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  1. Endometriosis and risks for ovarian, endometrial and breast cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Julie Brøchner; Kjær, Susanne K.; Mellemkjær, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that endometriosis increases the risk for ovarian cancer, but it is less well studied whether the excess risk is confined to certain histotypes. Furthermore, it is not fully resolved if endometriosis is associated with endometrial- and breast cancer....... The aim was to study overall- and histotype-specific risks for these hormone-dependent cancers in women with endometriosis. Methods In the Danish National Patient Register, we identified 45,790 women with a clinical diagnosis of endometriosis during 1977–2012. We linked the cohort to the Danish Cancer...... Register and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Endometriosis was associated with increased risks for ovarian cancer (SIR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.16–1.55), due primarily to endometrioid (SIR 1.64; 95% CI: 1.09–2.37) and clear-cell types (SIR 3...

  2. Molecular changes preceding endometrial and ovarian cancer: a study of consecutive endometrial specimens from Lynch syndrome surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskakoski, Anni; Pasanen, Annukka; Lassus, Heini; Renkonen-Sinisalo, Laura; Kaur, Sippy; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Bützow, Ralf; Peltomäki, Päivi

    2018-03-27

    Molecular alterations preceding endometrial and ovarian cancer and the sequence of events are unknown. Consecutive specimens from lifelong surveillance for Lynch syndrome provides a natural setting to address such questions. To molecularly define the multistep gynecological tumorigenesis, DNA mismatch repair gene mutation carriers with endometrial or ovarian carcinoma or endometrial hyperplasia were identified from a nation-wide registry and endometrial biopsy specimens taken from these individuals during 20 years of screening were collected. A total of 213 endometrial and ovarian specimens from Lynch syndrome individuals and 197 histology-matched (non-serous) samples from sporadic cases were available for this investigation. The specimens were profiled for markers linked to endometrial and ovarian tumorigenesis, including ARID1A protein expression, mismatch repair status, and tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation. In Lynch syndrome-associated endometrial and ovarian carcinomas, ARID1A protein was lost in 61-100% and mismatch repair was deficient in 97-100%, compared to 0-17% and 14-44% in sporadic cases (P = 0.000). ARID1A loss appeared in complex hyperplasia and deficient mismatch repair and tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation in histologically normal endometrium. Despite quantitative differences between Lynch syndrome and sporadic cases, ARID1A expression, mismatch repair, and tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation divided endometrial samples from both patient groups into three categories of increasing abnormality, comprising normal endometrium and simple hyperplasia (I), complex hyperplasia with or without atypia (II), and endometrial cancer (III). Complex hyperplasias without vs. with atypia were molecularly indistinguishable. In conclusion, surveillance specimens from Lynch syndrome identify mismatch repair deficiency, tumor suppressor gene promoter methylation, and ARID1A loss as early changes in tumor development. Our findings are

  3. Diagnostic delay, quality of life and patient satisfaction among women diagnosed with endometrial or ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Kirstine M; Christensen, Karl Bang; Ottesen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the association between diagnostic delay (total delay), quality of life (QoL) and patient satisfaction, and the associations between QoL and patient satisfaction scores and survival for women diagnosed with ovarian or endometrial cancer....

  4. Synchronous primary ovarian and endometrial cancers: a series of cases and a review of literature

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    Sylwia Dębska-Szmich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous cancers account for 0.7-1.8% of all gynecologic cancers. Among them, synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancers are predominant (40-53%. Patients with synchronous cancers have better prognosis than those with single disseminated cancer. We present 10 patients with synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancers who were treated at the Chemotherapy Department of the Medical University of Lodz in 2009-2013. The most often reported symptom of the disease was abnormal vaginal bleeding (6 patients. The range of the patients’ age was 48-62 and the median age was 56. Five patients had stage I of ovarian cancer, single patients had stage IIA, IIB and IIIB, 2 patients had stage IIIC. Three patients had I, 5 – II, and 2 – III stage of endometrial cancer. All patients had endometrioid type of endometrial cancer, 7 of them had also the same histological type of ovarian cancer. All patients had adjuvant chemotherapy because of ovarian cancer, none of them had adjuvant radiotherapy. One patient was lost to follow up. For other patients a median follow up was 13 months (range: 3-53 months. One patient experienced relapse, all patients are alive. Synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancers are usually diagnosed at an earlier stage, have lower histological grade and better prognosis than single cancers. The most common histological type of both endometrial and ovarian cancers is endometrioid carcinoma. The first symptoms reported by our patients and the course of the disease were concordant with data from the literature.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer: a systematic review.

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    Harris, Holly R; Terry, Kathryn L

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder with an estimated prevalence of 4-21% in reproductive aged women. The altered metabolic and hormonal environment among women with PCOS may increase their risk of some types of cancer. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using numerous search terms for all studies examining the associations between polycystic ovary syndrome and related characteristics and cancer published in English through October 2016. This review summarizes the epidemiological findings on the associations between PCOS and endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancers and discusses the methodological issues, complexities, and underlying mechanisms of these associations. We identified 11 individual studies and 3 meta-analyses on the associations between PCOS and endometrial cancer, 8 studies and 1 meta-analysis for ovarian cancer, and 10 studies and 1 meta-analysis for breast cancer. Multiple studies reported that women with PCOS were at a higher risk for endometrial cancer; however, many did not take into account body mass index (BMI), a strong and well-established risk factor for endometrial cancer. The association with ovarian cancer was less clear, but a potentially increased risk of the borderline serous subtype was reported by two studies. No consistent association between PCOS risk and breast cancer was observed. The associations between PCOS and endometrial, ovarian, and breast cancer are complex, with the need to consider many methodological issues in future analyses. Larger well-designed studies, or pooled analyses, may help clarify these complex associations.

  6. Preoperative identification of synchronous ovarian and endometrial cancers: the importance of appropriate workup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, F.M.; Wurff, A.A. van der; Pijnenborg, J.M.A.; Vos, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: For treatment of patients with both endometrial and ovarian cancer, it is important to discriminate between 2 primary tumors and metastatic disease. Currently, criteria are based on postoperative findings. The aim of this study was to determine whether clinical parameters can discriminate

  7. Influence of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use on ovarian and endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, F.; Kjaer, S. K.; Friis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for aspirin use in reducing the incidence and mortality of several cancer types. This has spurred a new wave of interest in this widely used drug. In this review, we present and evaluate the epidemiologic evidence of the association between the use of aspirin....... Overall, observational studies indicate modest reductions in risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer with aspirin use, whereas the results for non-aspirin NSAID use are equivocal. The strongest inverse associations have been reported for long-term consistent aspirin use, notably among subgroups of users (e.......g., those with high body mass index). Few studies have evaluated the influence of NSAID use on the mortality of ovarian or endometrial cancer, and substantial heterogeneity of study characteristics and results preclude any conclusions. Additional studies of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use and ovarian...

  8. Endogenous estrogens and the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan B; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Data from laboratory and epidemiologic studies support a relationship between endogenous hormones and the increased risk of several female cancers. In epidemiologic studies, consistent associations have been observed between risk of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers and reproductive and hormonal risk factors such as high postmenopausal body mass index (BMI) and postmenopausal hormone use, which suggest the importance of endogenous hormones in the etiology of these diseases. The relationship between circulating estrogen levels in postmenopausal women and the risk of breast cancer is well established, with an approximately 2-fold higher risk among women in the top 20-25% (versus bottom 20-25%) of levels. However, data evaluating the relationship between endogenous estrogens and premenopausal breast cancer risk are more limited and less consistent. Two studies to date have evaluated the relationship between circulating estrogens and breast cancer risk by menstrual cycle phase at blood collection and only one study has examined this relationship by menopausal status at diagnosis. Three prospective studies have evaluated circulating estrogen levels and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women, with consistent strong positive associations reported (with relative risks of 2-4 comparing high versus low hormone levels), while this relationship has not been studied in premenopausal women. Compared to breast and endometrial cancers, reproductive and hormonal characteristics such as postmenopausal hormone use are generally weaker and less consistent risk factors for ovarian cancer, and the only small prospective study conducted to date indicated a non-significant positive relationship between circulating estrogen levels and ovarian cancer risk. In this review, we summarize current evidence and identify key areas to be addressed in future epidemiologic studies of endogenous estrogens and the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Copyright © 2015

  9. Estrogen Metabolism and Risk of Postmenopausal Endometrial and Ovarian Cancer: the B ∼ FIT Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallal, Cher M; Lacey, James V; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Bauer, Douglas C; Falk, Roni T; Buist, Diana S M; Cauley, Jane A; Hue, Trisha F; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Tice, Jeffrey A; Veenstra, Timothy D; Xu, Xia; Brinton, Louise A

    2016-02-01

    Estrogen metabolites may have different genotoxic and mitogenic properties yet their relationship with endometrial and ovarian cancer risk remains unclear. Within the Breast and Bone Follow-up to the Fracture Intervention Trial (B ∼ FIT, n = 15,595), we conducted a case-cohort study to evaluate 15 pre-diagnostic serum estrogens and estrogen metabolites with risk of incident endometrial and ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women not on hormone therapy. Participants included 66 endometrial and 67 ovarian cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up (∼ 10 years) and subcohorts of 346 and 416 women, respectively, after relevant exclusions. Serum concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Exposures were categorized in tertiles (T) and analyzed individually, as metabolic pathways (C-2, -4, or -16) and as ratios to parent estrogens (estradiol, estrone). Estradiol was significantly associated with increased endometrial cancer risk (BMI-adjusted HRT3vsT1 = 4.09, 95% CI 1.70, 9.85; p trend = 0.003). 2-Hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone were not associated with endometrial risk after estradiol adjustment (2-OHE1:HRT3vsT1 = 1.97, 95% CI 0.78, 4.94; 16-OHE1:HRT3vsT1 = 1.50, 95% CI 0.65, 3.46; p trend = 0.16 and 0.36, respectively). Ratios of 2- and 4-pathway catechol-to-methylated estrogens remained positively associated with endometrial cancer after BMI or estradiol adjustment (2-pathway catechols-to-methylated: HRT3vsT1 = 4.02, 95% CI 1.60, 10.1; 4-pathway catechols-to-methylated: HRT3vsT1 = 4.59, 95% CI 1.64, 12.9; p trend = 0.002 for both). Estrogens and estrogen metabolites were not associated with ovarian cancer risk; however, larger studies are needed to better evaluate these relationships. Estrogen metabolism may be important in endometrial carcinogenesis, particularly with less extensive methylation of 2- or 4

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian

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    ... takes several years for normal cells in the cervix to turn into cancer cells. A test called a Pap smear is ... in the treatment of invasive cervical cancer. (Cervical) HPV vaccine: Another major advance in the management of ...

  11. Cell-cycle protein expression in a population-based study of ovarian and endometrial cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley S. Felix

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK inhibitors is implicated in the carcinogenesis of many cancers, including ovarian and endometrial cancers. We examined associations between CDK inhibitor expression, cancer risk factors, tumor characteristics, and survival outcomes among ovarian and endometrial cancer patients enrolled in a population-based case control study. Expression (negative vs. positive of three CDK inhibitors (p16, p21, p27 and ki67 was examined with immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for associations between biomarkers, risk factors, and tumor characteristics. Survival outcomes were available for ovarian cancer patients and examined using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression. Among ovarian cancer patients (n=175, positive p21 expression was associated with endometrioid tumors (OR=12.22, 95% CI=1.45-102.78 and higher overall survival (log-rank p=0.002. In Cox models adjusted for stage, grade, and histology, the association between p21 expression and overall survival was borderline significant (hazard ratio=0.65, 95% CI=0.42-1.05. Among endometrial cancer patients (n=289, positive p21 expression was inversely associated with age (OR ≥ 65 years of age=0.25, 95% CI=0.07-0.84 and current smoking status (OR: 0.33, 95% CI 0.15, 0.72 compared to negative expression. Our study showed heterogeneity in expression of cell-cycle proteins associated with risk factors and tumor characteristics of gynecologic cancers. Future studies to assess these markers of etiological classification and behavior may be warranted.

  12. Oncogenic events associated with endometrial and ovarian cancers are rare in endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Anna Lindeløv; Thorup, Katrine; Knudsen, Ulla Breth

    2011-01-01

    Endometriosis displays some features that resemble malignant processes, including invasive growth, resistance to apoptosis, and distant implantation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether gene alterations that are frequent in endometrial and/or ovarian cancers contribute to the p......Endometriosis displays some features that resemble malignant processes, including invasive growth, resistance to apoptosis, and distant implantation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether gene alterations that are frequent in endometrial and/or ovarian cancers contribute...... to the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Biopsies were obtained from ectopic endometriosis lesions from 23 patients with revised American Fertility Score (rAFS) stage 1 (N=1), 2 (N=10), 3 (N=11), or 4 (N=1) endometriosis. Six genes (APC, CDKN2A, PYCARD, RARB, RASSF1, and ESR1) were analyzed for promoter hypermethylation...... in a single lesion. No gene alterations were found in the remaining samples. Our data suggest that genetic and epigenetic events contributing to endometrial and ovarian cancers are rare in endometriosis. However, other proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes should be tested for alterations in order...

  13. Endometrial cancer.

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    Porter, Stephanie

    2002-08-01

    To provide an update for nurses involved in the care of women at risk or being treated for endometrial cancer. Review articles, research reports, and medical and nursing text-books. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. Although most women with endometrial cancer present with early stage disease and have an excellent chance of cure, approximately 6,600 women in the United States are expected to die from the disease in 2002. Treatment of patients with advanced or recurrent disease remains challenging, with no proven best standard of treatment. Nursing plays an important role in prevention and early detection of endometrial cancer, patient education, patient care, and rehabilitation.

  14. Antitumor effects of cecropin B-LHRH’ on drug-resistant ovarian and endometrial cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyong; Shen, Bo; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Xiaohui; Ye, Yiqing; Wang, Fengmei; Zhang, Xinmei

    2016-01-01

    Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone receptor (LHRHr) represents a promising therapeutic target for treating sex hormone-dependent tumors. We coupled cecropin B, an antimicrobial peptide, to LHRH’, a form of LHRH modified at carboxyl-terminal residues 4–10, which binds to LHRHr without interfering with luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. This study aimed to assess the antitumor effects of cecropin B-LHRH’ (CB-LHRH’) in drug-resistant ovarian and endometrial cancers. To evaluate the antitumor effects of CB-LHRH’, three drug resistant ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV-3, ES-2, NIH:OVCAR-3) and an endometrial cancer cell line (HEC-1A) were treated with CB-LHRH’. Cell morphology changes were assessed using inverted and electron microscopes. In addition, cell growth and cell cytotoxicity were measured by MTT assay and LDH release, respectively. In addition, hemolysis was measured. Furthermore, radioligand receptor binding, hypersensitization and minimal inhibitory concentrations (against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) were determined. Finally, the impact on tumor growth in BALB/c-nu mice was assessed in an ES-2 xenograft model. CB-LHRH’ bound LHRHr with high-affinity (dissociation constant, Kd = 0.252 ± 0.061nM). Interestingly, CB-LHRH’ significantly inhibited the cell viability of SKOV-3, ES-2, NIH:OVCAR-3 and HEC-1A, but not that of normal eukaryotic cells. CB-LHRH’ was active against bacteria at micromolar concentrations, and caused no hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Furthermore, CB-LHRH’ inhibited tumor growth with a 23.8 and 20.4 % reduction in tumor weight at 50 and 25 mg/kg.d, respectively. CB-LHRH’ is a candidate for targeted chemotherapy against ovarian and endometrial cancers

  15. Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thick and show changes that look like cancer. Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common sign of EIN. Diagnosis and ... The most common symptom of endometrial cancer is abnormal uterine bleeding. For women who are premenopausal, this includes irregular ...

  16. Influence of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use on ovarian and endometrial cancer: Summary of epidemiologic evidence of cancer risk and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdoodt, F; Kjaer, S K; Friis, S

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence supports a role for aspirin use in reducing the incidence and mortality of several cancer types. This has spurred a new wave of interest in this widely used drug. In this review, we present and evaluate the epidemiologic evidence of the association between the use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the incidence and prognosis of ovarian and endometrial cancer. The evidence of a preventive effect of NSAID use on risk of ovarian or endometrial cancer is based primarily on results from observational studies and, consequently, is only suggestive. Overall, observational studies indicate modest reductions in risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer with aspirin use, whereas the results for non-aspirin NSAID use are equivocal. The strongest inverse associations have been reported for long-term consistent aspirin use, notably among subgroups of users (e.g., those with high body mass index). Few studies have evaluated the influence of NSAID use on the mortality of ovarian or endometrial cancer, and substantial heterogeneity of study characteristics and results preclude any conclusions. Additional studies of aspirin and non-aspirin NSAID use and ovarian or endometrial cancer risk and prognosis are warranted. In the present review, we discuss the importance of comprehensive exposure definitions (i.e., duration, timing, consistency and intensity/dose) and evaluation of potential effect modification according to user characteristics, with the aim of identifying women who may experience the largest benefit of aspirin or non-aspirin NSAID use on risk or prognosis of ovarian and endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcome of ovarian preservation during surgical treatment for endometrial cancer: A Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group study

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    Hei-Yu Lau

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Preservation of bilateral ovaries does not increase cancer-related mortality. A more conservative approach to surgical staging may be considered in premenopausal women with early-stage endometrial cancer without risk factors.

  18. Risk prediction for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer in white women aged 50 y or older: derivation and validation from population-based cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available Breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers share some hormonal and epidemiologic risk factors. While several models predict absolute risk of breast cancer, there are few models for ovarian cancer in the general population, and none for endometrial cancer.Using data on white, non-Hispanic women aged 50+ y from two large population-based cohorts (the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial [PLCO] and the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study [NIH-AARP], we estimated relative and attributable risks and combined them with age-specific US-population incidence and competing mortality rates. All models included parity. The breast cancer model additionally included estrogen and progestin menopausal hormone therapy (MHT use, other MHT use, age at first live birth, menopausal status, age at menopause, family history of breast or ovarian cancer, benign breast disease/biopsies, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI; the endometrial model included menopausal status, age at menopause, BMI, smoking, oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and an interaction term between BMI and MHT use; the ovarian model included oral contraceptive use, MHT use, and family history or breast or ovarian cancer. In independent validation data (Nurses' Health Study cohort the breast and ovarian cancer models were well calibrated; expected to observed cancer ratios were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-1.04 for breast cancer and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.97-1.19 for ovarian cancer. The number of endometrial cancers was significantly overestimated, expected/observed = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.11-1.29. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs; discriminatory power were 0.58 (95% CI: 0.57-0.59, 0.59 (95% CI: 0.56-0.63, and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.66-0.70 for the breast, ovarian, and endometrial models, respectively.These models predict absolute risks for breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers from easily obtainable risk factors and may

  19. Genetics of Endometrial Cancers

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    Tsuyoshi Okuda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancers exhibit a different mechanism of tumorigenesis and progression depending on histopathological and clinical types. The most frequently altered gene in estrogen-dependent endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors is PTEN. Microsatellite instability is another important genetic event in this type of tumor. In contrast, p53 mutations or Her2/neu overexpression are more frequent in non-endometrioid tumors. On the other hand, it is possible that the clear cell type may arise from a unique pathway which appears similar to the ovarian clear cell carcinoma. K-ras mutations are detected in approximately 15%–30% of endometrioid carcinomas, are unrelated to the existence of endometrial hyperplasia. A β-catenin mutation was detected in about 20% of endometrioid carcinomas, but is rare in serous carcinoma. Telomere shortening is another important type of genomic instability observed in endometrial cancer. Only non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma tumors were significantly associated with critical telomere shortening in the adjacent morphologically normal epithelium. Lynch syndrome, which is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder of cancer susceptibility and is characterized by a MSH2/MSH6 protein complex deficiency, is associated with the development of non-endometrioid carcinomas.

  20. Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Barry, John A; Azizia, Mallika M; Hardiman, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting ∼8% of women. The objective of the present study was to quantify separately the risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women with PCOS compared with non-PCOS controls, and quantify separately the risk to women of all ages as well as the risk to premenopausal women. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they compared women with PCOS to non-PCOS groups for fatal or non-fatal gynaecological cancers. Studies listed in MEDLINE and EMBASE published up to 7 October 2013 in any language were identified, and relevant papers were also searched by hand. Relevant data (for example, study design, source of control data, diagnostic criteria) were extracted and tabulated. From 698 references, 11 studies (5 of endometrial cancer and 3 each of ovarian and breast cancer) met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis (919 women with PCOS and 72054 non-PCOS controls). Using the Mantel-Haenszel method, with fixed or random effects model as appropriate, women with PCOS were at a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (odds ratio (OR), 2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.31-5.95, P cancers was not significantly increased (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.93-2.15, P cancer (OR, 4.05; 95% CI, 2.42-6.76, P cancer (OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.08-5.89, P cancer (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.46-1.32, P cancers in women with PCOS younger than 54 years of age compared with controls of similar age. Current data suggest that women of all ages with PCOS are at an increased risk of endometrial cancer but the risk of ovarian and breast cancer was not significantly increased overall. These results highlight the potential risk of gynaecological cancer morbidities associated with PCOS. However, the available evidence is far from robust and variation in diagnostic criteria for PCOS, associated risk factors (particularly obesity), and selection bias

  1. Recent trends in incidence of and mortality from breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers in England and Wales and their relation to changing fertility and oral contraceptive use.

    OpenAIRE

    dos Santos Silva, I.; Swerdlow, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reproductive-related factors play a major role in the aetiology of cancers of the breast, ovary and endometrium. Pregnancy history influences the risk of each of these cancers, and oral contraceptive use modifies the risks of ovarian and endometrial cancers, although its effect on breast cancer risk is less certain. We analysed recent time trends in the incidence and mortality of these cancers in England and Wales and assessed whether they can be explained by changes in fertility and oral con...

  2. Distribution volumes of macromolecules in human ovarian and endometrial cancers--effects of extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    Elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM), notably collagen and glucosaminoglycans, will restrict part of the space available for soluble macromolecules simply because the molecules cannot occupy the same space. This phenomenon may influence macromolecular drug uptake. To study the influence of steric and charge effects of the ECM on the distribution volumes of macromolecules in human healthy and malignant gynecologic tissues we used as probes 15 abundant plasma proteins quantified by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The available distribution volume (VA) of albumin was increased in ovarian carcinoma compared with healthy ovarian tissue. Furthermore, VA of plasma proteins between 40 and 190 kDa decreased with size for endometrial carcinoma and healthy ovarian tissue, but was independent of molecular weight for the ovarian carcinomas. An effect of charge on distribution volume was only found in healthy ovaries, which had lower hydration and high collagen content, indicating that a condensed interstitium increases the influence of negative charges. A number of earlier suggested biomarker candidates were detected in increased amounts in malignant tissue, e.g., stathmin and spindlin-1, showing that interstitial fluid, even when unfractionated, can be a valuable source for tissue-specific proteins. We demonstrate that the distribution of abundant plasma proteins in the interstitium can be elucidated by mass spectrometry methods and depends markedly on hydration and ECM structure. Our data can be used in modeling of drug uptake, and give indications on ECM components to be targeted to increase the uptake of macromolecular substances. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Synchronous Primary Cancers of the Endometrium and Ovary With the Same Histopathologic Type Versus Endometrial Cancer With Ovarian Metastasis: A Single Institution Review of 72 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bese, Tugan; Sal, Veysel; Kahramanoglu, Ilker; Tokgozoglu, Nedim; Demirkiran, Fuat; Turan, Hasan; Ilvan, Sennur; Arvas, Macit

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes of women with simultaneous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas having the same histopathologic type. A review of medical records from 1997 to 2015 identified 72 patients with simultaneous carcinomas of the endometrium and ovary with the same histopathologic type. Patients with synchronous primary cancers of endometrium and ovary (SCEOs) were compared with patients with primary endometrial cancer with ovarian metastasis (ECOM). Clinical and pathological data were obtained from the patients' medical records. Clinicopathological variables including categorical data were analyzed by χ(2) or Fisher exact test and continuous data by a Student t test. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed and compared by using the log-rank test. A univariate and multivariate analysis of 72 patients with SCEO with the same histopathologic type revealed that SCEO is an independent prognostic factor of 10-year overall survival. There were 31 patients in the SCEO group and 41 patients in the ECOM group. With a mean follow-up time of 68.2 months, the 10-year overall survival rates were 61.3% and 36.6% in SCEO and ECOM groups, respectively (P = 0.029). Age, menopausal status, stage of ovarian cancer, performing lymphadenectomy, grade of endometrial tumor, omental metastasis, and residual tumor were found to be significant risk factors for recurrence in the synchronous group. The differentiation between SCEO and ECOM is of great clinical importance while our results showed a better prognosis for patients with SCEO compared with patients with ECOM. More aggressive therapeutic approaches may be considered for patients with SCEO who are older, postmenopausal, and/or have advanced grade of endometrial tumor, omental metastasis, and residual tumor. Lymphadenectomy should be performed in every patient with SCEO.

  4. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  5. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about ovarian and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  6. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

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    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  7. Appendectomy with cytoreductive surgery for ovarian and type 2 endometrial carcinoma.

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    Wong, L F A; Wahab, N A; Gleeson, N

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable variation within and between cancer centers in the practice of appendectomy as part of cytoreductive surgery for ovarian carcinoma and in the surgical staging of endometrial carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and the type of appendiceal pathology, the morbidity associated with appendectomy in gynaecologic cancer surgery. This is a retrospective review of all cytoreductive surgery for ovarian carcinoma and surgical staging for endometrial carcinoma with appendectomy over a four year period. Two hundred and fifty-one patients (38 patients for endometrial carcinoma surgery and 213 patients for ovarian cytoreduction) had an appendectomy performed. Metastases to the appendix was present in 46 (23.2%) of primary ovarian carcinoma and one (2.6%) primary endometrial carcinosarcoma. The appendix was more likely to be involved in advanced stage ovarian cancer with positive peritoneal washings, omental deposits, grade 3 differentiation, and papillary serous histology. Sixteen (6.4%) co-incidental primary appendiceal tumours were detected. No postoperative morbidity specific to appendectomy was identified. One case of ovarian carcinoma was upstaged from IC to IIIA by the appendiceal metastases. There was no upstaging of disease in the endometrial carcinoma group. Appendectomy is an integral part of ovarian cytoreductive surgery but the authors found it did not upstage the disease in a clinically significant manner. The incidence of co-incidental appendiceal primary tumours was high in this series and may add value to the procedure in preventing further surgeries. The absence of procedure related morbidity is reassuring. The authors recommend appendectomy for all ovarian staging surgery and its consideration in type 2 endometrial cancer.

  8. Drugs Approved for Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for endometrial cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  9. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  10. Ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal, or IP). Radiation therapy is rarely used to treat ovarian ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  11. Role of emmprin in endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Keiichiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin/CD147 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Enriched on the surface of many tumor cells, emmprin promotes tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. We evaluated the clinical importance of emmprin and investigated its role in endometrial cancer. Methods Emmprin expression was examined in uterine normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the biological functions and inhibitory effects of an emmprin knockdown were investigated in HEC-50B and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines. Results The levels of emmprin expression were significantly increased in the endometrial cancer specimens compared with the normal endometrium and endometrial hyperplasia specimens (p p p  Conclusions The present findings suggest that low emmprin expression might be a predictor of favorable prognosis in endometrial cancer patients, and that emmprin may represent a potential therapeutic target for endometrial cancer.

  12. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  13. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Your Treatment Team Treatment Surgery Surgical Staging Pathology of Ovarian Cancer Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Hormone Therapy ... 20, 2016 January 17, 2017 February 21, 2017 March 22, 2017 April 18, 2017 May 16, 2017 ...

  14. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Your Treatment Team Treatment Surgery Surgical Staging Pathology of Ovarian Cancer Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Hormone Therapy ... 20, 2016 January 17, 2017 February 21, 2017 March 22, 2017 April 18, 2017 May 16, 2017 ...

  15. Features of ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kanako; Banno, Kouji; Yanokura, Megumi; Iida, Miho; Adachi, Masataka; Masuda, Kenta; Ueki, Arisa; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Akira; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary ovarian cancer with a prevalence of 0.9-2.7%. Lynch syndrome accounts for 10-15% of hereditary ovarian cancers, while hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome accounts for 65-75% of these cancers. The lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in families with Lynch syndrome is ~8%, which is lower than colorectal and endometrial cancers, and ovarian cancer is not listed in the Amsterdam Criteria II. More than half of sporadic ovarian cancers are diagnosed in stage III or IV, but ≥80% of ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome are diagnosed in stage I or II. Ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome mostly have non-serous histology and different properties from those of sporadic ovarian cancers. A screening method for ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome has yet to be established and clinical studies of prophylactic administration of oral contraceptives are not available. However, molecular profiles at the genetic level indicate that ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome has a more favorable prognosis than sporadic ovarian cancer. Inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway and anti-epidermal growth factor antibodies may have efficacy for the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome.

  16. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Expression of thymidine 459 phosphorylase in epithelial ovarian cancer: correlation with angiogenesis, apoptosis , and 460 ultrasound-derived peak...trafficking, activation of S1P1 can promote or inhibit apoptosis of 41 immune cells depending on the balance of cytokines [7]. Knockout of S1P1 (LP(B1...EDG-1) in 42 mice is embryologically lethal [8]. S1P1 also has a role in inflammatory disease such as graft 43 versus host disease and multiple

  17. High prevalence of atypical hyperplasia in the endometrium of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mingels, M.J.J.M.; Masadah, R.; Geels, Y.P.; Otte-Holler, I.; Kievit, I.M. de; Laak, J.A.W.M. van der; Ham, M.A.P.C. van; Bulten, J.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of endometrial premalignancies in women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: Endometrial and ovarian specimens of 186 patients with EOC were retrospectively selected using the nationwide pathology network and

  18. Brachytherapy of endometrial cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, D.; Hoffstetter, S.; Charra-Brunaud, C.

    2003-01-01

    Endometrial adenocarcinomas rank third as tumoral sites en France. The tumors are confined to the uterus in 80% of the cases. Brachytherapy has a large place in the therapeutic strategy. The gold standard treatment remains extra-fascial hysterectomy with bilateral annexiectomy and bilateral internal iliac lymph node dissection. However, after surgery alone, the rate of locoregional relapses reaches 4-20%, which is reduced to 0-5% after postoperative brachytherapy of the vaginal cuff. This postoperative brachytherapy is delivered as outpatients treatment, by 3 or 4 fractions, at high dose rate. The utero-vaginal preoperative brachytherapy remains well adapted to the tumors which involve the uterine cervix. Patients presenting a localized tumor but not operable for general reasons (< 10%) can be treated with success by exclusive irradiation, which associates a pelvic irradiation followed by an utero-vaginal brachytherapy. A high local control of about 80-90% is obtained, a little lower than surgery, with a higher risk of late complications. Last but not least, local relapses in the vaginal cuff, or in the perimeatic area, can be treated by interstitial salvage brachytherapy, associated if possible with external beam irradiation. The local control is reached in half of the patients, but metastatic dissemination is frequent. We conclude that brachytherapy has a major role in the treatment of endometrial adenocarcinomas, in combination with surgery, or with external beam irradiation for not operable patients or in case of local relapses. It should use new technologies now available including computerized after-loaders and 3D dose calculation. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of cell-free urine microRNAs expression for the use in diagnosis of ovarian and endometrial cancers. A pilot study.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záveský, L.; Jandáková, E.; Turyna, R.; Langmeierová, L.; Weinberger, V.; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Hůlková, M.; Hořínek, A.; Dušková, D.; Feyereisl, J.; Minar, L.; Kohoutová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2015), s. 1027-1035 ISSN 1219-4956 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : microRNA * ovarian cancer * mi92 * mi106b Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2015

  20. Evaluation of cell-free urine microRNAs expression for the use in diagnosis of ovarian and endometrial cancers. A pilot study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záveský, L.; Jandáková, E.; Turyna, R.; Langmeierová, L.; Weinberger, V.; Záveská Drábková, Lenka; Hůlková, M.; Hořínek, A.; Dušková, D.; Feyereisl, J.; Minář, L.; Kohoutová, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2015), s. 1027-1035 ISSN 1219-4956 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : microRNA * ovarian cancer * mi92 * mi106b Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2015

  1. Long-Term Secondary Care Costs of Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study Nested within the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pennington

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the costs of Endometrial Cancer (EC by stage of disease. We estimated the long-term secondary care costs of EC according to stage at diagnosis in an English population-based cohort.Women participating in UKCTOCS and diagnosed with EC following enrolment (2001-2005 and prior to 31st Dec 2009 were identified to have EC through multiple sources. Survival was calculated through data linkage to death registry. Costs estimates were derived from hospital records accessed from Hospital Episode Statistics (HES with additional patient level covariates derived from case notes and patient questionnaires. Missing and censored data was imputed using Multiple Imputation. Regression analysis of cost and survival was undertaken.491 of 641 women with EC were included. Five year total costs were strongly dependent on stage, ranging from £9,475 (diagnosis at stage IA/IB to £26,080 (diagnosis at stage III. Stage, grade and BMI were the strongest predictors of costs. The majority of costs for stage I/II EC were incurred in the first six months after diagnosis while for stage III / IV considerable costs accrued after the first six months.In addition to survival advantages, there are significant cost savings if patients with EC are detected earlier.

  2. The prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome or hyperandrogenism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Nina Sofie Lillegaard; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne Skovsager

    2012-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome may be associated with an increased risk of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer, but substantial evidence for this remains to be established. We investigated the prevalence of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer in a well characterized group of women...... with polycystic ovary syndrome and/or clinical/biochemical hyperandrogenism....

  3. Prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Louise; Adams, Malcolm

    2006-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. The incidence is high in the Western world. The incidence of ovarian cancer is reduced by pregnancy, lactation, the oral contraceptive pill and tubal ligation. Lifestyle factors are important in the aetiology of ovarian cancer and current evidence suggests the risk can be reduced by eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, taking regular exercise, avoiding smoking, avoiding being overweight and avoiding long-term use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Familial ovarian cancer is responsible for about 10% of ovarian cancer cases. Strategies available to high-risk women include screening (covered elsewhere) and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. The precise role of chemoprevention for high-risk women in the form of the oral contraceptive pill is unclear.

  4. Role of emmprin in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keiichiro; Kodama, Junichi; Hongo, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2012-05-28

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin/CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Enriched on the surface of many tumor cells, emmprin promotes tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. We evaluated the clinical importance of emmprin and investigated its role in endometrial cancer. Emmprin expression was examined in uterine normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the biological functions and inhibitory effects of an emmprin knockdown were investigated in HEC-50B and KLE endometrial cancer cell lines. The levels of emmprin expression were significantly increased in the endometrial cancer specimens compared with the normal endometrium and endometrial hyperplasia specimens (p emmprin expression were significantly higher than those of patients with low emmprin expression (DFS: p Emmprin knockdown by the siRNA led to cell proliferation, migration and invasion through TGF-β, EGF, NF-κB, VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression, which in turn resulted in increased levels of E-cadherin and reduced levels of Vimentin and Snail in endometrial cancer. The present findings suggest that low emmprin expression might be a predictor of favorable prognosis in endometrial cancer patients, and that emmprin may represent a potential therapeutic target for endometrial cancer.

  5. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  6. Ovarian Cancer and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Ottesen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity influences survival in ovarian cancer, but the causal relations between prognosis and comorbidity are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between comorbidity, system delay, the choice of primary treatment, and survival in Danish...... ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: This population-based study was conducted on data from 5317 ovarian cancer patients registered in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. Comorbidity was classified according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Ovarian Cancer Comorbidity Index. Pearson χ test...... and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between comorbidity and primary outcome measures: primary treatment ("primary debulking surgery" vs "no primary surgery") and system delay (more vs less than required by the National Cancer Patient Pathways [NCPPs]). Cox...

  7. Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To describe the sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities, and to determine the usefulness of sonohysterography (SH) for predicting endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease(PCOD). 82 patients with PCOD who had vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening and lesion mass on baseline transvaginal sonography were prospectively examined with SH. The SH findings were evaluated for endometrial thickness, the presence of endometrial thickening and lesion mass, echogenicity and surface contour, distensibility of the endometrial cavity, and disruption of endometrial-myometrial interface. These findings were compared with the pathologic findings and the diagnostic accuracy of SH for predicting endometrial abnormalities was assessed. Endometrial abnormalities were identified in 47 (57.3%) of 82 PCOD patients, and their pathologic diagnosis included endometrial carcinoma in 7 cases, hyperplasia in 19 cases (atypical hyperplasia, n=5), and polyp in 21 cases. Of the 35 patients who did not have endometrial abnormalities, there was disordered proliferative endometrium in 18 cases and normal proliferative or secretory endometrium in 17 cases. The SH findings of endometrial carcinoma were endometrial thickening in 5 cases, endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness ranged from 6 mm to 15 mm (mean 9.5 mm). They were characterized as a diffuse polyploid endometrial thickening or a sessile endometrial mass with irregular surface, homogeneous hyperechogenicity, and obliteration of the endometrial cavity. Endometrial hyperplasia appeared as endometrial thickening in 14 cases, endometrial lesion mass in 3 cases, and endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness was between 6.5-10.7 mm (mean 8.2 mm). They showed a diffuse uniform endometrial thickening or a polyploid endometrial lesion mass with homogeneous hyperechogenicity and a regular surface. Endometrial polyps appeared as

  8. Sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ju

    2004-01-01

    To describe the sonohysterographic findings of endometrial abnormalities, and to determine the usefulness of sonohysterography (SH) for predicting endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian disease(PCOD). 82 patients with PCOD who had vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening and lesion mass on baseline transvaginal sonography were prospectively examined with SH. The SH findings were evaluated for endometrial thickness, the presence of endometrial thickening and lesion mass, echogenicity and surface contour, distensibility of the endometrial cavity, and disruption of endometrial-myometrial interface. These findings were compared with the pathologic findings and the diagnostic accuracy of SH for predicting endometrial abnormalities was assessed. Endometrial abnormalities were identified in 47 (57.3%) of 82 PCOD patients, and their pathologic diagnosis included endometrial carcinoma in 7 cases, hyperplasia in 19 cases (atypical hyperplasia, n=5), and polyp in 21 cases. Of the 35 patients who did not have endometrial abnormalities, there was disordered proliferative endometrium in 18 cases and normal proliferative or secretory endometrium in 17 cases. The SH findings of endometrial carcinoma were endometrial thickening in 5 cases, endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness ranged from 6 mm to 15 mm (mean 9.5 mm). They were characterized as a diffuse polyploid endometrial thickening or a sessile endometrial mass with irregular surface, homogeneous hyperechogenicity, and obliteration of the endometrial cavity. Endometrial hyperplasia appeared as endometrial thickening in 14 cases, endometrial lesion mass in 3 cases, and endometrial thickening and lesion mass in 2 cases, and the endometrial thickness was between 6.5-10.7 mm (mean 8.2 mm). They showed a diffuse uniform endometrial thickening or a polyploid endometrial lesion mass with homogeneous hyperechogenicity and a regular surface. Endometrial polyps appeared as

  9. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein thrombosis (DVT) , heart attack, and stroke. Current theories suggest that some types of ovarian cancer may ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy ...

  10. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie D.; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Soren

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions...... on separate dates. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate age-matched (by design) and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for endometrial cancer associated with statin use. The multivariable-adjusted models included parity, hormone replacement therapy...

  11. Role of emmprin in endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Keiichiro; Kodama, Junichi; Hongo, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (Emmprin/CD147) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Enriched on the surface of many tumor cells, emmprin promotes tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. We evaluated the clinical importance of emmprin and investigated its role in endometrial cancer. Methods Emmprin expression was examined in uterine normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia and cancer specimens by imm...

  12. Multiple metastases from ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian cancer affects women in the age group >60 years much ... ovarian cancer presenting with liver and thoracic vertebral metastases 4 months after ... manifested by parenchymal liver or lung ... categorised as stage Ic as per International.

  13. Ovarian cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Lene; Blaakaer, Jan; Petersen, Lone Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study objective was to survey general health and coping in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, and subsequently to develop and test a supportive care intervention. METHODS/MATERIALS: Women who underwent surgery on the suspicion of ovarian cancer participated in a follow...... standard levels. Concerning mental health, levels were below standard during the entire period, but did improve with time, also in women in whom the potential cancer diagnosis was refuted. The preoperative differences between these groups leveled out postoperatively in terms of physical health. At the end...

  14. Metformin Use and Endometrial Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Van Arsdale, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Moadel, Alyson; Kaur, Gurpreet; Frimer, Marina; Conroy, Erin; Goldberg, Gary L.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are risk factors for the development of uterine cancer. Although greater progression free survival among diabetic patients with ovarian and breast cancer using metformin have been reported, no studies have assessed the association of metformin use with survival in women with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods We conducted a single-institution retrospective cohort study of all patients treated for uterine cancer from January 1999 through December 2009. Demographic, medical, social, and survival data were abstracted from medical records and the national death registry. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox models were utilized for multivariate analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 985 patients, 114 (12%) had diabetes and were treated with metformin, 136 (14%) were diabetic but did not use metformin, and 735 (74%) had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Greater OS was observed in diabetics with non-endometrioid EC who used metformin than in diabetic cases not using metformin and non-endometrioid EC cases without diabetes (log rank test (p=0.02)). This association remained significant (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.97, p<0.04) after adjusting for age, clinical stage, grade, chemotherapy treatment, radiation treatment and presence of hyperlipidemia in multivariate analysis. No association between metformin use and OS in diabetics with endometrioid histology was observed. Conclusion Diabetic EC patients with non-endometrioid tumors who used metformin had lower risk of death than women with EC who did not use metformin. These data suggest that metformin might be useful as adjuvant therapy for non-endometrioid EC. PMID:24189334

  15. Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A; Johnson, N; Cornes, P; Simera, I; Collingwood, M; Williams, C; Kitchener, H

    2007-04-18

    The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (both pelvic external beam radiotherapy and vaginal intracavity brachytherapy) in stage I endometrial cancer following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH and BSO) remains unclear. To assess the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, Physician Data Query (PDQ) of National Cancer Institute. Handsearching was also carried out where appropriate. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared adjuvant radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial cancer were included. Quality of the studies was assessed and data collected using a predefined data collection form. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence and endometrial cancer death. Data on quality of life (QOL) and morbidity were also collected. A meta-analysis on included trials was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software 4.2. The meta-analysis was performed on four trials (1770 patients). The addition of pelvic external beam radiotherapy to surgery reduced locoregional recurrence, a relative risk (RR) of 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.44, p ASTEC; Lukka) are awaited. External beam radiotherapy carries a risk of toxicity and should be avoided in stage 1 endometrial cancer patients with no high risk factors.

  16. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Tina Bech; Svahn, Malene Frøsig; Faber, Mette Tuxen

    2014-01-01

    HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer.......HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection and is considered to be a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The anatomical proximity to the cervix has led researchers to investigate whether Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has a role in the etiology of endometrial cancer....

  17. Endometrial Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endometrial cancer is usually diagnosed at an early stage and can be treated with surgery. Learn about the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, staging, and treatment for early- and advanced-stage endometrial cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Endometrial cancer: magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, R; Gui, B; Maresca, G; Fanfani, F; Bonomo, L

    2005-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy of the female genital tract. Clinically, patients with endometrial carcinoma present with abnormal uterine bleeding. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endometrial carcinoma is disease staging and treatment planning. MRI has been shown to be the most valuable imaging mod-ality in this task, compared with endovaginal ultrasound and computed tomography, because of its intrinsic contrast resolution and multiplanar capability. MRI protocol includes axial T1-weighted images; axial, sagittal, and coronal T2-weighted images; and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. MR examination is usually performed in the supine position with a phased array multicoil using a four-coil configuration. Endometrial carcinoma is isointense with the normal endometrium and myometrium on noncontrast T1-weighted images and has a variable appearance on T2-weighted images demonstrating heterogeneous signal intensity. The appearance of noninvasive endometrial carcinoma on MRI is characterized by a normal or thickened endometrium, with an intact junctional zone and a sharp tumor-myometrium interface. Invasive endometrial carcinoma is characterized disruption or irregularity of the junctional zone by intermediate signal intensity mass on T2-weighted images. Invasion of the cervical stroma is diagnosed when the low signal intensity cervical stroma is disrupted by the higher signal intensity endometrial carcinoma. MRI in endometrial carcinoma performs better than other imaging modalities in disease staging and treatment planning. Further, the accuracy and the cost of MRI are equivalent to those of surgical staging.

  19. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  20. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2004-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  1. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2005-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  2. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  3. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriquez, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  4. MR findings of ruptured endometrial cyst: Comparison with tubo-ovarian abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Yasumoto, Mayumi; Matsumoto, Reiko; Andoh, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MR findings of ruptured endometrial cyst, focusing on the differentiation from tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Patients and methods: We reviewed the records of 21 patients who underwent preoperative MR examinations for TOAs (n = 15) or ruptured endometrial cysts (n = 6). We evaluated the presence of hyper-intense ascites and hyper-intense peritoneum in T1-weighted sequences, strong enhancement of the peritoneum, hyper-intense content and hyper-intense rim of the ovarian lesion in T1-weighted sequences, and strong wall enhancement of the ovarian lesion. χ 2 test was used to assess the relationship between TOA cases versus cases with ruptured endometrial cysts, and the three MR peritoneal findings. We evaluated the relationship between TOA versus non-infected endometrial cysts, and the ovarian MR peritoneal findings, too. Results: Hyper-intense ascites was found in all of the patients with ruptured endometrial cyst and none with TOA (p < 0.0001). Hyper-intense peritoneum was observed in only TOAs cases (4 of 8). Strong peritoneal enhancement was seen in 3 of the 3 patients with ruptured endometrial cyst and 7 of the 13 patients with TOA (p = 0.1366). Hyper-intense content of the ovarian lesion was seen more often in the non-infected endometrial cysts than in the TOAs (p = 0.001607), while hyper-intense rim was more frequent in TOAs (p = 0.000402). Strong wall enhancement was observed only in TOAs (11 of 15) (p = 0.001355). Conclusions: MR images are useful to differentiate ruptured endometrial cyst from TOA.

  5. MR findings of ruptured endometrial cyst: Comparison with tubo-ovarian abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Shigeru, E-mail: shig.suz@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Saitama Red Cross Hospital, 8-3-33 Kamiochiai, Chuo-ku, Saitama, 338-8553 (Japan); Yasumoto, Mayumi, E-mail: Mayumihoo@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Saitama Red Cross Hospital, 8-3-33 Kamiochiai, Chuo-ku, Saitama, 338-8553 (Japan); Matsumoto, Reiko, E-mail: rad@saitama-med.jrc.or.jp [Department of Radiology, Saitama Red Cross Hospital, 8-3-33 Kamiochiai, Chuo-ku, Saitama, 338-8553 (Japan); Andoh, Akihiko, E-mail: a-andoh@silk.plala.or.jp [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Saitama Red Cross Hospital, 8-3-33 Kamiochiai, Chuo-ku, Saitama, 338-8553 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: To evaluate the MR findings of ruptured endometrial cyst, focusing on the differentiation from tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Patients and methods: We reviewed the records of 21 patients who underwent preoperative MR examinations for TOAs (n = 15) or ruptured endometrial cysts (n = 6). We evaluated the presence of hyper-intense ascites and hyper-intense peritoneum in T1-weighted sequences, strong enhancement of the peritoneum, hyper-intense content and hyper-intense rim of the ovarian lesion in T1-weighted sequences, and strong wall enhancement of the ovarian lesion. {chi}{sup 2} test was used to assess the relationship between TOA cases versus cases with ruptured endometrial cysts, and the three MR peritoneal findings. We evaluated the relationship between TOA versus non-infected endometrial cysts, and the ovarian MR peritoneal findings, too. Results: Hyper-intense ascites was found in all of the patients with ruptured endometrial cyst and none with TOA (p < 0.0001). Hyper-intense peritoneum was observed in only TOAs cases (4 of 8). Strong peritoneal enhancement was seen in 3 of the 3 patients with ruptured endometrial cyst and 7 of the 13 patients with TOA (p = 0.1366). Hyper-intense content of the ovarian lesion was seen more often in the non-infected endometrial cysts than in the TOAs (p = 0.001607), while hyper-intense rim was more frequent in TOAs (p = 0.000402). Strong wall enhancement was observed only in TOAs (11 of 15) (p = 0.001355). Conclusions: MR images are useful to differentiate ruptured endometrial cyst from TOA.

