the frequency of endometrial cancer in infertile women undergoing hysteroscopic endometrial polypectomy for endometrial polyps. A total of 1035 infertile patients who underwent office-based hysteroscopic polypectomy at Sugiyama Clinic Marunouchi between July 2011 and October 2015 were eligible for this retrospective study. All patients had been diagnosed with endometrial polyps via hysterofiberscopy prior to operation, and they underwent hysteroscopic endometrial polypectomy using a resectoscope with monopolar resection. Surgical specimens were examined histopathologically. Characteristics of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer on histopathological examination were evaluated retrospectively. The median age of patients was 32 years (range, 19-44 years). On histopathological examination, endometrial cancer was found in 10 patients (0.97%). Each histological type of endometrial cancer was represented as follows: three cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma G1; one of endometrioid adenocarcinoma G2; two of endometrioid adenocarcinoma G3; and four of atypical endometrial hyperplasia. The median age of endometrial cancer patients was 34 years (range, 28-41 years), and the median body mass index was 21.2 kg/m 2 (range, 16.7-29.9 kg/m 2 ). Nine endometrial cancer patients were nulliparous, and all had undergone infertility treatment, with only one woman having delivered a healthy baby. An ovulation disorder was noted in four patients, with obesity (body mass index > 25 kg/m 2 ) in just two. Polycystic ovary syndrome was concomitantly observed in one patient. However, abnormal vaginal bleeding was not noted in any of these patients. Hysteroscopic polypectomy should be performed when endometrial polyps are detected on investigational screening, and surgical specimens should be checked for the presence of malignancy. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Predictors for lymph nodes involvement in low risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadan, Yfat; Calvino, Abdul Saied; Katz, Andrew; Katz, Steven; Moore, Richard G

    2017-05-01

    Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and BMI were examined as pre-operative predictors for lymph node metastases in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer. The study was a retrospective analysis of 534 endometrial cancer patients that underwent hysterectomy and lymph node dissection. Included subjects had a preoperative diagnosis of a grade 1 or 2 endometrioid carcinoma and no macroscopic extrauterine disease. We compared node-negative to node-positive patients to identify correlates of node-positive disease. The node-positive group presented with lower BMI than the node-negative group, 31.5 and 34.4, respectively (p = .03). The mean NLR was higher in the node-positive group 3.4 vs 2.9 (p = .08), showing a trend towards significance on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, lower BMI was found to be an independent predictor for nodal metastasis. Our data suggest that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph nodes involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. Impact statement Most endometrial cancer patients have low-risk disease with low risk for lymph nodes metastasis. In order to reduce the number of patients that will undergo unnecessary lymph node dissection, different types of preoperative predictors for lymph node involvement were studied. CA 125 and different imaging modalities were found as useful predictors for more advanced disease. Less studied predictors are the systemic inflammatory response markers and patient's BMI. This study suggests that lower BMI is a risk factor for lymph node involvement in low-risk endometrial cancer. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was close to significance as a predictor for lymph node involvement. In practice, physicians might favour comprehensive lymph node dissection when there is a doubt regarding the procedure but the patient is lean. The study's conclusion can be utilised for triaging patients to general gynaecologist vs gynaecologic oncologist. Further research should focus on combining predictors such as

  17. The genetic regulation of transcription in human endometrial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Jenny N; Girling, Jane E; Lukowski, Samuel W; Sapkota, Yadav; Wallace, Leanne; Holdsworth-Carson, Sarah J; Henders, Anjali K; Healey, Martin; Rogers, Peter A W; Powell, Joseph E; Montgomery, Grant W

