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Sample records for endogenous retrovirus-derived envelope

  1. Novel endogenous retrovirus-derived transcript expressed in the bovine placenta is regulated by WNT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, So; Bai, Hanako; Bai, Rulan; Kusama, Kazuya; Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Iga, Kosuke; Yasuda, Jiro; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2017-10-10

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are involved in placentation; perhaps, the most well-known ERV s are the syncytins, actively transcribed env genes involved in cell-cell fusion and possible morphological variations. However, ERVs other than syncytins that play an important role in placental development have not been well characterized. To identify ERV genes expressed during the onset of placentation in the bovine species, we characterized the expression profiles of bovine conceptus transcripts during the peri-attachment period using RNA-seq analysis, and confirming some candidates through real-time PCR. Using in silico and PCR analyses, we identified a novel ERV proviral sequence derived from a gag region, designated bovine endogenous retroviruses (BERV)-K3, containing Gag _p10 and Gag _p24, zinc finger domain. Initial expression of this ERV in bovine conceptuses was on day 20 (day 0 = day of estrus), soon after conceptus attachment to the endometrial epithelium, and its high placental expression was maintained up to the middle of pregnancy. The BERV-K3 transcript was also found in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia, liver, kidney, intestine, and skin. BERV-K3 is located on chromosome 7 and integrated within LOC100848658 , from which noncoding RNA could be transcribed. Furthermore, the expression of endogenous BERV-K3 in bovine trophoblast cell lines was induced by a WNT agonist, a signaling system common to genes expressed in placentas. These data support the argument that during the evolutionary process, mammals incorporated not only similar ERV sequences, but also ERV s unique to individual species. BERV-K3 is in the latter case, likely providing functions unique to ruminant gestation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Characterization of the fusion core in zebrafish endogenous retroviral envelope protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Zhang, Huaidong [CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Gong, Rui, E-mail: gongr@wh.iov.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China); Xiao, Gengfu, E-mail: xiaogf@wh.iov.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071 (China)

    2015-05-08

    Zebrafish endogenous retrovirus (ZFERV) is the unique endogenous retrovirus in zebrafish, as yet, containing intact open reading frames of its envelope protein gene in zebrafish genome. Similarly, several envelope proteins of endogenous retroviruses in human and other mammalian animal genomes (such as syncytin-1 and 2 in human, syncytin-A and B in mouse) were identified and shown to be functional in induction of cell–cell fusion involved in placental development. ZFERV envelope protein (Env) gene appears to be also functional in vivo because it is expressible. After sequence alignment, we found ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR) which were crucial for membrane fusion. We expressed the regions of N + C protein in the ZFERV Env (residues 459–567, including predicted NHR and CHR) to characterize the fusion core structure. We found N + C protein could form a stable coiled-coil trimer that consists of three helical NHR regions forming a central trimeric core, and three helical CHR regions packing into the grooves on the surface of the central core. The structural characterization of the fusion core revealed the possible mechanism of fusion mediated by ZFERV Env. These results gave comprehensive explanation of how the ancient virus infects the zebrafish and integrates into the genome million years ago, and showed a rational clue for discovery of physiological significance (e.g., medicate cell–cell fusion). - Highlights: • ZFERV Env shares similar structural profiles with syncytin and other type I viral envelopes. • The fusion core of ZFERV Env forms stable coiled-coil trimer including three NHRs and three CHRs. • The structural mechanism of viral entry mediated by ZFERV Env is disclosed. • The results are helpful for further discovery of physiological function of ZFERV Env in zebrafish.

  3. Infectious Entry Pathway Mediated by the Human Endogenous Retrovirus K Envelope Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lindsey R; Whelan, Sean P J

    2016-01-20

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), the majority of which exist as degraded remnants of ancient viruses, comprise approximately 8% of the human genome. The youngest human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the HERV-K(HML-2) subgroup and were endogenized within the past 1 million years. The viral envelope protein (ENV) facilitates the earliest events of endogenization (cellular attachment and entry), and here, we characterize the requirements for HERV-K ENV to mediate infectious cell entry. Cell-cell fusion assays indicate that a minimum of two events are required for fusion, proteolytic processing by furin-like proteases and exposure to acidic pH. We generated an infectious autonomously replicating recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) in which the glycoprotein was replaced by HERV-K ENV. HERV-K ENV imparts an endocytic entry pathway that requires dynamin-mediated membrane scission and endosomal acidification but is distinct from clathrin-dependent or macropinocytic uptake pathways. The lack of impediments to the replication of the VSV core in eukaryotic cells allowed us to broadly survey the HERV-K ENV-dictated tropism. Unlike extant betaretroviral envelopes, which impart a narrow species tropism, we found that HERV-K ENV mediates broad tropism encompassing cells from multiple mammalian and nonmammalian species. We conclude that HERV-K ENV dictates an evolutionarily conserved entry pathway and that the restriction of HERV-K to primate genomes reflects downstream stages of the viral replication cycle. Approximately 8% of the human genome is of retroviral origin. While many of those viral genomes have become inactivated, some copies of the most recently endogenized human retrovirus, HERV-K, can encode individual functional proteins. Here, we characterize the envelope protein (ENV) of the virus to define how it mediates infection of cells. We demonstrate that HERV-K ENV undergoes a proteolytic processing step and triggers membrane fusion in response to acidic pH--a strategy

  4. Dysfunction of bovine endogenous retrovirus K2 envelope glycoprotein is related to unsuccessful intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yuki; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2014-06-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are the remnants of retroviral infection of ancestral germ cells. Mutations introduced into ERVs halt the production of infectious agents, but their effects on the function of retroviral proteins are not fully understood. Retroviral envelope glycoproteins (Envs) are utilized in membrane fusion during viral entry, and we recently identified intact coding sequences for bovine endogenous retrovirus K1 (BERV-K1) and BERV-K2 Envs. Amino acid sequences of BERV-K1 Env (also called Fematrin-1) and BERV-K2 Env are similar, and both viruses are classified in the genus Betaretrovirus. While Fematrin-1 plays an important role in cell-to-cell fusion in bovine placenta, the BERV-K2 envelope gene is marginally expressed in vivo, and its recombinant Env protein is defective in membrane fusion due to inefficient cleavage of surface (SU) and transmembrane subunits. Here, we conducted chimeric analyses of Fematrin-1 and BERV-K2 Envs and revealed that defective maturation of BERV-K2 Env contributed to failed intracellular trafficking. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis suggested that in contrast to Fematrin-1 Env, BERV-K2 Env could not be transported from the endoplasmic reticulum to the trans-Golgi network, where cellular proteases required for processing retroviral Envs are localized. We also identified that one of the responsive regions of this phenomenon resided within a 65-amino-acid region of BERV-K2 SU. This is the first report to identify that retroviral Env SU is involved in the regulation of intracellular trafficking, and it may help to elucidate the maturation process of Fematrin-1 and other related Envs. Retroviruses utilize envelope glycoproteins (Envs) to enter host target cells. Mature retroviral Env is a heterodimer, which consists of surface (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunits that are generated by the cleavage of an Env precursor protein in the trans-Golgi network. SU and TM mediate the recognition of the entry

  5. Structural characterization of the fusion core in syncytin, envelope protein of human endogenous retrovirus family W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Rui; Peng Xiaoxue; Kang Shuli; Feng Huixing; Huang Jianying; Zhang Wentao; Lin Donghai; Tien Po; Xiao Gengfu

    2005-01-01

    Syncytin is a captive retroviral envelope protein, possibly involved in the formation of the placental syncytiotrophoblast layer generated by trophoblast cell fusion at the maternal-fetal interface. We found that syncytin and type I viral envelope proteins shared similar structural profiling, especially in the regions of N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR). We expressed the predicted regions of NHR (41 aa) and CHR (34 aa) in syncytin as a native single chain (named 2-helix protein) to characterize it. 2-helix protein exists as a trimer and is highly α-helix, thermo-stable, and denatured by low pH. NHR and CHR could form a protease-resistant complex. The complex structure built by the molecular docking demonstrated that NHR and CHR associated in an antiparallel manner. Overall, the 2-helix protein could form a thermo-stable coiled coil trimer. The fusion core structure of syncytin was first demonstrated in endogenous retrovirus. These results support the explanation how syncytin mediates cytotrophoblast cell fusion involved in placental morphogenesis

  6. A recombinant endogenous retrovirus amplified in a mouse neuroblastoma is involved in tumor growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothlichet, Julien; Heidmann, Thierry; Mangeney, Marianne

    2006-08-15

    The theory of immunoediting postulates that tumor cells exhibit a reduced immunogenicity to escape eradication by the host immune system. It has been proposed that endogenous retroviruses--provided that they are active--could play a role in this process, via the immunosuppressive domain carried by their envelope protein. Here, we demonstrate that the Neuro-2a tumor cell line--originating from a spontaneous A/J mouse neuroblastoma--produces an infectious retrovirus that most probably results from a recombination event between 2 mouse endogenous retroviral elements. This Neuro-2a-associated recombinant retrovirus derives from the unique ecotropic provirus located at the Emv-1 locus, but with a gag sequence conferring B-tropism, thus allowing its high-level amplification in Neuro-2a cells. We show that knocking down -by RNA interference- this endogenous retrovirus in Neuro-2a cells has no effect on the transformed phenotype of the cells, but results in delayed tumor growth and prolonged animal survival, following engraftment of the cells into immunocompetent mice. Recombination between endogenous retroviruses, amplification of the resulting element and high-level expression of its immunosuppressive activity are therefore likely steps of an immunoediting process, leading to an invading tumor. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Vaccination directed against the human endogenous retrovirus-K envelope protein inhibits tumor growth in a murine model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Benjamin; Fischer, Katrin; Büchner, Sarah M; Wels, Winfried S; Löwer, Roswitha; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2013-01-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) genomes are chromosomally integrated in all cells of an individual. They are normally transcriptionally silenced and transmitted only vertically. Enhanced expression of HERV-K accompanied by the emergence of anti-HERV-K-directed immune responses has been observed in tumor patients and HIV-infected individuals. As HERV-K is usually not expressed and immunological tolerance development is unlikely, it is an appropriate target for the development of immunotherapies. We generated a recombinant vaccinia virus (MVA-HKenv) expressing the HERV-K envelope glycoprotein (ENV), based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), and established an animal model to test its vaccination efficacy. Murine renal carcinoma cells (Renca) were genetically altered to express E. coli beta-galactosidase (RLZ cells) or the HERV-K ENV gene (RLZ-HKenv cells). Intravenous injection of RLZ-HKenv cells into syngenic BALB/c mice led to the formation of pulmonary metastases, which were detectable by X-gal staining. A single vaccination of tumor-bearing mice with MVA-HKenv drastically reduced the number of pulmonary RLZ-HKenv tumor nodules compared to vaccination with wild-type MVA. Prophylactic vaccination of mice with MVA-HKenv precluded the formation of RLZ-HKenv tumor nodules, whereas wild-type MVA-vaccinated animals succumbed to metastasis. Protection from tumor formation correlated with enhanced HERV-K ENV-specific killing activity of splenocytes. These data demonstrate for the first time that HERV-K ENV is a useful target for vaccine development and might offer new treatment opportunities for diverse types of cancer.

  8. A soluble envelope protein of endogenous retrovirus (FeLIX) present in serum of domestic cats mediates infection of a pathogenic variant of feline leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Shoichi; Shojima, Takayuki; Fukui, Daisuke; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    T-lymphotropic feline leukemia virus (FeLV-T), a highly pathogenic variant of FeLV, induces severe immunosuppression in cats. FeLV-T is fusion defective because in its PHQ motif, a gammaretroviral consensus motif in the N terminus of an envelope protein, histidine is replaced with aspartate. Infection by FeLV-T requires FeLIX, a truncated envelope protein encoded by an endogenous FeLV, for transactivation of infectivity and Pit1 for binding FeLIX. Although Pit1 is present in most tissues in cats, the expression of FeLIX is limited to certain cells in lymphoid organs. Therefore, the host cell range of FeLV-T was thought to be restricted to cells expressing FeLIX. However, because FeLIX is a soluble factor and is expressed constitutively in lymphoid organs, we presumed it to be present in blood and evaluated its activities in sera of various mammalian species using a pseudotype assay. We demonstrated that cat serum has FeLIX activity at a functional level, suggesting that FeLIX is present in the blood and that FeLV-T may be able to infect cells expressing Pit1 regardless of the expression of FeLIX in vivo. In addition, FeLIX activities in sera were detected only in domestic cats and not in other feline species tested. To our knowledge, this is the first report to prove that a large amount of truncated envelope protein of endogenous retrovirus is circulating in the blood to facilitate the infection of a pathogenic exogenous retrovirus. © 2015 The Authors.

  9. Diaspora, a large family of Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons in Glycine max, is an envelope-less member of an endogenous plant retrovirus lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Sho T; Panbehi, Bahman; Das, Arpita; Laten, Howard M

    2005-05-05

    The chromosomes of higher plants are littered with retrotransposons that, in many cases, constitute as much as 80% of plant genomes. Long terminal repeat retrotransposons have been especially successful colonizers of the chromosomes of higher plants and examinations of their function, evolution, and dispersal are essential to understanding the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. In soybean, several families of retrotransposons have been identified, including at least two that, by virtue of the presence of an envelope-like gene, may constitute endogenous retroviruses. However, most elements are highly degenerate and are often sequestered in regions of the genome that sequencing projects initially shun. In addition, finding potentially functional copies from genomic DNA is rare. This study provides a mechanism to surmount these issues to generate a consensus sequence that can then be functionally and phylogenetically evaluated. Diaspora is a multicopy member of the Ty3-gypsy-like family of LTR retrotransposons and comprises at least 0.5% of the soybean genome. Although the Diaspora family is highly degenerate, and with the exception of this report, is not represented in the Genbank nr database, a full-length consensus sequence was generated from short overlapping sequences using a combination of experimental and in silico methods. Diaspora is 11,737 bp in length and contains a single 1892-codon ORF that encodes a gag-pol polyprotein. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that it is closely related to Athila and Calypso retroelements from Arabidopsis and soybean, respectively. These in turn form the framework of an endogenous retrovirus lineage whose members possess an envelope-like gene. Diaspora appears to lack any trace of this coding region. A combination of empirical sequencing and retrieval of unannotated Genome Survey Sequence database entries was successfully used to construct a full-length representative of the Diaspora family in Glycine max. Diaspora is presently the

  10. Comparison of the convergent receptor utilization of a retargeted feline leukemia virus envelope with a naturally-occurring porcine endogenous retrovirus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari, Peter M; Argaw, Takele; Valdivieso, Leonardo; Zhang, Xia; Marcucci, Katherine T; Salomon, Daniel R; Wilson, Carolyn A; Roth, Monica J

    2012-06-05

    In vitro screening of randomized FeLV Envelope libraries identified the CP isolate, which enters cells through HuPAR-1, one of two human receptors utilized by porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), a distantly related gammaretrovirus. The CP and PERV-A Envs however, share little amino acid homology. Their receptor utilization was examined to define the common receptor usage of these disparate viral Envs. We demonstrate that the receptor usage of CP extends to HuPAR-2 but not to the porcine receptor PoPAR, the cognate receptor for PERV-A. Reciprocal interference between virus expressing CP and PERV-A Envs was observed on human cells. Amino acid residues localized to within the putative second extracellular loop (ECL-2) of PAR-1 and PAR-2 are found to be critical for CP envelope function. Through a panel of receptor chimeras and point mutations, this area was also found to be responsible for the differential usage of the PoPAR receptor between CP and PERV-A. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tropism, Cytotoxicity, and Inflammatory Properties of Two Envelope Genes of Murine Leukemia Virus Type-Endogenous Retroviruses of C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Kwan Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope (env proteins of certain endogenous retroviruses (ERVs participate in various pathophysiological processes. In this study, we characterized pathophysiologic properties of two murine leukemia virus-type ERV (MuLV-ERV env genes cloned from the ovary of C57BL/6J mice. The two env genes (named ENVOV1 and ENVOV2, with 1,926\\,bp coding region, originated from two MuLV-ERV loci on chromosomes 8 and 18, respectively. ENVOV1 and ENVOV2 were ~75 kDa and predominantly expressed on the cell membrane. They were capable of producing pseudotype murine leukemia virus virions. Tropism trait and infectivity of ENVOV2 were similar to the polytropic env; however, ENVOV1 had very low level of infectivity. Overexpression of ENVOV2, but not ENVOV1, exerted cytotoxic effects and induced expression of COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, and iNOS. These findings suggest that the ENVOV1 and ENVOV2 are capable of serving as an env protein for virion assembly, and they exert differential cytotoxicity and modulation of inflammatory mediators.

  12. Human leukemia antigen-A*0201-restricted epitopes of human endogenous retrovirus W family envelope (HERV-W env) induce strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaoning; Li, Shan; Zhao, Lijuan; Xiao, Ran; Wang, Xiuling; Zhu, Fan

    2017-08-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope (env) has been reported to be related to several human diseases, including autoimmune disorders, and it could activate innate immunity. However, there are no reports investigating whether human leukemia antigen (HLA)-A*0201 + restriction is involved in the immune response caused by HERV-W env in neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study, HERV-W env-derived epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201 are described with the potential for use in adoptive immunotherapy. Five peptides displaying HLA-A*0201-binding motifs were predicted using SYFEPITHI and BIMAS, and synthesized. A CCK-8 assay showed peptides W, Q and T promoted lymphocyte proliferation. Stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HLA-A*0201 + donors with each of these peptides induced peptide-specific CD8 + T cells. High numbers of IFN-γ-secreting T cells were also detectable after several weekly stimulations with W, Q and T. Besides lysis of HERV-W env-loaded target cells, specific apoptosis was also observed. These data demonstrate that human T cells can be sensitized toward HERV-W env peptides (W, Q and T) and, moreover, pose a high killing potential toward HERV-W env-expressing U251 cells. In conclusion, peptides W Q and T, which are HERV-W env antigenic epitopes, have both antigenicity and immunogenicity, and can cause strong T cell immune responses. Our data strengthen the view that HERV-W env should be considered as an autoantigen that can induce autoimmunity in neuropsychiatric diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia. These data might provide an experimental foundation for a HERV-W env peptide vaccine and new insight into the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases.

  13. Initial preclinical safety of non-replicating human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein-coated baculovirus vector-based vaccines against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-Eun; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Lee, Soondong; Cho, Hee-Jeong; Byun, Youngro; Kim, Sujeong; Kim, Young Bong; Choi, Yongseok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope protein-coated, baculovirus vector-based HPV 16 L1 (AcHERV-HPV16L1) is a non-replicating recombinant baculoviral vaccine. Here, we report an initial evaluation of the preclinical safety of AcHERV-HPV16L1 vaccine. In an acute toxicity study, a single administration of AcHERV-HPV16L1 DNA vaccine given intramuscularly (i.m.) to mice at a dose of 1 × 10(8) plaque-forming units (PFU) did not cause significant changes in body weight compared with vehicle-treated controls. It did cause a brief increase in the weights of some organs on day 15 post-treatment, but by day 30, all organ weights were not significantly different from those in the vehicle-treated control group. No hematological changes were observed on day 30 post-treatment. In a range-finding toxicity study with three doses of 1 × 10(7) , 2 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(7) PFU once daily for 5 days, the group treated with 5 × 10(7) PFU showed a transient decrease in the body weights from day 5 to day 15 post-treatment, but recovery to the levels similar to those in the vehicle-treated control group by post-treatment day 20. Organ weights were slightly higher for lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and liver after repeated dosing with 5 × 10(7) PFU on day 15, but had normalized by day 30. Moreover, repeated administration of AcHERV-HPV16L1 did not induce myosin-specific autoantibody in serum, and did not cause immune complex deposition or tissue damage at injection sites. Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence of the preclinical safety of AcHERV-based HPV16L1 DNA vaccines in mice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Investigation of Endogenous Retrovirus Sequences in the Neighborhood of Genes Up-regulated in a Neuroblastoma Model after Treatment with Hypoxia-Mimetic Cobalt Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütting, Christine; Narasimhan, Harini; Hoffmann, Frank; Kornhuber, Malte E; Staege, Martin S; Emmer, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) have been found to be associated with different diseases, e.g., multiple sclerosis (MS). Most human ERVs integrated in our genome are not competent to replicate and these sequences are presumably silent. However, transcription of human ERVs can be reactivated, e.g., by hypoxia. Interestingly, MS has been linked to hypoxia since decades. As some patterns of demyelination are similar to white matter ischemia, hypoxic damage is discussed. Therefore, we are interested in the association between hypoxia and ERVs. As a model, we used human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells after treatment with the hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride and analyzed differences in the gene expression profiles in comparison to untreated cells. The vicinity of up-regulated genes was scanned for endogenous retrovirus-derived sequences. Five genes were found to be strongly up-regulated in SH-SY5Y cells after treatment with cobalt chloride: clusterin, glutathione peroxidase 3, insulin-like growth factor 2, solute carrier family 7 member 11, and neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9. In the vicinity of these genes we identified large (>1,000 bp) open reading frames (ORFs). Most of these ORFs showed only low similarities to proteins from retro-transcribing viruses. However, we found very high similarity between retrovirus envelope sequences and a sequence in the vicinity of neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated protein 9. This sequence encodes the human endogenous retrovirus group FRD member 1, the encoded protein product is called syncytin 2. Transfection of syncytin 2 into the well-characterized Ewing sarcoma cell line A673 was not able to modulate the low immunostimulatory activity of this cell line. Future research is needed to determine whether the identified genes and the human endogenous retrovirus group FRD member 1 might play a role in the etiology of MS.

  15. Building envelope

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available for use in the building. This is done through photovoltaic and solar water heating panels and wind turbines. Ideally these are integrated in the design of the building envelope to improve the aesthetic quality of the building and minimise material... are naturally ventilated. Renewable energy The building envelope includes renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics, wind turbines and solar water heaters and 10% of the building’s energy requirements are generated from these sources. Views All...

  16. Biomimetic Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Mazzoleni

    2010-01-01

    How to translate the lessons learned from the analysis and observation of the animal world is the design learning experience presented in this article. Skin is a complex and incredibly sophisticated organ that performs various functions, including protection, sensation and heat and water regulation. In a similar way building envelopes serve multiple roles, as they are the interface between the building inhabitants and environmental elements. The resulting architectural building envelopes prot...

  17. Endogenous antipyretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim

    2006-09-01

    The febrile increase of body temperature is regarded as a component of the complex host response to infection or inflammation that accompanies the activation of the immune system. Late phases of fever appear mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines called endogenous pyrogens. The rise of body temperature is beneficial because it accelerates several components of the activated immune system. To prevent an excessive and dangerous rise of body temperature the febrile response is controlled, limited in strength and duration, and sometimes even prevented by the actions of endogenous antipyretic substances liberated systemically or within the brain during fever. In most cases the antipyretic effects are achieved by an inhibitory influence on the formation or action of endogenous pyrogens, or by effects on neuronal thermoregulatory circuits that are activated during fever. Endogenous antipyretic substances include steroid hormones, neuropeptides, cytokines and other molecules. It is the purpose of this review to consider the current state in the research on endogenous antipyretic systems.

  18. Enveloping Aerodynamic Decelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Kerry T. (Inventor); Aaron, Kim M. (Inventor); McRonald, Angus D. (Inventor); Gates, Kristin L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An inflatable aerodynamic deceleration method and system is provided for use with an atmospheric entry payload. The inflatable aerodynamic decelerator includes an inflatable envelope and an inflatant, wherein the inflatant is configured to fill the inflatable envelope to an inflated state such that the inflatable envelope surrounds the atmospheric entry payload, causing aerodynamic forces to decelerate the atmospheric entry payload.

  19. Endogene CGRP

    OpenAIRE

    Höfer, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele Die vorliegende tierexperimentelle Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, welche Rolle endogenes Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in der Niere spielt. Hierbei untersuchten wir die renale CGRP Freisetzung aus renalen Afferenzen in vitro anhand von gesunden Tieren und einem pathologischen Modell der Glomerulonephritis. Man weiß bereits, dass sowohl sympathische als auch primär sensorische Neuronen die Entzündung und die Immunantwort in der Peripherie regulieren (68)....

  20. A phase IIa randomised clinical study of GNbAC1, a humanised monoclonal antibody against the envelope protein of multiple sclerosis-associated endogenous retrovirus in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derfuss, Tobias; Curtin, François; Guebelin, Claudia; Bridel, Claire; Rasenack, Maria; Matthey, Alain; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Schluep, Myriam; Desmeules, Jules; Lang, Alois B; Perron, Hervé; Faucard, Raphael; Porchet, Hervé; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Kappos, Ludwig; Lalive, Patrice H

    2015-06-01

    GNbAC1 is an immunoglobulin (IgG4) humanised monoclonal antibody against multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus (MSRV)-Env, a protein of endogenous retroviral origin, expressed in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, which is pro-inflammatory and inhibits oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation. This is a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled dose-escalation study followed by a six-month open-label phase to test GNbAC1 in MS patients. The primary objective was to assess GNbAC1 safety in MS patients, and the other objectives were pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments. Ten MS patients were randomised into two cohorts to receive a single intravenous infusion of GNbAC1/placebo at doses of 2 or 6 mg/kg. Then all patients received five infusions of GNbAC1 at 2 or 6 mg/kg at four-week intervals in an open-label setting. Safety, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, cytokines and MSRV RNA expression were studied. All patients completed the study. GNbAC1 was well tolerated in all patients. GNbAC1 pharmacokinetics is dose-linear with mean elimination half-life of 27-37 d. Anti-GNbAC1 antibodies were not detected. Cytokine analysis did not indicate an adverse effect. MSRV-transcripts showed a decline after the start of treatment. Nine patients had stable brain lesions at MRI. The safety, pharmacokinetic profile, and pharmacodynamic responses to GNbAC1 are favourable in MS patients over a six-month treatment period. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Storage envelopes or sleeves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater, J.R.; Wagman, P.I.

    1980-01-01

    A storage envelope or sleeve particularly for processed X-ray films is described. It consists of front and back panels joined together at a hinge line and connected along the intermediate sides by connecting flaps. An inner pocket is formed from a third flap which is folded to lie against the inner face of the back panel. The panels may have additional score lines parallel to the closed sides of the envelope and the inner pocket so that the envelope and the inner pocket can accommodate bulky contents. The free edge of the pocket is inset from the open side of the envelope, and finger cut-outs may be provided to facilitate access to the contents of the envelope and the pocket. (author)

  2. Protective plasma envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharov, V.N.; Konstantinov, S.G.; Kudryavtsev, A.M.; Myskin, O.K.; Panasyuk, V.M.; Tsel'nik, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    A method of creating an annular plasma envelope used to protect the hot plasma from flows of impurities and gases from the walls of the vacuum chamber is described. The diameter of the envelope is 30 cm, the thickness of the wall is 1.5 cm, the length is 2.5 m, and its density is from 10 13 to 10 14 cm -3 . The envelope attenuates the incident (from outside) flow of helium 10-fold and the low of hydrogen 20-fold

  3. Endogenous Generalized Weights under DEA Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    Non-parametric efficiency analysis, such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) relies so far on endogenous local or exogenous general weights, based on revealed preferences or market prices. However, as DEA is gaining popularity in regulation and normative budgeting, the strategic interest...... of the evaluated industry calls for attention. We offer endogenous general prices based on a reformulation of DEA where the units collectively propose the set of weights that maximize their efficiency. Thus, the sector-wide efficiency is then a result of compromising the scores of more specialized smaller units...

  4. Safe operating envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, N [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs.

  5. Safe operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, N.

    1997-01-01

    Safe Operating Envelope is described representing: The outer bound of plant conditions within which day-to-day plant operation must be maintained in order to comply with regulatory requirements, associated safety design criteria and corporate nuclear safety goals. Figs

  6. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  7. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  8. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  9. (Quasi-)Poisson enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yan-Hong; Yao, Yuan; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra and Poisson enveloping algebra for a non-commutative Poisson algebra. We prove that for a non-commutative Poisson algebra, the category of quasi-Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its quasi-Poisson enveloping algebra, and the category of Poisson modules is equivalent to the category of left modules over its Poisson enveloping algebra.

  10. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary......, environmental dynamics and occupancy dynamics. Lastly, a physical prototype is created, which illustrates the physical expression of the bi-materials and the problems related to manufacturing of these composite structures.......The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary...

  11. Generation of neutralising antibodies against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulitz, Danny; Fiebig, Uwe; Eschricht, Magdalena; Wurzbacher, Christian; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies neutralising porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) were induced in different animal species by immunisation with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E. These antibodies recognised epitopes, designated E1, in the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of p15E, and E2 in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). E2 is localised in a position similar to that of an epitope in the transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), recognised by the monoclonal antibody 4E10 that is broadly neutralising. To detect neutralising antibodies specific for PERV, a novel assay was developed, which is based on quantification of provirus integration by real-time PCR. In addition, for the first time, highly effective neutralising antibodies were obtained by immunisation with the surface envelope protein of PERV. These data indicate that neutralising antibodies can be induced by immunisation with both envelope proteins.

  12. Uncertain data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Meilin

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended to present the milestones in the progression of uncertain Data envelopment analysis (DEA). Chapter 1 gives some basic introduction to uncertain theories, including probability theory, credibility theory, uncertainty theory and chance theory. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive review and discussion of basic DEA models. The stochastic DEA is introduced in Chapter 3, in which the inputs and outputs are assumed to be random variables. To obtain the probability distribution of a random variable, a lot of samples are needed to apply the statistics inference approach. Chapter 4

  13. Endogenous Prospect Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zank, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This paper provides an axiomatization of a new specification of cumulative prospect theory, termed endogenous prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  14. Are endogenous feline leukemia viruses really endogenous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H; Jarrett, O; Hosie, M J; Willett, B J

    2011-10-15

    Full length endogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviruses exist within the genomes of many breeds of domestic cat raising the possibility that they may also exist in a transmissible exogenous form. Such viruses would share receptor usage with the recombinant FeLV-B subgroup, a viral subgroup that arises in vivo by recombination between exogenous subgroup A virus (FeLV-A) and endogenous FeLV. Accordingly, all isolates of FeLV-B made to date have contained a "helper" FeLV-A, consistent with their recombinatorial origin. In order to assess whether endogenous viruses are transmitted between cats, we examined primary isolates of FeLV for which the viral subgroup had been determined for the presence of a subgroup B virus that lacked an FeLV-A. Here we describe the identification of two primary field isolates of FeLV (2518 and 4314) that appeared to contain subgroup B virus only by classical interference assays, raising the possibility of between-host transmission of endogenous FeLV. Sequencing of the env gene and U3 region of the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) confirmed that both viral genomes contained endogenous viral env genes. However the viral 3' LTRs appeared exogenous in origin with a putative 3' recombination breakpoint residing at the 3' end of the env gene. Further, the FeLV-2518 virions also co-packaged a truncated FeLV-A genome containing a defective env gene, termed FeLV-2518(A) whilst no helper subgroup A viral genome was detected in virions of FeLV-4314. The acquisition of an exogenous LTR by the endogenous FeLV in 4314 may have allowed a recombinant FeLV variant to outgrow an exogenous FeLV-A virus that was presumably present during first infection. Given time, a similar evolution may also occur within the 2518 isolate. The data suggest that endogenous FeLVs may be mobilised by acquisition of exogenous LTRs yielding novel viruses that type biologically as FeLV-B. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression and function of endogenous retroviruses in the placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Although the expression of endogenous retroviruses in the placenta of numerous species was observed a long time ago, their physiological function during gestation was demonstrated only very recently. Expression of retroviral envelope proteins, also called syncytins, in the placenta allows generation of the multinuclear syncytiotrophoblast as an outer cellular layer of the placenta by fusion of the trophoblast cells. This fusion process is crucial for the development of the placenta and for successful pregnancy. It is still unclear whether the immunosuppressive properties of the transmembrane envelope protein of the endogenous retroviruses expressed in the placenta contribute to immunosuppression to prevent the rejection of the semiallotransplant embryo. The presence of placenta cells expressing retroviral envelope proteins surrounded by immune cells deep in the maternal tissue supports an immunosuppressive function. It is important to emphasize that during evolution different species utilized ('enslaved') different endogenous retroviruses and that two or more endogenous retroviruses are involved in placentogenesis in each species. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  17. Production of endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1979-01-01

    The production and release of endogenous pyrogen by the host is the first step in the pathogenesis of fever. Endogenous pyrogen is a low-molecular-weight protein released from phagocytic leukocytes in response to several substances of diverse nature. Some of these agents stimulate production of endogenous pyrogen because they are toxic; others act as antigens and interact with either antibody or sensitized lymphocytes in order to induce its production. Some tumors of macrophage origin produce the molecule spontaneously. Whatever the mechanism involved, endogenous pyrogen is synthesized following transcription of new DNA and translation of mRNA into new protein. Once synthesis is completed, the molecule is released without significant intracellular storage. Recent evidence suggests that following release, molecular aggregates form which are biologically active. In its monomer form, endogenous pyrogen is a potent fever-producing substance and mediates fever by its action on the thermoregulatory center.

  18. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  19. The LHC on an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays ...

  20. The LHC in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The series of envelopes featuring CERN issued this summer was a huge success. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex will shortly be launching the second set of pre-paid envelopes issued in collaboration with the Laboratory this year, this time highlighting the LHC. Five thousand envelopes describing the accelerator’s capabilities will go on sale on 12 November, and some of the packs will even contain a small sample of the cables from the heart of the LHC magnets. The sets of ten pre-paid envelopes will tell you everything about CERN’s flagship accelerator, from its astounding technical capabilities to its spin-offs in the fields of technology and human resources. Each envelope will feature a different attribute or spin-off of the LHC. People will be invited to consult CERN’s public website for more detailed explanations if they want to know more. The new envelopes will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin...

  1. The Endogenous Exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jun; Mutlu, Esra; Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard; Bodnar, Wanda; Yu, Rui; Lai, Yongquan; Moeller, Benjamin; Lu, Kun; Swenberg, James

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the Exposome, is a compilation of diseases and one’s lifetime exposure to chemicals, whether the exposure comes from environmental, dietary, or occupational exposures; or endogenous chemicals that are formed from normal metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, infections, and other natural metabolic processes such as alteration of the gut microbiome. In this review, we have focused on the Endogenous Exposome, the DNA damage that arises from the production of endogenous electrophilic molecules in our cells. It provides quantitative data on endogenous DNA damage and its relationship to mutagenesis, with emphasis on when exogenous chemical exposures that produce identical DNA adducts to those arising from normal metabolism cause significant increases in total identical DNA adducts. We have utilized stable isotope labeled chemical exposures of animals and cells, so that accurate relationships between endogenous and exogenous exposures can be determined. Advances in mass spectrometry have vastly increased both the sensitivity and accuracy of such studies. Furthermore, we have clear evidence of which sources of exposure drive low dose biology that results in mutations and disease. These data provide much needed information to impact quantitative risk assessments, in the hope of moving towards the use of science, rather than default assumptions. PMID:24767943

  2. Cytokines as endogenous pyrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1999-03-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic molecules mediating several pathologic processes. Long before the discovery of cytokines as immune system growth factors or as bone marrow stimulants, investigators learned a great deal about cytokines when they studied them as the endogenous mediators of fever. The terms "granulocytic" or "endogenous pyrogen" were used to describe substances with the biologic property of fever induction. Today, we recognize that pyrogenicity is a fundamental biologic property of several cytokines and hence the clinically recognizeable property of fever links host perturbations during disease with fundamental perturbations in cell biology. In this review, the discoveries made on endogenous pyrogens are revisited, with insights into the importance of the earlier work to the present-day understanding of cytokines in health and in disease.

  3. Evolution of endogenous analgesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous pain modulation is a complex phenomenon involved in the perception of pain. It consists of top-down inhibitory and facilitatory pathways that originate at higher sites within the central nervous system and converge at dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord, to modulate incoming afferent

  4. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  5. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Robert; Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant's large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis

  6. Moisture dynamics in building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuhkuri, R.

    2003-07-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis 'Moisture dynamics in building envelopes' has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygro thermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature and moisture conditions in the exterior weather and indoor climate the materials dynamically absorb and release moisture. The complexity of the impact of these conditions on the resulting moisture transport and content of the materials has been studied in this Thesis with controlled laboratory tests. (au)

  7. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...... part of the Thesis consists of a theory and literature review on the moisture storage and transport processes (Chapter 2), on the non-Fickian moisture transport (Chapter 3)and on the methods for determining the moisture properties (Chapter 4). In the second part, the conducted experimental work...

  8. Endogenous growth and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  9. Endogenous growth and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  10. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  11. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  12. Nature of 'unseen' galactic envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that unseen matter in a galactic envelope or in a group of galaxies may consist of substellar bodies originating as the first permanent 'stars' in the formation of a very massive galaxy according to a model for galaxy-formation on the basis of simple big-bang cosmology. (Auth.)

  13. Handbook on data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, William W; Zhu, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on extensively used Data Envelopment Analysis topics, this volume aims to both describe the state of the field and extend the frontier of DEA research. New chapters include DEA models for DMUs, network DEA, models for supply chain operations and applications, and new developments.

  14. Human endogenous retroviruses in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system. Notably envelope genes and their gene products (Envs) appear strongly associated with the disease. For SCZ, for ALS, and for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), indications are accumulating for involvement of the HERV-K family, and also HERV-H/F and/or HERV-W. Activation is reasonably a prerequisite for causality as most HERV sequences remain quiescent in non-pathological conditions, so the importance of regulatory pathways and epigenetics involved in regulating HERV activation, derepression, and also involvement of retroviral restriction factors, is emerging. HERV-directed antiretrovirals have potential as novel therapeutic paradigms in neurologic disease, particularly in MS. The possible protective or ameliorative effects of antiretroviral therapy in MS are substantiated by reports that treatment of HIV infection may be associated with a significantly decreased risk of MS. Further studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are essential. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...... of the reviewed theories, appears able to compensate for the explanatory gaps they leave behind. The EFN proposes consciousness as the phenomenon emerging from a distinct network of neural paths broadcasting the neural changes associated to any mental process. It additionally argues for the need to include a 5th...

  16. Hume and Endogenous Money

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pia Paganelli

    2006-01-01

    David Hume’s monetary theory has three standard yet inconsistent readings. As a forefather of the quantity theory of money, Hume sees money as neutral. As an inflationist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy. As a monetarist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy only in the short run. This paper reads Hume consistently instead by showing that for Hume money is endogenous and demand-driven. Hume would read the money equation in terms of reverse causation and ...

  17. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Bean; Richard Metcalf; Aaron Bevill

    2008-09-01

    The Safeguards Envelope Project met its milestones by creating a rudimentary safeguards envelope, proving the value of the approach on a small scale, and determining the most appropriate path forward. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant’s large cache of reprocessing process monitoring data, dubbed UBER Data, was recovered and used in the analysis. A probabilistic Z test was used on a Markov Monte Carlo simulation of expected diversion data when compared with normal operating data. The data regarding a fully transient event in a tank was used to create a simple requirement, representative of a safeguards envelope, whose impact was a decrease in operating efficiency by 1.3% but an increase in material balance period of 26%. This approach is operator, state, and international safeguards friendly and should be applied to future reprocessing plants. Future requirements include tank-to-tank correlations in reprocessing facilities, detailed operations impact studies, simulation inclusion, automated optimization, advanced statistics analysis, and multi-attribute utility analysis.

  18. Transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G C [OSRAM SYLVANIA, 71 Cherry Hill Drive, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States)

    2005-09-07

    Transparent ceramic materials with optical qualities comparable to single crystals of similar compositions have been developed in recent years, as a result of the improved understanding of powder-processing-fabrication- sintering-property inter-relationships. These high-temperature materials with a range of thermal and mechanical properties are candidate envelopes for focused-beam, short-arc lamps containing various fills operating at temperatures higher than quartz. This paper reviews the composition, structure and properties of transparent ceramic lamp envelope materials including sapphire, small-grained polycrystalline alumina, aluminium oxynitride, yttrium aluminate garnet, magnesium aluminate spinel and yttria-lanthana. A satisfactory thermal shock resistance is required for the ceramic tube to withstand the rapid heating and cooling cycles encountered in lamps. Thermophysical properties, along with the geometry, size and thickness of a transparent ceramic tube, are important parameters in the assessment of its resistance to fracture arising from thermal stresses in lamps during service. The corrosive nature of lamp-fill liquid and vapour at high temperatures requires that all lamp components be carefully chosen to meet the target life. The wide range of new transparent ceramics represents flexibility in pushing the limit of envelope materials for improved beamer lamps.

  19. Combining Semi-Endogenous and Fully Endogenous Growth: a Generalization.

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that combining the semi-endogenous and the fully endogenous growth mechanisms with a general CES aggregator, either growth process can prevail in the balanced growth path depending on their degree of complementarity/substitutability. Policy-induced long-run economic switches to the fully endogenous steady state as the R&D employment ratio surpasses a positive threshold are possible if the two growth engines are gross substitutes.

  20. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  1. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  2. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  3. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  4. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  5. Endogenous fertility and development traps with endogenous lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We extend the literature on endogenous lifetime and economic growth by Chakraborty (2004) and Bunzel and Qiao (2005) to endogenous fertility. We show that development traps due to underinvestments in health cannot appear when fertility is an economic decision variable and the costs of children are represented by a constant fraction of the parents' income used for their upbringing.