  6. Towards prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all gynaecological cancers. To date, there is no reliable, specific screening procedure for detecting ovarian cancer. The risk factors of ovarian cancer include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The main goal of the ovarian cancer prevention program is to significantly reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer and other cancers such as breast and/or peritoneal cancer. The application of non-surgical preventive approaches such as oral contraceptives, parity and breastfeeding has been shown to be highly protective against ovarian cancer development. Targeting inflammation has been also reported to be associated with a protective trend against ovarian cancer and can be achieved through either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or lifestyle modifications or both. Lifestyle modification that includes regular exercise, healthy diet supplemented with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory elements reduces the risk of the disease even further. Surgical protective approaches include; tubal ligation, hysterectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the former is the most effective approach to protect against ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the risk factors of ovarian cancer and the current approaches to prevent it may increase the awareness and help to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer, increase the five-year survival rate and decrease the mortality rate significantly in the general population especially among those at high risk for ovarian cancer. This review is an attempt to outline a potential program of ovarian cancer prevention and the potential challenges. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Short Course Vaginal Cuff Brachytherapy in Treating Patients With Stage I-II Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-17

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Uterine Corpus Carcinosarcoma; Uterine Corpus Sarcoma

  8. General Information About Endometrial Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  10. Polymorphisms in inflammation pathway genes and endometrial cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Ryan J.; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Spurdle, Amanda; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Long, Jirong; Thompson, Deborah; Tomlinson, Ian; Yu, Herbert; Lambrechts, Diether; Dörk, Thilo; Goodman, Marc T.; Zheng, Ying; Salvesen, Helga B.; Bao, Ping-Ping; Amant, Frederic; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Coosemans, An; Dubrowinskaja, Natalia; Dunning, Alison; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Easton, Douglas; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Halle, Mari K.; Hein, Alexander; Howarth, Kimberly; Gorman, Maggie; Kaydarova, Dylyara; Krakstad, Camilla; Lose, Felicity; Lu, Lingeng; Lurie, Galina; O’Mara, Tracy; Matsuno, Rayna K.; Pharoah, Paul; Risch, Harvey; Corssen, Madeleine; Trovik, Jone; Turmanov, Nurzhan; Wen, Wanqing; Lu, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Background Experimental and epidemiological evidence have suggested that chronic inflammation may play a critical role in endometrial carcinogenesis. Methods To investigate this hypothesis, a two-stage study was carried out to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammatory pathway genes in association with endometrial cancer risk. In stage 1, 64 candidate pathway genes were identified and 4,542 directly genotyped or imputed SNPs were analyzed among 832 endometrial cancer cases and 2,049 controls, using data from the Shanghai Endometrial Cancer Genetics Study. Linkage disequilibrium of stage 1 SNPs significantly associated with endometrial cancer (PAsian- and European-ancestry samples. Conclusions These findings lend support to the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory pathway may contribute to genetic susceptibility to endometrial cancer. Impact Statement This study adds to the growing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in endometrial carcinogenesis. PMID:23221126

  11. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  12. Endometrial thickness as a test for endometrial cancer in women with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Ann; Watt, Hilary C; Wald, Nicholas J

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of endometrial thickness measurement as a test for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women with vaginal bleeding (symptomatic women). DATA SOURCES: We conducted a literature search using the MEDLINE database from 1991 to 1997, and the key words "vaginal...... ultrasonography" and "endometrial thickness measurement." The review was limited to original research reports written in English, concerning symptomatic women having vaginal ultrasonography before a diagnostic test and not receiving tamoxifen. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 48 studies were identified...

  13. Recent Advances in Endometrial Cancer [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur-Quan Tran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, with yearly rates continuing to increase. Most women present with early stage disease; however, advanced disease carries a grave prognosis. As a result, novel therapies are currently under investigation for the treatment of endometrial cancer. These advances include a better understanding of the genetic basis surrounding the development of endometrial cancer, novel surgical therapies, and new molecular targets for the treatment of this disease. This review explores the literature regarding these advancements in endometrial cancer.

  14. Fertility drugs and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2017-06-20

    The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have examined the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Results from these studies have been contradictory, as some studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer while others reported no increased risk. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that women who used fertility drugs and did not conceive had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to women who used fertility drugs and conceived and delivered successfully. This review discusses the effect of fertility drugs on the risk of developing ovarian cancer, providing details on four possible scenarios associated with fertility treatment. In addition, the limitations of previous studies and their impact on our understanding of the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer also have been highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  16. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-03-02

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  17. Potential contribution of the uterine microbiome in the development of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R. S. Walther-António

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometrial cancer studies have led to a number of well-defined but mechanistically unconnected genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the emerging modulators between environmental triggers and genetic expression is the microbiome. We set out to inquire about the composition of the uterine microbiome and its putative role in endometrial cancer. Methods We undertook a study of the microbiome in samples taken from different locations along the female reproductive tract in patients with endometrial cancer (n = 17, patients with endometrial hyperplasia (endometrial cancer precursor, n = 4, and patients afflicted with benign uterine conditions (n = 10. Vaginal, cervical, Fallopian, ovarian, peritoneal, and urine samples were collected aseptically both in the operating room and the pathology laboratory. DNA extraction was followed by amplification and high-throughput next generation sequencing (MiSeq of the 16S rDNA V3-V5 region to identify the microbiota present. Microbiota data were summarized using both α-diversity to reflect species richness and evenness within bacterial populations and β-diversity to reflect the shared diversity between bacterial populations. Statistical significance was determined through the use of multiple testing, including the generalized mixed-effects model. Results The microbiome sequencing (16S rDNA V3-V5 region revealed that the microbiomes of all organs (vagina, cervix, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries are significantly correlated (p 4.5. Conclusions Our results suggest that the detection of A. vaginae and the identified Porphyromonas sp. in the gynecologic tract combined with a high vaginal pH is statistically associated with the presence of endometrial cancer. Given the documented association of the identified microorganisms with other pathologies, these findings raise the possibility of a microbiome role in the manifestation, etiology, or progression of endometrial cancer that

  18. Endometrial and acute myeloid leukemia cancer genomes characterized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two studies from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program reveal details about the genomic landscapes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and endometrial cancer. Both provide new insights into the molecular underpinnings of these cancers.

  19. Benefits and risks of ovarian function and reproduction for cancer development and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Adolf E

    2011-12-01

    Ovarian function and menstrual cycle disturbances, pregnancy, and reproductive medicine procedures can either increase gynecological cancer risk or prevent cancer development. For ovarian cancer development, there are two hypotheses, which are connected with ovulation and gonadotropin secretion. Most of the ovarian cancers seem to be derived from displaced ovarian surfice epithelial cells. One year of ovulatory cycles increases the ovarian cancer risk by 6%. Ovulation between 22 and 29 years of age causes the highest risk increase per year. In contrast, progesterone or progestins appear to create protection. Lifestyle can affect or modify ovarian cancer risk. Breast cancer risk is very much related to age of menarche and menopause, pregnancy, and breast feeding. All of which are related to ovarian function and progestogenic impact that translates either into breast cancer risk increase or decrease. This is modified by body mass index, physical activity, and lifestyle in general. The risk of endometrial cancer is most closely related to endogenous progesterone during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy or by exogenous progestogens as in oral contraceptives. These effects are progestogen dose and time dependent. Endometrial cancer risk can also be increased by estrogen-producing tumors or long-term estrogen treatment.

  20. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  1. Self-Advocacy Serious Game in Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-05

    Ovarian Cancer Stage III; Ovarian Cancer Stage IV; Breast Cancer Stage IV; Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB; Cervical Cancer Stage IVA; Cervical Cancer Stage IVB; Endometrial Cancer Stage III; Endometrial Cancer Stage IV; Vulvar Cancer, Stage III; Vulvar Cancer, Stage IV; Vaginal Cancer Stage III; Vaginal Cancer Stage IVA; Vaginal Cancer Stage IVB

  2. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Leena; Pritam, Amrita; Gupta, Taru; Gupta, Sangeeta; Arora, Sarika; Chandoke, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle. DESIGN: Prospective randomized control study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the ferti...

  3. Infrequent Expression of the Cancer-Testis Antigen, PASD1, in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is very treatable in the early stages of disease; however, it is usually detected in the later stages, at which time, treatment is no longer as effective. If discovered early (Stage I, there is a 90% chance of five-year survival. Therefore, it is imperative that early-stage biomarkers are identified to enhance the early detection of ovarian cancer. Cancer-testis antigens (CTAs, such as Per ARNT SIM (PAS domain containing 1 (PASD1, are unique in that their expression is restricted to immunologically restricted sites, such as the testis and placenta, which do not express MHC class I, and cancer, making them ideally positioned to act as targets for immunotherapy as well as potential biomarkers for cancer detection where expressed. We examined the expression of PASD1a and b in a number of cell lines, as well as eight healthy ovary samples, eight normal adjacent ovarian tissues, and 191 ovarian cancer tissues, which were predominantly stage I ( n = 164 and stage II ( n = 14 disease. We found that despite the positive staining of skin cancer, only one stage Ic ovarian cancer patient tissue expressed PASD1a and b at detectable levels. This may reflect the predominantly stage I ovarian cancer samples examined. To examine the restriction of PASD1 expression, we examined endometrial tissue arrays and found no expression in 30 malignant tumor tissues, 23 cases of hyperplasia, or 16 normal endometrial tissues. Our study suggests that the search for a single cancer-testes antigen/biomarker that can detect early ovarian cancer must continue.

  4. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  5. Evaluation of Ovarian Lesions Inducing Endometrial Hyperplasia or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    ovaries featured stromal hyperplasia and 7.7% showed granulosa cell tumor. Only one (1.9%) ... oligomenorrhea and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.[1] Later. Smith et ..... Magnetic resonance imaging findings of ovarian stromal hyperthecosis.

  6. Benign ovarian and endometrial uptake on FDG PET-CT. Patterns and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Increased ovarian or endometrial uptake may cause a dilemma in the interpretation of whole body F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging or even misdiagnosis of malignant disease. Knowledge of benign FDG uptake of the ovaries and uterus is important for daily practice of nuclear medicine radiologists. Increased uptake in the ovaries or uterus indicates a pathologic or neoplastic process in postmenopausal patients. In premenopausal women, increased ovarian or endometrial uptake can be functional or malignant. Benign functional uptake of premenopausal ovaries or uterus is related to the menstrual cycle; therefore, information about the patient's menstrual status is crucial for interpretation. In addition, correlation with computed tomography (CT), especially diagnostic CT acquired at the same time of PET/CT is very useful in clarifying the location of the uptake and the existence or disappearance of the discrete lesion. Increased ovarian uptake may also be identified in histologically different benign tumor entities. Nonmenstrual-related endometrial uptake may be present in many benign diseases as well. (author)

  7. [Association between obesity and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Corsini, Gino; Romero, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained by molecular factors secreted by adipose tissue such as leptin. In EOC, leptin increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. Additionally, adipose tissue synthesizes endogenous estrogens, which increase cell proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells. Also, obesity associated hyperinsulinism could increase ovarian estrogen secretion.

  8. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  9. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Estrogen sulfotransferases in breast and endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase is significantly more active in the normal breast cell (e.g., Human 7) than in the cancer cell (e.g., MCF-7). The data suggest that in breast cancer sulfoconjugated activity is carried out by another enzyme, the SULT1A, which acts at high concentration of the substrates. In breast cancer cells sulfotransferase (SULT) activity can be stimulated by various progestins: medrogestone, promegestone, and nomegestrol acetate, as well as by tibolone and its metabolites. SULT activities can also be controlled by other substances including phytoestrogens, celecoxib, flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, resveratrol), and isoflavones. SULT expression was localized in breast cancer cells, which can be stimulated by promegestone and correlated with the increase of the enzyme activity. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), which acts at nanomolar concentration of estradiol, can inactivate most of this hormone present in the normal breast; however, in the breast cancer cells, the sulfotransferase denoted as SULT1A1 is mainly present, and this acts at micromolar concentrations of E(2). A correlation was postulated among breast cancer cell proliferation, the effect of various progestins, and sulfotransferase stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that factors involved in the stimulation of the estrogen sulfotransferases could provide new possibilities for the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast and endometrial cancers.

  11. Management of endometrial cancer: issues and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, G; Dowdy, S C; Cliby, W A; Ghezzi, F; Rossetti, D; Frigerio, L; Mariani, A

    2016-01-01

    Although endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic cancer in developed countries, several aspects of its management are still controversial. In particular, the need to perform lymphadenectomy represents an important matter of discussion. Because of the discordant results in the literature, it is still not possible to draft any definitive conclusions regarding the therapeutic value of lymph node dissection. The present review discusses the role of lymphadenectomy in the setting of EC, risk factors for lymphatic spread, identification of patients at risk for lymph node dissemination, and the current evidence for adjuvant therapies in patients with positive nodes. Reasons for the difficulty in demonstrating any therapeutic value of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy are also discussed.

  12. Non-Coding RNAs and Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vallone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are involved in the regulation of cell metabolism and neoplastic transformation. Recent studies have tried to clarify the significance of these information carriers in the genesis and progression of various cancers and their use as biomarkers for the disease; possible targets for the inhibition of growth and invasion by the neoplastic cells have been suggested. The significance of ncRNAs in lung cancer, bladder cancer, kidney cancer, and melanoma has been amply investigated with important results. Recently, the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs has also been included in cancer studies. Studies on the relation between endometrial cancer (EC and ncRNAs, such as small ncRNAs or micro RNAs (miRNAs, transfer RNAs (tRNAs, ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, antisense RNAs (asRNAs, small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs, Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs, competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs, lncRNAs, and long intergenic ncRNAs (lincRNAs have been published. The recent literature produced in the last three years was extracted from PubMed by two independent readers, which was then selected for the possible relation between ncRNAs, oncogenesis in general, and EC in particular.

  13. ZEB1 Expression in Endometrial Biopsy Predicts Lymph Node Metastases in Patient with Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyze the expression of zinc-finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1 in endometrial biopsy and its correlation with preoperative characteristics, including lymph node metastases in patient with endometrial cancer. Methods. Using quantitative RT-PCR, ZEB1 expressions in endometrial biopsy from 452 patients were measured. The relationship between ZEB1 expression and preoperative characteristics was analyzed. Results. ZEB1 expressions were significantly associated with subtype, grade, myometrial invasion, and lymph node metastases. Lymph node metastases could be identified with a sensitivity of 57.8% at specificity of 74.1% by ZEB1 expression in endometrial biopsy. Based on combination of preoperative characteristics and ZEB1 expression, lymph node metastases could be identified with a sensitivity of 62.1% at specificity of 96.2% prior to hysterectomy. Conclusion. ZEB1 expression in endometrial biopsy could help physicians to better predict the lymph node metastasis in patients with endometrial cancer prior to hysterectomy.

  14. A 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy using the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) identifies early-stage incident cancers and demonstrates high positive predictive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen H; Skates, Steven; Hernandez, Mary A; Bedi, Deepak; Bevers, Therese; Leeds, Leroy; Moore, Richard; Granai, Cornelius; Harris, Steven; Newland, William; Adeyinka, Olasunkanmi; Geffen, Jeremy; Deavers, Michael T; Sun, Charlotte C; Horick, Nora; Fritsche, Herbert; Bast, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    A 2-stage ovarian cancer screening strategy was evaluated that incorporates change of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125) levels over time and age to estimate risk of ovarian cancer. Women with high-risk scores were referred for transvaginal ultrasound (TVS). A single-arm, prospective study of postmenopausal women was conducted. Participants underwent an annual CA125 blood test. Based on the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Algorithm (ROCA) result, women were triaged to next annual CA125 test (low risk), repeat CA125 test in 3 months (intermediate risk), or TVS and referral to a gynecologic oncologist (high risk). A total of 4051 women participated over 11 years. The average annual rate of referral to a CA125 test in 3 months was 5.8%, and the average annual referral rate to TVS and review by a gynecologic oncologist was 0.9%. Ten women underwent surgery on the basis of TVS, with 4 invasive ovarian cancers (1 with stage IA disease, 2 with stage IC disease, and 1 with stage IIB disease), 2 ovarian tumors of low malignant potential (both stage IA), 1 endometrial cancer (stage I), and 3 benign ovarian tumors, providing a positive predictive value of 40% (95% confidence interval = 12.2%, 73.8%) for detecting invasive ovarian cancer. The specificity was 99.9% (95% confidence interval = 99.7%, 100%). All 4 women with invasive ovarian cancer were enrolled in the study for at least 3 years with low-risk annual CA125 test values prior to rising CA125 levels. ROCA followed by TVS demonstrated excellent specificity and positive predictive value in a population of US women at average risk for ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  15. Endometrial cancer, types, prognosis, female hormones and antihormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, L S G

    2011-01-01

    . Prognosis is also dependent on tumor differentiation and stage, and treatment should be adjusted accordingly. In this paper, the different types of endometrial cancer, staging, prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, treatment and their relationship to estrogen and other female hormones are reviewed....

  16. Molecular alterations in endometrial cancer : implications for clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelloo, E.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, advances have been made in the treatment of endometrial cancer. The clinicopathological risk stratification for postoperative therapy has considerably reduced overtreatment by refining indications and introducing treatment with fewer side effects. Despite refinement in the use

  17. Annual surveillance by CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound for ovarian cancer in both high-risk and population risk women is ineffective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, E R; Sleightholme, H V; Considine, A M

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of annual CA125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) scan as surveillance for ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Retrospective audit. SETTING: NHS Trust. POPULATION: Three hundred and forty-one asymptomatic women enrolled for ovarian cancer screening: 179 were in a high...... and local cancer registry data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ovarian cancers occurring in study population. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of TVU, and CA125 as a screening tool for ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Four ovarian cancers and one endometrial...... cancer occurred. One ovarian cancer was detected at surveillance, three occurred in women who presented symptomatically between screenings. Thirty women underwent exploratory surgery because of abnormal findings at surveillance. Two women had cancer (PPV = 6.7%); one had ovarian cancer and the other...

  18. Adjuvant chemotherapy for endometrial cancer after hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nick; Bryant, Andrew; Miles, Tracie; Hogberg, Thomas; Cornes, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Endometrial adenocarcinoma (womb cancer) is a malignant growth of the lining (endometrium) of the womb (uterus). It is distinct from sarcomas (tumours of the uterine muscle). Survival depends the risk of microscopic metastases after surgery. Adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy improves survival from some other adenocarcinomas, and there is evidence that endometrial cancer is sensitive to cytotoxic therapy. This systematic review examines the effect of chemotherapy on survival after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. Objectives To assess efficacy of adjuvant (postoperative) chemotherapy for endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE and EMBASE up to August 2010, registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings, reference lists of included studies and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with any other adjuvant treatment or no other treatment. Data collection and analysis We used a random-effects meta-analysis to assess hazard ratios (HR) for overall and progression-free survival and risk ratios (RR) to compare death rates and site of initial relapse. Main results Five RCTs compared no additional treatment with additional chemotherapy after hysterectomy and radiotherapy. Four trials compared platinum based combination chemotherapy directly with radiotherapy. Indiscriminate pooling of survival data from 2197 women shows a significant overall survival advantage from adjuvant chemotherapy (RR (95% CI) = 0.88 (0.79 to 0.99)). Sensitivity analysis focused on trials of modern platinum based chemotherapy regimens and found the relative risk of death to be 0.85 ((0.76 to 0.96); number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT) = 25; absolute risk reduction = 4% (1% to 8%)). The HR for overall survival is 0.74 (0.64 to 0.89), significantly

  19. The role of miRNAs in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilatou, Diamantina; Sioulas, Vasileios D; Pappa, Vasiliki; Papageorgiou, Sotirios G; Vlahos, Nikolaos F

    2015-01-01

    miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Since their discovery, miRNAs have been associated with every cell function including malignant transformation and metastasis. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy. However, improvement should be made in interobserver agreement on histological typing and individualized therapeutic approaches. This article summarizes the role of miRNAs in endometrial cancer pathogenesis and treatment.

  20. High prevalence of atypical hyperplasia in the endometrium of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingels, Marjanka J J M; Masadah, Rina; Geels, Yvette P; Otte-Höller, Irene; de Kievit, Ineke M; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of endometrial premalignancies in women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Endometrial and ovarian specimens of 186 patients with EOC were retrospectively selected using the nationwide pathology network and registry, and sections were comprehensively reviewed: 136 (73%) serous, 19 (10%) endometrioid, 15 (8%) mucinous, seven (4%) clear cell, and nine (5%) undifferentiated. Immunohistochemical phenotypes were compared for patients with serous EOC with concurrent endometrial pathology. In 31%, endometrial (pre)malignancy was found: carcinoma in 3%, endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) in 4%, and atypical hyperplasia in 24%. Atypical hyperplasia was found in 47% of endometrioid EOCs but in 7% to 33% of other subtypes. Body mass index was higher concurrent to atypical hyperplasia (P=.001). Serous EOC and EIC immunophenotypes were comparable, whereas atypical hyperplasia was expressed differently. Apart from synchronous endometrial carcinoma, endometrial premalignancies should be taken into account when determining optimal treatment for women diagnosed with EOC. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  1. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J

    2005-01-01

    women, however, may aid the differentiation of benign and malignant pelvic masses. Serial levels during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer are useful for assessing response to treatment. Although serial monitoring following initial chemotherapy can lead to the early detection of recurrent disease...

  2. Ovarian cancer and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2012-01-01

    Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished...

  3. Ovarian cancer: the clinical role of US, CT, and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, K.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents an overview of ovarian cancer, which addresses the clinical roles of imaging studies, including US, CT, and MR imaging in the course of diagnosis and treatment of this important disease. US is the modality of choice in the evaluation of patients with suspected adnexal masses. Although its accuracy is not sufficient to avert surgery, morphological analysis of adnexal masses with US helps narrow the differential diagnosis, determining the degree of suspicion for malignancy, usually in concert with a serum CA-125 level. Combined morphological and vascular imaging obtained by US appear to further improve the preoperative assessment of adnexal masses. For uncertain or problematic cases, MR imaging helps to distinguish benign from malignant, with an overall accuracy for the diagnosis of malignancy of 93%. The accuracy of MR imaging in the confident diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma, endometrial cysts, and leiomayomas is very high. CT is not indicated for differential diagnosis of adnexal masses because of poor soft tissue discrimination, except for fatty tissue and for calcification, and the disadvantages of irradiation. In the staging of ovarian cancer, CT, US, and MR imaging all have a similarly high accuracy. Although it is difficult to suggest a simple algorithm for evaluating the state of women with adnexal masses, the correct preoperative diagnosis and staging of ovarian cancer with the use of any of these imaging studies will lead to an appropriate referral to a specialist in gynecologic oncology and offer a significant survival advantage for patients with ovarian cancer. (orig.)

  4. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2006-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy. 1...

  5. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George

    2003-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive therapy. Methods: 1...

  6. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2004-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive therapy. Methods: 1...

  7. The Risk of Extra-colonic, Extra-endometrial Cancer in the Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Patrice; Vasen, Hans F.A.; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Bernstein, Inge; Aarnio, Markku; Järvinen, Heikki J.; Myrhøj, Torben; Sunde, Lone; Wijnen, Juul T.; Lynch, Henry T.

    2009-01-01

    Persons with the Lynch syndrome (LS) are at high risk for cancer, including cancers of the small bowel, stomach, upper urologic tract (renal pelvis and ureter), ovary, biliary tract, and brain tumors, in addition to the more commonly observed colorectal and endometrial cancers. Cancer prevention strategies for these less-common cancers require accurate, age-specific risk estimation. We pooled data from four LS research centers in a retrospective cohort study, to produce absolute incidence estimates for these cancer types, and to evaluate several potential risk modifiers. After elimination of 135 persons missing crucial information, cohort included 6041 members of 261 families with LS-associated MLH1 or MSH2 mutations. All were either mutation carriers by test, probable mutation carriers (endometrial/colorectal cancer-affected), or first-degree relatives of these. Among mutation carriers and probable carriers, urologic tract cancer (N=98) had an overall lifetime risk (to age 70) of 8.4% (95%CI: 6.6–10.8); risks were higher in males (p<0.02) and members of MSH2 families (p<0.0001). Ovarian cancer (N=72) had an lifetime risk of 6.7% (95%CI: 5.3–9.1); risks were higher in women born after the median year of birth (p<0.008) and in members of MSH2 families (p<0.006). Brain tumors and cancers of the small bowel, stomach, breast, and biliary tract were less common. Urologic tract cancer and ovarian cancer occur frequently enough in some LS subgroups to justify trials to evaluate promising prevention interventions. Other cancer types studied occur too infrequently to justify strenuous cancer control interventions. PMID:18398828

  8. Hereditary association between testicular cancer and familial ovarian cancer: A Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, John Lewis; Eng, Kevin; Cannioto, Rikki; Kaur, Jasmine; Almohanna, Hani; Alqassim, Emad; Szender, J Brian; Joseph, Janine M; Lele, Shashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-04-01

    Although family history of testicular cancer is well-established as a risk factor for testicular cancer, it is unknown whether family history of ovarian cancer is associated with risk of testicular cancer. Using data from the Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry on 2636 families with multiple cases of ovarian cancer, we systematically compared relative frequencies of ovarian cancer among relatives of men with testicular and non-testicular cancers. Thirty-one families with cases of both ovarian and testicular cancer were identified. We observed that, among men with cancer, those with testicular cancer were more likely to have a mother with ovarian cancer than those with non-testicular cancers (OR = 3.32, p = 0.004). Zero paternal grandmothers of men with testicular cancer had ovarian cancer. These observations provide compelling preliminary evidence for a familial association between ovarian and testicular cancers Future studies should be designed to further investigate this association and evaluate X-linkage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  10. Analysis of PSPHL as a Candidate Gene Influencing the Racial Disparity in Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Jay E. [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Chandramouli, Gadisetti V. R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Stagliano, Katherine [Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States); Hood, Brian L. [Women’s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Annandale, VA (United States); Litzi, Tracy [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Women’s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Annandale, VA (United States); Shoji, Yutaka [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States); Boyd, Jeff [Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States); Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Berchuck, Andrew [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Conrads, Thomas P. [Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States); Maxwell, G. Larry [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Women’s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Annandale, VA (United States); Risinger, John I., E-mail: john.risinger@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States)

    2012-07-04

    endometrial cancer and also identify its expression in other tissues from African-Americans including ovary and ovarian cancer. PSPHL represents a candidate gene that might influence the observed racial disparity in endometrial and other cancers.

  11. Analysis of PSPHL as a Candidate Gene Influencing the Racial Disparity in Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Jay E.; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V. R.; Stagliano, Katherine; Hood, Brian L.; Litzi, Tracy; Shoji, Yutaka; Boyd, Jeff; Berchuck, Andrew; Conrads, Thomas P.; Maxwell, G. Larry; Risinger, John I.

    2012-01-01

    endometrial cancer and also identify its expression in other tissues from African-Americans including ovary and ovarian cancer. PSPHL represents a candidate gene that might influence the observed racial disparity in endometrial and other cancers.

  12. Subcutaneous metastasis from endometrial cancer; case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Bacalbasa; Irina Balescu; Alexandru Filipescu

    2018-01-01

    Subcutaneous metastases from endometrial cancer are rare situations, only few cases being described so far. The main incriminated mechanisms leading to the apparition of such lesions include hematogenous and lymphatic spread. We present the case of a 66-year-old patient known with previous history of stage IIIA endometroid endometrial carcinoma initially treated by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy who developed at 18 months follow-up a distant subcutaneous oligometastasis. At this time the p...

  13. Long-term impact of preeclampsia on maternal endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallum, Sara; Pinborg, Anja; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer is mainly dependent on oestrogen exposure. Preeclampsia has shown to reduce oestrogen levels hence preeclampsia may affect later endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of 523 Danish women with endometrial cancer and 52 299controls during...... 1978-2010. The association between preeclampsia and later endometrial cancer was evaluated overall and according to preeclampsia onset and type of endometrial cancer in conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: We observed no overall association between preeclampsia and endometrial cancer risk...... (OR=1.11 (95% CI 0.68-1.81)). This was true for all endometrial cancer subtypes. In an analysis of preeclampsia onset, however, we report a markedly increased risk of endometrial cancer following early-onset preeclampsia (OR=2.64 (95% CI 1.29-5.38)). CONCLUSIONS: Although we report no obvious...

  14. Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer: A Review of Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wing Ng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is classically defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the endometrial lining and uterine musculature. With an estimated frequency of 5%–10% among women of reproductive age, endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder. While in itself a benign lesion, endometriosis shares several characteristics with invasive cancer, has been shown to undergo malignant transformation, and has been associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC. Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of EOC among women with endometriosis. This is particularly true for women with endometrioid and clear cell ovarian carcinoma. However, the carcinogenic pathways by which endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC develops remain poorly understood. Current molecular studies have sought to link endometriosis with EAOC through pathways related to oxidative stress, inflammation and hyperestrogenism. In addition, numerous studies have sought to identify an intermediary lesion between endometriosis and EAOC that may allow for the identification of endometriosis at greatest risk for malignant transformation or for the prevention of malignant transformation of this common gynecologic disorder. The objective of the current article is to review the current data regarding the molecular events associated with EAOC development from endometriosis, with a primary focus on malignancies of the endometrioid and clear cell histologic sub-types.

  15. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the uterus and fallopian tube. The second panel (stage IIB) shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the colon. The third ...

  16. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to...

  17. Ovarian cancer immunotherapy: opportunities, progresses and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Richard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the low survival rates from invasive ovarian cancer, new effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Compelling evidence indicates that the immune response against ovarian cancer may play an important role in controlling this disease. We herein summarize multiple immune-based strategies that have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against advanced stage ovarian cancer. We will examine the evidence for the premise that an effective therapeutic vaccine against ovarian cancer is useful not only for inducing remission of the disease but also for preventing disease relapse. We will also highlight the questions and challenges in the development of ovarian cancer vaccines, and critically discuss the limitations of some of the existing immunotherapeutic strategies. Finally, we will summarize our own experience on the use of patient-specific tumor-derived heat shock protein-peptide complex for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

  18. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  19. Prognostic significance of miR-205 in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihriban Karaayvaz

    Full Text Available microRNAs have emerged as key regulators of gene expression, and their altered expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Thus, microRNAs have potential as both cancer biomarkers and/or potential novel therapeutic targets. Although accumulating evidence suggests the role of aberrant microRNA expression in endometrial carcinogenesis, there are still limited data available about the prognostic significance of microRNAs in endometrial cancer. The goal of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of selected key microRNAs in endometrial cancer by the analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.Total RNAs were extracted from 48 paired normal and endometrial tumor specimens using Trizol based approach. The expression of miR-26a, let-7g, miR-21, miR-181b, miR-200c, miR-192, miR-215, miR-200c, and miR-205 were quantified by real time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were quantified using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 5.0.The expression levels of miR-200c (P<0.0001 and miR-205 (P<0.0001 were significantly increased in endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that high levels of miR-205 expression were associated with poor patient overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.377; Logrank test, P = 0.028. Furthermore, decreased expression of a miR-205 target PTEN was detected in endometrial cancer tissues compared to normal tissues.miR-205 holds a unique potential as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer.

  20. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictors...

  1. Incisional Recurrences After Endometrial Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Dowdy, Sean C; Cliby, William A; Gostout, Bobbie S; Kumar, Sanjeev; Ghezzi, Fabio; Multinu, Francesco; Mariani, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the incisional recurrence (IR) rate after endometrial cancer (EC) staging surgery and analyze characteristics of affected patients. We retrospectively searched for patients with EC at 2 institutions and analyzed the occurrence of IR after open, laparoscopic, or robotic surgery. Additionally, a review of the literature was performed. Out of 2,636 patients with EC, 1,732 (65.7%), 461 (17.5%), and 443 (16.8%) had open, laparoscopic, and robotic surgery, respectively. Only 3 patients (0.11%) had IR, all after open surgery. Additionally, 38 cases of IR were identified from the literature. Patients with non-isolated IR had worse overall survival than patients with isolated IR (p=0.04). Among this latter group, combined treatments may be associated with improved survival outcome. IR after EC surgery is rare and may occur after minimally-invasive or open operations. Combination of local and systemic treatments may provide favorable outcomes for patients with isolated IR. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Ovarian and tubal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Hannibal, Charlotte G

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Nordic countries are areas with a high-incidence of ovarian cancer; however, differences between the countries exist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used the Danish Cancer Registry to identify 11 264 cases of ovarian cancer and 363 cases of tubal cancer during 1993-2013. We calculated...... age-standardized (world standard population) incidence rates for overall and subtype-specific ovarian cancer, and for tubal cancer. We compared age-standardized incidence rates, and 1- and 5-year age-standardized relative survival rates, respectively, for ovarian and tubal cancer combined in four...... Nordic countries using the NORDCAN database. RESULTS: The incidence rate of ovarian cancer overall in Denmark decreased statistically significantly by approximately 2.3% per year among women aged

  3. PARP Inhibitors in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittica, Gloria; Ghisoni, Eleonora; Giannone, Gaia; Genta, Sofia; Aglietta, Massimo; Sapino, Anna; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2018-03-05

    Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC), historically based on surgery and platinum doublet chemotherapy, is associated with high risk of relapse and poor prognosis for recurrent disease. In this landscape, the innovative treatment with PARP inhibitors (PARPis) demonstrated an outstanding activity in EOC, and is currently changing clinical practice in BRCA mutant patients. To highlight the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical activity, indications and current strategies of development of Olaparib, Niraparib, Rucaparib, Talazoparib and Veliparib, the 5 most relevant PARPis. We performed a review on Pubmed using 'ovarian cancer' and the name of each PARPi (PARP inhibitor) discussed in the review as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords. The same search was performed on "clinicaltrial.gov" to identify ongoing clinical trials and on "google.com/patents" and "uspto.gov" for recent patents exploring PARPIs in ovarian cancer. Olaparib, Niraparib and Rucaparib are already approved for treatment of recurrent EOC and their indications are partially overlapping. Talazoparib and Veliparib are promising PARPis, but currently under investigation in early phase trials. Several studies are evaluating PARPis in monotherapy or in associations, in a wide range of settings (i.e. first line, neoadjuvant, platinum-sensitive and resistant disease). PARPis are valuable options in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer with promising activity in different stages of this disease. Further studies are required to better define optimal clinical settings, predictors of response beyond BRCA mutations and strategies to overcome secondary resistance of PARPis therapy in EOC. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG): clinical trial design for rare ovarian tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leary, A. F.; Quinn, M.; Fujiwara, K.; Coleman, R. L.; Kohn, E.; Sugiyama, T.; Glasspool, R.; Ray-Coquard, I.; Colombo, N.; Bacon, M.; Zeimet, A.; Westermann, A.; Gomez-Garcia, E.; Provencher, D.; Welch, S.; Small, W.; Millan, D.; Okamoto, A.; Stuart, G.; Ochiai, K.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements on designing clinical trials in rare ovarian tumours reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC) held in Tokyo, November 2015. Three important questions were identified concerning rare ovarian tumours (rare epithelial ovarian

  5. Psychosocial factors and mortality in women with early stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telepak, Laura C; Jensen, Sally E; Dodd, Stacy M; Morgan, Linda S; Pereira, Deidre B

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial factors have previously been linked with survival and mortality in cancer populations. Little evidence is available about the relationship between these factors and outcomes in gynaecologic cancer populations, particularly endometrial cancer, the fourth most common cancer among women. This study examined the relationship between several psychosocial factors prior to surgical resection and risk of all-cause mortality in women with endometrial cancer. The study utilized a non-experimental, longitudinal design. Participants were 87 women (Mage  = 60.69 years, SDage  = 9.12 years) who were diagnosed with T1N0-T3N2 endometrial cancer and subsequently underwent surgery. Participants provided psychosocial data immediately prior to surgery. Survival statuses 4-5 years post-diagnoses were abstracted via medical record review. Cox regression was employed for the survival analysis. Of the 87 women in this sample, 21 women died during the 4- to 5-year follow-up. Adjusting for age, presence of regional disease and medical comorbidity severity (known biomedical prognostic factors), greater use of an active coping style prior to surgery was significantly associated with a lower probability of all-cause mortality, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, p = .04. Life stress, depressive symptoms, use of self-distraction coping, receipt of emotional support and endometrial cancer quality of life prior to surgery were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality 4-5 years following diagnosis. Greater use of active coping prior to surgery for suspected endometrial cancer is associated with lower probability of all-cause mortality 4-5 years post-surgery. Future research should attempt to replicate these relationships in a larger and more representative sample and examine potential behavioural and neuroendocrine/immune mediators of this relationship. What is already known on this subject? Psychosocial factors have previously been linked with clinical outcomes in a

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows cancer inside both ovaries that has spread to the omentum. The cancer ... lymph nodes behind the peritoneum. In stage IIIC, cancer is found in one or both ovaries or fallopian tubes and has spread to the ...

  7. Infertility and incident endometrial cancer risk: a pooled analysis from the epidemiology of endometrial cancer consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H P; Cook, L S; Weiderpass, E; Adami, H-O; Anderson, K E; Cai, H; Cerhan, J R; Clendenen, T V; Felix, A S; Friedenreich, C M; Garcia-Closas, M; Goodman, M T; Liang, X; Lissowska, J; Lu, L; Magliocco, A M; McCann, S E; Moysich, K B; Olson, S H; Petruzella, S; Pike, M C; Polidoro, S; Ricceri, F; Risch, H A; Sacerdote, C; Setiawan, V W; Shu, X O; Spurdle, A B; Trabert, B; Webb, P M; Wentzensen, N; Xiang, Y-B; Xu, Y; Yu, H; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Brinton, L A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nulliparity is an endometrial cancer risk factor, but whether or not this association is due to infertility is unclear. Although there are many underlying infertility causes, few studies have assessed risk relations by specific causes. Methods: We conducted a pooled analysis of 8153 cases and 11 713 controls from 2 cohort and 12 case-control studies. All studies provided self-reported infertility and its causes, except for one study that relied on data from national registries. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Nulliparous women had an elevated endometrial cancer risk compared with parous women, even after adjusting for infertility (OR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.59–1.94). Women who reported infertility had an increased risk compared with those without infertility concerns, even after adjusting for nulliparity (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.13–1.33). Among women who reported infertility, none of the individual infertility causes were substantially related to endometrial cancer. Conclusions: Based on mainly self-reported infertility data that used study-specific definitions of infertility, nulliparity and infertility appeared to independently contribute to endometrial cancer risk. Understanding residual endometrial cancer risk related to infertility, its causes and its treatments may benefit from large studies involving detailed data on various infertility parameters. PMID:25688738

  8. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial...... cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  9. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjögren, Lea L; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1975, estrogen only was found to be associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. In November 2015, NICE guidelines on hormone therapy were published that did not take this risk into account. AIM: This systematic literature review assesses the safety of estrogen plus...... progestin therapy according to the risk of endometrial cancer, while considering both regimen and type of progestin. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched, resulting in the identification of 527 published articles on menopausal women with intact uteri treated with estrogen only......, estrogen plus progestin or tibolone for a minimum of one year. Risk of endometrial cancer was compared to placebo or never users and measured as relative risk, hazard or odds ratio. RESULTS: 28 studies were included. The observational literature found an increased risk among users of estrogen alone...

  10. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nightshade family: eggplant, tomatoes Cucurbitaceous vegetables Gourd family: pumpkin, squash, cucumber, muskmelon, watermelon Potential Cancer Fighters in Foods Phytochemical Food Source Isothiocyanates Cruciferous vegetables, mustard, horseradish ...

  12. Endometrial cancers occurring 10 or more years after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.; Hart, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Fifteen patients who developed cancer of the endometrium 10 or more years after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma were selected for study from a group of 64 cases of postirradiation malignant pelvic tumors diagnosed during a 48-year span. The average interval between radiotherapy and diagnosis of the subsequent endometrial cancer was 17.2 years. Irradiation initially had been done for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix in 13 cases (87%) and for ovarian tumors in two instances. Almost all patients had received megavoltage external radiation combined with radium implants. Two-thirds of the tumors were adenocarcinomas and one-third were carcinosarcomas (either homologous or heterologous). Although the risk of second primary malignant tumors following therapeutic irradiation for pelvic tumors probably is very low, the emergence of new genital tract cancers in long-term survivors must be anticipated, regardless of whether the postirradiation cancers are spontaneous or radiation-induced

  13. Stress Reduction in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Recurrent Gynecologic or Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-08

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Fatigue; Leydig Cell Tumor; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Stromal Cancer; Pain; Peritoneal Carcinomatosis; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Cancer; Recurrent Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Recurrent Uterine Sarcoma; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer

  14. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  15. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Emma; El-Helw, Loaie; Hasan, Jurjees, E-mail: jurjees.hasan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust / Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-23

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  16. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of getting ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal ... decrease the number of deaths from ovarian cancer. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ...

  17. Robotic surgery in supermorbidly obese patients with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Jean-Marie; Goodheart, Michael J; McDonald, Megan; Hansen, Jean; Reyes, Henry D; Button, Anna; Bender, David

    2015-07-01

    Morbid obesity is a known risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the overall feasibility of robotic-assisted surgical staging for endometrial cancer as well as the benefits of robotics compared with laparotomy. However, there have been few reports that have evaluated robotic surgery for endometrial cancer in the supermorbidly obese population (body mass index [BMI], ≥50 kg/m(2)). We sought to evaluate safety, feasibility, and outcomes for supermorbidly obese patients who undergo robotic surgery for endometrial cancer, compared with patients with lower body mass indices. We performed a retrospective chart review of 168 patients with suspected early-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma who underwent robotic surgery for the management of their disease. Analysis of variance and univariate logistic regression were used to compare patient characteristics and surgical variables across all body weights. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the impact of body weight on recurrence-free and overall survival. The mean BMI of our cohort was 40.9 kg/m(2). Median follow up was 31 months. Fifty-six patients, 30% of which had grade 2 or 3 tumors, were supermorbidly obese with a BMI of ≥50 kg/m(2) (mean, 56.3 kg/m(2)). A comparison between the supermorbidly obese and lower-weight patients demonstrated no differences in terms of length of hospital stay, blood loss, complication rates, numbers of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes retrieved, or recurrence and survival. There was a correlation between BMI and conversion to an open procedure, in which the odds of conversion increased with increasing BMI (P = .02). Offering robotic surgery to supermorbidly obese patients with endometrial cancer is a safe and feasible surgical management option. When compared with patients with a lower BMI, the supermorbidly obese patient had a similar outcome, length of hospital stay, blood loss, complications, and numbers of lymph

  18. Premenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding and risk of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennant, M E; Mehta, R; Moody, P; Hackett, G; Prentice, A; Sharp, S J; Lakshman, R

    2017-02-01

    Endometrial biopsies are undertaken in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding but the risk of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia is unclear. To conduct a systematic literature review to establish the risk of endometrial cancer and atypical hyperplasia in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library from database inception to August 2015. Studies reporting rates of endometrial cancer and/or atypical hyperplasia in women with premenopausal abnormal uterine bleeding. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and cross-checked. For each outcome, the risk and a 95% CI were estimated using logistic regression with robust standard errors to account for clustering by study. Sixty-five articles contributed to the analysis. Risk of endometrial cancer was 0.33% (95% CI 0.23-0.48%, n = 29 059; 97 cases) and risk of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia was 1.31% (95% CI 0.96-1.80, n = 15 772; 207 cases). Risk of endometrial cancer was lower in women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) (0.11%, 95% CI 0.04-0.32%, n = 8352; 9 cases) compared with inter-menstrual bleeding (IMB) (0.52%, 95% CI 0.23-1.16%, n = 3109; 14 cases). Of five studies reporting the rate of atypical hyperplasia in women with HMB, none identified any cases. The risk of endometrial cancer or atypical hyperplasia in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding is low. Premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding should first undergo conventional medical management. Where this fails, the presence of IMB and older age may be indicators for further investigation. Further research into the risks associated with age and the cumulative risk of co-morbidities is needed. Contrary to practice, premenopausal women with heavy periods or inter-menstrual bleeding rarely require biopsy. © 2016 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal

  19. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  20. Pathogenesis of ovarian cancer: current perspectives | Chesang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a review of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and its clinical implications. Data Source: Extensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies in the English language about or related to pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were selected.

  1. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression....... The inverse association between statin use and mucinous tumours merits further investigation....

  2. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had...... been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P... and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted....

  3. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Wadhwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB on intrauterine insemination (IUI outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS cycle. DESIGN: Prospective randomized control study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the fertility treatment and IUI, which was done in next cycle (n = 86. Group B: EB was taken before D6 of the menstrual cycle, and fertility treatment and IUI was done in the same cycle (n = 90. Group C: (control group no EB in previous 3 cycle (n = 75. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR. RESULTS: Clinical pregnancy rate was 19.77%, 31.11%, and 9.3% for Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. The results show a highly significant value for the paired t-test of intervention Group B and control Group C of the cases (P = 0.000957. CPR was maximum afterfirst cycle of ovulation induction and IUI following EB scratch in both Groups A and in Group B (P < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial biopsy done in early follicular phase in the same cycle of stimulation with IUI gives better CPR as compared with EB done in the luteal phase of the previous cycle.

  4. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Leena; Pritam, Amrita; Gupta, Taru; Gupta, Sangeeta; Arora, Sarika; Chandoke, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle. Prospective randomized control study. Tertiary care center. A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the fertility treatment and IUI, which was done in next cycle (n = 86). Group B: EB was taken before D6 of the menstrual cycle, and fertility treatment and IUI was done in the same cycle (n = 90). Group C: (control group) no EB in previous 3 cycle (n = 75). Clinical pregnancy rate (CPR). Clinical pregnancy rate was 19.77%, 31.11%, and 9.3% for Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. The results show a highly significant value for the paired t-test of intervention Group B and control Group C of the cases (P = 0.000957). CPR was maximum after first cycle of ovulation induction and IUI following EB scratch in both Groups A and in Group B (P Endometrial biopsy done in early follicular phase in the same cycle of stimulation with IUI gives better CPR as compared with EB done in the luteal phase of the previous cycle.

  5. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interleukins Affect Equine Endometrial Cell Function: Modulatory Action of Ovarian Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Z. Szóstek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between ovarian steroids, interleukins and prostaglandins (PG in equine epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. In Experiment 1, cells were exposed to IL-1α (10 ng/mL, IL-1β (10 ng/mL or IL-6 (10 ng/mL for 24 h and cell proliferation was determined using MTT. In Experiment 2, cells were exposed to progesterone (P4; 10−7 M; 17-β estradiol (E2; 10−9 M or P4+E2 for 24 h and later medium was replaced with a fresh one treated with IL-1α, IL-1β or IL-6 (10 ng/mL, each for 24 h. The oxytocin (OT; 10−7 M was used as a positive control. In Experiment 3, cells were exposed to P4 (10−7 M, E2 (10−9 M or P4+E2 for 24 h and the IL receptor mRNAs transcription was determined using Real-time PCR. Prostaglandins concentration was determined using the direct enzyme immunoassay (EIA method. Our findings reveal a functional linking between ovarian steroids and IL-stimulated PG secretion by equine endometrial cells. This interaction could be one of the mechanisms responsible for endometrial local orchestrating events during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

  7. Treatment Options by Stage (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  8. Increased risk for ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours in subfertile women with endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Mooij, T. M.; Burger, C. W.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Kortman, Marian; Laven, Joop S. E.; Jansen, Cees A. M.; Helmerhorst, Frans M.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Willemsen, Wim N. P.; Smeenk, Jesper M. J.; Simons, Arnold H. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Evers, Johannes L. H.; van Dop, Peter A.; Macklon, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Is ovarian or extra-ovarian endometriosis associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours (BOT)? We found a 3- to 8-fold increased risk of ovarian tumours associated with endometriosis: the magnitude of the risk increase depended on the definition of endometriosis.

  9. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  10. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Møller, Ann M; Palle, Connie

    2017-01-01

    -anaesthesia care unit was shorter for patients undergoing RALH. CONCLUSIONS: RALH appears advantageous for women treated for endometrial cancer in terms of post-operative complications. We recommend the use of the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical outcomes for quality assessment. FUNDING: departmental only...

  11. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy for women with endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Møller, Ann M; Palle, Connie

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) has become a widely used approach for women with endometrial cancer and has replaced laparotomy. It has been questioned if the increased costs are justified by superior surgical outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine...

  12. Uterine/Endometrial Cancer: Working with Your Treatment Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Your Treatment Team Treatment Surgery Surgical Staging Pathology of Ovarian Cancer Chemotherapy Radiation Therapy Hormone Therapy ... 20, 2016 January 17, 2017 February 21, 2017 March 22, 2017 April 18, 2017 May 16, 2017 ...

  13. Therapeutic Efficacy of Endometrial Scratching in Repeated Controlled Ovarian Stimulation (COS) Failure Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Leena; Mishra, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was (1) “to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of endometrial scratching in repeated controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) failure cycles.” And (2) “to compare differences in pregnancy outcome by endometrial scratching in early (D2–D4) and late follicular phases (D7–D9) of the same stimulation cycle.” Materials and Methods: Women attending infertility clinic in a tertiary care center and who have two or more repeated COS failure cycles and planned for COS with intrauterine insemination (IUI) were included in the study which is a prospective parallel, interventional, single-blinded, randomized control study, in 1:1 allocation ratio. A total of 165 patients were recruited and randomly allocated into three groups: Group A (n = 55) underwent endometrial scratching on D2–D4 of the same COS cycle, Group B (n = 55) on D7–D9, and Group C (n = 55) no intervention done. All the patients underwent COS according to standard protocol followed by IUI. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate was 12.73% (odds ratio [OR] =0.87 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.288–2.55, P = 1), 16.36% (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 0.40–3.23, P = 1), and 14.54%, respectively, in Group A, B, and C, respectively (P = 0.86), as per intention to treat analysis. Using Chi-square test, P value between Group A and B was 0.787, between Group A and C was 1.000, and between Group B and C was 1.000. As per protocol analysis, clinical pregnancy rate was 13.46% (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.27–2.5, P = 0.74), 19.57% (OR = 1.3 95%; CI = 0.45–3.73, P = 0.41), and 15.69%. Using Chi-square test, Pvalue between Group A and B was 0.588, between Group A and C was 0.967, and between Group B and C was 0.815. No abortions and multiple pregnancies occurred in either of the groups. Conclusion: The effect found was of good quantum in Group B as per protocol analysis which could be of clinical relevance if larger sample size would have been taken. Endometrial scratching is a cost

  14. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is less clear. Despite extensive research, including several epidemiological studies and 2 systematic reviews, insufficient and inconsistent evidence is available to support an independent association between recreational physical activity and risk......It is estimated that 5% of women in the United States and 10% to 50% of women worldwide are physically inactive. Previous studies have demonstrated that recreational physical activity is associated with decreased risks of developing breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. The association between...... of EOC. This is largely due to use of common methodology in most studies that overlooks recreational physical inactivity as an independent risk factor for EOC. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-reported, chronic, recreational physical inactivity is an independent risk factor...