    2017-04-01

    Do genetic effects regulate gene expression in human endometrium? This study demonstrated strong genetic effects on endometrial gene expression and some evidence for genetic regulation of gene expression in a menstrual cycle stage-specific manner. Genetic effects on expression levels for many genes are tissue specific. Endometrial gene expression varies across menstrual cycle stages and between individuals, but there are limited data on genetic control of expression in endometrium. We analysed genome-wide genotype and gene expression data to map cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in endometrium. We recruited 123 women of European ancestry. DNA samples from blood were genotyped on Illumina HumanCoreExome chips. Total RNA was extracted from endometrial tissues. Whole-transcriptome profiles were characterized using Illumina Human HT-12 v4.0 Expression Beadchips. We performed eQTL mapping with ~8 000 000 genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 12 329 genes. We identified a total of 18 595 cis SNP-probe associations at a study-wide level of significance (P endometrial tissue were rs4902335 for CHURC1 (P = 1.05 × 10-32) and rs147253019 for ZP3 (P = 8.22 × 10-30). We further performed a context-specific eQTL analysis to investigate if genetic effects on gene expression regulation act in a menstrual cycle-specific manner. Interestingly, five cis-eQTLs were identified with a significant stage-by-genotype interaction. The strongest stage interaction was the eQTL for C10ORF33 (PYROXD2) with SNP rs2296438 (P = 2.0 × 10-4), where we observe a 2-fold difference in the average expression levels of heterozygous samples depending on the stage of the menstrual cycle. The summary eQTL results are publicly available to browse or download. A limitation of the present study was the relatively modest sample size. It was not powered to identify trans-eQTLs and larger sample sizes will also be needed to provide better power to detect cis-eQTLs and

  18. Mucometra, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, and pyometra in the bitch: advances in treatment and assessment of future reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, J; Dhaliwal, G; Verstegen-Onclin, K

    2008-08-01

    Pyometra is a common reproductive disorder which affects nearly one fourth of all female dogs before they reach 10 y of age. An association between pyometra and the most common uterine disease of the bitch, cystic endometrial hyperplasia, has been established, as the latter allows commensal bacteria originating from the vagina to proliferate in the uterus at the end of estrus. The progressive degenerative process in the development of cystic endometrial hyperplasia is usually proposed as the initiating lesion for pyometra in bitches; this is mediated by progesterone and potentially aggravated by estrogens. However, a separate process caused by local uterine irritation to trophoblastic reaction and bacterial proliferation has been recently proposed as an alternate mechanism leading to the development of pyometra. Pyometra is clinically distinct in pathogenesis, signs, treatment and prognosis from postpartum metritis or mucometra. Treatment of pyometra has historically involved ovariohysterectomy, however, during the last 10 y, numerous effective treatments have been proposed to treat both open and closed cervix pyometra with good success and future fertility. Among the treatments available, the use of repeated low doses of prostaglandins alone or in association with either dopamine agonists or progesterone-receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be a viable alternative for valuable breeding dogs.

  19. Thermal conditions within tree cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests: potential implications for cavity users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierling, Kerri T.; Lorenz, Teresa J.; Cunningham, Patrick; Potterf, Kelsi

    2017-11-01

    Tree cavities provide critical roosting and breeding sites for multiple species, and thermal environments in these cavities are important to understand. Our objectives were to (1) describe thermal characteristics in cavities between June 3 and August 9, 2014, and (2) investigate the environmental factors that influence cavity temperatures. We placed iButtons in 84 different cavities in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in central Washington, and took hourly measurements for at least 8 days in each cavity. Temperatures above 40 °C are generally lethal to developing avian embryos, and 18% of the cavities had internal temperatures of ≥ 40 °C for at least 1 h of each day. We modeled daily maximum cavity temperature, the amplitude of daily cavity temperatures, and the difference between the mean internal cavity and mean ambient temperatures as a function of several environmental variables. These variables included canopy cover, tree diameter at cavity height, cavity volume, entrance area, the hardness of the cavity body, the hardness of the cavity sill (which is the wood below the cavity entrance which forms the barrier between the cavity and the external environment), and sill width. Ambient temperature had the largest effect size for maximum cavity temperature and amplitude. Larger trees with harder sills may provide more thermally stable cavity environments, and decayed sills were positively associated with maximum cavity temperatures. Summer temperatures are projected to increase in this region, and additional research is needed to determine how the thermal environments of cavities will influence species occupancy, breeding, and survival.

  20. Red-cockaded woodpecker nest-cavity selection: relationships with cavity age and resin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; William G. Ross; David L. Kulhavy

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated selection of nest sites by male red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) in Texas relative to the age of the cavity when only cavities excavated by the woodpeckers were available and when both naturally excavated cavities and artificial cavities were available. They also evaluated nest-cavity selection relative to the ability of naturally...