  6. Cortical processing of dynamic sound envelope transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-12-08

    Slow envelope fluctuations in the range of 2-20 Hz provide important segmental cues for processing communication sounds. For a successful segmentation, a neural processor must capture envelope features associated with the rise and fall of signal energy, a process that is often challenged by the interference of background noise. This study investigated the neural representations of slowly varying envelopes in quiet and in background noise in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of awake marmoset monkeys. We characterized envelope features based on the local average and rate of change of sound level in envelope waveforms and identified envelope features to which neurons were selective by reverse correlation. Our results showed that envelope feature selectivity of A1 neurons was correlated with the degree of nonmonotonicity in their static rate-level functions. Nonmonotonic neurons exhibited greater feature selectivity than monotonic neurons in quiet and in background noise. The diverse envelope feature selectivity decreased spike-timing correlation among A1 neurons in response to the same envelope waveforms. As a result, the variability, but not the average, of the ensemble responses of A1 neurons represented more faithfully the dynamic transitions in low-frequency sound envelopes both in quiet and in background noise.

  7. Safeguards Envelope Progress FY10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Safeguards Envelope is a strategy to determine a set of specific operating parameters within which nuclear facilities may operate to maximize safeguards effectiveness without sacrificing safety or plant efficiency. This paper details the additions to the advanced operating techniques that will be applied to real plant process monitoring (PM) data from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Research this year focused on combining disparate pieces of data together to maximize operating time with minimal downtime due to safeguards. A Chi-Square and Croiser's cumulative sum were both included as part of the new analysis. Because of a major issue with the original data, the implementation of the two new tests did not add to the existing set of tests, though limited one-variable optimization made a small increase in detection probability. Additional analysis was performed to determine if prior analysis would have caused a major security or safety operating envelope issue. It was determined that a safety issue would have resulted from the prior research, but that the security may have been increased under certain conditions.

  8. Evolution of envelope solitons of ionization waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, K.; Hashimoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    The time evolution of a particle-like envelope soliton of ionization waves in plasma was investigated theoretically. The hydrodynamic equations of one spatial dimension were solved and the nonlinear dispersion relation was derived. For the amplitude of the wave the nonlinear Schroedinger equation was derived. Its soliton solution was interpreted as the envelope soliton which was experimentally found. The damping rate of the envelope soliton was estimated. (D.Gy.)

  9. Mosaic HIV envelope immunogenic polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T. M.; Gnanakaran, S.; Perkins, Simon; Sodroski, Joseph; Haynes, Barton

    2018-01-02

    Disclosed herein are mosaic HIV envelope (Env) polypeptides that can elicit an immune response to HIV (such as cytotoxic T cell (CTL), helper T cell, and/or humoral responses). Also disclosed are sets of the disclosed mosaic Env polypeptides, which include two or more (for example, three) of the polypeptides. Also disclosed herein are methods for treating or inhibiting HIV in a subject including administering one or more of the disclosed immunogenic polypeptides or compositions to a subject infected with HIV or at risk of HIV infection. In some embodiments, the methods include inducing an immune response to HIV in a subject comprising administering to the subject at least one (such as two, three, or more) of the immunogenic polypeptides or at least one (such as two, three, or more) nucleic acids encoding at least one of the immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein.

  10. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark; Reeves, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  11. Physical properties of the red giant envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, W J [Instituto de Astronomia e Geofisico da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1978-12-01

    In this work, several model envelopes are calculated for cool giant stars with mass loss due to the action of stellar radiation pressure on molecules and grains. Molecular profiles as well as average values of some physical parameters of the envelopes are obtained.

  12. Physical properties of the red giant envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this work, several model envelopes are calculated for cool giant stars with mass loss due to the action of stellar radiation pressure on molecules and grains. Molecular profiles as well as average values of some physical parameters of the envelopes are obtained [pt

  13. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  14. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  15. 59 eyes with endogenous endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; la Cour, Morten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the epidemiology of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective and prospective case series of 59 eyes in patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark between 2000 and 2016. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 28 to......, the visual outcome and the mortality of the patients. The epidemiology of the disease is very different in Scandinavia compared to Asia. The visual prognosis remains grave and the majority of the eyes lose useful vision....

  16. Avian endogenous provirus (ev-3) env gene sequencing: implication for pathogenic retrovirus origination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonenko, A T; Lomovskaya, O L

    1990-02-01

    The avian endogenous env gene product blocks the surface receptor and, as a result, cells become immune to related exogenous retroviruses. On the other hand, the same sequence can be included in the pathogenic retrovirus genome, as shown by oligonucleotide mapping. However, since the complete env gene sequence was not known, the comparison of genomic nucleotide sequences was not possible. Therefore an avian endogenous provirus with an intact env gene was cloned from a chicken gene bank and the regions coding for the C terminus of the gp85 and gp37 proteins were sequenced. Comparison of this sequence with those of other retroviruses proved that one of the pathogenic viruses associated with osteopetrosis is a cross between avian endogenous virus and Rous sarcoma virus. Retroviruses and, especially, endogenous retroviruses are traditionally of the most developed models of viral carcinogenesis. Many endogenous retroviruses are implicated in neoplastic transformation of the cell. For instance, endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus of some inbred lines appears to be the only causative agent in these mammary cancers. Other even nonpathogenic murine endogenous retroviruses are involved in the origination of MCF-type recombinant acute leukosis viruses. Some endogenous retroviruses are implicated in the transduction or activation of cellular protooncogenes. Our interest in endogenous viruses is based on their ability to make cells resistant to exogenous retroviruses. Expression of their major envelope glycoprotein leads to cellular surface receptor blockage and imparts immunity to infection by the related leukemia retroviruses. This problem is quite elaborated for chicken endogenous virus RAV-O (7-9).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Injection envelope matching in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, M.G.; Spence, W.L.

    1995-05-01

    The shape and size of the transverse phase space injected into a storage ring can be deduced from turn-by-turn measurements of the transient behavior of the beam envelope in the ring. Envelope oscillations at 2 x the β-tron frequency indicate the presence of a β-mismatch, while envelope oscillations at the β-tron frequency are the signature of a dispersion function mismatch. Experiments in injection optimization using synchrotron radiation imaging of the beam and a fast-gated camera at the SLC damping rings are reported

  18. MHTGR thermal performance envelopes: Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzel, K.T.; Howard, W.W.; Zgliczynski, J.B.

    1992-05-01

    This document discusses thermal performance envelopes which are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point accounting for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion

  19. Further comparisons of endogenous pyrogens and leukocytic endogenous mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschmidt, R F; Upchurch, H F; Worthington, M L

    1983-07-01

    It was recently shown (Murphy et al., Infect. Immun. 34:177-183), that rabbit macrophages produce two biochemically and immunologically distinct endogenous pyrogens. One of these has or copurifies with substances having a molecular weight of 13,000 and a pI of 7.3. This protein was produced by blood monocytes or inflammatory cells elicited in 16-h rabbit peritoneal exudates. These acute peritoneal exudates were produced by the intraperitoneal injection of large volumes of saline containing shellfish glycogen. When the leukocytes in these exudates were washed and incubated at 37 degrees C in saline, they released an endogenous pyrogen. The injection of this pyrogen into rabbits, rats, or mice caused the biological manifestations which have been attributed to leukocytic endogenous mediator. These effects were increases in blood neutrophils, the lowering of plasma iron and zinc levels, and the increased synthesis of the acute-phase proteins. The other rabbit endogenous pyrogen seems to be a family of proteins with isoelectric points between 4.5 and 5.0. These proteins are produced by macrophages in the lung, liver, or in chronic peritoneal exudates. In these experiments, the lower-isoelectric-point endogenous pyrogens were produced by macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of rabbits that had been injected 4 days earlier with 50 ml of light mineral oil. These rabbit pyrogens were found to have leukocytic endogenous mediator activity in mice but to be completely inactive in rats. When injected into rabbits, these proteins produced fever, lowered plasma iron, increased blood neutrophils, but failed to elevate plasma fibrinogen.

  20. Constructing canonical bases of quantized enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, W.A. de

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing the elements of a given weight of the canonical basis of a quantized enveloping algebra is described. Subsequently, a similar algorithm is presented for computing the canonical basis of a finite-dimensional module.

  1. Creating a Lunar EVA Work Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Howard, Robert; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Smitherman, David

    2009-01-01

    A work envelope has been defined for weightless Extravehicular Activity (EVA) based on the Space Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), but there is no equivalent for planetary operations. The weightless work envelope is essential for planning all EVA tasks because it determines the location of removable parts, making sure they are within reach and visibility of the suited crew member. In addition, using the envelope positions the structural hard points for foot restraints that allow placing both hands on the job and provides a load path for reacting forces. EVA operations are always constrained by time. Tasks are carefully planned to ensure the crew has enough breathing oxygen, cooling water, and battery power. Planning first involves computers using a virtual work envelope to model tasks, next suited crew members in a simulated environment refine the tasks. For weightless operations, this process is well developed, but planetary EVA is different and no work envelope has been defined. The primary difference between weightless and planetary work envelopes is gravity. It influences anthropometry, horizontal and vertical mobility, and reaction load paths and introduces effort into doing "overhead" work. Additionally, the use of spacesuits other than the EMU, and their impacts on range of motion, must be taken into account. This paper presents the analysis leading to a concept for a planetary EVA work envelope with emphasis on lunar operations. There is some urgency in creating this concept because NASA has begun building and testing development hardware for the lunar surface, including rovers, habitats and cargo off-loading equipment. Just as with microgravity operations, a lunar EVA work envelope is needed to guide designers in the formative stages of the program with the objective of avoiding difficult and costly rework.

  2. The Arabidopsis Nuclear Pore and Nuclear Envelope

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Iris; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope is a double membrane structure that separates the eukaryotic cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The nuclear pores embedded in the nuclear envelope are the sole gateways for macromolecular trafficking in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear pore complexes assembled at the nuclear pores are large protein conglomerates composed of multiple units of about 30 different nucleoporins. Proteins and RNAs traffic through the nuclear pore complexes, enabled by the interacting activities...

  3. All the Universe in an envelope

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Do you know which force is hidden in an envelope or how many billions of years old are the atoms it contains? You will find the answers to these (curious) questions in a post office in the Pays de Gex. The French postal services of the Pays de Gex are again issuing pre-paid envelopes in collaboration with CERN (see Bulletin No. 24/2006). The new series presents some of the concepts of modern physics in an amazing way by showing what you can learn about the Universe with a single envelope. Packets of ten pre-stamped envelopes, each carrying a statement on fundamental physics, will be on sale from 7 July onwards. To learn more about the physics issues presented on the envelopes, people are invited to go to the CERN Web site where they will find the explanations. Five thousand envelopes will be put on sale in July and five thousand more during the French "Fête de la science" in October. They will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (F...

  4. Genetic Diversity of Koala Retroviral Envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqin Xu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, attributable to the low fidelity of reverse transcription, recombination and mutation, is an important feature of infectious retroviruses. Under selective pressure, such as that imposed by superinfection interference, gammaretroviruses commonly adapt their envelope proteins to use alternative receptors to overcome this entry block. The first characterized koala retroviruses KoRV subgroup A (KoRV-A were remarkable in their absence of envelope genetic variability. Once it was determined that KoRV-A was present in all koalas in US zoos, regardless of their disease status, we sought to isolate a KoRV variant whose presence correlated with neoplastic malignancies. More than a decade after the identification of KoRV-A, we isolated a second subgroup of KoRV, KoRV-B from koalas with lymphomas. The envelope proteins of KoRV-A and KoRV-B are sufficiently divergent to confer the ability to bind and employ distinct receptors for infection. We have now obtained a number of additional KoRV envelope variants. In the present studies we report these variants, and show that they differ from KoRV-A and KoRV-B envelopes in their host range and superinfection interference properties. Thus, there appears to be considerable variation among KoRVs envelope genes suggesting genetic diversity is a factor following the KoRV-A infection process.

  5. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...

  6. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  7. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  8. Solitary Alfven wave envelopes and the modulational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.

    1987-06-01

    The derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equation describes the modulational instability of circularly polarized dispersive Alfven wave envelopes. It also may be used to determine the properties of finite amplitude localized stationary wave envelopes. Such envelope solitons exist only in conditions of modulational stability. This leaves open the question of whether, and if so, how, the modulational instability produces envelope solitons. 12 refs

  9. Inhibition of enveloped viruses infectivity by curcumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm. These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses.

  10. Featured Image: Orbiting Stars Share an Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    This beautiful series of snapshots from a simulation (click for a better look!) shows what happens when two stars in a binary system become enclosed in the same stellar envelope. In this binary system, one of the stars has exhausted its hydrogen fuel and become a red giant, complete with an expanding stellar envelope composed of hydrogen and helium. Eventually, the envelope expands so much that the companion star falls into it, where it releases gravitational potential energy into the common envelope. A team led by Sebastian Ohlmann (Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies and University of Wrzburg) recently performed hydrodynamic simulations of this process. Ohlmann and collaborators discovered that the energy release eventually triggers large-scale flow instabilities, which leads to turbulence within the envelope. This process has important consequences for how these systems next evolve (for instance, determining whether or not a supernova occurs!). You can check out the authors video of their simulated stellar inspiral below, or see their paper for more images and results from their study.CitationSebastian T. Ohlmann et al 2016 ApJ 816 L9. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L9

  11. Inhibition of Enveloped Viruses Infectivity by Curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Ou, Jun-Lin; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Chen, Jo-Mei; Wong, Min-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin, a natural compound and ingredient in curry, has antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic properties. Previously, we reported that curcumin abrogated influenza virus infectivity by inhibiting hemagglutination (HA) activity. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which curcumin inhibits the infectivity of enveloped viruses. In all analyzed enveloped viruses, including the influenza virus, curcumin inhibited plaque formation. In contrast, the nonenveloped enterovirus 71 remained unaffected by curcumin treatment. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the membrane structure using fluorescent dye (sulforhodamine B; SRB)-containing liposomes that mimic the viral envelope. Curcumin treatment induced the leakage of SRB from these liposomes and the addition of the influenza virus reduced the leakage, indicating that curcumin disrupts the integrity of the membranes of viral envelopes and of liposomes. When testing liposomes of various diameters, we detected higher levels of SRB leakage from the smaller-sized liposomes than from the larger liposomes. Interestingly, the curcumin concentration required to reduce plaque formation was lower for the influenza virus (approximately 100 nm in diameter) than for the pseudorabies virus (approximately 180 nm) and the vaccinia virus (roughly 335 × 200 × 200 nm). These data provide insights on the molecular antiviral mechanisms of curcumin and its potential use as an antiviral agent for enveloped viruses. PMID:23658730

  12. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (endogenous opioids and receptors), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (pain and analgesia); stress and social status (human studies); tolerance and dependence (opioid mediation of other analgesic responses); learning and memory (stress and social status); eating and drinking (stress-induced analgesia); alcohol and drugs of abuse (emotional responses in opioid-mediated behaviors); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (opioid involvement in stress response regulation); mental illness and mood (tolerance and dependence); seizures and neurologic disorders (learning and memory); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (opiates and conditioned place preferences (CPP)); general activity and locomotion (eating and drinking); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (alcohol and drugs of abuse); cardiovascular responses (opiates and ethanol); respiration and thermoregulation (opiates and THC); and immunological responses (opiates and stimulants). This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular

  13. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  14. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we......In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...

  15. Boundaries, injective envelopes, and reduced crossed products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryder, Rasmus Sylvester

    In this dissertation, we study boundary actions, equivariant injective envelopes, as well as theideal structure of reduced crossed products. These topics have recently been linked to thestudy of C-simple groups, that is, groups with simple reduced group C-algebras.In joint work with Matthew Kennedy......, we consider reduced twisted crossed products overC-simple groups. For any twisted C-dynamical system over a C-simple group, we provethat there is a one-to-one correspondence between maximal invariant ideals in the underlyingC-algebra and maximal ideals in the reduced crossed product. When......*-algebras, and relate the intersection property for group actions on unital C*-algebras to the intersection property for theequivariant injective envelope. Moreover, we also prove that the equivariant injective envelopeof the centre of the injective envelope of a unital C*-algebra can be regarded as a C...

  16. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Brand, H. E. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) identified a significant `non-ice' component upon the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean (endogenic) 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes (exogenic) 2. However, a more recent theory proposes that the `non-ice' component could be radiation damaged NaCl leached from Europa's speculative ocean 3. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid. To this end we have explored a number of solutions in the MgSO4-H2SO4-H2O and Na2SO4-H2SO4-H2O systems, between 80 and 280 K with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. This suggests that it should be considered that the `non-ice' component of the Europa's surface could be a material derived from endogenic and exogenic components. 1 Kargel, J. S. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, 368-390 (1991). 2 Carlson, R. W., Anderson, M. S., Mehlman, R. & Johnson, R. E. Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus 177, 461-471, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.026 (2005). 3 Hand, K. P. & Carlson, R. W. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015GL063559, doi:10.1002/2015gl063559 (2015).

  17. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  18. REFERENCE MODELS OF ENDOGENOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    GEAMĂNU MARINELA

    2012-01-01

    The new endogenous growth theories are a very important research area for shaping the most effective policies and long term sustainable development strategies. Endogenous growth theory has emerged as a reaction to the imperfections of neoclassical theory, by the fact that the economic growth is the endogenous product of an economical system.

  19. A study of some Be star envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The envelope model and emission region radius of six Be stars have been determined from 36 lines on 15 spectra taken with the Isaac Newton telescope. The results have been compared with earlier determinations to search for changes with the time. No definite evidence for such changes has been found, although there may be an indication of a change in phi Per. A re-determination of the errors involved in the method of analysis shows that these are smaller than previously estimated and range from about 9% to 35% for both envelope model and emission region radius. (Auth.)

  20. Asymmetry of the SN 1987A envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugaj, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of the peculiar structure in the profiles of the emission lines observed in the spectrum of SN 1987A, namely, (1) redshift of maxima, and (2) fine structure of hydrogen lines, is considered. Among the three proposed hypothesis for the redshift, at least two (electron scattering in the spherically-symmetric envelope, and geometrical effects in the fragmented envelope) have serious drawbacks. More favorable is the third hypothesis which invokes asymmetric distribution of 56 Ni and of the iron-peak elements

  1. Radio Imaging of Envelopes of Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Bill

    2018-04-01

    This talk will cover imaging of stellar envelopes using radio VLBI techniques; special attention will be paid to the technical differences between radio and optical/IR interferomery. Radio heterodyne receivers allow a straightforward way to derive spectral cubes and full polarization observations. Milliarcsecond resolution of very bright, i.e. non thermal, emission of molecular masers in the envelopes of evolved stars can be achieved using VLBI techniques with baselines of thousands of km. Emission from SiO, H2O and OH masers are commonly seen at increasing distance from the photosphere. The very narrow maser lines allow accurate measurements of the velocity field within the emitting region.

  2. Global Envelope Tests for Spatial Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed d......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  3. Global envelope tests for spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myllymäki, Mari; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Grabarnik, Pavel

    Envelope tests are a popular tool in spatial statistics, where they are used in goodness-of-fit testing. These tests graphically compare an empirical function T(r) with its simulated counterparts from the null model. However, the type I error probability α is conventionally controlled for a fixed......) the construction of envelopes for a deviation test. These new tests allow the a priori selection of the global α and they yield p-values. We illustrate these tests using simulated and real point pattern data....

  4. Human Endogenous Retrovirus W Activity in Cartilage of Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signy Bendiksen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of viruses in osteoarthritis remains controversial because the prevalence of viral nucleic acid sequences in peripheral blood or synovial fluid from osteoarthritis patients and that in healthy control subjects are similar. Until now the presence of virus has not been analyzed in cartilage. We screened cartilage and chondrocytes from advanced and non-/early osteoarthritis patients for parvovirus B19, herpes simplex virus-1, Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus-6, hepatitis C virus, and human endogenous retroviruses transcripts. Endogenous retroviruses transcripts, but none of the other viruses, were detected in 15 out the 17 patients. Sequencing identified the virus as HERV-WE1 and E2. HERV-W activity was confirmed by high expression levels of syncytin, dsRNA, virus budding, and the presence of virus-like particles in all advanced osteoarthritis cartilages examined. Low levels of HERV-WE1, but not E2 envelope RNA, were observed in 3 out of 8 non-/early osteoarthritis patients, while only 3 out of 7 chondrocytes cultures displayed low levels of syncytin, and just one was positive for virus-like particles. This study demonstrates for the first time activation of HERV-W in cartilage of osteoarthritis patients; however, a causative role for HERV-W in development or deterioration of the disease remains to be proven.

  5. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...

  6. SAFEGUARDS ENVELOPE: PREVIOUS WORK AND EXAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, Richard; Bevill, Aaron; Charlton, William; Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The future expansion of nuclear power will require not just electricity production but fuel cycle facilities such as fuel fabrication and reprocessing plants. As large reprocessing facilities are built in various states, they must be built and operated in a manner to minimize the risk of nuclear proliferation. Process monitoring has returned to the spotlight as an added measure that can increase confidence in the safeguards of special nuclear material (SNM). Process monitoring can be demonstrated to lengthen the allowable inventory period by reducing accountancy requirements, and to reduce the false positive indications. The next logical step is the creation of a Safeguards Envelope, a set of operational parameters and models to maximize anomaly detection and inventory period by process monitoring while minimizing operator impact and false positive rates. A brief example of a rudimentary Safeguards Envelope is presented, and shown to detect synthetic diversions overlaying a measured processing plant data set. This demonstration Safeguards Envelope is shown to increase the confidence that no SNM has been diverted with minimal operator impact, even though it is based on an information sparse environment. While the foundation on which a full Safeguards Envelope can be built has been presented in historical demonstrations of process monitoring, several requirements remain yet unfulfilled. Future work will require reprocessing plant transient models, inclusion of 'non-traditional' operating data, and exploration of new methods of identifying subtle events in transient processes

  7. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  8. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  9. On the origins of endogenous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillas, Alexandros

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Interestingly, IFG is also closely related to silent talking, as well as volition. The connection between IFG and volition is important given that endogenous thoughts are or at least greatly resemble voluntary actions. Against this background, I argue that IFG is key to understanding the origins of conscious endogenous thoughts. Furthermore, I look into goal-directed thinking and show that IFG plays a key role also in unconscious endogenous thinking.

  10. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Validating predictions from climate envelope models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James I Watling

    Full Text Available Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species' distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967-1971 (t1 and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998-2002 (t2. Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on

  12. Validating predictions from climate envelope models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, J.; Bucklin, D.; Speroterra, C.; Brandt, L.; Cabal, C.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Climate envelope models are a potentially important conservation tool, but their ability to accurately forecast species’ distributional shifts using independent survey data has not been fully evaluated. We created climate envelope models for 12 species of North American breeding birds previously shown to have experienced poleward range shifts. For each species, we evaluated three different approaches to climate envelope modeling that differed in the way they treated climate-induced range expansion and contraction, using random forests and maximum entropy modeling algorithms. All models were calibrated using occurrence data from 1967–1971 (t1) and evaluated using occurrence data from 1998–2002 (t2). Model sensitivity (the ability to correctly classify species presences) was greater using the maximum entropy algorithm than the random forest algorithm. Although sensitivity did not differ significantly among approaches, for many species, sensitivity was maximized using a hybrid approach that assumed range expansion, but not contraction, in t2. Species for which the hybrid approach resulted in the greatest improvement in sensitivity have been reported from more land cover types than species for which there was little difference in sensitivity between hybrid and dynamic approaches, suggesting that habitat generalists may be buffered somewhat against climate-induced range contractions. Specificity (the ability to correctly classify species absences) was maximized using the random forest algorithm and was lowest using the hybrid approach. Overall, our results suggest cautious optimism for the use of climate envelope models to forecast range shifts, but also underscore the importance of considering non-climate drivers of species range limits. The use of alternative climate envelope models that make different assumptions about range expansion and contraction is a new and potentially useful way to help inform our understanding of climate change effects on species.

  13. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  14. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  15. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  16. The endogenous retroviral locus ERVWE1 is a bona fide gene involved in hominoid placental physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, François; Bouton, Olivier; Prudhomme, Sarah; Cheynet, Valérie; Oriol, Guy; Bonnaud, Bertrand; Lucotte, Gérard; Duret, Laurent; Mandrand, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    The definitive demonstration of a role for a recently acquired gene is a difficult task, requiring exhaustive genetic investigations and functional analysis. The situation is indeed much more complicated when facing multicopy gene families, because most or portions of the gene are conserved among the hundred copies of the family. This is the case for the ERVWE1 locus of the human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W), which encodes an envelope glycoprotein (syncytin) likely involved in trophoblast differentiation. Here we describe, in 155 individuals, the positional conservation of this locus and the preservation of the envelope ORF. Sequencing of the critical elements of the ERVWE1 provirus showed a striking conservation among the 48 alleles of 24 individuals, including the LTR elements involved in the transcriptional machinery, the splice sites involved in the maturation of subgenomic Env mRNA, and the Env ORF. The functionality and tissue specificity of the 5′ LTR were demonstrated, as well as the fusogenic activity of the envelope polymorphic variants. Such functions were also shown to be preserved in the orthologous loci isolated from chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and gibbon. This functional preservation among humans and during evolution strongly argued for the involvement of this recently acquired retroviral envelope glycoprotein in hominoid placental physiology. PMID:14757826

  17. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  18. Endogenous Opiates and Behavior: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the twenty-ninth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning thirty years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2006 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurological disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:17949854

  19. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    This paper is the thirty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2012 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  1. Inversion of Auditory Spectrograms, Traditional Spectrograms, and Other Envelope Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decorsière, Remi Julien Blaise; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; MacDonald, Ewen

    2015-01-01

    Envelope representations such as the auditory or traditional spectrogram can be defined by the set of envelopes from the outputs of a filterbank. Common envelope extraction methods discard information regarding the fast fluctuations, or phase, of the signal. Thus, it is difficult to invert, or re...... to the framework is proposed, which leads to a more accurate inversion of traditional spectrograms...

  2. 200 Area Deactivation Project Facilities Authorization Envelope Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, E.N.

    2000-01-01

    Project facilities as required by HNF-PRO-2701, Authorization Envelope and Authorization Agreement. The Authorization Agreements (AA's) do not identify the specific set of environmental safety and health requirements that are applicable to the facility. Therefore, the facility Authorization Envelopes are defined here to identify the applicable requirements. This document identifies the authorization envelopes for the 200 Area Deactivation

  3. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable power failure condition in paragraph (b) of this section, a limiting height-speed envelope must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any...

  4. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a...

  5. Analysis of Building Envelope Construction in 2003 CBECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, David W.; Halverson, Mark A.; Jiang, Wei

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine "typical" building envelope characteristics for buildings built after 1980. We address three envelope components in this paper - roofs, walls, and window area. These typical building envelope characteristics were used in the development of DOE’s Reference Buildings .

  6. Endogenous money: the evolutionary versus revolutionary views

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Rochon; Sergio Rossi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the endogenous nature of money. Contrary to the established post-Keynesian, or evolutionary, view, this paper argues that money has always been endogenous, irrespective of the historical period. Instead of the evolutionary theory of money and banking that can be traced back to Chick (1986), this paper puts forward a revolutionary definition of endogenous money consistent with many aspects of post-Keynesian economics as well as with the monetary ci...

  7. Endogenous price flexibility and optimal monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozge Senay; Alan Sutherland

    2014-01-01

    Much of the literature on optimal monetary policy uses models in which the degree of nominal price flexibility is exogenous. There are, however, good reasons to suppose that the degree of price flexibility adjusts endogenously to changes in monetary conditions. This article extends the standard new Keynesian model to incorporate an endogenous degree of price flexibility. The model shows that endogenizing the degree of price flexibility tends to shift optimal monetary policy towards complete i...

  8. Equivariant calculus in the differential envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, D.

    1991-01-01

    The author shows how Z/2-graded cyclic cohomology is related to the equivariant calculus of S. Klimek, W. Kondracki, and A. Lesniewski (HUTMP 90/B247 (1990)). He uses the differential envelope of a complex unital differential algebra. After a presentation of fiber-preserved operators on equivariant functions valued in this algebra on a group he considers certain operators on this algebra. Finally he discusses explicitly the case G=Z/2. (HSI)

  9. Equivariant calculus in the differential envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastler, D. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)

    1991-01-01

    The author shows how Z/2-graded cyclic cohomology is related to the equivariant calculus of S. Klimek, W. Kondracki, and A. Lesniewski (HUTMP 90/B247 (1990)). He uses the differential envelope of a complex unital differential algebra. After a presentation of fiber-preserved operators on equivariant functions valued in this algebra on a group he considers certain operators on this algebra. Finally he discusses explicitly the case G=Z/2. (HSI).

  10. Digital image envelope: method and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Zhou, Michael Z.; Mogel, Greg T.; Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Xiaoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Health data security, characterized in terms of data privacy, authenticity, and integrity, is a vital issue when digital images and other patient information are transmitted through public networks in telehealth applications such as teleradiology. Mandates for ensuring health data security have been extensively discussed (for example The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA) and health informatics guidelines (such as the DICOM standard) are beginning to focus on issues of data continue to be published by organizing bodies in healthcare; however, there has not been a systematic method developed to ensure data security in medical imaging Because data privacy and authenticity are often managed primarily with firewall and password protection, we have focused our research and development on data integrity. We have developed a systematic method of ensuring medical image data integrity across public networks using the concept of the digital envelope. When a medical image is generated regardless of the modality, three processes are performed: the image signature is obtained, the DICOM image header is encrypted, and a digital envelope is formed by combining the signature and the encrypted header. The envelope is encrypted and embedded in the original image. This assures the security of both the image and the patient ID. The embedded image is encrypted again and transmitted across the network. The reverse process is performed at the receiving site. The result is two digital signatures, one from the original image before transmission, and second from the image after transmission. If the signatures are identical, there has been no alteration of the image. This paper concentrates in the method and evaluation of the digital image envelope.

  11. The cell envelope glycoconjugates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angala, Shiva Kumar; Belardinelli, Juan Manuel; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Wheat, William H.; Jackson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains the second most common cause of death due to a single infectious agent. The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of the disease in humans, is a source of unique glycoconjugates and the most distinctive feature of the biology of this organism. It is the basis of much of Mtb pathogenesis and one of the major causes of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. At the same time, the unique structures of Mtb cell envelope glycoconjugates, their antigenicity and essentiality for mycobacterial growth provide opportunities for drug, vaccine, diagnostic and biomarker development, as clearly illustrated by recent advances in all of these translational aspects. This review focuses on our current understanding of the structure and biogenesis of Mtb glycoconjugates with particular emphasis on one of most intriguing and least understood aspect of the physiology of mycobacteria: the translocation of these complex macromolecules across the different layers of the cell envelope. It further reviews the rather impressive progress made in the last ten years in the discovery and development of novel inhibitors targeting their biogenesis. PMID:24915502

  12. Spectral envelope sensitivity of musical instrument sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, David; Sen, D

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the spectral envelope is a perceptually salient attribute in musical instrument timbre perception. While a number of studies have explored discrimination thresholds for changes to the spectral envelope, the question of how sensitivity varies as a function of center frequency and bandwidth for musical instruments has yet to be addressed. In this paper a two-alternative forced-choice experiment was conducted to observe perceptual sensitivity to modifications made on trumpet, clarinet and viola sounds. The experiment involved attenuating 14 frequency bands for each instrument in order to determine discrimination thresholds as a function of center frequency and bandwidth. The results indicate that perceptual sensitivity is governed by the first few harmonics and sensitivity does not improve when extending the bandwidth any higher. However, sensitivity was found to decrease if changes were made only to the higher frequencies and continued to decrease as the distorted bandwidth was widened. The results are analyzed and discussed with respect to two other spectral envelope discrimination studies in the literature as well as what is predicted from a psychoacoustic model.

  13. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  14. Endogenous Retrovirus ev21 Dose Not Recombine with ALV-J and Induces the Expression of ISGs in the Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Min; Tan, Yan; Dai, Manman; Li, Yuanfang; Xie, Tingting; Li, Hongmei; Shi, Meiqing; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) infection can cause tumors and immunosuppression. Endogenous viruses integrate into host genomes and can recombine with exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV). In this study, we analyzed the interaction of endogenous retrovirus 21 ( ev21 ) with the ALV-J in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken. Two ALV-J strains M180 and K243 were isolated from late-feathering and fast-feathering Chinese yellow chicken flocks, respectively. The env gene of the two strains showed 94.2-94.8% nucleotide identity with reference ALV-J strains. Compared with the env gene and the LTR of ev21 and M180, the nucleotide identity of LTR was 69.7% and env gene was 58.4%, respectively, especially the amino acid identity of env gene as low as 14.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the env gene and the 3'LTR showed that M180 was closely related to ALV-J, and was located in a distinct group with ev21 in the phylogenetic tree. Using co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), we next demonstrate that the envelope protein of ev21 does not interact with the M180 envelope protein. We further show that the envelope protein of ev21 cannot activate ALV-J LTR promoter activity using luciferase-reporter assays. qPCR and western blot analysis revealed that envelope protein of endogenous ev21 can facilitate the expression of PKR at 6h post ALV-J infection (hpi) and facilitate the expression of ISG12 and CH25H at 24 hpi. However, the expression of the env gene of M180 strain was not significantly at 6 and 24 hpi. We conclude that there is no evidence of recombination between endogenous retrovirus ev21 and ALV-J strain M180 in late-feathering Chinese yellow chicken, and envelope protein of ev21 can affect the expression of host ISGs, but appears not to influence the replication of ALV-J strain M180. This is the first report of interaction among the endogenous retrovirus ev21, ALV-J and the late-feathering chicken.

  15. Molecular genetic characterization of the RD-114 gene family of endogenous feline retroviral sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, R H; O'Brien, S J

    1984-01-01

    RD-114 is a replication-competent, xenotropic retrovirus which is homologous to a family of moderately repetitive DNA sequences present at ca. 20 copies in the normal cellular genome of domestic cats. To examine the extent and character of genomic divergence of the RD-114 gene family as well as to assess their positional association within the cat genome, we have prepared a series of molecular clones of endogenous RD-114 DNA segments from a genomic library of cat cellular DNA. Their restriction endonuclease maps were compared with each other as well as to that of the prototype-inducible RD-114 which was molecularly cloned from a chronically infected human cell line. The endogenous sequences analyzed were similar to each other in that they were colinear with RD-114 proviral DNA, were bounded by long terminal redundancies, and conserved many restriction sites in the gag and pol regions. However, the env regions of many of the sequences examined were substantially deleted. Several of the endogenous RD-114 genomes contained a novel envelope sequence which was unrelated to the env gene of the prototype RD-114 env gene but which, like RD-114 and endogenous feline leukemia virus provirus, was found only in species of the genus Felis, and not in other closely related Felidae genera. The endogenous RD-114 sequences each had a distinct cellular flank which indicates that these sequences are not tandem but dispersed nonspecifically throughout the genome. Southern analysis of cat cellular DNA confirmed the conclusions about conserved restriction sites in endogenous sequences and indicated that a single locus may be responsible for the production of the major inducible form of RD-114. Images PMID:6090693

  16. Applying Endogenous Knowledge in the African Context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question presented in this article is how to improve the dispute resolution competence of practitioners in Africa. The response offered involves enhancing the endogenous knowledge of a dispute and how to resolve it. This requires not only an understanding of what endogenous knowledge is, but also an alignment of ...

  17. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  18. Human endogenous retroviruses and ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Emanuela; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Matteucci, Claudia; D'Agati, Elisa; Sorrentino, Roberta; Baratta, Antonia; Caterina, Rosa; Zenobi, Rossella; Curatolo, Paolo; Garaci, Enrico; Sinibaldi-Vallebona, Paola; Pasini, Augusto

    2014-08-01

    Several lines of evidences suggest that human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are implicated in the development of many complex diseases with a multifactorial aetiology and a strong heritability, such as neurological and psychiatric diseases. Attention deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that results from a complex interaction of environmental, biological and genetic factors. Our aim was to analyse the expression levels of three HERV families (HERV-H, K and W) in patients with ADHD. The expression of retroviral mRNAs from the three HERV families was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 30 patients with ADHD and 30 healthy controls by quantitative RT-PCR. The expression levels of HERV-H are significantly higher in patients with ADHD compared to healthy controls, while there are no differences in the expression levels of HERV-K and W. Since the ADHD aetiology is due to a complex interaction of environmental, biological and genetic factors, HERVs may represent one link among these factors and clinical phenotype of ADHD. A future confirmation of HERV-H overexpression in a larger number of ADHD patients will make possible to identify it as a new parameter for this clinical condition, also contributing to deepen the study on the role of HERVs in the neurodevelopment diseases.

  19. Dispersion - does it degrade a pulse envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deighton, M.O.

    1985-01-01

    In hostile environments, transmitting information as ultrasonic Lamb wave pulses has advantages, since the stainless steel strip serving as a waveguide is very durable. Besides attenuation, velocity dispersion (inherent in Lamb waves) can be important even in fairly short guides. Theory shows that unlimited propagation of a pulsed r.f. envelope is possible, even with dispersion present. The constant group velocity needed would favour asub(o)-mode pulses over other modes, provided ordinary attenuation is small. An approximate formula indicates the useful range of a pulse, when group velocity does vary. (author)

  20. Shape Control of Responsive Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Christensen, Jesper Thøger

    2010-01-01

    The present paper considers shape control of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scop...... environmental system to a primary structural system joint into a collective behavioral system equipment with an actuator system is presented....... alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock-up concept of a secondary...

  1. Snell Envelope with Small Probability Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Moral, Pierre, E-mail: Pierre.Del-Moral@inria.fr; Hu, Peng, E-mail: Peng.Hu@inria.fr [Universite de Bordeaux I, Centre INRIA Bordeaux et Sud-Ouest and Institut de Mathematiques de Bordeaux (France); Oudjane, Nadia, E-mail: Nadia.Oudjane@edf.fr [EDF R and D Clamart (France)

    2012-12-15

    We present a new algorithm to compute the Snell envelope in the specific case where the criteria to optimize is associated with a small probability or a rare event. This new approach combines the Stochastic Mesh approach of Broadie and Glasserman with a particle approximation scheme based on a specific change of measure designed to concentrate the computational effort in regions pointed out by the criteria. The theoretical analysis of this new algorithm provides non asymptotic convergence estimates. Finally, the numerical tests confirm the practical interest of this approach.

  2. Envelope as Climate Negotiator: Evaluating adaptive building envelope's capacity to moderate indoor climate and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, James

    Through manipulation of adaptable opportunities available within a given environment, individuals become active participants in managing personal comfort requirements, by exercising control over their comfort without the assistance of mechanical heating and cooling systems. Similarly, continuous manipulation of a building skin's form, insulation, porosity, and transmissivity qualities exerts control over the energy exchanged between indoor and outdoor environments. This research uses four adaptive response variables in a modified software algorithm to explore an adaptive building skin's potential in reacting to environmental stimuli with the purpose of minimizing energy use without sacrificing occupant comfort. Results illustrate that significant energy savings can be realized with adaptive envelopes over static building envelopes even under extreme summer and winter climate conditions; that the magnitude of these savings are dependent on climate and orientation; and that occupant thermal comfort can be improved consistently over comfort levels achieved by optimized static building envelopes. The resulting adaptive envelope's unique climate-specific behavior could inform designers in creating an intelligent kinetic aesthetic that helps facilitate adaptability and resiliency in architecture.

  3. The performance of energy efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.

    1996-08-01

    The adequacy and durability of residential building envelope systems under actual field conditions were evaluated. A building envelope offers protection from cold, heat, moisture, wind and noise. However, they are exposed to thermal, structural, and moisture stresses and their performance can degrade over time. Envelope performance was evaluated at 20 energy efficient and four conventional, detached modern homes in Winnipeg, Canada. The three complementary measurement tools were wood moisture content (WMC) of framing members, thermographic examinations, and airtightness tests. As expected, energy efficient building envelope systems performed better than the conventional systems. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in any of the energy efficient houses. The building envelopes using polyethylene air barriers performed slightly better than those which used the airtight drywall approach, although both were considered satisfactory. WMC levels were a bit lower in the polyethylene-clad house. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  4. Grain formation in cool stellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, S.

    1980-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of dust grains in the stellar envelope are investigated for the case of oxygen-rich stars, where the mass loss occurs as a result of the radiation pressure on the dust grains. The number density of grains, the final grain sizes, and the final amount of metals remaining in gaseous states are calculated based on the grain-nucleation theory proposed by Yamamoto and Hasegawa and Draine and Salpeter. It is shown that, even if we base our calculations on the Lothe-Pound nucleation rate equation instead of the classical, homogeneous nucleation rate equation, the proposed theory gives a number density of grains quite similar to that based on the classical rate equation. The approximate solution of the flow, in this paper, brings physical insight to the problem of how the formation of grains couples the flow passing the sonic point. The metals in the outer envelope remain in gaseous state by the amount of 1--10% of the initial content for the mass-loss rate of 10 -5 M/sub sun/ yr -1 and by less than 1% for the massloss are less than 3 x 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1 . Species of metals condensed onto the grains are also discussed

  5. Bellanca building, Yellowknife : building envelope retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajewski, G. [A.D. Williams Engineering Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The Bellanca building is a ten-story, commercial office building, located in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. The owner was concerned about annual fuel consumption, relative to other buildings of similar size. Tenants reported cold drafts and some ice build-up had been reported in the past, on the exterior of the cladding. In addition, some water penetration had occurred during rainfall. This presentation provided background information on the Bellanca building and discussed a building envelope retrofit project. A.D. Williams was hired in late 2006 in order to provide an opinion on the present condition of the building envelope. This presentation described the site investigation and presented an interior and exterior review of the building. It also presented a thermographic survey in order to map thermal anomalies and establish trends. Following acceptance of the report on findings, one of five options was selected for further development. This included removal of existing cladding, exterior gypsum wallboard, fiberglass insulation and application of BASF Walltite CT foam, sheathing, rigid insulation, drainage plane and new cladding. The preliminary design was then presented. This paper also described the tender and award of the contract; construction phase; and substantial completion of the project. tabs, figs.