  15. Role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography in endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemoğlu, Evrim; Çerçi, Sevim Süreyya; Erdemoğlu, Ebru; Yalçın, Yakup; Tatar, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The efficacy of preoperative 18F-fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in endometrium cancer is controversial. We examined the efficacy of PET-CT and the association between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and prognostic factors in endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with endometrial cancer underwent preoperative 18F-FDG/PET-CT. The patients were treated with abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral systemic pelvic lymphadenectomy was planned for all patients; paraaortic lymphadenectomy was performed in patients with intermediate and high risk. Tumor histology, grade, depth of myometrial invasion, maximum tumor diameter, lymphovascular invasion, nodal status, and ovarian/adnexal metastases were recorded. Results: The mean primary tumor diameter was reported smaller in PET-CT and the effect size of PET-CT was -0.60. The kappa value was 0.06 for myometrial invasion. Pelvic lymph node metastasis was reported in 22.2% of patients in PET-CT. However, 3.7% of patients had pelvic lymph node metastasis. The kappa value for pelvic lymph node metastasis was 0.23, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 80.7%, 16.6%, and 100%, respectively. Paraaortic lymph node metastasis in PET-CT was suspected in 10%. However, paraaortic lymph node metastasis was found in 6.7% in histopathologic analyses. The kappa value was 0.15. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of PET-CT for detecting paraaortic lymph node metastases were 100%, 93.7%, 66.6%, and 100%, respectively. Myometrial invasion and tumor diameter were the only important prognostic factors affecting SUVmax. Conclusion: According to our results, PET-CT has a limited role and diagnostic efficacy in endometrial cancer. The indications of FDG/PET-CT in endometrium cancer should be studied further and revised. PMID:29379661

  16. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  17. Subcutaneous metastasis from endometrial cancer; case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Bacalbasa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous metastases from endometrial cancer are rare situations, only few cases being described so far. The main incriminated mechanisms leading to the apparition of such lesions include hematogenous and lymphatic spread. We present the case of a 66-year-old patient known with previous history of stage IIIA endometroid endometrial carcinoma initially treated by surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy who developed at 18 months follow-up a distant subcutaneous oligometastasis. At this time the patient was resubmitted to surgery, the lesion being successfully removed. The histopathological result confirmed the endometrial cancer origin of this lesion. Subcutaneous and cutaneous metastases from endometrial cancer are rare eventualities which are usually diagnosed as part of systemic dissemination of this malignancy; in these cases, the patient is only candidate for oncological treatment with palliative intent. In some cases, in which the lesions occur as oligometastatic disease, surgery might be performed with curative intent. In our case the diagnostic of the subcutaneous lesion as oligometastatic disease transformed the patient in a perfect candidate for curative oncological surgery.

  18. Diet and endometrial cancer: a focus on the role of fruit and vegetable intake, Mediterranean diet and dietary inflammatory index in the endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Giraudo, Maria Teresa; Fasanelli, Francesca; Milanese, Dario; Sciannameo, Veronica; Fiorini, Laura; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2017-11-13

    Endometrial cancer is the fourth most common cancer in European women. The major risk factors for endometrial cancer are related to the exposure of endometrium to estrogens not opposed to progestogens, that can lead to a chronic endometrial inflammation. Diet may play a role in cancer risk by modulating chronic inflammation. In the framework of a case-control study, we recruited 297 women with newly diagnosed endometrial cancer and 307 controls from Northern Italy. Using logistic regression, we investigated the role of fruit and vegetable intake, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), and the dietary inflammatory index (DII) in endometrial cancer risk. Women in the highest quintile of vegetable intake had a statistically significantly lower endometrial cancer risk (adjusted OR 5th quintile vs 1st quintile: 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.68). Women with high adherence to the MD had a risk of endometrial cancer that was about half that of women with low adherence to the MD (adjusted OR: 0.51, 95% CI 0.39-0.86). A protective effect was detected for all the lower quintiles of DII, with the highest protective effect seen for the lowest quintile (adjusted OR 5th quintile vs 1st quintile: 3.28, 95% CI 1.30-8.26). These results suggest that high vegetable intake, adherence to the MD, and a low DII are related to a lower endometrial cancer risk, with several putative connected biological mechanisms that strengthen the biological plausibility of this association.

  19. DJ-1 is a reliable serum biomarker for discriminating high-risk endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cello, Annalisa; Di Sanzo, Maddalena; Perrone, Francesca Marta; Santamaria, Gianluca; Rania, Erika; Angotti, Elvira; Venturella, Roberta; Mancuso, Serafina; Zullo, Fulvio; Cuda, Giovanni; Costanzo, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    New reliable approaches to stratify patients with endometrial cancer into risk categories are highly needed. We have recently demonstrated that DJ-1 is overexpressed in endometrial cancer, showing significantly higher levels both in serum and tissue of patients with high-risk endometrial cancer compared with low-risk endometrial cancer. In this experimental study, we further extended our observation, evaluating the role of DJ-1 as an accurate serum biomarker for high-risk endometrial cancer. A total of 101 endometrial cancer patients and 44 healthy subjects were prospectively recruited. DJ-1 serum levels were evaluated comparing cases and controls and, among endometrial cancer patients, between high- and low-risk patients. The results demonstrate that DJ-1 levels are significantly higher in cases versus controls and in high- versus low-risk patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis shows that DJ-1 has a very good diagnostic accuracy in discriminating endometrial cancer patients versus controls and an excellent accuracy in distinguishing, among endometrial cancer patients, low- from high-risk cases. DJ-1 sensitivity and specificity are the highest when high- and low-risk patients are compared, reaching the value of 95% and 99%, respectively. Moreover, DJ-1 serum levels seem to be correlated with worsening of the endometrial cancer grade and histotype, making it a reliable tool in the preoperative decision-making process.

  20. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv...

  1. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  2. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Mitsuko

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers

  3. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Mitsuko [Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2012-07-18

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  4. Family history of cancer predicts endometrial cancer risk independently of Lynch Syndrome: Implications for genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnatty, Sharon E; Tan, Yen Y; Buchanan, Daniel D; Bowman, Michael; Walters, Rhiannon J; Obermair, Andreas; Quinn, Michael A; Blomfield, Penelope B; Brand, Alison; Leung, Yee; Oehler, Martin K; Kirk, Judy A; O'Mara, Tracy A; Webb, Penelope M; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2017-11-01

    To determine endometrial cancer (EC) risk according to family cancer history, including assessment by degree of relatedness, type of and age at cancer diagnosis of relatives. Self-reported family cancer history was available for 1353 EC patients and 628 controls. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between EC and cancer diagnosis in ≥1 first or second degree relative, and to assess whether level of risk differed by degree of relationship and/or relative's age at diagnosis. Risk was also evaluated for family history of up to three cancers from known familial syndromes (Lynch, Cowden, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer) overall, by histological subtype and, for a subset of 678 patients, by EC tumor mismatch repair (MMR) gene expression. Report of EC in ≥1 first- or second-degree relative was associated with significantly increased risk of EC (P=3.8×10 -7 ), independent of lifestyle risk factors. There was a trend in increasing EC risk with closer relatedness and younger age at EC diagnosis in relatives (P Trend =4.43×10 -6 ), and with increasing numbers of Lynch cancers in relatives (P Trend ≤0.0001). EC risk associated with family history did not differ by proband tumor MMR status, or histological subtype. Reported EC in first- or second-degree relatives remained associated with EC risk after conservative correction for potential misreported family history (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.24-3.37, P=0.004). The strongest predictor of EC risk was closer relatedness and younger EC diagnosis age in ≥1 relative. Associations remained significant irrespective of proband MMR status, and after excluding MMR pathogenic variant carriers, indicating that Lynch syndrome genes do not fully explain familial EC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. OPT-821 With or Without Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer in Second or Third Complete Remission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-12

    Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  6. Vabrasio is a reliable test to rule out endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anita; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in Denmark, and its incidence peaks in the postmenopausal years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vacuum aspirator (vabrasio) for the detection of endometrial cancer in terms of sensitivity......, specificity and predictive value. Methods: A cohort counting 503 women who had vabrasio was evaluated retrospectively. The women included were consecutive patients who had received vabrasio at the 
Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at Herning Hos­pital, Denmark, during a two-year period. They were iden......­tified by searching the hospital database for the Inter­na­tional Classification of Diseases, tenth version (ICD-10) code for vabrasio.
 Results: The indications for vabrasio were postmeno­pausal bleeding (45%), meno/metrorrhagia (43%) and thickened endometrium/polyp (6%). The first evaluation by vabrasio was normal...

  7. The role of adhesive molecules in endometrial cancer: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Malinowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenesis is a result of both functional and structural disorders in the tissue. It initiates as a mutationin a gene encoding protein that is essential for cellular function. The subsequent cascade of eventsleads to accumulation of mutations and loss of cellular function. The cell loses its tissue-specific morphology,disconnects from other cells and extracellular matrix and migrates – the invasion begins. It is now clear thatadhesive molecules are a key player in this cascade. These proteins of the cell membrane surface are responsiblefor attachment of the cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix. These interactions are crucial forboth structural and functional tissue organization. Lack of this homeostasis destroys the tissue architectureand impairs its function and results in invasion. Abnormal expression of adhesive molecules was reported in allexamined cancers, including endometrial cancer.Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although in many casesdiagnosed and treated in early stages, and thus with good results, some patients cannot be cured. Completeknowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease will be helpful in identifying the patients with negative prognosticfactors, increased risk of recurrence and, perhaps, to find other therapeutic options. In the paper we are trying tosum up the up-to-date knowledge of the role of adhesive molecules in pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.

  8. Etiology and Pathogenesis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Mok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is complex disease composed of different histological grades and types. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the development of different phenotypes remain largely unknown. Epidemiological studies identified multiple exogenous and endogenous risk factors for ovarian cancer development. Among them, an inflammatory stromal microenvironment seems to play a critical role in the initiation of the disease. The interaction between such a microenvironment, genetic polymorphisms, and different epithelial components such as endosalpingiosis, endometriosis, and ovarian inclusion cyst in the ovarian cortex may induce different genetic changes identified in the epithelial component of different histological types of ovarian tumors. Genetic studies on different histological grades and types provide insight into the pathogenetic pathways for the development of different disease phenotypes. However, the link between all these genetic changes and the etiological factors remains to be established.

  9. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Treating Long-Term Gastrointestinal Adverse Effects Caused by Radiation Therapy in Patients With Pelvic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    Bladder Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Gastrointestinal Complications; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Adults; Ovarian Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Vaginal Cancer

  10. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berchuck, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian cancer we have initiated a case-control study that considers genetic susceptibility epidemiologic risk factors and acquired genetic alterations...

  11. Evaluating the ovarian cancer gonadotropin hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Alice W; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Doherty, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a hormone-related disease with a strong genetic basis. However, none of its high-penetrance susceptibility genes and GWAS-identified variants to date are known to be involved in hormonal pathways. Given the hypothesized etiologic role of gonadotropins, an assessment...... of how variability in genes involved in the gonadotropin signaling pathway impacts disease risk is warranted. METHODS: Genetic data from 41 ovarian cancer study sites were pooled and unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate whether any of the 2185 SNPs from 11 gonadotropin signaling pathway...... genes was associated with ovarian cancer risk. A burden test using the admixture likelihood (AML) method was also used to evaluate gene-level associations. RESULTS: We did not find any genome-wide significant associations between individual SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. However, there was some...

  12. IP Chemo for Ovarian Cancer is Underused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of intraperitoneal chemotherapy, along with intravenous chemotherapy, improves survival in some women with advanced ovarian cancer, but its use in clinical practice has been limited, according to a new study.

  13. A critical assessment on the role of sentinel node mapping in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Signorelli, Mauro; Perotto, Stefania; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the developed countries. Although the high incidence of this occurrence no consensus, about the role of retroperitoneal staging, still exists. Growing evidence support the safety and efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping. This technique is emerging as a new standard for endometrial cancer staging procedures. In the present paper, we discuss the role of sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer, highlighting the most controversies features.

  14. [The molecular biology of epithelial ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Alexandra; Pautier, Patricia; Tazi, Youssef; Morice, Philippe; Duvillard, Pierre; Gouy, Sébastien; Uzan, Catherine; Gauthier, Hélène; Balleyguier, Corinne; Lhommé, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer frequently presents at an advanced stage where the cornerstone of management remains surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Unfortunately, despite sometimes dramatic initial responses, advanced ovarian cancer almost invariably relapses. Little progress has been made in the identification of effective targeted-therapies for ovarian cancer. The majority of clinical trials investigating novel agents have been negative and the only approved targeted-therapy is bevacizumab, for which reliable predictive biomarkers still elude us. Ovarian cancer is treated as a uniform disease. Yet, biological studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of this malignancy with marked differences in histology, oncogenesis, prognosis, chemo-responsiveness, and molecular profile. Recent high throughput molecular analyses have identified a huge number of genomic/phenotypic alterations. Broadly speaking, high grade serous carcinomas (type II) display significant genomic instability and numerous amplifications and losses; low grade (type I) tumors are genomically stable but display frequent mutations. Importantly, many of these genomic alterations relate to known oncogenes for which targeted-therapies are available or in development. There is today a real potential for personalized medicine in ovarian cancer. We will review the current literature regarding the molecular characterization of epithelial ovarian cancer and discuss the biological rationale for a number of targeted strategies. In order to translate these biological advances into meaningful clinical improvements for our patients, it is imperative to incorporate translational research in ovarian cancer trials, a number of strategies will be proposed such as the acquisition of quality tumor samples, including sequential pre- and post-treatment biopsies, the potential of liquid biopsies, and novel trial designs more adapted to the molecular era of ovarian cancer research.

  15. Identification of BRCA1-deficient ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Anne-Bine; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Rasmussen, Anders Aamann

    2011-01-01

    of offering genetic counseling and due to beneficial effects of PARP inhibitor treatment in this group. Since DNA sequencing is expensive and time-consuming efforts have been devoted to develop more indirect methods for BRCA screening that can improve the selection of patients for sequence-based BRCA testing....... Design. BRCA1-immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and methylation analyses were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue. Sample: 54 ovarian cancers; 15 BRCA1 cancers, 4 BRCA2 cancers, 10 cancers from patients with a family history...

  16. Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; McAlpine, Jessica N; Lheureux, Stephanie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Oza, Amit M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

  17. A new afterloading applicator for primary brachytherapy of endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe and have used a new afterloading applicator in six patients for primary radiation therapy of endometrial cancer. The first introduction of the applicator was done under general anaesthesia. Dilating the cervical canal to Heger 9 made insertion easier. Prior to application it is advisable to probe the lumen of the uterine cavity with a tube or curette to estimate how far the applicator must be spread open. For brachytherapy it is advantageous to remove necrotic tumour portions. This requires experienced hands to avoid perforation of the uterus. The new afterloading applicator is easy to use, and permits direct contact between the six tubes and the tumour. In conjunction with careful planning with the help of MRI, it provides an optimal system for the treatment of endometrial cancer. (Author)

  18. The importance of family history in young patients with endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, MJW; Kleibeuker, JH; de Vries, EGE; Mourits, MJE; Hollema, H; Pras, E; van der Zee, AGJ

    Endometrial cancer occurs primarily in postmenopausal women older than 60 years of age. Especially in young patients with endometrial cancer, a positive family history with respect to cancer and/or development of synchronous or metachronous tumors can be indicative of hereditary factors. One generic

  19. Acute toxicity of postoperative IMRT and chemotherapy for endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tierney, R.M.; Powell, M.A.; Mutch, D.G.; Gibb, R.K.; Rader, J.S.; Grigsby, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with and without chemotherapy in patients with endometrial cancer. A total of 19 patients with stages IB-IVB endometrial cancer who underwent surgery and postoperative IMRT were reviewed. The treatment planning goal was to cover the tissue at risk and minimize the dose to the bladder, bowel, and bone marrow. Median dose was 50.4 Gy (range 49.6-51.2 Gy). Altogether, 14 patients underwent chemotherapy; most were given carboplatin and paclitaxel. Toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE). The prescribed radiation treatment was completed in all patients. The prescribed cycles of chemotherapy were completed in all 14 patients, except one who received five of six cycles limited by prolonged thrombocytopenia. Chemotherapy was delayed in two patients (14%). Three patients required growth factor support during chemotherapy, and one patient required a blood transfusion. Acute grades 3-4 hematological toxicity occurred in 9 of the 14 patients (64%) who underwent chemotherapy. None experienced acute grade 3 or 4 genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicity. Adjuvant IMRT and chemotherapy following surgery in patients with endometrial cancer is well tolerated and did not lead to treatment modification in most patients. (author)

  20. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam

    2012-01-01

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass from

  1. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  2. 75 FR 54451 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... claim more lives than any other gynecologic cancer. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we... and other cancers. Across the Federal Government, we are working to promote awareness of ovarian...

  3. The comparison between presenting symptoms of ovarian cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensation of abdominal mass was more common in women with ovarian cancer than other abdominalpelvic cancers (P=0.00l). Constipation was documented in the patients with colon cancer more than women with ovarian cancer (P=0.012), whereas urinary symptoms were more common in patients with ovarian ...

  4. [Screening of ovarian cancer : not for tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Aurélie; Labidi-Galy, Intidhar

    2017-05-17

    As the worldwide incidence of cancer continuously rises, one of the measures to reduce mortality is early diagnosis while the disease is still curable. Colonoscopy screening and PAP-smears are worthwhile examples illustrating the impact of early diagnosis on mortality. Ovarian cancer is the first cause of mortality by gynecological cancers in Switzerland (incidence of 600 new cases / year), mostly diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. Could surveillance measures improve survival ? Three large-scale randomized control trials failed to show mortality reduction from ovarian cancer with the methods currently available. A better comprehension of pathogenesis can allow the development of new strategies of screening.

  5. Epigenetics and genetics in endometrial cancer: new carcinogenic mechanisms and relationship with clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Kouji; Kisu, Iori; Yanokura, Megumi; Masuda, Kenta; Ueki, Arisa; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke

    2012-04-01

    Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer worldwide among females. An increased incidence and a younger age of patients are also predicted to occur, and therefore elucidation of the pathological mechanisms is important. However, several aspects of the mechanism of carcinogenesis in the endometrium remain unclear. Associations with genetic mutations of cancer-related genes have been shown, but these do not provide a complete explanation. Therefore, epigenetic mechanisms have been examined. Silencing of genes by DNA hypermethylation, hereditary epimutation of DNA mismatch repair genes and regulation of gene expression by miRNAs may underlie carcinogenesis in endometrial cancer. New therapies include targeting epigenetic changes using histone deacetylase inhibitors. Some cases of endometrial cancer may also be hereditary. Thus, patients with Lynch syndrome which is a hereditary disease, have a higher risk for developing endometrial cancer than the general population. Identification of such disease-related genes may contribute to early detection and prevention of endometrial cancer.

  6. Effect of demographic factors on brachytherapy treatment results in patients with endometrial cancer 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczyk, Mieczysława U; Chmaj-Wierzchowska, Karolina; Klofik, Joanna; Sajdak, Stefan; Opala, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 female cancers in Europe is of the endometrium. Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynaecologic cancer. Considering the fact that an upward tendency has recently been observed in morbidity due to this type of cancer, this is a serious medical problem. The presented report describes the results of the analysis of selected demographic factors and their effect on the incidence of endometrial cancer. Analysis of the results of treatment of endometrial cancer during 1995-2010 was also an objective of the study. Based on medical records obtained from the HDR Laboratory of Brachytherapy at the Gynaecological & Obstetrics Clinical Hospital, University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, the results of treatment of patients with endometrial cancer by brachytherapy were analyzed. The analysis covered a group of 400 patients. More than a half of the patients completed their education on the level of elementary or secondary school. Taking into consideration the weight of the patients, it appeared that most women had excessive body weight. Most frequently, concomitant hypertension was observed. Moreover, the age at menarche was 12 and 13. Demographic factors exert a significant effect on the incidence of endometrial cancer. 1. Overweight and obesity are important risk factors of endometrial cancer. 2. A strong relationship is observed between the occurrence of hypertension or diabetes, and the development of endometrial cancer. 3. Women who come from the rural environment and continue to live in this environment are more likely to contract endometrial cancer.

  7. Progesterone inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H van der Horst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 74,000 women die of endometrial cancer, mainly due to recurrent or metastatic disease. The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs as well as progesterone receptor (PR positivity has been correlated with improved prognosis. This study describes two mechanisms by which progesterone inhibits metastatic spread of endometrial cancer: by stimulating T-cell infiltration and by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transition (EMT. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paraffin sections from patients with (n = 9 or without (n = 9 progressive endometrial cancer (recurrent or metastatic disease were assessed for the presence of CD4+ (helper, CD8+ (cytotoxic and Foxp3+ (regulatory T-lymphocytes and PR expression. Progressive disease was observed to be associated with significant loss of TILs and loss of PR expression. Frozen tumor samples, used for genome-wide expression analysis, showed significant regulation of pathways involved in immunesurveillance, EMT and metastasis. For a number of genes, such as CXCL14, DKK1, DKK4, PEG10 and WIF1, quantitive RT-PCR was performed to verify up- or downregulation in progressive disease. To corroborate the role of progesterone in regulating invasion, Ishikawa (IK endometrial cancer cell lines stably transfected with PRA (IKPRA, PRB (IKPRB and PRA+PRB (IKPRAB were cultured in presence/absence of progesterone (MPA and used for genome-wide expression analysis, Boyden- and wound healing migration assays, and IHC for known EMT markers. IKPRB and IKPRAB cell lines showed MPA induced inhibition of migration and loss of the mesenchymal marker vimentin at the invasive front of the wound healing assay. Furthermore, pathway analysis of significantly MPA regulated genes showed significant down regulation of important pathways involved in EMT, immunesuppression and metastasis: such as IL6-, TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. CONCLUSION: Intact progesterone signaling in non

  8. Endometrial and cervical cancer: incidence and mortality among women in the Lodz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Leśniczak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: By the early 21st century the most common cancer of female genitals in Poland was cervical cancer. Now endometrial cancer ranks first. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among women in the Lodz region. Material and methods: Data on the incidence and mortality of endometrial and cervical cancer among inhabitants of the Lodz region were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and Bulletin of Cancer Cases in the Lodz region. The analysis covered ten consecutive years beginning in 2001. Results : The number of new cases reported in 2010 exceeded that observed in 2001 by 181. The standardized incidence rate of endometrial cancer increased by 6.3, while the standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer decreased by 1.4. Conclusions : In the years 2001-2010, the incidence of endometrial cancer increased by 88.3% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 6.5% among inhabitants of the Lodz region. In the years 2001-2010, mortality of endometrial cancer increased by 24.5% and that of cervical cancer decreased by 12.6%. In 2010, the highest crude incidence rates in the Lodz region of both endometrial and cervical cancer at 39.1 were recorded in the district town of Piotrków.

  9. The relation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhøj Heidemann, Lene; Hartwell, Dorthe; Heidemann, Christian Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer.......Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer....

  10. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn M

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  11. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  12. Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If you ... get ovarian cancer by age 70. Does Your Family Health History Put You At Risk? Collect your ...

  13. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H

    2017-01-01

    carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival...... with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic......Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian...

  14. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-24

    Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  15. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Concealing Clothing” Sukru Hatun, Omer Islam, Filiz Cizmecioglu, Bulent Kara, Kadir Babaoglu, Fatma Berk,and Ayse Sevim Go¨ kalp J. Nutr. 135: 218–222...to studies in ovarian caner , analyses of the relationship between the short AR CAG repeat length polymorphism and prostate cancer risk also have...pregnant, months of OC use, BMI, tubal ligation, family history of breast or ovarian caner in a first degree relative, waist-to-hip ratio 23 Table 6

  16. Germline truncating-mutations in BRCA1 and MSH6 in a patient with early onset endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, Karin; Schackert, Hans K; Neuhann, Teresa M; Görgens, Heike; Becker, Kerstin; Keller, Katja; Klink, Barbara; Aust, Daniela; Distler, Wolfgang; Schröck, Evelin

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS) and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Syndrome (HNPCC, Lynch Syndrome) are two tumor predisposition syndromes responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and colorectal cancers. Carriers of both germline mutations in breast cancer genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 and in mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 are very rare. We identified germline mutations in BRCA1 and in MSH6 in a patient with increased risk for HBOC diagnosed with endometrial cancer at the age of 46 years. Although carriers of mutations in both MMR and BRCA genes are rare in Caucasian populations and anamnestical and histopathological findings may guide clinicians to identify these families, both syndromes can only be diagnosed through a complete gene analysis of the respective genes

  17. Germline truncating-mutations in BRCA1 and MSH6 in a patient with early onset endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kast, Karin [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Schackert, Hans K [Department of Surgical Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Neuhann, Teresa M [Institute for Clinical Genetics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Medical Genetic Center, Munich (Germany); Görgens, Heike [Department of Surgical Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Becker, Kerstin [Institute for Clinical Genetics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Keller, Katja [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Klink, Barbara [Institute for Clinical Genetics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Aust, Daniela [Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Distler, Wolfgang [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Schröck, Evelin [Institute for Clinical Genetics, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-11-20

    Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS) and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Syndrome (HNPCC, Lynch Syndrome) are two tumor predisposition syndromes responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and colorectal cancers. Carriers of both germline mutations in breast cancer genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 and in mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 are very rare. We identified germline mutations in BRCA1 and in MSH6 in a patient with increased risk for HBOC diagnosed with endometrial cancer at the age of 46 years. Although carriers of mutations in both MMR and BRCA genes are rare in Caucasian populations and anamnestical and histopathological findings may guide clinicians to identify these families, both syndromes can only be diagnosed through a complete gene analysis of the respective genes.

  18. Germline truncating-mutations in BRCA1 and MSH6 in a patient with early onset endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kast Karin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Syndrome (HNPCC, Lynch Syndrome are two tumor predisposition syndromes responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and colorectal cancers. Carriers of both germline mutations in breast cancer genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 and in mismatch repair (MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 are very rare. Case presentation We identified germline mutations in BRCA1 and in MSH6 in a patient with increased risk for HBOC diagnosed with endometrial cancer at the age of 46 years. Conclusions Although carriers of mutations in both MMR and BRCA genes are rare in Caucasian populations and anamnestical and histopathological findings may guide clinicians to identify these families, both syndromes can only be diagnosed through a complete gene analysis of the respective genes.

  19. Germline truncating-mutations in BRCA1 and MSH6 in a patient with early onset endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Karin; Neuhann, Teresa M; Görgens, Heike; Becker, Kerstin; Keller, Katja; Klink, Barbara; Aust, Daniela; Distler, Wolfgang; Schröck, Evelin; Schackert, Hans K

    2012-11-20

    Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS) and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Syndrome (HNPCC, Lynch Syndrome) are two tumor predisposition syndromes responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and colorectal cancers. Carriers of both germline mutations in breast cancer genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 and in mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 are very rare. We identified germline mutations in BRCA1 and in MSH6 in a patient with increased risk for HBOC diagnosed with endometrial cancer at the age of 46 years. Although carriers of mutations in both MMR and BRCA genes are rare in Caucasian populations and anamnestical and histopathological findings may guide clinicians to identify these families, both syndromes can only be diagnosed through a complete gene analysis of the respective genes.

  20. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  1. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  2. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...

  3. Survival after relapse in patients with endometrial cancer : results from a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creutzberg, CL; van Putten, WLJ; Koper, PC; Lybeert, MLM; Jobsen, JJ; Warlam-Rodenhuis, CC; De Winter, KAJ; Lutgens, LCHW; van den Bergh, ACM; van der Steen-Banasik, E; Beerman, H; van Lent, M

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of local control and survival after relapse in patients with stage I endometrial cancer treated in the multicenter randomized PORTEC trial. Methods, The PORTEC trial included 715 patients with stage I endometrial cancer, either grade I or 2

  4. Increased COX-2 expression in patients with ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... 10%) subtypes (Kristensen et al., 2003; Green et al.,. 1999). The disease ... history of ovarian and/or breast cancer, and nulliparity, whereas the oral ... and molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer remain unclear. It is most ..... chemotherapy on the prognosis in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. N. Engl.

  5. 78 FR 54741 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... of women will die of this disease. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we lend our... of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 2013 as National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month. I...

  6. 77 FR 55095 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... leave in our hearts will be deeply felt forever. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we... campaign, we are working to raise awareness about the signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer. The Affordable...

  7. Ovarian Cancer: The Interplay of Lifestyle and Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braem, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease that is mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage. In Europe, only 36% of women with ovarian cancer can expect to survive 5 years. While our knowledge of ovarian cancer has changed substantially throughout the years, our understanding of its etiology still lacks

  8. Incidence, Pattern and Management of Ovarian Cancer at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the commonest type of ovarian cancer and is known to be a disease of postmenopausal women.[12]. A global ... received surgery and chemotherapy, as well as the estimated case‑fatality rate for ovarian cancer. Ethical ... The mean ages (SD) at presentation of the different types of ovarian cancer were epithelial 50.3 (13.2).

  9. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko Furuya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  10. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies....... Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with

  11. Epigenetic Characterization of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Susan K

    2005-01-01

    .... The approach is to use normal ovarian surface epithelium (NOSE) and malignant cells obtained directly from surgically removed specimens in order to most closely approximate the methylation status in vivo...

  12. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  13. Regulatory T Cells in Human Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jun Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple layers of suppressive components including regulatory T (TReg cells, suppressive antigen-presenting cells, and inhibitory cytokines form suppressive networks in the ovarian cancer microenvironment. It has been demonstrated that as a major suppressive element, TReg cells infiltrate tumor, interact with several types of immune cells, and mediate immune suppression through different molecular and cellular mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on human ovarian cancer and will discuss the nature of TReg cells including their subsets, trafficking, expansion, and function. We will briefly review the development of manipulation of TReg cells in preclinical and clinical settings.

  14. Development and Novel Uses of Antibodies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtin, John P

    2003-01-01

    .... Further understanding of the host response to epithelial cancers and the potential capability of innovative immunologic technologies to ovarian cancer may play a key role in therapeutic advances...

  15. Preclinical Studies of Chemotherapy Using Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Takai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in the repression of tumor suppressor genes and promotion of tumorigenesis in endometrial cancers, novel compounds endowed with a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitory activity are an attractive therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs in treating endometrial cancer. HDACIs were able to mediate inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the expression of genes related to the malignant phenotype in a variety of endometrial cancer cell lines. Furthermore, HDACIs were able to induce the accumulation of acetylated histones in the chromatin of the p21WAF1 gene in human endometrial carcinoma cells. In xenograft models, some HDACIs have demonstrated antitumor activity with only few side effects. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDACIs in treating endometrial cancer, with a special focus on preclinical studies.

  16. Clinical and cytological definition of endometrial cancer during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titova, V.A.; Titova, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    The state of primary tumor in 45 patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, stage 1-3, during concomitant radical radio-and hormonotherapy according to the data of hysterocervicography, hysterometry and cytohistology have been studied. Contact irradiation was performed in single fractions of 9.5-10.0 Gy per week. The time course of primary uterine tumor regression was observed with regard to various radiation dose levels in accordance with cytological data. The cytological method is regarded as an important quantitative criterion in the evaluation of radio- and hormonotherapeutic efficacy of inoperable endometrial cancer [ru

  17. MR imaging of endometrial cancer that occurs after radiation therapy for cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn Jeong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Lim, Nam Yeol; Ko, Seok Wan; Kim, Bo Hyun

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to describe the MR imaging findings of endometrial cancer in patients with a history of prior radiation therapy for cervical cancer (ECRT) and we compare them to the MR imaging findings of patients with spontaneously occurring endometrial cancer (SEC). Twenty-two patients with endometrial cancer that was diagnosed by operation or endometrial biopsy were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of past RT for cervical cancer: ECRT (n = 4) and SEC (n = 18). The MR images were retrospectively analyzed by consensus of two experienced radiologists. The MR imaging findings were analyzed by the size, shape and signal intensity of the mass, distension of the uterine cavity, the presence of cervical stenosis and the nature of the fluid collection. For the mass shape, all the ECRT lesions were polypoid masses. However, the SEC patients had 5 polypoid masses and 13 wall thickenings. The maximal diameter, signal intensity and enhancement pattern of the masses were not different between the ECRT and SEC patients. The width of the endometrial cavity varied between 3.9 cm in the ECRT patients and 0.4 cm in the SEC patients (ρ = 0.002). All the ECRT patients had cervical stenosis. However, none of the SEC patients had cervical stenosis. MR imaging of ECRT patients demonstrated prominent distension of their uterine cavity and cervical stenosis, which may be the result of radiation fibrosis in the uterus

  18. Tubal ligation and salpingectomy and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Nationw......OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN...... sampling. We required that cases and controls have no previous cancer and that controls have no previous bilateral oophorectomy. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epithelial...

  19. Role of DNA methylation and epigenetic silencing of HAND2 in endometrial cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Jones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer incidence is continuing to rise in the wake of the current ageing and obesity epidemics. Much of the risk for endometrial cancer development is influenced by the environment and lifestyle. Accumulating evidence suggests that the epigenome serves as the interface between the genome and the environment and that hypermethylation of stem cell polycomb group target genes is an epigenetic hallmark of cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the functional role of epigenetic factors in endometrial cancer development.Epigenome-wide methylation analysis of >27,000 CpG sites in endometrial cancer tissue samples (n = 64 and control samples (n = 23 revealed that HAND2 (a gene encoding a transcription factor expressed in the endometrial stroma is one of the most commonly hypermethylated and silenced genes in endometrial cancer. A novel integrative epigenome-transcriptome-interactome analysis further revealed that HAND2 is the hub of the most highly ranked differential methylation hotspot in endometrial cancer. These findings were validated using candidate gene methylation analysis in multiple clinical sample sets of tissue samples from a total of 272 additional women. Increased HAND2 methylation was a feature of premalignant endometrial lesions and was seen to parallel a decrease in RNA and protein levels. Furthermore, women with high endometrial HAND2 methylation in their premalignant lesions were less likely to respond to progesterone treatment. HAND2 methylation analysis of endometrial secretions collected using high vaginal swabs taken from women with postmenopausal bleeding specifically identified those patients with early stage endometrial cancer with both high sensitivity and high specificity (receiver operating characteristics area under the curve = 0.91 for stage 1A and 0.97 for higher than stage 1A. Finally, mice harbouring a Hand2 knock-out specifically in their endometrium were shown to develop

  20. Is postmenopausal endometrial fluid collection alone a risk factor for endometrial cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegin Akcay, Gulin Feykan; Tas, Emre Erdem; Yavuz, Ayse Filiz

    2018-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of single-layer, ultrasonographic measurement of endometrial fluid collection (EFC) volume to predict endometrial pathology in asymptomatic postmenopausal patients. One hundred fifty asymptomatic postmenopausal women were analysed retrospectively from January 2012 to December 2016. After patients with endometrial hyperplasia/neoplasia were included in Group-I, and those with insufficient tissue, endometrial atrophy, or endometritis were included in Group-II; Groups one and two were compared with respect to primary (correlations between endometrial thickness and EFC volume) and secondary (correlations between demographic characteristics and EFC volume) outcomes. There was no correlation between EFC volume and single-layer endometrial thickness ( P = 0.36). Likewise, demographic characteristics were not related to EFC ( P > 0.05). However, both EFC volume and single-layer endometrial thickness were thicker in Group-I compared to Group-II (4.8 ± 1.9 mm vs . 3.7 ± 2.5 mm; and 5.7 ± 9.4 mm vs . 2.7 ± 2.5 mm, respectively) ( P values were < 0.05). Although a cutoff value for endometrial thickness and EFC volume could not be recommended based on our study findings, it should be noted that 2% is a clinically significant rate of malignancy. Thus, postmenopausal patients with EFC should be evaluated for endometrial sampling.

  1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Søren; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use has been linked to a reduction in the risk of several cancer types. For endometrial cancer, however, results have been inconsistent. To summarize the available evidence on the risk of endometrial cancer associated with use of aspirin...... a random effects model. RESULTS: Six case-control and seven cohort studies were found eligible for our meta-analysis. We observed risk reductions in endometrial cancer associated with regular use of aspirin (case-control: 11%, cohort: 8%) and NA-NSAIDs (case-control: 9%, cohort: 6%), compared to non...

  2. Mathematical Models of Breast and Ovarian Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botesteanu, Dana-Adriana; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Lee, Jung-Min; Levy, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Women constitute the majority of the aging United States (US) population, and this has substantial implications on cancer population patterns and management practices. Breast cancer is the most common women's malignancy, while ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecological malignancy in the US. In this review we focus on these subsets of women's cancers, seen more commonly in postmenopausal and elderly women. In order to systematically investigate the complexity of cancer progression and response to treatment in breast and ovarian malignancies, we assert that integrated mathematical modeling frameworks viewed from a systems biology perspective are needed. Such integrated frameworks could offer innovative contributions to the clinical women's cancers community, since answers to clinical questions cannot always be reached with contemporary clinical and experimental tools. Here, we recapitulate clinically known data regarding the progression and treatment of the breast and ovarian cancers. We compare and contrast the two malignancies whenever possible, in order to emphasize areas where substantial contributions could be made by clinically inspired and validated mathematical modeling. We show how current paradigms in the mathematical oncology community focusing on the two malignancies do not make comprehensive use of, nor substantially reflect existing clinical data, and we highlight the modeling areas in most critical need of clinical data integration. We emphasize that the primary goal of any mathematical study of women's cancers should be to address clinically relevant questions. PMID:27259061

  3. Endometrial cancer : from a molecular genetic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Smid-Koopman (Ellen)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe first observations indicative of a role of genetic factors in carcinogenesis were made as early as 1912, when Rous demonstrated that a filterable agent (i.e. virus) could induce cancer in chicken (Rous 1965). In 1914, Boveri postulated a "genetic" theory on carcinogenesis by

  4. Morphologic, Immunophenotypic, and Molecular Features of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Preetha

    2016-02-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors. The four most common subtypes are serous, endometrioid, clear cell, and mucinous carcinoma. Less common are transitional cell tumors, including transitional cell carcinoma and malignant Brenner tumor. While in the past these subtypes were grouped together and designated as epithelial ovarian tumors, these tumor types are now known to be separate entities with distinct clinical and biologic behaviors. From a therapeutic standpoint, current regimens employ standard chemotherapy based on stage and grade rather than histotype. However, this landscape may change in the era of personalized therapy, given that most subtypes (with the exception of high-grade serous carcinoma) are relatively resistant to chemotherapy. It is now well-accepted that high-grade and low-grade serous carcinomas represent distinct entities rather than a spectrum of the same tumor type. While they are similar in that patients present with advanced-stage disease, their histologic and molecular features are entirely different. High-grade serous carcinoma is associated with TP53 mutations, whereas low-grade serous carcinomas are associated with BRAF and KRAS mutations. Endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas typically present as early-stage disease and are frequently associated with endometriosis. Mucinous carcinomas typically present as large unilateral masses and often show areas of mucinous cystadenoma and mucinous borderline tumor. It must be emphasized that primary mucinous carcinomas are uncommon tumors, and metastasis from other sites such as the appendix, colon, stomach, and pancreaticobiliary tract must always be considered in the differential diagnosis. Lastly, transitional cell tumors of the ovary, specifically malignant Brenner tumors, are quite uncommon. High-grade serous carcinoma often has a transitional cell pattern, and adequate sampling in most cases shows more typical areas of serous carcinoma. Immunohistochemical

  5. Endometrial cancer - reduce to the minimum. A new paradigm for adjuvant treatments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheithauer, Heike R; Schulz, Diana S; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Up to now, the role of adjuvant radiation therapy and the extent of lymph node dissection for early stage endometrial cancer are controversial. In order to clarify the current position of the given adjuvant treatment options, a systematic review was performed. Both, Pubmed and ISI Web of Knowledge database were searched using the following keywords and MESH headings: 'Endometrial cancer', 'Endometrial Neoplasms', 'Endometrial Neoplasms/radiotherapy', 'External beam radiation therapy', 'Brachytherapy' and adequate combinations. Recent data from randomized trials indicate that external beam radiation therapy - particularly in combination with extended lymph node dissection - or radical lymph node dissection increases toxicity without any improvement of overall survival rates. Thus, reduced surgical aggressiveness and limitation of radiotherapy to vaginal-vault-brachytherapy only is sufficient for most cases of early stage endometrial cancer

  6. Emodin enhances the chemosensitivity of endometrial cancer by inhibiting ROS-mediated Cisplatin-resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Zhang, Hong; Su, Shan; Ding, Yumei; Yu, Xiaohui; Tang, Yujie; Wang, Qingfang; Liu, Peishu

    2017-12-18

    Background Endometrial cancer is a common cause of death in gynecological malignancies. Cisplatin is a clinically chemotherapeutic agent. However, drug-resistance is the primary cause of treatment failure. Objective Emodin is commonly used clinically to increase the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic agents, yet whether Emodin promotes the role of Cisplatin in the treatment of endometrial cancer has not been studied. Method CCK-8 kit was utilized to determine the growth of two endometrial cancer cell lines, Ishikawa and HEC-IB. The apoptosis level of Ishikawa and HEC-IB cells was detected by Annexin V / propidium iodide double-staining assay. ROS level was detected by DCFH-DA and NADPH oxidase expression. Expressions of drug-resistant genes were examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results Emodin combined with Cisplatin reduced cell growth and increased the apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells. Co-treatment of Emodin and Cisplatin increased chemosensitivity by inhibiting the expression of drug-resistant genes through reducing the ROS levels in endometrial cancer cells. In an endometrial cancer xenograft murine model, the tumor size was reduced and animal survival time was increased by co-treatment of Emodin and Cisplatin. Conclusion This study demonstrates that Emodin enhances the chemosensitivity of Cisplatin on endometrial cancer by inhibiting ROS-mediated expression of drug-resistance genes. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Using gene expression in patients with endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia to assess the risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koah Vierkoetter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with an endometrial cancer precursor lesion on biopsy may be found to have endometrial cancer at the time of subsequent surgery. The current study seeks to identify patients with endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN on biopsy that may be harboring an occult carcinoma. Immunohistochemical stains for gene loss of expression (LOE for 6 genes, PTEN, ARID1A, MSH6, MSH2, MLH1, and PMS2, were performed on 113 biopsy specimens with EIN. For the 95 patients with follow-up histology, 40 patients had cancer, 41 had EIN, and 14 had normal endometrium. PTEN LOE was found frequently in both EIN and endometrial cancer, and therefore had low positive predictive value. All specimens with ARID1A, MSH6, MSH2, MLH1, or PMS2 LOE on biopsy were subsequently found to have cancer. LOE of any gene was associated with modest sensitivity (0.78 in identifying patients with endometrial cancer who had EIN on biopsy. Further investigation is warranted to determine if gene LOE is a useful clinical tool when evaluating patients with EIN on biopsy. Keywords: Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia, Endometrial cancer, Gene expression, PTEN, ARID1A, Mismatch repair genes

  8. Median Survival Time of Endometrial Cancer Patients with Lymphovascular Invasion at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyikeen, Wan Adnan Wan Nor; Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che; Zin, Anani Aila Mat; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2016-11-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecologic malignancy among females worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the median survival time of endometrial cancer patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). A list of 121 endometrial cancer cases registered at Hospital USM between 2000 until 2011 was retrospectively reviewed. The survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare the survival of the patients based on socio-demographics and clinical presentation. Only 108 patients, 87.0%, were included who were of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included menopause in 67.6% of patients and diabetes mellitus in 39.8% of patients; additionally, 63.4% of patients were nulliparous. Tumour staging was as follows: 24.5% stage I, 10.8% stage II, 26.5% stage III and 38.2% stage IV. The overall median survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was 70.20 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.79, 88.61). The significant factors were age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion and treatment received. The overall survival of endometrial cancer was low. A prospective study needs to be carried out to discover more effective and accurate tests for the early detection of endometrial cancer.

  9. Analysis of methylation profiling data of hyperplasia and primary and metastatic endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xihai; Miao, Jilan; Jiang, Jingyan; Liu, Fangmei

    2017-10-01

    Endometrial cancer is a prevalent cancer, and its metastasis causes low survival rate. This study aims to utilize DNA methylation data to investigate the mechanism of the development and metastasis of endometrial cancer. Methylation profiling data were down-loaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including 8 hyperplasias, 33 primary and 53 metastatic endometrial cancers. COHCAP package and annotation files were utilized to identify differentially methylated genes (DMGs) and CpG islands between the three different endometrial diseases. STRING database and Cytoscape were used to analyze and visualize protein-protein interactions (PPIs) between DMGs. CytoNCA plugin was utilized to identify key nodes in PPI network. A total of 610, 1076, and 501 DMGs were identified between primary endometrial cancer and hyperplasia, metastatic endometrial cancer and hyperplasia, as well as metastatic and primary endometrial cancers, respectively. For the three DMG sets, 53 common hypermethylated DMGs (e.g. PAX6 and INSR) and 6 common hypomethylated DMGs (e.g. PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6) were found. For primary-hyperplasia DMG set and metastasis-hyperplasia DMG set, 527 common DMGs were found. For these common DMGs, a PPI network involving 692 PPIs was constructed. For DMGs between metastatic and primary endometrial cancers, a PPI network involving 673 PPIs was established, with PAX6 and INSR in the top 20 DMGs in both networks. PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6 had hypomethylated CpG islands. DMGs comparison, PPI network analysis, and analysis of differentially methylated CpG islands indicated that PAX6, INSR, PRDM8, KLHL14, and DUSP6 might participate in the development and metastasis of endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. GGC and StuI polymorphism on the androgen receptor gene in endometrial cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masahiro; Karube, Akihiro; Karube, Yuko; Watari, Michiko; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2005-01-01

    Androgens have an anti-proliferative effect on endometrial cells. Human androgen receptor (AR) gene contains two polymorphic short tandem repeats of GGC and CAG, and a single-nucleotide polymorphism on exon 1 that is recognized by the restriction enzyme, StuI. Prior studies have shown that the lengths of the CAG repeat are inversely and linearly related to AR activity and associated with endometrial cancer. However, little is known about the GGC repeat and the StuI polymorphism of the AR gene. Thus, we investigated whether these AR polymorphisms are risk factors for endometrial cancer. To test this hypothesis, the genetic distributions of these polymorphisms were investigated in blood samples from endometrial cancer patients and healthy controls. The allelic and genotyping profiles were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and direct DNA sequencing, and analyzed statistically. The GGC repeat was significantly longer in endometrial cancer patients as compared to normal healthy controls. In general, an increased risk of endometrial cancer was found with increasing GGC repeat. The relative risk for the 17 GGC repeat was greater than 4, as compared to controls. However, the StuI polymorphism was not significantly different between patients and controls. The findings suggest that increased numbers of GGC repeat on the AR gene may be a risk factor for endometrial cancer

  11. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Inhibition as a Therapeutic Approach in the Treatment of Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative strategies beyond current chemotherapy and radiation therapy regimens are needed in the treatment of advanced stage and recurrent endometrial cancers. There is considerable promise for biologic agents targeting the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway for treatment of these cancers. Many downstream substrates of the ERK signaling pathway, such as glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β, and their roles in endometrial carcinogenesis have not yet been investigated. In this study, we tested the importance of GSK3β inhibition in endometrial cancer cell lines and in vivo models. Inhibition of GSK3β by either lithium chloride (LiCl or specific GSK3β inhibitor VIII showed cytostatic and cytotoxic effects on multiple endometrial cancer cell lines, with little effect on the immortalized normal endometrial cell line. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a G2/M cell cycle arrest in both type I (AN3CA, KLE, and RL952 and type II (ARK1 endometrial cancer cell lines. In addition, LiCl pre-treatment sensitized AN3CA cells to the chemotherapy agent paclitaxel. Administration of LiCl to AN3CA tumor-bearing mice resulted in partial or complete regression of some tumors. Thus, GSK3β activity is associated with endometrial cancer tumorigenesis and its pharmacologic inhibition reduces cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  12. Quality of Life and Care Needs of Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-03

    Anxiety; Fatigue; Nausea and Vomiting; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  13. Needs and priorities of women with endometrial and cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Mette Moustgaard; Mogensen, Ole; Dehn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    modality and marital status severely impacted on coping, suggesting that irradiated and single women are at higher risk of developing rehabilitation needs. Additionally, women younger than 55 years more often requested help dealing with sexual and psychological complications. DISCUSSION: Women......INTRODUCTION: Rehabilitation after cancer is important, and efficient rehabilitation requires knowledge of patient's needs. This study aimed to identify short-term rehabilitation needs of women with endometrial and cervical cancer. METHODS: Ninety-six women (82.6%) were included in an exploratory...... questionnaire study from Odense University Hospital from September 2011 to March 2012. Needs were assessed pre-treatment and 3 months later using the three-levels-of-needs questionnaire. Furthermore, 16 women participated in focus group interviews following the treatment. The interviews were audio...