  1. Sonographic findings in two cases of complicated pregnancy in women previously treated with endometrial ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Roxane; Santiago-Muñoz, Patricia; Nelson, David B; Twickler, Diane

    2013-01-01

    When medical therapy fails for menorrhagia in a premenopausal woman, minimally invasive endometrial ablation can be used as a conservative management alternative to hysterectomy. Endometrial ablation alone is not considered effective contraception, and women of reproductive age can become pregnant after ablative therapy. We now present two cases of pregnancy after endometrial ablation and associated imaging where both cases required cesarean hysterectomy due to post-partum hemorrhage. Pregnancy after endometrial ablation incurs increased morbidity and diagnostic dilemmas. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interacttions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A; tin-Ley, U; Ravn, V

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell...... cultures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Blastocyst attachment rate on endometrial cell cultures; secretion of glycodelin and leukemia inhibitory factor into the culture medium measured by RIA and ELISA techniques; and expression of progesterone receptors, interleukin-1 receptor type-1, and integrin subunit beta...

  3. Human Papillomavirus in Endometrial Adenocarcinomas: Infectious Agent or a Mere “Passenger”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatromanolaki, A.; Sivridis, E.; Papazoglou, D.; Koukourakis, M. I.; Maltezos, E.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. To investigate the possible association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with endometrial hyperplasias and neoplasia. Does HPV play any role in the initiation or prognosis of endometrial adenocarcinomas? Methods. Twenty-five endometrial adenocarcinomas of the endometrioid cell type, with and without squamous differentiation, and twenty-four endometrial hyperplasias of various forms (simple, complex, and atypical) were analyzed for the presence of type 16 and 18 HPV by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results were related to histopathological features of the tumour, and the patients' age, and prognosis. Results. Six of 25 endometrial adenocarcinomas were HPV 16-positive (24%), and 5 of 25 (20%) were HPV 18-positive. Simple endometrial hyperplasias was associated somewhat more commonly with HPV 16 and 18 (2/8 and 1/8 cases, resp.) than hyperplasias progressing to endometrial adenocarcinomas, namely, atypical endometrial hyperplasia (1/8 and 0/8 cases, resp.). None of the positive cases in the series, whether hyperplastic or neoplastic, demonstrated cytological evidence of HPV infection. There was no relation between HPV-positive cases and squamous differentiation, depth of myometrial invasion, lymphatic involvement, lymphocytic response, patients' age, or prognosis. Conclusion. It appears that the presence of HPV in the endometrium, as detected by PCR, does not play any role in the initiation or prognosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma. PMID:18274613

  4. Oncogenic histone methyltransferase EZH2: A novel prognostic marker with therapeutic potential in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Shinya; Sone, Kenbun; Oda, Katsutoshi; Hamamoto, Ryuji; Ikemura, Masako; Maeda, Daichi; Takeuchi, Makoto; Tanikawa, Michihiro; Mori-Uchino, Mayuyo; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Miyasaka, Aki; Kashiyama, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yuji; Arimoto, Takahide; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Kawana, Kei; Fukayama, Masashi; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2017-06-20

    The histone methyltransferase EZH2, a key epigenetic modifier, is known to be associated with human tumorigenesis. However, the physiological importance of EZH2 and its clinical relevance in endometrial cancer remain unclear. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the expression and function of EZH2 in endometrial cancer. In a quantitative real-time PCR analysis of 11 endometrial cancer cell lines and 52 clinical endometrial cancer specimens, EZH2 was significantly overexpressed in cancer cells and tissues compared to that in corresponding normal control cells and tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis using data of the TCGA RNA-seq database and tissue microarrays (TMAs) indicated that EZH2 overexpression is associated with endometrial cancer prognosis. In addition, knockdown of EZH2 using specific siRNAs resulted in growth suppression and apoptosis induction of endometrial cancer cells, accompanied by attenuation of H3K27 trimethylation. Consistent with these results, treatment with GSK126, a specific EZH2 inhibitor, suppressed endometrial cancer cell growth and decreased the number of cancer cell colonies. Furthermore, GSK126 showed additive effects with doxorubicin or cisplatin, which are conventional drugs for treatment of endometrial cancer. Further studies should explore the therapeutic potential of inhibiting EZH2 in patients with endometrial cancer.