  6. Chemistry of Protostellar Envelopes and Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Rivera, Lizxandra; Terebey, Susan; Willacy, Karen

    2018-06-01

    Molecule formation is dynamic during the protostar collapse phase, driven by changes in temperature, density, and UV radiation as gas and dust flows from the envelope onto the forming protoplanetary disk. In this work, we compare physical models based on two different collapse solutions. We modeled the chemistry (created by Karen Willacy) for C18O to see how its abundance changes over time using as primary input parameters the temperature and density profile that were produced by the dust Radiative Transfer (MCRT) model called HOCHUNK3D from Whitney (2003). Given this model, we produce synthetic line emission maps from L1527 IRS to simulate the Class 0/I protostar L1527 IRS using RADMC3D code and compare them with previous observations from ALMA. High concentrations of gas phase molecules of C18O are found within the 20 AU in areas in the envelope that are close to the surface of the disk. In the outermost part of the disk surface, the C18O freezes out beyond 400 AU, showing a much reduced abundance where the temperature profile drops down below 25 K. In cold regions, the radiation field plays an important role in the chemistry.

  7. [An improved algorithm for electrohysterogram envelope extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaosheng; Pan, Jie; Chen, Zhaoxia; Chen, Zhaoxia

    2017-02-01

    Extraction uterine contraction signal from abdominal uterine electromyogram(EMG) signal is considered as the most promising method to replace the traditional tocodynamometer(TOCO) for detecting uterine contractions activity. The traditional root mean square(RMS) algorithm has only some limited values in canceling the impulsive noise. In our study, an improved algorithm for uterine EMG envelope extraction was proposed to overcome the problem. Firstly, in our experiment, zero-crossing detection method was used to separate the burst of uterine electrical activity from the raw uterine EMG signal. After processing the separated signals by employing two filtering windows which have different width, we used the traditional RMS algorithm to extract uterus EMG envelope. To assess the performance of the algorithm, the improved algorithm was compared with two existing intensity of uterine electromyogram(IEMG) extraction algorithms. The results showed that the improved algorithm was better than the traditional ones in eliminating impulsive noise present in the uterine EMG signal. The measurement sensitivity and positive predictive value(PPV) of the improved algorithm were 0.952 and 0.922, respectively, which were not only significantly higher than the corresponding values(0.859 and 0.847) of the first comparison algorithm, but also higher than the values(0.928 and 0.877) of the second comparison algorithm. Thus the new method is reliable and effective.

  8. Solution of K-V envelope equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1995-04-01

    The envelope equations for a KV beam with space charge have been analyzed systematically by an e expansion followed by integrations. The focusing profile as a function of axial length is assumed to be symmetric but otherwise arbitrary. Given the bean current, emittance, and peak focusing field, we find the envelopes a(s) and b(s) and obtain , a max , σ, and σ 0 . Explicit results are presented for various truncations of the expansion. The zeroth order results correspond to those from the well-known smooth approximation; the same convenient format is retained for the higher order cases. The first order results, involving single correction terms, give 3--10 times better accuracy and are good to ∼1% at σ 0 = 70 degree. Third order gives a factor of 10--30 improvement over the smooth approximation and derived quantities accurate to ∼1% at σ 0 = 112 degree. The first order expressions are convenient design tools. They lend themselves to variable energy problems and have been applied to the design, construction, and testing of ESQ accelerators at LBL

  9. Solitons, envelope solitons in collisonless plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Y.H.; Watanabe, S.

    1977-08-01

    A review is given to extensive development of theoretical, computational and experimental studies of nonlinear wave propagation in collisionless plasmas. Firstly, the historical experiment of Ikezi et al. is discussed in comparison with theoretical analysis based on the Korteweg-de Vries equation. Systematic discrepancy between the observation and the theoretical prediction suggests that it is necessary to examine such as higher order mode coupling effect and contribution of trapped particles. Secondly, effects of the nonlinear Landau damping on the envelope solution of ion plasma wave is discussed on the basis of theoretical study of Ichikawa-Taniuti, experimental observation of Watanabe and numerical analysis of Yajima et al. Finally, a new type of evolution equation derived for the Alfven wave is examined in some detail. The rigorous solution obtained for this mode represents a new kind of envelope solution, in which both of its phase and amplitude are subject to modulation of comparable spatial extension. In conclusion, the emphasis will be placed on the fact that much more intensive experimental researches are expected to be done, since the powerful methods to disentangle various nonlinear evolution equations are now available for theoretical approach. (auth.)

  10. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  11. Identification of endogenous retroviral reading frames in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiuf Carsten

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs comprise a large class of repetitive retroelements. Most HERVs are ancient and invaded our genome at least 25 million years ago, except for the evolutionary young HERV-K group. The far majority of the encoded genes are degenerate due to mutational decay and only a few non-HERV-K loci are known to retain intact reading frames. Additional intact HERV genes may exist, since retroviral reading frames have not been systematically annotated on a genome-wide scale. Results By clustering of hits from multiple BLAST searches using known retroviral sequences we have mapped 1.1% of the human genome as retrovirus related. The coding potential of all identified HERV regions were analyzed by annotating viral open reading frames (vORFs and we report 7836 loci as verified by protein homology criteria. Among 59 intact or almost-intact viral polyproteins scattered around the human genome we have found 29 envelope genes including two novel gammaretroviral types. One encodes a protein similar to a recently discovered zebrafish retrovirus (ZFERV while another shows partial, C-terminal, homology to Syncytin (HERV-W/FRD. Conclusions This compilation of HERV sequences and their coding potential provide a useful tool for pursuing functional analysis such as RNA expression profiling and effects of viral proteins, which may, in turn, reveal a role for HERVs in human health and disease. All data are publicly available through a database at http://www.retrosearch.dk.

  12. Mechanism of protein import across the chloroplast envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K; Chen, X; Schnell, D J

    2000-01-01

    The development and maintenance of chloroplasts relies on the contribution of protein subunits from both plastid and nuclear genomes. Most chloroplast proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and are post-translationally imported into the organelle across the double membrane of the chloroplast envelope. Protein import into the chloroplast consists of two essential elements: the specific recognition of the targeting signals (transit sequences) of cytoplasmic preproteins by receptors at the outer envelope membrane and the subsequent translocation of preproteins simultaneously across the double membrane of the envelope. These processes are mediated via the co-ordinate action of protein translocon complexes in the outer (Toc apparatus) and inner (Tic apparatus) envelope membranes.

  13. Adaptive Flight Envelope Estimation and Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Impact Technologies, in collaboration with the Georgia Institute of Technology, proposes to develop and demonstrate an innovative flight envelope estimation and...

  14. Contagion risk in endogenous financial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shouwei; Sui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an endogenous financial network model. • Endogenous networks include interbank networks, inter-firm networks and bank-firm networks. • We investigate contagion risk in endogenous financial networks. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigate contagion risk in an endogenous financial network, which is characterized by credit relationships connecting downstream and upstream firms, interbank credit relationships and credit relationships connecting firms and banks. The findings suggest that: increasing the number of potential lenders randomly selected can lead to an increase in the number of bank bankruptcies, while the number of firm bankruptcies presents a trend of increase after the decrease; after the intensity of choice parameter rises beyond a threshold, the number of bankruptcies in three sectors (downstream firms, upstream firms and banks) shows a relatively large margin of increase, and keeps at a relatively high level; there exists different trends for bankruptcies in different sectors with the change of the parameter of credits’ interest rates.

  15. Endogenous Money, Output and Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes to quantify the macroeconometric relationships among the variables broad money, lending by banks, price, and output in India using simultaneous equations system keeping in view the issue of endogeneity.

  16. Some observations about the endogenous money theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bertocco Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    The endogenous money theory constitutes the core element of the post-keynesian monetary theory. The first formulation of this theory can be found in the works of Kaldor published in the 1970s. Taking these studies as a starting point, the post-keynesians elaborated two versions of the endogenous money theory which differ in their assumptions about the behaviour of the monetary authorities and the banking system, and hence offer different conclusions about the slope of the money supply curve. ...

  17. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Dora, José Miguel; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Aquino, Valério; Maia, Ana Luiza; Canani, Luis Henrique; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing's original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. PMID:24470886

  18. Endogenous Money Supply and Money Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Woon Gyu Choi; Seonghwan Oh

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the behavior of money demand by explicitly accounting for the money supply endogeneity arising from endogenous monetary policy and financial innovations. Our theoretical analysis indicates that money supply factors matter in the money demand function when the money supply partially responds to money demand. Our empirical results with U.S. data provide strong evidence for the relevance of the policy stance to the demand for MI under a regime in which monetary policy is subs...

  19. Radiative transfer in spherical circumstellar dust envelopes. III. Dust envelope models of some well known infrared stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apruzese, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The radiative transfer techniques described elsewhere by the author have been employed to construct dust envelope models of several well known infrared stars. The resulting calculations indicate that the infrared emissivity of circumstellar grains generally must be higher than that which many calculations of small nonsilicate grains yield. This conclusion is dependent to some degree on the (unknown) size of the stellar envelopes considered, but is quite firm in the case of the spatially resolved envelope of IRC+10216. Further observations of the spatial distribution of the infrared radiation from stellar envelopes will be invaluable in deciphering the properties of the circumstellar grains

  20. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

    1993-09-15

    Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) following intravenous injection; CNTF fever was blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin. The fever induced by CNTF was not due to contaminating endotoxins. Increasing doses of CNTF resulted in prolongation of the fever, suggesting the subsequent induction of additional endogenous pyrogenic activity. After passive transfer of plasma obtained during CNTF-induced fever, endogenous pyrogen activity was not present in the circulation; CNTF also did not induce the endogenous pyrogens interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin 6 in vitro. Nevertheless, a second endogenous pyrogen may originate within the central nervous system following the systemic injection of CNTF. Of the four endogenous pyrogens described to date (interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, interferon, and interleukin 6), CNTF, like interleukin 6, utilizes the cell-surface gp 130 signal-transduction apparatus.

  1. Polarimetry and physics of Be star envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, G.V.; McLean, I.S.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the most recent developments in polarization studies of Be stars is presented. New polarization techniques for high-resolution spectropolarimetry and for near infrared polarimetry are described and a wide range of new observations are discussed. These include broad-band, intermediate-band and multichannel observations of the continuum polarization of Be stars in the wavelength interval 0.3-2.2 microns, high resolution (0.5 A) line profile polarimetry of a few stars and surveys of many stars for the purposes of statistical analyses. The physical significance of the observational material is discussed in the light of recent theoretical models. Emphasis is placed on the physical and geometrical parameters of Be star envelopes which polarimetry helps to determine. (Auth.)

  2. Enveloping branes and brane-world singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros [CERN-Theory Division, Department of Physics, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia [University of the Aegean, Research Group of Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Cosmology, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Samos (Greece)

    2014-12-01

    The existence of envelopes is studied for systems of differential equations in connection with the method of asymptotic splittings which allows one to determine the singularity structure of the solutions. The result is applied to brane-worlds consisting of a 3-brane in a five-dimensional bulk, in the presence of an analog of a bulk perfect fluid parameterizing a generic class of bulk matter. We find that all flat brane solutions suffer from a finite-distance singularity contrary to previous claims. We then study the possibility of avoiding finite-distance singularities by cutting the bulk and gluing regular solutions at the position of the brane. Further imposing physical conditions such as finite Planck mass on the brane and positive energy conditions on the bulk fluid, excludes, however, this possibility as well. (orig.)

  3. Performance measurement with fuzzy data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavana, Madjid

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of global competition and ever-increasing economic uncertainties has led organizations to search for more efficient and effective ways to manage their business operations.  Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely used as a conceptually simple yet powerful tool for evaluating organizational productivity and performance. Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) is a promising extension of the conventional DEA proposed for dealing with imprecise and ambiguous data in performance measurement problems. This book is the first volume in the literature to present the state-of-the-art developments and applications of FDEA. It is designed for students, educators, researchers, consultants and practicing managers in business, industry, and government with a basic understanding of the DEA and fuzzy logic concepts.

  4. Pushing the Envelope of Extreme Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what extreme should Space Weather go? These are the extremes of Space Weather explored in this talk.

  5. Data envelopment analysis of randomized ranks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sant'Anna Annibal P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilities and odds, derived from vectors of ranks, are here compared as measures of efficiency of decision-making units (DMUs. These measures are computed with the goal of providing preliminary information before starting a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA or the application of any other evaluation or composition of preferences methodology. Preferences, quality and productivity evaluations are usually measured with errors or subject to influence of other random disturbances. Reducing evaluations to ranks and treating the ranks as estimates of location parameters of random variables, we are able to compute the probability of each DMU being classified as the best according to the consumption of each input and the production of each output. Employing the probabilities of being the best as efficiency measures, we stretch distances between the most efficient units. We combine these partial probabilities in a global efficiency score determined in terms of proximity to the efficiency frontier.

  6. Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-14

    To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.

  7. Semiparametric Power Envelopes for Tests of the Unit Root Hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Michael

    This paper derives asymptotic power envelopes for tests of the unit root hypothesis in a zero-mean AR(1) model. The power envelopes are derived using the limits of experiments approach and are semiparametric in the sense that the underlying error distribution is treated as an unknown...

  8. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-05-01

    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modelled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored. Through the synthetic example for 2-D SEG/EAGE overthrust model with inaccurate source wavelet, we compare the performance of four different approaches, which are the least-squares waveform inversion, least-squares envelope inversion, global correlation norm and envelope-based global correlation norm. Finally, we apply the envelope-based global correlation norm on the 3-D Ocean Bottom Cable (OBC) data from the North Sea. The envelope-based global correlation norm captures the strong reflections from the high-velocity caprock and generates artificial low-frequency reflection energy that helps us recover long-wavelength structure of the model domain in the early stages. From this long-wavelength model, the conventional global correlation norm is sequentially applied to invert for higher-resolution features of the model.

  9. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low- and high- mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflatons decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use. CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the ...

  10. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  11. Beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinbao; Xie Xi

    1984-01-01

    The general theory of beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space is developed. By means of this theory the beam envelope profile of non-centrosymmetric polygonal phase space can be calculated directly. An example is carried out in detail to show the practical application of the theory

  12. A Spectral Algorithm for Envelope Reduction of Sparse Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Stephen T.; Pothen, Alex; Simon, Horst D.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of reordering a sparse symmetric matrix to reduce its envelope size is considered. A new spectral algorithm for computing an envelope-reducing reordering is obtained by associating a Laplacian matrix with the given matrix and then sorting the components of a specified eigenvector of the Laplacian. This Laplacian eigenvector solves a continuous relaxation of a discrete problem related to envelope minimization called the minimum 2-sum problem. The permutation vector computed by the spectral algorithm is a closest permutation vector to the specified Laplacian eigenvector. Numerical results show that the new reordering algorithm usually computes smaller envelope sizes than those obtained from the current standard algorithms such as Gibbs-Poole-Stockmeyer (GPS) or SPARSPAK reverse Cuthill-McKee (RCM), in some cases reducing the envelope by more than a factor of two.

  13. Comprehensive search for intra- and inter-specific sequence polymorphisms among coding envelope genes of retroviral origin found in the human genome: genes and pseudogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilescu Alexandre

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human genome carries a high load of proviral-like sequences, called Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs, which are the genomic traces of ancient infections by active retroviruses. These elements are in most cases defective, but open reading frames can still be found for the retroviral envelope gene, with sixteen such genes identified so far. Several of them are conserved during primate evolution, having possibly been co-opted by their host for a physiological role. Results To characterize further their status, we presently sequenced 12 of these genes from a panel of 91 Caucasian individuals. Genomic analyses reveal strong sequence conservation (only two non synonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms [SNPs] for the two HERV-W and HERV-FRD envelope genes, i.e. for the two genes specifically expressed in the placenta and possibly involved in syncytiotrophoblast formation. We further show – using an ex vivo fusion assay for each allelic form – that none of these SNPs impairs the fusogenic function. The other envelope proteins disclose variable polymorphisms, with the occurrence of a stop codon and/or frameshift for most – but not all – of them. Moreover, the sequence conservation analysis of the orthologous genes that can be found in primates shows that three env genes have been maintained in a fully coding state throughout evolution including envW and envFRD. Conclusion Altogether, the present study strongly suggests that some but not all envelope encoding sequences are bona fide genes. It also provides new tools to elucidate the possible role of endogenous envelope proteins as susceptibility factors in a number of pathologies where HERVs have been suspected to be involved.

  14. Envelope enhancement increases cortical sensitivity to interaural envelope delays with acoustic and electric hearing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E H Hartley

    Full Text Available Evidence from human psychophysical and animal electrophysiological studies suggests that sensitivity to interaural time delay (ITD in the modulating envelope of a high-frequency carrier can be enhanced using half-wave rectified stimuli. Recent evidence has shown potential benefits of equivalent electrical stimuli to deaf individuals with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs. In the current study we assessed the effects of envelope shape on ITD sensitivity in the primary auditory cortex of normal-hearing ferrets, and profoundly-deaf animals with bilateral CIs. In normal-hearing animals, cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±1 ms in 0.1-ms steps was assessed in response to dichotically-presented i sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM and ii half-wave rectified (HWR tones (100-ms duration; 70 dB SPL presented at the best-frequency of the unit over a range of modulation frequencies. In separate experiments, adult ferrets were deafened with neomycin administration and bilaterally-implanted with intra-cochlear electrode arrays. Electrically-evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABRs were recorded in response to bipolar electrical stimulation of the apical pair of electrodes with singe biphasic current pulses (40 µs per phase over a range of current levels to measure hearing thresholds. Subsequently, we recorded cortical sensitivity to ITDs (±800 µs in 80-µs steps within the envelope of SAM and HWR biphasic-pulse trains (40 µs per phase; 6000 pulses per second, 100-ms duration over a range of modulation frequencies. In normal-hearing animals, nearly a third of cortical neurons were sensitive to envelope-ITDs in response to SAM tones. In deaf animals with bilateral CI, the proportion of ITD-sensitive cortical neurons was approximately a fifth in response to SAM pulse trains. In normal-hearing and deaf animals with bilateral CI the proportion of ITD sensitive units and neural sensitivity to ITDs increased in response to HWR, compared with SAM stimuli

  15. GAGE cancer-germline antigens bind DNA and are recruited to the nuclear envelope by Germ cell-less

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Rösner, Heike; Pedersen, Christina Bøg

    GAGE genes encode a highly similar, primate-specific protein family with unique primary structure and undefined roles in germ cells, various fetal cells and cancer cells. We report that GAGE proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that provide novel interfaces between chromatin and the nuc......GAGE genes encode a highly similar, primate-specific protein family with unique primary structure and undefined roles in germ cells, various fetal cells and cancer cells. We report that GAGE proteins are intrinsically disordered proteins that provide novel interfaces between chromatin...... and the nuclear envelope. Structural analysis by NMR and CD spectroscopy showed GAGE proteins lack distinct secondary or tertiary structure and are therefore intrinsically disordered. In normal cells and cancer cells GAGE proteins localize predominantly in the nucleus; we found GAGE proteins formed stable......) at the nuclear envelope. Furthermore, exogenous and endogenous GAGE proteins were recruited to the nuclear envelope in GCL-overexpressing cells. Gene expression analysis and immunohistochemical staining suggest GAGE proteins and GCL interact physiologically in human cells that express both, including male germ...

  16. Selecting Energy Efficient Building Envelope Retrofits to Existing Department of Defense Building Using Value Focused Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratt, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... these facilities that have the greatest potential for energy efficient building envelope retrofits. There are hundreds of various new building envelope technologies available to retrofit an existing building envelope, including window, roof, and wall technologies...

  17. Host-virus interactions of mammalian endogenous retroviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Farkašová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) originate by germline infection and subsequent mendelian inheritance of their exogenous counterparts. With notable exceptions, all mammalian ERVs are evolutionarily old and fixed in the population of its host species. Some groups of retroviruses were believed not to be able to form endogenous copies. We discovered an additional endogenous Lentivirus and a first endogenous Deltaretrovirus. Both of these groups were previously considered unable to form endogenous ...

  18. [The endogenous opioid system and drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, R

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder leading to complex adaptive changes within the brain reward circuits. Several neurotransmitters, including the endogenous opioid system are involved in these changes. The opioid system plays a pivotal role in different aspects of addiction. Thus, opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides are largely distributed in the mesolimbic system and modulate dopaminergic activity within the reward circuits. Opioid receptors and peptides are selectively involved in several components of the addictive processes induced by opioids, cannabinoids, psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This review is focused on the contribution of each component of the endogenous opioid system in the addictive properties of the different drugs of abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Endogenous vs. exogenous regulations in the commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abatayo, Anna Lou; Lynham, John

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that there is strong experimental evidence to support the idea that exogenously imposed regulations crowd out the intrinsic motivations of common pool resource (CPR) users to refrain from over-harvesting. We introduce a novel experimental design that attempts to disentangle...... potential confounds in previous experiments. A key feature of our experimental design is to have the exact same regulations chosen endogenously as those that are imposed exogenously. When we compare the same regulations chosen endogenously to those externally imposed, we observe no differences in extraction...... endogenous regulations with communication and exogenous regulations without communication. Our results suggest that externally imposed regulations do not crowd out intrinsic motivations in the lab and they confirm that communication facilitates cooperation to reduce extraction....

  20. The limited role of recombination energy in common envelope removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grichener, Aldana; Sabach, Efrat; Soker, Noam

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the outward energy transport time by convection and photon diffusion in an inflated common envelope and find this time to be shorter than the envelope expansion time. We conclude therefore that most of the hydrogen recombination energy ends in radiation rather than in kinetic energy of the outflowing envelope. We use the stellar evolution code MESA and inject energy inside the envelope of an asymptotic giant branch star to mimic energy deposition by a spiraling-in stellar companion. During 1.7 years the envelope expands by a factor of more than 2. Along the entire evolution the convection can carry the energy very efficiently outwards, to the radius where radiative transfer becomes more efficient. The total energy transport time stays within several months, shorter than the dynamical time of the envelope. Had we included rapid mass loss, as is expected in the common envelope evolution, the energy transport time would have been even shorter. It seems that calculations that assume that most of the recombination energy ends in the outflowing gas might be inaccurate.

  1. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  2. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  3. The eikonal equation, envelopes and contact transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Kamran, Niky; Newman, Ezra T

    2003-01-01

    We begin with an arbitrary but given conformal Lorentzian metric on an open neighbourhood, U, of a four-dimensional manifold (spacetime) and study families of solutions of the eikonal equation. In particular, the families that are of interest to us are the complete solutions. Their level surfaces form a two-parameter (points of S 2 ) family of foliations of U. We show that, from such a complete solution, it is possible to derive a pair of second-order PDEs defined solely on the parameter space S 2 , i.e., they have no reference to the spacetime points. We then show that if one uses the classical envelope method for the construction of new complete solutions from any given complete solution, then the new pair of PDEs (found from the new complete solution) is related to the old pair by contact transformations in the second jet bundle over S 2 . Further, we demonstrate that the pair of second-order PDEs obtained in this manner from any complete solution lies in a subclass of all pairs of second-order PDEs defined by the vanishing of a certain function obtained from the pair and is referred to as the generalized-Wuenschmann invariant. For completeness we briefly discuss the analogous issues associated with the eikonal equation in three dimensions. Finally we point out that conformally invariant geometric structures from the Lorentzian manifold have natural counterparts in the second jet bundle over S 2 on which the pair of PDEs lives

  4. Ecosystem functioning is enveloped by hydrometeorological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christoforos; Mahecha, Miguel D; Frank, David C; Babst, Flurin; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem processes, and the associated vegetation carbon dynamics, respond differently to hydrometeorological variability across timescales, and so does our scientific understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Long-term variability of the terrestrial carbon cycle is not yet well constrained and the resulting climate-biosphere feedbacks are highly uncertain. Here we present a comprehensive overview of hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability from hourly to decadal timescales integrating multiple in situ and remote-sensing datasets characterizing extra-tropical forest sites. We find that ecosystem variability at all sites is confined within a hydrometeorological envelope across sites and timescales. Furthermore, ecosystem variability demonstrates long-term persistence, highlighting ecological memory and slow ecosystem recovery rates after disturbances. However, simulation results with state-of-the-art process-based models do not reflect this long-term persistent behaviour in ecosystem functioning. Accordingly, we develop a cross-time-scale stochastic framework that captures hydrometeorological and ecosystem variability. Our analysis offers a perspective for terrestrial ecosystem modelling and paves the way for new model-data integration opportunities in Earth system sciences.

  5. Fullerenes and fulleranes in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yong; Kwok, Sun; Sadjadi, SeyedAbdolreza

    2016-01-01

    Three decades of search have recently led to convincing discoveries of cosmic fullerenes. The presence of C_6_0 and C"+ _6_0 in both circumstellar and interstellar environments suggests that these molecules and their derivatives can be efficiently formed in circumstellar envelopes and survive in harsh conditions. Detailed analysis of the infrared bands from fullerenes and their connections with the local properties can provide valuable information on the physical conditions and chemical processes that occurred in the late stages of stellar evolution. The identification of C"+ _6_0 as the carrier of four diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) suggests that fullerene- related compounds are abundant in interstellar space and are essential for resolving the DIB mystery. Experiments have revealed a high hydrogenation rate when C_6_0 is exposed to atomic hydrogen, motivating the attempt to search for cosmic fulleranes. In this paper, we present a short review of current knowledge of cosmic fullerenes and fulleranes and briefly discuss the implications on circumstellar chemistry. (paper)

  6. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  7. Endogenous network of firms and systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianting; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei

    2018-02-01

    We construct an endogenous network characterized by commercial credit relationships connecting the upstream and downstream firms. Simulation results indicate that the endogenous network model displays a scale-free property which exists in real-world firm systems. In terms of the network structure, with the expansion of the scale of network nodes, the systemic risk increases significantly, while the heterogeneities of network nodes have no effect on systemic risk. As for firm micro-behaviors, including the selection range of trading partners, actual output, labor requirement, price of intermediate products and employee salaries, increase of all these parameters will lead to higher systemic risk.

  8. An endogenous model of the credit network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianmin; Sui, Xin; Li, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an endogenous credit network model of firm-bank agents is constructed. The model describes the endogenous formation of firm-firm, firm-bank and bank-bank credit relationships. By means of simulations, the model is capable of showing some obvious similarities with empirical evidence found by other scholars: the upper-tail of firm size distribution can be well fitted with a power-law; the bank size distribution can be lognormally distributed with a power-law tail; the bank in-degrees of the interbank credit network as well as the firm-bank credit network fall into two-power-law distributions.

  9. Animal spirits, competitive markets, and endogenous growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kenji

    2013-10-01

    This paper uses a simple model with an endogenous discount rate and linear technology to investigate whether a competitive equilibrium has a higher balanced growth path (BGP) than the social planning solution and whether the BGP is determinate or indeterminate. The implications are as follows. To start with, people with an instinct to compare themselves with others possess an endogenous discount rate. In turn, this instinct affects the economic growth rate in a competitive market economy. The competitive market economy also sometimes achieves higher economic growth than a social planning economy. However, the outcomes of market economy occasionally fluctuate because of the presence of the self-fulfilling prophecy or animal spirits.

  10. [Mechanisms of leukocyte formation of endogenous pyrogen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakina, E G; Sorokin, A V

    1982-06-01

    A study was made of the kinetics of endogenous pyrogen production by rabbit blood and exudate leukocytes and possible role played by the products of activated leukocytes in autoregulation of the process. It was established that accumulation of endogenous pyrogen in the cell precedes its release by stimulated cells. Then the processes of active pyrogen formation and release gel interdependent: pyrogen formed releases from the cell; the lowering of pyrogen concentration in the cell is accompanied by the decrease of its content in the medium. No stimulating effect of the products activated during leukocyte inflammation on pyrogen formation by blood leukocytes was discovered.

  11. DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS OF BANKING SECTOR IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rashedul Hoque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector of Bangladesh is flourishing and contributing to its economy. In this aspect measuring efficiency is important. Data Envelopment Analysis technique is used for this purpose. The data are collected from the annual reports of twenty four different banks in Bangladesh. Data Envelopment Analysis is mainly of two types - constant returns to scale and variable returns to scale. Since this study attempts to maximize output, so the output oriented Data Envelopment Analysis is used. The most efficient bank is one that obtains the highest efficiency score.

  12. Pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The post office on CERN's Prévessin site is still selling pre-paid envelopes commemorating the 2013 Open Days. Hurry while stocks last!   The special envelopes, which are valid in France for non-priority letters weighing up to 20 grams, are ideal for your Christmas and New Year correspondence. A set of ten envelopes, each featuring a different image, costs € 8.70 or 10 CHF. The post office is located in Building 866 on the Prévessin site and is open Mondays to Thursdays from 9.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m.

  13. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. Results MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. Conclusions We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells. PMID:22727223

  14. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjan-Odedra, Shetal; Swanson, Chad M; Sherer, Nathan M; Wolinsky, Steven M; Malim, Michael H

    2012-06-22

    The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells.

  15. Genetic algorithm for building envelope calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Ruiz, Germán; Fernández Bandera, Carlos; Gómez-Acebo Temes, Tomás; Sánchez-Ostiz Gutierrez, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Calibration methodology using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). • Uncertainty analysis formulas implemented directly in EnergyPlus. • The methodology captures the heat dynamic of the building with a high level of accuracy. • Reduction in the number of parameters involved due to sensitivity analysis. • Cost-effective methodology using temperature sensors only. - Abstract: Buildings today represent 40% of world primary energy consumption and 24% of greenhouse gas emissions. In our society there is growing interest in knowing precisely when and how energy consumption occurs. This means that consumption measurement and verification plans are well-advanced. International agencies such as Efficiency Valuation Organization (EVO) and International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP) have developed methodologies to quantify savings. This paper presents a methodology to accurately perform automated envelope calibration under option D (calibrated simulation) of IPMVP – vol. 1. This is frequently ignored because of its complexity, despite being more flexible and accurate in assessing the energy performance of a building. A detailed baseline energy model is used, and by means of a metaheuristic technique achieves a highly reliable and accurate Building Energy Simulation (BES) model suitable for detailed analysis of saving strategies. In order to find this BES model a Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) is used, together with a highly efficient engine to stimulate the objective, thus permitting rapid achievement of the goal. The result is a BES model that broadly captures the heat dynamic behaviour of the building. The model amply fulfils the parameters demanded by ASHRAE and EVO under option D.

  16. Optimal income taxation with endogenous human capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper augments the theory of optimal linear income taxation by taking into account human capital accumulation as a dimension of labor supply. The distribution of earning potentials is endogenous because agents differ in the ability to learn. Taxation affects utilization rates of human capital

  17. Essays on Policy Evaluation with Endogenous Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Elisabetta

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, experimental and quasi-experimental methods have been favored by researchers in empirical economics, as they provide unbiased causal estimates. However, when implementing a program, it is often not possible to randomly assign subjects to treatment, leading to a possible endogeneity bias. This dissertation consists of two…

  18. Place branding, embeddedness and endogenous rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donner, Mechthild; Horlings, Lummina; Fort, Fatiha; Vellema, Sietze

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with place branding on the regional scale, in the rural context of food and tourism networks in Europe. Place branding is linked to the concepts of endogenous rural development, territory and embeddedness, by analysing how the valorisation of specific rural assets takes shape.

  19. Climate changes and farmers' endogenous adaptation strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been claimed that climate changes impact studies often assume certain adaptations and little explicit examination of how, when, why, and under what conditions they occur. This research aims at analysing the endogenous strategies developed by farmers in agricultural land and crop management. With random ...

  20. Endogenous thrombin potential in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aziz, Mubeena; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Wissing, Marie Louise Muff

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate plasma endogenous thrombin generation in four different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and insulin resistance (IR). PCOS is diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria. DESIGN: Multicenter...

  1. Immigration, Endogenous Technology Adoption and Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.; Pandey, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We document that immigration to U.S. states has increased the mass of workers at the lower range of the skill distribution. We use this change in skill distribution of workers to analyze the effect of immigration on wages. Our model allows firms to endogenously respond to the immigration-induced

  2. HERVd: the Human Endogenous Retrovirus Database: update

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pačes, Jan; Pavlíček, A.; Zíka, Radek; Jurka, J.; Pačes, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2004), s. 50-50 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : human * endogenous retrovirus * database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2004

  3. Endogenous Quality Effects of Trade Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe study the optimal trade policy against a foreign oligopoly with endogenous quality. We show that, under the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) clause, a uniform tariff policy is always welfare improving over the free trade equilibrium. However, a nonuniform tariff policy is always desirable

  4. Optimized Formation of Benzyl Isothiocyanate by Endogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To use endogenous myrosinase in Carica papaya seed to convert benzyl glucosinolate (BG) to benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) and then extract it for further studies. Methods: Process variables including seed powder particle size, sample-to-solvent ratio, pH of buffer solution, enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis ...

  5. Structural classification of endogenous regulatory oligopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyatnin, A A

    1991-07-01

    Based on the criteria of 50% identity in the amino acid sequence, a new method for grouping endogenous regulatory oligopeptides into structural families is presented. Data from the EROP-Moscow data bank on 579 oligopeptides fitting a preset spectrum of functional activities revealed 73 structural oligopeptide groups, 36 of which were called families.

  6. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To review the research findings on the expression of endogenous retroviruses and retroviral-related particles in male mammalian reproductive tissues, and to discuss their possible role in normal cellular events and association with disease conditions in male reproductive tissues. Data sources: Published ...

  7. The Limit of Public Policy : Endogenous Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bar-Gill, O.; Fershtman, C.

    2000-01-01

    In designing public policy it is not enough to consider the possible reaction of individuals to the chosen policy.Public policy may also affect the formation of preferences and norms in a society.The endogenous evolution of preferences, in addition to introducing a conceptual difficulty in

  8. Endogeneity in Strategy-Performance Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; B. Folta, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    , such as employees, strategic partners, customers, or investors, whose choices and preferences also affect the final decision. We discuss how endogeneity can plague the measurement of the performance effects of these two-sided strategic decisions—which are more complex, but more realistic, than prior representations...

  9. Managing spillovers: an endogenous sunk cost approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Senyuta, Olena; Žigić, Krešimir

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, June (2016), s. 45-64 ISSN 0167-6245 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0961 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : endogenous sunk costs * innovations * knowledge spillovers Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  10. Applying Endogenous Knowledge in the African Context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This requires not only an understanding of what endogenous knowledge is, but also an alignment of personal values, innovative strategies and an attitude of activism. An integral part of an extensive skills set to implement specifi c dispute resolution strategies is the ability to facilitate the free sharing of information about all ...

  11. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In humans, one ERV family, human endogenous retrovirus- K (HERV-K) is abundantly expressed, and is associated with germ cell tumours, while ERV3 env is expressed in normal human testis. Conclusion: The expression of ERVs in male reproductive tissues suggests a possible role in normal and disease conditions ...

  12. [Endogenous pyrogen formation by bone marrow cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, O M; Sorokin, A V; El'kina, O A

    1978-01-01

    The cells of the rabbit bone marrow produced endogenous pyrogen in response to stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Incubation of the cells in medium No 199 containing a 15% homologous serum is optimal for the release of pyrogen. It is supposed that the cells of the bone marrow take part in the formation of endgenous pyrogen and in the mechanism of pyrexia in the organism.

  13. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Shaqura, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU

  14. Envelope Protection for In-Flight Ice Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, David R.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatal loss-of-control (LOC) accidents have been directly related to in-flight airframe icing. The prototype system presented in this paper directly addresses the need for real-time onboard envelope protection in icing conditions. The combinations of a-priori information and realtime aerodynamic estimations are shown to provide sufficient input for determining safe limits of the flight envelope during in-flight icing encounters. The Icing Contamination Envelope Protection (ICEPro) system has been designed and implemented to identify degradations in airplane performance and flying qualities resulting from ice contamination and provide safe flight-envelope cues to the pilot. Components of ICEPro are described and results from preliminary tests are presented.

  15. that Bind Specifically to Recombinant Envelope Protein of Dengue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research June 2015; 14 (6): 997-1003 ... Revised accepted: 30 April 2015. Abstract ... Results: The 45 KDa, 43 KDa and 30 KDa plasma membrane proteins were identified as viral envelope targets.

  16. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Plant parameters envelope report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Early Site Permit (ESP) Demonstration Program is the nuclear industry's initiative for piloting the early resolution of siting-related issues before the detailed design proceedings of the combined operating license review. The ESP Demonstration Program consists of three phases. The plant parameters envelopes task is part of Phase 1, which addresses the generic review of applicable federal regulations and develops criteria for safety and environmental assessment of potential sites. The plant parameters envelopes identify parameters that characterize the interface between an ALWR design and a potential site, and quantify the interface through values selected from the Utility Requirements Documents, vendor design information, or engineering assessments. When augmented with site-specific information, the plant parameters envelopes provide sufficient information to allow ESPs to be granted based on individual ALWR design information or enveloping design information for the evolutionary, passive, or generic ALWR plants. This document is expected to become a living document when used by future applicants

  17. Transport of Ions Across the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    The technical report outlines the results of nine years of research on how ions cross the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts. The ions include protons, nitrite, calcium and ferrous iron. Bicarbonate transport was also studied

  18. Intelligent building envelopes. Architectural concept and applications for daylighting quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyckmans, Annemie

    2005-11-15

    How does an intelligent building envelope manage the variable and sometimes conflictive occupant requirements that arise in a day lit indoor environment. This is the research question that provides the basis for this Ph.D. work. As it touches upon several fields of application, the research question is untangled into four steps, each of which corresponds to a chapter of the thesis. 1) What characterises intelligent behaviour for a building envelope. 2) What characterises indoor day lighting quality. 3) Which functions can an intelligent building envelope be expected to perform in the context of day lighting quality. 4) How are the materials, components and composition of an intelligent building envelope designed to influence this performance. The emphasis is on design, environmental aspects, energy conservation, functional analysis and physical applications.

  19. Torsin Mediates Primary Envelopment of Large Ribonucleoprotein Granules at the Nuclear Envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahbiz Jokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A previously unrecognized mechanism through which large ribonucleoprotein (megaRNP granules exit the nucleus is by budding through the nuclear envelope (NE. This mechanism is akin to the nuclear egress of herpes-type viruses and is essential for proper synapse development. However, the molecular machinery required to remodel the NE during this process is unknown. Here, we identify Torsin, an AAA-ATPase that in humans is linked to dystonia, as a major mediator of primary megaRNP envelopment during NE budding. In torsin mutants, megaRNPs accumulate within the perinuclear space, and the messenger RNAs contained within fail to reach synaptic sites, preventing normal synaptic protein synthesis and thus proper synaptic bouton development. These studies begin to establish the cellular machinery underlying the exit of megaRNPs via budding, offer an explanation for the “nuclear blebbing” phenotype found in dystonia models, and provide an important link between Torsin and the synaptic phenotypes observed in dystonia.

  20. Aspherical Dust Envelopes Around Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We model the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars. We perform the radiative transfer model calculations for axisymmetric dust distributions. We simulate what could be observed from the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars by presenting the model spectral energy distributions and images at various wavelengths for different optical depths and viewing angles. The model results are very different from the ones with spherically symmetric geometry.

  1. Failure envelope approach for consolidated undrained capacity of shallow foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Vulpe, Cristina; Gourvenec, Susan; Leman, Billy; Fung, Kah Ngii

    2016-01-01

    A generalized framework is applied to predict consolidated undrained VHM failure envelopes for surface circular and strip foundations. The failure envelopes for consolidated undrained conditions are shown to be scaled from those for unconsolidated undrained conditions by the uniaxial consolidated undrained capacities, which are predicted through a theoretical framework based on fundamental critical state soil mechanics. The framework is applied to results from small-strain finite-element anal...

  2. ENDOGENOUS ANALGESIA, DEPENDENCE, AND LATENT PAIN SENSITIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bradley K; Corder, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous activation of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) provides relief from acute pain. Recent studies have established that tissue inflammation produces latent pain sensitization (LS) that is masked by spinal MOR signaling for months, even after complete recovery from injury and re-establishment of normal pain thresholds. Disruption with MOR inverse agonists reinstates pain and precipitates cellular, somatic and aversive signs of physical withdrawal; this phenomenon requires N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated activation of calcium-sensitive adenylyl cyclase type 1 (AC1). In this review, we present a new conceptual model of the transition from acute to chronic pain, based on the delicate balance between LS and endogenous analgesia that develops after painful tissue injury. First, injury activates pain pathways. Second, the spinal cord establishes MOR constitutive activity (MORCA) as it attempts to control pain. Third, over time, the body becomes dependent on MORCA, which paradoxically sensitizes pain pathways. Stress or injury escalates opposing inhibitory and excitatory influences on nociceptive processing as a pathological consequence of increased endogenous opioid tone. Pain begets MORCA begets pain vulnerability in a vicious cycle. The final result is a silent insidious state characterized by the escalation of two opposing excitatory and inhibitory influences on pain transmission: LS mediated by AC1 (which maintains accelerator), and pain inhibition mediated by MORCA (which maintains the brake). This raises the prospect that opposing homeostatic interactions between MORCA analgesia and latent NMDAR–AC1-mediated pain sensitization create a lasting vulnerability to develop chronic pain. Thus, chronic pain syndromes may result from a failure in constitutive signaling of spinal MORs and a loss of endogenous analgesic control. An overarching long-term therapeutic goal of future research is to alleviate chronic pain by either: a) facilitating endogenous opioid

  3. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  4. Detection of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) using highly specific antisera against Gag and Env

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Nicole; Krach, Ulrich; Niebert, Marcus; Toenjes, Ralf R.