  14. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black women, but have decreased in both groups. Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer and/or certain inherited gene ... ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer: Personal history of breast cancer A woman who has had breast cancer has an increased ...

  15. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black women, but have decreased in both groups. Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer and/or certain inherited gene ... ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer: Personal history of breast cancer A woman who has had breast cancer has an increased ...

  16. Checkpoint inhibitors in endometrial cancer: preclinical rationale and clinical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittica, Gloria; Ghisoni, Eleonora; Giannone, Gaia; Aglietta, Massimo; Genta, Sofia; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2017-10-27

    Treatment of advanced and recurrent endometrial cancer (EC) is still an unmet need for oncologists and gynecologic oncologists. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA) recently provided a new genomic classification, dividing EC in four subgroups. Two types of EC, the polymerase epsilon (POLE)-ultra-mutated and the microsatellite instability-hyper-mutated (MSI-H), are characterized by a high mutation rate providing the rationale for a potential activity of checkpoint inhibitors. We analyzed all available evidence supporting the role of tumor microenvironment (TME) in EC development and the therapeutic implications offered by immune checkpoint inhibitors in this setting. We performed a review on Pubmed with Mesh keywords 'endometrial cancer' and the name of each checkpoint inhibitor discussed in the article. The same search was operated on clinicaltrial.gov to identify ongoing clinical trials exploring PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 axis in EC, particularly focusing on POLE-ultra-muted and MSI-H cancer types. POLE-ultra-mutated and MSI-H ECs showed an active TME expressing high number of neo-antigens and an elevated amount of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Preliminary results from a phase-1 clinical trial (KEYNOTE-028) demonstrated antitumor activity of Pembrolizumab in EC. Moreover, both Pembrolizumab and Nivolumab reported durable clinical responses in POLE-ultra-mutated patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are an attractive option in POLE-ultra-mutated and MSI-H ECs. Future investigations in these subgroups include combinations of checkpoints inhibitors with chemotherapy and small tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) to enhance a more robust intra-tumoral immune response.

  17. Endometrial biopsy findings in postmenopausal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfraz, T.; Tariq, H.

    2007-01-01

    To study endometrial histopathology in women presenting with postmenopausal bleeding. A two-year study from January 2003 to December 2004 of 100 cases of postmenopausal bleeding was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Sialkot. The histopathology of endometrial biopsy specimens was done to find out the causes of postmenopausal bleeding in these ladies. All these 100 patients had confirmed menopause and the average age was 55 years and above. The most common histopathological diagnosis was senile endometrial atrophy (27%), followed by simple cystic hyperplasia in (17%). Three cases of simple cystic hyperplasia had coexistent ovarian tumors. Glandular hyperplasia without atypia was seen in 6% and with atypia in 4%. Other causes were endometritis (13%), endometrial polyps (8%), proliferative phase endometrium (6%) and secretary phase endometrium (5%). Endometrial carcinoma was seen in (6%) cases, (8%) biopsy specimens were non-representative. Although senile endometrial atrophy was most commonly found in these ladies but a significant percentage of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer implies the need for investigating all cases of postmenopausal bleeding. Bimanual examination and pelvic ultrasonography should be combined with endometrial sampling so that rare pelvic pathologies may not be missed. (author)

  18. Sperm protein 17 is highly expressed in endometrial and cervical cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fang-qiu; Liu, Qun; Han, Yan-ling; Wu, Bo; Yin, Hong-lin

    2010-01-01

    Sperm protein 17 (Sp17) is a highly conserved mammalian protein in the testis and spermatozoa and has been characterized as a tumor-associated antigen in a variety of human malignancies. Many studies have examined the role of Sp17 in tumorigenesis and the migration of malignant cells. It has been proposed as a useful target for tumor-vaccine strategies and a novel marker to define tumor subsets and predict drug response. This study aimed to investigate the expression of Sp17 in endometrial and cervical cancer specimens, its possible correlation with the pathological characteristics, and its value in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of the related cancers. The monoclonal antibodies against human Sp17 were produced as reagents for the analysis and immunohistochemistry was used to study two major kinds of paraffin-embedded gynecological cancer specimens, including 50 cases of endometrial cancer (44 adenous and 6 adenosquamous) and 31 cases of cervical cancer (15 adenous and 16 squamous). Normal peripheral endometrial and cervical tissues were used as controls. Sp17 was found in 66% (33/50) of the patients with endometrial cancer and 61% (19/31) of those with cervical cancer. Its expression was found in a heterogeneous pattern in the cancer tissues. The expression was not correlated with the histological subtype and grade of malignancy, but the staining patterns were different in endometrial and cervical cancers. The hyperplastic glands were positive for Sp17 in the normal peripheral endometrial and cervical tissues in 10% (8/81) of the patients. Sp17 is highly expressed in human endometrial and cervical cancers in a heterogeneous pattern. Although the expression frequency of Sp17 is not correlated with the histological subtype, the staining pattern may help to define endometrial and cervical cancers. Sp17 targeted immunotherapy of tumors needs more accurate validation

  19. Glutathione in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy Caused by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Patients With Ovarian Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, and/or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Pain; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  20. Self-reported stress and risk of endometrial cancer: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess a possible relationship between perceived stress and first-time incidence of primary endometrial cancer. Psychological stress may affect the synthesis and metabolism of estrogens and thereby be related to risk of endometrial cancer. METHODS: The 6760 women participating...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about their stress level at baseline from 1981 to 1983. These women were prospectively followed up in the Danish nationwide cancer registry until 2000 and ...-up, 72 women were diagnosed with endometrial cancer. For each increase in stress level on a 7-point stress scale, there was a lower risk of primary endometrial cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-1.01). This inverse association was particularly strong in women who...

  1. 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Expression Is Induced by Androgen Signaling in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Hashimoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is one of the most common female pelvic cancers and has been considered an androgen-related malignancy. Several studies have demonstrated the anti-cell proliferative effect of androgen on endometrial cancer cells; however, the mechanisms of the anti-cancer effect of androgen remain largely unclear. 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2, which catalyzes the conversion of E2 to E1, is known to be upregulated by androgen treatment in breast cancer cells. In this study, we therefore focused on the role of androgen on estrogen dependence in endometrial cancer. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT was found to induce 17β-HSD2 mRNA and protein expression in HEC-1B endometrial cancer cells. DHT could also inhibit cell proliferation of HEC-1B when induced by estradiol treatment. In 19 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (EEA tissues, intratumoral DHT concentration was measured by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and was found to be significantly correlated with 17β-HSD2 immunohistochemical status. We further examined the correlations between 17β-HSD2 immunoreactivity and clinicopathological parameters in 53 EEA tissues. 17β-HSD2 status was inversely associated with the histological grade, clinical stage, and cell proliferation marker Ki-67, and positively correlated with progesterone receptor expression. 17β-HSD2 status tended to be positively associated with androgen receptor status. In 53 EEA cases, the 17β-HSD2-positive group tended to have better prognosis than that for the negative group with respect to progression-free survival and endometrial cancer-specific survival. These findings suggest that androgen suppresses the estrogen dependence of endometrial cancer through the induction of 17β-HSD2 in endometrial cancer.

  2. [Ovarian cancer. II. Procedures, histology, and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpakowski, M; Nowak, M; Malinowski, A; Romanowicz, H; Wieczorek, A; Szpakowski, A; Raczkowska, Z; Władziński, J; Wilczyński, J R; Kamiński, T; Maciołek-Blewniewska, G

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyse the operative procedures and complications in patients operated for the first time for ovarian cancer. A retrospective review of patients' charts with ovarian cancer operated at the Department of Gynaecological Surgery of Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital-Research Institute in 1990-1999 was conducted. We analysed the data of women operated for the first time for this disease. In every case we tried to perform radical operation consisted of hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy (if needed), and additionally optimal debulking in advanced cancer. Between January 1990 and December 1999, 107 patients were operated for the first time for ovarian cancer. FIGO staging was as follows: I--13.1%, II--14.95%, III--59.8%, IV--12.15%. The most frequent findings on histology were serous (39.3%), endometrioid (26.2%), undifferentiated (11.2%) and clear cell cancers (10.7%). In 60.7% of cases we performed hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, in 15.0% bilateral adnexectomy, in 4.7% of patients cytoreductive tumorectomy, and in 19.6% of cases only excisions for histology were taken. 69.0% of patients underwent also omentectomy and 42.6% appendectomy. In 58.9% of patients we performed radical operation; its incidence significantly decreased with the increase of FIGO staging: I--100%, II--87.5%, III--51.6%, IV--15.4% (p serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer. The great majority of patients was diagnosed to late and operated in III and IV stage of the disease, but in almost 60% of cases radical operation was performed.

  3. Conservative management of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexeus, S; Labastida, R; Dexeus, D

    2005-01-01

    We are currently faced with a progressive delay in the age at which women conceive for the first time. This raises the possibility of the appearance of gynecologic disorders that may affect fertility, including neoplasms of the ovary. Fertility-sparing surgery is defined as the preservation of ovarian tissue in one or both adnexa and/or the uterus. Borderline ovarian tumor should be treated with conservative surgery. Salpingo-oophorectomy, or even ovarian cystectomy, are the procedures of choice, with recurrence rates of 2-3% and up to 20% if a simple cystectomy is performed. Cystectomy is indicated in patients with bilateral borderline tumors or in patients with a residual ovary. Borderline tumors with invasive peritoneal implants behave as an invasive cancer in 10-30% of cases with a survival rate of 10-66% compared with 100% in borderline tumors without invasive implants. Prophylactic oophorectomy is recommended when desire of conception has been accomplished. Conservative surgery in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer is limited to Stage IA, grade 1 tumor, and in some highly selected grade 2 tumors of serous, mucinous or endometrioid type, well-encapsulated and free of adhesions. The standard oncological surgical procedure with preservation of the uterus and normal appearing ovary is recommended. This includes salpingo-oophorectomy, excision of any suspicious peritoneal lesion, multiple peritoneal biopsies, appendectomy (particularly in mucinous tumors), and pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy.

  4. Sampling in Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia: Which Method Results in the Lowest Underestimation of Endometrial Cancer? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Nicolas; Chauvet, Pauline; Tognazza, Enrica; Pereira, Bruno; Botchorishvili, Revaz; Canis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify the most accurate method of endometrial sampling for the diagnosis of complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH), and the related risk of underestimation of endometrial cancer. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE (January 1999-September 2013) to identify all registered articles on this subject. Studies were selected with a 2-step method. First, titles and abstracts were analyzed by 2 reviewers, and 69 relevant articles were selected for full reading. Then, the full articles were evaluated to determine whether full inclusion criteria were met. We selected 27 studies, taking into consideration the comparison between histology of endometrial hyperplasia obtained by diagnostic tests of interest (uterine curettage, hysteroscopically guided biopsy, or hysteroscopic endometrial resection) and subsequent results of hysterectomy. Analysis of the studies reviewed focused on 1106 patients with a preoperative diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia. The mean risk of finding endometrial cancer at hysterectomy after atypical endometrial hyperplasia diagnosed by uterine curettage was 32.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.2-39.9), with a risk of 45.3% (95% CI, 32.8-58.5) after hysteroscopically guided biopsy and 5.8% (95% CI, 0.8-31.7) after hysteroscopic resection. In total, the risk of underestimation of endometrial cancer reaches a very high rate in patients with CAH using the classic method of evaluation (i.e., uterine curettage or hysteroscopically guided biopsy). This rate of underdiagnosed endometrial cancer leads to the risk of inappropriate surgical procedures (31.7% of tubal conservation in the data available and no abdominal exploration in 24.6% of the cases). Hysteroscopic resection seems to reduce the risk of underdiagnosed endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Progestin and estrogen potency of combination oral contraceptives and endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, G L; Schildkraut, J M; Calingaert, B; Risinger, J I; Dainty, L; Marchbanks, P A; Berchuck, A; Barrett, J C; Rodriguez, G C

    2006-11-01

    Using data from a case-control study of endometrial cancer, we investigated the relationship between the progestin and estrogen potency in combination oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Subjects included 434 endometrial cancer cases and 2,557 controls identified from the Cancer and Steroid Hormone (CASH) study. OCs were classified into four categories according to the individual potencies of each hormonal constituent (high versus low estrogen or progestin potency). Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between endometrial cancer risk and combination OC formulations. With non-users as the referent group, use of OCs with either high potency progestin [odds ratio for endometrial cancer (OR)=0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.10 to 0.43] or with low potency progestin (OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.25 to 0.60) were both associated with a decreased risk of endometrial cancer. Overall high progestin potency OCs did not confer significantly more protection than low progestin potency OCs (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.24 to 1.14). However, among women with a body mass index of 22.1 kg/m2 or higher, those who used high progestin potency oral contraceptives had a lower risk of endometrial cancer than those who used low progestin potency oral contraceptives (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.11 to 0.92) while those with a BMI below 22.1 kg/m2 did not (OR=1.36, 95% CI=0.39 to 4.70). The potency of the progestin in most OCs appears adequate to provide a protective effect against endometrial cancer. Higher progestin-potency OCs may be more protective than lower progestin potency OCs among women with a larger body habitus.

  6. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...... in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer....

  7. Isolated port-site metastasis after laparoscopic surgery for endometrial cancer: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Palomba, Stefano; Falbo, Angela; Oppedisano, Rosamaria; Russo, Tiziana; Zullo, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    ► Isolated port-site metastasis is a rare event after laparoscopy in the surgical staging of endometrial cancer. ► More aggressive strategies in case of potentially increased risk for port-site metastasis are needed.

  8. Lumbee Native American ancestry and the incidence of aggressive histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: In this retrospective cohort analysis, Lumbee Native American ancestry was not a significant independent predictor of rates of high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer or poor survival outcomes.

  9. Vaginal vault recurrences of endometrial cancer in non-irradiated patients — Radiotherapy or surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hordur Alexander Hardarson

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: This study indicates that ST is an appropriate treatment for locally recurrent endometrial cancer. Our study involves a limited number of patients and is made retrospectively, therefore prospective and ideally randomized trials evaluating both survival and complications are warranted.

  10. Safety of total laparoscopic modified radical hysterectomy with or without lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Kitagawa

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Total laparoscopic modified radical hysterectomy is safe and feasible for the treatment of early stage endometrial cancer. This procedure can be an alternative to total laparoscopic hysterectomy, especially when the uterus must be removed completely.

  11. Spontaneous pneumothorax after intensive chemotherapy in endometrial cancer: A rare complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Ruei Chen

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Rapid shrinkage of a pulmonary space-occupying tumor sometimes causes rare but life-threatening spontaneous pneumothoraces. We report the first case of a spontaneous pneumothorax after using paclitaxel plus carboplatin in the treatment of endometrial cancer.

  12. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avendano Juan; Buitrago, Giancarlo; Ramos, Pedro; Suescun Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the experience at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy as primary treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer among patients in stages IIIC and IV. Methods: We conducted a descriptive retrospective study (case series type) of patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in stages IIIC and IV, treated at the NCI from January 1, 2003 to December 31,2006, who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy as primary treatment. Demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes are described. Results: Seventeen patients who fulfilled the above mentioned criteria were selected. Once neoadjuvant chemotherapy ended, 5 patients (29.4%) achieved complete or partial clinical response; 4 (23.8%) remained in stable condition, and 8 (47.6%) showed signs of progressive illness. Interval debulking surgery was performed on objective response patients. Maximum cytoreduction was achieved in 5 patients (100%); first relapse was reported at month 18 of follow-up; 2 disease-free survivors were identified in December, 2007; 8 (49%) reported some degree of non-severe chemotherapy-related toxicity. No mortality was related to chemotherapy, no post surgical complications were observed and no patient required advanced support management. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by optimal interval debulking surgery among selected patients, can be an alternative treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer among women with irresecability or the critically ill. Further studies with improved design are required to confirm these findings.

  13. EARLY RECURRENCE OF WELL-DIFFERENTIATED ENDOMETRIAL CANCER (A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Levchrnko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the 6-th most common malignancy in women worldwide, accounting for about 4.8 % of all female cancers. The treatment of recurrent endometrial cancer remains a major challenge. Some endometrial cancer recurrences, for example vaginal stump recurrence, are reported to be effectively treated with surgical resection and radiation therapy. Early recurrence of early-stage well-differentiated endometrial cancer is uncommon. Case report. Herein we report a rare case of recurrent well-differentiated endometrial cancer in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had recurrence 10 months after laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Recurrent endometrial tumor with extension into the rectosigmoid colon, urinary bladder and the right ureter manifested itself clinically with severe pain requiring the use of opioids. The recurrent tumor was removed. Resection of the bladder, left ureter and upper ampular rectum was followed by anastomosis. The patient received multiple cycles of chemotherapy. Conclusion. Compliance with the principles of ablastics during the laparoscopic or laparotomic surgery helps to avoid recurrence in patients with prognostically favorable cancer. In case of recurrence, combined operations are the only possible chance of improving survival of patients with locally advanced or recurrent tumors, which are insensitive to chemoradiotherapy.

  14. New trial evaluates investigational drug for endometrial and breast cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new clinical trial is testing ONC201, an investigational drug that in laboratory studies has been shown to kill breast and endometrial cancer cells most likely by destroying mitochondria within the tumor cells. Mitochondria are the “powerhouse” of the cell, and blocking its activity may kill tumor cells and shrink tumors in human patients.

  15. Does stage of cancer, comorbidity or lifestyle factors explain educational differences in survival after endometrial cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Ulla Holten; Ibfelt, Else; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    characteristics, surgery, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status. Information on highest attained education, cohabitation and comorbidity was obtained from nationwide administrative registries. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between level of education and cancer stage and Cox......Background: Several studies have documented an association between socioeconomic position and survival from gynaecological cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between level of education and survival after endometrial cancer among...... Danish women; and whether differences in stage at diagnosis and comorbidity contribute to the educational differences in survival. Methods: Women with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database, with information on clinical...

  16. Statin use and mortality among ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, Freija; Hansen, Merete Kjaer; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2017-01-01

    -cause or ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Among 4,419 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, post-diagnostic statin use was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.78–1.04) or ovarian cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76–1.08). There was little evidence...

  17. Treatment of Endometrial Cancer in Association with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asama Vanichtantikul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Uterine malignancy coexistent with pelvic organ prolapse (POP is uncommon and standardized treatment is not established. The objective of this case study was to highlight the management of endometrial cancer in association with pelvic organ prolapse. Case Report. An 87-year-old woman presented with POP Stage IV combined with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus: clinical Stage IV B. She had multiple medical conditions including stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. She was treated with radiotherapy and pessary was placed. Conclusion. Genital prolapse with abnormal uterine bleeding requires proper evaluation and management. Concurrent adenocarcinoma and POP can be a difficult clinical situation to treat, and optimum management is controversial.

  18. Intraoperative visualization, frozen section, and permanent pathology in endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Although the sample size of the studied population was small but our study results support the previous data and suggest that in early stages and low grade tumors, gross examination and frozen section diagnosis are conveniently predictive of lymph node metastasis. These data might be useful for prediction of tumor invasion using frozen section and gross examination in low grade tumors and early stages and for doing complete surgical staging and lymph node sampling. However the im-portance of surgical staging always must be considered in patients who need systemat-ic lymphadenectomy. In overall these data might help to come up with new guidelines for surgical risk assessment in endometrial cancer.

  19. Lymph Node Assessment in Endometrial Cancer: Towards Personalized Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Vidal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer (EC is the most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract and is increasing in incidence. Lymphovascular invasion and lymph node (LN status are strong predictive factors of recurrence. Therefore, the determination of the nodal status of patients is mandatory to optimally tailor adjuvant therapies and reduce local and distant recurrences. Imaging modalities do not yet allow accurate lymph node staging; thus pelvic and aortic lymphadenectomies remain standard staging procedures. The clinical data accumulated recently allow us to define low- and high-risk patients based on pre- or peroperative findings that will allow the clinician to stratify the patients for their need of lymphadenectomies. More recently, several groups have been introducing sentinel node mapping with promising results as an alternative to complete lymphadenectomy. Finally, the use of peroperative algorithm for risk determination could improve patient's staging with a reduction of lymphadenectomy-related morbidity.

  20. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative deep myometrium assessment in endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ju Wu

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: In patients with endometrial cancer, a preoperative MRI contributes to accurate staging, allowing planning for the scale of surgery and preoperative counseling. In our study, the pretreatment identification of myometrium invasion provided the opportunity for small-scale surgery in the premenopausal women with early endometrial cancer. However, for the postmenopausal patients, the standard surgical procedure is indicated even if the degree of myometrium invasion is low.

  1. Eclalbasaponin II induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jin Cho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenoids echinocystic acid and its glycosides, isolated from several Eclipta prostrata, have been reported to possess various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-diabetic activity. However, the cytotoxicity of the triterpenoids in human cancer cells and their molecular mechanism of action are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that eclalbasaponin II with one glucose moiety has potent cytotoxicity in three ovarian cancer cells and two endometrial cancer cells compared to an aglycone echinocystic acid and eclalbasaponin I with two glucose moiety. Eclalbasaponin II treatment dose-dependently increased sub G1 population. Annexin V staining revealed that eclalbasaponin II induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. In addition, eclalbasaponin II-induced cell death was associated with characteristics of autophagy; an increase in acidic vesicular organelle content and elevation of the levels of LC3-II. Interestingly, autophagy inhibitor BaF1 suppressed the eclalbasaponin II-induced apoptosis. Moreover, eclalbasaponin II activated JNK and p38 signaling and inhibited the mTOR signaling. We further demonstrated that pre-treatment with a JNK and p38 inhibitor and mTOR activator attenuated the eclalbasaponin II-induced autophagy. This suggests that eclalbasaponin II induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death through the regulation of JNK, p38, and mTOR signaling in human ovarian cancer cells.

  2. Total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy for endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilescu, C; Stănciulea, Oana; Popa, Monica; Anghel, Rodica; Herlea, V; Florescu, Arleziana

    2008-01-01

    The surgical treatment of endometrial cancer is still a matter of debate. Two of the most controversial issues are the beneficial effect of lymphadenectomy and the feasibility of laparoscopy. The aim of the case report was to describe the feasibility of total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in a 56-years-old Caucasian woman diagnosed with endometrial cancer. After a CO2 pneumoperitoneum was created the peritoneum was incised cranially to the para-colic fossa just above the external iliac vessels until the psoas muscle is visualized. The external iliac vessels were identified and lymph nodes from the anterior and the medial surface were removed until the iliac bifurcation and placed in an Endo-bag. The procedure continued with the identification of the hypo-gastric and the umbilical artery which were pulled medially in order to open the obturator fossa and remove the lymphatic tissue superior to the obturator nerve. The next step was the opening of the para-vesical and pararectal spaces by using blunt dissection; this maneuver was facilitated by pulling the uterine fundus towards the opposite direction with the uterine manipulator. The parametrium being isolated between the two spaces can be safely divided. At the superior limit of the parametrium the uterine artery is identified and divided at its origin. Thereafter, by placing the uterine fundus in median and posterior position, the vesicouterine peritoneal fold was opened by scissors and a bladder dissection from the low uterine segment down to the vagina was performed. Then the ureter is dissected, freed from its attachments to the parametria and de-crossed from the uterine artery down to its entry into the bladder. Next the rectovaginal space is opened and the utero-sacral ligaments divided; this allows the division of para-vaginal attachments. The vagina is sectioned and the specimen is extracted transvaginally. Then the vaginal stump was sutured by laparoscopy. Total laparoscopic

  3. Endometrial cancer survivors' assessment of the benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukowski, Jessica; Gil, Karen M; Jenison, Eric; Hopkins, Michael; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The majority of women who have had endometrial cancer remain at risk for obesity related diseases. The social cognitive theory was used to explore their beliefs about exercise to aid in the development of effective interventions. Women who had been treated for Stage I endometrial cancer were asked about their level of exercise to determine if they had been exercising regularly for more than 6 months (exercisers vs non-exercisers). They were asked to rate the likelihood that exercise would result in various health outcomes (expectations) and to rate the importance of these outcomes (expectancies). Scores for how likely exercise would result in an outcome of importance were calculated. Height and weight were obtained from nurses for calculation of BMI. Statistics were conducted using SPSS v 15. There were 106 valid questionnaires (86% participation rate); 41% were exercisers. Mean BMI was significantly lower in exercisers (31.6 ± 1.2 vs. 37.3 ± 1.2, p=0.001); a significantly greater proportion reported not having diabetes, heart disease or hypertension (69.8% vs. 49.2%, p=0.035). Exercisers were significantly more likely to report that feeling better physically and emotionally versus reducing the risk of diseases were likely and important outcomes of exercise (18.2 ± 0.8 vs 15.0 ± 1.0, p=0.002). Exercisers identified outcomes of exercise that are more immediate and subjective as being important and likely outcomes of exercise. Focusing on these aspects of exercise (feeling better physically and emotionally) may aid in the development of effective interventions for non-exercisers. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The impact of 27-hydroxycholesterol on endometrial cancer proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Douglas A; Collins, Frances; Cousins, Fiona L; Esnal Zufiaurre, Arantza; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2018-04-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy. Obesity is a major risk factor for EC and is associated with elevated cholesterol. 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) is a cholesterol metabolite that functions as an endogenous agonist for Liver X receptor (LXR) and a selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Exposure to oestrogenic ligands increases risk of developing EC; however, the impact of 27HC on EC is unknown. Samples of stage 1 EC ( n  = 126) were collected from postmenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy. Expression of LXRs ( NR1H3 , LXRα; NR1H2 , LXRβ) and enzymes required for the synthesis ( CYP27A1 ) or breakdown ( CYP7B1 ) of 27HC were detected in all grades of EC. Cell lines originating from well-, moderate- and poorly-differentiated ECs (Ishikawa, RL95, MFE 280 respectively) were used to assess the impact of 27HC or the LXR agonist GW3965 on proliferation or expression of a luciferase reporter gene under the control of LXR- or ER-dependent promoters (LXRE, ERE). Incubation with 27HC or GW3965 increased transcription via LXRE in Ishikawa, RL95 and MFE 280 cells ( P  MFE 280 cells, 27HC did not alter proliferation but selective targeting of LXR with GW3965 significantly reduced cell proliferation ( P  < 0.0001). These novel results suggest that 27HC can contribute to risk of EC by promoting proliferation of endometrial cancer epithelial cells and highlight LXR as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of advanced disease. © 2018 The authors.

  5. Pathways to Genome-targeted Therapies in Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Joshua; Delaney, Joe

    2017-07-01

    Genome sequencing technologies and corresponding oncology publications have generated enormous publicly available datasets for many cancer types. While this has enabled new treatments, and in some limited cases lifetime management of the disease, the treatment options for serous ovarian cancer remain dismal. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of ovarian cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity, functional genomics, and actionable data.

  6. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  7. The risk of extra-colonic, extra-endometrial cancer in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Patrice; Vasen, Hans F A; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Persons with the Lynch syndrome (LS) are at high risk for cancer, including cancers of the small bowel, stomach, upper urologic tract (renal pelvis and ureter), ovary, biliary tract and brain tumors, in addition to the more commonly observed colorectal and endometrial cancers. Cancer prevention...

  8. MR staging accuracy for endometrial cancer based on the new FIGO stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kyung Eun; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Bae, Duk Soo; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Bohyun

    2011-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been frequently used to determine a preoperative treatment plan for gynecologic cancers. However, the MR accuracy for staging an endometrial cancer is not satisfactory based on the old FIGO staging system. Purpose: To evaluate MR accuracy for staging endometrial cancer using the new FIGO staging system. Material and Methods: Between January 2005 and May 2009, 199 women underwent surgery due to endometrial cancer. In each patient, an endometrial cancer was staged using MR findings based on the old FIGO staging system and then repeated according to the new FIGO staging system for comparison. Histopathologic findings were used as a standard of reference. Results: The accuracy of MRI in the staging of endometrial carcinoma stage I, II, III, and IV using the old FIGO staging system were 80% (159/199), 89% (178/199), 90% (179/199), and 99% (198/199), respectively, compared to 87% (174/199), 97% (193/199), 90% (179/199), and 99% (198/199), respectively, when using the new FIGO staging criteria. The overall MR accuracy of the old and new staging systems were 51% (101/199) and 81% (161/199), respectively. Conclusion: MRI has become a more useful tool in the preoperative staging of endometrial cancers using the new FIGO staging system compared to the old one with increased accuracy

  9. Abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in uterine endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, K; Sakayori, M; Arai, H; Yamaoka, K; Kurihara, S; Nozawa, S

    1991-08-01

    The expression of A, B, and H group antigens, Lewis group antigens (Lewis(a), Lewis(b), Lewis(x), and Lewis(y)), and Lc4 and nLc4 antigens, the precursor antigens of both groups, was examined immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies in 9 normal endometria, 6 endometrial hyperplasias, and 31 endometrial cancers. 1) A, B and/or H antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at an incidence of 51.6%, while no distinct localization of these antigens was observed in normal endometria. H antigen, the precursor of A and B antigens, was particularly frequently detected in endometrial cancers. 2) An increased rate of expression of Lewis group antigens, particularly Lewis(b) antigen, was observed in endometrial cancers compared with its expression in normal endometria. 3) Lc4 and nLc4 antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at rates of 41.9% and 38.7%, respectively, these expressions being increased compared with those in normal endometria. 4) These results suggest that a highly abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in endometrial cancers occurs not only at the level of A, B, and H antigens and Lewis group antigens, but also at the level of their precursor Lc4 and nLc4 antigens. 5) Lewis(a), Lewis(b), and Lc4 antigens, built on the type-1 chain, are more specific to endometrial cancers than their respective positional isomers, Lewis(x), Lewis(y), and nLc4 antigens, built on the type-2 chain.

  10. Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetics of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers includes information on BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants (breast and ovarian cancer) and Lynch syndrome (endometrial cancer). Get more information about hereditary breast and gynecologic cancer syndromes in this clinician summary.

  11. Methylation Analysis of DNA Mismatch Repair Genes Using DNA Derived from the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Endometrial Cancer: Epimutation in Endometrial Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takeda

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutation of DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes is a cause of Lynch syndrome. Methylation of MutL homolog 1 (MLH1 and MutS homolog 2 (MSH2 has been detected in peripheral blood cells of patients with colorectal cancer. This methylation is referred to as epimutation. Methylation of these genes has not been studied in an unselected series of endometrial cancer cases. Therefore, we examined methylation of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 promoter regions of peripheral blood cells in 206 patients with endometrial cancer using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP. Germline mutation of MMR genes, microsatellite instability (MSI, and immunohistochemistry (IHC were also analyzed in each case with epimutation. MLH1 epimutation was detected in a single patient out of a total of 206 (0.49%—1 out of 58 (1.72% with an onset age of less than 50 years. The patient with MLH1 epimutation showed high level MSI (MSI-H, loss of MLH1 expression and had developed endometrial cancer at 46 years old, complicated with colorectal cancer. No case had epimutation of MSH2 or MSH6. The MLH1 epimutation detected in a patient with endometrial cancer may be a cause of endometrial carcinogenesis. This result indicates that it is important to check epimutation in patients with endometrial cancer without a germline mutation of MMR genes.

  12. Investigate the Role of Obesity in Ovarian Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    cells and in transformed ovarian cells affected by obesity that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Obesity, Ovarian...5 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations...that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. We also aim to identify secreted factors from adipose tissue that promote ovarian cancer

  13. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    小濵, 京子; 丸, 光惠; 前田, 留美; 久保田, 俊郎

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. Methods: A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. Results: The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had...

  14. Are preoperative histology and MRI useful for classification of endometrial cancer risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body, Noemie; Lavoué, Vincent; De Kerdaniel, Olivier; Foucher, Fabrice; Henno, Sébastien; Cauchois, Aurélie; Laviolle, Bruno; Leblanc, Marc; Levêque, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 guidelines of the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) classify patients with endometrial cancer into three risk groups for lymph node invasion and recurrence on the basis of MRI and histological analysis of an endometrial specimen obtained preoperatively. The classification guides therapeutic choices, which may include pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative assessment to help identify intermediate- or high-risk patients requiring lymphadenectomy. The study included all patients who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer between January 2010 and December 2013 at either Rennes University Hospital or Vannes Regional Hospital. The criteria for eligibility included a preoperative assessment with MRI and histological examination of an endometrial sample. A histological comparison was made between the preoperative and surgical specimens. Among the 91 patients who underwent a full preoperative assessment, the diagnosis of intermediate- or high-risk endometrial cancer was established by MRI and histology with a sensitivity of 70 %, specificity of 82 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 87 %, negative predictive value (NPV) of 61 %, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.8 and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.3. The risk group was underestimated in 32 % of patients and overestimated in 7 % of patients. MRI underestimated endometrial cancer stage in 20 % of cases, while endometrial sampling underestimated the histological type in 4 % of cases and the grade in 9 % of cases. The preoperative assessment overestimated or underestimated the risk of recurrence in nearly 40 % of cases, with errors in lesion type, grade or stage. Erroneous preoperative risk assessment leads to suboptimal initial surgical management of patients with endometrial cancer

  15. Tetrathiomolybdate sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to anticancer drugs doxorubicin, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyu Kwang; Lange, Thilo S; Singh, Rakesh K; Brard, Laurent; Moore, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Our recent study showed that tetrathiomolybdate (TM), a drug to treat copper overload disorders, can sensitize drug-resistant endometrial cancer cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating anticancer drug doxorubicin. To expand these findings in the present study we explore TM efficacy in combination with a spectrum of ROS-generating anticancer drugs including mitomycin C, fenretinide, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin in ovarian cancer cells as a model system. The effects of TM alone or in combination with doxorubicin, mitomycin C, fenretinide, or 5-fluorouracil were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect the induction of apoptosis and ROS generation. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in signaling pathways. TM potentiated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and modulated key regulators of apoptosis (PARP, caspases, JNK and p38 MAPK) in SKOV-3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cell lines. These effects were linked to the increased production of ROS, as shown in SKOV-3 cells. ROS scavenging by ascorbic acid blocked the sensitization of cells by TM. TM also sensitized SKOV-3 to mitomycin C, fenretinide, and 5-fluorouracil. The increased cytotoxicity of these drugs in combination with TM was correlated with the activity of ROS, loss of a pro-survival factor (e.g. XIAP) and the appearance of a pro-apoptotic marker (e.g. PARP cleavage). Our data show that TM increases the efficacy of various anticancer drugs in ovarian cancer cells in a ROS-dependent manner

  16. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer. Addendum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, George L

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To increase our understanding of the molecular aberrations associated with endometrial carcinogenesis and the biologic mechanisms underlying the protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy. Methods: 1...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Poole, Elizabeth M; Trabert, Britton; White, Emily; Arslan, Alan A; Patel, Alpa V; Setiawan, V Wendy; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov; Black, Amanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Buring, Julie; Butler, Lesley M; Chamosa, Saioa; Clendenen, Tess V; Dossus, Laure; Fortner, Renee; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Gram, Inger T; Hartge, Patricia; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Idahl, Annika; Jones, Michael; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kirsh, Victoria; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lacey, James V; Lee, I-Min; Lundin, Eva; Merritt, Melissa A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peters, Ulrike; Poynter, Jenny N; Rinaldi, Sabina; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Schouten, Leo J; Sjöholm, Louise K; Sieri, Sabina; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tjonneland, Anna; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; van den Brandt, Piet A; Wilkens, Lynne; Wolk, Alicja; Yang, Hannah P; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-08-20

    An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other). By using competing-risks Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by study and birth year and adjusted for age, parity, and oral contraceptive use, we assessed associations for all invasive cancers by histology. Heterogeneity was evaluated by likelihood ratio test. Most risk factors exhibited significant heterogeneity by histology. Higher parity was most strongly associated with endometrioid (relative risk [RR] per birth, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) and clear cell (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.76) carcinomas (P value for heterogeneity [P-het] < .001). Similarly, age at menopause, endometriosis, and tubal ligation were only associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumors (P-het ≤ .01). Family history of breast cancer (P-het = .008) had modest heterogeneity. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mucinous (RR per 20 pack-years, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.46) but a decreased risk of clear cell (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) tumors (P-het = .004). Unsupervised clustering by risk factors separated endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous carcinomas from high-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas. The heterogeneous associations of risk factors with ovarian cancer subtypes emphasize the importance of conducting etiologic studies by ovarian cancer subtypes. Most established risk factors were more strongly associated with nonserous carcinomas, which demonstrate challenges for risk prediction of serous cancers, the most fatal subtype. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  18. Analysis of acute and late toxicity of adjuvant radiotherapy in women with cervical and endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warenczak-Florczak, Z.; Roszak, A.; Wlodarczyk, H.; Wojciechowska-Lacka, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In case of pure prognostic factors women with cervical and endometrial cancer after surgical operation need to be treated with radiotherapy . Every radiation treatment may be involved with toxicity, acute and late. Material and methods: Performed was detailed analysis of 173 patients with cervical (38) and endometrial (135) cancer. We evaluated early and late post radiation reactions in all patients. Results: Acute reactions were found in 48.5% and late toxicity was found in 9.8% of patients. Women with endometrial cancer were significantly older then patients with cervical cancer (p < 0.002). Higher percentage of acute and late toxicity was observed from the bowel tah urinary tract (26% and 22.5% - acute; 8.1% and 1.73% - late). Higher percentage of acute side effects was observed in patients with cervical than with endometrial cancer (60.5% and 33.7%). Late post radiation reaction predominate also in patient with cervical cancer (13.2% and 8.9%). The adverse effects were associated with prolonged time of treatment due to breaks in radiotherapy. Higher percentage of breaks was found in older patients, more frequent in patient with endometrial than in cervical cancer group (7.4% and 2.6%).To conclude early postradiation reaction appeared more frequently, than late post radiation reactions. It was stated that early and late post radiation reaction appear more frequently in women with cervical than in endometrial cancer. Interruption in radiation delivery was longer than seven days in group with endometrial cancer that leads to extension of complete radiation treatment. (authors)

  19. ER and PR expression and survival after endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah; Stewart, Colin J R; Clarke, Edward M; Lose, Felicity; Davies, Claire; Armes, Jane; Obermair, Andreas; Brennan, Donal; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2018-02-01

    To measure association between endometrial carcinoma ER and PR status and endometrial cancer (EC) survival, accounting for inter-observer variation. The intensity and proportion of tumor cell expression of ER and PR in ECs were assessed independently and semi-quantitatively by two pathologists using digital images of duplicate tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs). Cases with inconsistent initial assessment were reviewed and final scoring agreed. The association between overall and EC-specific survival and hormone receptor expression (intensity, proportion and combined) was assessed using Cox regression analysis. The C-index was used to evaluate model discrimination with addition of ER and PR status. Tumor ER and PR analysis was possible in 659 TMAs from 255 patients, and in 459 TMAs from 243 patients, respectively. Initial ER and PR scoring was consistent in 82% and 80% of cases, respectively. In multivariate analyses decreased ER and PR expression was associated with increased tumor-related mortality. Associations reached statistical significance for ER proportion score (P=0.05), ER intensity score (P=0.003), and PR combined score (P=0.04). Decreased expression of combined ER/PR expression was associated with poorer EC-specific survival than decreased expression of either hormone receptor alone (P=0.005). However, hormone receptor status did not significantly improve mortality prediction in individual cases. ER and PR expression combined, using cut-points that capture variation in scoring and across cores, is significantly associated with EC-specific survival in analyses adjusting for known prognostic factors. However, at the individual level, ER and PR expression does not improve mortality prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical importance of serum HE4 and MMP2 levels in endometrial cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cymbaluk-Ploska A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska,1 Anita Chudecka-Głaz,1 Ewa Pius-Sadowska,2 Agnieszka Sompolska-Rzechuła,3 Bogusław Machaliński,2 Anna Surowiec,1 Janusz Menkiszak1 1Department of Gynecological Surgery and Gynecological Oncology of Adults and Adolescents, 2Department of General Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University, 3Department of Statistics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Introduction: Endometrial cancer is the one of the most common cancers of the genital organ. HE4 and MMP2 are both proteins whose serum levels increase in endometrial cancer.Aim: To explore the diagnostic potential of the serum levels of HE4 and MMP2 in patients with endometrial cancer and benign endometrial diseases. To assess the relationship between the serum levels of HE4 and MMP2 and the typical prognostic factors in patients with endometrial cancer.Materials and methods: Included in the study was a group of 112 patients presenting with bleeding abnormalities at the Pomeranian Medical University in years 2012–2016. Serum HE4 concentrations were measured using the Elecsys Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA. MMP2 concentrations were quantified in the serum using multiplex immunoassays.Results: We observed statistically significant differences in mean serum levels of HE4 and MMP2 between the group of endometrial cancer patients and the group of patients with no changes in the endometrium (P=0.002/0.003. The diagnostic potential of HE4 and MMP2 in differentiation of high (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics [FIGO] III and IV vs low (FIGO I and II clinical stage of tumor and prediction of cellular differentiation grade (G1 vs G3 on the basis of the analysis of the area under the curve is, respectively, 0.86 and 0.82 for HE4 and 0.82 and 0.74 for MMP2. The HE4 marker was significantly more specific than MMP2 in every study group and amounted to 93% vs 86% in all patients included in the analysis, 94% vs 84% in pre

  1. The effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, M.; Siraj, A.

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of metformin therapy in patients with polycystico varian syndrome having irregular heavy menstrualcycle and thickened endometrium (hyperplasia) on transvaginal ultrasound. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Military Hospital Rawalpindi, department of gynae /obsunit-I from January 2009 -June 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients in the age group of 40-47 years who reported to gynae OPD with irregular heavy menstrual cycles with or without clinical features of hyperandrogenism were selected and informed consent was taken. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) was performed on them by the same operator and those who had polycystic ovaries (enlarged ovaries with > 8-9 follicles peripherally enlarged) and endometrial thickness > 12 mm in the follicular phase of the cycle were selected. Total 100 patients were included in the study, but 10 patients were dropped out. Metforminwas started after explaining the purpose of the study initially in low dose (500-1000mg/day) and was adjusted to 1500 mg/day over next 4-6 weeks. Patients with abnormal liver or renal functions and those already taking hormonal therapy or on tamoxifen were excluded from the study. The endometrial thickness was assessed on monthly follow up visits and final findings were recorded and presented at the end of one year. Results: Of 90 patients, mean age of patients was 43.25 years (SD =1.91), mean pretreatment endo metrial thickness was 20.25Mm (SD=4.85) mean and post treatment endometrial thickness was 16.38 mm (SD=4.72). There was a significant reduction in endometrial thickness after treatment with metformin. Conclusion: Metformin therapy (1500 mg/day) significantly reduces endometrial thickness (hyperplasia) in patients with PCOS. (author)

  2. Genome-wide DNA methylation sequencing reveals miR-663a is a novel epimutation candidate in CIMP-high endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yanokura, Megumi; Banno, Kouji; Adachi, Masataka; Aoki, Daisuke; Abe, Kuniya

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is widely observed in many cancers. Concurrent DNA methylation of multiple genes occurs in endometrial cancer and is referred to as the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). However, the features and causes of CIMP-positive endometrial cancer are not well understood. To investigate DNA methylation features characteristic to CIMP-positive endometrial cancer, we first classified samples from 25 patients with endometrial cancer based on the methylation status of three ...

  3. Comparison of Expression Profiles in Ovarian Epithelium In Vivo and Ovarian Cancer Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Catherine; Gava, Natalie; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Wain, Gerard; Brand, Alison; Hogg, Russell; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Birrer, Michael J.; Clarke, Christine L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bowtell, David D. L.; Harnett, Paul R.; deFazio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Molecular events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood but ovulatory hormones and a high number of life-time ovulations with concomitant proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, increases risk. We identified genes that are regulated during the estrous cycle in murine ovarian surface epithelium and analysed these profiles to identify genes dysregulated in human ovarian cancer, using publically available datasets. We identified 338 genes that are regulated in murine ovarian surface epithelium during the estrous cycle and dysregulated in ovarian cancer. Six of seven candidates selected for immunohistochemical validation were expressed in serous ovarian cancer, inclusion cysts, ovarian surface epithelium and in fallopian tube epithelium. Most were overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared with ovarian surface epithelium and/or inclusion cysts (EpCAM, EZH2, BIRC5) although BIRC5 and EZH2 were expressed as highly in fallopian tube epithelium as in ovarian cancer. We prioritised the 338 genes for those likely to be important for ovarian cancer development by in silico analyses of copy number aberration and mutation using publically available datasets and identified genes with established roles in ovarian cancer as well as novel genes for which we have evidence for involvement in ovarian cancer. Chromosome segregation emerged as an important process in which genes from our list of 338 were over-represented including two (BUB1, NCAPD2) for which there is evidence of amplification and mutation. NUAK2, upregulated in ovarian surface epithelium in proestrus and predicted to have a driver mutation in ovarian cancer, was examined in a larger cohort of serous ovarian cancer where patients with lower NUAK2 expression had shorter overall survival. In conclusion, defining genes that are activated in normal epithelium in the course of ovulation that are also dysregulated in cancer has identified a number of pathways and novel candidate genes that may contribute

  4. Development of A Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology.A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1-5% (it is not a null mutation. Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer.Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention.

  5. [Early detection of ovarian cancer: tomorrow? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Robin, N; Cayre, A; Provencher, D M; Dauplat, J

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynaecological malignancies because this «silent killer» is almost always diagnosed at an advanced stage. Precursor lesions have at least been discovered. This review will describe in details specific features of tubal and ovarian preinvasive lesions and the old and novel techniques that could be used for early detection of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Valid and complete data on endometrial cancer in the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Caroline S; Hansen, Estrid S; Høgdall, Claus K

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It is a comparative register study designed for data validation of surgery, pathology and recurrence for endometrial cancer in the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database (DGCD) in the 2005-2009 period. The main outcomes were completeness of the data registered in the DGCD, agreement...... concerning data reported and comparability between the DGCD and a definite reference. MATERIAL AND METHODS: DGCD data on women with endometrial cancer or adenomatous hyperplasia supplemented with patient charts for data on recurrence were retrieved and compared with a definite reference (the pathology report...... and clinical journals). RESULTS: The completeness of data on pathology and surgery reported to the DGCD was 97.3%. The comparability between the DGCG and the definite reference was 94.4%. The agreement for the reported data in the DGCD was 88.3%. For recurrence, the comparability was 94.5% and the agreement...

  7. Anthropometric characteristics and ovarian cancer risk and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mayor, Paul C; Etter, John L; Cannioto, Rikki A; Ness, Roberta B; Starbuck, Kristen; Edwards, Robert P; Segal, Brahm H; Lele, Sashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Diergaarde, Brenda; Modugno, Francesmary

    2018-02-01

    Multiple studies have examined the role of anthropometric characteristics in ovarian cancer risk and survival; however, their results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between weight change, height and height change and risk and outcome of ovarian cancer using data from a large population-based case-control study. Data from 699 ovarian cancer cases and 1,802 controls who participated in the HOPE study were included. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, race, number of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer to examine the associations between self-reported height and weight and height change with ovarian cancer risk. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age and stage were used to examine the association between the exposure variables and overall and progression-free survival among ovarian cancer cases. We observed an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality and progression for gaining more than 20 pounds between ages 18-30, HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.05-1.76, and HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.04-1.66, respectively. Losing weight and gaining it back multiple times was inversely associated with both ovarian cancer risk, OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63-0.97 for 1-4 times and OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.99 for 5-9 times, and mortality, HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.99 for 10-14 times. Finally, being taller during adolescence and adulthood was associated with increased risk of mortality. Taller stature and weight gain over lifetime were not related to ovarian cancer risk. Our results suggest that height and weight and their change over time may influence ovarian cancer risk and survival. These findings suggest that biological mechanisms underlying these associations may be hormone driven and may play an important role in relation to ovarian carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

  8. Prognostic and Clinical Significance of miRNA-205 in Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosz Wilczynski

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the reproductive female tract, with endometrioid endometrial cancer being the most frequent type. Despite the relatively favourable prognosis in cases of endometrial cancer, there is a necessity to evaluate clinical and prognostic utility of new molecular markers. MiRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that take part in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Altered expression of miRNAs may be associated with cancer initiation, progression and metastatic capabilities. MiRNA-205 seems to be one of the key regulators of gene expression in endometrial cancer. In this study, we investigated clinical and prognostic role of miRNA-205 in endometrioid endometrial cancer. After total RNA extraction from 100 archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to define miRNA-205 expression levels. The aim of the study was to evaluate miRNA-205 expression levels in regard to patients' clinical and histopathological features, such as: survival rate, recurrence rate, staging, myometrial invasion, grading and lymph nodes involvement. Higher levels of miRNA-205 expression were observed in tumours with less than half of myometrial invasion and non-advanced cancers. Kaplan-Maier analysis revealed that higher levels of miRNA-205 were associated with better overall survival (p = 0,034. These results indicate potential clinical utility of miRNA-205 as a prognostic marker.