  5. Obstetric outcomes of pregnancy after conservative treatment of endometrial cancer: Case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shine Chao

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: For women who had completed conservative treatments in early endometrial cancer, assisted reproductive technology provided a choice of scheduled conception for those with subfertility or chronic anovulation.

  6. Clinicopathologic characteristics of double primary endometrial and colorectal cancers in a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun J; Choi, Min C; Jang, Ja-Hyun; Jung, Sang G; Park, Hyun; Joo, Won D; Kim, Tae H; Lee, Chan; Lee, Je H

    2018-02-14

    To investigate the clinicopathologic and genetic correlations between double primary endometrial and colorectal cancer related to Lynch syndrome and to analyze germline mutations in mismatch repair genes in endometrial cancer patients in Korea. Thirteen patients diagnosed with pathologically endometrial and colorectal cancer between January 2005 and November 2016 in a single institution were enrolled in the study. The medical records were retrospectively analyzed. The genetic mutational information of endometrial cancer in Korea was retrieved from the literature review. Endometrial cancer was diagnosed first in eight (62%) patients, and one patient was diagnosed with colorectal cancer first. Endometrioid adenocarcinoma was reported in 10 of 13 (77%) endometrial cancer patients. Endometrial cancer was found at the low uterine segment in three patients. Three of four patients had high microsatellite instability. The loss of mismatch repair proteins was confirmed in 7 of 11 cases using immunohistochemistry. Four patients fulfilled clinical criteria based on a family history of cancer. Overall, the incidence of suspected Lynch syndrome was 77% (10/13). Four of them underwent genetic testing and three were found to have a pathogenic germline mutation. A possible founder mutation, c.1757_1758insC in MLH1, was observed in 21 germline mutation information from literature review. The present study describes the clinicopathologic data of double primary endometrial and colorectal cancer patients and supports that these patients should undergo closed approach for Lynch syndrome. Moreover, a possible founder mutation in Korean endometrial cancer patients was identified. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Metaplasia osea endometrial: reporte de casos y revision de la literatura

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mondragon-Cedeno, Alba Lucia; Miranda-Cruz, Angel David; Parra-Duarte, Sergio Augusto; Paredes-Becerra, Eliana; Zuniga- Chavez, Ana Maria

    2011-01-01

    .... La segunda mujer inicio dos embarazos que terminaron en abortos tempranos completos. Palabras clave: metaplasia osea, osificacion endometrial, ectopia osea, infertilidad, histeroscopia, dolor pelvico cronico, hemorragia uterina anormal...

  8. Comparing four methods to estimate usual intake distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souverein, O W; Dekkers, A L; Geelen, A; Haubrock, J; de Vries, J H; Ocké, M C; Harttig, U; Boeing, H; van 't Veer, P

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare methods to estimate usual intake distributions of nutrients and foods. As 'true' usual intake distributions are not known in practice, the comparison was carried out through a simulation study, as well as empirically, by application to data from the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) Study in which two 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and food frequency data were collected. The methods being compared were the Iowa State University Method (ISU), National Cancer Institute Method (NCI), Multiple Source Method (MSM) and Statistical Program for Age-adjusted Dietary Assessment (SPADE). Simulation data were constructed with varying numbers of subjects (n), different values for the Box-Cox transformation parameter (λ(BC)) and different values for the ratio of the within- and between-person variance (r(var)). All data were analyzed with the four different methods and the estimated usual mean intake and selected percentiles were obtained. Moreover, the 2-day within-person mean was estimated as an additional 'method'. These five methods were compared in terms of the mean bias, which was calculated as the mean of the differences between the estimated value and the known true value. The application of data from the EFCOVAL Project included calculations of nutrients (that is, protein, potassium, protein density) and foods (that is, vegetables, fruit and fish). Overall, the mean bias of the ISU, NCI, MSM and SPADE Methods was small. However, for all methods, the mean bias and the variation of the bias increased with smaller sample size, higher variance ratios and with more pronounced departures from normality. Serious mean bias (especially in the 95th percentile) was seen using the NCI Method when r(var) = 9, λ(BC) = 0 and n = 1000. The ISU Method and MSM showed a somewhat higher s.d. of the bias compared with NCI and SPADE Methods, indicating a larger method uncertainty. Furthermore, whereas the ISU, NCI and SPADE Methods produced