    2003-01-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are considered an obstacle to the safe use of cells, tissues, and organs from pigs in the course of xenotransplantation. Thus, the detection of viral proteins and of a potential PERV infection is of major interest. Recently, we have published the generation of a highly specific antiserum directed against the nucleocapsid (p10) of PERV (Xenotransplantation 7 (2000), 221). Here we present new peptide-antisera specific to the capsid protein (p30) and the surface molecule of PERV class B (SU, gp70(B)) as well as the transmembrane moiety of the envelope protein (TM, p15E) of PERV which showed functionality in several immunological assays, such as immunoblots, immunofluorescence, and immunogold staining. Thus, these antisera can be used as tools for the identification of viral proteins in basic research as well as clinical trials

  5. Endogenous Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari-Targhi, M.; Coppi, B.; Basu, B.; Fletcher, A.; Golub, L.

    2017-12-01

    We propose that a magneto-thermal reconnection process occurring in coronal loops be the source of the heating of the Solar Corona [1]. In the adopted model, magnetic reconnection is associated with electron temperature gradients, anisotropic electron temperature fluctuations and plasma current density gradients [2]. The input parameters for our theoretical model are derived from the most recent observations of the Solar Corona. In addition, the relevant (endogenous) collective modes can produce high energy particle populations. An endogenous reconnection process is defined as being driven by factors internal to the region where reconnection takes place. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. D.O.E. and the Kavli Foundation* [1] Beafume, P., Coppi, B. and Golub, L., (1992) Ap. J. 393, 396. [2] Coppi, B. and Basu, B. (2017) MIT-LNS Report HEP 17/01.

  6. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Sharif A; Norsted, Ebba; Lee, Lillian S; Lang, Penelope D; Lee, Brian S; Woolley, Joshua D; Fields, Howard L

    2006-08-01

    Endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the neural control of food intake. Opioid signaling is thought to regulate palatability, the reward value of a food item as determined by orosensory cues such as taste and texture. The reward value of a food reflects not only these sensory properties but also the relative value of competing food choices. In the present experiment, we used a consummatory contrast paradigm to manipulate the relative value of a sucrose solution for two groups of rats. Systemic injection of the nonspecific opioid antagonist naltrexone suppressed sucrose intake; for both groups, however, this suppression was selective, occurring only for the relatively more valuable sucrose solution. Our results indicate that endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the encoding of relative reward value.

  7. Endogenous Natural Complement Inhibitor Regulates Cardiac Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Simon A; Skov, Louise L; Kjaer-Sorensen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    mechanisms during fetal development and adult homeostasis. In this article, we describe the function of an endogenous complement inhibitor, mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated protein (MAp)44, in regulating the composition of a serine protease-pattern recognition receptor complex, MBL-associated serine...... of MAp44 caused impaired cardiogenesis, lowered heart rate, and decreased cardiac output. These defects were associated with aberrant neural crest cell behavior. We found that MAp44 competed with MASP-3 for pattern recognition molecule interaction, and knockdown of endogenous MAp44 expression could...... be rescued by overexpression of wild-type MAp44. Our observations provide evidence that immune molecules are centrally involved in the orchestration of cardiac tissue development....

  8. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Cepni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand of economic agents. In this study, we investigate which of the money supply theories holds in Turkish economy for the period 2006-2015 by employing cointegration and causality tests. Our findings show that the causality runs from bank loans to money supply both in the short and long terms, which supports the endogenous view in a sense that central bank and the banks fully meet the total demand for money in Turkish economy.

  9. Independent effects of endogenous and exogenous attention in touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander; Forster, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    Endogenous and exogenous attention in touch have typically been investigated separately. Here we use a double-cueing paradigm manipulating both types of orienting in each trial. Bilateral endogenous cues induced long-lasting facilitation of endogenous attention up to 2 s. However, the exogenous cue only elicited an effect at short intervals. Our results favour a supramodal account of attention and this study provides new insight into how endogenous and exogenous attention operates in the tactile modality.

  10. Endogenous pyrogen-like substance produced by reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, H A; Kluger, M J

    1977-06-01

    1. Injection of lizards (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) with rabbit endogenous pyrogen led to a fever. Injections with denatured endogenous pyrogen did not affect body temperature. 2. Injection of lizards with lizard endogenous pyrogen led to a fever of short duration, while injection of denatured lizard endogenous pyrogen produced no change in body temperature. 3. These data support the hypothesis that the febrile mechanism observed in the higher vertebrates has its origins in some primitive vertebrate.

  11. A General Theory of Endogenous Market Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Etro; Paolo Bertoletti

    2014-01-01

    We provide a unified approach to imperfect (monopolistic, Bertrand and Cournot) competition equilibria with demand functions derived from symmetric preferences over a large but finite number of goods. The equilibrium markups depend on the Morishima Elasticity of Substitution/Complementarity between goods, and can be derived directly from the utility functions and ranked unambiguously. We characterize the endogenous market structures, their dependence on market size, income and firms’ producti...

  12. Pensions with Heterogenous Individuals and Endogenous Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Gahvari, Firouz; Pestieau, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the design of pension schemes in a society where fertility is endogenous and parents differ in their ability to raise children. In a world with perfect information, a pay-as-you-go social security system is characterized by equal pensions for all but different contributions which may or may not increase with the number of children. Additionally, fertility must be subsidized at the margin to correct for the externality that accompanies fertility. In a world of asymmetric inf...

  13. Endogenous Growth, Monetary Shocks and Nominal Rigidities

    OpenAIRE

    Annicchiarico, Barbara; Pelloni, Alessandra; Lorenza, Rossi

    2010-01-01

    We introduce endogenous growth in an otherwise standard NK model with staggered prices and wages. Some results follow: (i) monetary volatility negatively affects long-run growth; (ii) the relation between nominal volatility and growth depends on the persistence of the nominal shocks and on the Taylor rule considered; (iii) a Taylor rule with smoothing increases the negative effect of nominal volatility on mean growth.

  14. Social Security, Intergenerational Transfers, and Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Junsen Zhang; Junxi Zhang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of social security in a simple model of endogenous growth with alternative motives of having children are analyzed. It shows how the effects of social security depend on the size of the social security tax, the motive to have children, and the pattern of intergenerational transfers. The pattern of intergenerational transfers itself, however, is shown to change with the social security tax rate. When the social security tax is not too high, social security increases ...

  15. The endogeneity of money and the eurosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Otto

    2004-01-01

    The endogenous theory of money, developed by Basil Moore, argues that the supply of central bank money in modern economies is not under the control of the central bank. According to this view, a central bank typically supplies cash reserves automatically on demand at its minimum lending rate, resulting in a clearly horizontal money supply function. While the paper agrees with Moore that the supply of central bank money cannot be determined exogenously by the central bank, it wonders whether t...

  16. Endogeneity of Money Supply: Evidence From Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Oguzhan Cepni; Ibrahim Ethem Guney

    2017-01-01

    There is a long discussion among academics and central bankers about the theories of money supply. According to the exogenous view, central banks have the full control over money supply via policy actions including the adjustments of interest rates and reserve ratios, both of which alter commercial banks’ lending decisions. However, the theory of endogenous money supply emphasizes the role of demand for bank loans in money creation. More specifically, banks create money by meeting the demand ...

  17. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

    1993-01-01

    Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) foll...

  18. Endogenous Retroviruses in the Genomics Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Welkin E

    2015-11-01

    Endogenous retroviruses comprise millions of discrete genetic loci distributed within the genomes of extant vertebrates. These sequences, which are clearly related to exogenous retroviruses, represent retroviral infections of the deep past, and their abundance suggests that retroviruses were a near-constant presence throughout the evolutionary history of modern vertebrates. Endogenous retroviruses contribute in myriad ways to the evolution of host genomes, as mutagens and as sources of genetic novelty (both coding and regulatory) to be acted upon by the twin engines of random genetic drift and natural selection. Importantly, the richness and complexity of endogenous retrovirus data can be used to understand how viruses spread and adapt on evolutionary timescales by combining population genetics and evolutionary theory with a detailed understanding of retrovirus biology (gleaned from the study of extant retroviruses). In addition to revealing the impact of viruses on organismal evolution, such studies can help us better understand, by looking back in time, how life-history traits, as well as ecological and geological events, influence the movement of viruses within and between populations.

  19. Endogenous cueing attenuates object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Filip; Pomianowska, I; De Graef, P; Zaenen, P; Verfaillie, K

    2010-07-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is a form of visual masking in which a briefly presented target surrounded by four small dots is masked by the continuing presence of the four dots after target offset. A major parameter in the prediction of OSM is the time required for attention to be directed to the target following its onset. Object substitution theory (Di Lollo et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) predicts that the sooner attention can be focused at the target's location, the less masking will ensue. However, recently Luiga and Bachmann (Psychol Res 71:634-640, 2007) presented evidence that precueing of attention to the target location prior to target-plus-mask onset by means of a central (endogenous) arrow cue does not reduce OSM. When attention was cued exogenously, OSM was attenuated. Based on these results, Luiga and Bachmann argued that object substitution theory should be adapted by differentiating the ways of directing attention to the target location. The goal of the present study was to further examine the dissociation between the effects of endogenous and exogenous precueing on OSM. Contrary to Luiga and Bachmann, our results show that prior shifts of attention to the target location initiated by both exogenous and endogenous cues reduce OSM as predicted by object substitution theory and its computational model CMOS.

  20. Endogenous growth theory and regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous versions of endogenous explanations of economic growth emphasize the importance of technological change driving forces, as well as the existence of appropriate institutional arrangements. Endogenous growth theory contributes to a better understanding of various experiences with long-term growth of countries and regions. It changes the key assumptions of the Neoclassical growth theory and participates in the modern regional development physiology explanation. Based on these conclusions, the paper: a explicates the most important theoretical postulates of the theory, b explains the most important factors of economic growth in the regions in light of the Endogenous growth theory messages and c emphasizes the key determinants of regional competitiveness which in our view is conceptually between the phenomena of micro- and macro-competitiveness and represents their necessary and unique connection. First of all, micro-competitiveness is transformed into a regional competitiveness; then regional competitiveness is transformed into a macro-competitiveness. In turn, macro - influences the microeconomic competitiveness, and the circle is closed. After that, the process starts over again.

  1. Fanconi anemia proteins and endogenous stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang Qishen [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Andreassen, Paul R., E-mail: Paul.Andreassen@cchmc.org [Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Each of the thirteen identified Fanconi anemia (FA) genes is required for resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, such as mitomycin C, cisplatin, and melphalan. While these agents are excellent tools for understanding the function of FA proteins in DNA repair, it is uncertain whether a defect in the removal of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is the basis for the pathophysiology of FA. For example, DNA interstrand crosslinking agents induce other types of DNA damage, in addition to ICLs. Further, other DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, activate the FA pathway, leading to monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Also, FA patients display congenital abnormalities, hematologic deficiencies, and a predisposition to cancer in the absence of an environmental source of ICLs that is external to cells. Here we consider potential sources of endogenous DNA damage, or endogenous stresses, to which FA proteins may respond. These include ICLs formed by products of lipid peroxidation, and other forms of oxidative DNA damage. FA proteins may also potentially respond to telomere shortening or replication stress. Defining these endogenous sources of DNA damage or stresses is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of deficiencies for FA proteins. We propose that FA proteins are centrally involved in the response to replication stress, including replication stress arising from oxidative DNA damage.

  2. Fanconi anemia proteins and endogenous stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Qishen; Andreassen, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Each of the thirteen identified Fanconi anemia (FA) genes is required for resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, such as mitomycin C, cisplatin, and melphalan. While these agents are excellent tools for understanding the function of FA proteins in DNA repair, it is uncertain whether a defect in the removal of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) is the basis for the pathophysiology of FA. For example, DNA interstrand crosslinking agents induce other types of DNA damage, in addition to ICLs. Further, other DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, activate the FA pathway, leading to monoubiquitination of FANCD2 and FANCI. Also, FA patients display congenital abnormalities, hematologic deficiencies, and a predisposition to cancer in the absence of an environmental source of ICLs that is external to cells. Here we consider potential sources of endogenous DNA damage, or endogenous stresses, to which FA proteins may respond. These include ICLs formed by products of lipid peroxidation, and other forms of oxidative DNA damage. FA proteins may also potentially respond to telomere shortening or replication stress. Defining these endogenous sources of DNA damage or stresses is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of deficiencies for FA proteins. We propose that FA proteins are centrally involved in the response to replication stress, including replication stress arising from oxidative DNA damage.

  3. Induced pluripotency with endogenous and inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duinsbergen, Dirk; Eriksson, Malin; Hoen, Peter A.C. 't; Frisen, Jonas; Mikkers, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The recent discovery that two partly overlapping sets of four genes induce nuclear reprogramming of mouse and even human cells has opened up new possibilities for cell replacement therapies. Although the combination of genes that induce pluripotency differs to some extent, Oct4 and Sox2 appear to be a prerequisite. The introduction of four genes, several of which been linked with cancer, using retroviral approaches is however unlikely to be suitable for future clinical applications. Towards developing a safer reprogramming protocol, we investigated whether cell types that express one of the most critical reprogramming genes endogenously are predisposed to reprogramming. We show here that three of the original four pluripotency transcription factors (Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc or MYCER TAM ) induced reprogramming of mouse neural stem (NS) cells exploiting endogenous SoxB1 protein levels in these cells. The reprogrammed neural stem cells differentiated into cells of each germ layer in vitro and in vivo, and contributed to mouse development in vivo. Thus a combinatorial approach taking advantage of endogenously expressed genes and inducible transgenes may contribute to the development of improved reprogramming protocols

  4. Endogenous lung regeneration: potential and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jason; Königshoff, Melanie

    2012-12-15

    The exploration of the endogenous regenerative potential of the diseased adult human lung represents an innovative and exciting task. In this pulmonary perspective, we discuss three major components essential for endogenous lung repair and regeneration: epithelial progenitor populations, developmental signaling pathways that regulate their reparative and regenerative potential, and the surrounding extracellular matrix in the human diseased lung. Over the past years, several distinct epithelial progenitor populations have been discovered within the lung, all of which most likely respond to different injuries by varying degrees. It has become evident that several progenitor populations are mutually involved in maintenance and repair, which is highly regulated by developmental pathways, such as Wnt or Notch signaling. Third, endogenous progenitor cells and developmental signaling pathways act in close spatiotemporal synergy with the extracellular matrix. These three components define and refine the highly dynamic microenvironment of the lung, which is altered in a disease-specific fashion in several chronic lung diseases. The search for the right mixture to induce efficient and controlled repair and regeneration of the diseased lung is ongoing and will open completely novel avenues for the treatment of patients with chronic lung disease.

  5. Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Katzourakis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Integration into the nuclear genome of germ line cells can lead to vertical inheritance of retroviral genes as host alleles. For other viruses, germ line integration has only rarely been documented. Nonetheless, we identified endogenous viral elements (EVEs derived from ten non-retroviral families by systematic in silico screening of animal genomes, including the first endogenous representatives of double-stranded RNA, reverse-transcribing DNA, and segmented RNA viruses, and the first endogenous DNA viruses in mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic and genomic analysis of EVEs across multiple host species revealed novel information about the origin and evolution of diverse virus groups. Furthermore, several of the elements identified here encode intact open reading frames or are expressed as mRNA. For one element in the primate lineage, we provide statistically robust evidence for exaptation. Our findings establish that genetic material derived from all known viral genome types and replication strategies can enter the animal germ line, greatly broadening the scope of paleovirological studies and indicating a more significant evolutionary role for gene flow from virus to animal genomes than has previously been recognized.

  6. Endogenous leukotriene formation during anaphylactic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, A.; Oerning, L.; Bernstroem, K.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1987-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT)C 4 is a biologically active substance, presumed to play major roles as a mediator of allergic and anaphylactic reactions. It is formed e.g. by basophilic and eosinophilic leukocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and mast cells. In cells having IgE receptors, bridging of these by divalent anti-IgE-receptor antibodies or by interaction between receptor-bound IgE and anti-IgE will induce LTC 4 formation. Leukotriene formation has also been demonstrated in other in vitro models of immediate hypersensivity. The biological actions of LTC 4 , comprise induction of airway obstruction, constriction of coronary arteries, hypotension, and plasma extravasation. Leukotriene formation in vivo may mediate anaphylactic shock symptoms and cause the death of an animal. In order to prove the presumed mediator role of this substance in anaphylactic reactions, it is necessary to demonstrate its endogenous formation during shock. Studies on the metabolism of LTC 4 have revealed rapid catabolism by various transformations of the peptide substituent. Recently, three metabolites were demonstrated to be excreted as end-products in man (LTE 4 ,) and the rat (N-acetyl LTE 4 and N-acetyl 11-trans LTE 4 ). By monitoring biliary N-acetyl LTE 4 levels, endogenous leukotriene formation in the rat was demonstrated in vivo after tissue trauma and endotoxin shock. We now wish to report evidence for endogenous leukotriene C 4 production during anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs. 37 refs. (author)

  7. Exercise induced asthma and endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, R C; Bachman, M; Rochat, T; Egger, D; de Haller, R; Junod, A F

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of endogenous opioid peptides in the plasma are increased during exercise and these substances have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma induced by chloropropramide and alcohol in diabetic patients. This work was undertaken to determine whether exercise induced asthma might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Plasma beta endorphin, met-enkephalin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were measured in five asthmatic patients and five normal volunteers breathing cold air during exercise. In four of the patients the effect of an infusion of naloxone on FEV1 was also measured during exercise induced asthma. Exercise produced acute bronchoconstriction in all asthmatics, characterised by a fall in FEV1; whereas no change occurred in normal subjects. There was no difference in plasma met-enkephalin, beta endorphin, and ACTH concentration between the two groups. Infusion of naloxone neither prevented nor worsened exercise induced asthma. These data suggest that endogenous opioids probably do not play a part in the development of exercise induced asthma. PMID:2944240

  8. The search for an endogenous activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekowski, K. M.; Atkins, E.

    1985-01-01

    Certain febrile diseases are unaccompanied by infection or apparent hypersensitivity. In myocardial infarction or pulmonary embolism, for example, fever has been attributed to inflammation and/or tissue necrosis. Exogenous (microbial) pyrogens stimulate both human and animal monocytes/macrophages to produce endogenous pyrogen (EP) in vitro. To determine if plasma and cellular endogeneous mediators (EMs) of inflammation induced EP production, human mononuclear cells (M/L) were incubated for 18 hours with varying amounts of EM and the supernates assayed for EP in rabbits. Neutrophils (PMNs), which do not generate EP and yet are a feature of acute inflammation, were tested. Neither viable, phorbol myristic acetate-stimulated PMNs nor sonicated PMNs, red blood cells, or M/L stimulated human monocytes to produce EP. Human C3b and C5a, which mediate phagocytosis and chemotaxis, respectively, were also inactive. Despite its chemoattractant properties, the synthetic peptide FMLP failed to induce EP release. Since Poly I:Poly C (PIC: a synthetic, double-stranded RNA) is a potent pyrogen in rabbits, we investigated PIC, as well as a native, single-stranded RNA (from E. coli) and DNA (from calf thymus). None was active in vitro, and only PIC caused fever when given to rabbits intravenously. In summary, we have been unable to find an endogenous activator of EP from human monocytes to explain fevers associated with inflammation alone. PMID:3875936

  9. Integrated energy design of the building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vraa Nielsen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research project analysed how the implementation of technical knowledge early in the building design process can quantify the effect of a building's facades on its energy efficiency and indoor climate and thereby facilitate a more qualified design development. The project was structured in the following way: 1) the importance of integrating knowledge in the early stages of design, and how it can be done; 2) understanding the facade's typology; and 3) the complex notion of comfort. The project touched not only on the technical capabilities and requirements governing facade design, but also the process by which it takes place. This was done by applying the methodology of Integrated Energy Design (IED) and analysing its applicability in the design of facades. A major part of the project was an actual engagement in the architectural process to test out incorporating a consciousness about energy and comfort as part of a more holistic performance evaluation. The research project illustrates the great potential in taking passive properties into account through a geometrical optimisation inherent in the development of the architectural concept. It demonstrates that integration of technical knowledge at the early stages of design not only can qualify the geometrical processing, but also facilitate the design development of the facade. Thereby a more holistic performance optimisation can be obtained through parameters such as overall facade geometry and orientation, functional organisation, room height and depth, facade layout, window geometry and transparency, design of the window aperture, etc. Through the wide range of affiliated project involved in at the architectural firm over

  10. The South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Feaster, Toby D.; Caldwell, Andral W.

    2016-09-30

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a series of three field investigations to evaluate historical, riverine bridge scour in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of South Carolina. These investigations included data collected at 231 riverine bridges, which lead to the development of bridge-scour envelope curves for clear-water and live-bed components of scour. The application and limitations of the South Carolina bridge-scour envelope curves were documented in four reports, each report addressing selected components of bridge scour. The current investigation (2016) synthesizes the findings of these previous reports into a guidance manual providing an integrated procedure for applying the envelope curves. Additionally, the investigation provides limited verification for selected bridge-scour envelope curves by comparing them to field data collected outside of South Carolina from previously published sources. Although the bridge-scour envelope curves have limitations, they are useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential for scour at riverine bridges in South Carolina.

  11. Solar envelope concepts: moderate density building applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, R.L.; Berry, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Solar energy utilization in urban areas requires public guarantees that all property owners have direct access to the sun. The study examines the implications of this premise in relation to the need for cities to also encourage or accommodate rebuilding and future development. The public policy mechanism for guaranteeing solar access is conceptualized as a solar zoning envelope that allows the largest possible building bulk on a land parcel without shadowing neighboring properties during specified times. Step-by-step methods for generating solar envelopes are described with extensive drawings, showing a variety of urban platting and lot configurations. Development and design possibilities are examined on a selected set of Los Angeles sites with typically diverse urban characteristics. Envelope attributes suitable for encouraging moderate-density commercial and residential building are examined in the context of two hypothetical but realistic development programs: one for speculative office buildings and one for condominium housing. Numerous illustrations of envelope forms and prototypical building designs are provided. The results of development simulation studies on all test sites are tabulated to show building bulk, density, land-coverage and open space characteristics obtainable under the hypothesized envelopes.

  12. Application of Next Generation Sequencing in Mammalian Embryogenomics: Lessons Learned from Endogenous Betaretroviruses of Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas E.; Palmarini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are present in the genome of all vertebrates and are remnants of ancient exogenous retroviral infections of the host germline transmitted vertically from generation to generation. The sheep genome contains 27 JSRV-related endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) related to the pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) that have been integrating in the host genome for the last 5 to 7 million years. The exogenous JSRV is a causative agent of a transmissible lung cancer in sheep, and enJSRVs are able to protect the host against JSRV infection. In sheep, the enJSRVs are most abundantly expressed in the uterine epithelia as well as in the conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes) trophectoderm. Sixteen of the 27 enJSRV loci contain an envelope (env) gene with an intact open reading frame, and in utero loss-of-function experiments found the enJSRVs Env to be essential for trophoblast outgrowth and conceptus elongation. Collectively, available evidence supports the ideas that genes captured from ancestral retroviruses were pivotal in the acquisition of new, important functions in mammalian evolution and were positively selected for biological roles in genome plasticity, protection of the host against infection of related pathogenic and exogenous retroviruses, and a convergent physiological role in placental morphogenesis and thus mammalian reproduction. The discovery of ERVs in mammals was initially based on molecular cloning discovery techniques and will be boosted forward by next generation sequencing technologies and in silico discovery techniques. PMID:22951118

  13. Endogenous retroviruses of sheep: a model system for understanding physiological adaptation to an evolving ruminant genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are present in the genome of all vertebrates and are remnants of ancient exogenous retroviral infections of the host germline transmitted vertically from generation to generation. Sheep betaretroviruses offer a unique model system to study the complex interaction between retroviruses and their host. The sheep genome contains 27 endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) related to the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), the causative agent of a transmissible lung cancer in sheep. The enJSRVs can protect their host against JSRV infection by blocking early and late steps of the JSRV replication cycle. In the female reproductive tract, enJSRVs are specifically expressed in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia as well as in the conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes) trophectoderm and in utero loss-of-function experiments found the enJSRVs envelope (env) to be essential for conceptus elongation and trophectoderm growth and development. Collectively, available evidence in sheep and other mammals indicate that ERVs coevolved with their hosts for millions of years and were positively selected for biological roles in genome plasticity and evolution, protection of the host against infection of related pathogenic and exogenous retroviruses, and placental development.

  14. Endogenous Murine BST-2/Tetherin Is Not a Major Restriction Factor of Influenza A Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Londrigan

    Full Text Available BST-2 (tetherin, CD317, HM1.24 restricts virus growth by tethering enveloped viruses to the cell surface. The role of BST-2 during influenza A virus infection (IAV is controversial. Here, we assessed the capacity of endogenous BST-2 to restrict IAV in primary murine cells. IAV infection increased BST-2 surface expression by primary macrophages, but not alveolar epithelial cells (AEC. BST-2-deficient AEC and macrophages displayed no difference in susceptibility to IAV infection relative to wild type cells. Furthermore, BST-2 played little role in infectious IAV release from either AEC or macrophages. To examine BST-2 during IAV infection in vivo, we infected BST-2-deficient mice. No difference in weight loss or in viral loads in the lungs and/or nasal tissues were detected between BST-2-deficient and wild type animals. This study rules out a major role for endogenous BST-2 in modulating IAV in the mouse model of infection.

  15. High frequency vibration analysis by the complex envelope vectorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, O; Carcaterra, A; Sestieri, A

    2007-06-01

    The complex envelope displacement analysis (CEDA) is a procedure to solve high frequency vibration and vibro-acoustic problems, providing the envelope of the physical solution. CEDA is based on a variable transformation mapping the high frequency oscillations into signals of low frequency content and has been successfully applied to one-dimensional systems. However, the extension to plates and vibro-acoustic fields met serious difficulties so that a general revision of the theory was carried out, leading finally to a new method, the complex envelope vectorization (CEV). In this paper the CEV method is described, underlying merits and limits of the procedure, and a set of applications to vibration and vibro-acoustic problems of increasing complexity are presented.

  16. Safety analysis to support a safe operating envelope for fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibb, R.A.; Reid, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for defining a safe operating envelope for fuel. 'Safe operating envelope' is defined as an envelope of fuel parameters defined for application in safety analysis that can be related to, or used to define, the acceptable range of fuel conditions due to operational transients or deviations in fuel manufacturing processes. The paper describes the motivation for developing such a methodology. The methodology involved four steps: the update of fission product inventories, the review of sheath failure criteria, a review of input parameters to be used in fuel modelling codes, and the development of an improved fission product release code. This paper discusses the aspects of fuel sheath failure criteria that pertain to operating or manufacturing conditions and to the evaluation and selection of modelling input data. The other steps are not addressed in this paper since they have been presented elsewhere. (author)

  17. Wolbachia influences the maternal transmission of the gypsy endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touret, Franck; Guiguen, François; Terzian, Christophe

    2014-09-02

    The endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are present in most insects and are maternally transmitted through the germline. Moreover, these intracellular bacteria exert antiviral activity against insect RNA viruses, as in Drosophila melanogaster, which could explain the prevalence of Wolbachia bacteria in natural populations. Wolbachia is maternally transmitted in D. melanogaster through a mechanism that involves distribution at the posterior pole of mature oocytes and then incorporation into the pole cells of the embryos. In parallel, maternal transmission of several endogenous retroviruses is well documented in D. melanogaster. Notably, gypsy retrovirus is expressed in permissive follicle cells and transferred to the oocyte and then to the offspring by integrating into their genomes. Here, we show that the presence of Wolbachia wMel reduces the rate of gypsy insertion into the ovo gene. However, the presence of Wolbachia does not modify the expression levels of gypsy RNA and envelope glycoprotein from either permissive or restrictive ovaries. Moreover, Wolbachia affects the pattern of distribution of the retroviral particles and the gypsy envelope protein in permissive follicle cells. Altogether, our results enlarge the knowledge of the antiviral activity of Wolbachia to include reducing the maternal transmission of endogenous retroviruses in D. melanogaster. Animals have established complex relationships with bacteria and viruses that spread horizontally among individuals or are vertically transmitted, i.e., from parents to offspring. It is well established that members of the genus Wolbachia, maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria present mainly in arthropods, reduce the replication of several RNA viruses transmitted horizontally. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that Wolbachia diminishes the maternal transmission of gypsy, an endogenous retrovirus in Drosophila melanogaster. We hypothesize that gypsy cannot efficiently integrate into the germ

  18. The nuclear envelope from basic biology to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worman, Howard J; Foisner, Roland

    2010-02-01

    The nuclear envelope has long been a focus of basic research for a highly specialized group of cell biologists. More recently, an expanding group of scientists and physicians have developed a keen interest in the nuclear envelope since mutations in the genes encoding lamins and associated proteins have been shown to cause a diverse range of human diseases often called laminopathies or nuclear envelopathies. Most of these diseases have tissue-selective phenotypes, suggesting that the nuclear envelope must function in cell-type- and developmental-stage-specific processes such as chromatin organization, regulation of gene expression, controlled nucleocytoplasmic transport and response to stress in metazoans. On 22-23 April 2009, Professor Christopher Hutchison organized the 4th British Nuclear Envelope Disease and Chromatin Organization meeting at the College of St Hild and St Bede at Durham University, sponsored by the Biochemical Society. In attendance were investigators with one common interest, the nuclear envelope, but with diverse expertise and training in animal and plant cell biology, genetics, developmental biology and medicine. We were each honoured to be keynote speakers. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers written by some of the presenters at this scientifically exciting meeting, held in a bucolic setting where the food was tasty and the wine flowed freely. Perhaps at the end of this excellent meeting more questions were raised than answered, which will stimulate future research. However, what became clear is that the nuclear envelope is a cellular structure with critical functions in addition to its traditional role as a barrier separating the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in interphase eukaryotic cells.

  19. Envelope proteins of bovine herpesvirus 1: immunological and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Roque, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied immunological and biochemical properties of the bovid herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) envelope proteins in order to understand the pathogenesis of BHV-1 infection and to provide basic information for the production of effective subunit vaccines against BHV-1. Ten glycoproteins MW 180, 150, 130, 115, 97, 77, 74, 64, 55, and 45 kilodaltons (K), and a single non-glycosylated 108 K protein were quantitatively removed from purified BHV-1 virions by detergent treatment. These glycoproteins were present on the virion envelope and on the surface of BHV-1 infected cells. The quantitative removal from virions by treatment with nonionic detergents and their presence on the surface of infected cells indicate that 180/97, 150/77, and 130/74/55 K are major components of the BHV-1 envelope and are also the targets of virus neutralizing humoral immune response. Envelope glycoproteins of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) bind immunoglobulin by the Fc end and it is suggested this may increase pathogenicity of this virus. They searched for a similar function in BVH-1 by measuring the ability of BHV-1 infected cells and viral envelope proteins to bind radiolabelled rabbit and bovine IgG. Binding activity for rabbit IgG or bovine IgG-Fc could not be demonstrated by BHV-1 infected MDBK cells, whereas, MDBK cells infected with HSV-1 bound rabbit IgG and bovine IgG-Fc. None of the three major envelope proteins of BHV-1 bound to rabbit or bovine IgG. The results of this study indicate that BHV-1, unlike some other herpesviruses, lack Fc binding activity

  20. Enveloping algebras of Lie groups with descrete series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen huu Anh; Vuong manh Son

    1990-09-01

    In this article we shall prove that the enveloping algebra of the Lie algebra of some unimodular Lie group having discrete series, when localized at some element of the center, is isomorphic to the tensor product of a Weyl algebra over the ring of Laurent polynomials of one variable and the enveloping algebra of some reductive Lie algebra. In particular, it will be proved that the Lie algebra of a unimodular solvable Lie group having discrete series satisfies the Gelfand-Kirillov conjecture. (author). 6 refs

  1. Constant envelope OFDM scheme for 6PolSK-QPSK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Ding, Ding

    2018-03-01

    A constant envelope OFDM scheme with phase modulator (PM-CE-OFDM) for 6PolSK-QPSK modulation was demonstrated. Performance under large fiber launch power is measured to check its advantages in counteracting fiber nonlinear impairments. In our simulation, PM-CE-OFDM, RF-assisted constant envelope OFDM (RF-CE-OFDM) and conventional OFDM (Con-OFDM) are transmitted through 80 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) single channel and WDM system. Simulation results confirm that PM-CE-OFDM has best performance in resisting fiber nonlinearity. In addition, benefiting from the simple system structure, the complexity and cost of PM-CE-OFDM system could be reduced effectively.

  2. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Model in Operation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Meilisa; Efendi, Syahril; Zarlis, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Quality management is an effective system in operation management to develops, maintains, and improves quality from groups of companies that allow marketing, production, and service at the most economycal level as well as ensuring customer satisfication. Many companies are practicing quality management to improve their bussiness performance. One of performance measurement is through measurement of efficiency. One of the tools can be used to assess efficiency of companies performance is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The aim of this paper is using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to assess efficiency of quality management. In this paper will be explained CCR, BCC, and SBM models to assess efficiency of quality management.

  3. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-04-13

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author).

  4. Asymmetry of the envelope of supernova 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaliolios, C.; Karovska, M.; Koechlin, L.; Nisenson, P.; Standley, C.; Heathcote, S.

    1989-01-01

    The supernova SN1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed by high-angular-resolution speckle interferometry since 25 March (30 days after the explosion) with the 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Data obtained on 25 March and 2 April 1987 revealed a second bright 'companion' source separated from the supernova by 60 milliarcseconds and less than three magnitudes fainter than the supernova. Measurements of the average diameter of the supernova envelope have been made from data recorded from March 1987 to April 1988. Here we present a more detailed analysis of these data, which shows that the expanding envelope is asymmetric. (author)

  5. Calculation of CWKB envelope in boson and fermion productions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Chowdhury, I.

    2007-01-01

    We present the calculation of envelope of boson and of both low-and high-mass fermion production at the end of inflation when the coherently oscillating inflations decay into bosons and fermions. We consider three different models of inflation and use CWKB technique to calculate the envelope to understand the structure of resonance band formation. We observe that though low-mass fermion production is not effective in preheating because of Pauli blocking, it is quite probable for high-mass fermion to take part in pre heating. (author)

  6. Refractive index dispersion measurement using carrier-envelope phasemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansinger, Peter; Töpfer, Philipp; Adolph, Daniel; Hoff, Dominik; Rathje, Tim; Sayler, A Max; Paulus, Gerhard G; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Dreischuh, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for direct and accurate measurement of refractive index dispersion based on carrier-envelope phase detection of few-cycle laser pulses, exploiting the difference between phase and group velocity in a dispersive medium. In a layout similar to an interferometer, two carrier-envelope phasemeters are capable of measuring the dispersion of a transparent or reflective sample, where one phasemeter serves as the reference and the other records the influence of the sample. Here we report on proof-of-principle measurements that already reach relative uncertainties of a few 10 −4 . Further development is expected to allow for unprecedented precision. (paper)

  7. Measuring farm sustainability using data envelope analysis with principal components: the case of Wisconsin cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengxia; Mitchell, Paul D; Colquhoun, Jed

    2015-01-01

    Measuring farm sustainability performance is a crucial component for improving agricultural sustainability. While extensive assessments and indicators exist that reflect the different facets of agricultural sustainability, because of the relatively large number of measures and interactions among them, a composite indicator that integrates and aggregates over all variables is particularly useful. This paper describes and empirically evaluates a method for constructing a composite sustainability indicator that individually scores and ranks farm sustainability performance. The method first uses non-negative polychoric principal component analysis to reduce the number of variables, to remove correlation among variables and to transform categorical variables to continuous variables. Next the method applies common-weight data envelope analysis to these principal components to individually score each farm. The method solves weights endogenously and allows identifying important practices in sustainability evaluation. An empirical application to Wisconsin cranberry farms finds heterogeneity in sustainability practice adoption, implying that some farms could adopt relevant practices to improve the overall sustainability performance of the industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  9. Optimal pollution taxes and endogenous technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, I.W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The optimal pollution tax becomes complicated when allowance is made for endogenous innovation, under a patent system. However, if anything, it is below marginal environmental damages, to counteract monopoly pricing by the patent holder, the common pool effect associated with research and a possible excess of patent holder revenue over the social benefits from innovation when environmental damages are convex. In cases where patents are weak at securing appropriability, for example when rivals can easily imitate around patented technologies, awarding research prizes or contracts is probably more efficient than raising the pollution tax. 24 refs., 4 figs

  10. Diverging patterns with endogenous labor migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, P; Rustichini, A

    1998-05-05

    "The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility." excerpt

  11. Endogenous population growth may imply chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskawetz, A; Feichtinger, G

    1995-01-01

    The authors consider a discrete-time neoclassical growth model with an endogenous rate of population growth. The resulting one-dimensional map for the capital intensity has a tilted z-shape. Using the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems, they obtain numerical results on the qualitative behavior of time paths for changing parameter values. Besides stable and periodic solutions, erratic time paths may result. In particular, myopic and far-sighted economies--assumed to be characterized by low and high savings rate respectively--are characterized by stable per capita capital stocks, while solutions with chaotic windows exist between these two extremes.

  12. Psychological rehabilitation of patients with endogenous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kryvonis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for early psychotherapeutic intervention in combination with psychopharmatherapy in patients with endogenous disorders is provided. The mechanisms of psychological defenses to deal with traumatic experience, used by personalities functioning on a psychotic level, are also described here. Characteristic behavior patterns of extended family members in terms of emotional codependence are provided. Individual pathopsychology is considered as a symptom of abnormal functioning of the family. Emphasis is placed on the importance of inclusion of family members in psychotherapeutic interaction in order to correct interpersonal relations.

  13. Endogenous Turnover of Cyanogenic Glycosides in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picmanova, Martina

    , there is strong evidence that CNglcs serve a no less significant purpose as a transport and storage form of reduced nitrogen which may be remobilized and recycled to balance the needs of primary metabolism during certain developmental events. Reduced nitrogen from CNglcs may be recovered either via HCN refixation...... revealed the formation of glycosides of amides, carboxylic acids and "anitriles", including their di- and triglycosides, evidently derived from CNglcs. Based on results common to the three phylogenetically unrelated plant species, a recycling endogenous turnover pathway for CNglcs was suggested in which...

  14. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... decay, predation and death-regeneration are discussed. From recent microbial research it has become evident that cells do not die by themselves. Bacteria are however subject to predation by protozoa. Bacteria store reserve polymers that in absence of external substrate are used for growth...

  15. [Formation of endogenous pyrogen by mononuclear phagocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasarov, L G

    1980-03-01

    Incubation of alveolar macrophages of rabbits and peritoneal macrophages of the abdominal cavity washing of albino mice does not lead to endogenous pyrogen release. Peritoneal macrophages obtained after peritoneal administration to mice of thioglycollate, glycogen or heterologous blood cells do not discharge pyrogen either during incubation without additional stimulation. Macrophages isolated after intraperitoneal administration of heterologous blood cells do not exhibit pyrogenic activity possibly because of a long period of time elapsed after phagocytosis of foreign agents. The triggering of pyrogen formation by macrophages can be effected by means of in vitro phagocytosis of corpuscular particles: staphylococci or heterologous blood cells.

  16. Current Gaps in the Understanding of the Subcellular Distribution of Exogenous and Endogenous Protein TorsinA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Charles Harata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: An in‐frame deletion leading to the loss of a single glutamic acid residue in the protein torsinA (ΔE‐torsinA results in an inherited movement disorder, DYT1 dystonia. This autosomal dominant disease affects the function of the brain without causing neurodegeneration, by a mechanism that remains unknown.Methods: We evaluated the literature regarding the subcellular localization of torsinA.Results: Efforts to elucidate the pathophysiological basis of DYT1 dystonia have relied partly on examining the subcellular distribution of the wild‐type and mutated proteins. A typical approach is to introduce the human torsinA gene (TOR1A into host cells and overexpress the protein therein. In both neurons and non‐neuronal cells, exogenous wild‐type torsinA introduced in this manner has been found to localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas exogenous ΔE‐torsinA is predominantly in the nuclear envelope or cytoplasmic inclusions. Although these outcomes are relatively consistent, findings for the localization of endogenous torsinA have been variable, leaving its physiological distribution a matter of debate.Discussion: As patients’ cells do not overexpress torsinA proteins, it is important to understand why the reported distributions of the endogenous proteins are inconsistent. We propose that careful optimization of experimental methods will be critical in addressing the causes of the differences among the distributions of endogenous (non‐overexpressed vs. exogenously introduced (overexpressed proteins.

  17. Current Gaps in the Understanding of the Subcellular Distribution of Exogenous and Endogenous Protein TorsinA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harata, N Charles

    2014-01-01

    An in-frame deletion leading to the loss of a single glutamic acid residue in the protein torsinA (ΔE-torsinA) results in an inherited movement disorder, DYT1 dystonia. This autosomal dominant disease affects the function of the brain without causing neurodegeneration, by a mechanism that remains unknown. We evaluated the literature regarding the subcellular localization of torsinA. Efforts to elucidate the pathophysiological basis of DYT1 dystonia have relied partly on examining the subcellular distribution of the wild-type and mutated proteins. A typical approach is to introduce the human torsinA gene (TOR1A) into host cells and overexpress the protein therein. In both neurons and non-neuronal cells, exogenous wild-type torsinA introduced in this manner has been found to localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas exogenous ΔE-torsinA is predominantly in the nuclear envelope or cytoplasmic inclusions. Although these outcomes are relatively consistent, findings for the localization of endogenous torsinA have been variable, leaving its physiological distribution a matter of debate. As patients' cells do not overexpress torsinA proteins, it is important to understand why the reported distributions of the endogenous proteins are inconsistent. We propose that careful optimization of experimental methods will be critical in addressing the causes of the differences among the distributions of endogenous (non-overexpressed) vs. exogenously introduced (overexpressed) proteins.