  9. Levonorgestrel intrauterine system for endometrial protection in women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sally; Hickey, Martha; Chin, Jason; Su, H Irene

    2015-12-09

    Adjuvant tamoxifen reduces the risk of breast cancer recurrence in women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Tamoxifen also increases the risk of postmenopausal bleeding, endometrial polyps, hyperplasia, and endometrial cancer. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) causes profound endometrial suppression. This systematic review considered the evidence that the LNG-IUS prevents the development of endometrial pathology in women taking tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer. To determine the effectiveness and safety of levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in pre- and postmenopausal women taking adjuvant tamoxifen following breast cancer for the outcomes of endometrial and uterine pathology including abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting, and secondary breast cancer events. We searched the following databases: Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register (MDSG), Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register (CBCG), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), The Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, The World Health Organisation International Trials Registry, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PsycINFO, Web of Science, OpenGrey, LILACS, PubMed, and Google. The final search was performed in October 2015. Randomised controlled trials of women with breast cancer on adjuvant tamoxifen that compared endometrial surveillance alone (control condition) versus the LNG-IUS with endometrial surveillance (experimental condition) on the incidence of endometrial pathology. Study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed independently by two review authors. The primary outcome measure was endometrial pathology (including polyps, endometrial hyperplasia, or endometrial cancer) diagnosed at hysteroscopy or

  10. Diagnostic efficacy of the preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, Ga-67 scintigraphy and computed tomography for detection of lymph node metastasis in cases with ovarian or endometrial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozalp, S.; Yalcin, O.T.; Polay, S. [Osmangazi Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eskisehir (Turkey); Aslan, N.; Vardareli, E. [Osmangazi Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Eskisehir (Turkey); Adapinar, B. [Osmangazi Univ. School of Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    1999-02-01

    Background: To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy (LS), Ga-67 scintigraphy (GS) and computed tomography (CT) for detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with endometrial or ovarian carcinoma. Methods: The results of preoperative LS, GS and CT used to detect lymph node metastasis were compared to the postoperative histopathological results of lymph node dissection materials of a total of 37 patients, including 16 patients with endometrial and 21 patients with ovarian carcinomas. The diagnostic efficacy of these methods for detecting lymph node metastasis were calculated. Results: When the results of all of the patients were taken into account, the preoperative LS, GS and CT were found to have sensitivities of 50%, 20% and 40% and specificities of 51.8%, 96.3%, and 92.6%, respectively, for detection of pelvic lymph node metastasis. The same methods had sensitivities of 27.3%, 27.3% and 72.7% and specificities of 88.5%, 88.5%, 84.6%, respectively, for detecting para-aortic lymph node metastasis in all patients. Conclusion: These data suggested that although LS, GS and CT had relatively high specificity, low sensitivity of these imaging methods precluded their routine preoperative use for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of ovarian or endometrial carcinoma. (au) 22 refs.

  11. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes....

  12. Association between Breastfeeding and Endometrial Cancer Risk: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianlian Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the association between breastfeeding and risk of endometrial cancer is still conflicting. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge through April 2015. A random effect model was used to combine the data for analysis. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Dose-response relationships were assessed by restricted cubic spline and variance-weighted least squares regression analysis. Fourteen articles involving 5158 endometrial cancer cases and 706,946 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that breastfeeding significantly reduced the risk of endometrial cancer (summary relative risk (RR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62–0.96, I2: 63.0%, especially in North America (summary RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79–0.95. A linear dose-response relationship was found, with the risk of endometrial cancer decreased by 2% for every one-month increase in the duration of breastfeeding (summary RR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97–0.99. Our analysis suggested that breastfeeding, particularly a longer duration of breastfeeding, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer, especially in North America, but not in Europe and Asia, probably due to the small number of cases included. Due to this limitation, further studies originating in other countries are required to assess the association between breastfeeding and endometrial cancer risk.

  13. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian...... tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1995 through 1999, we....... RESULTS: Both coffee (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97 per cup/day) and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98 per 100 mg/day) decreased the risk of ovarian cancer. These associations were significant only for the serous and "other" subtypes of ovarian cancer...

  14. Acute onset of ovarian dysfunction in young females after start of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörse, Helena; Elfving, Maria; Lindgren, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Female childhood cancer survivors are at risk of ovarian failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. We hereby present an interim analysis of a prospective observational study of ovarian function during cancer treatment of young females in relation to clinical factors.......Female childhood cancer survivors are at risk of ovarian failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. We hereby present an interim analysis of a prospective observational study of ovarian function during cancer treatment of young females in relation to clinical factors....

  15. Prospective endometrial assessment of breast cancer patients treated with third generation aromatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garuti, Giancarlo; Cellani, Fulvia; Centinaio, Giovanna; Montanari, Giuseppe; Nalli, Giulio; Luerti, Massimo

    2006-11-01

    A prospective evaluation of the effects on endometrium of third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), administered as adjuvant up-front therapy or switched therapy in menopausal patients suffering from breast cancer. Forty-five patients suffering from estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer were treated with AIs as adjuvant endocrine therapy; 27 patients switched from tamoxifen to AIs (group 1) due to adverse medical events related to tamoxifen intake (22 patients) or to an extended endocrine treatment after 60 months of tamoxifen therapy (5 patients); whereas 18 patients received AIs as up-front adjuvant therapy (group 2). All patients underwent endometrial investigation before the start of AIs therapy and, thereafter, at 12 month intervals. Endometrial assessment was based on Transvaginal Ultrasonography (TU), followed by hysteroscopy and endometrial biopsy when a double layered endometrial stripe above 4 mm was measured on the longitudinal plane of uterine scanning. Six patients, showing endometrial hyperplasia before the start of AIs therapy, underwent hysteroscopy on a yearly basis, disregarding the endometrial thickness measured by TU. Histopathologic results on endometrial biopsies represented the reference test in order to estimate the prevalence of endometrial morbidity. Demographic and clinical variables evaluated (age, parity, age at menarche and menopause, Body Mass Index, previous chemotherapy and radiotherapy) did not differ in groups 1 and 2. The average period of endometrial surveillance after the start of AIs therapy was 24.8 +/-10.8 months for group 1 and 21.4 +/- 11.5 months for group 2. A progressive decrease of endometrial thickness, from 8.2 +/- 5.0 to 3.0 +/- 1.2 in group 1 and from 4.7 +/- 4.3 to 1.9 +/- 0.3 in group 2, was found before the start and after 36-48 months of AIs therapy. The second line endometrial investigations' rate dropped from 70.3% to 12.5% in group 1 and from 27.7% to 0.0% in group 2, at baseline and after 36-48 months

  16. SUVmax of 18FDG PET/CT as a predictor of high-risk endometrial cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie Leisby; Loft, Annika; Fisker, Rune Vincents

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate SUVmax in the assessment of endometrial cancer preoperatively with particular focus on myometrial invasion (MI), cervical invasion (CI), FIGO stage, risk-stratification and lymph node metastases (LNM). METHODS: A total of 268 women with endometrial cancer or atypical...... endometrial hyperplasia underwent FDG PET/CT imaging before surgical treatment. SUVmax of the primary tumour was compared with histological prognostic factors. RESULTS: SUVmax was significantly higher in patients with high FIGO stages (p...

  17. Maternal obesogenic diet induces endometrial hyperplasia, an early hallmark of endometrial cancer, in a diethylstilbestrol mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuor, Theresa O; Reid, Michaela; Reschke, Lauren; Hagemann, Ian; Greco, Suellen; Modi, Zeel; Moley, Kelle H

    2018-01-01

    Thirty-eight percent of US adult women are obese, meaning that more children are now born of overweight and obese mothers, leading to an increase in predisposition to several adult onset diseases. To explore this phenomenon, we developed a maternal obesity animal model by feeding mice a diet composed of high fat/ high sugar (HF/HS) and assessed both maternal diet and offspring diet on the development of endometrial cancer (ECa). We show that maternal diet by itself did not lead to ECa initiation in wildtype offspring of the C57Bl/6J mouse strain. While offspring fed a HF/HS post-weaning diet resulted in poor metabolic health and decreased uterine weight (regardless of maternal diet), it did not lead to ECa. We also investigated the effects of the maternal obesogenic diet on ECa development in a Diethylstilbestrol (DES) carcinogenesis mouse model. All mice injected with DES had reproductive tract lesions including decreased number of glands, condensed and hyalinized endometrial stroma, and fibrosis and increased collagen deposition that in some mice extended into the myometrium resulting in extensive disruption and loss of the inner and outer muscular layers. Fifty percent of DES mice that were exposed to maternal HF/HS diet developed several features indicative of the initial stages of carcinogenesis including focal glandular and atypical endometrial hyperplasia versus 0% of their Chow counterparts. There was an increase in phospho-Akt expression in DES mice exposed to maternal HF/HS diet, a regulator of persistent proliferation in the endometrium, and no difference in total Akt, phospho-PTEN and total PTEN expression. In summary, maternal HF/HS diet exposure induces endometrial hyperplasia and other precancerous phenotypes in mice treated with DES. This study suggests that maternal obesity alone is not sufficient for the development of ECa, but has an additive effect in the presence of a secondary insult such as DES.

  18. Combining Drugs to Treat Ovarian Cancer - Annual Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 70 percent of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer will die from the disease. Read about the NCI-funded combination drug trial that has successfully treated Betsy Brauser's recurrent cancer.

  19. Stathmin protein level, a potential predictive marker for taxane treatment response in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrica M J Werner

    Full Text Available Stathmin is a prognostic marker in many cancers, including endometrial cancer. Preclinical studies, predominantly in breast cancer, have suggested that stathmin may additionally be a predictive marker for response to paclitaxel. We first evaluated the response to paclitaxel in endometrial cancer cell lines before and after stathmin knock-down. Subsequently we investigated the clinical response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy in metastatic endometrial cancer in relation to stathmin protein level in tumors. Stathmin level was also determined in metastatic lesions, analyzing changes in biomarker status on disease progression. Knock-down of stathmin improved sensitivity to paclitaxel in endometrial carcinoma cell lines with both naturally higher and lower sensitivity to paclitaxel. In clinical samples, high stathmin level was demonstrated to be associated with poor response to paclitaxel containing chemotherapy and to reduced disease specific survival only in patients treated with such combination. Stathmin level increased significantly from primary to metastatic lesions. This study suggests, supported by both preclinical and clinical data, that stathmin could be a predictive biomarker for response to paclitaxel treatment in endometrial cancer. Re-assessment of stathmin level in metastatic lesions prior to treatment start may be relevant. Also, validation in a randomized clinical trial will be important.

  20. Risk-reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Women at Higher Risk of Ovarian and Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Prospective Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Enzo; Tomao, Federica; Aletti, Giovanni; Bazzurini, Luca; Bocciolone, Luca; Boveri, Sara; Landoni, Fabio; Lapresa, Maria Teresa; Maruccio, Matteo; Parma, Gabriella; Peccatori, Fedro; Petrella, Maria Cristina; Zanagnolo, Vanna; Colombo, Nicoletta; Maggioni, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    Occult cancers' reported rates vary from 2-12% and serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs) have been identified in 3-12% of the prophylactically removed tubes of women carrying a BRCA mutation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of tubal minor epithelial atypia (STIL), STIC, and occult invasive cancer and to evaluate the cancer-specific mortality in a prospective series of women at higher risk of ovarian and breast cancer undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) n a tertiary cancer center. A series of RRSO specimens (including endometrial biopsy) from women carrying a BRCA mutation, BRCA-unknown and BRCA-negative were collected between January 1998 and April 2016 at the Division of Gynecology at the European Institute of Oncology. Inclusion criteria were: asymptomatic women who had a negative gynecologic screening within 3 months prior to RRSO. Exclusion criteria were: women with ovarian/tubal cancer prior to RRSO. A total of 411 women underwent RRSO. Median age at RRSO was 47.0 years (range=32-70 years); 75.2% had a history of breast cancer. Fifteen women were diagnosed with an occult cancer (7 STIC, 4 invasive cancers, 2 breast cancers metastatic to the adnexa, 2 endometrial cancer) (3.6%). Sixteen showed a STIL (3.9%). When excluding cases with preoperative positive markers, the occult invasive cancer rate drops to 1.5%. Our study, covering an 18-year period, shows a substantial low risk of occult cancer among a high-risk population of women undergoing RRSO. Our data still support the indication for RRSO in higher-risk patients. An endometrial biopsy should also be routinely obtained as it raises the chances of detecting occult endometrial cancers that may be otherwise missed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  2. Paternal lineage early onset hereditary ovarian cancers: A Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H Eng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Given prior evidence that an affected woman conveys a higher risk of ovarian cancer to her sister than to her mother, we hypothesized that there exists an X-linked variant evidenced by transmission to a woman from her paternal grandmother via her father. We ascertained 3,499 grandmother/granddaughter pairs from the Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute observing 892 informative pairs with 157 affected granddaughters. We performed germline X-chromosome exome sequencing on 186 women with ovarian cancer from the registry. The rate of cancers was 28.4% in paternal grandmother/granddaughter pairs and 13.9% in maternal pairs consistent with an X-linked dominant model (Chi-square test X2 = 0.02, p = 0.89 and inconsistent with an autosomal dominant model (X2 = 20.4, p<0.001. Paternal grandmother cases had an earlier age-of-onset versus maternal cases (hazard ratio HR = 1.59, 95%CI: 1.12-2.25 independent of BRCA1/2 status. Reinforcing the X-linked hypothesis, we observed an association between prostate cancer in men and ovarian cancer in his mother and daughters (odds ratio, OR = 2.34, p = 0.034. Unaffected mothers with affected daughters produced significantly more daughters than sons (ratio = 1.96, p<0.005. We performed exome sequencing in reported BRCA negative cases from the registry. Considering age-of-onset, one missense variant (rs176026 in MAGEC3 reached chromosome-wide significance (Hazard ratio HR = 2.85, 95%CI: 1.75-4.65 advancing the age of onset by 6.7 years. In addition to the well-known contribution of BRCA, we demonstrate that a genetic locus on the X-chromosome contributes to ovarian cancer risk. An X-linked pattern of inheritance has implications for genetic risk stratification. Women with an affected paternal grandmother and sisters of affected women are at increased risk for ovarian cancer. Further work is required to validate this variant and to characterize carrier families.

  3. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers ...

  4. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K. E. P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M.; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Issacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Iganacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Donaldson, Alan; James, Margaret; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark T.; McCann, Emma; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Izatt, Louise; Langman, Caroline; Whaite, Anna; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Serra-Feliu, Gemma; Ellis, Ian; Houghton, Catherine; Taylor, Jane; Side, Lucy; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Eason, Jacqueline; Collier, Rebecca; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Sinilnikova, Olga; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Buecher, Bruno; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrede, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Urhammer, Nancy; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révilliion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Megalie; Coron, Fanny; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Verheus, M.; van't Veer, L. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Collée, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Jager, A.; Hooning, M. J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M. M. A.; Seynaeve, C.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Vreeswijk, M. P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ausems, M. G.; van der Luijt, R. B.; van Os, T. A.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gomez-Garcia, E. B.; van Roozendaal, C. E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Caanen, B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; Vasen, H. F.; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Gill, Mona; Collins, Lucine; Gokgoz, Nalan; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Karlsson, Per; Nordlilng, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke; Loman, Niklas; Soller, Maria; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Rosenquist, Richard; Dahl, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of

  5. Clinical Use of Cancer Biomarkers in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söletormos, Georg; Duffy, Michael J; Othman Abu Hassan, Suher

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present an update of the European Group on Tumor Markers guidelines for serum markers in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Systematic literature survey from 2008 to 2013. The articles were evaluated by level of evidence and strength of recommendation. RESULTS: Because of its low s...

  6. Differential Cytotoxic Potential of Silver Nanoparticles in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells and Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jung Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis postulates that cancer cells are composed of hierarchically-organized subpopulations of cells with distinct phenotypes and tumorigenic capacities. As a result, CSCs have been suggested as a source of disease recurrence. Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial, disinfectant, and antitumor agents. However, there is no study reporting the effects of AgNPs on ovarian cancer stem cells (OvCSCs. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of AgNPs and their mechanism of causing cell death in A2780 (human ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs derived from A2780. In order to examine these effects, OvCSCs were isolated and characterized using positive CSC markers including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and CD133 by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS. The anticancer properties of the AgNPs were evaluated by assessing cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential (mt-MP. The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on the growth of ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Following 1–2 weeks of incubation with the AgNPs, the numbers of A2780 (bulk cells and ALDH+/CD133+ colonies were significantly reduced. The expression of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes was measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Our observations showed that treatment with AgNPs resulted in severe cytotoxicity in both ovarian cancer cells and OvCSCs. In particular, AgNPs showed significant cytotoxic potential in ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulations of cells compared with other subpopulation of cells and also human ovarian cancer cells (bulk cells. These findings suggest that AgNPs can be utilized in the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of ovarian cancers by specific targeting of the ALDH+/CD133+ subpopulation of cells.

  7. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Nanna; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined the association between use of low-dose aspirin and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and endometrial cancer risk in a nationwide case-control study. METHODS: Cases were all women in Denmark diagnosed with endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. Age...... with use of low-dose aspirin (OR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.89-1.05) or non-aspirin NSAIDs (OR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.91-1.02) compared with nonuse. The ORs did not vary with increasing duration or intensity of NSAID use or with type of endometrial cancer. Interaction analyses showed reduced endometrial cancer risk...... associated with low-dose aspirin use among nulliparous women (OR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.70-0.95) and with non-aspirin NSAID use among women having used HRT (OR 0.90, 95 % CI 0.82-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no association between use of NSAIDs and endometrial cancer risk overall, although there were some...

  8. CYP19A1 fine-mapping and Mendelian randomization: estradiol is causal for endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deborah J; O'Mara, Tracy A; Glubb, Dylan M; Painter, Jodie N; Cheng, Timothy; Folkerd, Elizabeth; Doody, Deborah; Dennis, Joe; Webb, Penelope M; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Maranian, Mel J; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo; Zhao, Hui; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Amant, Frederic; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Dowdy, Sean C; Winham, Stacey J; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Werner, Henrica M J; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Tham, Emma; Liu, Tao; Mints, Miriam; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Nyholt, Dale R; Henders, Anjali K; Hopper, John L; Traficante, Nadia; Ruebner, Matthias; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Giles, Graham G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Bojesen, Stig E; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Tomlinson, Ian; Dowsett, Mitch; Easton, Douglas F; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2016-01-01

    Candidate gene studies have reported CYP19A1 variants to be associated with endometrial cancer and with estradiol (E2) concentrations. We analyzed 2937 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6608 endometrial cancer cases and 37 925 controls and report the first genome wide-significant association between endometrial cancer and a CYP19A1 SNP (rs727479 in intron 2, P=4.8×10−11). SNP rs727479 was also among those most strongly associated with circulating E2 concentrations in 2767 post-menopausal controls (P=7.4×10−8). The observed endometrial cancer odds ratio per rs727479 A-allele (1.15, CI=1.11–1.21) is compatible with that predicted by the observed effect on E2 concentrations (1.09, CI=1.03–1.21), consistent with the hypothesis that endometrial cancer risk is driven by E2. From 28 candidate-causal SNPs, 12 co-located with three putative gene-regulatory elements and their risk alleles associated with higher CYP19A1 expression in bioinformatical analyses. For both phenotypes, the associations with rs727479 were stronger among women with a higher BMI (Pinteraction=0.034 and 0.066 respectively), suggesting a biologically plausible gene-environment interaction. PMID:26574572

  9. A prospective investigation of fish, meat and cooking-related carcinogens with endometrial cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, H; Gunter, M J; Cross, A J; Hollenbeck, A R; Sinha, R

    2013-08-06

    There are limited prospective studies of fish and meat intakes with risk of endometrial cancer and findings are inconsistent. We studied associations between fish and meat intakes and endometrial cancer incidence in the large, prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Intakes of meat mutagens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also calculated. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed no associations with endometrial cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest intake quintiles of red (HR=0.91, 95% CI 0.77-1.08), white (0.98, 0.83-1.17), processed meats (1.02, 0.86-1.21) and fish (1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.29). We also found no associations between meat mutagen intakes and endometrial cancer. Our findings do not support an association between meat or fish intakes or meat mutagens and endometrial cancer.

  10. Adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy as a part of management in early endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellas-Ślęczka, Sylwia; Wojcieszek, Piotr; Białas, Brygida

    2012-12-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most frequent cancer of female genital tract. Metro- and menorrhagia or postmenopausal bleeding results in its early presentation. It allows radical treatment. However, controversies remain on surgery coverage or adjuvant therapies in early endometrial women cancer. Optimal management should minimize intervention instead of aggressive approach, as showed by recent studies. There is a role for brachytherapy as an adjuvant irradiation. Crucial publications including PORTEC-1, GOG 99, MRC ASTEC, ASTEC/EN.5, PORTEC-2 or Italian lymphadenectomy trial are discussed. Moreover, there is attention paid on adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy analyses for the past fifteen years.

  11. Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Yenice, Engin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Mizrak, Cengizhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Sahin, Nurhan; Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Bilir, Birdal; Ozpolat, Bulent; Kucuk, Omer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene's molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans. In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected. We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence ( P Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes ( P lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds ( P lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues. Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  12. The Retrograde and Retroperitoneal Totally Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Volpi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We retrospectively report our experience with the utilization of an original procedure for total laparoscopic hysterectomy based on completely retrograde and retroperitoneal technique for surgical staging and treatment of the endometrial cancer. The surgical, financial, and oncological advantages are here discussed. Methods. The technique used here has been based on a combination of a retroperitoneal approach with a retrograde and lateral dissection of the bladder and retrograde culdotomy with variable resection of parametrium. No disposable instruments and no uterine manipulator were utilized. Results. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed in 10% of the cases overall. Operative time length and mean haemoglobin drop value results were 129 min and 125 mL, respectively. Most patients were dismissed on days 3–5 from the hospital. Seventy-eight percent of the patients were alive with no evidence of disease at mean followup of 49 months. Conclusions. Our original laparoscopic technique is based on a retroperitoneal approach in order to rapidly control main uterine vessels coagulation, constantly check the ureter, and eventually decide type and site of lymph nodes removal. This procedure has important cost saving implications and the avoidance of uterine manipulator is of matter in case such as these of uterine malignancy.

  13. Polycystic ovary syndrome, oligomenorrhea, and risk of ovarian cancer histotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Holly R; Babic, Ana; Webb, Penelope M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one if its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely been examined by ovarian cancer histotypes which may explain...... the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer (n=13,719) or borderline ovarian disease (n=2,875) and 17,718 controls. Adjusted study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using...... logistic regression and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled histotype-specific ORs were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Women reporting menstrual cycle length >35 days had decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer compared to women reporting cycle length

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors: A Pooled Analysis of 13 Case-Control Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, C.B.; Kjaer, S.K.; Albieri, V.; Bandera, E.V.; Doherty, J.A.; Hogdall, E.; Webb, P.M.; Jordan, S.J.; Rossing, M.A.; Wicklund, K.G.; Goodman, M.T.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.B.; Ness, R.B.; Edwards, R.P.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Berchuck, A.; Olson, S.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Narod, S.A.; Phelan, C.M.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Risch, H.A.; Jensen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to

  15. Systematic evaluation of candidate blood markers for detecting ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer is a significant cause of mortality both in the United States and worldwide, due largely to the high proportion of cases that present at a late stage, when survival is extremely poor. Early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer, and of the serous subtype in particular, is a promising strategy for saving lives. The low prevalence of ovarian cancer makes the development of an adequately sensitive and specific test based on blood markers very challenging. We evaluated the performance of a set of candidate blood markers and combinations of these markers in detecting serous ovarian cancer.We selected 14 candidate blood markers of serous ovarian cancer for which assays were available to measure their levels in serum or plasma, based on our analysis of global gene expression data and on literature searches. We evaluated the performance of these candidate markers individually and in combination by measuring them in overlapping sets of serum (or plasma samples from women with clinically detectable ovarian cancer and women without ovarian cancer. Based on sensitivity at high specificity, we determined that 4 of the 14 candidate markers--MUC16, WFDC2, MSLN and MMP7--warrant further evaluation in precious serum specimens collected months to years prior to clinical diagnosis to assess their utility in early detection. We also reported differences in the performance of these candidate blood markers across histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer.By systematically analyzing the performance of candidate blood markers of ovarian cancer in distinguishing women with clinically apparent ovarian cancer from women without ovarian cancer, we identified a set of serum markers with adequate performance to warrant testing for their ability to identify ovarian cancer months to years prior to clinical diagnosis. We argued for the importance of sensitivity at high specificity and of magnitude of difference in marker levels between cases and

  16. From the endometrium physiology to a comprehensive strategy for the discovery of ovarian cancer biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos L. Tanyi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of comprehensive strategies for biomarker discovery of gynecological cancers is needed. The unique physiology of the female genital track revolves around ovulatory cycles ending by the proteolysis of the endometrium triggered by progesterone decline during the last part of the luteal phase. Building on the known link between incessant ovulation and ovarian cancer, we hypothesize that life-long menstruations could damage neighboring organs such as fallopian tubes, ovaries and peritoneum via endometrial secretions, and thus endometrium neighboring structures may have developed highly efficient protective strategies that could, in turn, be hijacked by cancer cells for survival and invasion. After literature review, we could classify the molecules involved in ovulation and menstruation pathways in three main categories: proteases, proteases inhibitors and cell-surface protectors. Strikingly, all validated biomarkers for ovarian cancers belong to at least one of these categories. We thus propose the development of comprehensive methods for identification of early diagnostic markers for gynecological cancers using systematical mapping and characterization of surface or soluble molecules belonging to physiological pathways linked to menstruation and differently expressed during luteal cycles.

  17. Termination of Pregnancy in a Patient with Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Suna Özdemir; Çetin Çelik; Kazım Gezginç; Hasan Esen

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer during pregnancy is a rare entity and the management of the disease can be challenging for the patient and the clinician. In this case, we report a case of advanced ovarian carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy, which was managed with termination of pregnancy and chemotheraphy. The patient was underwent exploratory laparatomy including the right ovarian cystectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy after frozen section of borderline serous cystade...

  18. Combined colonoscopy and endometrial biopsy cancer screening results in women with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebgen, Denise R; Lu, Karen H; Rimes, Sue; Keeler, Elizabeth; Broaddus, Russell; Munsell, Mark F; Lynch, Patrick M

    2014-10-01

    Endometrial biopsy (EMBx) and colonoscopy performed under the same sedation is termed combined screening and has been shown to be feasible and to provide a less painful and more satisfactory experience for women with Lynch syndrome (LS). However, clinical results of these screening efforts have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes and patient compliance with serial screenings over the last 10.5 years. We retrospectively analyzed the data for 55 women with LS who underwent combined screening every 1-2 years between 2002 and 2013. Colonoscopy and endometrial biopsy were performed by a gastroenterologist and a gynecologist, with the patient under conscious sedation. Out of 111 screening visits in these 55 patients, endometrial biopsies detected one simple hyperplasia, three complex hyperplasia, and one endometrioid adenocarcinoma (FIGO Stage 1A). Seventy-one colorectal polyps were removed in 29 patients, of which 29 were tubular adenomas. EMBx in our study detected endometrial cancer in 0.9% (1/111) of surveillance visits, and premalignant hyperplasia in 3.6% (4/111) of screening visits. No interval endometrial or colorectal cancers were detected. Combined screening under sedation is feasible and less painful than EMBx alone. Our endometrial pathology detection rates were comparable to yearly screening studies. Our results indicate that screening of asymptomatic LS women with EMBx every 1-2 years, rather than annually, is effective in the early detection of (pre)cancerous lesions, leading to their prompt definitive management, and potential reduction in endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of hormone therapies on type I and II endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina S.; Kjær, Susanne K.; Keiding, Niels

    2016-01-01

    identified from the National Cancer Registry: 4,972 Type I tumors and 500 Type II tumors. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (Cls) were estimated by Poisson regression. Compared with women never on HT, the RR of endometrial cancer was increased with conjugated estrogen: 4.27 (1...

  20. Anthropometry, physical activity, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Although obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer, evidence linking risk to height, weight change since age 20, and physical activity is limited. In this case-cohort study, 62 573 women from The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were followed up from 1986 to 1995, and

  1. Endometrial Cancer and Hypermethylation: Regulation of DNA and MicroRNA by Epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouji Banno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women worldwide. Therefore elucidation of the pathogenesis and development of effective treatment for endometrial cancer are important. However, several aspects of the mechanism of carcinogenesis in the endometrium remain unclear. Associations with genetic variation and mutations of cancer-related genes have been shown, but these do not provide a complete explanation. Therefore, in recent years, epigenetic mechanisms that do not involve changes in DNA sequences have been examined. Studies aimed at detection of aberrant DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells present in microscopic amounts in vivo and application of the results to cancer diagnosis have also started. Breakdown of the DNA mismatch repair mechanism is thought to play a large role in the development of endometrial cancer, with changes in the expression of the hMLH1 gene being particularly important. Silencing of genes such as APC and CHFR, Sprouty 2, RASSF1A, GPR54, CDH1, and RSK4 by DNA hypermethylation, onset of Lynch syndrome due to hereditary epimutation of hMLH1 and hMSH2 mismatch repair genes, and regulation of gene expression by microRNAs may also underlie the carcinogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer. Further understanding of these issues may permit development of new therapies.

  2. Estrogen receptor alpha gene polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk – a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedrén, Sara; Stiger, Fredrik; Persson, Ingemar; Baron, John A; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Lovmar, Lovisa; Humphreys, Keith; Magnusson, Cecilia; Melhus, Håkan; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kindmark, Andreas; Landegren, Ulf; Fermér, Maria Lagerström

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen is an established endometrial carcinogen. One of the most important mediators of estrogenic action is the estrogen receptor alpha. We have investigated whether polymorphic variation in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) is associated with endometrial cancer risk. In 702 cases with invasive endometrial cancer and 1563 controls, we genotyped five markers in ESR1 and used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI). We found an association between rs2234670, rs2234693, as well as rs9340799, markers in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), and endometrial cancer risk. The association with rs9340799 was the strongest, OR 0.75 (CI 0.60–0.93) for heterozygous and OR 0.53 (CI 0.37–0.77) for homozygous rare compared to those homozygous for the most common allele. Haplotype models did not fit better to the data than single marker models. We found that intronic variation in ESR1 was associated with endometrial cancer risk

  3. Endometrial cancer: correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with tumor cellularity and tumor grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Keiko; Tajima, Shinya; Maeda, Ichiro; Takagi, Masayuki; Ueno, Takahiko; Suzuki, Nao; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are widely used for detecting uterine endometrial cancer. The relationships between ADC values and pathological features of endometrial cancer have not yet been established. To investigate whether ADC values of endometrial cancer vary according to histologic tumor cellularity and tumor grade. We retrospectively reviewed 30 pathologically confirmed endometrial cancers. All patients underwent conventional non-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and DWI procedures, and ADC values were calculated. Tumor cellularity was evaluated by counting cancer cells in three high-power ( × 400) fields. The correlation between ADC values and tumor cellularity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test for statistical analysis. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) ADC value ( ×10(-3) mm(2)/s) of endometrial cancer was 0.85 ± 0.22 (range, 0.55-1.71). The mean ± SD tumor cellularity was 528.36 ± 16.89 (range, 298.0-763.6). ADC values were significantly inversely correlated with tumor cellularity. No significant relationship was observed between ADC values and tumor grade (mean ADC values: G1, 0.88 ± 0.265 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; G2, 0.80 ± 0.178 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; G3, 0.81 ± 0.117 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s). There is a significant inverse relationship between ADC values and tumor cellularity in endometrial cancer. No significant differences in average ADC value were observed between G1, G2, and G3 tumors. However, the lower the tumor grade, the wider the SD. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015.

  4. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the

  5. Nedd4L expression is decreased in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to ovarian non-cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuyun; Zhao, Jinghe; Cui, Manhua; Gi, Shuting; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiaole

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (Nedd4L) gene plays a role in the progression of various cancers. However, reports describing Nedd4L expression in ovarian cancer tissues are limited. A cohort (n = 117) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded resected normal ovarian epithelial tissues (n = 10), benign ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 10), serous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 14), mucous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 11), and invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues (n = 72) were assessed for Nedd4L protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Nedd4L protein expression was significantly decreased in invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to non-cancer tissues (P < 0.05). Decreased Nedd4L protein expression correlated with clinical stage, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and survival (P < 0.05). Nedd4L protein expression may be an independent prognostic marker of ovarian cancer development. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Genomic and sieroproteomic analysis for the identification of molecular tumor markers for diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of ovarian and endometrial carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecorelli, S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is the identification, through the analysis of genomic and proteomic expression profiles, of novel molecular bio markers correlated with pathogenesis, progression, diagnosis or therapy of ovarian cancer. Patients referring to the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at the University of Brescia have been enrolled in the study starting from April 2007. 66 patients with ovarian carcinoma were included (49 with primary ovarian cancer and 17 with relapse/progression). Controls included 134 patients with histologically proven benign pelvic masses (64 uterine fibromas, 36 benign ovarian cysts, 34 endometriosis). All patients signed an informed consent according to institutional guidelines. Clinico pathological features of patients were collected

  7. Emerging molecular-targeted therapies—the challenging case of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer newly affects an estimated 54,870 women in the United States, being responsible for an estimated 10,170 deaths in 2015. It has demonstrated to harbor a complex carcinogenesis process, with limited treatment options for advanced or persistent disease. Identification and targeting of genetic alterations that lead to progressive disease and therapy resistance is not only challenging, but also often does not correlate with a clinical benefit. Targeted maintenance therapies in endometrial cancer have been largely disappointing. Nonetheless, targeted personalized treatment should be the main goal of treatment of advanced disease in the future. Due to the high variety of drugs being tested in early clinical trials, it is hard to keep pace with the latest developments and ongoing trials. This review aims to summarize the latest published and ongoing trials on targeted therapies in endometrial cancer.

  8. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy seems safe in women with early-stage endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Havemann, Maria Cecilie; Palle, Connie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of endometrial cancer; and although it is known that minimally invasive surgery reduces post-operative morbidity, the outcomes of this novel treatment should be monitored carefully. The aim of this study was to examine...... the incidence of complications according to the Clavien-Dindo scale after robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) for early-stage endometrial cancer and atypical complex hyperplasia. The Clavien-Dindo scale grades the severity of complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort...... study of 235 women with endometrial cancer or atypical complex hyperplasia who had RALH. Surgeries were stratified into two groups: with or without pelvic lymphadenectomy. RESULTS: A total of 6% developed a grade 3 or higher complication with no significant difference (p = 0.24) between the groups...

  9. Impact of the ovarian microenvironment on serous cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0182 TITLE: Impact of the ovarian microenvironment on serous cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joanna E. Burdette...Impact of the ovarian microenvironment on serous cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0182 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...for intervention that would block serous cancer while still confined to the fallopian tubes. Using a series of normal, modified, and tumorigenic tubal

  10. Novel Approaches to Locoregional and Systemic Immunotherapy for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0298 TITLE: Novel approaches to locoregional and systemic immunotherapy for ovarian cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Dmitriy Zamarin CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center New York, NY 10017 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Novel approaches to locoregional and systemic immunotherapy for ovarian cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER vel ap roaches to l c regional

  11. The Effect of Gynecologic Oncologist Availability on Ovarian Cancer Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherri L.; Cooney, Darryl; Hirsch, Shawn; Westervelt, Lauren; Richards, Thomas B.; Rim, Sun Hee; Thomas, Cheryll C.

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the association between the distribution of gynecologic oncologist (GO) and population-based ovarian cancer death rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data on ovarian cancer incidence and mortality in the United States (U.S.) was supplemented with U.S. census data, and analyzed in relation to practicing GOs. GO locations were geocoded to link association between county variables and GO availability. Logistic regression was used to measure areas of high and low ovarian cancer mortality, adjusting for contextual variables. RESULTS Practicing GOs were unevenly distributed in the United States, with the greatest numbers in metropolitan areas. Ovarian cancer incidence and death rates increased as distance to a practicing GO increased. A relatively small number (153) of counties within 24 miles of a GO had high ovarian cancer death rates compared to 577 counties located 50 or more miles away with high ovarian cancer death rates. Counties located 50 or more miles away from a GO practice had an almost 60% greater odds of high ovarian cancer mortality compared to those with closer practicing GOs (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.18–2.15). CONCLUSION The distribution of GOs across the United States appears to be significantly associated with ovarian cancer mortality. Efforts that facilitate outreach of GOs to certain populations may increase geographic access. Future studies examining other factors associated with lack of GO access (e.g. insurance and other socioeconomic factors) at the individual level will assist with further defining barriers to quality ovarian cancer care in the United States. PMID:26478860

  12. Project for the National Program of Early Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohîlțea, R E; Ancăr, V; Cirstoiu, M M; Rădoi, V; Bohîlțea, L C; Furtunescu, F

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer recorded a peak incidence in ages 60-64 years in Romania, reaching in 2013 the average value of 8.06/ 100,000 women, and 15.97/ 100,000 women within the highest risk age range, having in recent years an increasing trend, being higher in urban than in rural population. Annually, approximately 800 new cases are registered in our country. The estimated lifetime risk of a woman to develop endometrial cancer is of about 1,03%. Based on an abnormal uterine bleeding, 35% of the endometrial cancers are diagnosed in an advanced stage of the disease, with significantly diminished lifetime expectancy. Drafting a national program for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer. We proposed a standardization of the diagnostic steps and focused on 4 key elements for the early diagnosis of endometrial cancer: investigation of abnormal uterine bleeding occurring in pre/ post-menopausal women, investigating features/ anomalies of cervical cytology examination, diagnosis, treatment and proper monitoring of precursor endometrial lesions or cancer associated endometrial lesions and screening high risk populations (Lynch syndrome, Cowden syndrome). Improving medical practice based on diagnostic algorithms addresses the four risk groups, by improving information system reporting and record keeping. Improving addressability cases by increasing the health education of the population will increase the rate of diagnosis of endometrial cancer in the early stages of the disease. ACOG = American Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, ASCCP = American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, PATT = Partial Activated Thromboplastin Time, BRCA = Breast Cancer Gene, CT = Computerized Tomography, IFGO = International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics, HLG = Hemoleucogram, HNPCC = Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (Lynch syndrome), IHC = Immunohistochemistry, BMI = Body Mass Index, INR = International Normalized Ratio, MSI = Microsatellites instability, MSI

  13. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP1) gene expression is similarly increased in polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mohamad N; Mongan, Nigel; Seedhouse, Claire; Chapman, Caroline; Deen, Suha; Abu, Jafaru; Atiomo, William

    2017-05-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have a three-fold higher risk of endometrial cancer. Insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia may be pertinent factors in the pathogenesis of both conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression in polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer endometrium, and to correlate endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression with serum lipid profiles. A cross-sectional study was performed at Nottingham University Hospital, UK. A total of 102 women (polycystic ovary syndrome, endometrial cancer and controls; 34 participants in each group) were recruited. Clinical and biochemical assessments were performed before endometrial biopsies were obtained from all participants. Taqman real-time polymerase chain reaction for endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene and its systemic protein expression were analyzed. The body mass indices of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (29.28 ± 2.91 kg/m 2 ) and controls (28.58 ± 2.62 kg/m 2 ) were not significantly different. Women with endometrial cancer had a higher mean body mass index (32.22 ± 5.70 kg/m 2 ). Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression was significantly increased in polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer endometrium compared with controls (p ovary syndrome, but this was not statistically significant. Similarly, statistically insignificant positive correlations were found between endometrial sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression and body mass index in endometrial cancer (r = 0.643, p = 0.06) and waist-hip ratio (r = 0.096, p = 0.073). Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression was significantly positively correlated with triglyceride in both polycystic ovary syndrome and endometrial cancer (p = 0.028 and p = 0.027, respectively). Quantitative serum sterol regulatory element

  14. FOXP1 forkhead transcription factor is associated with the pathogenesis of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito Mizunuma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancers are mostly estrogen-dependent. FOXP1 is a P subfamily of forkhead box (FOX, and known as an estrogen-responsive transcription factor. The aims of this study were to examine histological location of FOXP1 in normal and malignant endometrium, and to investigate a possible association between FOXP1 and other factors considered to be involved in pathogenesis of endometrial cancer. The levels of FOXP1, estrogen receptor (ERα, and ERβ expression were examined immunohistochemically in normal and malignant endometrium obtained from 75 women (8 normal, 8 atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 59 endometrial cancers from grade 1 to 3. The effects of estrogen on ERα, FOXP1, KRAS, and PTEN expression were analyzed in telomerase-immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (T HESCs by Western blotting. Western blotting was also used to examine the effect of FOXP1 plasmid DNA or siRNA transfection on KRAS and PTEN expression in Ishikawa cells (well differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma, HEC-50B cells (poorly differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and T HESCs, respectively. FOXP1 was expressed in normal and malignant endometrium, but the rate of expression was different depending upon menstrual cycle and pathological grade of malignancy. FOXP1 expression in nucleus and cytoplasm of grade 3 endometrioid cancers was significantly lower than that of grade 1 and 2 ones. Estradiol increased levels of FOXP1 and KRAS expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in T HESCs cells, and FOXP1 transfection or knockdown led to increase or decrease of KRAS expression but not PTEN. KRAS expression level was significantly related to FOXP1 and ERα levels in cancer tissues. Estradiol did not affect KRAS expression in T HESCs cells transfected with FOXP1 siRNA. These results suggest that FOXP1 is involved in estrogen dependent endometrial cancers through KRAS pathway.

  15. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Oligomenorrhea, and Risk of Ovarian Cancer Histotypes: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Babic, Ana; Webb, Penelope M; Nagle, Christina M; Jordan, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Goodman, Marc T; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B; Moysich, Kirsten B; Kjær, Susanne K; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel W; Bandera, Elisa V; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Narod, Steven A; Phelan, Catherine M; McLaughlin, John R; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Pearce, Celeste L; Wu, Anna H; Terry, Kathryn L

    2018-02-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one of its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely examined by ovarian cancer histotypes, which may explain the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. Methods: We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer ( n = 13,719) or borderline ovarian disease ( n = 2,875) and 17,718 controls. Adjusted study-specific ORs were calculated using logistic regression and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled histotype-specific ORs were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. Results: Women reporting menstrual cycle length >35 days had decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer compared with women reporting cycle length ≤35 days [OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.84]. Decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer was also observed among women who reported irregular menstrual cycles compared with women with regular cycles (OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.76-0.89). No significant association was observed between self-reported PCOS and invasive ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.65-1.15). There was a decreased risk of all individual invasive histotypes for women with menstrual cycle length >35 days, but no association with serous borderline tumors ( P heterogeneity = 0.006). Similarly, we observed decreased risks of most invasive histotypes among women with irregular cycles, but an increased risk of borderline serous and mucinous tumors ( P heterogeneity ovarian cancer risk differentially based on histotype. Impact: These results highlight the importance of examining ovarian cancer risk factors associations by histologic subtype. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 174-82. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. METHODS: We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using mult...

  17. Options for modulation of drug resistance in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, HJG; Van der Zee, AGJ; De Jong, S; De Vries, EGE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an update of mechanisms responsible for drug resistance in ovarian cancer and the possible therapeutic options to modulate this resistance using literature review with emphasis on data acquired in studies comprising ovarian tumor samples. The classic

  18. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in Denmark, we included 554 women with invasive ovarian...... cancer, 202 with ovarian borderline tumors, and 1,564 controls aged 35-79 years. The analyses were performed in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found a significantly increased risk of ovarian borderline tumors among women with a history of PID (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.......08-2.08) but no apparent association between PID and risk of invasive ovarian cancer (OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.65-1.05). We found no effect of age at time of first PID or time since first PID on the risk for either condition. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a history of PID is associated with an increased risk of ovarian...

  19. Ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-An; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chi-Hau; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Hsu, Chih-Yao; Tsai, Keh-Sung

    2014-12-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. It has been associated with malignancies in rare cases. High serum levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 reported in a group of patients with ovarian cancer had normal serum phosphate levels. There had been no ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in a search of the literature. We investigated a 57-year-old woman with progressive low back pain. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological assessments were performed. The patient's serum phosphate and FGF23 levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment for ovarian cancer. The patient presented with progressive low back pain and weight loss during the previous 6 months. Imaging studies revealed low bone mineral density and multiple suspicious spinal metastatic lesions. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, normocalcemia, an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level, and an elevated serum FGF23 level. Because TIO was suspected, a tumor survey was performed, and ovarian carcinoma with multiple metastasis was detected. After surgery and chemotherapy treatments for ovarian cancer, the serum phosphate and FGF23 levels returned to normal, and the low back pain improved. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia reported in the literature. TIO should be considered in patients with ovarian cancer presenting with weakness, bone pain, and fractures. Investigation of TIO is appropriate when these patients present hypophosphatemia.

  20. Ovarian Cancer-Related Hypophosphatemic Osteomalacia—A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-An; Shih, Shyang-Rong; Tseng, Yu-Ting; Chen, Chi-Hau; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Hsu, Chih-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Context: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome caused primarily by benign mesenchymal tumors. It has been associated with malignancies in rare cases. High serum levels of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 reported in a group of patients with ovarian cancer had normal serum phosphate levels. There had been no ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in a search of the literature. Objective: We investigated a 57-year-old woman with progressive low back pain. Design and Intervention: Clinical, biochemical, and radiological assessments were performed. The patient's serum phosphate and FGF23 levels were evaluated at baseline and after treatment for ovarian cancer. Results: The patient presented with progressive low back pain and weight loss during the previous 6 months. Imaging studies revealed low bone mineral density and multiple suspicious spinal metastatic lesions. Laboratory examination showed hypophosphatemia, hyperphosphaturia, normocalcemia, an elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level, and an elevated serum FGF23 level. Because TIO was suspected, a tumor survey was performed, and ovarian carcinoma with multiple metastasis was detected. After surgery and chemotherapy treatments for ovarian cancer, the serum phosphate and FGF23 levels returned to normal, and the low back pain improved. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case of ovarian cancer-related hypophosphatemic osteomalacia reported in the literature. TIO should be considered in patients with ovarian cancer presenting with weakness, bone pain, and fractures. Investigation of TIO is appropriate when these patients present hypophosphatemia. PMID:25181387

  1. Clinical and Genomic Crosstalk between Glucocorticoid Receptor and Estrogen Receptor α In Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Vahrenkamp

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Steroid hormone receptors are simultaneously active in many tissues and are capable of altering each other’s function. Estrogen receptor α (ER and glucocorticoid receptor (GR are expressed in the uterus, and their ligands have opposing effects on uterine growth. In endometrial tumors with high ER expression, we surprisingly found that expression of GR is associated with poor prognosis. Dexamethasone reduced normal uterine growth in vivo; however, this growth inhibition was abolished in estrogen-induced endometrial hyperplasia. We observed low genomic-binding site overlap when ER and GR are induced with their respective ligands; however, upon simultaneous induction they co-occupy more sites. GR binding is altered significantly by estradiol with GR recruited to ER-bound loci that become more accessible upon estradiol induction. Gene expression responses to co-treatment were more similar to estradiol but with additional regulated genes. Our results suggest phenotypic and molecular interplay between ER and GR in endometrial cancer. : Estrogen receptor α (ER and glucocorticoid receptor (GR are expressed in the uterus and have differential effects on growth. Vahrenkamp et al. find that expression of both receptors is associated with poor outcome in endometrial cancer and that simultaneous induction of ER and GR leads to molecular interplay between the receptors. Keywords: estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, endometrial cancer

  2. Vaginal vault recurrences of endometrial cancer in non-irradiated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardarson, Hordur Alexander; Nyhøj Heidemann, Lene; Christensen, René dePont

    2015-01-01

    are few and limited to previously irradiated patients or patients with advanced disease. Investigation of surgical treatment for isolated vaginal vault recurrence is practically nonexistent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of RT and ST in a non-irradiated group with recurrent endometrial...... cancer limited to the vaginal vault. METHODS: Patients treated for recurrent endometrial cancer at Odense University Hospital, Denmark between 2003 and 2012 were identified, n = 118. Thirty-three patients had an isolated vaginal vault recurrence and were treated with either RT, ST or both. Re...

  3. Survival after Stage IA Endometrial Cancer; Can follow-up be altered?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Henrik; Elnegaard, Sandra; Christensen, René D

    2012-01-01

    IA (1988 classification) endometrial cancer patients prospectively included between 1986 and 1999. All patients had total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy without adjuvant therapy. Methods. The patient and the disease characteristics were drawn from the DEMCA database....... Of these recurrences, 15 of 23 (65%) were vaginal. Death from recurrence was observed in nine of 23 (39%) patients, and five of these nine had vaginal recurrences. Conclusions. Women with FIGO stage IA endometrial cancer have a very high disease-specific five year survival. Survival was related to histopathology...