  9. [The usual diet of a group of adolescents from Valencia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré Rovira, R; Frasquet Pons, I; Martínez Martínez, I; Romá Sánchez, R

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents are considered a high nutritional risk group because their nutritional needs are increased with respect to other age groups, and because this period of life coincides with changes in life style that affect, often negatively, their eating habits. Our overall goal is to study the usual eating pattern of Valencian adolescents together with their drink and tobacco consumption, but the first stage focuses on setting up, validating and correcting methods to be applied. The present study was therefore carried out in a sample composed of 64 adolescents, ranging from 16 to 20 years of age. A self administered survey developed in our Department was used to explore their food preferences, eating habits, smoking habits and alcohol and coffee intake. The following results were obtained: The number of daily meals was of 3.7 +/- 0.9. The 91% takes the breakfast daily (milk with cereals or sweet rolls) and the majority of the students eat a second mid-morning breakfast. Lunch is of the traditional type, consisting of two courses. The first is rice or pasta, followed by meat, fish or eggs usually accompanied by a side dish or salad. Fresh fruit is the dessert eaten, almost daily by the majority of the sample. The most usual drink is water. The 70% of the sample have one supplementary afternoon intake "merienda". All of the surveyed people like fruits, pasta and chicken meat. While, liver and legumes are disliked by the majority. The intakes of soft drinks, snacks, alcohol, coffee and tobacco are moderate, being, all these products mainly consumed during the weekend. The mean diet offers an excess of proteins and saturated fat, while complex carbohydrates and dietetic fiber are scarce. Nutritional intakes of iron, magnesium and zinc in girls, and magnesium, folates and vitamin A in boys are estimated insufficient to fulfil their needs.

  10. Can endometrial arylsulfatase A activity predict the onset of endometrial polyps over the years? A atividade da arilsulfatase endometrial A pode prever a aparição de pólipos endometriais ao longo dos anos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Indraccolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess if arylsulfatase A activity (ASA and sulfatide (SL concentration in the human endometrium can be predictive of the development of endometrial polyps over the years, since ASA activity reflects the endometrial sensitivity to hormones. METHODS: ASA activity and SL concentration were determined by biochemical procedures on endometrial samples collected between 1990 and 1994 in non-menopausal women. These women underwent a new endometrial sampling following the clinical indication some years after the first endometrial sampling. The histological assessment of the second endometrial specimens found four patients with normal endometrial pattern and 10 patients with one or more endometrial polyps. ASA activity/years elapsed and SL concentration/years elapsed were compared using two tailed Mann-Whitney test for unpaired data between patients with normal pattern and patients with endometrial polyps. RESULTS: Median ASA activities were 2.62 (normal pattern versus 1.85 (endometrial polyps nmol hydrolized substrate/min. Median activity/years elapsed is higher in patients with second endometrial sample presenting normal pattern (p=0.006 and median SL concentration/years elapsed does not differ significantly among groups, even if median SL concentration seems to be higher in patients who subsequently developed polyps (1031 µg/g of fresh tissue versus 341,5 µg/g of fresh tissue. CONCLUSIONS: ASA activity can predict the onset of endometrial polyps over the years.OBJETIVO: Avaliar se a atividade da arilsulfatase A (ASA e a concentração de sulfatida (SL no endométrio humano pode ser preditivo em relação ao desenvolvimento de pólipos endometriais ao longo dos anos, posto que atividade da ASA reflete a sensibilidade do endométrio aos hormônios. MÉTODOS: A atividade da ASA, assim como a concentração de SL, foi determinada por meio de procedimentos bioquímicos em amostras de endométrio coletadas entre 1990 e 1994, em mulheres que n

  11. Evaluation of a silver nitrate endometrial ablation fluid delivery system as a chemical treatment for menorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Robert S; Singer, Albert