  18. Endogenous fibrinolysis facilitates clot retraction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andre L; Alwis, Imala; Maclean, Jessica A A; Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jackson, Shaun P

    2017-12-07

    Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localized vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a 2-hour period. This was a genuine retraction process, as treating thrombi with blebbistatin to inhibit myosin IIa-mediated platelet contractility prevented shrinkage of the fibrin network. Real-time confocal analysis of fibrinolysis after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration revealed that incomplete proteolysis of fibrin polymers markedly facilitated clot retraction. Similarly, inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid reduced retraction of fibrin polymers in vivo. In vitro clot retraction experiments indicated that subthreshold doses of tPA facilitated clot retraction through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. These effects correlated with changes in the elastic modulus of fibrin clots. These findings define the endogenous fibrinolytic system as an important regulator of clot retraction, and show that promoting clot retraction is a novel and complementary means by which fibrinolytic enzymes can reduce thrombus size. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B

    1978-01-01

    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  20. Insertional Polymorphisms of Endogenous Feline Leukemia Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Alfred L.; Nash, William G.; Menninger, Joan C.; Murphy, William J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The number, chromosomal distribution, and insertional polymorphisms of endogenous feline leukemia viruses (enFeLVs) were determined in four domestic cats (Burmese, Egyptian Mau, Persian, and nonbreed) using fluorescent in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Twenty-nine distinct enFeLV loci were detected across 12 of the 18 autosomes. Each cat carried enFeLV at only 9 to 16 of the loci, and many loci were heterozygous for presence of the provirus. Thus, an average of 19 autosomal copies of enFeLV were present per cat diploid genome. Only five of the autosomal enFeLV sites were present in all four cats, and at only one autosomal locus, B4q15, was enFeLV present in both homologues of all four cats. A single enFeLV occurred in the X chromosome of the Burmese cat, while three to five enFeLV proviruses occurred in each Y chromosome. The X chromosome and nine autosomal enFeLV loci were telomeric, suggesting that ectopic recombination between nonhomologous subtelomeres may contribute to enFeLV distribution. Since endogenous FeLVs may affect the infectiousness or pathogenicity of exogenous FeLVs, genomic variation in enFeLVs represents a candidate for genetic influences on FeLV leukemogenesis in cats. PMID:15767400

  1. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamiraud, Karine; Lhuillery, Stephane

    2016-09-01

    Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare spending covered by basic health insurance whilst controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. These results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare spending, whilst increased availability of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. However, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies that did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Enveloped virus-like particles as vaccines against pathogenic arboviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijlman, G.P.

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne arboviruses form a continuous threat to human and animal health, but few arboviral vaccines are currently available. Advances in expression technology for complex, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) create new opportunities to develop potent vaccines against pathogenic

  3. Measuring Eco-efficiency of Production with Data Envelopment Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.; Kortelainen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Aggregation of environmental pressures into a single environmental damage index is a major challenge of eco-efficiency measurement. This article examines how the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method can be adapted for this purpose. DEA accounts for substitution possibilities between different

  4. Modeling of heat and mass transfer in lateritic building envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meukam, Pierre

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the behavior of building envelopes made of local lateritic soil bricks subjected to different climatic conditions. The analysis is developed for the prediction of the temperature, relative humidity and water content behavior within the walls. The building envelopes studied in this work consist of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust in order to obtain small thermal conductivity and low-density materials, and limit the heat transfer between the atmospheric climate and the inside environment. In order to describe coupled heat and moisture transfer in wet porous materials, the coupled equations were solved by the introduction of diffusion coefficients. A numerical model HMtrans, developed for prediction of beat and moisture transfer in multi-layered building components, was used to simulate the temperature, water content and relative humidity profiles within the building envelopes. The results allow the prediction of the duration of the exposed building walls to the local weather conditions. They show that for any of three climatic conditions considered, relative humidity and water content do not exceed 87% and 5% respectively. There is therefore minimum possibility of water condensation in the materials studied. The durability of building envelopes made of lateritic soil bricks with incorporation of natural pozzolan or sawdust is not strongly affected by the climatic conditions in tropical and equatorial regions. (author)

  5. Design of a Haptic Feedback System for Flight Envelope Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Baelen, D.; Ellerbroek, J.; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2018-01-01

    Current Airbus aircraft use a fly-by-wire control device: a passive spring-damper system which generates, without any force feedback, an electrical signal to the flight control computer. Additionally, a hard flight envelope protection system is used which can limit the inputs of the pilot when

  6. Hygrothermal Simulation: A Tool for Building Envelope Design Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2013-01-01

    Is it possible to gauge the risk of moisture problems while designing the building envelope? This article provides a brief introduction to computer-based hygrothermal (heat and moisture) simulation, shows how simulation can be useful as a design tool, and points out a number of im-portant considerations regarding model inputs and limita-tions. Hygrothermal simulation...

  7. Spectral Envelopes and Additive + Residual Analysis/Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodet, Xavier; Schwarz, Diemo

    The subject of this chapter is the estimation, representation, modification, and use of spectral envelopes in the context of sinusoidal-additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis. A spectral envelope is an amplitude-vs-frequency function, which may be obtained from the envelope of a short-time spectrum (Rodet et al., 1987; Schwarz, 1998). [Precise definitions of such an envelope and short-time spectrum (STS) are given in Section 2.] The additive-plus-residual analysis/synthesis method is based on a representation of signals in terms of a sum of time-varying sinusoids and of a non-sinusoidal residual signal [e.g., see Serra (1989), Laroche et al. (1993), McAulay and Quatieri (1995), and Ding and Qian (1997)]. Many musical sound signals may be described as a combination of a nearly periodic waveform and colored noise. The nearly periodic part of the signal can be viewed as a sum of sinusoidal components, called partials, with time-varying frequency and amplitude. Such sinusoidal components are easily observed on a spectral analysis display (Fig. 5.1) as obtained, for instance, from a discrete Fourier transform.

  8. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huedo, Patricia, E-mail: huedo@uji.es [Universitat Jaume I (Spain); Mulet, Elena, E-mail: emulet@uji.es [Universitat Jaume I (Spain); López-Mesa, Belinda, E-mail: belinda@unizar.es [Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  9. CONTROL OF INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS VIA THE REGULATION OF BUILDING ENVELOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Košir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of comfortable, healthy and stimulating indoor environments in buildings has a direct impact on the users and on energy consumption, as well as on the wider soci-economic environment of society.The indoor environment of buildings is defined with the formulation of the building envelope, which functions as an interface between the internal and external environments and its users. A properly designed, flexible and adequately controlled building envelope is a starting point in the formulation of a high-quality indoor environment. The systematic treatment of the indoor environment and building envelope from a user’s point of view represents an engineering approach that enables the holistic treatment of buildings, as well as integrated components and systems. The presented division of indoor environment in terms of visual, thermal, olfactory, acoustic and ergonomic sub-environments enables the classification and selection of crucial factors influencing design. This selection and classification can be implemented in the design, as well as in control applications of the building envelope. The implementation of the approach described is demonstrated with an example of an automated control system for the internal environment of an office in the building of the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering.

  10. A model for the sustainable selection of building envelope assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huedo, Patricia; Mulet, Elena; López-Mesa, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to define an evaluation model for the environmental impacts of building envelopes to support planners in the early phases of materials selection. The model is intended to estimate environmental impacts for different combinations of building envelope assemblies based on scientifically recognised sustainability indicators. These indicators will increase the amount of information that existing catalogues show to support planners in the selection of building assemblies. To define the model, first the environmental indicators were selected based on the specific aims of the intended sustainability assessment. Then, a simplified LCA methodology was developed to estimate the impacts applicable to three types of dwellings considering different envelope assemblies, building orientations and climate zones. This methodology takes into account the manufacturing, installation, maintenance and use phases of the building. Finally, the model was validated and a matrix in Excel was created as implementation of the model. - Highlights: • Method to assess the envelope impacts based on a simplified LCA • To be used at an earlier phase than the existing methods in a simple way. • It assigns a score by means of known sustainability indicators. • It estimates data about the embodied and operating environmental impacts. • It compares the investment costs with the costs of the consumed energy.

  11. Print and supply of envelopes and file covers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    “Tender for Supply of Printed Envelopes and File Covers". Tender ... Twenty Five Thousand Only) in the form of Demand Draft drawn on any Nationalized. Bank and .... m) The finalized contract shall be interpreted under Indian Laws. In case of ...

  12. Envelopes of Sets of Measures, Tightness, and Markov Control Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Hernandez-Lerma, O.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce upper and lower envelopes for sets of measures on an arbitrary topological space, which are then used to give a tightness criterion. These concepts are applied to show the existence of optimal policies for a class of Markov control processes

  13. Development of a pneumatic roof envelope for industrial greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, G.; Vos, de G.J.

    2008-01-01

    The Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) was approached by Van Diemen BV, a turn-key greenhouse builder looking for a new and higher insulated design for their green house envelope. They had developed a new system of climate control which rendered windows for ventilation purposes unnecessary

  14. The potential of building envelope greening to achieve quietness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Renterghem, T.; Hornikx, M.C.J.; Forssén, J.; Botteldooren, D.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of noise is one of the multiple benefits of building envelope greening measures. The potential of wall vegetation systems, green roofs, vegetated low screens at roof edges, and also combinations of such treatments, have been studied by means of combining 2D and 3D full-wave numerical

  15. Bioinformatics Analysis of Envelope Glycoprotein E epitopes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The E glycoprotein of dengue virus is responsible for the viral binding to the receptor. The crystal structure of envelope glycoprotein has already been determined. However, where the well-defined Bcell and T-cell epitopes are located is still a question. Because of the large variations among the four dengue genotypes, it is ...

  16. Origin of envelope proteins of a leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    The roles of avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and host myeloblast cells in controlling the protein composition of virus envelope and host cell membrane are being studied by examining an ATPase enzyme in the virus and cells. New culture techniques for virus producing myeloblasts have been developed. (U.S.)

  17. Enveloped virus flocculation and removal in osmolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencoglu, Maria F; Heldt, Caryn L

    2015-07-20

    Our ability to reduce infectious disease burden throughout the world has been greatly improved by the creation of vaccines. However, worldwide immunization rates are low. The two most likely reasons are the lack of sufficient distribution in underdeveloped countries and the high cost of vaccine products. The high costs are due to the difficulties of manufacturing individual vaccine products with specialized purification trains. In this study, we propose to use virus flocculation in osmolytes, followed by microfiltration, as an alternative vaccine purification operation. In our previous work, we demonstrated that osmolytes preferentially flocculate a non-enveloped virus, porcine parvovirus (PPV). In this work we show that osmolytes flocculate the enveloped virus, Sindbis virus heat resistant strain (SVHR), and demonstrate a >80% removal with a 0.2 μm microfilter membrane while leaving proteins in solution. The best osmolytes were tested for their ability to flocculate SVHR at different concentrations, pH and ionic strengths. Our best removal was 98% of SVHR in 0.3M mannitol at a pH of 5. We propose that osmolytes are able to flocculate hydrophobic non-enveloped and enveloped virus particles by the reduction of the hydration layer around the particles, which stimulates virus aggregation. Now that we have demonstrated that protecting osmolytes flocculate viruses, this method has the potential to be a future platform purification process for vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  19. Masking Release for Sweeping Masker Components with Correlated Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verhey, Jesko l.; Klein-Hennig, Hendrike; Epp, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    To separate sounds from different sound sources, common properties of natural sounds are used by the auditory system, such as coherent temporal envelope fluctuations and correlated changes of frequency in different frequency regions. The present study investigates how the auditory systemprocesses...

  20. Innovative Danish Building Envelope Components for Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    and in some cases very innovative envelope constructions. In this paper, two of the most interesting components are described; a prefabricated light-weight exterior wall element with a load-bearing plywood and steel frame and a foundation / slab on ground solution based on concrete and EPS insulation...

  1. Purification and characterization of cell-envelope proteinase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride;. ACE, angiotensin-I-converting enzyme. Poolman, 1998). Cell-envelope proteinase (CEP) play an important role in the lactobacillus proteolytic system. CEPs are the critical enzyme in the system (Kunji et al., 1996), since it is the only enzyme that can initiate the breakdown of.

  2. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eMellier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's 'protective shield' and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review:1 Freud's protective shield describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality.2 Anzieu's Skin-Ego is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. 3 Bick's psychic skin establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother’s containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant’s psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces.4 Stern's narrative envelope derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualise the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes.Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic and genetic and recommend further investigation.

  3. Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Analysis of Mammalian Endogenous Retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Rita; Mager, Dixie L

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are repetitive sequences found abundantly in mammalian genomes which are capable of modulating host gene expression. Nevertheless, most endogenous retrovirus copies are under tight epigenetic control via histone-repressive modifications and DNA methylation. Here we describe a common method used in our laboratory to detect, quantify, and compare mammalian endogenous retrovirus DNA methylation. More specifically we describe methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by quantitative PCR.

  4. International Environmental Agreements with Endogenous or Exogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhai Hong; Larry Karp

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of endogenous and exogenous risk on the equilibrium (expected) membership of an International Environmental Agreement when countries are risk averse. Endogenous risk arises when countries use mixed rather than pure strategies at the participation game, and exogenous risk arises from the inherent uncertainty about the costs and benefits of increased abate- ment. Under endogenous risk, an increase in risk aversion increases expected participation. Under exogenous risk and ...

  5. Horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists: The theory of endogenous money reassessed

    OpenAIRE

    Palley, Thomas I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of Basil Moore’s book, Horizontalists and Verticalists, to reassess the theory of endogenous money. The paper distinguishes between horizontalists, verticalists, and structuralists. It argues Moore’s horizontalist representation of endogenous money was an over-simplification that discarded important enduring insights from monetary theory. The structuralist approach to endogenous money retains the basic insight that the money supply ...

  6. Expansion of the HMX-1 Flight Envelope With the EDU-5/P Laser Eye Protection Spectacles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Penhallegon, William

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this testing was to determine if the day operations envelope should be expanded to include takeoffs and landings, whether the night operations envelope should he expanded in the VH-6ON...

  7. Friend and Moloney murine leukemia viruses specifically recombine with different endogenous retroviral sequences to generate mink cell focus-forming viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L H; Cloyd, M W

    1985-01-01

    A group of mink cell focus-forming (MCF) viruses was derived by inoculation of NFS/N mice with Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV 1387) and was compared to a similarly derived group of MCF viruses from mice inoculated with Friend MuLV (Fr-MuLV 57). Antigenic analyses using monoclonal antibodies specific for MCF virus and xenotropic MuLV envelope proteins and genomic structural analyses by RNase T1-resistant oligonucleotide finger-printing indicated that the Moloney and Friend MCF viruses arose by recombination of the respective ecotropic MuLVs with different endogenous retrovirus sequences of NFS mice.

  8. AM Envelope. The potential of Additive Manufacturing for facade constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Strauss

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation shows the potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM for the development of building envelopes: AM will change the way of designing facades, how we engineer and produce them. To achieve today’s demands from those future envelopes, we have to find new solutions. New technologies offer one possible way to do so. They open new approaches in designing, producing and processing building construction and facades. Finding the one capable of having big impact is difficult – Additive Manufacturing is one possible answer. The term ‘AM Envelope’ (Additive Manufacturing Envelope describes the transfer of this technology to the building envelope. Additive Fabrication is a building block that aids in developing the building envelope from a mere space enclosure to a dynamic building envelope. First beginnings of AM facade construction show up when dealing with relevant aspects like material consumption, mounting or part’s performance. From those starting points several parts of an existing post-and-beam façade system were optimized, aiming toward the implementation of AM into the production chain. Enhancements on all different levels of production were achieved: storing, producing, mounting and performance. AM offers the opportunity to manufacture facades ‘just in time’. It is no longer necessary to store or produce large numbers of parts in advance. Initial investment for tooling can be avoided, as design improvements can be realized within the dataset of the AM part. AM is based on ‘tool-less’ production, all parts can be further developed with every new generation. Producing tool-less also allows for new shapes and functional parts in small batch sizes – down to batch size one. The parts performance can be re-interpreted based on the demands within the system, not based on the limitations of conventional manufacturing. AM offers new ways of materializing the physical part around its function. It leads toward customized

  9. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Villesen, Palle; Nissen, Kari K

    2016-01-01

    factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian...... manner. In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus...

  10. Sucessfull management of bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophtalmitis following pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare, and frequently devastating, ophthalmic disease. It occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, or those with diabetes mellitus, cancer or intravenous drugs users. Candida infection is the most common cause of endogenous endophthalmitis. Ocular candidiasis develops within days to weeks of fungemia. The association of treatment for pancreatitis with endophthalmitis is unusual. Treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition may explain endogenous endophthalmitis. We report the case of a patient with pancreatitis treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and total parenteral nutrition who developed bilateral presumed Candida endogenous endophthalmitis that was successfully treated with vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B.

  11. 78 FR 5148 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplanes; Flight Envelope Protection: General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... failure states occur in the electronic flight control system, flight envelope protection features can... Envelope Protection: General Limiting Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...), specifically new control architecture and a full digital flight control system which provides flight envelope...

  12. Changing Endogenous Development: the Territorial Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs István Tóth

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze territorial capital as a new paradigm to make best use of endogenous assets. The study is dealing with the preconditions, meaning and possible theoretical taxonomies of territorial capital. In this study I emphasize that the cumulative effects of regional potentials are more important than economies of scale and location factors. I present different approaches and interpretations of territorial capital, then make an attempt to create an own model. I try to find answers for questions, such as why territorial capital shows a new perspective of urban and regional development; how cognitive elements of territorial capital provide increasing return; how territorial capital influences competitiveness and what kind of relation it has with cohesion.

  13. Public Procurement of Innovation as Endogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Public procurement used as an innovation policy instrument has attracted attention the last decade. It has been argued that public procurement can be used to stimulate innovation from the demand-side. This paper problematizes ‘demand’ understood as a problem defined by a public procurer given...... to potential suppliers to solve. By drawing on a cross-case analysis of two similar projects the paper attempts to explicate an understanding of the role of public procurement of innovation not primarily as a ‘demand-side innovation instrument’, as such thinking might run the risk of ignoring important...... underlying mechanisms critical for success. Instead the paper views public procurement of innovation as an instrument of endogenous- exogenous knowledge conversion....

  14. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    ) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...... on the export market are less efficient than competitors on the domestic market. We estimate micro-level price cost margins (PCMs) using firm-level data extending the techniques developed by Hall (1986, 1988) and extended by Domowitz et al. (1988) and Roeger (1995) for the French manufacturing industry from......In this paper, we test key micro-level theoretical predictions ofMelitz and Ottaviano (MO) (2008), a model of international trade with heterogenous firms and endogenous mark-ups. At the firm-level, the MO model predicts that: 1) firm markups are negatively related to domestic market size; 2...

  15. Involvement of Endogenous Retroviruses in Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sun Kim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For millions of years, vertebrates have been continuously exposed to infection by retroviruses. Ancient retroviral infection of germline cells resulted in the formation and accumulation of inherited retrovirus sequences in host genomes. These inherited retroviruses are referred to as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, and recent estimates have revealed that a significant portion of animal genomes is made up of ERVs. Although various host factors have suppressed ERV activation, both positive and negative functions have been reported for some ERVs in normal and abnormal physiological conditions, such as in disease states. Similar to other complex diseases, ERV activation has been observed in prion diseases, and this review will discuss the potential involvement of ERVs in prion diseases.

  16. Exogenous and endogenous landforms in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Julia

    2017-04-01

    11th graders have already learned about endogenous forces and now we are having a closer look at the exogenous forces which act on the Earth's surface. The Po River-system, for example, is responsible for the formation of the alpine region. Students are asked to find out how this works with the help of the rock-cycle scheme, several suitable maps and information on weathering and the texture of rocks, erosion, etc. We will form groups that will look at different types of rock formations (including an example in the Mediterranean region each). Depending on the number of lessons available we will add the exogenous effect of flowing water and ice (glacial over forming) to the topic. At the end every group will present their findings explaining the scientific context by using topographic examples.

  17. Unfunded pensions and endogenous labor supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly-mild restri......A classic result in dynamic public economics, dating back to Aaron (1966) and Samuelson (1975), states that there is no welfare rationale for PAYG pensions in a dynamically-efficient neoclassical economy with exogenous labor supply. This paper argues that this result, under the fairly......-mild restriction that the old be no less risk-averse than the young, extends to a neoclassical economy with endogenous labor supply....

  18. Transfer of endogenous pyrogens across artificial membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnemann, G; Linnenweber, S; Burg, M; Koch, K M

    1998-05-01

    Synthetic high-flux dialyzer membranes used in continuous veno-venous hemofiltration are permeable to middle molecular size endogenous pyrogens, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. The quantities removed by sieving are, however, negligible in vitro as well as in vivo. Adsorption of cytokines to the membrane polymer is the major mechanism of pyrogen removal. Adsorption seems to be semispecific for pro-inflammatory cytokines because levels of anti-inflammatory mediators were not changed or even increased during CVVH. Thus, CVVH may change cytokine profiles in septic patients supporting the predominance of anti-inflammatory over pro-inflammatory activity in plasma. It remains to be demonstrated whether modifications of extracorporeal blood purification systems (high-volume CVVH, plasma separation + adsorption) are able to amplify the change in cytokine profiles and whether this change influences outcome of septic patients.

  19. Stability charts for uniform slopes in soils with nonlinear failure envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Eid, Hisham T.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the results of an extensive parametric study, charts were developed for assessment of the stability of uniform slopes in soils with nonlinear shear strength failure envelopes. The study was conducted using envelopes formed to represent the realistic shapes of soil nonlinear drained strength envelopes and the associated different degrees of nonlinearity. The introduction of a simple methodology to describe the nonlinear envelopes and a stability parameter, the value of which depends o...

  20. Endogenous Methanol Regulates Mammalian Gene Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Tatiana V.; Petrunia, Igor V.; Shindyapina, Anastasia V.; Silachev, Denis N.; Sheshukova, Ekaterina V.; Kiryanov, Gleb I.; Dorokhov, Yuri L.

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis. PMID:24587296

  1. Dynamic option pricing with endogenous stochastic arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Mauricio; Montalva, Rodrigo; Pellicer, Rely; Villena, Marcelo

    2010-09-01

    Only few efforts have been made in order to relax one of the key assumptions of the Black-Scholes model: the no-arbitrage assumption. This is despite the fact that arbitrage processes usually exist in the real world, even though they tend to be short-lived. The purpose of this paper is to develop an option pricing model with endogenous stochastic arbitrage, capable of modelling in a general fashion any future and underlying asset that deviate itself from its market equilibrium. Thus, this investigation calibrates empirically the arbitrage on the futures on the S&P 500 index using transaction data from September 1997 to June 2009, from here a specific type of arbitrage called “arbitrage bubble”, based on a t-step function, is identified and hence used in our model. The theoretical results obtained for Binary and European call options, for this kind of arbitrage, show that an investment strategy that takes advantage of the identified arbitrage possibility can be defined, whenever it is possible to anticipate in relative terms the amplitude and timespan of the process. Finally, the new trajectory of the stock price is analytically estimated for a specific case of arbitrage and some numerical illustrations are developed. We find that the consequences of a finite and small endogenous arbitrage not only change the trajectory of the asset price during the period when it started, but also after the arbitrage bubble has already gone. In this context, our model will allow us to calibrate the B-S model to that new trajectory even when the arbitrage already started.

  2. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  3. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Endogenous methanol regulates mammalian gene activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Komarova

    Full Text Available We recently showed that methanol emitted by wounded plants might function as a signaling molecule for plant-to-plant and plant-to-animal communications. In mammals, methanol is considered a poison because the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH converts methanol into toxic formaldehyde. However, the detection of methanol in the blood and exhaled air of healthy volunteers suggests that methanol may be a chemical with specific functions rather than a metabolic waste product. Using a genome-wide analysis of the mouse brain, we demonstrated that an increase in blood methanol concentration led to a change in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes primarily involved in detoxification processes and regulation of the alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenases gene cluster. To test the role of ADH in the maintenance of low methanol concentration in the plasma, we used the specific ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP and showed that intraperitoneal administration of 4-MP resulted in a significant increase in the plasma methanol, ethanol and formaldehyde concentrations. Removal of the intestine significantly decreased the rate of methanol addition to the plasma and suggested that the gut flora may be involved in the endogenous production of methanol. ADH in the liver was identified as the main enzyme for metabolizing methanol because an increase in the methanol and ethanol contents in the liver homogenate was observed after 4-MP administration into the portal vein. Liver mRNA quantification showed changes in the accumulation of mRNAs from genes involved in cell signalling and detoxification processes. We hypothesized that endogenous methanol acts as a regulator of homeostasis by controlling the mRNA synthesis.

  5. Dynamical model for the dusty envelope around the symbiotic nova PU Vulpeculae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Men'shchikov, A.B.; Tutukov, A.V.; Shustov, B.M.; Ergma, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    An evolutionary model for PU Vul, Object Kuwano--Honda, indicates that the deep 1980--1981 minimum may have resulted from detachment of a dust envelope. The envelope ejection process and the changes in the infrared spectrum are studied numerically; evidently the envelope departs strongly from spherical symmetry. The bluing observed at minimum light might have been due to dissipation of shock energy

  6. THE PROCESSES OF ENDOGENIZING IN THE ENDOGENOUS GROWTH: THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSMAN DEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to state how the main inputs of endogenous growth, i.e. knowledge, human capital and technological progress are made endogenous by education, R&D, university-industry cooperation, learning by doing and diffusion within the production process. Competitiveness of firms and countries would increase as educated people enter into workforce; as R&D produces new technologies which are used in the production process; as theoretical knowledge meets with practice by university-industry cooperation; and as workers have more experience by learning by doing. In empirical analysis for Turkey is made by using data of 1970-2001 term it was found that a positive relationship among labour and capital factors and GNP and a negative relationship among education expenditures and foreign trade volume and capital stock.

  7. Fine structure of endogenous stages of Eimeria turcicus developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-06

    . G: Golgi. GC: Granular cisterna. g: Microgamete. gb: Gall bladder epithelium. H: Host cell. hn: Host nucleus. L: Lipid vacuoles. MI-5: Pellicular envelopes of the oocyst. MA: Macrogamont. MI: Microgamont. Mr: Meront. Mz:.

  8. An endogenous Taylor condition in an endogenous growth monetary policy model

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Mai Vo; Gillman, Max; Minford, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The paper derives a Taylor condition as part of the agent's equilibrium behavior in an endogenous growth monetary economy. It shows the assumptions necessary to make it almost identical to the original Taylor rule, and that it can interchangably take a money supply growth rate form. From the money supply form, simple policy experiments are conducted. A full central bank policy model is derived that includes the Taylor condition along with equations comparable to the standard aggregate-demand/...

  9. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ∼700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ∼40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is an important step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  10. Virulence properties of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga eShevchuk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial envelope plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the structure and molecular composition of the Legionella pneumophila cell envelope. We describe LPS biosynthesis and the biological activities of membrane and periplasmic proteins and discuss their decisive functions during the pathogen-host interaction. In addition to adherence, invasion and intracellular survival of L. pneumophila, special emphasis is laid on iron acquisition, detoxification, key elicitors of the immune response and the diverse functions of outer membrane vesicles. The critical analysis of the literature reveals that the dynamics and phenotypic plasticity of the Legionella cell surface during the different metabolic stages requires more attention in the future.

  11. Maximum Torque and Momentum Envelopes for Reaction Wheel Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Reynolds, Reid G.; Liu, Frank X.; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft reaction wheel maneuvers are limited by the maximum torque and/or angular momentum that the wheels can provide. For an n-wheel configuration, the torque or momentum envelope can be obtained by projecting the n-dimensional hypercube, representing the domain boundary of individual wheel torques or momenta, into three dimensional space via the 3xn matrix of wheel axes. In this paper, the properties of the projected hypercube are discussed, and algorithms are proposed for determining this maximal torque or momentum envelope for general wheel configurations. Practical strategies for distributing a prescribed torque or momentum among the n wheels are presented, with special emphasis on configurations of four, five, and six wheels.

  12. Functional envelope of a non-autonomous discrete system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzanouni Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Let (X, F = {fn}n =0∞ be a non-autonomous discrete system by a compact metric space X and continuous maps fn : X → X, n = 0, 1, ....We introduce functional envelope (S(X, G = {Gn}n =0∞, of (X, F = {fn}n =0∞, where S(X is the space of all continuous self maps of X and the map Gn : S(X → S(X is defined by Gn(ϕ = Fn ∘ ϕ, Fn = fn ∘ fn-1 ∘ . . . ∘ f1 ∘ f0. The paper mainly deals with the connection between the properties of a system and the properties of its functional envelope.

  13. Efficiency in the Worst Production Situation Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamrul Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA measures relative efficiency among the decision making units (DMU without considering noise in data. The least efficient DMU indicates that it is in the worst situation. In this paper, we measure efficiency of individual DMU whenever it losses the maximum output, and the efficiency of other DMUs is measured in the observed situation. This efficiency is the minimum efficiency of a DMU. The concept of stochastic data envelopment analysis (SDEA is a DEA method which considers the noise in data which is proposed in this study. Using bounded Pareto distribution, we estimate the DEA efficiency from efficiency interval. Small value of shape parameter can estimate the efficiency more accurately using the Pareto distribution. Rank correlations were estimated between observed efficiencies and minimum efficiency as well as between observed and estimated efficiency. The correlations are indicating the effectiveness of this SDEA model.

  14. A deformation (strain) envelope for cyclic disturbed sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in triaxial testing procedures revealed new properties governing disturbed sand stiffness. This paper summarizes the new observations into an original, proof of concept. The novel concept interpolates effective stress within a strain (deformation) envelope. Coulomb stress limits...... are still satisfied, but the stresses are interpolated using a deformation (strain) envelope. The method is not part of a constitutive formulation, but is remarkably functional in triaxial testing practice. The practicality is proven by plotting simulations on top of empirically measured stiffness history...... - the fitting is remarkably good even during tests of extreme complexity. The novelty has substantial interdisciplinary potential: offshore anchors and foundations, earthquakes and industrial processes - wherever dynamic loads and disturbed sand are encountered. It opens the door to a new branch of numerical...

  15. Enveloped Lives: Practicing Health and Care in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praspaliauskiene, Rima

    2016-12-01

    This article analyzes informal medical payments that the majority of Lithuanians give or feel compelled to give to doctors before or after treatment. It focuses on how patients and their caretakers encounter, practice, and enact informal payments in health care and how these payments create a reality of health care that is not limited to an economic rationality. Within such a frame, rather than being considered a gift or bribe, it conceptualizes these little white envelopes as a practice of health and care. The article shows how an envelope of money given to a doctor transcends the material patient-doctor transaction and emerges as a productive force for coping with illness, medical encounters, and misfortunes. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  16. Interior thermal insulation systems for historical building envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Miloš; Solař, Miloš; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The design specifics of interior thermal insulation systems applied for historical building envelopes are described. The vapor-tight systems and systems based on capillary thermal insulation materials are taken into account as two basic options differing in building-physical considerations. The possibilities of hygrothermal analysis of renovated historical envelopes including laboratory methods, computer simulation techniques, and in-situ tests are discussed. It is concluded that the application of computational models for hygrothermal assessment of interior thermal insulation systems should always be performed with a particular care. On one hand, they present a very effective tool for both service life assessment and possible planning of subsequent reconstructions. On the other, the hygrothermal analysis of any historical building can involve quite a few potential uncertainties which may affect negatively the accuracy of obtained results.

  17. The psychic envelopes in psychoanalytic theories of infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellier, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to review the topic of psychic envelopes and to sketch the main outlines of this concept in infancy. We first explore the origins of the concept in Freud's “protective shield” and then its development in adult psychoanalysis before going on to see how this fits in infancy with post-Bionian psychoanalysis and development. Four central notions guide this review: (1) Freud's “protective shield” describes a barrier to protect the psychic apparatus against potentially overflowing trauma. It is a core notion which highlights a serious clinical challenge for patients for whom the shield is damaged or faulty: the risk of confusion of borders between the internal/external world, conscious/unconscious, mind/body, or self-conservation/sexuality. (2) Anzieu's “Skin-Ego” is defined by the different senses of the body. The different layers of experienced sensation, of this body-ego, go on to form the psychic envelope. This theory contributes to our understanding of how early trauma, due to the failures of maternal care, can continue to have an impact in adult life. (3) Bick's “psychic skin” establishes the concept in relation to infancy. The mother's containing functions allow a first psychic skin to develop, which then defines an infant's psychic space and affords the infant a degree of self-containment. Houzel then conceptualized this process as a stabilization of drive forces. (4) Stern's “narrative envelope” derives from the intersection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It gives us another way to conceptualize the development of pre-verbal communication. It may also pave the way for a finer distinction of different types of envelopes. Ultimately, in this review we find that psychic envelopes in infancy can be viewed from four different perspectives (economic, topographical, dynamic, and genetic) and recommend further investigation. PMID:25076924

  18. Maximum Likelihood, Consistency and Data Envelopment Analysis: A Statistical Foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides a formal statistical basis for the efficiency evaluation techniques of data envelopment analysis (DEA). DEA estimators of the best practice monotone increasing and concave production function are shown to be also maximum likelihood estimators if the deviation of actual output from the efficient output is regarded as a stochastic variable with a monotone decreasing probability density function. While the best practice frontier estimator is biased below the theoretical front...

  19. The Use of Categorical Variables in Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv D. Banker; Richard C. Morey

    1986-01-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis has now been extensively applied in a range of empirical settings to identify relative inefficiencies, and provide targets for improvements. It accomplishes this by developing peer groups for each unit being operated. The use of categorical variables is an important extension which can improve the peer group construction process and incorporate "on-off" characteristics, e.g., presence of drive-in window or not in a banking network. It relaxes the stringent need for f...

  20. Windows and Envelope R&D Opportunities Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2018-02-01

    BTO's Emerging Technologies program held a two-day workshop on “Windows and Envelope R&D Opportunities” on May 31 and June 1, 2017 at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois. A broad range of about 100 experts from industry, academia, national laboratories, and government participated, contributing their ideas, insights, and perspectives. Their feedback is intended to help inform and augment BTO’s research and development activities.

  1. Solitons of an envelope in an inhomogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churilov, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Solutions of the Schroedinger nonlinear equation (SNE) used for the description of evolution of a wave packet envelope has been investigated in inhomogeneous and nonstationary media. It is shown that the SNE solution possessing two important properties exists. Firstly, the wave packet remains localized when propagating in an inhomogeneous medium. Secondly, the soliton width and amplitude are determined only with local characteristics of medium and don't depend on the prehistory. Problem of limits of obtained result applicability has been considered

  2. Endogenous RGS14 is a cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling protein that localizes to juxtanuclear membranes and chromatin-rich regions of the nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and H-Ras/MAPkinase signaling pathways to regulate synaptic plasticity important for hippocampal learning and memory. However, to date, little is known about the subcellular distribution and roles of endogenous RGS14 in a neuronal cell line. Most of what is known about RGS14 cellular behavior is based on studies of tagged, recombinant RGS14 ectopically overexpressed in unnatural host cells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive assessment of the subcellular distribution and dynamic localization of endogenous RGS14 in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells. Using confocal imaging and 3D-structured illumination microscopy, we find that endogenous RGS14 localizes to subcellular compartments not previously recognized in studies of recombinant RGS14. RGS14 localization was observed most notably at juxtanuclear membranes encircling the nucleus, at nuclear pore complexes (NPC) on both sides of the nuclear envelope and within intranuclear membrane channels, and within both chromatin-poor and chromatin-rich regions of the nucleus in a cell cycle-dependent manner. In addition, a subset of nuclear RGS14 localized adjacent to active RNA polymerase II. Endogenous RGS14 was absent from the plasma membrane in resting cells; however, the protein could be trafficked to the plasma membrane from juxtanuclear membranes in endosomes derived from ER/Golgi, following constitutive activation of endogenous RGS14 G protein binding partners using AlF4¯. Finally, our findings show that endogenous RGS14 behaves as a cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling protein confirming what has been shown previously for recombinant RGS14. Taken together, the findings highlight possible cellular roles for RGS14 not previously recognized that are distinct from the regulation of conventional GPCR-G protein signaling, in particular undefined roles for RGS14 in the nucleus. PMID:28934222

  3. Biomimetic Architecture in Building Envelope Maintenance (A Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of biomimetic architecture on building envelope is the main structure of this research. The concept is believed more sustainable and efficient for energy saving, operating cost consumption, waste recycle and design renewal in the future. The inspiration from the nature developed the intention on this study to explore on what and how this concept to overcome the problems through design. Biomimicry does catch the attention of human to study more on the system and function of its nature course. The designers are not exception influenced by this concept when the form, shape, texture and colour inspired them in their design. The domination of building form will affect the building envelope as the skin of the structure. A clear impact on building failure is begun with building envelope appearance without a proper maintenance. The faults in building design place a heavy burden on the building for the rest of its operational life and there is no compensation for it. In such situations, the responsibility falls on the shoulders of the designer.

  4. Specifics of Building Envelope Air Leakage Problems and Airtightness Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borodinecs Anatolijs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to transmission heat loses the infiltration of outdoor air can cause significant heat losses. The external building envelope should be airtight in order to prevent uncontrolled cold air infiltration. The article analysis modern building materials and structures influence on airtightness. The practical measurements of renovated buildings’ airtightness are presented and compared to non-renovated buildings. In addition paper presents data on airtightness measurements of whole multi apartment building and single apartment in analyzed building taking inco accout properties of building materials. The airtightness of single apartment was evaluated with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The results show that the airtightness measurements of multi apartment building can be evaluated by measuring single apartment on last floor with support pressure in neighbor apartments. The practical measurement of renovated buildings had shown the air leakage rate q50 of typical Latvian construction after renovation is between 2.5 and 2.9 m3/(m2·h. Since the building envelope has to minimize the heat loses (transmission and infiltration and ventilation system either mechanical or natural has to provide necessary air exchange, the building envelope airtightness shouldn’t be dependent on type of ventilation systems.

  5. Experiences when employing different alternatives for envelope upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peru Elguezabal Esnarrizaga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of achieving the 2020 goals in terms of energy savings and improving efficiency are guiding numerous research initiatives looking for more insulated envelopes, dealing with thermal performance of insulation materials and envelope systems. Nevertheless, the envelope integrates within the building and this improvement on the insulation performance has to be properly adopted, taking into account the interrelation of main elements composing the overall system (facade, frame, slabs, openings, partitions etc., as well as side effects originated not only for new erected buildings, but specifically in renovation and retrofitting works. This paper describes real experiences when considering various options for upgrading the facade through the increase of the insulation capacity, starting from external overcladding prefabricated panels and ventilated facades, advancing to more sustainable low carbon systems and ending with even more highly insulated solutions employing aerogels. Lessons from these cases, where energy and hygrothermal assessments have being carried out, demonstrate the influence of the design and construction phases and the relevance of disregarded effects such as minor thermal bridges, uncontrolled craftsmanship on site, and moisture transfer for the different technologies considered. Finally, possible alternatives are provided to overcome some of the detected difficulties, such as combination with non-metallic structural components and building membranes, and being prepared for future challenges and new developments when these isolative elements are combined with other technologies, as for example, renewable energy harvesting devices.  

  6. Thermal performance envelopes for MHTGRs - Reliability by design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzel, K.T.; Howard, W.W.; Zgliczynski, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal performance envelopes are used to specify steady-state design requirements for the systems of the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) to maximize plant performance reliability with optimized design. The thermal performance envelopes are constructed around the expected operating point to account for uncertainties in actual plant as-built parameters and plant operation. The components are then designed to perform successfully at all points within the envelope. As a result, plant reliability is maximized by accounting for component thermal performance variation in the design. The design is optimized by providing a means to determine required margins in a disciplined and visible fashion. This is accomplished by coordinating these requirements with the various system and component designers in the early stages of the design, applying the principles of total quality management. The design is challenged by the more complex requirements associated with a range of operating conditions, but in return, high probability of delivering reliable performance throughout the plant life is ensured

  7. The epigenetics of nuclear envelope organization and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian chromosomes and some specific genes have non-random positions within the nucleus that are tissue-specific and heritable. Work in many organisms has shown that genes at the nuclear periphery tend to be inactive and altering their partitioning to the interior results in their activation. Proteins of the nuclear envelope can recruit chromatin with specific epigenetic marks and can also recruit silencing factors that add new epigenetic modifications to chromatin sequestered at the periphery. Together these findings indicate that the nuclear envelope is a significant epigenetic regulator. The importance of this function is emphasized by observations of aberrant distribution of peripheral heterochromatin in several human diseases linked to mutations in NE proteins. These debilitating inherited diseases range from muscular dystrophies to the premature aging progeroid syndromes and the heterochromatin changes are just one early clue for understanding the molecular details of how they work. The architecture of the nuclear envelope provides a unique environment for epigenetic regulation and as such a great deal of research will be required before we can ascertain the full range of its contributions to epigenetics

  8. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  9. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  10. Optimized endogenous post-stratification in forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson

    2012-01-01

    An example of endogenous post-stratification is the use of remote sensing data with a sample of ground data to build a logistic regression model to predict the probability that a plot is forested and using the predicted probabilities to form categories for post-stratification. An optimized endogenous post-stratified estimator of the proportion of forest has been...