  4. Are ovarian cancer stem cells the target for innovative immunotherapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang L

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Liang Wang, Tianmin Xu, Manhua Cui Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Cancer stem cells (CSCs, a subpopulation of cancer cells with the ability of self-renewal and differentiation, are believed to be responsible for tumor generation, progression, metastasis, and relapse. Ovarian cancer, the most malignant gynecological cancer, has consistent pathology behavior with CSC model, which suggests that therapies based on ovarian cancer stem cells (OCSCs can gain a more successful prognosis. Much evidence has proved that epigenetic mechanism played an important role in tumor formation and sustainment. Since CSCs are generally resistant to conventional therapies (chemotherapy and radiotherapy, immunotherapy is a more effective method that has been implemented in the clinic. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR- T cell, an adoptive cellular immunotherapy, which results in apparent elimination of tumor in both hematologic and solid cancers, could be used for ovarian cancer. This review covers the basic conception of CSCs and OCSCs, the implication of epigenetic mechanism underlying cancer evolution considering CSC model, the immunotherapies reported for ovarian cancer targeting OCSCs currently, and the relationship between immune system and hierarchy cancer organized by CSCs. Particularly, the promising prospects and potential pitfalls of targeting OCSC surface markers to design CAR-T cellular immunotherapy are discussed here. Keywords: cancer stem cells, ovarian cancer, epigenetics, tumor cell surface marker, immunotherapy, CAR

  5. SOX15 regulates proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Xiping; Guo, Caixia; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-10-31

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of Sry-like high mobility group box 15 ( SOX15 ) on proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer (EC) cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to determine the expression of SOX15 in EC tissues and adjacent tissues. We used cell transfection method to construct the HEC-1-A and Ishikawa cell lines with stable overexpression and low expression SOX15 Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot were performed to examine expression of SOX15 mRNA and SOX15 protein, respectively. By conducting a series of cell proliferation assay and migration assay, we analyzed the influence of SOX15 overexpression or low expression on EC cell proliferation and migration. The expression of SOX15 mRNA and protein in EC tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues. After lentivirus-transfecting SOX15 , the expression level of SOX15 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in cells of SOX15 group, and decreased in sh- SOX15 group. Overexpression of SOX15 could suppress cell proliferation, while down-regulation of SOX15 increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry results indicated that overexpression of SOX15 induced the ratio of cell-cycle arrest in G 1 stage. In addition, Transwell migration assay results showed that SOX15 overexpression significantly inhibited cell migration, and also down-regulation of SOX15 promoted the migration. As a whole, SOX15 could regulate the proliferation and migration of EC cells and up- regulation of SOX15 could be valuable for EC treatment. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Comparative proteome analysis of human epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagné Jean-Philippe

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is a devastating disease associated with low survival prognosis mainly because of the lack of early detection markers and the asymptomatic nature of the cancer until late stage. Using two complementary proteomics approaches, a differential protein expression profile was carried out between low and highly transformed epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines which realistically mimic the phenotypic changes observed during evolution of a tumour metastasis. This investigation was aimed at a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation, proliferation and neoplastic progression of ovarian cancer. Results The quantitative profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer model cell lines TOV-81D and TOV-112D generated using iTRAQ analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry revealed some proteins with altered expression levels. Several of these proteins have been the object of interest in cancer research but others were unrecognized as differentially expressed in a context of ovarian cancer. Among these, series of proteins involved in transcriptional activity, cellular metabolism, cell adhesion or motility and cytoskeleton organization were identified, suggesting their possible role in the emergence of oncogenic pathways leading to aggressive cellular behavior. Conclusion The differential protein expression profile generated by the two proteomics approaches combined to complementary characterizations studies will open the way to more exhaustive and systematic representation of the disease and will provide valuable information that may be helpful to uncover the molecular mechanisms related to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  7. Occupational exposure and ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhu D; Leung, Andy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Gallagher, Richard P; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Demers, Paul A; Cook, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little work has been done concerning occupational risk factors in ovarian cancer. Although studies conducted in occupational settings have reported positive associations, their usefulness is generally limited by the lack of information on important confounders. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed risk for developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) associated with occupational exposure while accounting for important confounders. Participants were identified through provincial population-based registries. Lifetime occupational history and information on potential confounding factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test were used to assess EOC risk with each occupation (or industry), relative to all other occupations (or industries), adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, parity, age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, family history of breast and ovarian cancer in mother and sister(s), tubal ligation, partial oophorectomy, and hysterectomy. Occupations and industries were coded according to the Canadian Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Significant excess risk was observed for several groups of teaching occupations, including SOC 27, teaching and related (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15-2.81) and SOC 279, other teaching and related (adjusted OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.35-8.49). Significant excess was also seen for a four-digit occupational group SOC 4131, bookkeepers and accounting clerks (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.30-6.80). Industrial sub-groups showing significant excess risk included SIC 65, other retail stores (adjusted OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.16-4.38); SIC 85, educational service (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.13); and SIC 863, non-institutional health services (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.13-6.52). Our study found

  8. Ovarian failure due to cancer treatment and fertility preservation options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, commonly referred to premature ovarian failure, is defined as ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. It is the loss of ovarian function caused by a process directly affecting ovaries. Cancer therapy which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy influence ovarian function, leading to premature menopause and loss of fertility. POI is idiopathic in most cases (74-90%. The known causes, in addition to anticancer treatment, are other processes like chromosomal abnormalities, autoimmunity, and natural aging can result in secondary ovarian failure, which is detected by an increase in serum gonadotropin levels (FSH and LH. There are evident risks of POI in women treated for cancer. Those who receive anticancer treatments have an increased risk of developing POI. There by, anticancer drugs and radiation therapy are considered as the most common toxins of ovaries. Although cancer incidence rates in women less than 50 years old continue to increase during recent years, mortality rates are dramatically decreasing due to modern advances in treatment. Increasing numbers of survivors are now confronted with the long-term consequences of exposure to these treatments. The pool of primordial follicles in the ovary is fixed and any injury to the ovary can potentially reduce this ovarian reserve, effectively advancing the patient’s reproductive age, thus narrowing the window of reproductive opportunity. Ovarian failure occurs in a significant percentage of childhood cancer survivors and many of them will seek care for reproductive dysfunction. Nevertheless, Embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation, ovary tissue cryopreservation, ovarian suppression and oophoro-pexy are some options to preserve fertility in these groups. As a result, having foreknowledge of potential treatment related ovarian failure will allow the physician to give a better counsel to patients and their family regarding the importance and

  9. Endometrial carcinoma in vitro chemosensitivity testing of single and combination chemotherapy regimens using the novel microculture kinetic apoptosis assay: implications for endometrial cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Karen S; Homesley, Howard D; Hodson, Charles; Presant, Cary A; Rutledge, James; Hallquist, Allan; Perree, Mathieu

    2010-03-01

    The in vitro microculture kinetic (MiCK) apoptosis assay has been used to predict single or combination chemotherapy response in leukemia patients. This feasibility study addressed MiCK in endometrial cancer specimens. Endometrial cancer specimens from total abdominal hysterectomies were processed at a central laboratory. Single cell suspensions of viable endometrial cancer cells were plated in individual wells. Single and combination regimens were tested: combinations of doxorubicin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel and carboplatin and paclitaxel (Gynecologic Oncology Group [GOG] 209 endometrial cancer phase III trial arms) as well as single agent testing with paclitaxel, carboplatin, doxorubicin, cisplatin, ifosfamide, and vincristine (active agents in GOG trials). Apoptosis was measured continuously over 48 hours. Fifteen of nineteen patients had successful assays. The highest mean chemo sensitivity was noted in the combination of cisplatin, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel with lower mean chemosensitivity for carboplatin and paclitaxel. Combination chemotherapy had higher chemosensitivity than single drug chemotherapy. However, in 25% of patients a single drug had higher chemosensitivity than combination chemotherapy. As single agents, ifosfamide, cisplatin, and paclitaxel had the highest kinetic unit values. Using a panel of agents simulating clinical dose regimens, the MiCK assay was feasible in evaluating in vitro chemosensitivity of endometrial cancer. MiCK assay results correlated with GOG clinical trial results. However, 25% of patients might be best treated with single agent chemotherapy selected by MiCK. Ifosfamide, cisplatin, and paclitaxel appear to have high activity as single agents. MiCK may be useful in future new drug testing and individualizing endometrial cancer patient's chemotherapy management.

  10. Research Summaries: The 11th Biennial Rivkin Center Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Deborah K

    2017-11-01

    In September 2016, the 11th biennial ovarian cancer research symposium was presented by the Rivkin Center for Ovarian Cancer and the American Association for Cancer Research. The 2016 symposium focused on 4 broad areas of research: Mechanisms of Initiation and Progression of Ovarian Cancer, Tumor Microenvironment and Models of Ovarian Cancer, Detection and Prevention of Ovarian Cancer, and Novel Therapeutics for Ovarian Cancer. The presentations and abstracts from each of these areas are reviewed in this supplement to the International Journal of Gynecologic Oncology.

  11. Menstrual pain and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Harris, Holly R; Vitonis, Allison F

    2018-01-01

    to lack of power. We assessed menstrual pain using either direct questions about having experienced menstrual pain, or indirect questions about menstrual pain as indication for use of hormones or medications. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for the association......Menstrual pain, a common gynecological condition, has been associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in some, but not all studies. Furthermore, potential variations in the association between menstrual pain and ovarian cancer by histologic subtype have not been adequately evaluated due...... between severe menstrual pain and ovarian cancer, adjusting for potential confounders and multinomial logistic regression to calculate ORs for specific histologic subtypes. We observed no association between ovarian cancer and menstrual pain assessed by indirect questions. Among studies using direct...

  12. Hormone-receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Köbel, Martin; Longacre, Teri A

    2013-01-01

    Few biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis have been established, partly because subtype-specific associations might be obscured in studies combining all histopathological subtypes. We examined whether tumour expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was associated ...

  13. The Roles of Laparoscopy in Treating Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyi-Long Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Great advances in technology offer meticulous options of minimally invasive surgery to empower the gynecologists to manage patients of early ovarian cancer. Laparoscopy affords improved visualization of the pelvic peritoneum, diaphragm and the deep pelvic structures, and offers many advantages in the avoidance of long abdominal incision, including shorter hospital stay and a more rapid recovery time. Most studies showed that laparoscopy did not compromise the survival and recurrence prognosis in comparison with open abdominal approach of staging surgery. Contrarily, laparoscopy precludes the advantage of open surgery, such as manual examination of the full extent of the bowel and palpation of lymph nodes. Besides, laparoscopy technically hampers the removal of large ovarian mass, and laparoscopic cancer surgery has a potential risk of trocar site metastasis. As the trend shows that laparoscopy has been playing an important role in treating early ovarian cancer, we could expect laparoscopy to become an attractive surgical option in the future for ovarian cancers.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Serology in Women with and without Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta B. Ness

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation has been implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. We conducted serologic measurements of Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as a surrogate marker of chlamydial pelvic inflammatory disease. Women with ovarian cancer (n=521 and population-based controls (n=766 were tested. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EBs were detected using an ELISA assay. The odds of having ovarian cancer among women with the highest titers (≥0.40 OD units were 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.9. These data do not support our earlier finding of elevated titers for antibodies to C. trachomatis among women with ovarian cancer.

  15. 76 FR 55209 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... month, we remember the mothers, sisters, and daughters we have lost to ovarian cancer, and we extend our... the women, families, and professionals working to end this disease. The Centers for Disease Control...

  16. Development of a Multifaceted Ovarian Cancer Therapeutic and Imaging Agent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Markland, Francis S

    2008-01-01

    ...%. This project outlines the development of a recombinant version of a member of a class of proteins known as disintegrins as an innovative imaging and diagnostic agent for ovarian cancer (OC). Vicrostatin (VN...

  17. Shared genetics underlying epidemiological association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yi; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Painter, Jodie N

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between endometriosis and certain histotypes of ovarian cancer, including clear cell, low-grade serous and endometrioid carcinomas. We aimed to determine whether the observed associations might be due to shared genetic aetiology. To address...... this, we used two endometriosis datasets genotyped on common arrays with full-genome coverage (3194 cases and 7060 controls) and a large ovarian cancer dataset genotyped on the customized Illumina Infinium iSelect (iCOGS) arrays (10 065 cases and 21 663 controls). Previous work has suggested...... that a large number of genetic variants contribute to endometriosis and ovarian cancer (all histotypes combined) susceptibility. Here, using the iCOGS data, we confirmed polygenic architecture for most histotypes of ovarian cancer. This led us to evaluate if the polygenic effects are shared across diseases. We...

  18. An overview about mitochondrial DNA mutations in ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iyer Mahalaxmi

    2017-07-29

    Jul 29, 2017 ... which ends up as a global increase in incidence rates. There are 2 per cent ... In ovarian cancer follicle-stimulating hormone receptor gene poly- morphism is ... of respiratory deficit in dividing cells which were characterised by.

  19. Molecular characteristics of endometrial cancer coexisting with peritoneal malignant mesothelioma in Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Lee, Yun-Shien; Ueng, Shir-Hwa; Lin, Chiao-Yun; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2015-01-15

    Endometrial cancer that occurs concurrently with peritoneal malignant mesothelioma (PMM) is difficult to diagnose preoperatively. A postmenopausal woman had endometrial cancer extending to the cervix, vagina and pelvic lymph nodes, and PMM in bilateral ovaries, cul-de-sac, and multiple peritoneal sites. Adjuvant therapies included chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Targeted, massively parallel DNA sequencing and molecular inversion probe microarray analysis revealed a germline TP53 mutation compatible with Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome, somatic mutations of PIK3CA in the endometrial cancer, and a somatic mutation of GNA11 and JAK3 in the PMM. Large-scale genomic amplifications and some deletions were found in the endometrial cancer. The patient has been stable for 24 months after therapy. One of her four children was also found to carry the germline TP53 mutation. Molecular characterization of the coexistent tumors not only helps us make the definite diagnosis, but also provides information to select targeted therapies if needed in the future. Identification of germline TP53 mutation further urged us to monitor future development of malignancies in this patient and encourage cancer screening in her family.

  20. Adherence to Vaginal Dilation Following High Dose Rate Brachytherapy for Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Lois C.; Abdallah, Rita; Schluchter, Mark; Panneerselvam, Ashok; Kunos, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We report demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors associated with adherence to vaginal dilation and describe the sexual and marital or nonmarital dyadic functioning of women following high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively evaluated women aged 18 years or older in whom early-stage endometrial (IAgr3-IIB) cancers were treated by HDR intravaginal brachytherapy within the past 3.5 years. Women with or without a sexual partner were eligible. Patients completed questionnaires by mail or by telephone assessing demographic and clinical variables, adherence to vaginal dilation, dyadic satisfaction, sexual functioning, and health beliefs. Results: Seventy-eight of 89 (88%) eligible women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy completed questionnaires. Only 33% of patients were adherers, based on reporting having used a dilator more than two times per week in the first month following radiation. Nonadherers who reported a perceived change in vaginal dimension following radiation reported that their vaginas were subjectively smaller after brachytherapy (p = 0.013). Adherers reported more worry about their sex lives or lack thereof than nonadherers (p = 0.047). Patients reported considerable sexual dysfunction following completion of HDR brachytherapy. Conclusions: Adherence to recommendations for vaginal dilator use following HDR brachytherapy for endometrial cancer is poor. Interventions designed to educate women about dilator use benefit may increase adherence. Although sexual functioning was compromised, it is likely that this existed before having cancer for many women in our study.

  1. Progesterone signaling mediated through progesterone receptor membrane component-1 in ovarian cells with special emphasis on ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, John J

    2011-08-01

    Various ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and ovarian surface epithelial cells express the progesterone (P4) binding protein, progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 is also expressed in ovarian tumors. PGRMC1 plays an essential role in promoting the survival of both normal and cancerous ovarian cell in vitro. Given the clinical significance of factors that regulate the viability of ovarian cancer, this review will focus on the role of PGRMC1 in ovarian cancer, while drawing insights into the mechanism of PGRMC1's action from cell lines derived from healthy ovaries as well as ovarian tumors. Studies using PGRMC1siRNA demonstrated that P4's ability to inhibit ovarian cells from undergoing apoptosis in vitro is dependent on PGRMC1. To confirm the importance of PGRMC1, the ability of PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cell lines to form tumors in intact nude mice was assessed. Compared to PGRMC1-expressing ovarian cancer cells, PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells formed tumors in fewer mice (80% compared to 100% for controls). Moreover, the number of tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells was 50% of that observed in controls. Finally, the tumors that formed from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells were about a fourth the size of tumors derived from ovarian cancer cells with normal levels of PGRMC1. One reason for PGRMC1-deplete tumors being smaller is that they had a poorly developed microvasculature system. How PGRMC1 regulates cell viability and in turn tumor growth is not known but part of the mechanism likely involves the regulation of genes that promote cell survival and inhibit apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fertility drugs, reproductive strategies and ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomao, Federica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Stati, Valeria; Prete, Alessandra Anna; Prinzi, Natalie; Sinjari, Marsela; Vici, Patrizia; Papa, Anselmo; Chiotti, Maria Stefania; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Tomao, Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Several adverse effects have been related to infertility treatments, such as cancer development. In particular, the relationship between infertility, reproductive strategies, and risk of gynecological cancers has aroused much interest in recent years. The evaluation of cancer risk among women treated for infertility is very complex, mainly because of many factors that can contribute to occurrence of cancer in these patients (including parity status). This article addresses the possible association between the use of fertility treatments and the risk of ovarian cancer, through a scrupulous search of the literature published thus far in this field. Our principal objective was to give more conclusive answers on the question whether the use of fertility drug significantly increases ovarian cancer risk. Our analysis focused on the different types of drugs and different treatment schedules used. This study provides additional insights regarding the long-term relationships between fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.

  3. Health and Recovery Program in Increasing Physical Activity Level in Stage IA-IIIA Endometrial Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Cancer Survivor; Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer AJCC v7

  4. A Molecularly Targeted Theranostic Probe for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenxue; Bardhan, Rizia; Bartels, Marc; Perez-Torres, Carlos; Pautler, Robia G.; Halas, Naomi J.; Joshi, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family has been implicated in ovarian cancer because of its participation in signaling pathway regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. Currently, effective diagnostic and therapeutic schemes are lacking for treating ovarian cancer and consequently ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate. While HER2 receptor expression does not usually affect the survival rates of ovarian cancer to the same extent as in breast cancer, it can be employed as a docking site for directed nanotherapies in cases with de novo or acquired chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we have exploited a novel gold nanoshell-based complex (nanocomplex) for targeting, dual modal imaging, and photothermal therapy of HER2 overexpressing and drug resistant ovarian cancer OVCAR3 cells in vitro. The nanocomplexes are engineered to simultaneously provide contrast as fluorescence optical imaging probe and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agent. Both immunofluorescence staining and MRI successfully demonstrate that nanocomplex-anti-HER2 conjugates specifically bind to OVCAR3 cells as opposed to the control, MDA-MB-231 cells, which have low HER2 expression. In addition, nanocomplexes targeted to OVCAR3 cells, when irradiated with near infrared (NIR) laser result in selective destruction of cancer cells through photothermal ablation. We also demonstrate that NIR light therapy and the nanocomplexes by themselves are non-cytotoxic in vitro. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a successful integration of dual modal bioimaging with photothermal cancer therapy for treatment of ovarian cancer. Based on their efficacy in vitro, these nanocomplexes are highly promising for image guided photo-thermal therapy of ovarian cancer as well as other HER2 overexpressing cancers. PMID:20371708

  5. PSPHL as a candidate gene influencing racial disparities in endometrial cancer incidence and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eAllard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy in the United States and is characterized by a well recognized racial disparity in both incidence and survival. Specifically Caucasians are about two times more likely to develop endometrial cancer than are African Americans. However, African American women are more likely to die from this disease than are Caucasians. The basis for this disparity remains unknown. Previous studies have identified differences in the types and frequencies of gene mutations among endometrial cancers from Caucasians and African Americans suggesting. We performed a gene expression microarray study in an effort to further examine differences between African American and Caucasian women’s endometrial cancers. This expression screen identified a list of potential biomarkers differentially expressed between these two groups of cancers. Of these we identified a poorly characterized transcript with a region of homology to phospho serine phospatase (PSPH and designated phospho serine phospatase like (PSPHL as the most differentially over-expressed gene in cancers from African Americans. We clarified the nature of expressed transcripts. Northern blot analysis confirmed PSPHL messages under 1 KB. Sequence analysis of transcripts confirmed two alternate open reading frame (ORF isoforms due to alternative splicing events. Splice specific primer sets confirmed both isoforms were differentially expressed in tissues from Caucasians and African Americans. We further examined the expression in other tissues from women to include normal endometrium, normal and malignant ovary. In all cases PSPHL expression was more often present in tissues from African-Americans than Caucasians. Our data confirm the African-American based expression of the PSPHL transcript several tissue types. PSPHL represents a candidate gene that might influence the observed racial disparity in endometrial and other cancers.

  6. Obesity Exposure Across the Lifespan on Ovarian Cancer Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    exposure to the HFD or LFD, obese mice weighed significantly greater than lean mice (p=0.003, Table 1). There was no effect of HFD on non- fasted blood...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0164 TITLE: Obesity Exposure Across the Lifespan on Ovarian Cancer Pathogenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Victoria Bae...31 May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Obesity Exposure Across the Lifespan on Ovarian Cancer Pathogenesis 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. Adjuvant brachytherapy removes survival disadvantage of local disease extension in stage IIIC endometrial cancer: a SEER registry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Peter J; Jani, Ashesh B; Horowitz, Ira R; Johnstone, Peter A S

    2008-01-01

    To assess the role of radiotherapy (RT) in women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer. The 17-registry Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was searched for patients with lymph node-positive non-Stage IV epithelial endometrial cancer diagnosed and treated between 1988 and 1998. Two subgroups were identified: those with organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and those with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. RT was coded as external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BT). Observed survival (OS) was reported with a minimum of 5 years of follow-up; the survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. The therapy data revealed 611 women with Stage IIIC endometrial cancer during this period. Of these women, 51% were treated with adjuvant EBRT, 21% with EBRT and BT, and 28% with no additional RT (NAT). Of the 611 patients, 293 had organ-confined Stage IIIC endometrial cancer and 318 patients had Stage IIIC endometrial cancer with direct extension of the primary tumor. The 5-year OS rate for all patients was 40% with NAT, 56% after EBRT, and 64% after EBRT/BT. Adjuvant RT improved survival compared with NAT (p primary tumor was present, the addition of BT to EBRT was even more beneficial.

  8. TC in female pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about the role of imaging in the female pelvis. The CT is an important key in the diagnosis of gynecological malignant pathologies such as Ovarian, endometrial cervical, bladder, vaginal and vulvar cancer

  9. Iron addiction: a novel therapeutic target in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuli, D.

    2017-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a lethal malignancy that has not seen a major therapeutic advance in over 30 years. We demonstrate that ovarian cancer exhibits a targetable alteration in iron metabolism. Ferroportin (FPN), the iron efflux pump, is decreased, and transferrin receptor (TFR1), the iron importer, is increased in tumor tissue from patients with high grade but not low grade serous ovarian cancer. A similar profile of decreased FPN and increased TFR1 is observed in a genetic model of ovarian cancer tumor-initiating cells (TICs). The net result of these changes is an accumulation of excess intracellular iron and an augmented dependence on iron for proliferation. A forced reduction in intracellular iron reduces the proliferation of ovarian cancer TICs in vitro, and inhibits both tumor growth and intraperitoneal dissemination of tumor cells in vivo. Some mechanistic studies demonstrate that iron increases metastatic spread by facilitating invasion through expression of matrix metalloproteases and synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6). Here, we show that the iron dependence of ovarian cancer TICs renders them exquisitely sensitive in vivo to agents that induce iron-dependent cell death (ferroptosis) as well as iron chelators, and thus creates a metabolic vulnerability that can be exploited therapeutically.

  10. Expression of placental protein 14 by the new endometrial cancer cell line MFE-280 in vitro and by endometrial carcinomas in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, R; Loos, S; Nia, A H; Kunzmann, R; Schulz, K D

    1998-01-01

    MFE-280 endometrial cancer cells express PP14 (placental protein 14) in vitro. PP14 is normally found in the secretory endometrium and in placental tissue. MFE-280 cells, which are tumorigenic in nude mice, were derived from a recurrent, poorly differentiated endometrial carcinoma. The cells were initially grown in suspension culture and later transferred to monolayer cultures. Karyotyping revealed near-diploidy with a complex heterogeneous aberration pattern. MFE-280 cells were positive for the cytokeratins 7, 8, 18 and 19 as well as for vimentin. The expression of PP14 in MFE-280 cells was demonstrated by immunochemistry and reverse transcriptase--polymerase chain reaction. PP14-mRNA was also detected in one out of five endometrial cancer specimen. In tumor tissue the expression of PP14 was not dependent on progestins.

  11. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleman, Jozien; Staveren, Iris L van; Dinjens, Winand NM; Kuijk, Patricia F van; Ritstier, Kirsten; Ewing, Patricia C; Burg, Maria EL van der; Stoter, Gerrit; Berns, Els MJJ

    2006-01-01

    The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI) as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26), MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA) and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR) in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation), SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression) and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes). Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response). The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation

  12. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helleman, Jozien; Staveren, Iris L van [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Dinjens, Winand NM [Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kuijk, Patricia F van; Ritstier, Kirsten [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ewing, Patricia C [Department of Pathology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Burg, Maria EL van der; Stoter, Gerrit [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Berns, Els MJJ [Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC/Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC, Department of Medical Oncology, Josephine Nefkens Institute, Room Be424, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR (Netherlands)

    2006-07-31

    The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR) inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI) as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26), MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA) and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR) in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation), SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression) and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes). Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response). The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation.

  13. Mismatch repair and treatment resistance in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Burg Maria EL

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of ovarian cancer is hindered by intrinsic or acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of mismatch repair (MMR inactivation in ovarian cancer and its association with resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods We determined, microsatellite instability (MSI as a marker for MMR inactivation (analysis of BAT25 and BAT26, MLH1 promoter methylation status (methylation specific PCR on bisulfite treated DNA and mRNA expression of MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 and PMS2 (quantitative RT-PCR in 75 ovarian carcinomas and eight ovarian cancer cell lines Results MSI was detected in three of the eight cell lines i.e. A2780 (no MLH1 mRNA expression due to promoter methylation, SKOV3 (no MLH1 mRNA expression and 2774 (no altered expression of MMR genes. Overall, there was no association between cisplatin response and MMR status in these eight cell lines. Seven of the 75 ovarian carcinomas showed MLH1 promoter methylation, however, none of these showed MSI. Forty-six of these patients received platinum-based chemotherapy (11 non-responders, 34 responders, one unknown response. The resistance seen in the eleven non-responders was not related to MSI and therefore also not to MMR inactivation. Conclusion No MMR inactivation was detected in 75 ovarian carcinoma specimens and no association was seen between MMR inactivation and resistance in the ovarian cancer cell lines as well as the ovarian carcinomas. In the discussion, the results were compared to that of twenty similar studies in the literature including in total 1315 ovarian cancer patients. Although no association between response and MMR status was seen in the primary tumor the possible role of MMR inactivation in acquired resistance deserves further investigation.

  14. Pituitary-ovarian hormones after low-dose endometrial afterloading irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenroos, M.; Kauppila, O.; Pulkkinen, M.; Turunen, S.; Salmi, T.; Raekallio, J. (Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

    1983-10-01

    Low-dose endometrial after loading irradiation was used in 19 mentally retarded women for the induction of therapeutic amenorrhea. They were divided into two groups on the basis of age: 13 young patients (mean age 17 years, range 13-26 years) and six patients of middle age (mean age 42 years, range 34-44 years). In the young patients, during the 10 month follow-up period, the plasma E/sub 2/ levels did not decrease. However, the FSH concentration increased. Later on, 2-9 years after treatment, the E/sub 2/ levels were significantly higher than those of healthy postmenopausal women and did not differ from the values of healthy women in the six to seven days of the menstrual cycle. At that time the FSH and LH levels were similar to reference values in reproductive age. The E/sub 2//E/sub 1/ ratio was significantly higher than that of healthy women in the six to seven days of the cycle and that of postmenopausal women. Most of the menstrual cycles were anovulatory but some ovulatory also occurred. The testosterone concentrations did not differ from reference values. The ovaries of the middle age patients were more sensitive to irradiation than those of the younger patients. 7 refs.

  15. Pituitary-ovarian hormones after low-dose endometrial afterloading irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenroos, M.; Kauppila, O.; Pulkkinen, M.; Turunen, S.; Salmi, T.; Raekallio, J.

    1983-01-01

    Low-dose endometrial after loading irradiation was used in 19 mentally retarded women for the induction of therapeutic amenorrhea. They were divided into two groups on the basis of age: 13 young patients (mean age 17 years, range 13-26 years) and six patients of middle age (mean age 42 years, range 34-44 years). In the young patients, during the 10 month follow-up period, the plasma E 2 levels did not decrease. However, the FSH concentration increased. Later on, 2-9 years after treatment, the E 2 levels were significantly higher than those of healthy postmenopausal women and did not differ from the values of healthy women in the six to seven days of the menstrual cycle. At that time the FSH and LH levels were similar to reference values in reproductive age. The E 2 /E 1 ratio was significantly higher than that of healthy women in the six to seven days of the cycle and that of postmenopausal women. Most of the menstrual cycles were anovulatory but some ovulatory also occurred. The testosterone concentrations did not differ from reference values. The ovaries of the middle age patients were more sensitive to irradiation than those of the younger patients. (author)

  16. The prognostic role of classical and nonclassical MHC class I expression in endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijen, C.B.; Bantema-Joppe, E.J.; de Jong, Renske; Leffers, N.; Mourits, M.J.; Eggink, Henk F.; van der Zee, A.G.; Hollema, H.; de Bock, G.H.; Nijman, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate classical MHC class I and nonclassical MHC (human leukocyte antigen-G [HLA-GJ) expression in a large cohort of patients with endometrial cancer, to determine the prognostic value of these cell surface markers and their relation with clinicopathological

  17. Impact of robotics on the outcome of elderly patients with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoue, Vincent; Zeng, Xing; Lau, Susie; Press, Joshua Z; Abitbol, Jeremie; Gotlieb, Raphael; How, Jeffrey; Wang, Yifan; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of introducing a robotics program on clinical outcome of elderly patients with endometrial cancer. Evaluation and comparison of peri-operative morbidity and disease-free interval in 163 consecutive elderly patients (≥70years) with endometrial cancer undergoing staging procedure with traditional open surgery compared to robotic surgery. All consecutive patients ≥70years of age with endometrial cancer who underwent robotic surgery (n=113) were compared with all consecutive patients ≥70years of age (n=50) before the introduction of a robotic program in December 2007. Baseline patient characteristics were similar in both eras. Patients undergoing robotic surgery had longer mean operating times (244 compared with 217minutes, p=0.009) but fewer minor adverse events (17% compared with 60%, probotics cohort had less estimated mean blood loss (75 vs 334mL, probotics program for the treatment of endometrial cancer in the elderly has significant benefits, including lower minor complication rate, less operative blood loss and shorter hospitalization without compromising 2-year disease-free survival. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk of colorectal and endometrial cancers in EPCAM deletion-positive Lynch syndrome : a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempers, Marlies J. E.; Kuiper, Roland P.; Ockeloen, Charlotte W.; Chappuis, Pierre O.; Hutter, Pierre; Rahner, Nils; Schackert, Hans K.; Steinke, Verena; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Morak, Monika; Kloor, Matthias; Buettner, Reinhard; Verwiel, Eugene T. P.; van Krieken, J. Han; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; Goossens, Monique; van der Post, Rachel S.; Niessen, Renee C.; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Kluijt, Irma; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Leter, Edward M.; Gille, Johan J. P.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Redeker, Egbert J. W.; Hes, Frederik J.; Tops, Carli M. J.; van Nesselrooij, Bernadette P. M.; van Gijn, Marielle E.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Eccles, Diana M.; Bunyan, David J.; Syngal, Sapna; Stoffel, Elena M.; Culver, Julie O.; Palomares, Melanie R.; Graham, Tracy; Velsher, Lea; Papp, Janos; Olah, Edith; Chan, Tsun L.; Leung, Suet Y.; van Kessel, Ad Geurts; Kiemeney, Lambertus A. L. M.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.

    Background Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations in MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 mismatch-repair genes and leads to a high risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer. We previously showed that constitutional 3' end deletions of EPCAM can cause Lynch syndrome through epigenetic silencing of

  19. The risk of extra-colonic, extra-endometrial cancer in the Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Patrice; Vasen, Hans F A; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka

    2008-01-01

    persons missing crucial information, cohort included 6,041 members of 261 families with LS-associated MLH1 or MSH2 mutations. All were either mutation carriers by test, probable mutation carriers (endometrial/colorectal cancer-affected), or first-degree relatives of these. Among mutation carriers...

  20. A functional polymorphism in the promoter of the progesterone receptor gene associated with endometrial cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vivo, Immaculata; Huggins, Gordon S; Hankinson, Susan E; Lescault, Pamela J; Boezen, Hendrika; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J

    2002-01-01

    Excessive estrogen stimulation unopposed by progesterone strongly predisposes to endometrial cancer. Because the antiproliferative effect of progesterone requires the progesterone receptor (PR), which exists in two isoforms, PR-A and -B, we reasoned that variants in the PR gene may predispose to

  1. Safety of laparoscopy versus laparotomy in early-stage endometrial cancer : a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.J.E.; Bijen, C.B.; Arts, H.J.; Ter Brugge, H.G.; van der Sijde, R.; Paulsen, L.; Wijma, J.; Bongers, M.Y.; Post, W.J.; van der Zee, A.G.; de Bock, G.H.

    Background The standard surgery for early-stage endometrial cancer is total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, which is associated with substantial morbidity. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is less invasive and is assumed to

  2. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy seems safe in women with early-stage endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herling, Suzanne Forsyth; Havemann, Maria Cecilie; Palle, Connie

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of endometrial cancer; and although it is known that minimally invasive surgery reduces post-operative morbidity, the outcomes of this novel treatment should be monitored carefully. The aim of this study was to examine the incid......INTRODUCTION: Robotic surgery is increasingly used in the management of endometrial cancer; and although it is known that minimally invasive surgery reduces post-operative morbidity, the outcomes of this novel treatment should be monitored carefully. The aim of this study was to examine...... the incidence of complications according to the Clavien-Dindo scale after robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) for early-stage endometrial cancer and atypical complex hyperplasia. The Clavien-Dindo scale grades the severity of complications. METHODS: This was a retrospective, descriptive cohort....... CONCLUSION: The types and frequency of complications observed in this study resemble those reported in similar studies of RALH for malignant gynaecologic conditions. Health-care professionals treating and caring for women with early-stage endometrial cancer should know of the types and frequency of post...

  3. Predictive model of urinary tract infection after surgical treatment for women with endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Hiroko; Hom, Marianne S; Shabalova, Anastasiya; Grubbs, Brendan H; Matsuo, Koji

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs) following hysterectomy-based surgical staging in women with endometrial cancer. This is a retrospective study utilizing an institutional database (2008-2016) of stage I-IV endometrial cancer cases that underwent hysterectomy-based surgery. UTIs occurring within a 30-day time period after surgery were examined and correlated to patient clinico-pathological demographics. UTIs were observed in 44 (6.4%, 95% confidence interval 4.6-8.2) out of 687 cases subsequent to the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. UTI cases were significantly associated with obesity, advanced stage, prolonged operative time, hysterectomy type, pelvic lymphadenectomy, non-β-lactam antibiotics, and intraoperative urinary tract injury (all, p Urinary tract infections are common in women following surgical treatment for women with endometrial cancer with risk factors being a prolonged surgical time, radical hysterectomy, and non-guideline perioperative anti-microbial agent use. Consideration of prophylactic anti-microbial agent use in a high-risk group of postoperative urinary tract infection merits further investigation.

  4. Molecular profiling of circulating tumor cells links plasticity to the metastatic process in endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Alconada, Lorena; Muinelo-Romay, Laura; Madissoo, Kadri; Diaz-Lopez, Antonio; Krakstad, Camilla; Trovik, Jone; Wik, Elisabeth; Hapangama, Dharani; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Cano, Amparo; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; Chiva, Luis; Cueva, Juan; Vieito, Maria; Ortega, Eugenia; Mariscal, Javier; Colas, Eva; Castellvi, Josep; Cusido, Maite; Dolcet, Xavier; Nijman, Hans W.; Bosse, Tjalling; Green, John A.; Romano, Andrea; Reventos, Jaume; Lopez-Lopez, Rafael; Salvesen, Helga B.; Amant, Frederic; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Abal, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Background: About 20% of patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer (EC) are considered high-risk with unfavorable prognosis. In the framework of the European Network for Individualized Treatment in EC (ENITEC), we investigated the presence and phenotypic features of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in

  5. Regulation of matriptase and HAI-1 system, a novel therapeutic target in human endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pengming; Xue, Lifang; Song, Yiyi; Mao, Xiaodan; Chen, Lili; Dong, Binhua; Braicu, Elena Loana; Sehouli, Jalid

    2018-02-27

    The effects of specific and non-specific regulation of matriptase on endometrial cancer cells in vitro were investigated. Messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression of matriptase and hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1) in RL-952, HEC-1A, and HEC-1B endometrial cancer cells were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot. The cells were infected with lentivirus-mediated small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted on matriptase (MA-siRNA) or treated with different cisplatin (DDP) concentrations. After treatment, invasion, migration, and cellular apoptosis were analyzed. Matriptase mRNA and protein expression significantly decreased to 80% after infection with MA-siRNA ( P scratch and trans-well chamber assays showed significant inhibition of invasiveness and metastasis. Upon incubation with cisplatin at concentrations higher than the therapeutic dose for 24 h, the expressions of matriptase and HAI-1 significantly decreased ( P endometrial cancer cells were significantly decreased ( P endometrial cancer cells showed promising therapeutic features.

  6. Targeting the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inhibits ovarian cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Hilary A; Leonhardt, Payton; Ladanyi, Andras; Yamada, S Diane; Montag, Anthony; Im, Hae Kyung; Jagadeeswaran, Sujatha; Shaw, David E; Mazar, Andrew P; Lengyel, Ernst

    2011-02-01

    To understand the functional and preclinical efficacy of targeting the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) in ovarian cancer. Expression of u-PAR was studied in 162 epithelial ovarian cancers, including 77 pairs of corresponding primary and metastatic tumors. The effect of an antibody against u-PAR (ATN-658) on proliferation, adhesion, invasion, apoptosis, and migration was assessed in 3 (SKOV3ip1, HeyA8, and CaOV3) ovarian cancer cell lines. The impact of the u-PAR antibody on tumor weight, number, and survival was examined in corresponding ovarian cancer xenograft models and the mechanism by which ATN-658 blocks metastasis was explored. Only 8% of all ovarian tumors were negative for u-PAR expression. Treatment of SKOV3ip1, HeyA8, and CaOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines with the u-PAR antibody inhibited cell invasion, migration, and adhesion. In vivo, anti-u-PAR treatment reduced the number of tumors and tumor weight in CaOV3 and SKOV3ip1 xenografts and reduced tumor weight and increased survival in HeyA8 xenografts. Immunostaining of CaOV3 xenograft tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines showed an increase in active-caspase 3 and TUNEL staining. Treatment with u-PAR antibody inhibited α(5)-integrin and u-PAR colocalization on primary human omental extracellular matrix. Anti-u-PAR treatment also decreased the expression of urokinase, u-PAR, β(3)-integrin, and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 both in vitro and in vivo. This study shows that an antibody against u-PAR reduces metastasis, induces apoptosis, and reduces the interaction between u-PAR and α(5)-integrin. This provides a rationale for targeting the u-PAR pathway in patients with ovarian cancer and for further testing of ATN-658 in this indication. ©2010 AACR.

  7. Drugs Approved for Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ovarian cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  8. Classical prognostic factors in patients with non-advanced endometrial cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolewski, K.; Kojs, Z.; Jakubowicz, J.; Urbanski, K.; Michalak, A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Analysis of classical prognostic factors in patients with non-advanced endometrial cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Materials/Methods: In the years 1985 - 1999, 705 patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy due to endometrial cancer: 529 patients with FIGO stage I and 176 with FIGO stage II cancer. Mean age was 58 years. In 96% of patients endometrioid adenocarcinoma was found. In 49.9% the cancer had a high, in 27.9% a medium, and in 22.2% a low degree of differentiation. Results: 82% of patients had 5-year disease-free survival. In univariate analysis a significantly higher rate of disease-free survival was observed in: patients younger than 60, with moderately and well differentiated cancers, with stage I endometrioid adenocarcinoma with less than 50% myometrial invasion. In multivariate analysis degree of cancer differentiation was the only independent prognostic factor. Conclusions: In a group of patients with non-advanced endometrial cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy, degree of cancer differentiation is the primary prognostic factor. (authors)

  9. Cancer-related fatigue and physical activity among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Kyoko; Maru, Mitsue; Maeda, Rumi; Kubota, Toshiro

    2015-09-30

    To examine the relationship between cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and physical activity in daily living in premenopausal disease-free cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. A physical activity monitor was used to collect objective data on daily physical activity. CRF and related variables were measured using self-report scales in a cross-sectional manner. The average age was 44.9 years among 64 women. The higher CRF group comprised 22 women (34%), 10% of whom had severe fatigue. The participants had higher physical activity levels compared with the findings in previous studies, and reported an average of 40 min/day of moderate to vigorous activity. Moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity were derived from essential social activities rather than leisure time exercise. There were no significant differences in physical activity levels between the lower and higher CRF groups. Our study results suggested that the higher level of physical activity in daily living itself had no relationship with decreasing CRF among premenopausal cervical and endometrial cancer survivors. It would be better to focus on cognitive and psychological factors before introducing physical activity programs and be careful of the characteristics of the participants' physical activity among this population in daily basis.

  10. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diergaarde, Brenda; Kurta, Michelle L

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight recent research and insights into the relationship between fertility drug use and ovarian cancer risk. Results from two large case-control studies provided further evidence that fertility drug use does not significantly contribute to risk of ovarian cancer among the majority of women when adjusting for known confounding factors. However, questions regarding the effect on certain subgroups, including long-term fertility drug users, women who remain nulligravid after fertility treatment, women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and borderline ovarian tumours, still remain. In addition, it may currently just be too early to determine whether there is an association between fertility drug use and ovarian cancer risk given that many of the exposed women are only now beginning to reach the ovarian cancer age range. Whether use of fertility drugs increases the risk of ovarian cancer is an important question that requires further investigation, in particular given the large number of women utilizing fertility treatments. Fortunately, results from recent studies have been mainly reassuring. Large well designed studies with sufficient follow-up time are needed to further evaluate the effects of fertility treatments within subgroups defined by patient and tumour characteristics.

  11. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Therapy in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Takai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Since epigenetic alterations are believed to be involved in the repression of tumor suppressor genes and promotion of tumorigenesis in ovarian cancers, novel compounds endowed with a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitory activity are an attractive therapeutic approach. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDAC inhibitors (HDACIs in treating ovarian cancer. HDACIs were able to mediate inhibition of cell growth, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and expression of genes related to the malignant phenotype in a variety of ovarian cancer cell lines. Furthermore, HDACIs were able to induce the accumulation of acetylated histones in the chromatin of the p21WAF1 gene in human ovarian carcinoma cells. In xenograft models, some of HDACIs have demonstrated antitumor activity with only few side effects. Some clinical trials demonstrate that HDACI drugs provide an important class of new mechanism-based therapeutics for ovarian cancer. In this review, we discuss the biologic and therapeutic effects of HDACIs in treating ovarian cancer, especially focusing on preclinical studies and clinical trials.

  12. Cadmium exposure and endometrial cancer risk: A large midwestern U.S. population-based case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A McElroy

    Full Text Available Estrogen-mimicking chemicals, such as cadmium, may be associated with increased susceptibility to hormone-dependent cancers, though supporting data are sparse, particularly for endometrial cancer. The Health and Environmental Exposure Research (HEER study worked with the Arkansas Central Cancer Registry, Iowa Cancer Registry and Missouri Cancer Registry to obtain names of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer who were willing to be contacted for participation in our case control study. Voter registration lists from Iowa and Missouri were used to randomly select similarly aged women as represented in the case population. Participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on known or suspected endometrial risk factors. Urine kits were sent to participants for home collection and returned for analysis. Our case-control study consisted of 631 incident cases of endometrial cancer diagnosed from January 2010 to October 2012 and 879 age-matched population-based controls, ages 18-81 years (mean age 65 years. We quantified cadmium amounts in urine and standardized these values through creatinine adjustment. Using data from all survey completers, we developed a multivariable model for endometrial cancer. Creatinine-adjusted cadmium concentration was added to this model. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for endometrial cancer were calculated. After multivariable adjustment, higher creatinine-adjusted cadmium exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase of endometrial cancer risk (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.03-1.44. Our results provide evidence that cadmium may increase the risk of endometrial cancer, possibly through estrogenic effects.

  13. HNF1B and endometrial cancer risk: results from the PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Wendy Setiawan

    Full Text Available We examined the association between HNF1B variants identified in a recent genome-wide association study and endometrial cancer in two large case-control studies nested in prospective cohorts: the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC and the Women's Health Initiative (WHI as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE study. A total of 1,357 incident cases of invasive endometrial cancer and 7,609 controls were included in the analysis (MEC: 426 cases/3,854 controls; WHI: 931 cases/3,755 controls. The majority of women in the WHI were European American, while the MEC included sizable numbers of African Americans, Japanese and Latinos. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs per allele and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of each SNP using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for age, body mass index, and four principal components of ancestry informative markers. The combined ORs were estimated using fixed effect models. Rs4430796 and rs7501939 were associated with endometrial cancer risk in MEC and WHI with no heterogeneity observed across racial/ethnic groups (P ≥ 0.21 or between studies (P ≥ 0.70. The OR(per allele was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.89; P = 5.63 × 10(-6 for rs4430796 (G allele and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P = 3.77 × 10(-7 for rs7501939 (A allele. The associations with the risk of Type I and Type II tumors were similar (P ≥ 0.19. Adjustment for additional endometrial cancer risk factors such as parity, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone use, and smoking status had little effect on the results. In conclusion, HNF1B SNPs are associated with risk of endometrial cancer and that the associated relative risks are similar for Type I and Type II tumors.

  14. Cannabinoid-induced cell death in endometrial cancer cells: involvement of TRPV1 receptors in apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, B M; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N A

    2018-05-01

    Among a variety of phytocannabinoids, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most promising therapeutic compounds. Besides the well-known palliative effects in cancer patients, cannabinoids have been shown to inhibit in vitro growth of tumor cells. Likewise, the major endocannabinoids (eCBs), anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), induce tumor cell death. The purpose of the present study was to characterize cannabinoid elements and evaluate the effect of cannabinoids in endometrial cancer cell viability. The presence of cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), and endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. We also examined the effects and the underlying mechanisms induced by eCBs and phytocannabinoids in endometrial cancer cell viability. Besides TRPV1, both EC cell lines express all the constituents of the endocannabinoid system. We observed that at concentrations higher than 5 μM, eCBs and CBD induced a significant reduction in cell viability in both Ishikawa and Hec50co cells, whereas THC did not cause any effect. In Ishikawa cells, contrary to Hec50co, treatment with AEA and CBD resulted in an increase in the levels of activated caspase -3/-7, in cleaved PARP, and in reactive oxygen species generation, confirming that the reduction in cell viability observed in the MTT assay was caused by the activation of the apoptotic pathway. Finally, these effects were dependent on TRPV1 activation and intracellular calcium levels. These data indicate that cannabinoids modulate endometrial cancer cell death. Selective targeting of TPRV1 by AEA, CBD, or other stable analogues may be an attractive research area for the treatment of estrogen-dependent endometrial carcinoma. Our data further support the evaluation of CBD and CBD-rich extracts for the potential treatment of endometrial cancer, particularly, that has become non-responsive to common therapies.