    2013-01-01

    To explore the safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of silver nitrate-dextran paste delivered through the cervix as a simple and inexpensive endometrial ablation therapy for menorrhagia. Safety, feasibility, and effectiveness trials (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). The trials were performed at the Whittington Hospital in London. Seven women were treated for menorrhagia after prehysterectomy trials on 10 patients. Studies were first performed on rats and rabbits and human uterine specimens. We dissolved 10 g 75% silver nitrate/25% potassium nitrate and 15 g dextran 70 in 10 mL distilled water and delivered this paste through the cervix with a pressure-controlled syringe under fluroscopic monitoring. We planned silver nitrate doses of 500 mg in a 50-kg woman to remain in the uterus for 8 minutes after injection and then to be neutralized with normal saline and washed out. In uterine specimens, 8-minute treatment produced local necrosis to 4 mm. LD50 (lethal dose, 50%) studies in rats and mice ranged from 1100 to 2000 mg/kg. Prehysterectomy trials on 10 patients to evaluate safety revealed no penetration into the tubes and normal complete blood count, renal, cardiac, and liver tests with plasma silver rising to 20 to 30 μmoles/L and returning to baseline after 4 weeks. Finally, 7 patients were treated and followed for 6 months. We followed blood values, complications, and degree of flow reduction. Six patients were well and discharged the same day; of those, all blood values were similar to the safety studies, 5 reported varying degrees of flow reduction, and 1 patient continued with menorrhagia. The seventh patient had passage of paste into the left fallopian tube and peritoneal cavity producing immediate pain. Laparoscopy showed several burns on the back of the uterus, sigmoid colon, and cul de sac. After neutralization with saline, she made a complete, uneventful recovery and became oligoamenorrheic. Silver nitrate could be a simple, inexpensive, safe

  12. Cavity QED with atomic mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D. E.; Jiang, L.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Kimble, H. J.

    2012-06-01

    A promising approach to merge atomic systems with scalable photonics has emerged recently, which consists of trapping cold atoms near tapered nanofibers. Here, we describe a novel technique to achieve strong, coherent coupling between a single atom and photon in such a system. Our approach makes use of collective enhancement effects, which allow a lattice of atoms to form a high-finesse cavity within the fiber. We show that a specially designated ‘impurity’ atom within the cavity can experience strongly enhanced interactions with single photons in the fiber. Under realistic conditions, a ‘strong coupling’ regime can be reached, wherein it becomes feasible to observe vacuum Rabi oscillations between the excited impurity atom and a single cavity quantum. This technique can form the basis for a scalable quantum information network using atom-nanofiber systems.

  13. Controversies in the Treatment of Early Stage Endometrial Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Z. Press

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the publication of numerous studies, including some multicentered randomized controlled trials, there continues to be vigorous debate regarding the optimal management of early stage endometrial cancer, including the extent of surgery and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation. Resolving these questions has become increasingly important in view of the increase of endometrial cancer, related to the aging population and the alarming incidence of obesity. Furthermore, there are more surgical challenges encountered when operating on elderly patients or on patients with increased BMI and the associated comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and pulmonary dysfunction. This paper will focus on the advantages of minimally invasive surgery, the value of lymphadenectomy including sentinel lymph node mapping, and some of the current controversies surrounding adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation.

  14. A Survey of Coronal Cavity Density Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J.; Gibson, S. E.

    2009-08-01

    Coronal cavities are common features of the solar corona that appear as darkened regions at the base of coronal helmet streamers in coronagraph images. Their darkened appearance indicates that they are regions of lowered density embedded within the comparatively higher density helmet streamer. Despite interfering projection effects of the surrounding helmet streamer (which we refer to as the cavity rim), Fuller et al. have shown that under certain conditions it is possible to use a Van de Hulst inversion of white-light polarized brightness (pB) data to calculate the electron density of both the cavity and cavity rim plasma. In this article, we apply minor modifications to the methods of Fuller et al. in order to improve the accuracy and versatility of the inversion process, and use the new methods to calculate density profiles for both the cavity and cavity rim in 24 cavity systems. We also examine trends in cavity morphology and how departures from the model geometry affect our density calculations. The density calculations reveal that in all 24 cases the cavity plasma has a flatter density profile than the plasma of the cavity rim, meaning that the cavity has a larger density depletion at low altitudes than it does at high altitudes. We find that the mean cavity density is over four times greater than that of a coronal hole at an altitude of 1.2 R sun and that every cavity in the sample is over twice as dense as a coronal hole at this altitude. Furthermore, we find that different cavity systems near solar maximum span a greater range in density at 1.2 R sun than do cavity systems near solar minimum, with a slight trend toward higher densities for systems nearer to solar maximum. Finally, we found no significant correlation of cavity density properties with cavity height—indeed, cavities show remarkably similar density depletions—except for the two smallest cavities that show significantly greater depletion.