  11. Role of endogenous substances in enhancing radioresistance background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.; Gorskaya, T.G.; Graevskaya, E.Eh.; Kozlova, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Presumable sources of endogenous were studied amines in radiosensitive tissues under the effect of radioprotective agents were studied. The data obtained support the idea that mast cells of rats, having large deposits of biogenous amines, might be one of the reserves contributing to mobilization of endogeneous protective resources of the organism treated with radioprotective agents

  12. The Endogenous-Exogenous Partition in Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.

    1975-01-01

    Within lay explanation of actions, several significant inferences are assumed to follow from the partition between endogenous and exogenous attributions. An endogenous action is judged to constitute an end in itself; an exogenous action is judged to serve as a means to some further end. (Editor/RK)

  13. Interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting in crossmodal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxi; Chen, Qi; Gao, Dingguo; Yue, Zhenzhu

    2012-08-01

    Using a cue-target paradigm, we investigated the interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting in cross-modal attention. A peripheral (exogenous) cue was presented after a central (endogenous) cue with a variable time interval. The endogenous and exogenous cues were presented in one sensory modality (auditory in Experiment 1 and visual in Experiment 2) whereas the target was presented in another modality. Both experiments showed a significant endogenous cuing effect (longer reaction times in the invalid condition than in the valid condition). However, exogenous cuing produced a facilitatory effect in both experiments in response to the target when endogenous cuing was valid, but it elicited a facilitatory effect in Experiment 1 and an inhibitory effect in Experiment 2 when endogenous cuing was invalid. These findings indicate that endogenous and exogenous cuing can co-operate in orienting attention to the crossmodal target. Moreover, the interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting of attention is modulated by the modality between the cue and the target. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. Endogene opioider og deres terapeutiske anvendelse i smertebehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, A T

    1990-01-01

    Cancer patients with chronic pain and obstetric patients have participated in clinical trials of the analgesic effects of endogenous opioids. It is possible to achieve adequate relief of pain in these patients following epidural or intrathecal administration of endogenous opioids. Further investi...

  15. On the Endogeneity of the Mean-Variance Efficient Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, R. A.; O'Connell, Paul G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Explains that the endogeneity of the efficient frontier in the mean-variance model of portfolio selection is commonly obscured in portfolio selection literature and in widely used textbooks. Demonstrates endogeneity and discusses the impact of parameter changes on the mean-variance efficient frontier and on the beta coefficients of individual…

  16. Primary thyroid disorders in endogenous Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepomniszcze, Hugo; Pitoia, Fabian; Katz, Silvia B; Chervin, Raul; Bruno, Oscar D

    2002-09-01

    To study the prevalence of primary thyroid disorders in patients who underwent endogenous hypercortisolism. Retrospective evaluation of 59 patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) who had, at least, a record of thyroid palpation by expert endocrinologists and basal measurements of TSH by second generation assays. When available, tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine serum levels, TRH-TSH tests and anti-thyroid antibodies were also analyzed. There were two age- and gender-matched control groups. The 'goiter control group' comprised 118 healthy subjects who underwent thyroid palpation. The 'antibody control group' was composed of 40 individuals who attended the blood bank of our hospital. Antibodies against thyroperoxidase and measurements of TSH were analyzed in their blood samples. Available files of 83 CS patients admitted to our endocrine unit from 1985 to 1998 were examined. Fifty-nine patients (52 women and 7 men) with a mean age of 36.2 years (range 14-61 years) met the above requirements. Diagnosis of hypercortisolism had been established by a standard 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test and urinary free cortisol (UFC). Etiological diagnosis involved dynamic testing, measurements of ACTH levels and imaging techniques. After treatment, all but one of the patients were cured or controlled of their hypercortisolism. This was established by the finding of subnormal serum cortisol concentrations and/or subnormal 24-h UFC levels. Primary thyroid disorders were defined by the presence of one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i) goiter, (ii) positive anti-thyroid antibodies and/or (iii) primary thyroid function abnormalities. Eighteen (30.5%) patients had goiter (diffuse in 78% and nodular in 22%), 14 (23.7%) had primary subclinical hypothyroidism and 5 (8.4%) had hyperthyroidism. In 41 patients evaluated for antithyroid antibodies, it was found that 23 (56.1%) had positive titers. In a group of patients in which thyroid autoantibodies were measured

  17. Monocular channels have a functional role in endogenous orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, William; Sekely, Liora; Klein, Raymond M; Gabay, Shai

    2018-03-01

    The literature has long emphasized the role of higher cortical structures in endogenous orienting. Based on evolutionary explanation and previous data, we explored the possibility that lower monocular channels may also have a functional role in endogenous orienting of attention. Sensitive behavioral manipulation was used to probe the contribution of monocularly segregated regions in a simple cue - target detection task. A central spatially informative cue, and its ensuing target, were presented to the same or different eyes at varying cue-target intervals. Results indicated that the onset of endogenous orienting was apparent earlier when the cue and target were presented to the same eye. The data provides converging evidence for the notion that endogenous facilitation is modulated by monocular portions of the visual stream. This, in turn, suggests that higher cortical mechanisms are not exclusively responsible for endogenous orienting, and that a dynamic interaction between higher and lower neural levels, might be involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endogenous retroviruses mobilized during friend murine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boi, Stefano; Rosenke, Kyle; Hansen, Ethan; Hendrick, Duncan; Malik, Frank; Evans, Leonard H

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated in a mouse model that infection with a retrovirus can lead not only to the generation of recombinants between exogenous and endogenous gammaretrovirus, but also to the mobilization of endogenous proviruses by pseudotyping entire polytropic proviral transcripts and facilitating their infectious spread to new cells. However, the frequency of this occurrence, the kinetics, and the identity of mobilized endogenous proviruses was unclear. Here we find that these mobilized transcripts are detected after only one day of infection. They predominate over recombinant polytropic viruses early in infection, persist throughout the course of disease and are comprised of multiple different polytropic proviruses. Other endogenous retroviral elements such as intracisternal A particles (IAPs) were not detected. The integration of the endogenous transcripts into new cells could result in loss of transcriptional control and elevated expression which may facilitate pathogenesis, perhaps by contributing to the generation of polytropic recombinant viruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. High pressure treatment under subfreezing temperature results in drastic inactivation of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, T; Cui, F-D; Ohgitani, E; Gao, F; Hayakawa, K; Mazda, O

    2013-08-01

    Some viruses are sensitive to high pressure. The freeze-pressure generation method (FPGM) applies pressure as high as 250 MPa on a substance, simply by freezing a pressure-resistant reservoir in which the substance is immersed in water. Here we examined whether the FPGM successfully inactivates herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), an enveloped DNA virus belonging to the human Herpesviridae, and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), an envelope-free RNA virus belonging to the Picornaviridae. After the treatment, HSV-1 drastically reduced the ability to form plaque in Vero cells in vitro as well as to kill mice in vivo. EMCV that had been pressurized failed to proliferate in HeLa cells and induce interferon response. The results suggest that the FPGM provides a feasible procedure to inactivate a broad spectrum of viruses.

  20. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  1. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Sandra; Kaumanns, Patrick; Buschhorn, Sabine B.; Dittmar, Matthias T.

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-AΔenv-GFP, ROD-AΔenv-RFP, or ROD-AΔenv-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

  2. Endogenous hepadnaviruses, bornaviruses and circoviruses in snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C; Meik, J M; Dashevsky, D; Card, D C; Castoe, T A; Schaack, S

    2014-09-22

    We report the discovery of endogenous viral elements (EVEs) from Hepadnaviridae, Bornaviridae and Circoviridae in the speckled rattlesnake, Crotalus mitchellii, the first viperid snake for which a draft whole genome sequence assembly is available. Analysis of the draft assembly reveals genome fragments from the three virus families were inserted into the genome of this snake over the past 50 Myr. Cross-species PCR screening of orthologous loci and computational scanning of the python and king cobra genomes reveals that circoviruses integrated most recently (within the last approx. 10 Myr), whereas bornaviruses and hepadnaviruses integrated at least approximately 13 and approximately 50 Ma, respectively. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of circo-, borna- and hepadnaviruses in snakes and the first characterization of non-retroviral EVEs in non-avian reptiles. Our study provides a window into the historical dynamics of viruses in these host lineages and shows that their evolution involved multiple host-switches between mammals and reptiles. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Endogenous T-Cell Therapy: Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Cassian; Lizee, Greg; Schueneman, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cellular therapy represents a robust means of augmenting the tumor-reactive effector population in patients with cancer by adoptive transfer of ex vivo expanded T cells. Three approaches have been developed to achieve this goal: the use of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytess extracted from patient biopsy material; the redirected engineering of lymphocytes using vectors expressing a chimeric antigen receptor and T-cell receptor; and third, the isolation and expansion of often low-frequency endogenous T cells (ETCs) reactive to tumor antigens from the peripheral blood of patients. This last form of adoptive transfer of T cells, known as ETC therapy, requires specialized methods to isolate and expand from peripheral blood the very low-frequency tumor-reactive T cells, methods that have been developed over the last 2 decades, to the point where such an approach may be broadly applicable not only for the treatment of melanoma but also for that of other solid tumor malignancies. One compelling feature of ETC is the ability to rapidly deploy clinical trials following identification of a tumor-associated target epitope, a feature that may be exploited to develop personalized antigen-specific T-cell therapy for patients with almost any solid tumor. With a well-validated antigen discovery pipeline in place, clinical studies combining ETC with agents that modulate the immune microenvironment can be developed that will transform ETC into a feasible treatment modality.

  4. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centralized systems to indicate the presence of fecal pathogens, but are ineffective decentralized treatment process indicators as they generally occur at levels too low to assess log reduction targets. System challenge testing by spiking with high loads of fecal indicator organisms, like MS2 coliphage, has limitations, especially for large systems. Microbes that are endogenous to the decentralized system, occur in high abundances and mimic removal rates of bacterial, viral and/or parasitic protozoan pathogens during treatment could serve as alternative treatment process indicators to verify log reduction targets. To identify abundant microbes in wastewater, the bacterial and viral communities were examined using deep sequencing. Building infrastructure-associated bacteria, like Zoogloea, were observed as dominant members of the bacterial community in graywater. In blackwater, bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales constituted the majority of contiguous sequences from the viral community. This study identifies candidate treatment process indicators in decentralized systems that could be used to verify log removal during treatment. The association of the presence of treatment process indic

  5. Endogenous retroviral promoter exaptation in human cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Babaian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer arises from a series of genetic and epigenetic changes, which result in abnormal expression or mutational activation of oncogenes, as well as suppression/inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Aberrant expression of coding genes or long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs with oncogenic properties can be caused by translocations, gene amplifications, point mutations or other less characterized mechanisms. One such mechanism is the inappropriate usage of normally dormant, tissue-restricted or cryptic enhancers or promoters that serve to drive oncogenic gene expression. Dispersed across the human genome, endogenous retroviruses (ERVs provide an enormous reservoir of autonomous gene regulatory modules, some of which have been co-opted by the host during evolution to play important roles in normal regulation of genes and gene networks. This review focuses on the “dark side” of such ERV regulatory capacity. Specifically, we discuss a growing number of examples of normally dormant or epigenetically repressed ERVs that have been harnessed to drive oncogenes in human cancer, a process we term onco-exaptation, and we propose potential mechanisms that may underlie this phenomenon.

  6. Role of endogenous thiols in protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, O.

    Aminothiols represent the most important group of radioprotective compounds. The most effective compounds administered at an optimal dose and time before irradiation are able to provide a protection in mice with a dose reduction factor (DRF) of about 2-2.5. The working mechanism can partly be explained as a scavenging process of radicals induced in water and partly as a chemical repair process of injured DNA. The endogenous aminothiol which has far-out the highest intracellular concentration is glutathione (GSH). The importance of intracellular GSH in determining cellular radiosensitivity has been shown by irradiating cells that had very low GSH levels. Such cells appear to have a high radiosensitivity, especially in hypoxic conditions. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that induction of a high GSH level (100-200% above the normal level) provides only a small protection. In vitro experiments with DNA indicate that thiols with a high positive charge condense in the vicinity of DNA and are effective protectors, whereas thiols with a negative charge are kep away from it and are poor protectors. In comparison with the most effective exogenous aminothiols like cysteamine and WR1065, GSH is not an effective radioprotector. Putative explanations for this relatively poor protective ability of GSH are presented.

  7. Endogenous Retroviruses: With Us and Against Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas J.; Rosenkrantz, Jimi L.; Carbone, Lucia; Chavez, Shawn L.

    2017-04-01

    Mammalian genomes are scattered with thousands of copies of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), mobile genetic elements that are relics of ancient retroviral infections. After inserting copies into the germ line of a host, most ERVs accumulate mutations that prevent the normal assembly of infectious viral particles, becoming trapped in host genomes and unable to leave to infect other cells. While most copies of ERVs are inactive, some are transcribed and encode the proteins needed to generate new insertions at novel loci. In some cases, old copies are removed via recombination and other mechanisms. This creates a shifting landscape of ERV copies within host genomes. New insertions can disrupt normal expression of nearby genes via directly inserting into key regulatory elements or by containing regulatory motifs within their sequences. Further, the transcriptional silencing of ERVs via epigenetic modification may result in changes to the epigenetic regulation of adjacent genes. In these ways, ERVs can be potent sources of regulatory disruption as well as genetic innovation. Here, we provide a brief review of the association between ERVs and gene expression, especially as observed in pre-implantation development and placentation. Moreover, we will describe the roles ERVs may play in somatic tissues, mostly in the context of human disease, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and schizophrenia. Lastly, we discuss the recent discovery that some ERVs may have been pressed into the service of their host genomes to aid in the innate immune response to exogenous viral infections.

  8. Enterococcus faecalis Endogenous Endophthalmitis from Valvular Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Barge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 74-year-old female, with a mitral heart valve, who presented with pain and blurred vision in the right eye for 2 days. Her visual acuity was light perception (LP in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. Slit lamp examination showed corneal edema and hypopyon, and a view of the right fundus was impossible. Echography showed vitreous condensation. One day after presentation, the patient developed acute lung edema requiring hospitalization, so she was not submitted to vitreous tap and intravitreal treatment. The cardiac and systemic evaluations revealed a mitral endocarditis secondary to Enterococcus faecalis. The patient improved systemically with treatment with gentamicin, vancomycin, and linezolid. Her visual acuity remained as no LP, and her intraocular pressure (IOP has been controlled with brimonidine bid despite developing a total cataract with 360° posterior synechia. A cardiac source for endogenous endophthalmitis should be considered in the presence of a prosthetic cardiac valve. The treatment and followup must be made in cooperation with a cardiologist specialist, but the ophthalmologist can play a key role in the diagnosis.

  9. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in systems with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2003-02-01

    Systems with long-range persistence and memory are shown to exhibit different precursory as well as recovery patterns in response to shocks of exogenous versus endogenous origins. By endogenous, we envision either fluctuations resulting from an underlying chaotic dynamics or from a stochastic forcing origin which may be external or be an effective coarse-grained description of the microscopic fluctuations. In this scenario, endogenous shocks result from a kind of constructive interference of accumulated fluctuations whose impacts survive longer than the large shocks themselves. As a consequence, the recovery after an endogenous shock is in general slower at early times and can be at long times either slower or faster than after an exogenous perturbation. This offers the tantalizing possibility of distinguishing between an endogenous versus exogenous cause of a given shock, even when there is no “smoking gun”. This could help in investigating the exogenous versus self-organized origins in problems such as the causes of major biological extinctions, of change of weather regimes and of the climate, in tracing the source of social upheaval and wars, and so on. Sornette et al., Volatility fingerprints of large stocks: endogenous versus exogenous, cond-mat/0204626 has already shown how this concept can be applied concretely to differentiate the effects on financial markets of the 11 September 2001 attack or of the coup against Gorbachev on 19 August 1991 (exogenous) from financial crashes such as October 1987 (endogenous).

  10. Endogenous synthesis of corticosteroids in the hippocampus.

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    Shimpei Higo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain synthesis of steroids including sex-steroids is attracting much attention. The endogenous synthesis of corticosteroids in the hippocampus, however, has been doubted because of the inability to detect deoxycorticosterone (DOC synthase, cytochrome P450(c21. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of P450(c21 was demonstrated using mRNA analysis and immmunogold electron microscopic analysis in the adult male rat hippocampus. DOC production from progesterone (PROG was demonstrated by metabolism analysis of (3H-steroids. All the enzymes required for corticosteroid synthesis including P450(c21, P450(2D4, P450(11β1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD were localized in the hippocampal principal neurons as shown via in situ hybridization and immunoelectron microscopic analysis. Accurate corticosteroid concentrations in rat hippocampus were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In adrenalectomized rats, net hippocampus-synthesized corticosterone (CORT and DOC were determined to 6.9 and 5.8 nM, respectively. Enhanced spinogenesis was observed in the hippocampus following application of low nanomolar (10 nM doses of CORT for 1 h. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results imply the complete pathway of corticosteroid synthesis of 'pregnenolone →PROG→DOC→CORT' in the hippocampal neurons. Both P450(c21 and P450(2D4 can catalyze conversion of PROG to DOC. The low nanomolar level of CORT synthesized in hippocampal neurons may play a role in modulation of synaptic plasticity, in contrast to the stress effects by micromolar CORT from adrenal glands.

  11. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  12. Demonstration of endogenous imipramine like material in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehavi, M.; Ventura, I.; Sarne, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The extraction and partial purification of an endogenous imipramine-like material from rat brain is described. The endogenous factor obtained after gel filtration and silica chromatography inhibits [ 3 H] imipramine specific binding and mimics the inhibitory effect of imipramine on [ 3 H] serotonin uptake in both brain and platelet preparations. The effects of the endogenous material are dose-dependent and it inhibits [ 3 H] imipramine binding in a competitive fashion. The factor is unevenly distributed in the brain with high concentration in the hypothalamus and low concentration in the cerebellum

  13. Amplification and chromosomal dispersion of human endogenous retroviral sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, P.E.; Martin, M.A.; Rabson, A.B.; Bryan, T.; O'Brien, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Endogenous retroviral sequences have undergone amplification events involving both viral and flanking cellular sequences. The authors cloned members of an amplified family of full-length endogenous retroviral sequences. Genomic blotting, employing a flanking cellular DNA probe derived from a member of this family, revealed a similar array of reactive bands in both humans and chimpanzees, indicating that an amplification event involving retroviral and associated cellular DNA sequences occurred before the evolutionary separation of these two primates. Southern analyses of restricted somatic cell hybrid DNA preparations suggested that endogenous retroviral segments are widely dispersed in the human genome and that amplification and dispersion events may be linked

  14. Strategies for the photo-control of endogenous protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechun, Katherine E; Arndt, Katja M; Woolley, G Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Photo-controlled or 'optogenetic' effectors interfacing with endogenous protein machinery allow the roles of endogenous proteins to be probed. There are two main approaches being used to develop optogenetic effectors: (i) caging strategies using photo-controlled conformational changes, and (ii) protein relocalization strategies using photo-controlled protein-protein interactions. Numerous specific examples of these approaches have been reported and efforts to develop general methods for photo-control of endogenous proteins are a current focus. The development of improved screening and selection methods for photo-switchable proteins would advance the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biliary Secretion of Quasi-Enveloped Human Hepatitis A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Hirai-Yuki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut. To assess whether eHAV and nonenveloped virus egress from cells via vectorially distinct pathways, we studied infected polarized cultures of Caco-2 and HepG2-N6 cells. Most (>99% progeny virions were released apically from Caco-2 cells, whereas basolateral (64% versus apical (36% release was more balanced with HepG2-N6 cells. Both apically and basolaterally released virions were predominantly enveloped, with no suggestion of differential vectorial release of eHAV versus naked virions. Basolateral to apical transcytosis of either particle type was minimal (<0.02%/h in HepG2-N6 cells, arguing against this as a mechanism for differences in membrane envelopment of serum versus fecal virus. High concentrations of human bile acids converted eHAV to nonenveloped virions, whereas virus present in bile from HAV-infected Ifnar1−/−Ifngr1−/− and Mavs−/− mice banded over a range of densities extending from that of eHAV to that of nonenveloped virions. We conclude that nonenveloped virions shed in feces are derived from eHAV released across the canalicular membrane and stripped of membranes by the detergent action of bile acids within the proximal biliary canaliculus.

  16. Induced wave propagation from a vibrating containment envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, R.B.; Thigpen, L.; Rambo, J.T.

    1985-09-01

    Low frequency wave forms are observed in the particle velocity measurements around the cavity and containment envelope formed by an underground nuclear test. The vibration solution for a spherical shell is used to formulate a model for the low frequency wave that propagates outward from this region. In this model the containment envelope is the zone of material that is crushed by the compressive shock wave of the nuclear explosion. The containment envelope is approximated by a spherical shell of material. The material in the spherical shell is densified and is given a relatively high kinetic energy density because of the high compressive stress and particle velocity of the shock wave. After the shock wave has propagated through the spherical shell, the spherical shell vibrates in order to dissipate the kinetic energy acquired from the shock wave. Based on the model, the frequency of vibration depends on the dimensions and material properties of the spherical shell. The model can also be applied in an inverse mode to obtain global estimates of averaged materials properties. This requires using experimental data and semi-empirical relationships involving the material properties. A particular case of estimating a value for shear strength is described. Finally, the oscillation time period of the lowest frequency from five nuclear tests is correlated with the energy of the explosion. The correlation provides another diagnostic to estimate the energy of a nuclear explosion. Also, the longest oscillation time period measurement provides additional experimental data that can be used to assess and validate various computer models. 11 refs., 2 figs

  17. Energy Optimized Envelope for Cold Climate Indoor Agricultural Growing Center

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    Caroline Hachem-Vermette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the development of building envelope design for improved energy performance of a controlled indoor agricultural growing center in a cold climate zone (Canada, 54° N. A parametric study is applied to analyze the effects of envelope parameters on the building energy loads for heating, cooling and lighting, required for maintaining growing requirement as obtained in the literature. A base case building of rectangular layout, incorporating conventionally applied insulation and glazing components, is initially analyzed, employing the EnergyPlus simulation program. Insulation and glazing parameters are then modified to minimize energy loads under assumed minimal lighting requirement. This enhanced design forms a base case for analyzing effects of additional design parameters—solar radiation control, air infiltration rate, sky-lighting and the addition of phase change materials—to obtain an enhanced design that minimizes energy loads. A second stage of the investigation applies a high lighting level to the enhanced design and modifies the design parameters to improve performance. A final part of the study is an investigation of the mechanical systems and renewable energy generation. Through the enhancement of building envelope components and day-lighting design, combined heating and cooling load of the low level lighting configuration is reduced by 65% and lighting load by 10%, relative to the base case design. Employing building integrated PV (BIPV system, this optimized model can achieve energy positive status. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC, are discussed, as potential means to offset increased energy consumption associated with the high-level lighting model.

  18. Nuclear envelopathies: a complex LINC between nuclear envelope and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Alexandre; Bauer, Delphine; Ratti, Francesca; Millat, Gilles; Méjat, Alexandre

    2017-08-30

    Since the identification of the first disease causing mutation in the gene coding for emerin, a transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane, hundreds of mutations and variants have been found in genes encoding for nuclear envelope components. These proteins can be part of the inner nuclear membrane (INM), such as emerin or SUN proteins, outer nuclear membrane (ONM), such as Nesprins, or the nuclear lamina, such as lamins A and C. However, they physically interact with each other to insure the nuclear envelope integrity and mediate the interactions of the nuclear envelope with both the genome, on the inner side, and the cytoskeleton, on the outer side. The core of this complex, called LINC (LInker of Nucleoskeleton to Cytoskeleton) is composed of KASH and SUN homology domain proteins. SUN proteins are INM proteins which interact with lamins by their N-terminal domain and with the KASH domain of nesprins located in the ONM by their C-terminal domain.Although most of these proteins are ubiquitously expressed, their mutations have been associated with a large number of clinically unrelated pathologies affecting specific tissues. Moreover, variants in SUN proteins have been found to modulate the severity of diseases induced by mutations in other LINC components or interactors. For these reasons, the diagnosis and the identification of the molecular explanation of "nuclear envelopathies" is currently challenging.The aim of this review is to summarize the human diseases caused by mutations in genes coding for INM proteins, nuclear lamina, and ONM proteins, and to discuss their potential physiopathological mechanisms that could explain the large spectrum of observed symptoms.

  19. Dynamic network data envelopment analysis for university hospitals evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella de Castro Lobo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To develop an assessment tool to evaluate the efficiency of federal university general hospitals. METHODS Data envelopment analysis, a linear programming technique, creates a best practice frontier by comparing observed production given the amount of resources used. The model is output-oriented and considers variable returns to scale. Network data envelopment analysis considers link variables belonging to more than one dimension (in the model, medical residents, adjusted admissions, and research projects. Dynamic network data envelopment analysis uses carry-over variables (in the model, financing budget to analyze frontier shift in subsequent years. Data were gathered from the information system of the Brazilian Ministry of Education (MEC, 2010-2013. RESULTS The mean scores for health care, teaching and research over the period were 58.0%, 86.0%, and 61.0%, respectively. In 2012, the best performance year, for all units to reach the frontier it would be necessary to have a mean increase of 65.0% in outpatient visits; 34.0% in admissions; 12.0% in undergraduate students; 13.0% in multi-professional residents; 48.0% in graduate students; 7.0% in research projects; besides a decrease of 9.0% in medical residents. In the same year, an increase of 0.9% in financing budget would be necessary to improve the care output frontier. In the dynamic evaluation, there was progress in teaching efficiency, oscillation in medical care and no variation in research. CONCLUSIONS The proposed model generates public health planning and programming parameters by estimating efficiency scores and making projections to reach the best practice frontier.

  20. Characteristics between the meshing pairs with different envelope profile in single screw compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Liu, F.; Li, T.; Feng, Q.

    2017-08-01

    Single screw compressors have been used in various industrial fields. However, because the star-wheel teeth are easy to wear, the market for the development of single screw compressors is limited. In order to extend the service life of the star-wheel, researchers have developed different kinds of star-wheel tooth profile, such as single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile. These profiles greatly affect the lubrication characteristics between the star-wheel teeth and the screw grooves. In this article, the lubrication characteristics between the meshing pairs with different envelope profiles are analyzed. Results show that the pressure peak of the single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile are 3.23×105Pa, 3.38×105Pa, and 4.31×105Pa, respectively. This means that the multi-column enveloped meshing pair can resist the biggest external impact load. The deviation angle (γ) of the single line envelope profile, single column envelope profile, and multi-column envelope profile are 0.0139°~0.0286°, 0.0225°~0.0306° and 0.0122°~0.0262°, respectively. Thus, the self-balancing ability of the multi-column enveloped meshing pair is the strongest, and the oil film thickness on both sides of the multi-column enveloped star-wheel tooth is the most reasonable, which indicates a good lubrication state during operation, that is, longer operation life of the star-wheel teeth.

  1. Comparative Methylation of ERVWE1/Syncytin-1 and Other Human Endogenous Retrovirus LTRs in Placenta Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Juliette; Montgiraud, Cécile; Oriol, Guy; Pichon, Jean-Philippe; Ruel, Karine; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Gerbaud, Pascale; Frendo, Jean-Louis; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Mallet, François

    2009-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are globally silent in somatic cells. However, some HERVs display high transcription in physiological conditions. In particular, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3, three proviruses of distinct families, are highly transcribed in placenta and produce envelope proteins associated with placenta development. As silencing of repeated elements is thought to occur mainly by DNA methylation, we compared the methylation of ERVWE1 and related HERVs to appreciate whether HERV methylation relies upon the family, the integration site, the tissue, the long terminal repeat (LTR) function or the associated gene function. CpG methylation of HERV-W LTRs in placenta-associated tissues was heterogeneous but a joint epigenetic control was found for ERVWE1 5′LTR and its juxtaposed enhancer, a mammalian apparent LTR retrotransposon. Additionally, ERVWE1, ERVFRDE1 and ERV3 5′LTRs were all essentially hypomethylated in cytotrophoblasts during pregnancy, but showed distinct and stage-dependent methylation profiles. In non-cytotrophoblastic cells, they also exhibited different methylation profiles, compatible with their respective transcriptional activities. Comparative analyses of transcriptional activity and LTR methylation in cell lines further sustained a role for methylation in the control of functional LTRs. These results suggest that HERV methylation might not be family related but copy-specific, and related to the LTR function and the tissue. In particular, ERVWE1 and ERV3 could be developmentally epigenetically regulated HERVs. PMID:19561344

  2. A smart growth evaluation model based on data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokun; Guan, Yongyi

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid spread of urbanization, smart growth (SG) has attracted plenty of attention from all over the world. In this paper, by the establishment of index system for smart growth, data envelopment analysis (DEA) model was suggested to evaluate the SG level of the current growth situation in cities. In order to further improve the information of both radial direction and non-radial detection, we introduced the non-Archimedean infinitesimal to form C2GS2 control model. Finally, we evaluated the SG level in Canberra and identified a series of problems, which can verify the applicability of the model and provide us more improvement information.

  3. Thermonuclear runaways in thick hydrogen rich envelopes of neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfield, S. G.; Kenyon, S.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    A Lagrangian, fully implicit, one dimensional hydrodynamic computer code was used to evolve thermonuclear runaways in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes of 1.0 Msub solar neutron stars with radii of 10 km and 20 km. Simulations produce outbursts which last from about 750 seconds to about one week. Peak effective temeratures and luninosities were 26 million K and 80 thousand Lsub solar for the 10 km study and 5.3 millison and 600 Lsub solar for the 20 km study. Hydrodynamic expansion on the 10 km neutron star produced a precursor lasting about one ten thousandth seconds.

  4. Multinodal control room envelope model used for habitability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, W.M.; Gore, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This work analyzes the habitability of the control room envelope (CRE) during an off-normal ventilation system condition. The most limiting design basis accident utilized for this analysis is the postulated loss-of-coolant accident. The off-normal condition assumes two rooms within the CRE are at pressures that are lower than adjoining rooms outside the CRE. This pressure differential allows unfiltered in-leakage to enter the CRE through the doors and penetrations in these rooms. This paper quantifies the maximum unfiltered in-leakage

  5. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method in Benchmarking of Technological Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kaczmarska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original concept for the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA in benchmarking processes within innovation and entrepreneurship centers based on the example of technological incubators. Applying the DEA method, it is possible to order analyzed objects, on the basis of explicitly defined relative efficiency, by compiling a rating list and rating classes. Establishing standards and indicating “clearances” allows the studied objects - innovation and entrepreneurship centers - to select a way of developing effectively, as well as preserving their individuality and a unique way of acting with the account of local needs. (original abstract

  6. Biliary Secretion of Quasi-Enveloped Human Hepatitis A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai-Yuki, Asuka; Hensley, Lucinda; Whitmire, Jason K; Lemon, Stanley M

    2016-12-06

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV) are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood) sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut. To assess whether eHAV and nonenveloped virus egress from cells via vectorially distinct pathways, we studied infected polarized cultures of Caco-2 and HepG2-N6 cells. Most (>99%) progeny virions were released apically from Caco-2 cells, whereas basolateral (64%) versus apical (36%) release was more balanced with HepG2-N6 cells. Both apically and basolaterally released virions were predominantly enveloped, with no suggestion of differential vectorial release of eHAV versus naked virions. Basolateral to apical transcytosis of either particle type was minimal (work reveals that it has an unusual life cycle. Virus is found in cell culture supernatant fluids in two mature, infectious forms: one wrapped in membranes (quasi-enveloped) and another that is nonenveloped. Membrane-wrapped virions circulate in blood during acute infection and are resistant to neutralizing antibodies, likely facilitating HAV dissemination within the liver. On the other hand, virus shed in feces is nonenveloped and highly stable, facilitating epidemic spread and transmission to naive hosts. Factors controlling the biogenesis of these two distinct forms of the virus in infected humans are not understood. Here we characterize vectorial release of quasi-enveloped virions from polarized epithelial cell cultures and provide evidence that bile acids strip membranes from eHAV following its secretion into the biliary tract. These results

  7. Towards a fourth skin? sustainability and double-envelope buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprose, P.R.; Robertson, G. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand)

    1996-05-01

    In several well publicised designs for `green` office buildings, the zone of meditation between inside and outside has been increased by the addition of a second building envelope. When interpreted as exemplars of sustainable architecture, the addition of a second wall in these buildings is questionable both biophysically and psycho-culturally. More constructive design strategies acknowledge the wider biophysical contexts of the human ecosystem, the prudent use of material and energy resources throughout a building`s life, make realistic use of climate, and promote psycho-cultural needs arising out of ecologism. (author)

  8. Assessing Canadian Bank Branch Operating Efficiency Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang

    2009-10-01

    In today's economy and society, performance analyses in the services industries attract more and more attention. This paper presents an evaluation of 240 branches of one big Canadian bank in Greater Toronto Area using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Special emphasis was placed on how to present the DEA results to management so as to provide more guidance to them on what to manage and how to accomplish the changes. Finally the potential management uses of the DEA results were presented. All the findings are discussed in the context of the Canadian banking market.

  9. Radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, J.G.; Copps, T.P.; Morash, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    Using electron microscopy, we have measured radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope of Chinese hamster V-79 and mouse L cells to produce a quantifiable radiation endpoint on a membrane system. In the dose ranges measured (800 to 3000 rad in L cells and 1270 to 5700 rad in V-79 cells), the amount of invagination increased with dose and continued to develop in intact cells for up to 72 hr after the original population was irradiated. Small vacuoles, which sometimes appeared in the nuclei of L cells, were also more numerous in irradiated cells and increased with dose and incubation time in a similar fashion to invagination development

  10. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, G.; Styk, B.; Vareckova, E.; Polakova, K.

    1976-01-01

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  11. A new insight into opaque envelopes in a passive solar house: Properties and roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong; Liu, Minghou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new insight into the opaque envelopes of a passive solar house was gained. • Five parts of envelopes, i.e., roof, south/east/west/north walls, were discussed. • Each part of envelopes were analyzed separately rather than treated as a whole. • Ideal properties of materials for each envelope are diverse from one another. • Differences are related to the envelopes’ leading roles as a heater or a cooler. - Abstract: Passive solar houses are effective solutions for minimizing the operating energy of buildings. The building envelopes of passive solar houses exert a significant influence on the degree of indoor thermal comfort. The focus of this study was the construction of high-performance opaque envelopes, i.e., the roof and walls, for a passive solar house, and a new conception of the envelopes from the perspective of the relation between the properties and roles was provided. The discussion was conducted based on a comprehensive range of envelope materials that were distinguished by the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. For the first time, each part of the envelopes was analyzed separately rather than considered as an entire envelope. By analyzing each envelope individually, the optimum properties of each envelope were found to be distinct from each other. The distinctions are determined by the dominant role of each envelope, which is associated with the location and absorbed solar irradiation. For summer or hot climate applications, when the dominant role is a cooler, the envelope, e.g., the south wall, should consist of materials with high thermal conductivity and large heat capacity; if a heater is the dominant role, the envelope, e.g., the roof, should consist of materials with low thermal conductivity. For winter or cold climate applications, the envelopes with a leading role of a heater or a cooler require materials with high or low thermal conductivity, respectively. Under the guidance of the results, a discussion

  12. Detection and distribution of endogenous steroids in human stratum corneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ping Tseng

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The results demonstrate that, with the achievable sensitivity of current analytical technology, physiological concentrations of endogenous steroids, such as hydrocortisone and cortisone, can be found in the SC of some individuals.

  13. Isolating Exogenous and Endogenous Modes of Temporal Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Michael A.; Klein, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    The differential allocation of information processing resources over time, here termed "temporal attention," may be achieved by relatively automatic "exogenous" or controlled "endogenous" mechanisms. Over 100 years of research has confounded these theoretically distinct dimensions of temporal attention. The current…

  14. Quantitative regularities of development of endogenous infection in irradiated organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mal'tsev, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    A statistical analysis of data from the literature and the author's own experimental results are reviewed to show the functional relationships between the radiation dose and the development of endogenous infection in irradiated organisms. A direct linear dependence was found between the dose of radiation and the severity of endogenous infection at doses causing death from the ''bone marrow'' syndrome in acute radiation sickness. In case of death from the ''intestinal'' syndrome, an inverse linear dependence can be observed between the radiation dose and the culture yield of microbes from internal organs. In this case, the pathological effect on the organism is due to bacterial endotoxins formed during the disintegration of microbial cells in the organism. Endogenous infection and endotoxinaemia essentially aggravate the progress of acute radiation disease. The importance of endogenous infection for the death of the organism is minimized in irradiation at doses causing death ''under the ray''. (author)

  15. Importance of Endogenous Fibrinolysis in Platelet Thrombus Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gue, Ying X; Gorog, Diana A

    2017-08-25

    The processes of thrombosis and coagulation are finely regulated by endogenous fibrinolysis maintaining healthy equilibrium. When the balance is altered in favour of platelet activation and/or coagulation, or if endogenous fibrinolysis becomes less efficient, pathological thrombosis can occur. Arterial thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world despite advances in medical therapies. The role endogenous fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis has gained increasing attention in recent years as it presents novel ways to prevent and treat existing diseases. In this review article, we discuss the role of endogenous fibrinolysis in platelet thrombus formation, methods of measurement of fibrinolytic activity, its role in predicting cardiovascular diseases and clinical outcomes and future directions.

  16. Spatial orienting around the fovea: exogenous and endogenous cueing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taoxi; Zhang, Jiyuan; Bao, Yan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of covert attention in perifoveal and peripheral locations has been studied extensively. However, it is less clear whether attention operates similarly in the foveal area itself. The present study aims to investigate whether the attentional orienting elicited by an exogenous or endogenous cue can operate within the foveal area and whether attentional orienting operates similarly between foveal and perifoveal regions. By manipulating exogenous orienting in Experiment 1 and endogenous orienting in Experiment 2, we observed both forms of cueing in the foveal area. Specifically, we observed a larger exogenous cue-induced inhibitory effect (i.e., inhibition of return effect) and a similar endogenous cue-elicited facilitatory effect for the perifoveal relative to the foveal targets. We conclude that exogenous and endogenous orienting subject to two independent attentional systems with distinct modulation patterns in the foveal area.

  17. Stochastic Stability of Endogenous Growth: Theory and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Boucekkine, Raouf; Pintus, Patrick; Zou, Benteng

    2015-01-01

    We examine the issue of stability of stochastic endogenous growth. First, stochastic stability concepts are introduced and applied to stochastic linear homogenous differen- tial equations to which several stochastic endogenous growth models reduce. Second, we apply the mathematical theory to two models, starting with the stochastic AK model. It’s shown that in this case exponential balanced paths, which characterize optimal trajectories in the absence of uncertainty, are not robust to uncerta...

  18. A generalized endogenous grid method for discrete-continuous choice

    OpenAIRE

    John Rust; Bertel Schjerning; Fedor Iskhakov

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends Carroll's endogenous grid method (2006 "The method of endogenous gridpoints for solving dynamic stochastic optimization problems", Economic Letters) for models with sequential discrete and continuous choice. Unlike existing generalizations, we propose solution algorithm that inherits both advantages of the original method, namely it avoids all root finding operations, and also efficiently deals with restrictions on the continuous decision variable. To further speed up the s...

  19. A Reformulation of Normative Economics for Models with Endogenous Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Vipul Bhatt; Masao Ogaki; Yuichi Yaguchi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to balance considerations of welfarism and virtue ethics in the normative analysis of economic models with endogenous preferences. We introduce the moral evaluation function (MEF), which ranks alternatives based purely on virtue ethics, and define the social objective function (SOF), which combines the Social Welfare Function (SWF) and the MEF. In a model of intergenerational altruism with endogenous time preference, using numerical simulations we show that max...

  20. A Reformulation of Normative Economics for Models with Endogenous

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatt, Vipul; Ogaki, Masao; Yaguchi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to balance considerations of welfarism and virtue ethics in the normative analysis of economic models with endogenous preferences. We introduce the moral evaluation function (MEF), which ranks alternatives based purely on virtue ethics, and define the social objective function (SOF), which combines the Social Welfare Function (SWF) and the MEF. In a model of intergenerational altruism with endogenous time preference, using numerical simulations we show that max...

  1. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Selbach Scheffel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease.

  2. Glacial cycles:exogenous orbital changes vs. endogenous climate dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, R. K.; Juselius, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    We use a statistical model, the cointegrated vector autoregressive model, to assess the degree to which variations in Earth's orbit and endogenous climate dynamics can be used to simulate glacial cycles during the late Quaternary (390 kyr-present). To do so, we estimate models of varying complexity and compare the accuracy of their in-sample simulations. Results indicate that strong statistical associations between endogenous climate variables are not enough for statistical models to reproduc...

  3. Gut Microbial Glycerol Metabolism as an Endogenous Acrolein Source

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianbo; Sturla, Shana; Lacroix, Christophe; Schwab, Clarissa

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acrolein is a highly reactive electrophile causing toxic effects, such as DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, immune dysfunction, and membrane damage. This Opinion/Hypothesis provides an overview of endogenous and exogenous acrolein sources, acrolein’s mode of action, and its metabolic fate. Recent reports underpin the finding that gut microbial glycerol metabolism leading to the formation of reuterin is an additional source of endogenous acrole...

  4. A General Outlook to the Endogenous Money Theory

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÜR, Gökçer

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on theorigins of the endogenous money theory and analyze the currentdebates on this topic. Endogenous money approach depends on a fundamental postulate: As banks meet the credit needs ofnon-financial businesses, new deposits emerge in the banking sector. Similarly,as the necessary reserves found for these new deposits the broad money expandsas well. Even though the central bank can intervene into this process it cannotfully control it. There...

  5. THE ROLE OF ENTEROSORBENTS IN TREATMENT OF ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Ursova

    2012-01-01

    Usage of enterosorbents in treatment of almost all types of acute and chronic disorders accompanied with endogenous intoxication syndrome takes on special significance. The critical point of endogenous intoxication pathogenesis is dysfunction of microbiocenosis and intestinal barrier. The necessity of enterosorbents usage is very high due to their efficacy, safety and wide availability. Smectite dioctaedric (diosmectite), which has been successfully used in clinical practice for a long period...

  6. EXOGENOUS OR ENDOGENOUS MONEY SUPPLY: EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    ZATUL E. BADARUDIN; AHMED M. KHALID; MOHAMED ARIFF

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of money supply in Australia over two separate monetary policy regimes: monetary and inflation targeting. The post-Keynesian theory on endogenous money was tested with the aim of investigating whether endogenous money supply, if it did exist, followed the accomodationist, structuralist or liquidity preference viewpoints. Data used are quarterly series from 1977 to 2007 and we used vector error-correction model for long-run and short-run causality tests. We f...