  15. Plasma and ovarian tissue sphingolipids profiling in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paweł; Bodnar, Lubomir; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Świderska, Magdalena; Chabowski, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    The role of lipids in carcinogenesis through induction of abnormal cell lines in the human body is currently undisputable. Based on the literature, bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and are involved in the metastatic process. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of selected sphingolipids in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC, FIGO III/IV, high grade ovarian cancer). Seventy-four patients with ovarian cancer were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer and C18-Cer were assessed by LC/MS/MS. The content of tissue sphingolipids was measured using a UHPLC/MS/MS. Plasma concentration of 3 ceramides: C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer and C18-Cer was significantly elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer compared to control group (P=0.031; 0.022; 0.020; respectively). There were increases in concentration of 5 ceramides: C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer, C18-Cer, C24:1-Cer, C24-Cer (P=0.025; 0.049; 0.032; 0.005; 0.013, respectively) and S1P (P=0.004) in ovarian tissue of women with advanced ovarian cancer compared to healthy individuals. Importantly, significantly higher risk of ovarian cancer when the plasma concentration of C16-Cer>311.88ng/100μl (AUC: 0.76, P=0.0261); C18:1-Cer>4.75ng/100μl (AUC: 0.77, P=0.0160) and C18-Cer>100.76ng/100μl (AUC:0.77, P=0.0136) was noticed. Bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and they also take part in the process of metastasizing. This study suggests that some sphingolipids can be used as potential biomarkers of advanced ovarian cancer and that they can play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Ovarian Tumor β2-Adrenergic Receptor Status with Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianyi; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hecht, Jonathan L; Rice, Megan S; Sood, Anil K; Kubzansky, Laura D; Poole, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    The β 2 -adrenergic signaling pathway mediates the effects of chronic stress on ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. The relevance of this pathway to human ovarian cancer remains unknown. We assessed tumor expression of β 2 -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) using tissue microarrays in 237 ovarian cancer cases from the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII). Competing risks Cox regression was used to evaluate whether associations of reproductive, hormonal, and psychosocial factors with ovarian cancer risk differed by ADRB2. We also examined the association between tumor ADRB2 expression and ovarian cancer survival. Forty-five (19%) cases were positive for ADRB2 staining. High levels of anxiety symptoms were positively associated with ADRB2-positive tumors (HR, 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-5.84) but not with ADRB2-negative tumors (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.81-1.66; P heterogeneity = 0.07). We observed similar results for depression. No associations were observed for job strain, caregiving stress, or widowhood for either positive or negative ADRB2 status. Lifetime ovulatory years were more strongly associated with ADRB2-positive tumors (HR per 5 years, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.15-2.21) compared with ADRB2-negative tumors (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.96-1.27; P heterogeneity = 0.04). Significant heterogeneity by ADRB2 was also observed for parity (P heterogeneity = 0.01), oral contraceptive use (P heterogeneity = 0.03), and age at menopause (P heterogeneity = 0.04). Tumor expression of ADRB2 was not associated with ovarian cancer mortality (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.69-1.59). Several stress- and ovulation-related factors were differentially associated with ovarian tumors responsive to β 2 -adrenergic signaling. Replication in larger studies is warranted to confirm the role of β 2 -adrenergic signaling in ovarian cancer etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(12); 1587-94. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Radiation therapy for epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dembo, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Several principles governing the cure of patients with ovarian cancer by radiotherapy were established during the last decade. The author reviews some of the studies at The Princess Margaret Hospital (PMH), which led to the establishment of the following principles: The entire peritoneal cavity should be encompassed by the treatment field, because once the disease has spread beyond the ovary, the entire peritoneal cavity is at risk for recurrent cancer. The moving-strip and open-field techniques are equally effective in tumor control. Late complications can be kept to a minimum (<5% bowel surgery, <1% radiation hepatitis, < 1% treatment mortality), but their frequency increases with increasing total radiation dosage, increasing fraction size, and possibly the extent of the previous surgical procedures (Dembo 1985a). Optimal selection of patients for radiotherapy compared with other forms of treatment is based on grouping of patients according to prognostic factors, including presenting stage of disease, amount and site of residual tumor, and histophatologic features. The potential exists for abdominopelvic radiation to be applied curatively as consolidation or as salvage therapy for patients whose disease has not been completely eradicated by chemotherapy;however, further study is needed to clarify the magnitude of this benefit, the situations in which radiotherapy is indicated, and factors that determine the toxicity of the combined-modality treatment

  18. Circulating soluble Fas levels and risk of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedkhanov, Arslan; Lenner, Per; Muti, Paola; Rinaldi, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Berrino, Franco; Hallmans, Göran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lundin, Eva; Guller, Seth; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Micheli, Andrea; Ma, Yuehong; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Krogh, Vittorio

    2003-01-01

    Dysregulation of apoptosis, specifically overexpression of soluble Fas (sFas), has been proposed to play a role in the development of ovarian cancer. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate serum sFas as a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer risk. The association between serum sFas levels and the risk of ovarian cancer was examined in a case-control study nested within three prospective cohorts in New York (USA), Umeå (Sweden), and Milan (Italy). Case subjects were 138 women with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2 months and 13.2 years after the initial blood donation. Control subjects were 263 women who were free of cancer, and matched the case on cohort, menopausal status, age, and enrollment date. Serum sFas levels were determined using a quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Serum sFas levels were similar in women subsequently diagnosed with ovarian cancer (median, 6.5 ng/mL; range, 4.4 – 10.2) and in controls (median, 6.8 ng/mL; range, 4.5 – 10.1). Statistically significant trends of increasing serum sFas with age were observed among cases (r = 0.39, p < 0.0001) and controls (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001). Compared to women in the lowest third, women in the highest third of serum sFas were not at increased risk of ovarian cancer after adjustment for potential confounders (odd ratio (OR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42 – 1.82). The results suggest that serum sFas may not be a suitable marker for identification of women at increased risk of ovarian cancer

  19. Siegesbeckia orientalis Extract Inhibits TGFβ1-Induced Migration and Invasion of Endometrial Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type II endometrial carcinoma typically exhibits aggressive metastasis and results in a poor prognosis. Siegesbeckia orientalis Linne is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with several medicinal benefits, including the cytotoxicity against various cancers. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of S. orientalis ethanol extract (SOE on the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells, which were stimulated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ. The inhibitory effects were evaluated by determining wound healing and performing the Boyden chamber assay. This study reveals that SOE can inhibit TGFβ1-induced cell wound healing, cell migration, and cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner in RL95-2 and HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. SOE also reversed the TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including the loss of the cell-cell junction and the lamellipodia-like structures. Western blot analysis revealed that SOE inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and Akt, as well as the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and u-PA in RL95-2 cells dose-dependently. The results of this investigation suggest that SOE is a potential anti-metastatic agent against human endometrial tumors.

  20. Neoadjuvant therapy of endometrial cancer with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole: endocrine and clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev; Maximov, Sergei; Gershfeld, Eduard; Meshkova, Irina; Gamajunova, Vera; Tsyrlina, Evgenia; Larionov, Alexei; Kovalevskij, Anatolii; Vasilyev, Dmitry

    2002-11-15

    To investigate the short-term hormonal and clinical effects of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femara) in patients with endometrial cancer. Ten previously untreated, post-menopausal patients (mean age 59 years) with endometrial cancer, predominantly stage I disease, received letrozole 2.5mg per day for 14 days before surgery. Clinical, sonographic, morphologic, cytologic, and hormonal-metabolic parameters (blood estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), glucose, and cholesterol by radioimmunoassay, enzyme immune assay, or enzyme-colorimetric methods; tumor progesterone receptors by ligand-binding assay; and aromatase activity by 3H-water release assay) were evaluated before and after treatment. Treatment was well-tolerated in all patients. In two patients, pain relief in the lower part of the belly and/or decrease in intensity of uterine discharge was reported. In the three cases, substantial decreases in endometrial M-echo (ultrasound) signal were noted; the mean value of this parameter after treatment was 31.1% lower than before treatment. Blood estradiol concentration decreased by an average of 37.8% after letrozole therapy, and tumor progesterone receptor levels and aromatase activity decreased by 34.4 and 17.5%, respectively. Treatment with letrozole did not influence surgery. These data show that short-term treatment with letrozole in the neoadjuvant setting resulted in some positive clinical changes. Longer-term and larger-scale trials of neoadjuvant letrozole in endometrial cancer are warranted.

  1. The prognostic significance of the immunohistochemical expression of P53 and BCL-2 in endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Chyczewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the frequency of P53 and BCL-2 immunohistochemical expression in 98 patients with endometrial carcinoma, and to correlate it with clinical stage and patient survival. A significant difference was found regarding the frequency of P53 expression when comparing type I and II tumors (23.7% and 54.5%, respectively; p = 0.006. A positive correlation was observed between P53 immunoexpression and patient survival in type I and II tumors (p = 0.009 and p = 0.036, respectively. BCL-2 expression was significantly more frequent in early clinical stages in both types of endometrial cancer (p < 0.001 and 0.002 and correlated with a decrease in overall survival in type I endometrial cancer (p = 0.014. Thus, the prognostic value of these biomarkers in endometrial cancer needs to be further investigated. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 4, pp. 631–635

  2. Anti-Proliferative Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract on Human Endometrial RL-95 Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer, Hep G2 (hepatoma, FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer, MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer, and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer.

  3. Ovarian cancer: Novel molecular aspects for clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Silvestris, Erica; D'Oronzo, Stella; Cardascia, Angela; Silvestris, Franco

    2017-09-01

    Ovarian cancer is a very heterogeneous tumor which has been traditionally characterized according to the different histological subtypes and differentiation degree. In recent years, innovative molecular screening biotechnologies have allowed to identify further subtypes of this cancer based on gene expression profiles, mutational features, and epigenetic factors. These novel classification systems emphasizing the molecular signatures within the broad spectrum of ovarian cancer have not only allowed a more precise prognostic prediction, but also proper therapeutic strategies for specific subgroups of patients. The bulk of available scientific data and the high refinement of molecular classifications of ovarian cancers can today address the research towards innovative drugs with the adoption of targeted therapies tailored for single molecular profiles leading to a better prediction of therapeutic response. Here, we summarize the current state of knowledge on the molecular bases of ovarian cancer, from the description of its molecular subtypes derived from wide high-throughput analyses to the latest discoveries of the ovarian cancer stem cells. The latest personalized treatment options are also presented with recent advances in using PARP inhibitors, anti-angiogenic, anti-folate receptor and anti-cancer stem cells treatment approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. HMGB1 is negatively correlated with the development of endometrial carcinoma and prevents cancer cell invasion and metastasis by inhibiting the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan XR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaorong Luan,1,2 Chunjing Ma,2 Ping Wang,2 Fenglan Lou1 1Nursing College, Shandong University, 2Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: High-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1, a nuclear protein that plays a significant role in DNA architecture and transcription, was correlated with the progression of some types of cancer. However, the role of HMGB1 in endometrial cancer cell invasion and metastasis remains unexplored. HMGB1 expression was initially assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR in normal endometrial tissue and endometrial carcinoma tissue. High expressions of HMGB1 protein were detected in normal endometrial tissues; however, in endometrial cancer tissues, the expressions of HMGB1 were found to be very weak. Furthermore, HMGB1 expressions were negatively correlated with advanced stage and lymph node metastasis in endometrial cancer. Then by RT-qPCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry, HMGB1 was also detected in primary cultured endometrial cells and four kinds of endometrial cancer cell lines (Ishikawa, HEC-1A, HEC-1B and KLE. We found that the expression of HMGB1 was much higher in normal endometrial cells than in endometrial cancer cells, and reduced expression levels of HMGB1 were observed especially in the highly metastatic cell lines. Using lentivirus transfection, HMGB1 small hairpin RNA was constructed, and this infected the lowly invasive endometrial cancer cell lines, Ishikawa and HEC-1B. HMGB1 knockdown significantly enhanced the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of endometrial cancer cells and induced the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These results can contribute to the development of a new potential therapeutic target for endometrial cancer. Keywords: HMGB1, endometrial cancer, invasion, metastasis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

  5. Serous ovarian, fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rie D; Schnack, Tine H; Karlsen, Mona A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to analyze data on risk factors, epidemiology, clinicopathology and molecular biology from studies comparing primary peritoneal cancer, fallopian tube cancer and ovarian cancer of serous histology, in order to achieve a greater understanding...... of whether or not these disorders should be considered as separate entities. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and MEDLINE. Case-control studies comparing primary serous peritoneal or fallopian tube carcinomas with primary serous ovarian carcinomas or a control group were...... included. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies were found eligible. Primary peritoneal cancer patients were older, had higher parity, were more often obese and had poorer survival compared to ovarian cancer patients. Differences in protein expression patterns of Her2/neu, estrogen and progestin receptors...

  6. Development and validation of prediction models for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alyssa Sze-Wai; Cheung, Chun Wai; Fung, Linda Wen-Ying; Lao, Terence Tzu-Hsi; Mol, Ben Willem J; Sahota, Daljit Singh

    2016-08-01

    To develop and assess the accuracy of risk prediction models to diagnose endometrial cancer in women having postmenopausal bleeding (PMB). A retrospective cohort study of 4383 women in a One-stop PMB clinic from a university teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Clinical risk factors, transvaginal ultrasonic measurement of endometrial thickness (ET) and endometrial histology were obtained from consecutive women between 2002 and 2013. Two models to predict risk of endometrial cancer were developed and assessed, one based on patient characteristics alone and a second incorporated ET with patient characteristics. Endometrial histology was used as the reference standard. The split-sample internal validation and bootstrapping technique were adopted. The optimal threshold for prediction of endometrial cancer by the final models was determined using a receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve and Youden Index. The diagnostic gain was compared to a reference strategy of measuring ET only by comparing the AUC using the Delong test. Out of 4383 women with PMB, 168 (3.8%) were diagnosed with endometrial cancer. ET alone had an area under curve (AUC) of 0.92 (95% confidence intervals [CIs] 0.89-0.94). In the patient characteristics only model, independent predictors of cancer were age at presentation, age at menopause, body mass index, nulliparity and recurrent vaginal bleeding. The AUC and Youdens Index of the patient characteristic only model were respectively 0.73 (95% CI 0.67-0.80) and 0.72 (Sensitivity=66.5%; Specificity=68.9%; +ve LR=2.14; -ve LR=0.49). ET, age at presentation, nulliparity and recurrent vaginal bleeding were independent predictors in the patient characteristics plus ET model. The AUC and Youdens Index of the patient characteristic plus ET model where respectively 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.96) and 0.71 (Sensitivity=82.7%; Specificity=88.3%; +ve LR=6.38; -ve LR=0.2). Comparison of AUC indicated that a history alone model was inferior to a model using ET alone

  7. Psychometric validation of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Nordin, Andy; Lanceley, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects of...... of the quality of life (QoL) of patients with endometrial cancer.......A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects...

  8. Hand-Assisted Robotic Surgery for Staging of Ovarian Cancer and Uterine Cancers With High Risk of Peritoneal Spread: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornalik, Hubert; Brooks, Hannah; Moore, Elizabeth S; Flanders, Nicole L; Callahan, Michael J; Sutton, Gregory P

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine surgical outcomes related to hand-assisted robotic surgery (HARS) for staging of ovarian cancer and uterine cancers with high risk of peritoneal spread and compare them to laparotomy and standard robotic-assisted surgery. A retrospective cohort study of women undergoing staging for uterine and ovarian cancer between January 2011 and July 2013 at a major metropolitan teaching hospital was reviewed. Patients undergoing HARS were matched with patients undergoing staging laparotomy [exploratory laparotomy (XLAP)] for the same indications and with patients undergoing traditional robotic surgery (RS) for staging of endometrioid endometrial cancer. In HARS, a longer incision is used to allow palpation of the peritoneal surfaces, to exteriorize the small bowel, to examine the mesentery, and to perform omentectomy. One hundred five patients were analyzed (15 HARS, 45 RS, 45 XLAP). Compared with XLAP, HARS was associated with decreased blood loss (200 vs 400 mL, P = 0.011) and shorter hospital stay (1 vs 4 days, P < 0.001). Patients who had undergone HARS had fewer major complications, but those results did not reach statistical significance (0% vs 27%, P = 0.063). Hand-assisted robotic surgery was associated with higher blood loss and length of stay as compared to robotic staging of endometrioid endometrial cancer (RS). Minor wound complications were also more common (27% vs 2%, P = 0.012). Hand-assisted robotic surgery allows for thorough visual and tactile assessment of peritoneal surfaces. It represents a safe alternative to laparotomy for staging of ovarian and uterine cancers with high risk of peritoneal spread. Long-term follow-up study is needed to determine oncologic adequacy of HARS.

  9. Preoperative risk stratification using metabolic parameters of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro [Kobe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Suenaga, Yuko; Ueno, Yoshiko; Maeda, Tetsuo; Sofue, Keitarou; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto [Kobe University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe (Japan); Okunaga, Takashi; Kubo, Kazuhiro [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Radiology Division, Kobe (Japan); Kanda, Tomonori [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Tamaki, Yukihisa [Shimane University School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Shimane (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of metabolic parameters obtained by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for preoperative stratification of high-risk and low-risk endometrial carcinomas. Preoperative {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 56 women with endometrial cancer. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax), metabolic tumour volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of primary tumours were compared with clinicopathological features of surgical specimens. Diagnostic performance in terms of differentiation of low-risk disease (endometrioid histology, histological grade 1 or 2, invasion of less than half of the myometrium, and FIGO stage I) from high-risk disease was assessed. MTV and TLG were significantly higher in patients with higher histological grade (p = 0.0026 and p = 0.034), larger tumour size (p = 0.002 and p = 0.0017), lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI; p = 0.012 and p = 0.0051), myometrial invasion (p = 0.027 and p = 0.031), cervical stromal invasion (p = 0.023 and p = 0.014), ovarian metastasis (p = 0.00022 and p = 0.00034), lymph node metastasis (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001), and higher FIGO stage (p = 0.0011 and p = 0.00048). SUVmax was significantly higher in patients with larger tumour size (p = 0.0025), LVSI (p = 0.00023) and myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for distinguishing high-risk from low-risk carcinoma were 0.625, 0.829 and 0.797 for SUVmax, MTV and TLG, respectively. AUCs for both MTV and TLG were significantly larger than that for SUVmax (p = 0.0049 and p = 0.021). The optimal TLG cut-off value of 70.2, determined by ROC analysis, was found to have 72.0 % sensitivity and 74.2 % specificity for risk stratification. MTV and TLG of primary endometrial cancer show better correlations with clinicopathological features and are more useful for differentiating high-risk from low-risk carcinoma than SUVmax. (orig.)

  10. Targeting HOX and PBX transcription factors in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Richard; Plowright, Lynn; Harrington, Kevin J; Michael, Agnieszka; Pandha, Hardev S

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer still has a relatively poor prognosis due to the frequent occurrence of drug resistance, making the identification of new therapeutic targets an important goal. We have studied the role of HOX genes in the survival and proliferation of ovarian cancer cells. These are a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cell and tissue identity in the early embryo, and have an anti-apoptotic role in a number of malignancies including lung and renal cancer. We used QPCR to determine HOX gene expression in normal ovary and in the ovarian cancer cell lines SK-OV3 and OV-90. We used a short peptide, HXR9, to disrupt the formation of HOX/PBX dimers and alter transcriptional regulation by HOX proteins. In this study we show that the ovarian cancer derived line SK-OV3, but not OV-90, exhibits highly dysregulated expression of members of the HOX gene family. Disrupting the interaction between HOX proteins and their co-factor PBX induces apoptosis in SK-OV3 cells and retards tumour growth in vivo. HOX/PBX binding is a potential target in ovarian cancer

  11. E2F5 status significantly improves malignancy diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Kothandaraman, Narasimhan; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Brendan, Pang NK; Huak, Chan Y; Keow, Peh B; Razvi, Khalil; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Choolani, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) usually presents in the later stages of the disease. Factors, especially those associated with cell-cycle genes, affecting the genesis and tumour progression for ovarian cancer are largely unknown. We

  12. Identification of Novel Ovarian Cancer Oncogenes that Function by Regulating Exosome Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Novel Ovarian Cancer Oncogenes that Function by Regulating Exosome Function September 2017 x 1Sep2016...31Aug2017 Email: mbirrer@partners.org 6 Identification of Novel Ovarian Cancer Oncogenes that Function by Regulating Exosome Function xx

  13. Comparison of candidate serologic markers for type I and type II ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Dan; Kuhn, Elisabetta; Bristow, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    To examine the value of individual and combinations of ovarian cancer associated blood biomarkers for the discrimination between plasma of patients with type I or II ovarian cancer and disease-free volunteers....

  14. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    ... and distress The proposed study will use 180 first-degree relatives (FDR) of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer in a cross-sectional design Information the ovarian cancer index case provides will be used to identify maternal relatives...

  15. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer...

  16. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  17. Levels of Distress in Women With a Family History of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    ... (mothers sisters or daughters). Women will be queried about their objective and subjective risk status their knowledge of ovarian cancer and risk factors their uncertainty about ovarian cancer levels of anxiety and depress...

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue. A meta-analysis of observational studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svahn, Malene F; Faber, Mette Tuxen; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is controversial, and conflicting results have been published. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of HPV in epithelial ovarian cancer tissue....

  19. Splenectomy for solitary splenic metastasis of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yang Seok; Kim, Jung Chul; Cho, Chol Kyoon

    2004-01-01

    Splenic metastases occur in rare cases with a few case reports of patients in the literature. Generally, splenic metastases mean late dissemination of a disease. Solitary splenic metastases from solid tumors are extremely unusual. We report a case of a patient with ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma who underwent splenectomy for isolated parenchymal metastasis. Ovarian epithelial tumors comprised most of isolated splenic metastases from gynecologic tumor. When isolated splenic recurrence is suspected on image studies and serum tumor markers, intraabdominal gross findings should be examined to exclude peritoneal carcinomatosis. If only spleen was under suspicion of recurrence of ovarian cancer, splenectomy may play a therapeutic role

  20. Soya food intake and risk of endometrial cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong Bing; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Cheng, Jia Rong; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu Tang; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2004-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of intake of soya food, a rich source of phytoestrogens, with the risk of endometrial cancer. Design Population based case-control study, with detailed information on usual soya food intake over the past five years collected by face to face interview using a food frequency questionnaire. Setting Urban Shanghai, China. Participants 832 incident cases of endometrial cancer in women aged of 30 to 69 years diagnosed during 1997-2001 and identified from the Shanghai Cancer Registry; 846 control women frequency matched to cases on age and randomly selected from the Shanghai Residential Registry. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for risk of endometrial cancer in women with different intakes of soya foods. Results Regular consumption of soya foods, measured as amount of either soya protein or soya isoflavones, was inversely associated with the risk of endometrial cancer. Compared with women with the lowest quarter of intake, the adjusted odds ratio of endometrial cancer was reduced from 0.93 to 0.85 and 0.67 with increasing quarter of soya protein intake (P for trend 0.01). A similar inverse association was observed for soya isoflavones and soya fibre intake. The inverse association seemed to be more pronounced among women with high body mass index and waist:hip ratio. Conclusion Regular intake of soya foods is associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:15136343

  1. Clinical outcomes in endometrial cancer care when the standard of care shifts from open surgery to robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Zhun Wei; Yong, Eu Leong; Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui; Ng, Joseph Soon Yau

    2012-06-01

    In Singapore, the standard of care for endometrial cancer staging remains laparotomy. Since the introduction of gynecologic robotic surgery, there have been more data comparing robotic surgery to laparoscopy in the management of endometrial cancer. This study reviewed clinical outcomes in endometrial cancer in a program that moved from laparotomy to robotic surgery. A retrospective review was performed on 124 consecutive endometrial cancer patients. Preoperative data and postoperative outcomes of 34 patients undergoing robotic surgical staging were compared with 90 patients who underwent open endometrial cancer staging during the same period and in the year before the introduction of robotics. There were no significant differences in the mean age, body mass index, rates of diabetes, hypertension, previous surgery, parity, medical conditions, size of specimens, histologic type, or stage of cancer between the robotic and the open surgery groups. The first 20 robotic-assisted cases had a mean (SD) operative time of 196 (60) minutes, and the next 14 cases had a mean time of 124 (64) minutes comparable to that for open surgery. The mean number of lymph nodes retrieved during robot-assisted staging was smaller than open laparotomy in the first 20 cases but not significantly different for the subsequent 14 cases. Robot-assisted surgery was associated with lower intraoperative blood loss (110 [24] vs 250 [83] mL, P robot-assisted endometrial cancer staging after a relatively small number of cases.

  2. Endometrial cancer and somatic G>T KRAS transversion in patients with constitutional MUTYH biallelic mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Rossella; Bet, Paola; Ciambotti, Benedetta; Di Gregorio, Carmela; Gatteschi, Beatrice; Gismondi, Viviana; Toschi, Benedetta; Tonelli, Francesco; Varesco, Liliana; Genuardi, Maurizio

    2009-02-18

    MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is an autosomal recessive condition predisposing to colorectal cancer, caused by constitutional biallelic mutations in the base excision repair (BER) gene MUTYH. Colorectal tumours from MAP patients display an excess of somatic G>T mutations in the APC and KRAS genes due to defective BER function. To date, few extracolonic manifestations have been observed in MAP patients, and the clinical spectrum of this condition is not yet fully established. Recently, one patient with a diagnosis of endometrial cancer and biallelic MUTYH mutations has been described. We here report on two additional unrelated MAP patients with biallelic MUTYH germline mutations who developed endometrioid endometrial carcinoma. The endometrial tumours were evaluated for PTEN, PIK3CA, KRAS, BRAF and CTNNB1 mutations. A G>T transversion at codon 12 of the KRAS gene was observed in one tumour. A single 1bp frameshift deletion of PTEN was observed in the same sample. Overall, these findings suggest that endometrial carcinoma is a phenotypic manifestations of MAP and that inefficient repair of oxidative damage can be involved in its pathogenesis.

  3. TESTIN was commonly hypermethylated and involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruofan; Pu, Hong; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Jinjin; Lian, Kuixian; Mao, Caiping

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported frequent loss of TESTIN in human endometrial carcinoma, which significantly suppressed tumor proliferation and invasion. Herein, we further explored the mechanisms underlying TESTIN loss and its roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a key step for tumor spreading). Methylation-specific PCR was performed to investigate the promoter status of TESTIN in a panel of endometrial cancer and normal endometrium tissues. The expression of TESTIN mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Up- and down-regulation of TESTIN were achieved by transient transfection with pcDNA3.1-TESTIN and shRNA-TESTIN plasmids, respectively. The EMT alterations were observed under the optical microscope and EMT-related markers were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. Compared to the control (3.6%), TESTIN was hypermethylated in 43.7% endometrial cancer tissues (p < 0.001). Moreover, TESTIN hypermethylation was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage, deep myometrial invasion and lymphatic node metastasis. In vitro, the demethylating agent dramatically restored the expression of TESTIN. In addition, up-regulation of TESTIN significantly suppressed the EMT procedure; whereas down-regulation of TESTIN enhanced EMT. In conclusion, we demonstrated that loss of TESTIN was mainly caused by hypermethylation, which might be a potent prognostic marker. Furthermore, we proved that TESTIN significantly suppressed the EMT procedure, proposing restoration of TESTIN to be a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial carcinoma. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Use of common analgesic medications and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Suzanne C; Nagle, Christina M; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with improved survival in some cancers, but evidence for ovarian cancer is limited. METHODS: Pooling individual-level data from 12 Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium studies, we evaluated the association between self......-reported, pre-diagnosis use of common analgesics and overall/progression-free/disease-specific survival among 7694 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (4273 deaths). RESULTS: Regular analgesic use (at least once per week) was not associated with overall survival (pooled hazard ratios, pHRs (95......% confidence intervals): aspirin 0.96 (0.88-1.04); non-aspirin NSAIDs 0.97 (0.89-1.05); acetaminophen 1.01 (0.93-1.10)), nor with progression-free/disease-specific survival. There was however a survival advantage for users of any NSAIDs in studies clearly defining non-use as less than once per week (pHR=0...

  5. Association of vitamin D levels and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ong, Jue-Sheng; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vitro and observational epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D may play a role in cancer prevention. However, the relationship between vitamin D and ovarian cancer is uncertain, with observational studies generating conflicting findings. A potential limitation...... of observational studies is inadequate control of confounding. To overcome this problem, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We...... employed SNPs with well-established associations with 25(OH)D concentration as instrumental variables for MR: rs7944926 (DHCR7), rs12794714 (CYP2R1) and rs2282679 (GC). We included 31 719 women of European ancestry (10 065 cases, 21 654 controls) from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, who were...

  6. Combination of Vorinostat and caspase‐8 inhibition exhibits high anti‐tumoral activity on endometrial cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bergadà, Laura; Sorolla, Annabel; Yeramian, Andree; Eritja, Nuria; Mirantes, Cristina; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as Vorinostat display anti‐neoplastic activity against a variety of solid tumors. Here, we have investigated the anti‐tumoral activity of Vorinostat on endometrial cancer cells. We have found that Vorinostat caused cell growth arrest, loss of clonogenic growth and apoptosis of endometrial cancer cells. Vorinostat‐induced the activation of caspase‐8 and ‐9, the initiators caspases of the extrinsic and the intrinsic apoptotic pathways, respectively. Next, we ...

  7. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J; Risch, Harvey A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Eng, Kevin H; Brian Szender, J; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N; Zirpoli, Gary R; Bandera, Elisa V; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert P; Fridley, Brooke L; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B; Olsen, Catherine M; Olson, Sara H; Leigh Pearce, Celeste; Pike, Malcolm C; Anne Rossing, Mary; Szamreta, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Pamela J; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A; Webb, Penelope M; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G; Winham, Stacey J; Wu, Anna H; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Terry, Kathryn L; Kelemen, Linda E; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2016-07-01

    Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass index. The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57), and similar associations were observed for each histotype. In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1114-24. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Failure of Elevating Calcium Induces Oxidative Stress Tolerance and Imparts Cisplatin Resistance in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liwei; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Chunyan; Su, Jing; Xie, Qi; Xu, Lu; Yu, Yang; Liu, Shibing; Li, Songyan; Xu, Ye; Li, Zhixin

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug, used for the treatment of malignant ovarian cancer, but acquired resistance limits its application. There is therefore an overwhelming need to understand the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer, that is, ovarian cancer cells are insensitive to cisplatin treatment. Here, we show that failure of elevating calcium and oxidative stress tolerance play key roles in cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cell lines. Cisplatin induce...

  9. Successful treatment of low-grade endometrial cancer in premenopausal women with an aromatase inhibitor after failure with oral or intrauterine progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Straubhar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young women with endometrial intraepithelial hyperplasia or low-grade endometrial carcinoma are potential candidates for conservative fertility sparing therapy utilizing progesterone rather than hysterectomy. High-dose progesterone treatment is associated with 55–80% initial response but high relapse rates. Using aromatase inhibitors in conjunction with high-dose progesterone has largely been unstudied. Case descriptions: Three obese premenopausal women with endometrial cancer failed to respond to oral or intrauterine progesterone as first line therapy. Due to their desire to continue to pursue fertility sparing treatment options, an aromatase inhibitor was added to their treatment regimen. This resulted in resolution of their malignancy in each case. Discussion: In obese premenopausal women, the mechanism of malignant transformation in endometrial carcinoma is considered to be an association with relatively high levels of serum estrogen from peripheral conversion of androgens to estrone in adipose tissue with a deficiency in progesterone exposure due to chronic anovulation. Using aromatase inhibitors seems reasonable as an adjunct to progesterone given the high likelihood that this population has a significant proportion of their estrogen production coming from peripheral conversion in adipose tissue. This case series is unique in that each woman initially failed to respond to progesterone but had resolution when an aromatase inhibitor was added to their treatment regimen. This would suggest that obese women with low grade malignancy or hyperplasia who have no radiographic evidence of deep myometrial invasion, ovarian or retroperitoneal metastases and who wish to retain their fertility may be treated with intrauterine progesterone and an aromatase inhibitor.

  10. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of endometrial cancer in members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG. The GCIG is a global association of cooperative groups involved in the research.......57 [10.13] Gy in a mean of 4.3 insertions), and 5 groups used low-dose-rate brachytherapy (41.45 [17.5] Gy). Nineteen of the 28 respondents measured the doses to the bladder and the rectum when performing VBT. For brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in the fraction of the vagina treated or the doses...... and schedules used. CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy practices among member groups of the GCIG are similar in doses and dose per fraction with external beam. There is a moderate discrepancy in the brachytherapy practice after hysterectomy. There are no serious impediments to intergroup participation in radiation...

  11. Targeting Stromal-Cancer Cell Crosstalk Networks in Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsz-Lun Yeung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is a histologically, clinically, and molecularly diverse disease with a five-year survival rate of less than 30%. It has been estimated that approximately 21,980 new cases of epithelial ovarian cancer will be diagnosed and 14,270 deaths will occur in the United States in 2015, making it the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Ovarian tumor tissue is composed of cancer cells and a collection of different stromal cells. There is increasing evidence that demonstrates that stromal involvement is important in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Therefore, stroma-specific signaling pathways, stroma-derived factors, and genetic changes in the tumor stroma present unique opportunities for improving the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs are one of the major components of the tumor stroma that have demonstrated supportive roles in tumor progression. In this review, we highlight various types of signaling crosstalk between ovarian cancer cells and stromal cells, particularly with CAFs. In addition to evaluating the importance of signaling crosstalk in ovarian cancer progression, we discuss approaches that can be used to target tumor-promoting signaling crosstalk and how these approaches can be translated into potential ovarian cancer treatment.

  12. Postmenopausal palpable ovary and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojnić, M; Branković, M; Maksimović, M; Parapid, B; Dugalić, V; Jeremić, K; Gutić, B

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) examination is a much more reliable method for evaluation of potential ovarian cancer risk than gynecologic palpation. The aim of our study was to analyze the US characteristics of patients with palpable ovaries in light of potential for malignancy. We analyzed 70 women ten years after menopause without increased CA 125 values. They underwent clinical and US exams (abdominal and transvaginal ultrasound), with special emphasis on US Doppler exam. Bimanuel gynecological examination showed palpable ovaries in 14 patients (palpable ovary group), and the remaining 56 patients were defined as the control group. US showed increased dimensions of palpable ovaries. Atypical follicular activity, deviation from verticalization, atypical ovaries and hyperechogenic punctations classified under germ cell cysts occurred statistically significantly more often in the palpable ovary group. Doppler flow showed pathological vascularization in five patients with palpable ovaries and the estrogen level was increased. After four to six months in these five patients we found a mild increase of estrogen levels and higher Doppler abnormality. Six months later, two patients had irregular bleeding and underwent surgical treatment. Every adnexal mass after menopausis demands special attention. Bimanuel gynecological exams should be used liberally. It is necessary to follow the dimensions of the ovary, describe the echostructure, as well as the edges of the ovary and other anatomical structures. Doppler flow measurement and estrogen levels are predictive and give more information. Controls should be in three to six month intervals in order to make a decision for surgical treatment.

  13. RNA-seq Reveals the Overexpression of IGSF9 in Endometrial Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed RNA-seq on an Illumina platform for 7 patients with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma for which both tumor tissue and adjacent noncancer tissue were available. A total of 66 genes were differentially expressed with significance level at adjusted p value < 0.01. Using the gene functional classification tool in the NIH DAVID bioinformatics resource, 5 genes were found to be the only enriched group out of that list of genes. The gene IGSF9 was chosen for further characterization with immunohistochemical staining of a larger cohort of human endometrioid carcinoma tissues. The expression level of IGSF9 in cancer cells was significantly higher than that in control glandular cells in paired tissue samples from the same patients (p=0.008 or in overall comparison between cancer and the control (p=0.003. IGSF9 expression is higher in patients with myometrium invasion relative to those without invasion (p=0.015. Reanalysis of RNA-seq dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas shows higher expression of IGSF9 in endometrial cancer versus normal control and expression was associated with poor prognosis. These results suggest IGSF9 as a new biomarker in endometrial cancer and warrant further studies on its function, mechanism of action, and potential clinical utility.

  14. Hereditary Ovarian Cancer: Not Only BRCA 1 and 2 Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Toss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than one-fifth of ovarian tumors have hereditary susceptibility and, in about 65–85% of these cases, the genetic abnormality is a germline mutation in BRCA genes. Nevertheless, several other suppressor genes and oncogenes have been associated with hereditary ovarian cancers, including the mismatch repair (MMR genes in Lynch syndrome, the tumor suppressor gene, TP53, in the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and several other genes involved in the double-strand breaks repair system, such as CHEK2, RAD51, BRIP1, and PALB2. The study of genetic discriminators and deregulated pathways involved in hereditary ovarian syndromes is relevant for the future development of molecular diagnostic strategies and targeted therapeutic approaches. The recent development and implementation of next-generation sequencing technologies have provided the opportunity to simultaneously analyze multiple cancer susceptibility genes, reduce the delay and costs, and optimize the molecular diagnosis of hereditary tumors. Particularly, the identification of mutations in ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in healthy women may result in a more personalized cancer risk management with tailored clinical and radiological surveillance, chemopreventive approaches, and/or prophylactic surgeries. On the other hand, for ovarian cancer patients, the identification of mutations may provide potential targets for biologic agents and guide treatment decision-making.

  15. Clinical statistics of gynecologic cancers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers, have both high morbidity and mortality among the gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. The present study was conducted using both the population-based cancer registry and the gynecologic cancer registry to elucidate the characteristics of gynecologic malignant tumors in Japan. Based on nationwide estimates from the population-based cancer registry in Japan, the morbidities and mortality of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were obtained and used for analysis. Clinicopathologic factors for cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, including age, clinical stage, postsurgical stage, histological type, therapeutic strategy, and prognosis were retrieved from the gynecologic cancer registry published by the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology and used for analysis. The morbidities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 10,908, 13,606, and 9,384 women in 2012, respectively. The prevalence of endometrial cancer has significantly and consistently been increasing and represents the most common gynecologic malignant tumor in Japan. The mortalities of cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers were 2.1, 1.3, and 3.2 per 100,000 in 2012, respectively. In 2014, 52.2% of cervical cancer patients were classified as stage I, 22.5% as stage II, 10.2% as stage III, and 11.2% as stage IV. In addition, 71.9% of endometrial cancer patients were classified as stage I, 6.0% as stage II, 13.3% as stage III, and 7.5% as stage IV. Finally, 43.2% of ovarian cancer patients were classified as stage I, 9.1% as stage II, 27.6% as stage III, and 7.2% as stage IV. Twelve-point six percent of ovarian cancer patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:28198168

  16. Expression Profiling of Ovarian Cancer: markers and targets for therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Helleman (Jozien)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOvarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer in the Western world. The initial response of the primary tumor to taxane and platinum-based chemotherapy is high, however 20% of patients never achieve a clinical response and the majority of the patients will

  17. Protein expression levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in Danish ovarian cancer patients: from the Danish 'MALOVA'ovarian cancer study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogdall, E.V.; Christensen, L.; Blaakaer, J.

    2008-01-01

    from 189 women diagnosed with low malignant potential ovarian tumours (LMP, borderline ovarian tumours) and 571 women diagnosed with ovarian cancer (OC). RESULTS: Using 30% as the cut-off level for CEA over-expression, 18% of LMPs and 4% of OCs were positive. A higher proportion of mucinous tumours...... (I to IV), the highest CEA expression compared with no expression was found to be a prognostic factor (level 3 versus negative: HR = 2.12, 95%CI 1.11-4.05). FIGO stage, residual tumour after primary surgery, age at diagnosis, other histological types versus serous adenocarcinoma and low versus high...

  18. Serum tumor marker CA 125 for monitoring ovarian cancer during follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Malgorzata K.; Sölétormos, G; Dombernowsky, P

    2002-01-01

    CA 125 is currently widely applied in the management of patients with ovarian cancer. However, a change in results of CA 125, which should be considered significant, has not been defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of CA 125 to signal progressive ovarian cancer during fo...... utility of serological tumor markers in patients with ovarian cancer....

  19. 3 CFR 8407 - Proclamation 8407 of August 31, 2009. National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2009 8407 Proclamation 8407 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8407 of August 31, 2009 Proc. 8407 National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2009By the President... the disease with grace and dignity. National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month honors all those affected...

  20. Time trends in the incidence of hysterectomy-corrected overall, type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer in Denmark 1978-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Jensen, Allan; Aarslev, Peter Bo; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2017-08-01

    To investigate time trends in the incidence of overall, type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer in Denmark 1978-2014, correcting for hysterectomy. Based on the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish National Patient Registry we calculated hysterectomy-corrected incidence rates of overall, type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer. Separate analyses for women incidence with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall incidence of endometrial cancer decreased slightly from 1978 to 1995, but in the last two decades of the study period the incidence has been stable (APC=0.16; 95% CI: -0.19; 0.50). In the study period (1978-2014) type 1 endometrial cancer incidence decreased slightly (APC=-0.67; 95% CI:-0.83; -0.52), whereas the incidence of type 2 endometrial cancer increased substantially (APC=4.85; 95% CI: 4.47; 5.23). The decrease in type 1 endometrial cancer was most pronounced before 1996 in women younger than 55 years (APC=-2.79; 95% CI: -3.65; -1.91), while the largest increase in type 2 endometrial cancer was observed after 1996 (APC=6.42; 95% CI: 5.72; 7.12). Over a period of more than 35 years, the incidence of type 1 endometrial cancer decreased, mainly in pre- and perimenopausal women, while type 2 endometrial cancer incidence increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Curcumin induces chemo/radio-sensitization in ovarian cancer cells and curcumin nanoparticles inhibit ovarian cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallapu Murali M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemo/radio-resistance is a major obstacle in treating advanced ovarian cancer. The efficacy of current treatments may be improved by increasing the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemo/radiation therapies. Curcumin is a naturally occurring compound with anti-cancer activity in multiple cancers; however, its chemo/radio-sensitizing potential is not well studied in ovarian cancer. Herein, we demonstrate the effectiveness of a curcumin pre-treatment strategy for chemo/radio-sensitizing cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. To improve the efficacy and specificity of curcumin induced chemo/radio sensitization, we developed a curcumin nanoparticle formulation conjugated with a monoclonal antibody specific for cancer cells. Methods Cisplatin resistant A2780CP ovarian cancer cells were pre-treated with curcumin followed by exposure to cisplatin or radiation and the effect on cell growth was determined by MTS and colony formation assays. The effect of curcumin pre-treatment on the expression of apoptosis related proteins and β-catenin was determined by Western blotting or Flow Cytometry. A luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the effect of curcumin on β-catenin transcription activity. The poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (Nano-CUR was developed by a modified nano-precipitation method and physico-chemical characterization was performed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering methods. Results Curcumin pre-treatment considerably reduced the dose of cisplatin and radiation required to inhibit the growth of cisplatin resistant ovarian cancer cells. During the 6 hr pre-treatment, curcumin down regulated the expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 pro-survival proteins. Curcumin pre-treatment followed by exposure to low doses of cisplatin increased apoptosis as indicated by annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 9 and PARP. Additionally, curcumin pre

  2. Association of Metformin Use with Outcomes in Advanced Endometrial Cancer Treated with Chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiageli Ezewuiro

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that metformin, a commonly used treatment for diabetes, might have the potential to be repurposed as an economical and safe cancer therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether stage III-IV or recurrent endometrial cancer patients who are using metformin during treatment with chemotherapy have improved survival. To test this we analyzed a retrospective cohort of subjects at two independent institutions who received chemotherapy for stage III-IV or recurrent endometrial cancer from 1992 to 2011. Diagnosis of diabetes, metformin use, demographics, endometrial cancer clinico-pathologic parameters, and survival duration were abstracted. The primary outcome was overall survival. The final cohort included 349 patients, 31 (8.9% had diabetes and used metformin, 28 (8.0% had diabetes but did not use metformin, and 291 (83.4% did not have diabetes. The results demonstrate that the median overall survival was 45.6 months for patients with diabetes who used metformin compared to 12.5 months for patients with diabetes who did not use metformin and 28.5 months for patients without diabetes (log-rank test comparing the three groups P = 0.006. In a model adjusted for confounders, the difference in survival between the three groups remained statistically significant (P = 0.023. The improvement in survival among metformin users was not explained by better baseline health status or more aggressive use of chemotherapy. Overall, the findings in this retrospective cohort of endometrial cancer patients with stage III-IV or recurrent disease treated with chemotherapy indicate that patients with diabetes who were concurrently treated with metformin survived longer than patients with diabetes who did not use metformin.

  3. Province wide clinical governance network for clinical audit for quality improvement in endometrial cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Formisano, Debora; Pirillo, Debora; Ciarlini, Gino; Cerami, Lillo Bruno; Ventura, Alessandro; Spreafico, Lorenzo; Palmieri, Tamara; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Abrate, Martino

    2012-01-01

    According to the hub-and-spoke model introduced in the Provincial Healthcare System of Reggio Emilia, early endometrial cancer is treated in peripheral low-volume hospitals (spokes) by general gynecologist, whereas more complex cancers are treated by gynecological oncologists at the main hospital (hub). To guarantee a uniformly high standard of care to all patients with endometrial cancer treated in hub and spoke hospitals of Reggio Emilia Province. The specialists of the 5 hospitals of Reggio Emilia Province instituted an inter hospital and multidisciplinary oncology group to write common and shared guidelines based on evidence-based medicine through the use of clinical audit. They valued the process indicators before and after guidelines introduction identifying the site of improvement and verifying the standard achievement. Diagnostic hysteroscopy use increased significantly from preguideline period, 53%, to postguideline period, 74%. Magnetic resonance use and accuracy increased significantly from preguideline to postguideline periods: 8.1% to 35.3% and 37.3% to 74.7%, respectively. Laparoscopy use increased from 1.6% (preguideline) to 18.6 (postguideline). Early surgical complications decreased from 16% (preguideline) to 9% (postguideline). Radiotherapy use increased from 14.% (preguideline) to 32.3% (postguideline). It is possible for a provincial oncology group to build an oncology network providing an improvement in the assistance of patients with endometrial cancer through the use of clinical audit. Clinical audit made it possible to obtain the full attendance of specialists of various disciplines involved in the treatment of endometrial cancer to optimize response time schematizing process.

  4. Compliance with adjuvant treatment guidelines in endometrial cancer: room for improvement in high risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggink, F A; Mom, C H; Boll, D; Ezendam, N P M; Kruitwagen, R F P M; Pijnenborg, J M A; van der Aa, M A; Nijman, H W

    2017-08-01

    Compliance of physicians with guidelines has emerged as an important indicator for quality of care. We evaluated compliance of physicians with adjuvant therapy guidelines for endometrial cancer patients in the Netherlands in a population-based cohort over a period of 10years. Data from all patients diagnosed with endometrial cancer between 2005 and 2014, without residual tumor after surgical treatment, were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (N=14,564). FIGO stage, grade, tumor type and age were used to stratify patients into risk groups. Possible changes in compliance over time and impact of compliance on survival were assessed. Patients were stratified into low/low-intermediate (52%), high-intermediate (21%) and high (20%) risk groups. Overall compliance with adjuvant therapy guidelines was 85%. Compliance was highest in patients with low/low-intermediate risk (98%, no adjuvant therapy indicated). The lowest compliance was determined in patients with high risk (61%, external beam radiotherapy with/without chemotherapy indicated). Within this group compliance decreased from 64% in 2005-2009 to 57% in 2010-2014. In high risk patients with FIGO stage III serous disease compliance was 55% (chemotherapy with/without radiotherapy indicated) and increased from 41% in 2005-2009 to 66% in 2010-2014. While compliance of physicians with adjuvant therapy guidelines is excellent in patients with low and low-intermediate risk, there is room for improvement in high risk endometrial cancer patients. Eagerly awaited results of ongoing randomized clinical trials may provide more definitive guidance regarding adjuvant therapy for high risk endometrial cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Interleukin 6 promotes endometrial cancer growth through an autocrine feedback loop involving ERK–NF-κB signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, Qi; Liu, Bin-Ya; Wang, Fang-Yuan; He, Yin-Yan; Lu, Wen; Liao, Yun [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Gu, Wei, E-mail: krisgu70@163.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Wan, Xiao-Ping, E-mail: wanxp@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital Affiliated to Tong Ji University, Shanghai (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • IL-6 could promote endometrial cancer cells proliferation. • IL-6 promotes its own production through an autocrine feedback loop. • ERK and NF-κB pathway inhibitors inhibit IL-6 production and tumor growth. • IL-6 secretion relies on the activation of ERK–NF-κB pathway axis. • An orthotopic nude endometrial carcinoma model confirms the effect of IL-6. - Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-6 as an inflammation factor, has been proved to promote cancer proliferation in several human cancers. However, its role in endometrial cancer has not been studied clearly. Previously, we demonstrated that IL-6 promoted endometrial cancer progression through local estrogen biosynthesis. In this study, we proved that IL-6 could directly stimulate endometrial cancer cells proliferation and an autocrine feedback loop increased its production even after the withdrawal of IL-6 from the medium. Next, we analyzed the mechanism underlying IL-6 production in the feedback loop and found that its production and IL-6-stimulated cell proliferation were effectively blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and extra-cellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Importantly, activation of ERK was upstream of the NF-κB pathways, revealing the hierarchy of this event. Finally, we used an orthotopic nude endometrial carcinoma model to confirm the effects of IL-6 on the tumor progression. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-6 promotes endometrial carcinoma growth through an expanded autocrine regulatory loop and implicate the ERK–NF-κB pathway as a critical mediator of IL-6 production, implying IL-6 to be an important therapeutic target in endometrial carcinoma.

  6. MicroRNA-424 suppresses estradiol-induced cell proliferation via targeting GPER in endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Wang, X; Chen, Z; Wang, W

    2015-11-30

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy with increasing morbidity in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of non-coding RNA, have been proven to be critical in the process of tumorigenesis. miR-424 has been reported to play a protective role in various type of cancer including endometrial carcinoma. It has been reported that high levels of estrogen increase morbidity of EC by promoting cell growth ability. The current research was designed to delineate the mechanism of miR-424 in regulating E2 (17β-estradiol)-induced cell proliferation in endometrial cancer. In this study, we confirmed that cell proliferation is increased significantly in E2-treated endometrial cancer cell lines. Moreover, miR-424 overexpression dramatically decreased E2-induced cell proliferation, indicating a pivotal role in endometrial cancer cell growth. In addition, the results suggest that miR-424 up-regulation inactivated the PI3K/AKT signaling, which was mediated by G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) in endometrial cancer. Furthermore, the luciferase report confirmed the targeting reaction between miR-424 and GPER. After transfection with the GPER overexpression vector into E2-induced endometrial cancer cells, we found that GPER significantly attenuated the inhibition effect of miR-424 in E2-induced cell growth in EC. Taken together, our study suggests that increased miR-424 suppresses E2-induced cell growth, and providing a potential therapeutic target for estrogen-associated endometrial carcinoma.