  15. The endometrial bacterial flora following insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamar, R; Wajntraub, G; Godfried, L; Czazkes, E; Aloni, T A

    1980-01-01

    Bacteriological cultures of material were collected from the endometrium and cervix of 150 women using the IUD, 75 control women and transfundally from 20 uteri of women who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy. The results show that the IUD does not alter the endometrial flora unless it is left in situ for a period exceeding two years. The transfundal cultures yielded the lowest positive cultures. The relationship of positive culture to the cycle and the period of insertion of IUD is discussed.

  16. Surgery for early stage endometrial carcinoma in the obese patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Leblanc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obese patients have increased risk of developing endometrial cancer proportional to the excess in body mass index. In this review, we explored the latest information on surgical management and its adaptation to the obese condition. Mini-invasive treatments (laparoscopic, robotic, vaginal, or combinations should be systematically considered. Prevention and active treatment of obesity seem an interesting approach to reduce incidence and severity of the disease.

  17. The important application of thioridazine in the endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Qiong; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer (ECa) is one of the serious healthy burden for female worldwide. The treatments of ECa focus on the application of endocrine therapy and aberrant signaling proteins expression recently years. Medroxyprogesterone acrtate (MPA) plays crucial role in the endocrine therapy for ECa patients. However, the outcomes are still not ideal in the advanced stage tumor, especially in the progesterone-resistant ECa. Thioridazine (THIO) is an anti-psychotic agent, which has bee...

  18. Endometrial Histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate Users: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To obtain pilot data on the endometrial histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, DMPA users experiencing breakthrough bleeding (BTB versus users with amenorrhea. To compare the endometrial histology of patients who used DMPA continuously for 3–12 months versus those who used it for 13 months or more. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Endometrial biopsy was obtained from all consenting patients who used DMPA for at least 3 months. Patients were divided into those with BTB in the last 3 months versus those with amenorrhea for at least 3 months. Histology results and duration of therapy were compared. Results. The proportion of women with chronic endometritis, uterine polyps, atrophic, proliferative, or progesterone-dominant endometrium did not differ between those DMPA users with BTB versus those with amenorrhea. Duration of therapy did not correlate with symptoms of BTB or endometrial histology. Chronic endometritis was the most common histologic finding (10/40, 25% and occurred more often in women experiencing BTB (35% versus 15% (RR 1.62 CI 0.91–2.87. Moreover, 45% of women with BTB had received DMPA for more than 12 months. Conclusions. BTB was more common than previously reported in women using DMPA for more than 12 months. Chronic endometritis, which may indicate an underlying infectious or intracavitary anatomic etiology, has not been previously reported as a frequent finding in DMPA users, and may be related to ethnic or other sociodemographic characteristics of our patient population. Further study to elucidate the etiology of chronic endometritis in these patients is warranted.

  19. Progestogenic effects of tibolone on human endometrial cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, Leen; Ruiter, Petra; Kuhne, E.C.; Hanekamp, Eline; Grootegoed, Anton; Smid-Koopman, Ellen; Gielen, Susanne; Gooyer, M.E.; Kloosterboer, Helenius; Burger, Curt

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTibolone, a synthetic steroid acting in a tissue-specific manner and used in hormone replacement therapy, is converted into three active metabolites: a Delta(4) isomer (exerting progestogenic and androgenic effects) and two hydroxy metabolites, 3 alpha-hydroxytibolone (3 alpha-OH-tibolone) and 3beta-OH-tibolone (exerting estrogenic effects). In the present study an endometrial carcinoma cell line (Ishikawa PRAB-36) was used to investigate the progestogenic properties of tibolone a...

  20. Differential endometrial gene expression in pregnant and nonpregnant sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Bauersachs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to unveil molecular processes controlling the porcine placentation, we have investigated the pregnancy-induced gene expression in the endometrium using the Affymetrix GeneChip Porcine Genome Array. At Day 14 after insemination, at the time of initial placentation, samples were obtai...... to the apical cell domain of the glandular epithelium suggest the concept of endometrial FGF9 acting as an embryonic growth factor in the pig....