  7. Utilizing the building envelope for power generation and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Wang, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat loading of the building envelope is caused by strong solar radiation and incorrect material selection. As a result of the heat loading of the building envelope, the indoor air temperature is increased, resulting in high energy consumption by air conditioners to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment. This study explores the use of a hybrid wall integrated with heat collectors (water piping system) and solar thermal power generators, which absorbs solar radiation through water to reduce heat transmission thereby saving energy and generating power. Power generation is achieved by an OD (oscillator device) that installed between a water tank (hot side) and building interior (cold side). The device acts by temperature differences between hot air (expansion) and cold air (contraction). CFD (computational dynamic simulation) was used to assess the effects of the hybrid wall on the interior environment. The results show that exterior heat is absorbed by cool water thereby reducing the heat transmission into the building, resulting in less energy consumption by air conditioners and power generation by use of temperature differences. - Highlights: • This study explores a hybrid building wall to save energy and generate power. • Power generators operated by air pressure change via hot tank and cool interior. • Less energy consumption by air conditioners and heating water. • Performance of CFD simulated results and experiment results are similar. • The energy saving efficiency is around 15 kWh/day via hybrid wall in west façade.

  8. Residential building envelope heat gain and cooling energy requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Tsang, C.L.; Li, Danny H.W.; Cheung, S.O.

    2005-01-01

    We present the energy use situation in Hong Kong from 1979 to 2001. The primary energy requirement (PER) nearly tripled during the 23-year period, rising from 195,405 TJ to 572,684 TJ. Most of the PER was used for electricity generation, and the electricity use in residential buildings rose from 7556 TJ (2099 GWh) to 32,799 TJ (9111 GWh), an increase of 334%. Air-conditioning accounted for about 40% of the total residential sector electricity consumption. A total of 144 buildings completed in the month of June during 1992-2001 were surveyed. Energy performance of the building envelopes was investigated in terms of the overall thermal transfer value (OTTV). To develop the appropriated parameters used in OTTV calculation, long-term measured weather data such as ambient temperature (1960-2001), horizontal global solar radiation (1992-2001) and global solar radiation on vertical surfaces (1996-2001) were examined. The OTTV found varied from 27 to 44 W/m 2 with a mean value of 37.7 W/m 2 . Building energy simulation technique using DOE-2.1E was employed to determine the cooling requirements and hence electricity use for building envelope designs with different OTTVs. It was found that cooling loads and electricity use could be expressed in terms of a simple two-parameter linear regression equation involving OTTV

  9. Do all Planetary Nebulae result from Common Envelopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, O.; Moe, M.; Herwig, F.; Politano, M.

    2005-12-01

    The common envelope interaction is responsible for evolved close binaries. Some of these binaries reside in the middle of planetary nebulae (PN). Conventional wisdom has it that only about 10% of all PN contain close binary central stars. Recent observational results, however, strongly suggest that most or even all PN are in close binary systems. Interestingly, our population synthesis calculations predict that the number of post-common envelope PN is in agreement with the total number of PN in the Galaxy. On the other hand, if all stars (single and in binaries) with mass between ˜1-8 M⊙ eject a PN, there would be 10-20 times many more PN in the galaxy than observed. This theoretical result is in agreement with the observations in suggesting that binary interactions play a functional rather than marginal role in the creation of PN. FH acknowledges funds from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, under contract W-7405-ENG-36 to Los Alamos National Laboratory. MP gratefully acknowledges NSF grant AST-0328484 to Marquette University.

  10. THE PROPERTIES OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN GIANT PLANET ENVELOPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soubiran, François; Militzer, Burkhard [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    The core-accretion model for giant planet formation suggests a two-layer picture for the initial structure of Jovian planets, with heavy elements in a dense core and a thick H–He envelope. Late planetesimal accretion and core erosion could potentially enrich the H–He envelope in heavy elements, which is supported by the threefold solar metallicity that was measured in Jupiter’s atmosphere by the Galileo entry probe. In order to reproduce the observed gravitational moments of Jupiter and Saturn, models for their interiors include heavy elements, Z , in various proportions. However, their effect on the equation of state of the hydrogen–helium mixtures has not been investigated beyond the ideal mixing approximation. In this article, we report results from ab initio simulations of fully interacting H–He– Z mixtures in order to characterize their equation of state and to analyze possible consequences for the interior structure and evolution of giant planets. Considering C, N, O, Si, Fe, MgO, and SiO{sub 2}, we show that the behavior of heavy elements in H–He mixtures may still be represented by an ideal mixture if the effective volumes and internal energies are chosen appropriately. In the case of oxygen, we also compute the effect on the entropy. We find the resulting changes in the temperature–pressure profile to be small. A homogeneous distribution of 2% oxygen by mass changes the temperature in Jupiter’s interior by only 80 K.

  11. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in circumstellar envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenklach, M.; Feigelson, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    Production of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon-rich circumstellar envelopes was investigated using a kinetic approach. A detailed chemical reaction mechanism of gas-phase PAH formation and growth, containing approximately 100 reactions of 40 species, was numerically solved under the physical conditions expected in cool stellar winds. The chemistry is based on studies of soot production in hydrocarbon pyrolysis and combustion. Several first-ring and second-ring cyclization processes were considered. A linear lumping algorithm was used to describe PAH growth beyond the second aromatic ring. PAH production using this mechanism was examined with respect to a grid of idealized constant velocity stellar winds as well as several published astrophysical models. The basic result is that the onset of PAH production in the interstellar envelopes is predicted to occur within the temperature interval of 1100 to 900 K. The absolute amounts of the PAHs formed, however, are very sensitive to a number of parameters, both chemical and astrophysical, whose values are not accurately known. Astrophysically meaningful quantities of PAHs require particularly dense and slow stellar winds and high initial acetylene abundance. It is suggested that most of the PAHs may be produced in a relatively small fraction of carbon-rich red giants. 87 refs

  12. Crystal structure of the Japanese encephalitis virus envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Vincent C; AbiMansour, Jad; Nelson, Christopher A; Fremont, Daved H

    2012-02-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading global cause of viral encephalitis. The JEV envelope protein (E) facilitates cellular attachment and membrane fusion and is the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. We have determined the 2.1-Å resolution crystal structure of the JEV E ectodomain refolded from bacterial inclusion bodies. The E protein possesses the three domains characteristic of flavivirus envelopes and epitope mapping of neutralizing antibodies onto the structure reveals determinants that correspond to the domain I lateral ridge, fusion loop, domain III lateral ridge, and domain I-II hinge. While monomeric in solution, JEV E assembles as an antiparallel dimer in the crystal lattice organized in a highly similar fashion as seen in cryo-electron microscopy models of mature flavivirus virions. The dimer interface, however, is remarkably small and lacks many of the domain II contacts observed in other flavivirus E homodimers. In addition, uniquely conserved histidines within the JEV serocomplex suggest that pH-mediated structural transitions may be aided by lateral interactions outside the dimer interface in the icosahedral virion. Our results suggest that variation in dimer structure and stability may significantly influence the assembly, receptor interaction, and uncoating of virions.

  13. Functional Analysis of Glycosylation of Zika Virus Envelope Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila R. Fontes-Garfias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Zika virus (ZIKV infection causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The ZIKV envelope (E protein is responsible for viral entry and represents a major determinant for viral pathogenesis. Like other flaviviruses, the ZIKV E protein is glycosylated at amino acid N154. To study the function of E glycosylation, we generated a recombinant N154Q ZIKV that lacks the E glycosylation and analyzed the mutant virus in mammalian and mosquito hosts. In mouse models, the mutant was attenuated, as evidenced by lower viremia, decreased weight loss, and no mortality; however, knockout of E glycosylation did not significantly affect neurovirulence. Mice immunized with the mutant virus developed a robust neutralizing antibody response and were completely protected from wild-type ZIKV challenge. In mosquitoes, the mutant virus exhibited diminished oral infectivity for the Aedes aegypti vector. Collectively, the results demonstrate that E glycosylation is critical for ZIKV infection of mammalian and mosquito hosts. : Zika virus (ZIKV causes devastating congenital abnormities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Fontes-Garfias et al. showed that the glycosylation of ZIKV envelope protein plays an important role in infecting mosquito vectors and pathogenesis in mouse. Keywords: Zika virus, glycosylation, flavivirus entry, mosquito transmission, vaccine

  14. Focal Targeting of the Bacterial Envelope by Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi eRashid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are utilized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. AMPs such as the human beta defensins, human neutrophil peptides, human cathelicidin, and many bacterial bacteriocins are cationic and capable of binding to anionic regions of the bacterial surface. Cationic AMPs (CAMPs target anionic lipids (e.g. phosphatidylglycerol (PG and cardiolipins (CL in the cell membrane and anionic components (e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA of the cell envelope. Bacteria have evolved mechanisms to modify these same targets in order to resist CAMP killing, e.g. lysinylation of PG to yield cationic lysyl-PG and alanylation of LTA. Since CAMPs offer a promising therapeutic alternative to conventional antibiotics, which are becoming less effective due to rapidly emerging antibiotic resistance, there is a strong need to improve our understanding about the AMP mechanism of action. Recent literature suggests that AMPs often interact with the bacterial cell envelope at discrete foci. Here we review recent AMP literature, with an emphasis on focal interactions with bacteria, including (1 CAMP disruption mechanisms, (2 delocalization of membrane proteins and lipids by CAMPs, and (3 CAMP sensing systems and resistance mechanisms. We conclude with new approaches for studying the bacterial membrane, e.g., lipidomics, high resolution imaging and non-detergent-based membrane domain extraction.

  15. Binaural hearing in children using Gaussian enveloped and transposed tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Erica; Kan, Alan; Winn, Matthew B; Stoelb, Corey; Litovsky, Ruth Y

    2016-04-01

    Children who use bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs) show significantly poorer sound localization skills than their normal hearing (NH) peers. This difference has been attributed, in part, to the fact that cochlear implants (CIs) do not faithfully transmit interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs), which are known to be important cues for sound localization. Interestingly, little is known about binaural sensitivity in NH children, in particular, with stimuli that constrain acoustic cues in a manner representative of CI processing. In order to better understand and evaluate binaural hearing in children with BiCIs, the authors first undertook a study on binaural sensitivity in NH children ages 8-10, and in adults. Experiments evaluated sound discrimination and lateralization using ITD and ILD cues, for stimuli with robust envelope cues, but poor representation of temporal fine structure. Stimuli were spondaic words, Gaussian-enveloped tone pulse trains (100 pulse-per-second), and transposed tones. Results showed that discrimination thresholds in children were adult-like (15-389 μs for ITDs and 0.5-6.0 dB for ILDs). However, lateralization based on the same binaural cues showed higher variability than seen in adults. Results are discussed in the context of factors that may be responsible for poor representation of binaural cues in bilaterally implanted children.

  16. Hospitals Productivity Measurement Using Data Envelopment Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabipour, Amin; Najarzadeh, Maryam; Arab, Mohammad; Farzianpour, Freshteh; Ghasemzadeh, Roya

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to measure the hospital productivity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique and Malmquist indices. This is a cross sectional study in which the panel data were used in a 4 year period from 2007 to 2010. The research was implemented in 12 teaching and non-teaching hospitals of Ahvaz County. Data envelopment analysis technique and the Malmquist indices with an input-orientation approach, was used to analyze the data and estimation of productivity. Data were analyzed using the SPSS.18 and DEAP.2 software. Six hospitals (50%) had a value lower than 1, which represents an increase in total productivity and other hospitals were non-productive. the average of total productivity factor (TPF) was 1.024 for all hospitals, which represents a decrease in efficiency by 2.4% from 2007 to 2010. The average technical, technologic, scale and managerial efficiency change was 0.989, 1.008, 1.028, and 0.996 respectively. There was not a significant difference in mean productivity changes among teaching and non-teaching hospitals (P>0.05) (except in 2009 years). Productivity rate of hospitals had an increasing trend generally. However, the total average of productivity was decreased in hospitals. Besides, between the several components of total productivity, variation of technological efficiency had the highest impact on reduce of total average of productivity.

  17. A novel family of plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vidya; Poulet, Axel; Détourné, Gwénaëlle; Tatout, Christophe; Vanrobays, Emmanuel; Evans, David E; Graumann, Katja

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the characterisation of a new family of higher plant nuclear envelope-associated proteins (NEAPs) that interact with other proteins of the nuclear envelope. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the family consists of three genes expressed ubiquitously (AtNEAP1-3) and a pseudogene (AtNEAP4). NEAPs consist of extensive coiled-coil domains, followed by a nuclear localisation signal and a C-terminal predicted transmembrane domain. Domain deletion mutants confirm the presence of a functional nuclear localisation signal and transmembrane domain. AtNEAP proteins localise to the nuclear periphery as part of stable protein complexes, are able to form homo- and heteromers, and interact with the SUN domain proteins AtSUN1 and AtSUN2, involved in the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. An A. thaliana cDNA library screen identified a putative transcription factor called AtbZIP18 as a novel interactor of AtNEAP1, which suggest a connection between NEAP and chromatin. An Atneap1 Atneap3 double-knockout mutant showed reduced root growth, and altered nuclear morphology and chromatin structure. Thus AtNEAPs are suggested as inner nuclear membrane-anchored coiled-coil proteins with roles in maintaining nuclear morphology and chromatin structure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Optimum moisture levels for biodegradation of mortality composting envelope materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Moisture affects the physical and biological properties of compost and other solid-state fermentation matrices. Aerobic microbial systems experience different respiration rates (oxygen uptake and CO2 evolution) as a function of moisture content and material type. In this study the microbial respiration rates of 12 mortality composting envelope materials were measured by a pressure sensor method at six different moisture levels. A wide range of respiration (1.6-94.2mg O2/g VS-day) rates were observed for different materials, with alfalfa hay, silage, oat straw, and turkey litter having the highest values. These four envelope materials may be particularly suitable for improving internal temperature and pathogen destruction rates for disease-related mortality composting. Optimum moisture content was determined based on measurements across a range that spans the maximum respiration rate. The optimum moisture content of each material was observed near water holding capacity, which ranged from near 60% to over 80% on a wet basis for all materials except a highly stabilized soil compost blend (optimum around 25% w.b.). The implications of the results for moisture management and process control strategies during mortality composting are discussed.

  19. Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Kim, Sunghun; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    To identify a comprehensive stress envelope, i.e., strength anisotropy map, of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) for practical component design, tensile and compressive tests were conducted using the small specimen test technique specifically tailored for high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were, however, estimated using the off-axial tensile method and assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion, i.e., Tsai–Wu criterion, is valid for the composites. The preliminary test results indicate no significant degradation to either proportional limit stress (PLS) or fracture strength by tensile loading at temperatures below 1000 °C. A similarly good tolerance of compressive properties was identified at elevated temperatures, except for a slight degradation in PLS. With the high-temperature test data of tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties, the stress envelopes at elevated temperatures were finally obtained. A slight reduction in the design limit was obvious at elevated temperatures when the compressive mode is dominant, whereas a negligibly small impact on the design is expected by considering the tensile loading case

  20. Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Takashi, E-mail: nozawa.takashi67@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Kim, Sunghun [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To identify a comprehensive stress envelope, i.e., strength anisotropy map, of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) for practical component design, tensile and compressive tests were conducted using the small specimen test technique specifically tailored for high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were, however, estimated using the off-axial tensile method and assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion, i.e., Tsai–Wu criterion, is valid for the composites. The preliminary test results indicate no significant degradation to either proportional limit stress (PLS) or fracture strength by tensile loading at temperatures below 1000 °C. A similarly good tolerance of compressive properties was identified at elevated temperatures, except for a slight degradation in PLS. With the high-temperature test data of tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties, the stress envelopes at elevated temperatures were finally obtained. A slight reduction in the design limit was obvious at elevated temperatures when the compressive mode is dominant, whereas a negligibly small impact on the design is expected by considering the tensile loading case.

  1. Envelope method for determination of the ion linear accelerator acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharshanov, A.A.; Goncharenko, I.I.; Revutskij, E.I.

    1974-01-01

    The acceptance defined by the slit u 2 2 in space u, ν, z (u=coordinate of the accelerated particle in the direction perpendicular to the accelerator axis, ν=ratio of the transverse particle velocity component to the longitudinal component, z=accelerator axis, a=dimensions of slit) represents a convex curvilinear polygon with centre of symmetry at the origin of the co-ordinates. The sides of the polygon are sections of ellipses and straight lines, the ellipses being part of an envelope to the set of proto-types of all cross-sections of the slit in planes z=3, where 0<=xi<=z and z is the length of the accelerator, and the straight lines are tangents to the ends of the envelope. In the paper the equations of the ellipses forming the sides of the polygon are written using an elementary variable matrix of the accelerator structure, and the co-ordinates of the polygon apexes are found. A numerical value is derived for the area of the polygon for one transverse co-ordinate of the particular accelerator, the pre-stripping section of the LUMZI-10. (author)

  2. Therapeutic targeting strategies using endogenous cells and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayath, Neha N; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-07-28

    Targeted drug delivery has become extremely important in enhancing efficacy and reducing the toxicity of therapeutics in the treatment of various disease conditions. Current approaches include passive targeting, which relies on naturally occurring differences between healthy and diseased tissues, and active targeting, which utilizes various ligands that can recognize targets expressed preferentially at the diseased site. Clinical translation of these mechanisms faces many challenges including the immunogenic and toxic effects of these non-natural systems. Thus, use of endogenous targeting systems is increasingly gaining momentum. This review is focused on strategies for employing endogenous moieties, which could serve as safe and efficient carriers for targeted drug delivery. The first part of the review involves cells and cellular components as endogenous carriers for therapeutics in multiple disease states, while the second part discusses the use of endogenous plasma components as endogenous carriers. Further understanding of the biological tropism with cells and proteins and the newer generation of delivery strategies that exploits these endogenous approaches promises to provide better solutions for site-specific delivery and could further facilitate clinical translations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ tissue regeneration: chemoattractants for endogenous stem cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Berg-Foels, Wendy S

    2014-02-01

    Tissue engineering uses cells, signaling molecules, and/or biomaterials to regenerate injured or diseased tissues. Ex vivo expanded mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have long been a cornerstone of regeneration therapies; however, drawbacks that include altered signaling responses and reduced homing capacity have prompted investigation of regeneration based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Recent successful proof-of-concept studies have further motivated endogenous MSC recruitment-based approaches. Stem cell migration is required for morphogenesis and organogenesis during development and for tissue maintenance and injury repair in adults. A biomimetic approach to in situ tissue regeneration by endogenous MSC requires the orchestration of three main stages: MSC recruitment, MSC differentiation, and neotissue maturation. The first stage must result in recruitment of a sufficient number of MSC, capable of effecting regeneration, to the injured or diseased tissue. One of the challenges for engineering endogenous MSC recruitment is the selection of effective chemoattractant(s). The objective of this review is to synthesize and evaluate evidence of recruitment efficacy by reported chemoattractants, including growth factors, chemokines, and other more recently appreciated MSC chemoattractants. The influence of MSC tissue sources, cell culture methods, and the in vitro and in vivo environments is discussed. This growing body of knowledge will serve as a basis for the rational design of regenerative therapies based on endogenous MSC recruitment. Successful endogenous MSC recruitment is the first step of successful tissue regeneration.

  4. P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, R; Akbay, E; Camsari, A; Ozcan, T

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Seventy-one patients with sublinical thyrotoxicosis (34 endogenous, 37 exogenous) and 69 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin) on electrocardiogram recordings were measured and PWD was calculated as Pmax-Pmin. Pmax (pendogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with the control group. Pmax (pexogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis compared with the control group. Pmax (p=0.710) and PWD (p=0.127) were not significantly different in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients. Pmax and PWD negatively associated with TSH in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we observed that Pmax and PWD were longer in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.

  5. Exogenous and endogenous spatial attention effects on visuospatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabiano; Santangelo, Valerio; Raffone, Antonino; Lupiáñez, Juan; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we investigate how exogenous and endogenous orienting of spatial attention affect visuospatial working memory (VSWM). Specifically, we focused on two attentional effects and their consequences on storage in VSWM, when exogenous (Experiment 1) or endogenous (Experiment 2) orienting cues were used. The first effect, known as the meridian effect, is given by a decrement in behavioural performance when spatial cues and targets are presented in locations separated by vertical and/or horizontal meridians. The second effect, known as the distance effect, is given by a decrement in the orienting effects as a function of the spatial distance between cues and targets. Our results revealed a dissociation between exogenous and endogenous orienting mechanisms in terms of both meridian and distance effects. We found that meridian crossing affects performance only when endogenous cues were used. Specifically, VSWM performance with endogenous cueing depended more on the number of meridian crossings than on distance between cue and target. By contrast, a U-shaped distance dependency was observed using exogenous cues. Our findings therefore suggest that exogenous and endogenous orienting mechanisms lead to different forms of attentional bias for storage in VSWM.

  6. The Experimental Research on Seismic Capacity of the Envelope Systems with Steel Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuyang; Wang, Bingbing; Li, Hengxu

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, according to the present application situation of the external envelope systems steel frame in the severe cold region, the stuffed composite wall panels are improved, the flexible connection with the steel frame is designed, the reduced scale specimens are made, the seismic capacity test is made and some indexes of the envelope systems such as bearing capacity, energy consumption and ductility, etc. are compared, which provide reference for the development and application of the steel frame envelope systems.

  7. CCR5 Signal Transduction in Macrophages by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Arthos, James; Rubbert, Andrea; Rabin, Ronald L.; Cicala, Claudia; Machado, Elizabeth; Wildt, Kathryne; Hanbach, Meredith; Steenbeke, Tavis D.; Swofford, Ruth; Farber, Joshua M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelopes to transduce signals through chemokine coreceptors on macrophages was examined by measuring the ability of recombinant envelope proteins to mobilize intracellular calcium stores. Both HIV and SIV envelopes mobilized calcium via interactions with CCR5. The kinetics of these responses were similar to those observed when macrophages were treated with MIP-1β. Distinct differences in the capacity o...

  8. Combined centroid-envelope dynamics of intense, magnetically focused charged beams surrounded by conducting walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiuza, K.; Rizzato, F.B.; Pakter, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the combined envelope-centroid dynamics of magnetically focused high-intensity charged beams surrounded by conducting walls. Similar to the case where conducting walls are absent, it is shown that the envelope and centroid dynamics decouple from each other. Mismatched envelopes still decay into equilibrium with simultaneous emittance growth, but the centroid keeps oscillating with no appreciable energy loss. Some estimates are performed to analytically obtain characteristics of halo formation seen in the full simulations

  9. Evolution of a blue supergiant with a neutron star companion immersed in its envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, A.J.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of a binary system consisting of 1 Msub(sun) neutron star and a 25 Msub(sun) blue supergiant through a phase of common envelope is investigated. We include the effects of an additional energy source on the supergiant's envelope, due to the presence of the neutron star, and variable mass loss from the system, taken as proportional to the total luminosity. The results indicate that, independently of the initial period, the system loses its whole envelope as a consequence of the common envelope phase, the final product of this being a detached system, consisting of a neutron star and a helium star. (orig.)

  10. African Swine Fever Virus Undergoes Outer Envelope Disruption, Capsid Disassembly and Inner Envelope Fusion before Core Release from Multivesicular Endosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hernáez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever virus (ASFV is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV that causes a highly lethal disease in domestic pigs. As other NCLDVs, the extracellular form of ASFV possesses a multilayered structure consisting of a genome-containing nucleoid successively wrapped by a thick protein core shell, an inner lipid membrane, an icosahedral protein capsid and an outer lipid envelope. This structural complexity suggests an intricate mechanism of internalization in order to deliver the virus genome into the cytoplasm. By using flow cytometry in combination with pharmacological entry inhibitors, as well as fluorescence and electron microscopy approaches, we have dissected the entry and uncoating pathway used by ASFV to infect the macrophage, its natural host cell. We found that purified extracellular ASFV is internalized by both constitutive macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Once inside the cell, ASFV particles move from early endosomes or macropinosomes to late, multivesicular endosomes where they become uncoated. Virus uncoating requires acidic pH and involves the disruption of the outer membrane as well as of the protein capsid. As a consequence, the inner viral membrane becomes exposed and fuses with the limiting endosomal membrane to release the viral core into the cytosol. Interestingly, virus fusion is dependent on virus protein pE248R, a transmembrane polypeptide of the inner envelope that shares sequence similarity with some members of the poxviral entry/fusion complex. Collective evidence supports an entry model for ASFV that might also explain the uncoating of other multienveloped icosahedral NCLDVs.

  11. Mutations That Alter the Bacterial Cell Envelope Increase Lipid Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmer, Kimberly C.; Zhang, Weiping; Langer, Samantha J.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Hu, Dehong; Lemke, Rachelle A.; Piotrowski, Jeff S.; Orr, Galya; Noguera, Daniel R.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2017-05-23

    ABSTRACT

    Lipids from microbes offer a promising source of renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived compounds. In particular, oleaginous microbes are of interest because they accumulate a large fraction of their biomass as lipids. In this study, we analyzed genetic changes that alter lipid accumulation inRhodobacter sphaeroides. By screening anR. sphaeroidesTn5mutant library for insertions that increased fatty acid content, we identified 10 high-lipid (HL) mutants for further characterization. These HL mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to drugs that target the bacterial cell envelope and changes in shape, and some had the ability to secrete lipids, with two HL mutants accumulating ~60% of their total lipids extracellularly. When one of the highest-lipid-secreting strains was grown in a fed-batch bioreactor, its lipid content was comparable to that of oleaginous microbes, with the majority of the lipids secreted into the medium. Based on the properties of these HL mutants, we conclude that alterations of the cell envelope are a previously unreported approach to increase microbial lipid production. We also propose that this approach may be combined with knowledge about biosynthetic pathways, in this or other microbes, to increase production of lipids and other chemicals.

    IMPORTANCEThis paper reports on experiments to understand how to increase microbial lipid production. Microbial lipids are often cited as one renewable replacement for petroleum-based fuels and chemicals, but strategies to increase the yield of these compounds are needed to achieve this goal. While lipid biosynthesis is often well understood, increasing yields of these compounds to industrially relevant levels is a challenge, especially since genetic, synthetic biology, or engineering approaches are not feasible in many microbes. We show that altering the bacterial cell envelope can be used to increase

  12. CISBAT 2007 - Design and renovation of building envelopes (bioclimatic architecture)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This is the second part of the proceedings of the 2007 CISBAT conference on Renewables in a changing climate, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. On the subject of sustainable building envelopes the following oral contributions are summarised: 'Flexible photovoltaics integrated in transparent membrane and pneumatic foil constructions', 'Development of a numerical thermal model for double skin facades', 'Thermal performance analysis for an electrochromic vacuum glazing with low emittance coatings', 'Challenging the public building sector: optimization of energy performance by sustainable strategies', 'Simulation of the thermal performance of a climate adaptive skin', 'Possibilities for upgrading prefabricated concrete building envelopes', 'Experimental study of airflow and heat transfer in a double skin facade with blinds', 'Energy efficiency of a glazing system - Case study: a dynamic glazing and double skin facades - the use of venetian blinds and night ventilation for saving energy on mediterranean climate'. Poster-sessions on the subject include 'Adaptive building envelopes design ', 'GRC facade panels in Brazil', 'Solar absorptance of building opaque surfaces', 'Evaluating the thermal behavior of exterior walls (in residential buildings of hot-dry climate of Yazd)', 'Energy performance of buildings and local energy policy: the case of new residential buildings in Greve in Chianti (Firenze)', 'Space heating and domestic hot water energy demand in high-level-insulation multi-storey buildings in Tuscany (Italy)', 'Is 2000 W society possible, affordable, and socially acceptable for the Vaud existing school building?', 'Development of simplified method for measuring solar shading performance of windows', 'Studies of ecological architecture in China's Loess Plateau region', 'Contemporary mud

  13. Endogenous Cortical Oscillations Constrain Neuromodulation by Weak Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen L.; Iyengar, Apoorva K.; Foulser, A. Alban; Boyle, Michael R.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation modality that may modulate cognition by enhancing endogenous neocortical oscillations with the application of sine-wave electric fields. Yet, the role of endogenous network activity in enabling and shaping the effects of tACS has remained unclear. Objective We combined optogenetic stimulation and multichannel slice electrophysiology to elucidate how the effect of weak sine-wave electric field depends on the ongoing cortical oscillatory activity. We hypothesized that the structure of the response to stimulation depended on matching the stimulation frequency to the endogenous cortical oscillation. Methods We studied the effect of weak sine-wave electric fields on oscillatory activity in mouse neocortical slices. Optogenetic control of the network activity enabled the generation of in vivo like cortical oscillations for studying the temporal relationship between network activity and sine-wave electric field stimulation. Results Weak electric fields enhanced endogenous oscillations but failed to induce a frequency shift of the ongoing oscillation for stimulation frequencies that were not matched to the endogenous oscillation. This constraint on the effect of electric field stimulation imposed by endogenous network dynamics was limited to the case of weak electric fields targeting in vivo-like network dynamics. Together, these results suggest that the key mechanism of tACS may be enhancing but not overriding of intrinsic network dynamics. Conclusion Our results contribute to understanding the inconsistent tACS results from human studies and propose that stimulation precisely adjusted in frequency to the endogenous oscillations is key to rational design of non-invasive brain stimulation paradigms. PMID:25129402

  14. Arabidopsis Tic40 expression in tobacco chloroplasts results in massive proliferation of the inner envelope membrane and upregulation of associated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nameirakpam Dolendro; Li, Ming; Lee, Sueng-Bum; Schnell, Danny; Daniell, Henry

    2008-12-01

    The chloroplast inner envelope membrane (IM) plays essential roles in lipid synthesis, metabolite transport, and cellular signaling in plants. We have targeted a model nucleus-encoded IM protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, pre-Tic40-His, by relocating its expression from the nucleus to the chloroplast genome. Pre-Tic40-His was properly targeted, processed, and inserted. It attained correct topology and was folded and assembled into a TIC complex, where it accounted for up to 15% of the total chloroplast protein. These results confirm the existence of a novel pathway for protein targeting to the IM. Tic40-His overexpression resulted in a massive proliferation of the IM (up to 19 layers in electron micrographs) without significant effects on plant growth or reproduction. Consistent with IM proliferation, the expression levels of other endogenous IM proteins (IEP37, PPT, Tic110) were significantly (10-fold) upregulated but those of outer envelope membrane (Toc159), stromal (hsp93, cpn60), or thylakoid (LHCP, OE23) proteins were not increased, suggesting retrograde signal transduction between chloroplast and nuclear genomes to increase lipid and protein components for accommodation of increased accumulation of Tic40. This study opens the door for understanding the regulation of membrane biogenesis within the organelle and the utilization of transgenic chloroplasts as bioreactors for hyperaccumulation of membrane proteins for biotechnological applications.

  15. Conservation of the egg envelope digestion mechanism of hatching enzyme in euteleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mari; Yasumasu, Shigeki; Shimizu, Akio; Sano, Kaori; Iuchi, Ichiro; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2010-12-01

    We purified two hatching enzymes, namely high choriolytic enzyme (HCE; EC 3.4.24.67) and low choriolytic enzyme (LCE; EC 3.4.24.66), from the hatching liquid of Fundulus heteroclitus, which were named Fundulus HCE (FHCE) and Fundulus LCE (FLCE). FHCE swelled the inner layer of egg envelope, and FLCE completely digested the FHCE-swollen envelope. In addition, we cloned three Fundulus cDNAs orthologous to cDNAs for the medaka precursors of egg envelope subunit proteins (i.e. choriogenins H, H minor and L) from the female liver. Cleavage sites of FHCE and FLCE on egg envelope subunit proteins were determined by comparing the N-terminal amino acid sequences of digests with the sequences deduced from the cDNAs for egg envelope subunit proteins. FHCE and FLCE cleaved different sites of the subunit proteins. FHCE efficiently cleaved the Pro-X-Y repeat regions into tripeptides to dodecapeptides to swell the envelope, whereas FLCE cleaved the inside of the zona pellucida domain, the core structure of egg envelope subunit protein, to completely digest the FHCE-swollen envelope. A comparison showed that the positions of hatching enzyme cleavage sites on egg envelope subunit proteins were strictly conserved between Fundulus and medaka. Finally, we extended such a comparison to three other euteleosts (i.e. three-spined stickleback, spotted halibut and rainbow trout) and found that the egg envelope digestion mechanism was well conserved among them. During evolution, the egg envelope digestion by HCE and LCE orthologs was established in the lineage of euteleosts, and the mechanism is suggested to be conserved. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 FEBS.

  16. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  17. Data Envelopment Analysis with Uncertain Inputs and Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA, as a useful management and decision tool, has been widely used since it was first invented by Charnes et al. in 1978. On the one hand, the DEA models need accurate inputs and outputs data. On the other hand, in many situations, inputs and outputs are volatile and complex so that they are difficult to measure in an accurate way. The conflict leads to the researches of uncertain DEA models. This paper will consider DEA in uncertain environment, thus producing a new model based on uncertain measure. Due to the complexity of the new uncertain DEA model, an equivalent deterministic model is presented. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the uncertain DEA model.

  18. Modeling technical efficiency of inshore fishery using data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rahayu; Zahid, Zalina; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh

    2016-10-01

    Fishery industry contributes significantly to the economy of Malaysia. This study utilized Data Envelopment Analysis application in estimating the technical efficiency of fishery in Terengganu, a state on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, based on multiple output, i.e. total fish landing and income of fishermen with six inputs, i.e. engine power, vessel size, number of trips, number of workers, cost and operation distance. The data were collected by survey conducted between November and December 2014. The decision making units (DMUs) involved 100 fishermen from 10 fishery areas. The result showed that the technical efficiency in Season I (dry season) and Season II (rainy season) were 90.2% and 66.7% respectively. About 27% of the fishermen were rated to be efficient during Season I, meanwhile only 13% of the fishermen achieved full efficiency 100% during Season II. The results also found out that there was a significance difference in the efficiency performance between the fishery areas.

  19. Modeling data irregularities and structural complexities in data envelopment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Joe

    2007-01-01

    In a relatively short period of time, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has grown into a powerful quantitative, analytical tool for measuring and evaluating performance. It has been successfully applied to a whole variety of problems in many different contexts worldwide. This book deals with the micro aspects of handling and modeling data issues in modeling DEA problems. DEA's use has grown with its capability of dealing with complex "service industry" and the "public service domain" types of problems that require modeling of both qualitative and quantitative data. This handbook treatment deals with specific data problems including: imprecise or inaccurate data; missing data; qualitative data; outliers; undesirable outputs; quality data; statistical analysis; software and other data aspects of modeling complex DEA problems. In addition, the book will demonstrate how to visualize DEA results when the data is more than 3-dimensional, and how to identify efficiency units quickly and accurately.

  20. Estimating returns to scale in imprecise data envelopment analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatami-Marbini, Adel; Beigi, Zahra Ghelej; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    The economic concept of Returns-to-Scale (RTS) has been intensively studied in the context of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The conventional DEA models that are used for RTS classification require well-defined and accurate data whereas in reality data are often imprecise, vague, uncertain......-decreasing and variable RTS. The situation for non-increasing (non-decreasing) RTS is then divided into two partitions; constant or decreasing (constant or increasing) RTS using sensitivity analysis. Additionally, the situation for variable RTS is split into three partitions consisting of constant, decreasing...... and increasing RTS using sensitivity analysis. Finally, we present the stability region of an observation while preserving its current RTS classification using the optimal values of a set of proposed DEA-based models....

  1. A statistical test for outlier identification in data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Khodabin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the use of peer group data to assess individual, typical or best practice performance, the effective detection of outliers is critical for achieving useful results. In these ‘‘deterministic’’ frontier models, statistical theory is now mostly available. This paper deals with the statistical pared sample method and its capability of detecting outliers in data envelopment analysis. In the presented method, each observation is deleted from the sample once and the resulting linear program is solved, leading to a distribution of efficiency estimates. Based on the achieved distribution, a pared test is designed to identify the potential outlier(s. We illustrate the method through a real data set. The method could be used in a first step, as an exploratory data analysis, before using any frontier estimation.

  2. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  3. Construction Project Success ranking through the Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Zahedi-Seresht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to rank construction projects' success in a post delivery phase. To attain this objective, a data envelopment analysis (DEA approach is used. The model's output is a project success index which is calculated based on five project success criteria. These criteria which are determined by a two-round Delphi questionnaire survey are time performance, cost performance, quality, HSE, and customer satisfaction. The input factors which have effects on the output measures are Organizational Sponsorship, Project Manager Competency, Customer Organization, Project Operational Environment and Organizational Experience. The tool adopted to determine these factors is questionnaire. This model is applied for 9 projects with different importance of output and input factors and the reasonable result is achieved for ranking these projects.

  4. Frontier Assignment for Sensitivity Analysis of Data Envelopment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Akio; Aoki, Shingo; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    To extend the sensitivity analysis capability for DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis), this paper proposes frontier assignment based DEA (FA-DEA). The basic idea of FA-DEA is to allow a decision maker to decide frontier intentionally while the traditional DEA and Super-DEA decide frontier computationally. The features of FA-DEA are as follows: (1) provides chances to exclude extra-influential DMU (Decision Making Unit) and finds extra-ordinal DMU, and (2) includes the function of the traditional DEA and Super-DEA so that it is able to deal with sensitivity analysis more flexibly. Simple numerical study has shown the effectiveness of the proposed FA-DEA and the difference from the traditional DEA.

  5. Development of building envelope structures; Udvikling af klimaskaermskonstruktioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monefeldt Tommerup, H. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark); Munch-Andersen, J. [Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Hoersholm (Denmark); Kjaer Esbensen, P. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2000-08-01

    The present report concludes the work concerning the development of building envelope constructions, which can form the basis of new buildings with considerably less heat demand than in the present building regulations. It has been made probable that it is technically possible to build exterior walls with less heat loss than those just complying with the requirements of the current building regulations with no considerable added use of material apart from insulation. In their structure many of the shown constructions resemble types that are used today, while others presuppose that one part of the wall is attached to the other part or possibly to the rafters. Calculations concerning the importance of heat capacity for a 100 m{sup 2} single-family house have been made which confirm that by using heavy rather than light envelope constructions the reduction of the heating requirements is relatively small. Therefore optimisation of the insulation level can be carried out separately on the building components. A method has been developed for the evaluation of the optimum insulation level for the individual building components of the building envelope based on life cycle cost analysis. The method is based on making up the changes in the operational energy costs/ heating-costs and the cost of construction due to a change in the insulation thickness over a 30-year period. The life span of the primary parts of the building envelope is estimated at 100 years. It is assumed that the gross energy consumption that covers the heating requirements and the heat loss (determined by a simple calculation of degree days) changes concurrently with the change in the insulation thickness, which has been proved to be a reasonable approximation. The life cycle cost analysis has been carried out for a test-house of about 100 m{sup 2} and with two different energy price scenarios: 0.60 dkk/kWh (including taxes and VAT) which roughly corresponds to the present energy price level, and 1.20 dkk

  6. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Envelope Glycoprotein Core Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Leopold; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis; Kadam, Rameshwar U.; Cogburn, Kristin E.; Hua, Yuanzi; Dai, Xiaoping; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Wilson, Ian A.; Law, Mansun

    2014-08-26

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold β sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.

  7. Efficiency of Polish metallurgical industry based on data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Baran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to compare the technical efficiency of 12 sectors manufacturing basic metals and metal products in Poland. This article presents the use of Data Envelopment Analysis models, to determine overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of metallurgical branches in Poland. The average technical efficiency of metallurgical industry in Poland was quite high. The analysis gives a possibility to create a ranking of sectors. Three branches were found to be fully efficient: manufacture of basic iron and steel and of ferroalloys, manufacture of basic precious and other non - ferrous metals and manufacture of tubes, pipes, hollow profiles and related fittings, of steel. The results point out the reasons of the inefficiency and provide improving directions for the inefficient sectors.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF REGIONAL EFFICIENCY IN CROATIA USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Rabar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, regional efficiency of Croatian counties is measured in three-year period (2005-2007 using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The set of inputs and outputs consists of seven socioeconomic indicators. Analysis is carried out using models with assumption of variable returns-to-scale. DEA identifies efficient counties as benchmark members and inefficient counties that are analyzed in detail to determine the sources and the amounts of their inefficiency in each source. To enable proper monitoring of development dynamics, window analysis is applied. Based on the results, guidelines for implementing necessary improvements to achieve efficiency are given. Analysis reveals great disparities among counties. In order to alleviate naturally, historically and politically conditioned unequal county positions over which economic policy makers do not have total control, categorical approach is introduced as an extension to the basic DEA models. This approach, combined with window analysis, changes relations among efficiency scores in favor of continental counties.