  7. Niraparib Maintenance Therapy in Platinum-Sensitive, Recurrent Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Mansoor R; Monk, Bradley J; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Background Niraparib is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1/2 inhibitor that has shown clinical activity in patients with ovarian cancer. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of niraparib versus placebo as maintenance treatment for patients with platinum-sensitive, ......Background Niraparib is an oral poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1/2 inhibitor that has shown clinical activity in patients with ovarian cancer. We sought to evaluate the efficacy of niraparib versus placebo as maintenance treatment for patients with platinum...... or 4 adverse events that were reported in the niraparib group were thrombocytopenia (in 33.8%), anemia (in 25.3%), and neutropenia (in 19.6%), which were managed with dose modifications. Conclusions Among patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent ovarian cancer, the median duration of progression...

  8. The role of appendectomy in surgical procedures for ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanelli, R; Paladini, D; Raspagliesi, F; di Re, E

    1992-07-01

    To assess the role of appendectomy in the surgical procedures for ovarian cancer, we evaluated retrospectively the clinical charts of 435 patients who underwent surgery after diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The appendix was removed in 160 cases and pathological examination revealed 37 with metastatic implants (23%). All the patients with appendiceal metastases showed advanced disease (stages III-IV) with an incidence of 43%. Ninety-one percent (31/34) of the tumors with appendiceal involvement at the staging operation were of the serous cell type and grade II or III. No case with early stage, right ovary carcinoma showed appendiceal metastatic foci, denying the existence of a preferential lymphatic pathway. Microscopic involvement was found only in 4 patients with advanced disease (11.7%). No intra- or postoperative complication directly related to the appendectomy was recorded. We conclude, with these results, that appendectomy should be part of the cytoreductive operation for ovarian cancer.

  9. Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCα) dependent signaling mediates endometrial cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughian, James M.; Reno, Elaine M.; Thorne, Alicia M.; Bradford, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy, yet molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. We sought to define a functional role for the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCα, in an established cell model of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Ishikawa cells depleted of PKCα protein grew slower, formed fewer colonies in anchorage-independent growth assays and exhibited impaired xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with impaired growth, PKCα knockdown increased levels of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Cip1/WAF1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27). Despite the absence of functional phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein in Ishikawa cells, PKCα knockdown reduced Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and concomitantly inhibited phosphorylation of the Akt target, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). PKCα knockdown also resulted in decreased basal ERK phosphorylation and attenuated ERK activation following EGF stimulation. p21 and p27 expression was not increased by treatment of Ishikawa cells with ERK and Akt inhibitors, suggesting PKCα regulates CDK expression independently of Akt and ERK. Immunohistochemical analysis of grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma revealed aberrant PKCα expression, with foci of elevated PKCα staining, not observed in normal endometrium. These studies demonstrate a critical role for PKCα signaling in endometrial tumorigenesis by regulating expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and activation of Akt and ERK dependent proliferative pathways. Thus, targeting PKCα may provide novel therapeutic options in endometrial tumors. PMID:19672862

  10. Female genital tract tuberculosis presenting as ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Hasanzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is still a major worldwide concern. There is no pathognomonic clinical feature or imaging findings for definite diagnosis of extra pulmonary TB. Therefore, TB involvement of Gastrointestinal or Genitourinary tract can be easily confused with peritoneal carcinomatosis and advanced ovarian carcinoma. Our aim is to emphasize the importance of considering the disease based upon the epidemiologic clues of the patients, while interpreting the positive results for a suspicious ovarian malignancy. Cases: This paper illustrates 8 cases of ovarian or peritoneal tuberculosis, whose initial diagnoses were malignant processes of the GU tract. Conclusion: Tuberculosis ( TB should be always being considered in the differential diagnosis of advanced ovarian cancer, especially in the regions that are endemic for the disease.

  11. Role of the Microenvironment in Ovarian Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pasquier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent progresses in cancer therapy and increased knowledge in cancer biology, ovarian cancer remains a challenging condition. Among the latest concepts developed in cancer biology, cancer stem cells and the role of microenvironment in tumor progression seem to be related. Indeed, cancer stem cells have been described in several solid tumors including ovarian cancers. These particular cells have the ability to self-renew and reconstitute a heterogeneous tumor. They are characterized by specific surface markers and display resistance to therapeutic regimens. During development, specific molecular cues from the tumor microenvironment can play a role in maintaining and expanding stemness of cancer cells. The tumor stroma contains several compartments: cellular component, cytokine network, and extracellular matrix. These different compartments interact to form a permissive niche for the cancer stem cells. Understanding the molecular cues underlying this crosstalk will allow the design of new therapeutic regimens targeting the niche. In this paper, we will discuss the mechanisms implicated in the interaction between ovarian cancer stem cells and their microenvironment.

  12. CYP1B1, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in the Etiology of Ovarian Epithelial Cancer Using an Avian Model of Ovarian Carcinoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hales, Dale B

    2007-01-01

    .... Research in ovarian cancer has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. With the exception of the laying hen, no other animal gets ovarian epithelial cancer analogous to the human disease...

  13. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk.......Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk....

  14. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Hong, Chi-Chen; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E.; Eng, Kevin H.; Szender, J. Brian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Klapdor, Ruediger; Gower, Emily; Minlikeeva, Albina N.; Zirpoli, Gary; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berchuck, Andrew; Cramer, Daniel; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Edwards, Robert P.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ness, Roberta B.; Olsen, Catherine M.; Olson, Sara H.; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pike, Malcolm C.; Rossing, Mary Anne; Szamreta, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Vierkant, Robert A.; Webb, Penelope M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Winham, Stacey J.; Wu, Anna H.; Modugno, Francesmary; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Moysich, Kirsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race and body mass index (BMI). Results The current analysis included data from 8,309 EOC patients and 12,612 controls. We observed a significant positive association between inactivity and EOC risk (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) and similar associations were observed for each histotype. Conclusions In this large pooled analysis examining the association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk, we observed consistent evidence of an association between chronic inactivity and all EOC histotypes. Impact These data add to the growing body of evidence suggesting that inactivity is an independent risk factor for cancer. If the apparent association between inactivity and EOC risk is substantiated, additional work via targeted interventions should be pursued to characterize the dose of activity required to mitigate the risk of this highly fatal disease. PMID:27197285

  15. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is a glycoprotein expressed by epithelial cells of several normal tissue types and overexpressed by several epithelial cancers. Serum CA125 levels are mostly used as an aid in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer patients, to monitor response to treatment and detect...... in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family...... cancer recurrence. Besides tumor characteristics, CA125 levels are also influenced by several epidemiologic factors, such as age, parity, and oral contraceptive use. Identifying factors that influence CA125 levels in ovarian cancer patients could aid in the interpretation of CA125 values for individuals...

  16. Biomarkers for predicting complete debulking in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten Lindberg; Ottesen, Bent; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to construct and validate a model based on biomarkers to predict complete primary debulking surgery for ovarian cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study consisted of three parts: Part I: Biomarker data obtained from mass spectrometry, baseline data and, surgical outcome were...... used to construct predictive indices for complete tumour resection; Part II: sera from randomly selected patients from part I were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to investigate the correlation to mass spectrometry; Part III: the indices from part I were validated in a new.......64. CONCLUSION: Our validated model based on biomarkers was unable to predict surgical outcome for patients with ovarian cancer....

  17. Primary Surgery or Interval Debulking for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markauskas, Algirdas; Mogensen, Ole; dePont Christensen, René

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the surgical complexity, the postoperative morbidity, and the survival of the women after primary debulking surgery (PDS) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by interval debulking surgery (NACT-IDS) for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively included all patients who underwent debulking surgery at our institution between January 2007 and December 2012 for stages IIIc and IV of epithelial ovarian cancer. RESULTS: Of the 332 patients included, 165 (49.7%) underwent PDS, and 167 (50.3%) had NACT...

  18. Brachytherapy Improves Survival in Stage III Endometrial Cancer With Cervical Involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, Brian; Orton, Andrew; Boothe, Dustin; Stoddard, Greg; Huang, Y. Jessica; Gaffney, David K.; Poppe, Matthew M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival benefit of adding vaginal brachytherapy (BT) to pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in women with stage III endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients with stage III endometrial cancer from 2004 to 2013. Only women who received adjuvant EBRT were analyzed. Women were grouped according to receipt of BT. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify predictors of receiving BT. Log–rank statistics were used to compare survival outcomes. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the effect of BT on survival. A propensity score–matched analysis was also conducted among women with cervical involvement. Results: We evaluated 12,988 patients with stage III endometrial carcinoma, 39% of whom received EBRT plus BT. Women who received BT were more likely to have endocervical or cervical stromal involvement (odds ratios 2.03 and 1.77; P<.01, respectively). For patients receiving EBRT alone, the 5-year survival was 66% versus 69% with the addition of BT at 5 years (P<.01). Brachytherapy remained significantly predictive of decreased risk of death (hazard ratio 0.86; P<.01) on multivariate Cox regression. The addition of BT to EBRT did not affect survival among women without cervical involvement (P=.84). For women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion, the addition of BT significantly improved survival (log–rank P<.01). Receipt of EBRT plus BT was associated with improved survival in women with positive and negative surgical margins, and receiving chemotherapy did not alter the benefit of BT. Propensity score–matched analysis results confirmed the benefit of BT among women with cervical involvement (hazard ratio 0.80; P=.01). Conclusions: In this population of women with stage III endometrial cancer the addition of BT to EBRT was associated with an improvement in survival for women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion.

  19. Brachytherapy Improves Survival in Stage III Endometrial Cancer With Cervical Involvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Orton, Andrew; Boothe, Dustin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Stoddard, Greg [Division of Epidemiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Huang, Y. Jessica; Gaffney, David K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Poppe, Matthew M., E-mail: Matthew.poppe@hci.utah.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the survival benefit of adding vaginal brachytherapy (BT) to pelvic external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in women with stage III endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was used to identify patients with stage III endometrial cancer from 2004 to 2013. Only women who received adjuvant EBRT were analyzed. Women were grouped according to receipt of BT. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify predictors of receiving BT. Log–rank statistics were used to compare survival outcomes. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the effect of BT on survival. A propensity score–matched analysis was also conducted among women with cervical involvement. Results: We evaluated 12,988 patients with stage III endometrial carcinoma, 39% of whom received EBRT plus BT. Women who received BT were more likely to have endocervical or cervical stromal involvement (odds ratios 2.03 and 1.77; P<.01, respectively). For patients receiving EBRT alone, the 5-year survival was 66% versus 69% with the addition of BT at 5 years (P<.01). Brachytherapy remained significantly predictive of decreased risk of death (hazard ratio 0.86; P<.01) on multivariate Cox regression. The addition of BT to EBRT did not affect survival among women without cervical involvement (P=.84). For women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion, the addition of BT significantly improved survival (log–rank P<.01). Receipt of EBRT plus BT was associated with improved survival in women with positive and negative surgical margins, and receiving chemotherapy did not alter the benefit of BT. Propensity score–matched analysis results confirmed the benefit of BT among women with cervical involvement (hazard ratio 0.80; P=.01). Conclusions: In this population of women with stage III endometrial cancer the addition of BT to EBRT was associated with an improvement in survival for women with endocervical or cervical stromal invasion.

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in endometrial cancer-Feasibility, safety and lymphatic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Barbara; Lönnerfors, Céline; Bollino, Michele; Persson, Jan

    2018-03-01

    To compare the rate of lymphatic complications in women with endometrial cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy versus a full pelvic and infrarenal paraaortic lymphadenectomy, and to examine the overall feasibility and safety of the former. A prospective study of 188 patients with endometrial cancer planned for robotic surgery. Indocyanine green was used to identify the sentinel lymph nodes. In low-risk patients the lymphadenectomy was restricted to removal of sentinel lymph nodes whereas in high-risk patients also a full lymphadenectomy was performed. The impact of the extent of the lymphadenectomy on the rate of complications was evaluated. The bilateral detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes was 96% after cervical tracer injection. No intraoperative complication was associated with the sentinel lymph node biopsy per se. Compared with hysterectomy alone, the additional average operative time for removal of sentinel lymph nodes was 33min whereas 91min were saved compared with a full pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy alone resulted in a lower incidence of leg lymphedema than infrarenal paraaortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy (1.3% vs 18.1%, p=0.0003). The high feasibility, the absence of intraoperative complications and the low risk of lymphatic complications supports implementing detection of sentinel lymph nodes in low-risk endometrial cancer patients. Given that available preliminary data on sensitivity and false negative rates in high-risk patients are confirmed in further studies, we also believe that the reduction in lymphatic complications and operative time strongly motivates the sentinel lymph node concept in high-risk endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Values and worries of ovarian cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria; Kenzik, Kelly M.; Rim, Sun Hee; Funkhouser, Ellen M.; Bevis, Kerri S.; Alvarez, Ronald D.; Cantuaria, Guilherme; Rocconi, Rodney P.; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Older women with ovarian cancer (OC) are less likely to receive guideline concordant treatment. Differences in values and worries about treatment may explain why. Methods Women with OC in 2013–2015 were surveyed about values and worries at the time of initial treatment. Existing values (11 item, e.g., maintaining quality of life) and worries (12 items, e.g., treatment side effects) scales were adapted based on OC literature. Responses were very/somewhat/a little/not at all important or worried. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) identified groups of values and worries that best explained scales' variation. We examined proportions reporting very/somewhat important/worried on ≥1 item in each component by age (older ≥65 years, younger <65 years). Results Of 170 respondents, 42.3%were older. PCA components for values were: functional well-being (3 survey items, proportion of variance explained [PoVE] 26.3%), length of life and sexual functioning (3 items, PoVE 20.1%), attitudes (3 items, PoVE 14.2%), and not becoming a burden (2 items, PoVE 13.7%). PCA components for worries were: economic (4 items, PoVE 27.2%), uncertainty (6 items, PoVE 26.0%), and family impact (2 items, PoVE 16.3%). Older women were less likely to indicate very/somewhat worried to ≥1 item in the economic (51.4% vs 72.4%, p = 0.006), uncertainty (80.6% vs. 98.0%, p = 0.001), and family impact component (55.6% vs. 70.4%, p = 0.03). No other age differences were found. Conclusions While worry during OC treatment decision-making may differ across age groups, values do not. Research should assess how differences in worry might affect OC medical decision-making for older and younger women. PMID:28888542

  2. Endometrial and cervical metastases leading to the diagnosis of a primary breast cancer: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Chupryna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer can metastasize to a vast array of organs, but in rare cases cancer can form secondary lesions in the uterus and cervix. In our case report we have a 56 years old female with gynaecologic bleeding, bloating, and difficulty in breathing, fatigue, weakness and polyuria. After performing of dilatation and curettage the result was endometrial and cervical metastases which show histopathological and immunohistochemical results suggesting invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast that leads to primary breast cancer. The treatment was estimated on the basis of her status.

  3. Identifying Determinants of PARP Inhibitor Sensitivity in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Cancer Center Philadelphia, PA 19111 REPORT DATE: TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick...in Ovarian Cancer October 2017 The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER The Research Institute of Fox Chase Cancer Center 333 Cottman Avenue Philadelphia

  4. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A; Eng, Kevin H; Szender, J Brian; Mayor, Paul; Etter, John L; Cramer, Daniel W; Diergaarde, Brenda; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Edwards, Robert; deFazio, Anna; Friel, Grace; Goodman, Marc T; Hillemanns, Peter; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Jordan, Susan J; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjær, Susanne K; Klapdor, Rüdiger; Matsuo, Keitaro; Mizuno, Mika; Nagle, Christina M; Odunsi, Kunle; Paddock, Lisa; Rossing, Mary Anne; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Segal, Brahm H; Starbuck, Kristen; Terry, Kathryn L; Webb, Penelope M; Zsiros, Emese; Ness, Roberta B; Modugno, Francesmary; Bandera, Elisa V; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2017-09-26

    Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated associations between hyper- and hypothyroidism and medications prescribed for these conditions with 5-year all-cause survival among women diagnosed with invasive ovarian cancer. Overall, there was a nonsignificant association with history of hyperthyroidism (n=160 cases) and mortality (HR=1.22; 95% CI=0.97-1.53). Furthermore, diagnosis of hyperthyroidism within the 5 years before ovarian cancer diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of death (HR=1.94; 95% CI=1.19-3.18). A more modest association was observed with history of hypothyroidism (n=624 cases) and mortality (HR=1.16; 95% CI=1.03-1.31). Neither duration of hypothyroidism nor use of thyroid medications was associated with survival. In this large study of women with ovarian cancer, we found that recent history of hyperthyroidism and overall history of hypothyroidism were associated with worse 5-year survival.

  5. Prospective, Multi-center Randomized Intermediate Biomarker Study of Oral Contraceptive vs. Depo-Provera for Prevention of Endometrial Cancer in Women with Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen H.; Loose, David S.; Yates, Melinda S.; Nogueras-Gonzalez, Graciela M.; Munsell, Mark F.; Chen, Lee-may; Lynch, Henry; Cornelison, Terri; Boyd-Rogers, Stephanie; Rubin, Mary; Daniels, Molly S.; Conrad, Peggy; Milbourne, Andrea; Gershenson, David M.; Broaddus, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Women with Lynch syndrome have a 40–60% lifetime risk for developing endometrial cancer, a cancer associated with estrogen imbalance. The molecular basis for endometrial-specific tumorigenesis is unclear. Progestins inhibit estrogen-driven proliferation, and epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that progestin-containing oral contraceptives (OCP) reduce the risk of endometrial cancer by 50% in women at general population risk. It is unknown if they are effective in women with Lynch syndrome. Asymptomatic women age 25–50 with Lynch syndrome were randomized to receive the progestin compounds depo-Provera (depoMPA) or OCP for three months. An endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound were performed before and after treatment. Endometrial proliferation was evaluated as the primary endpoint. Histology and a panel of surrogate endpoint biomarkers were evaluated for each endometrial biopsy as secondary endpoints. A total of 51 women were enrolled, and 46 completed treatment. Two of the 51 women had complex hyperplasia with atypia at the baseline endometrial biopsy and were excluded from the study. Overall, both depoMPA and OCP induced a dramatic decrease in endometrial epithelial proliferation and microscopic changes in the endometrium characteristic of progestin action. Transvaginal ultrasound measurement of endometrial stripe was not a useful measure of endometrial response or baseline hyperplasia. These results demonstrate that women with Lynch syndrome do show an endometrial response to short term exogenous progestins, suggesting that OCP and depoMPA may be reasonable chemopreventive agents in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23639481

  6. Prospective multicenter randomized intermediate biomarker study of oral contraceptive versus depo-provera for prevention of endometrial cancer in women with Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen H; Loose, David S; Yates, Melinda S; Nogueras-Gonzalez, Graciela M; Munsell, Mark F; Chen, Lee-May; Lynch, Henry; Cornelison, Terri; Boyd-Rogers, Stephanie; Rubin, Mary; Daniels, Molly S; Conrad, Peggy; Milbourne, Andrea; Gershenson, David M; Broaddus, Russell R

    2013-08-01

    Women with Lynch syndrome have a 40% to 60% lifetime risk for developing endometrial cancer, a cancer associated with estrogen imbalance. The molecular basis for endometrial-specific tumorigenesis is unclear. Progestins inhibit estrogen-driven proliferation, and epidemiologic studies have shown that progestin-containing oral contraceptives (OCP) reduce the risk of endometrial cancer by 50% in women at general population risk. It is unknown whether they are effective in women with Lynch syndrome. Asymptomatic women ages 25 to 50 with Lynch syndrome were randomized to receive the progestin compounds Depo-Provera (depo-MPA) or OCP for three months. An endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound were conducted before and after treatment. Endometrial proliferation was evaluated as the primary endpoint. Histology and a panel of surrogate endpoint biomarkers were evaluated for each endometrial biopsy as secondary endpoints. A total of 51 women were enrolled, and 46 completed treatment. Two of the 51 women had complex hyperplasia with atypia at the baseline endometrial biopsy and were excluded from the study. Overall, both depo-MPA and OCP induced a dramatic decrease in endometrial epithelial proliferation and microscopic changes in the endometrium characteristic of progestin action. Transvaginal ultrasound measurement of endometrial stripe was not a useful measure of endometrial response or baseline hyperplasia. These results show that women with Lynch syndrome do show an endometrial response to short-term exogenous progestins, suggesting that OCP and depo-MPA may be reasonable chemopreventive agents in this high-risk patient population.

  7. Vaginal brachytherapy alone is sufficient adjuvant treatment of surgical stage I endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solhjem, Matthew C.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy and complications of adjuvant vaginal high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone for patients with Stage I endometrial cancer in whom complete surgical staging had been performed. Methods and Materials Between April 1998 and March 2004, 100 patients with Stage I endometrial cancer underwent surgical staging (total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with pelvic ± paraaortic nodal sampling) and postoperative vaginal high-dose-rate brachytherapy at our institution. The total dose was 2100 cGy in three fractions. Results With a median follow-up of 23 months (range 2-62), no pelvic or vaginal recurrences developed. All patients underwent pelvic dissection, and 42% underwent paraaortic nodal dissection. A median of 29.5 pelvic nodes (range 1-67) was removed (84% had >10 pelvic nodes removed). Most patients (73%) had endometrioid (or unspecified) adenocarcinoma, 16% had papillary serous carcinoma, and 11% had other histologic types. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade was Stage IA, grade III in 5; Stage IB, grade I, II, or III in 6, 27, or 20, respectively; and Stage IC, grade I, II, or III in 13, 17, or 10, respectively. The Common Toxicity Criteria (version 2.0) complications were mild (Grade 1-2) and consisted primarily of vaginal mucosal changes, temporary urinary irritation, and temporary diarrhea. Conclusion Adjuvant vaginal high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone may be a safe and effective alternative to pelvic external beam radiotherapy for surgical Stage I endometrial cancer

  8. Postoperative vaginal radiation in endometrial cancer using a remote afterloading technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, L.; Nori, D.; Anderson, L.; Hilaris, B.

    1985-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignancy of the female genital tract. In early stage endometrial cancer, surgery remains the primary mode of treatment while radiation therapy plays an adjuvant role. Prophylactic vaginal radiation has been shown to reduce significantly the incidence of vaginal recurrences. Between the years 1969-1976, 330 patients with FIGO Stages I and II endometrial cancer were treated according to a standard departmental policy in which 40 Gy of external radiation was given to high risk Stage I and II patients in combination with surgery and intravaginal radiation. With this regimen, the mucosal surface received a total equivalent dose of 40 Gy. These treatments were given on an outpatient basis without the need for any sedation or analgesics. The minimum follow-up was 5 years, with a median follow-up of 8.5 years. The overall pelvic and/or vaginal recurrence rate was 2.7%. The incidence of vaginal complications was 3.7%. The advantages of a remote after loading technique in delivering vaginal vault radiation in endometrial cancer are discussed

  9. Costs of Robotic-Assisted Versus Traditional Laparoscopy in Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Riikka-Liisa K; Mäenpää, Minna M; Nieminen, Kari; Tomás, Eija I; Luukkaala, Tiina H; Auvinen, Anssi; Mäenpää, Johanna U

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the costs of traditional laparoscopy and robotic-assisted laparoscopy in the treatment of endometrial cancer. A total of 101 patients with endometrial cancer were randomized to the study and operated on starting from 2010 until 2013, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. Costs were calculated based on internal accounting, hospital database, and purchase prices and were compared using intention-to-treat analysis. Main outcome measures were item costs and total costs related to the operation, including a 6-month postoperative follow-up. The total costs including late complications were 2160 &OV0556; higher in the robotic group (median for traditional 5823 &OV0556;, vs robot median 7983 &OV0556;, P costs for instruments and equipment as well as to more expensive operating room and postanesthesia care unit time. Traditional laparoscopy involved higher costs for operation personnel, general costs, medication used in the operation, and surgeon, although these costs were not substantial. There was no significant difference in in-patient stay, laboratory, radiology, blood products, or costs related to complications. According to this study, robotic-assisted laparoscopy is 37% more expensive than traditional laparoscopy in the treatment of endometrial cancer. The cost difference is mainly explained by amortization of the robot and its instrumentation.

  10. Role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer: Current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Dowdy, Sean C.; Cliby, William A.; Ghezzi, Fabio; Rossetti, Diego; Mariani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current evidence on the role of pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer. In 1988, the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommended surgical staging for endometrial cancer patients. However, 25 years later, the role of lymph node dissection remains controversial. Although the findings of two large independent randomized trials suggested that pelvic lymphadenectomy provides only adjunctive morbidity with no clear influence on survival outcomes, the studies have many pitfalls that limit interpretation of the results. Theoretically, lymphadenectomy may help identify patients with metastatic dissemination, who may benefit from adjuvant therapy, thus reducing radiation-related morbidity. Also, lymphadenectomy may eradicate metastatic disease. Because lymphatic spread is relatively uncommon, our main effort should be directed at identifying patients who may potentially benefit from lymph node dissection, thus reducing the rate of unnecessary treatment and associated morbidity. This review will discuss the role of lymphadenectomy in endometrial cancer, focusing on patient selection, extension of the surgical procedure, postoperative outcomes, quality of life and costs. The need for new surgical studies and efficacious systemic drugs is recommended. PMID:24472047

  11. Outcomes and cost comparisons after introducing a robotics program for endometrial cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susie; Vaknin, Zvi; Ramana-Kumar, Agnihotram V; Halliday, Darron; Franco, Eduardo L; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of introducing a robotic program on cost and patient outcome. This was a prospective evaluation of clinical outcome and cost after introducing a robotics program for the treatment of endometrial cancer and a retrospective comparison to the entire historical cohort. Consecutive patients with endometrial cancer who underwent robotic surgery (n=143) were compared with all consecutive patients who underwent surgery (n=160) before robotics. The rate of minimally invasive surgery increased from 17% performed by laparoscopy to 98% performed by robotics in 2 years. The patient characteristics were comparable in both eras, except for a higher body mass index in the robotics era (median 29.8 compared with 27.6; Probotics had longer operating times (233 compared with 206 minutes), but fewer adverse events (13% compared with 42%; Probotics compared with the historical group (Can$7,644 compared with Can$10,368 [Canadian dollars]; Psurgery, the short-term recurrence rate appeared lower in the robotics group compared with the historic cohort (11 recurrences compared with 19 recurrences; Probotics for endometrial cancer surgery increased the proportion of patients benefitting from minimally invasive surgery, improved short-term outcomes, and resulted in lower hospital costs. II.

  12. Lipocalin 2 expression is associated with aggressive features of endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannelqvist, Monica; Akslen, Lars A; Stefansson, Ingunn M; Wik, Elisabeth; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Raeder, Maria B; Øyan, Anne M; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Moses, Marsha A; Salvesen, Helga B

    2012-01-01

    Increased expression of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) has been observed in several cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate LCN2 in endometrial cancer in relation to clinico-pathologic phenotype, angiogenesis, markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and patient survival. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using a human LCN2 antibody on a population-based series of endometrial cancer patients collected in Hordaland County (Norway) during 1981-1990 (n = 256). Patients were followed from the time of primary surgery until death or last follow-up in 2007. The median follow-up time for survivors was 17 years. Gene expression data from a prospectively collected endometrial cancer series (n = 76) and a publicly available endometrial cancer series (n = 111) was used for gene correlation studies. Expression of LCN2 protein, found in 49% of the cases, was associated with non-endometrioid histologic type (p = 0.001), nuclear grade 3 (p = 0.001), >50% solid tumor growth (p = 0.001), ER and PR negativity (p = 0.028 and 0.006), and positive EZH2 expression (p < 0.001). LCN2 expression was significantly associated with expression of VEGF-A (p = 0.021), although not with other angiogenesis markers examined (vascular proliferation index, glomeruloid microvascular proliferation, VEGF-C, VEGF-D or bFGF2 expression). Further, LCN2 was not associated with several EMT-related markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, P-cadherin, β-catenin), nor with vascular invasion (tumor cells invading lymphatic or blood vessels). Notably, LCN2 was significantly associated with distant tumor recurrences, as well as with the S100A family of metastasis related genes. Patients with tumors showing no LCN2 expression had the best outcome with 81% 5-year survival, compared to 73% for intermediate and 38% for the small subgroup with strong LCN2 staining (p = 0.007). In multivariate analysis, LCN2 expression was an independent prognostic factor in addition to histologic grade and FIGO stage

  13. New perspectives on targeted therapy in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coward JIG

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jermaine IG Coward,1–3 Kathryn Middleton,1 Felicity Murphy1 1Mater Health Services, Raymond Terrace, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Inflammtion and Cancer Therapeutics Group, Mater Research, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 3School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia Abstract: Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. During the last 15 years, there has been only marginal improvement in 5 year overall survival. These daunting statistics are compounded by the fact that despite all subtypes exhibiting striking heterogeneity, their systemic management remains identical. Although changes to the scheduling and administration of chemotherapy have improved outcomes to a degree, a therapeutic ceiling is being reached with this approach, resulting in a number of trials investigating the efficacy of targeted therapies alongside standard treatment algorithms. Furthermore, there is an urge to develop subtype-specific studies in an attempt to improve outcomes, which currently remain poor. This review summarizes the key studies with antiangiogenic agents, poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose inhibitors, and epidermal growth factor receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor family targeting, in addition to folate receptor antagonists and insulin growth factor receptor inhibitors. The efficacy of treatment paradigms used in non-ovarian malignancies for type I tumors is also highlighted, in addition to recent advances in appropriate patient stratification for targeted therapies in epithelial ovarian cancer. Keywords: antiangiogenic therapy, high-grade serous, low grade ovarian cancer, PARP inhibition, cancer-related inflammation

  14. Estimating potential for savings for low risk endometrial cancer using the Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model (ECAP): A companion paper to the Society of Gynecologic Oncology Report on the Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason D; Havrilesky, Laura J; Cohn, David E; Huang, Yongmei; Rathbun, Jill; Rice, Laurel W; Brown, Carol L; Alvarez, Ronald D; Ko, Emily M

    2018-05-01

    To design an endometrial cancer (EC) alternative payment (ECAP) model focused on surgical management of EC, as well as identify drivers of cost in order to develop opportunities for cost-savings while maintaining quality of care. National practice patterns and reimbursements were compared between private payers (MarketScan data, years 2009-13) and public payers (Medicare, year 2014) of EC patients who underwent hysterectomy. An episode of care for EC included the hysterectomy, stratified by surgical approach (laparotomy versus robotic versus laparoscopy), and in- and outpatient reimbursements from 30days preoperatively to 60days postoperatively. Reimbursements were categorized into cost centers. A decision model informed modifiable components influencing overall reimbursements for EC surgical care. Variations in length of stay (LOS), emergency department (ED visits), and readmissions were analyzed to create an optimal care model. A total of MarketScan (n=29,558) and Medicare (n=377) patients were included. Mean total reimbursement for an episode of care was $19,183 (SD $10,844) for Medicare and $30,839 (SD $19,911) for MarketScan. Mean reimbursements were greatest for abdominal cases in Medicare ($25,553; SD $11,870) and MarketScan ($35,357; SD $21,670), followed by robotic and laparoscopic. Among MarketScan patients, 7.6% of women were readmitted within 60days after surgery and 11.7% had an evaluation in the ED. The median reimbursement per patient for readmission was $14,474 (IQR $8584 to $26,149), and for ED visit was $6327 (IQR $1369 to $29,153). In an optimized care model, increasing the rate of minimally invasive surgery by 5% while reducing LOS by 10% and ED visits/readmissions by 10%, lowered the average case reimbursement by $903 (2.9%) for MarketScan and $1243 (5.9%) for Medicare. An ECAP model demonstrates that reimbursements vary by public versus commercial payers in the U.S. for the surgical management of endometrial cancer patients, and that

  15. Antitumor effects of metformin via indirect inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A in patients with endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Hanawa

    Full Text Available Metformin, an antidiabetic drug, inhibits the endometrial cancer cell growth in vivo by improving the insulin resistance; however, its mechanism of action is not completely understood. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a serine/threonine phosphatase associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and its inhibition restores the insulin resistance. This study investigated the antitumor effect of metformin on endometrial cancer with a focus on PP2A.Metformin (1,500-2,250 mg/day was preoperatively administered to patients with endometrial cancer for 4 to 6 weeks. Expression of the PP2A regulatory subunits, 4 (PPP2R4 and B (PP2A-B, was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC using paired specimens obtained before and after metformin treatment. The effect of PPP2R4 inhibition with small interfering RNA was evaluated in the endometrial cancer cell lines HEC265 and HEC1B. P values of < .05 were considered statistically significant.Preoperative metformin treatment significantly reduced the expression of PP2A-B, as determined using IHC, and the mRNA expression of PPP2R4, as determined using RT-PCR, in the patients with endometrial cancer. However, metformin could not directly alter the PPP2R4 mRNA levels in the endometrial cancer cell lines in vitro. PPP2R4 knockdown reduced the proliferation and induced the apoptosis by activating caspases 3/7 in HEC265 and HEC1B cells.Downregulation of the PP2A-B subunit, including PPP2R4, is an important indirect target of metformin. Inhibition of PP2A may be an option for the treatment of endometrial cancer patients with insulin resistance.This trial is registered with UMIN-CTR (number UMIN000004852.

  16. Prostaglandin receptor EP3 regulates cell proliferation and migration with impact on survival of endometrial cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junyan; Trillsch, Fabian; Mayr, Doris; Kuhn, Christina; Rahmeh, Martina; Hofmann, Simone; Vogel, Marianne; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo; von Schönfeldt, Viktoria

    2018-01-02

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor 3 (EP3) regulates tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in numerous cancers. The role of EP3 as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer remains unclear. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of EP3 expression in endometrial cancer. We analyzed the EP3 expression of 140 endometrial carcinoma patients by immunohistochemistry. RL95-2 endometrial cancer cell line was chosen from four endometrial cancer cell lines (RL95-2, Ishikawa, HEC-1-A, and HEC-1-B) according to EP3 expression level. Treated with PGE2 and EP3 antagonist, RL95-2 cells were investigated by MTT, BrdU, and wound healing assay for functional assessment of EP3. EP3 staining differed significantly according to WHO tumor grading in both whole cohort (p = 0.01) and the subgroup of endometrioid carcinoma (p = 0.01). Patients with high EP3 expression in their respective tumors had impaired progression-free survival as well as overall survival in both cohorts above. EP3 expression in the overall cohort was identified as an independent prognostic marker for progression-free survival (HR 1.014, 95%CI 1.003-1.024, p = 0.01) when adjusted for age, stage, grading, and recurrence. Treatment with EP3 antagonists induced upregulation of estrogen receptor β and decreased activity of Ras and led to attenuated proliferation and migration of RL95-2 cells. EP3 seems to play a crucial role in endometrial cancer progression. In the context of limited systemic treatment options for endometrial cancer, this explorative analysis identifies EP3 as a potential target for diagnostic workup and therapy.

  17. Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K.E.P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67–0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21–1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10−4, rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10−4, rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10−4. The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:22253144

  18. Treatment outcome after adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Kyung Ja; Park, Kyung Ran [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes of adjuvant radiotherapy using vaginal brachytherapy (VB) with a lower dose per fraction and/or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial carcinoma. The subjects were 43 patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I endometrial cancer who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery between March 2000 and April 2014. Of these, 25 received postoperative VB alone, while 18 received postoperative EBRT to the whole pelvis; 3 of these were treated with EBRT plus VB. The median EBRT dose was 50.0 Gy (45.0–50.4 Gy) and the VB dose was 24 Gy in 6 fractions. Tumor dose was prescribed at a depth of 5 mm from the cylinder surface and delivered twice per week. The median follow-up period for all patients was 57 months (range, 9 to 188 months). Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) for all patients were 92.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Adjuvant radiotherapy was performed according to risk factors and stage IB, grade 3 and lymphovascular invasion were observed more frequently in the EBRT group. Five-year DFS for EBRT and VB alone were 88.1% and 96.0%, respectively (p = 0.42), and 5-year OS for EBRT and VB alone were 94.4% and 96%, respectively (p = 0.38). There was no locoregional recurrence in any patient. Two patients who received EBRT and 1 patient who received VB alone developed distant metastatic disease. Two patients who received EBRT had severe complications, one each of grade 3 gastrointestinal complication and pelvic bone insufficiency fracture. Adjuvant radiotherapy achieved high DFS and OS with acceptable toxicity in stage I endometrial cancer. VB (with a lower dose per fraction) may be a viable option for selected patients with early-stage endometrial cancer following surgery.

  19. Cognitive and affective influences on perceived risk of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; McCarty, Frances; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Scholl, Lawrence E; Leadbetter, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Studies suggest that both affective and cognitive processes are involved in the perception of vulnerability to cancer and that affect has an early influence in this assessment of risk. We constructed a path model based on a conceptual framework of heuristic reasoning (affect, resemblance, and availability) coupled with cognitive processes involved in developing personal models of cancer causation. From an eligible cohort of 16 700 women in a managed care organization, we randomly selected 2524 women at high, elevated, and average risk of ovarian cancer and administered a questionnaire to test our model (response rate 76.3%). Path analysis delineated the relationships between personal and cognitive characteristics (number of relatives with cancer, age, ideas about cancer causation, perceived resemblance to an affected friend or relative, and ovarian cancer knowledge) and emotional constructs (closeness to an affected relative or friend, time spent processing the cancer experience, and cancer worry) on perceived risk of ovarian cancer. Our final model fit the data well (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.98). This final model (1) demonstrated the nature and direction of relationships between cognitive characteristics and perceived risk; (2) showed that time spent processing the cancer experience was associated with cancer worry; and (3) showed that cancer worry moderately influenced perceived risk. Our results highlight the important role that family cancer experience has on cancer worry and shows how cancer experience translates into personal risk perceptions. This understanding informs the discordance between medical or objective risk assessment and personal risk assessment. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Aspirin and P2Y12 inhibition attenuate platelet-induced ovarian cancer cell invasion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, Niamh M

    2015-09-09

    Platelet-cancer cell interactions play a key role in successful haematogenous metastasis. Disseminated malignancy is the leading cause of death among ovarian cancer patients. It is unknown why different ovarian cancers have different metastatic phenotypes. To investigate if platelet-cancer cell interactions play a role, we characterized the response of ovarian cancer cell lines to platelets both functionally and at a molecular level.

  1. The relationship of local and distant failure from endometrial cancer: defining a clinical paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn, Benjamin W.; Lanciano, Rachelle; D'Agostino, Ralph; Kiggundu, Edward; Purser, Phillip; Greven, Kathryn M.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) has recently activated a phase III protocol (no. 156) that randomizes women with intermediate risk endometrial cancer to pelvic irradiation (RT) vs. chemotherapy (cisplatin, doxorubicin). This study design presumes that chemotherapy will be able to control local disease, or that local disease is a minimal problem and that distant metastases arise independent of local failure. Recently, statistical methods have been developed to rigorously assess the relationship between local and distant failures. Such methodology has successfully been applied to a variety of tumors including those arising in the prostate, breast, and cervix. To date, no published data are available to generate an hypothesis to characterize the relationship between local and distant failure for endometrial cancer. The present analysis was undertaken to determine the effect of loco-regional control on subsequent metastatic dissemination among women with pathologically staged endometrial cancer treated by hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. METHODS: The series consisted of 394 patients with FIGO stages I-IVa endometrial cancer who were surgically staged prior to irradiation [median external beam dose 46 Gy +/- brachytherapy (median vaginal surface dose=30 Gy)]. The duration of follow-up ranged from 2 to 80 months, with a median of 50 months. Multiple factors were evaluated to determine the associations with distant relapse including FIGO pathological stage, grade, histopathologic subtype (adeno, vs papillary/papillary-serous/clear cell), depth of myometrial penetration, age, and local disease status. Time dependent survival models were generated to assess the influence of local failure on distant metastases. RESULTS: For the entire series, the 5 year actuarial rates of local and distant failures were 9% and 20%, respectively. Women who failed locally had a >6-fold risk of failing distantly compared to those who remained locally controlled (p=0

  2. Evaluation of biologically active substances promoting the development of or protecting against endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cymbaluk-Płoska A

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aneta Cymbaluk-Płoska,1 Anita Chudecka-Głaz,1 Anna Jagodzińska,1 Ewa Pius-Sadowska,2 Agnieszka Sompolska-Rzechuła,3 Bogusław Machaliński,2 Janusz Menkiszak1 1Department of Gynecological Surgery and Gynecological Oncology of Adults and Adolescents, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; 2General Pathology Department, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; 3Department of Statistics, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland Introduction: Adipose tissue is considered an endocrine organ and produces a number of biologically active substances. Aims: To consider the role that four adipokines – leptin, omentin-1, vaspin, and galectin-3 – play in the diagnosis of endometrium cancer and to investigate the association between serum concentrations of adipose tissue metabolism products and the diagnostics and prognosis in endometrial cancer. Patients and methods: The study included 168 patients with body mass index (BMI >20 kg/m2 admitted due to post-menopausal bleeding. Results: A receiver operating characteristic curves test was performed to determine the diagnostic values of the proteins tested. For leptin and galectin-3 the area under the curve (AUC values were 0.79/0.68, while for vaspin and omentin-1 the AUC values were 0.82/0.86 for all study patients. The final model identified the following independent risk factors: glucose concentration, BMI, waist circumference, leptin, and vaspin concentrations. Diagnostic values of leptin and galectin-3 with regard to differentiation between high (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie Obstétrique [FIGO] III and IV and low (FIGO I and II stages of clinical tumor advancement and prediction of tumor grading (G1 vs G3 based on the AUC curve were 0.82/0.70 and 0.80/0.74. The AUC values for vaspin and omentin-1 with respect to differentiation between histopathological advancement and grading were 0.86/0.81 and 0.83/0.77, respectively. Significantly lower values of

  3. Analysis of Prognostic Factors and Patterns of Recurrence in Patients With Pathologic Stage III Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Samir; Portelance, Lorraine; Gilbert, Lucy; Tan, Leonard; Stanimir, Gerald; Duclos, Marie; Souhami, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in patients with pathologic Stage III endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2003, 107 patients with pathologic International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III endometrial adenocarcinoma confined to the pelvis were treated at our institution. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) was delivered to 68 patients (64%). The influence of multiple patient- and treatment-related factors on pelvic and distant control and overall survival (OS) was evaluated. Results: Median follow-up for patients at risk was 41 months. Five-year actuarial OS was significantly improved in patients treated with adjuvant RT (68%) compared with those with resection alone (50%; p = 0.029). Age, histology, grade, uterine serosal invasion, adnexal involvement, number of extrauterine sites, and treatment with adjuvant RT predicted for improved survival in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that grade, uterine serosal invasion, and treatment with adjuvant RT were independent predictors of survival. Five-year actuarial pelvic control was improved significantly with the delivery of adjuvant RT (74% vs. 49%; p = 0.011). Depth of myometrial invasion and treatment with adjuvant RT were independent predictors of pelvic control in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Multiple prognostic factors predicting for the outcome of pathologic Stage III endometrial cancer patients were identified in this analysis. In particular, delivery of adjuvant RT seems to be a significant independent predictor for improved survival and pelvic control, suggesting that pelvic RT should be routinely considered in the management of these patients

  4. Staging of endometrial cancer with MRI: Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinkel, K. [Geneva University Hospital and Institut de Radiologie, Clinique des Grangettes, Chene-Bougeries/Geneva (Switzerland); Clinique des Grangettes, Institut de radiologie, Chene-Bougerie/Geneva (Switzerland); Forstner, R. [LandesklinikenSalzburg, Zentralroentgeninstitut, Salzburg (Austria); Danza, F.M. [Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Dipartimento di Bioimmagini e scienze radiologiche, Rome (Italy); Oleaga, L. [Hospital Clinic, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Cunha, T.M. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Department of Radiology, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Bergman, A. [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Barentsz, J.O. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Balleyguier, C. [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif Cedex (France); Brkljacic, B. [University Hospital ' ' Dubrava' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zagreb (Croatia); University of Zagreb, Medical School, Zagreb (Croatia); Spencer, J.A. [St James' s Institute of Oncology, Department of Clinical Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to define guidelines for endometrial cancer staging with MRI. The technique included critical review and expert consensus of MRI protocols by the female imaging subcommittee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, from ten European institutions, and published literature between 1999 and 2008. The results indicated that high field MRI should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine body) of the pelvic content. High-resolution post-contrast images acquired at 2 min {+-} 30 s after intravenous contrast injection are suggested to be optimal for the diagnosis of myometrial invasion. If cervical invasion is suspected, additional slice orientation perpendicular to the axis of the endocervical channel is recommended. Due to the limited sensitivity of MRI to detect lymph node metastasis without lymph node-specific contrast agents, retroperitoneal lymph node screening with pre-contrast sequences up to the level of the kidneys is optional. The likelihood of lymph node invasion and the need for staging lymphadenectomy are also indicated by high-grade histology at endometrial tissue sampling and by deep myometrial or cervical invasion detected by MRI. In conclusion, expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  5. Staging of endometrial cancer with MRI: Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinkel, K.; Forstner, R.; Danza, F.M.; Oleaga, L.; Cunha, T.M.; Bergman, A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Balleyguier, C.; Brkljacic, B.; Spencer, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define guidelines for endometrial cancer staging with MRI. The technique included critical review and expert consensus of MRI protocols by the female imaging subcommittee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, from ten European institutions, and published literature between 1999 and 2008. The results indicated that high field MRI should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine body) of the pelvic content. High-resolution post-contrast images acquired at 2 min ± 30 s after intravenous contrast injection are suggested to be optimal for the diagnosis of myometrial invasion. If cervical invasion is suspected, additional slice orientation perpendicular to the axis of the endocervical channel is recommended. Due to the limited sensitivity of MRI to detect lymph node metastasis without lymph node-specific contrast agents, retroperitoneal lymph node screening with pre-contrast sequences up to the level of the kidneys is optional. The likelihood of lymph node invasion and the need for staging lymphadenectomy are also indicated by high-grade histology at endometrial tissue sampling and by deep myometrial or cervical invasion detected by MRI. In conclusion, expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  6. Tumor estrogen content and clinico-morphological and endocrine features of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Tchernobrovkina, A E; Gamajunova, V B; Kovalevskij, A J; Vasilyev, D A; Chepik, O F; Turkevitch, E A; Tsyrlina, E V; Maximov, S J; Ashrafian, L A; Thijssen, J H H

    2003-04-01

    To compare estrogen concentrations in endometrial cancer tissue with those in macroscopically normal endometrium and with certain morphological characteristics of the tumor and endocrine parameters in patients. The estradiol content was evaluated by radioimmunoassay after homogenization and extraction in 78 adenocarcinomas (61 from postmenopausal patients). Higher concentrations of estradiol in tumor tissue samples than in macroscopically normal endometrium were found in patients of both reproductive and postmenopausal age. This difference was the same in patients with either endometrial carcinoma type I or type II. No association between tumor steroid receptor levels, estradiol concentrations in blood serum, and timing of menopause with intratumoral estradiol contents was discovered. Estradiol concentrations in tumor tissues correlated positively with the clinical stage of disease and rate of tumor invasion (in patients with peripheric/lower type of fat topography), and negatively with tumor differentiation stage (in patients with central/upper type of fat topography) and the percentage of intact double-stranded DNA in normal endometrium. Tumor estrogen content in endometrial cancer has clinical significance that is modified in the presence of certain endocrine characteristics related to insulin resistance. The role of local estrogen production (aromatase activity) in this setting deserves special study.

  7. DDX4 (DEAD box polypeptide 4) colocalizes with cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hyung; Kang, Yun-Jeong; Jo, Jin-Ok; Ock, Mee Sun; Moon, Soo Hyun; Suh, Dong Soo; Yoon, Man Soo; Park, Eun-Sil; Jeong, Namkung; Eo, Wan-Kyu; Kim, Heung Yeol; Cha, Hee-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Germ cell marker DDX4 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer. • Ovarian cancer stem cell marker CD133 was significantly increased in ovarian cancer. • DDX4 and CD133 were mostly colocalized in various types of ovarian cancer tissues. • CD133 positive ovarian cancer cells also express DDX4 whereas CD133-negative cells did not possess DDX4. • Germ cell marker DDX4 has the potential of ovarian cancer stem cell marker. - Abstract: DDX4 (DEAD box polypeptide 4), characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), is an RNA helicase which is implicated in various cellular processes involving the alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. DDX4 is known to be a germ cell-specific protein and is used as a sorting marker of germline stem cells for the production of oocytes. A recent report about DDX4 in ovarian cancer showed that DDX4 is overexpressed in epithelial ovarian cancer and disrupts a DNA damage-induced G2 checkpoint. We investigated the relationship between DDX4 and ovarian cancer stem cells by analyzing the expression patterns of DDX4 and the cancer stem cell marker CD133 in ovarian cancers via tissue microarray. Both DDX4 and CD133 were significantly increased in ovarian cancer compared to benign tumors, and showed similar patterns of expression. In addition, DDX4 and CD133 were mostly colocalized in v