  9. Determinants of foamy virus envelope glycoprotein mediated resistance to superinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Angelika; Pietschmann, Thomas; Rethwilm, Axel; Lindemann, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the nature of foamy virus (FV) receptor molecules on target cells and their interaction with the viral glycoproteins. Similar to other viruses, cellular expression of the FV Env protein is sufficient to induce resistance to exogenous FV, a phenomenon called superinfection resistance (SIR). In this study we define determinants of the FV Env protein essential for mediating SIR. FV Env requires the extracellular domains of the SU and the TM subunits as well as membrane anchorage, efficient cell surface transport, and most probably correct subunit processing. This is in contrast to murine leukemia virus where secreted proteins comprising the receptor-binding domain in SU are sufficient to induce SIR. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cellular expression of the prototype FV envelope proteins induces SIR against pseudotypes with glycoproteins of other FV species, including of simian, feline, bovine, and equine origin. This implies that all of them use the same receptor molecules for viral entry

  10. Glycosylation in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and its biological implications

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Yung Shwen

    2013-08-01

    Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env gp120/gp41) plays a vital role in viral evasion from the host immune response, which occurs through the masking of key neutralization epitopes and the presentation of the Env glycosylation as \\'self\\' to the host immune system. Env glycosylation is generally conserved, yet its continual evolution plays an important role in modulating viral infectivity and Env immunogenicity. Thus, it is believed that Env glycosylation, which is a vital part of the HIV-1 architecture, also controls intra- and inter-clade genetic variations. Discerning intra- and inter-clade glycosylation variations could therefore yield important information for understanding the molecular and biological differences between HIV clades and may assist in effectively designing Env-based immunogens and in clearly understanding HIV vaccines. This review provides an in-depth perspective of various aspects of Env glycosylation in the context of HIV-1 pathogenesis. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

  11. Bank branch operating efficiency: evaluation with data envelopment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh Talebi Zarinkamar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the relative efficiency of similar units has been a popular research especially when the units were mostly non-financial. Even, similar financial units may not be necessarily evaluated based on traditional financial figures such as return of equities, return of assets, etc. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of 30 branches of an Iranian bank named Bank Mellat. The study considers four inputs including operating expenses, interest paid, capital expenditures and fixed assets. In addition, we use customers’ bank deposit, commissions and loans paid as output parameters. Using three different data envelopment analyses, the study measures the relative efficiencies of all units. The preliminary results indicate that most banks were working under desirable level of efficiency.

  12. Low-Cost Phase Change Material for Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhari, Ramin [Renewable Energy Group

    2015-08-06

    A low-cost PCM process consisting of conversion of fats and oils to PCM-range paraffins, and subsequent “encapsulation” of the paraffin using conventional plastic compounding/pelletizing equipment was demonstrated. The PCM pellets produced were field-tested in a building envelope application. This involved combining the PCM pellets with cellulose insulation, whereby 33% reduction in peak heat flux and 12% reduction in heat gain was observed (average summertime performance). The selling price of the PCM pellets produced according to this low-cost process is expected to be in the $1.50-$3.00/lb range, compared to current encapsulated PCM price of about $7.00/lb. Whole-building simulations using corresponding PCM thermal analysis data suggest a payback time of 8 to 16 years (at current energy prices) for an attic insulation retrofit project in the Phoenix climate area.

  13. Nuclear envelope and genome interactions in cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamas, Jessica A.; Capelson, Maya

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus houses an organism’s genome and is the location within the cell where all signaling induced and development-driven gene expression programs are ultimately specified. The genome is enclosed and separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope (NE), a double-lipid membrane bilayer, which contains a large variety of trans-membrane and associated protein complexes. In recent years, research regarding multiple aspects of the cell nucleus points to a highly dynamic and coordinated concert of efforts between chromatin and the NE in regulation of gene expression. Details of how this concert is orchestrated and how it directs cell differentiation and disease are coming to light at a rapid pace. Here we review existing and emerging concepts of how interactions between the genome and the NE may contribute to tissue specific gene expression programs to determine cell fate. PMID:25852741

  14. Complex envelope control of pulsed accelerating fields in superconducting cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Czarski, T

    2010-01-01

    A digital control system for superconducting cavities of a linear accelerator is presented in this work. FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) based controller, managed by MATLAB, was developed to investigate a novel firmware implementation. The LLRF - Low Level Radio Frequency system for FLASH project in DESY is introduced. Essential modeling of a cavity resonator with signal and power analysis is considered as a key approach to the control methods. An electrical model is represented by the non-stationary state space equation for the complex envelope of the cavity voltage driven by the current generator and the beam loading. The electromechanical model of the superconducting cavity resonator including the Lorentz force detuning has been developed for a simulation purpose. The digital signal processing is proposed for the field vector detection. The field vector sum control is considered for multiple cavities driven by one klystron. An algebraic, complex domain model is proposed for the system analysis. The c...

  15. Solubilization of glycoproteins of envelope viruses by detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, V.E.; Zaides, V.M.; Artamsnov, A.F.; Isaeva, E.S.; Zhdanov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    The action of a number of known ionic and nonionic detergents, as well as the new nonionic detergent MESK, on envelope viruses was investigated. It was shown that the nonionic detergents MESK, Triton X-100, and octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside selectively solubilize the outer glycoproteins of the virus particles. The nonionic detergent MESK has the mildest action. Using MESK, purified glycoproteins of influenza, parainfluenza, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, rabies, and herpes viruses were obtained. The procedure for obtaining glycoproteins includes incubation of the virus suspension with the detergent MESK, removal of subvirus structures by centrifuging, and purification of glycoproteins from detergents by dialysis. Isolated glycoproteins retain a native structure and biological activity and possess high immunogenicity. The detergent MESK is promising for laboratory tests and with respect to the production of subunit vaccines

  16. Envelope evolution of a laser pulse in an active medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.L.; Tajima, T.; Downer, M.C.; Siders, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    The authors show that the envelope velocity, v env , of a short laser pulse can, via propagation in an active medium, be made less than, equal to, or even greater than c, the vacuum phase velocity of light. Simulation results, based on moving frame propagation equations coupling the laser pulse, active medium and plasma, are presented, as well as equations that determines the design value of super- and sub-luminous v env . In this simulation the laser pulse evolves in time in a moving frame as opposed to their earlier work where the profile was fixed. The elimination of phase slippage and pump depletion effects in the laser wakefield accelerator is discussed as a particular application. Finally they discuss media properties necessary for an experimental realization of this technique

  17. Velocity structure of protostellar envelopes: gravitational collapse and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloche, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Stars form from the gravitational collapse of pre-stellar condensations in molecular clouds. The major aim of this thesis is to compare the predictions of collapse models with observations of both very young (class 0) protostars and starless condensations in millimeter molecular lines. We wish to understand what determines the masses of forming stars and whether the initial conditions have an effect on the dynamical evolution of a condensation. Using a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code, we analyze rotation and infall spectroscopic signatures to study the velocity structure of a sample of protostellar condensations. We show that the envelope of the class 0 protostar IRAM 04191 in the Taurus molecular cloud is undergoing both extended, subsonic infall and fast, differential rotation. We propose that the inner part of the envelope is a magnetically supercritical core in the process of decoupling from the ambient cloud still supported by the magnetic field. We suggest that the kinematical properties observed for IRAM 04191 are representative of the physical conditions characterizing isolated protostars shortly after point mass formation. On the other hand, a similar study for the pre-stellar condensations of the Rho Ophiuchi proto-cluster yields mass accretion rates that are an order of magnitude higher than in IRAM 04191. This suggests that individual protostellar collapse in clusters is induced by external disturbances. Moreover, we show that the condensations do not have time to orbit significantly through the proto-cluster gas before evolving into protostars and pre-main-sequence stars. This seems inconsistent with models which resort to dynamical interactions and competitive accretion to build up a mass spectrum comparable to the stellar initial mass function. We conclude that protostellar collapse is nearly spontaneous in regions of isolated star formation such as the Taurus cloud but probably strongly induced in proto-clusters. (author) [fr

  18. Evolution of building envelope construction techniques in coastal British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattock, C.; Ito, K.; Oshikawa, T. [International Eco-House Inc., (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Changes in the significant evolutionary development over the past 3 years in building envelope construction for multi storey wood frame housing in British Columbia are described. The urban areas of this region are characterized by a maritime climate which features a high frequency of wind driven rain and little accumulation of snow. Buildings are exposed to high wetting with little drying potential, and moderate temperatures allow for fungal growth even in the winter. While as in the rest of Canada wetting is often due to condensation of moisture contained in indoor air as it leaks out of the building, in British Columbia wind driven rain is a much larger source of moisture. Given this, the following principles of moisture control have been promoted to the B.C. building industry in order of priority: 1) deflection - using parts and elements of the building such as overhangs and flashings that reduce the exposure of the exterior walls to rain, 2) drainage - using envelope assemblies that will then redirect liquid water to the outside, 3) employing drying elements that promote drying through diffusion such as highly permeable wall sheathings, and 4) use of durable materials - using materials that resist rot such as treated lumber, stainless steel fastenings, etc. A variety of air barrier systems other than the conventional sealed polyethylene approach have been employed because of the introduction of recent building code requirements for enhanced airtightness and air barrier durability combined with the use of rain screen construction. This variety of air barrier systems includes: an airtight drywall, an exterior permeable membrane, and an exterior impermeable membrane.

  19. Supernovae from massive stars with extended tenuous envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessart, Luc; Yoon, Sung-Chul; Livne, Eli; Waldman, Roni

    2018-04-01

    Massive stars with a core-halo structure are interesting objects for stellar physics and hydrodynamics. Using simulations for stellar evolution, radiation hydrodynamics, and radiative transfer, we study the explosion of stars with an extended and tenuous envelope (i.e. stars in which 95% of the mass is contained within 10% or less of the surface radius). We consider both H-rich supergiant and He-giant progenitors resulting from close-binary evolution and dying with a final mass of 2.8-5 M⊙. An extended envelope causes the supernova (SN) shock to brake and a reverse shock to form, sweeping core material into a dense shell. The shock-deposited energy, which suffers little degradation from expansion, is trapped in ejecta layers of moderate optical depth, thereby enhancing the SN luminosity at early times. With the delayed 56Ni heating, we find that the resulting optical and near-IR light curves all exhibit a double-peak morphology. We show how an extended progenitor can explain the blue and featureless optical spectra of some Type IIb and Ib SNe. The dense shell formed by the reverse shock leads to line profiles with a smaller and near-constant width. This ejecta property can explain the statistically narrower profiles of Type IIb compared to Type Ib SNe, as well as the peculiar Hα profile seen in SN 1993J. At early times, our He-giant star explosion model shows a high luminosity, a blue colour, and featureless spectra reminiscent of the Type Ib SN 2008D, suggesting a low-mass progenitor.

  20. Analysis of beam envelope by transverse space charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Shin'ichi

    1997-09-01

    It is important for high current accelerators to estimate the contribution of the space charge effect to keep the beam off its beak up. The application of an envelope equation is examined in previous report in which the beam is just coasting beam (non accelerating). The analysis of space charge effect is necessary for the comparison in coming accelerator test in PNC. In order to evaluate the beam behavior in high current, the beam dynamics and beam parameters which are input to the equation for the evaluation are developed and make it ready to estimate the beam transverse dynamics by the space charge. The estimate needs to have enough accuracy for advanced code calculation. After the preparation of the analytic expression of transverse motion, the non-linear differential equation of beam dynamics is solved by a numerical method on a personal computer. The beam envelope from the equation is estimated by means of the beam emittance, current and energy. The result from the analysis shows that the transverse beam broadening is scarecely small around the beam current value of PNC design. The contribution to the beam broadening of PNC linac comes from its beam emittance. The beam broadening in 100 MeV case is almost negligible in the view of transverse space charge effect. Therefore, the electron beam is stable up to 10 A order in PNC linac design. Of course, the problem for RF supply is out of consideration here. It is important to estimate other longitudinal effect such as beam bunch effect which is lasting unevaluated. (author)

  1. Identification of new genes in a cell envelope-cell division gene cluster of Escherichia coli: cell envelope gene murG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, G P; Lutkenhaus, J F; Donachie, W D

    1980-01-01

    We report the identification, cloning, and mapping of a new cell envelope gene, murG. This lies in a group of five genes of similar phenotype (in the order murE murF murG murC ddl) all concerned with peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This group is in a larger cluster of at least 10 genes, all of which are involved in some way with cell envelope growth. Images PMID:6998962

  2. Inability of keratinocytes lacking their specific transglutaminase to form cross-linked envelopes: Absence of envelopes as a simple diagnostic test for lamellar ichthyosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Saewha; Djian, Philippe; Green, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes, late in their terminal differentiation, form cross-linked envelopes resistant to ionic detergent and reducing agent. Because the cross-linking process is catalyzed by the keratinocyte transglutaminase, the absence of active transglutaminase should result in failure of the keratinocyte to form a cross-linked envelope. Three keratinocyte strains bearing mutations in the keratinocyte transglutaminase were examined: two contained no detectable transglutaminase mRNA and no...

  3. Tissue-specific tagging of endogenous loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein tags have revolutionized cell and developmental biology, and in combination with binary expression systems they enable diverse tissue-specific studies of protein function. However these binary expression systems often do not recapitulate endogenous protein expression levels, localization, binding partners and/or developmental windows of gene expression. To address these limitations, we have developed a method called T-STEP (tissue-specific tagging of endogenous proteins that allows endogenous loci to be tagged in a tissue specific manner. T-STEP uses a combination of efficient CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting and tissue-specific recombinase-mediated tag swapping to temporally and spatially label endogenous proteins. We have employed this method to GFP tag OCRL (a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase in the endocytic pathway and Vps35 (a Parkinson's disease-implicated component of the endosomal retromer complex in diverse Drosophila tissues including neurons, glia, muscles and hemocytes. Selective tagging of endogenous proteins allows, for the first time, cell type-specific live imaging and proteomics in complex tissues.

  4. Endogenous versus Exogenous Growth Factor Regulation of Articular Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G.; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J.; Trippel, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-ß1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-ß1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-ß1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-ß1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. PMID:24105960

  5. Biopsychosocial Factors Associated with Prurigo Nodularis in Endogenous Eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Choon Chiat; Li, Huihua; Lee, Wellington; Tey, Hong Liang

    2015-01-01

    Prurigo nodularis is a dermatological manifestation secondary to chronic scratching or picking on focal areas of the skin. Its pathogenesis remains poorly understood, and limited data has indicated its association with psychological factors. To determine the biological, psychological and social factors associated with the occurrence of prurigo nodularis in patients with underlying endogenous eczema. A prospective case-control questionnaire -based study on patients with endogenous eczema, with and without prurigo nodules, was performed. The Impact of Skin Disease on Daily Life questionnaire was used to assess dimensions of physical functioning, including extent and severity of skin disease, itch, pain, fatigue and scratching, as well as dimensions of psychological and social functioning, including mood, illness cognition, disease-related impact, stigmatization and social support. Thirty-six cases and 47 controls were recruited. Patients with endogenous eczema and prurigo nodules indicated a higher itch score on the visual analog scale over the previous 4 weeks compared to those without prurigo nodules (p=0.0292). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in the scores reflecting the other parameters of physical, psychological and social functioning. In patients with endogenous eczema, those with prurigo nodules experience a greater itch intensity compared to those without prurigo nodules. There were no other physical, psychological and social factors that were found to be associated with the occurrence of prurigo nodules in endogenous eczema.

  6. Staphylococcal endogenous endophthalmitis in association with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeples, L R; Jones, N P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis as a rare infection associated with endogenous endophthalmitis.METHODS A retrospective review of three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis and sepsis due to underlying Staphylococcal vertebral osteomyelitis presenting during a 21-month time period. The ophthalmic and systemic features and management and outcomes are presented.RESULTS One patient developed unilateral endophthalmitis with cervical spine osteomyelitis, Staphylococcus aureus being isolated from blood cultures. The second presented with bilateral endophthalmitis with disseminated Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection, with thoracic and lumbar discitis and para-spinal abscesses. MRSA was cultured from vitreous, blood, and synovial fluid. Both patients received prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics. Intravitreal antibiotic therapy was used in the second patient. Excellent visual and systemic outcomes were achieved in both cases with no ocular complications. The third patient developed lumbar osteomyelitis following spinal surgery and presented with disseminated S. aureus sepsis including unilateral endogenous endophthalmitis. Despite systemic antibiotics and intensive care the patient died.CONCLUSIONS Endogenous endophthalmitis should be suspected in septic patients developing eye symptoms. Endogenous endophthalmitis with staphylococcal bone infection is a rare but serious condition. Osteomyelitis should be considered as an infective source in any such patient reporting bone pain or reduced spinal mobility. Prompt investigation and treatment can achieve favourable visual and systemic outcomes.

  7. Endogenous Cartilage Repair by Recruitment of Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Gun-Il

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has a very limited capacity for repair after injury. The adult body has a pool of stem cells that are mobilized during injury or disease. These cells exist inside niches in bone marrow, muscle, adipose tissue, synovium, and other connective tissues. A method that mobilizes this endogenous pool of stem cells will provide a less costly and less invasive alternative if these cells successfully regenerate defective cartilage. Traditional microfracture procedures employ the concept of bone marrow stimulation to regenerate cartilage. However, the regenerated tissue usually is fibrous cartilage, which has very poor mechanical properties compared to those of normal hyaline cartilage. A method that directs the migration of a large number of autologous mesenchymal stem cells toward injury sites, retains these cells around the defects, and induces chondrogenic differentiation that would enhance success of endogenous cartilage repair. This review briefly summarizes chemokines and growth factors that induce recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells, endogenous cell sources for regenerating cartilage, scaffolds for delivery of bioactive factors, and bioadhesive materials that are necessary to bring about endogenous cartilage repair.

  8. Endogenous versus exogenous growth factor regulation of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Chan, Albert G; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic growth factors that regulate the function of articular chondrocytes are candidates for articular cartilage repair. Such factors may be delivered by pharmacotherapy in the form of exogenous proteins, or by gene therapy as endogenous proteins. It is unknown whether delivery method influences growth factor effectiveness in regulating articular chondrocyte reparative functions. We treated adult bovine articular chondrocytes with exogenous recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), or with the genes encoding these growth factors for endogenous production. Treatment effects were measured as change in chondrocyte DNA content, glycosaminoglycan production, and aggrecan gene expression. We found that IGF-I stimulated chondrocyte biosynthesis similarly when delivered by either exogenous or endogenous means. In contrast, exogenous TGF-β1 stimulated these reparative functions, while endogenous TGF-β1 had little effect. Endogenous TGF-β1 became more bioactive following activation of the transgene protein product. These data indicate that effective mechanisms of growth factor delivery for articular cartilage repair may differ for different growth factors. In the case of IGF-I, gene therapy or protein therapy appear to be viable options. In contrast, TGF-β1 gene therapy may be constrained by a limited ability of chondrocytes to convert latent complexes to an active form. Published 2013 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Innate heart regeneration: endogenous cellular sources and exogenous therapeutic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliaras, Konstantinos; Vakrou, Styliani; Kapelios, Chris J; Nanas, John N

    2016-11-01

    The -once viewed as heretical- concept of the adult mammalian heart as a dynamic organ capable of endogenous regeneration has recently gained traction. However, estimated rates of myocyte turnover vary wildly and the underlying mechanisms of cardiac plasticity remain controversial. It is still unclear whether the adult mammalian heart gives birth to new myocytes through proliferation of resident myocytes, through cardiomyogenic differentiation of endogenous progenitors or through both mechanisms. In this review, the authors discuss the cellular origins of postnatal mammalian cardiomyogenesis and touch upon therapeutic strategies that could potentially amplify innate cardiac regeneration. The adult mammalian heart harbors a limited but detectable capacity for spontaneous endogenous regeneration. During normal aging, proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes is the dominant mechanism for generation of new cardiomyocytes. Following myocardial injury, myocyte proliferation increases modestly, but differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells appears to also contribute to cardiomyogenesis (although agreement on the latter point is not universal). Since cardiomyocyte deficiency underlies almost all types of heart disease, development of therapeutic strategies that amplify endogenous regeneration to a clinically-meaningful degree is of utmost importance.

  10. Automatic classification of endogenous seismic sources within a landslide body using random forest algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Floriane; Hibert, Clément; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Stumpf, André; Doubre, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Different studies have shown the presence of microseismic activity in soft-rock landslides. The seismic signals exhibit significantly different features in the time and frequency domains which allow their classification and interpretation. Most of the classes could be associated with different mechanisms of deformation occurring within and at the surface (e.g. rockfall, slide-quake, fissure opening, fluid circulation). However, some signals remain not fully understood and some classes contain few examples that prevent any interpretation. To move toward a more complete interpretation of the links between the dynamics of soft-rock landslides and the physical processes controlling their behaviour, a complete catalog of the endogeneous seismicity is needed. We propose a multi-class detection method based on the random forests algorithm to automatically classify the source of seismic signals. Random forests is a supervised machine learning technique that is based on the computation of a large number of decision trees. The multiple decision trees are constructed from training sets including each of the target classes. In the case of seismic signals, these attributes may encompass spectral features but also waveform characteristics, multi-stations observations and other relevant information. The Random Forest classifier is used because it provides state-of-the-art performance when compared with other machine learning techniques (e.g. SVM, Neural Networks) and requires no fine tuning. Furthermore it is relatively fast, robust, easy to parallelize, and inherently suitable for multi-class problems. In this work, we present the first results of the classification method applied to the seismicity recorded at the Super-Sauze landslide between 2013 and 2015. We selected a dozen of seismic signal features that characterize precisely its spectral content (e.g. central frequency, spectrum width, energy in several frequency bands, spectrogram shape, spectrum local and global maxima

  11. Enhancement of feline immunodeficiency virus infection after immunization with envelope glycoprotein subunit vaccines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); E.J. Tijhaar (Edwin); R.C. Huisman (Robin); W. Huisman (Willem); A. de Ronde; I.H. Darby; M.J. Francis; G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractCats were immunized three times with different recombinant feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) candidate vaccines. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV)-expressed envelope glycoprotein with (vGR657) or without (vGR657 x 15) the cleavage site and an FIV envelope bacterial fusion protein

  12. The dynamics of short envelope solitons in media with controlled dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseeva, N.V.; Gromov, E.M.; Tyutin, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of short envelope solitons in media with controlled dispersion is investigated in the framework of the third-order nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Evolution of the solitons amplitude is analyzed in the adiabatic approximation. The existence of short envelope solitons independent from linear dispersion inhomogeneity is shown

  13. Implementation of Models for Building Envelope Air Flow Fields in a Whole Building Hygrothermal Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karl Grau; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    cavity such as behind the exterior cladding of a building envelope, i.e. a flow which is parallel to the construction plane. (2) Infiltration/exfiltration of air through the building envelope, i.e. a flow which is perpendicular to the constructionplane. The paper presents the models and how they have...

  14. Effects of radial envelope modulations on the collisionless trapped-electron mode in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Tian; Chen, Liu

    2018-05-01

    Adopting the ballooning-mode representation and including the effects of radial envelope modulations, we have derived the corresponding linear eigenmode equation for the collisionless trapped-electron mode in tokamak plasmas. Numerical solutions of the eigenmode equation indicate that finite radial envelope modulations can affect the linear stability properties both quantitatively and qualitatively via the significant modifications in the corresponding eigenmode structures.

  15. Bursting the Bubble - Nuclear Envelope Rupture as a Path to Genomic Instability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, P.; Wolf, K.A.; Lammerding, J.

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear envelope safeguards the genetic material inside the nucleus by separating it from the cytoplasm. Until recently, it was assumed that nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown occurs only in a highly controlled fashion during mitosis when the chromatin is condensed and divided between the daughter

  16. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations. 25.218 Section 25.218 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.218 Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS...

  17. Efficiency Enhancement of an Envelope Tracking Power Amplifier Combining Supply Shaping and Dynamic Biasing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafuri, Felice Francesco; Sira, Daniel; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to improve the performance of envelope tracking (ET) power amplifiers (PAs). The method consists of combining the supply modulation that characterizes the envelope tracking architecture with supply shaping and dynamic biasing. The inclusion of dynamic biasing allo...

  18. Design and evaluation of a Flight Envelope Protection haptic feedback system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, J.; Rodriguez Martin, M.J.M.; Lombaerts, T; van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of a shared control, haptic feedback system to communicate Flight Envelope Protection System intent. The concept uses a combination of stiffness feedback and vibration to communicate proximity of the aircraft state to flight envelope boundaries. In

  19. Analyzing energy consumption while heating one-layer building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.This paper focuses on energy consumption for heating single layer building envelopes, used in conditions of intermittent heating in different physical and mechanical and thermophysical parameters of construction materials. The authors investigated several variants of single-layer building envelopes, used frequently in building practice, with different density and coefficients of building materials thermal conductivity. For each variant of a building envelope heat leakage and time spent on heating were calculated. Heating time was calculated by both exact and approximate analytical method. Then the researchers draw a graphic dependence of energy consumption on the density of the material taking this computational data as a basis. Further analysis showed that building envelopes made of lightweight aggregate concrete and porous concrete were the most energy efficient.

  20. Advancing the manufacture of complex geometry GFRC for today's building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henriksen

    2017-06-01

    With this research the current architectural knowledge base has been advanced in terms of complex geometry thin-walled GFRC for building envelopes. The identified solutions should allow building with complex geometries to be realised using thin-walled GFRC as the envelope cladding.

  1. Protamine-induced permeabilization of cell envelopes of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Verheul, A.; Gram, Lone

    1997-01-01

    carboxyfluorescein and ATP after 2 to 5 min. Maximum antibacterial activity was reached at alkaline pH and in the absence of divalent cations. The efficient permeabilization of cell envelopes of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria suggests that protamine causes a general disruption of the cell envelope...

  2. Incipient failure detection of space shuttle main engine turbopump bearings using vibration envelope detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The results of an analysis performed on seven successive Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) static test firings, utilizing envelope detection of external accelerometer data are discussed. The results clearly show the great potential for using envelope detection techniques in SSME incipient failure detection.

  3. On the relationship between multi-channel envelope and temporal fine structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel; Decorsiere, Remi Julien Blaise; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    The envelope of a signal is broadly defined as the slow changes in time of the signal, where as the temporal fine structure (TFS) are the fast changes in time, i.e. the carrier wave(s) of the signal. The focus of this paper is on envelope and TFS in multi-channel systems. We discuss the differenc...

  4. Neuronal Rat Brain Damage Caused by Endogenous and Exogenous Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aydın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia may induce pathologic alterations within body systems and organs including brain. In this study, neuronal effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperthermia (41°C were studied in rats. METHODS: The endogenous hyperthermia (41°C was induced by lipopolysaccharide and the exogenous by an (electric heater. Possible neuronal damage was evaluated by examining healthy, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus RESULTS: At cellular level, when all neuronal tissues are taken into account; (i a significant increase in the necrotic cells was observed in the both groups (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The neural tissue of brain can show different degree of response to hyperthermia. But we can conclude that endogenous hyperthermia is more harmful to central nervous system than exogenous hyperthermia

  5. Endogenous induced technical change and the costs of Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Carraro, Carlo; Galeotti, Marzio

    2003-01-01

    We present a model for climate change policy analysis which accounts for the possibility that technology evolves endogenously and that technical change can be induced by environmental policy measures. Both the output production technology and the emission-output ratio depend upon a stock of knowledge, which accumulates through R and D activities. Two versions of this model are studied, one with endogenous technical change but exogenous environmental technical change and the other with both endogenous and induced technical change. A third version also captures technological spillover effects. As an application, the model is simulated allowing for trade of pollution permits as specified in the Kyoto Protocol and assessing the implications in terms of cost efficiency, economic growth and R and D efforts of the three different specifications of technical change

  6. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endogenous induced technical change and the costs of Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Carraro, Carlo; Galeotti, M.

    2001-09-01

    Many predictions and conclusions in the climate change literature have been made and drawn on the basis of theoretical analyses and quantitative models that are either static or that allow for simple forms of changes in technology, often along exogenously given time paths. It is therefore not clear a priori whether those conclusions and policy recipes still hold in the more realistic case of endogenously evolving technologies. In this paper, a quantitative tool with the features of an endogenous growth model is presented, which also accounts for the possibility that technical change can be induced by environmental policy measures. Both the output production technology and the emission-output ratio depend upon the stock of knowledge, which accumulates through R and D activities. R and D is thus an additional policy variable that comes into play along with pollution abatement and capital investment. Two versions of this climate model are studied, one with endogenous technical change but exogenous environmental technical change (i.e. no induced technical change) and the other with both endogenous and induced technical change. Hence, in both models technical change evolves endogenously as far as the production technology is concerned, but endogenous environmental (or induced) technical change is only accounted for in the second version. Finally, a third version of the model also captures technological spillover effects. As an application, the three versions of the model are simulated allowing for trade of pollution permits as specified in the Kyoto Protocol and assessing the implications in terms of cost efficiency, economic growth and R and D efforts of the three different specifications of technical change

  8. Alpha Power Modulates Perception Independently of Endogenous Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasskia Brüers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain. Alpha oscillations in particular have been proposed to play an important role in sensory perception. Past studies have shown that the power of ongoing EEG oscillations in the alpha band is negatively correlated with visual outcome. Moreover, it also co-varies with other endogenous factors such as attention, vigilance, or alertness. In turn, these endogenous factors influence visual perception. Therefore, it remains unclear how much of the relation between alpha and perception is indirectly mediated by such endogenous factors, and how much reflects a direct causal influence of alpha rhythms on sensory neural processing. We propose to disentangle the direct from the indirect causal routes by introducing modulations of alpha power, independently of any fluctuations in endogenous factors. To this end, we use white-noise sequences to constrain the brain activity of 20 participants. The cross-correlation between the white-noise sequences and the concurrently recorded EEG reveals the impulse response function (IRF, a model of the systematic relationship between stimulation and brain response. These IRFs are then used to reconstruct rather than record the brain activity linked with new random sequences (by convolution. Interestingly, this reconstructed EEG only contains information about oscillations directly linked to the white-noise stimulation; fluctuations in attention and other endogenous factors may still modulate brain alpha rhythms during the task, but our reconstructed EEG is immune to these factors. We found that the detection of near-perceptual threshold targets embedded within these new white-noise sequences depended on the power of the ~10 Hz reconstructed EEG over parieto-occipital channels. Around the time of presentation, higher power led to poorer performance. Thus, fluctuations in alpha power, induced here by random luminance sequences, can directly influence perception: the relation between

  9. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Hibbert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm2 of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB. We show that: i purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR

  10. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Sarah A; Watson, Rachel E B; Gibbs, Neil K; Costello, Patrick; Baldock, Clair; Weiss, Anthony S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Sherratt, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths) here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr) content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm(2)) of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB). We show that: i) purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR)-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii) exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins) are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR exposure

  11. Multi-spectral endogenous fluorescence imaging for bacterial differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomyrdin, Nikita V.; Babayants, Margarita V.; Korotkov, Oleg V.; Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Rimskaya, Elena N.; Shikunova, Irina A.; Kurlov, Vladimir N.; Cherkasova, Olga P.; Komandin, Gennady A.; Reshetov, Igor V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, the multi-spectral endogenous fluorescence imaging was implemented for bacterial differentiation. The fluorescence imaging was performed using a digital camera equipped with a set of visual bandpass filters. Narrowband 365 nm ultraviolet radiation passed through a beam homogenizer was used to excite the sample fluorescence. In order to increase a signal-to-noise ratio and suppress a non-fluorescence background in images, the intensity of the UV excitation was modulated using a mechanical chopper. The principal components were introduced for differentiating the samples of bacteria based on the multi-spectral endogenous fluorescence images.

  12. THE ROLE OF ENTEROSORBENTS IN TREATMENT OF ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ursova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of enterosorbents in treatment of almost all types of acute and chronic disorders accompanied with endogenous intoxication syndrome takes on special significance. The critical point of endogenous intoxication pathogenesis is dysfunction of microbiocenosis and intestinal barrier. The necessity of enterosorbents usage is very high due to their efficacy, safety and wide availability. Smectite dioctaedric (diosmectite, which has been successfully used in clinical practice for a long period of time, is of an increased interest among the natural enterosorbents. The main quality of diosmectite is its restoration effect on the microbiocenisis and intestinal barrier function, and with a high degree of evidence-based efficacy and safety.

  13. Testing R&D-Based Endogenous Growth Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2017-01-01

    R&D-based growth models are tested using US data for the period 1953-2014. A general growth model is developed which nests the model varieties of interest. The model implies a cointegrating relationship between multifactor productivity, research intensity, and employment. This relationship...... is estimated using cointegrated VAR models. The results provide evidence against the widely used fully endogenous variety and in favor of the semi-endogenous variety. Forecasts based on the empirical estimates suggest that the slowdown in US productivity growth will continue. Particularly, the annual long...

  14. A Functional Henipavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Pseudotyped Lentivirus Assay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder Christopher C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV are newly emerged zoonotic paramyxoviruses discovered during outbreaks in Queensland, Australia in 1994 and peninsular Malaysia in 1998/9 respectively and classified within the new Henipavirus genus. Both viruses can infect a broad range of mammalian species causing severe and often-lethal disease in humans and animals, and repeated outbreaks continue to occur. Extensive laboratory studies on the host cell infection stage of HeV and NiV and the roles of their envelope glycoproteins have been hampered by their highly pathogenic nature and restriction to biosafety level-4 (BSL-4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a henipavirus envelope glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus assay system using either a luciferase gene or green fluorescent protein (GFP gene encoding human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 genome in conjunction with the HeV and NiV fusion (F and attachment (G glycoproteins. Results Functional retrovirus particles pseudotyped with henipavirus F and G glycoproteins displayed proper target cell tropism and entry and infection was dependent on the presence of the HeV and NiV receptors ephrinB2 or B3 on target cells. The functional specificity of the assay was confirmed by the lack of reporter-gene signals when particles bearing either only the F or only G glycoprotein were prepared and assayed. Virus entry could be specifically blocked when infection was carried out in the presence of a fusion inhibiting C-terminal heptad (HR-2 peptide, a well-characterized, cross-reactive, neutralizing human mAb specific for the henipavirus G glycoprotein, and soluble ephrinB2 and B3 receptors. In addition, the utility of the assay was also demonstrated by an examination of the influence of the cytoplasmic tail of F in its fusion activity and incorporation into pseudotyped virus particles by generating and testing a panel of truncation mutants of NiV and HeV F

  15. Characterizing Functional Domains for TIM-Mediated Enveloped Virus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral

  16. Polymers in cell encapsulation from an enveloped cell perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Paul; Lazarjani, Hamideh Aghajani; Poncelet, Denis; Faas, Marijke M

    2014-04-01

    In the past two decades, many polymers have been proposed for producing immunoprotective capsules. Examples include the natural polymers alginate, agarose, chitosan, cellulose, collagen, and xanthan and synthetic polymers poly(ethylene glycol), polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, poly(ether-sulfone), polypropylene, sodium polystyrene sulfate, and polyacrylate poly(acrylonitrile-sodium methallylsulfonate). The biocompatibility of these polymers is discussed in terms of tissue responses in both the host and matrix to accommodate the functional survival of the cells. Cells should grow and function in the polymer network as adequately as in their natural environment. This is critical when therapeutic cells from scarce cadaveric donors are considered, such as pancreatic islets. Additionally, the cell mass in capsules is discussed from the perspective of emerging new insights into the release of so-called danger-associated molecular pattern molecules by clumps of necrotic therapeutic cells. We conclude that despite two decades of intensive research, drawing conclusions about which polymer is most adequate for clinical application is still difficult. This is because of the lack of documentation on critical information, such as the composition of the polymer, the presence or absence of confounding factors that induce immune responses, toxicity to enveloped cells, and the permeability of the polymer network. Only alginate has been studied extensively and currently qualifies for application. This review also discusses critical issues that are not directly related to polymers and are not discussed in the other reviews in this issue, such as the functional performance of encapsulated cells in vivo. Physiological endocrine responses may indeed not be expected because of the many barriers that the metabolites encounter when traveling from the blood stream to the enveloped cells and back to circulation. However, despite these diffusion barriers, many studies have shown optimal

  17. Human endogenous retroviruses and multiple sclerosis: innocent bystanders or disease determinants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Joseph M; Deslauriers, Andre M; Bhat, Rakesh K; Ellestad, Kristofer K; Power, Christopher

    2011-02-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) constitute 5-8% of human genomic DNA and are replication incompetent despite expression of individual HERV genes from different chromosomal loci depending on the specific tissue. Several HERV genes have been detected as transcripts and proteins in the central nervous system, frequently in the context of neuroinflammation. The HERV-W family has received substantial attention in large part because of associations with diverse syndromes including multiple sclerosis (MS) and several psychiatric disorders. A HERV-W-related retroelement, multiple sclerosis retrovirus (MSRV), has been reported in MS patients to be both a biomarker as well as an effector of aberrant immune responses. HERV-H and HERV-K have also been implicated in MS and other neurological diseases but await delineation of their contributions to disease. The HERV-W envelope-encoded glycosylated protein, syncytin-1, is encoded by chromosome 7q21 and exhibits increased glial expression within MS lesions. Overexpression of syncytin-1 in glia induces endoplasmic reticulum stress leading to neuroinflammation and the induction of free radicals, which damage proximate cells. Syncytin-1's receptor, ASCT1 is a neutral amino acid transporter expressed on glia and is suppressed in white matter of MS patients. Of interest, antioxidants ameliorate syncytin-1's neuropathogenic effects raising the possibility of using these agents as therapeutics for neuroinflammatory diseases. Given the multiple insertion sites of HERV genes as complete and incomplete open reading frames, together with their differing capacity to be expressed and the complexities of individual HERVs as both disease markers and bioactive effectors, HERV biology is a compelling area for understanding neuropathogenic mechanisms and developing new therapeutic strategies. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inherently variable responses to glucocorticoid stress among endogenous retroviruses isolated from 23 mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Karen; Lee, Young-Kwan; Chew, Alex; Chiu, Sophia; Lim, Debora; Greenhalgh, David G; Cho, Kiho

    2017-10-01

    Active participation of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in disease processes has been exemplified by the finding that the HERV (human ERV)-W envelope protein is involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease. We also demonstrated that injury-elicited stressors alter the expression of murine ERVs (MuERVs), both murine leukemia virus-type and mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-type (MMTV-MuERV). In this study, to evaluate MMTV-MuERVs' responses to stress (e.g., injury, infection)-elicited systemic glucocorticoid (GC) levels, we examined the GC-stress response of 64 MMTV-MuERV promoters isolated from the genomes of 23 mouse strains. All 64 promoters responded to treatment with a synthetic GC, dexamethasone (DEX), at a wide range from a 0.6- to 85.7-fold increase in reporter activity compared to no treatment. An analysis of the 10 lowest and 10 highest DEX responders revealed specific promoter elements exclusively present in either the three lowest or the two highest responders. Each promoter had a unique profile of transcription regulatory elements and the glucocorticoid response element (GRE) was identified in all promoters with the number of GREs ranging from 2 to 7. The three lowest DEX responders were the only promoters with two GREs. The findings from this study suggest that certain MMTV-MuERVs are more responsive to stress-elicited systemic GC elevation compared to the others. The mouse strain-specific genomic MMTV-MuERV profiles and individual MMTV-MuERVs' differential responses to GC-stress might explain, at least in part, the variable inflammatory responses to injury and/or infection, often observed among different mouse strains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Immune and Metabolic Alterations in Trauma and Sepsis edited by Dr. Raghavan Raju. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Condensins Exert Force on Chromatin-Nuclear Envelope Tethers to Mediate Nucleoplasmic Reticulum Formation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozler, Julianna; Nguyen, Huy Q.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Bosco, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Although the nuclear envelope is known primarily for its role as a boundary between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes, it plays a vital and dynamic role in many cellular processes. Studies of nuclear structure have revealed tissue-specific changes in nuclear envelope architecture, suggesting that its three-dimensional structure contributes to its functionality. Despite the importance of the nuclear envelope, the factors that regulate and maintain nuclear envelope shape remain largely unexplored. The nuclear envelope makes extensive and dynamic interactions with the underlying chromatin. Given this inexorable link between chromatin and the nuclear envelope, it is possible that local and global chromatin organization reciprocally impact nuclear envelope form and function. In this study, we use Drosophila salivary glands to show that the three-dimensional structure of the nuclear envelope can be altered with condensin II-mediated chromatin condensation. Both naturally occurring and engineered chromatin-envelope interactions are sufficient to allow chromatin compaction forces to drive distortions of the nuclear envelope. Weakening of the nuclear lamina further enhanced envelope remodeling, suggesting that envelope structure is capable of counterbalancing chromatin compaction forces. Our experiments reveal that the nucleoplasmic reticulum is born of the nuclear envelope and remains dynamic in that they can be reabsorbed into the nuclear envelope. We propose a model where inner nuclear envelope-chromatin tethers allow interphase chromosome movements to change nuclear envelope morphology. Therefore, interphase chromatin compaction may be a normal mechanism that reorganizes nuclear architecture, while under pathological conditions, such as laminopathies, compaction forces may contribute to defects in nuclear morphology. PMID:25552604

  20. Condensins exert force on chromatin-nuclear envelope tethers to mediate nucleoplasmic reticulum formation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozler, Julianna; Nguyen, Huy Q; Rogers, Gregory C; Bosco, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    Although the nuclear envelope is known primarily for its role as a boundary between the nucleus and cytoplasm in eukaryotes, it plays a vital and dynamic role in many cellular processes. Studies of nuclear structure have revealed tissue-specific changes in nuclear envelope architecture, suggesting that its three-dimensional structure contributes to its functionality. Despite the importance of the nuclear envelope, the factors that regulate and maintain nuclear envelope shape remain largely unexplored. The nuclear envelope makes extensive and dynamic interactions with the underlying chromatin. Given this inexorable link between chromatin and the nuclear envelope, it is possible that local and global chromatin organization reciprocally impact nuclear envelope form and function. In this study, we use Drosophila salivary glands to show that the three-dimensional structure of the nuclear envelope can be altered with condensin II-mediated chromatin condensation. Both naturally occurring and engineered chromatin-envelope interactions are sufficient to allow chromatin compaction forces to drive distortions of the nuclear envelope. Weakening of the nuclear lamina further enhanced envelope remodeling, suggesting that envelope structure is capable of counterbalancing chromatin compaction forces. Our experiments reveal that the nucleoplasmic reticulum is born of the nuclear envelope and remains dynamic in that they can be reabsorbed into the nuclear envelope. We propose a model where inner nuclear envelope-chromatin tethers allow interphase chromosome movements to change nuclear envelope morphology. Therefore, interphase chromatin compaction may be a normal mechanism that reorganizes nuclear architecture, while under pathological conditions, such as laminopathies, compaction forces may contribute to defects in nuclear morphology. Copyright © 2015 Bozler et al.