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Sample records for endogenous br levels

  1. Non-enzymatic antioxidant accumulations in BR-deficient and BR-insensitive barley mutants under control and drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Damian; Janeczko, Anna; Dziurka, Michal; Pociecha, Ewa; Fodor, Jozsef

    2017-12-07

    Drought is one of the most adverse stresses that affect plant growth and yield. Disturbances in metabolic activity resulting from drought cause overproduction of reactive oxygen species. It is postulated that brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant tolerance to the stress conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. An involvement of endogenous BRs in regulation of the antioxidant homeostasis is not fully clarified either. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of non-enzymatic antioxidants in barley (Hordeum vulgare) under control and drought conditions. The plant material included the 'Bowman' cultivar and a group of semi-dwarf near-isogenic lines (NILs), representing mutants deficient in BR biosynthesis or signaling. In general, accumulations of 11 compounds representing various types of non-enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed under both conditions. The analyses of accumulations of reduced and oxidized forms of ascorbate indicated that the BR mutants contain significantly higher contents of dehydroascorbic acid under drought conditions when compared with the 'Bowman' cultivar. The analysis of glutathione accumulation indicated that under the control conditions the BR-insensitive NILs contained significantly lower concentrations of this antioxidant when compared with the rest of genotypes. Therefore, we postulate that BR sensitivity is required for normal accumulation of glutathione. A complete accumulation profile of various tocopherols indicated that functional BR biosynthesis and signaling are required for their normal accumulation under both conditions. Results of this study provided an insight into the role of endogenous BRs in regulation of the non-enzymatic antioxidant homeostasis. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Double-wall carbon nanotubes doped with different Br2 doping levels: a resonance Raman study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Gustavo M; Hou, Taige; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu; Akuzawa, Noboru; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the effects of different Br2 doping levels on the radial breathing modes of "double-wall carbon nanotube (DWNT) buckypaper". The resonance Raman profile of the Br2 bands are shown for different DWNT configurations with different Br2 doping levels. Near the maximum intensity of the resonance Raman profile, mainly the Br2 molecules adsorbed on the DWNT surface contribute strongly to the observed omega(Br-Br) Raman signal.

  3. Endogenous heparin levels in the controlled asthmatic patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Since heparin possesses anti-inflammatory properties, it is hypothesised that asthmatic patients have decreased levels of circulating heparin compared with healthy individuals. Design. We compared endogenous heparin levels in controlled asthmatic patients (53 adults) from the Asthma Clinic at ...

  4. [Roles of Y box-binding protein 1 in SK-BR-3 breast cancer proliferation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianhong; Lü, Xinrui; Wang, Bing; Daudan, Lin; Yanan, Wang; Yuhui, Bu; Zhenfeng, Ma

    2014-09-30

    To explore the roles of Y box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) in breast cancer cell proliferation. Twenty cases of surgical removal of breast cancer tissue (diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma, stage II, by postoperative paraffin pathology) and normal breast tissues adjacent to carcinoma were collected during June 2013 to August 2013.Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels. Cultured mammary epithelial cells (HBL-100) and breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231 & SK-BR-3 cells) were harvested and qRT-PCR was performed to detect the YB1 mRNA levels.SK-BR-3 cells were stimulated with various concentrations of PDGF-BB and YB1 expression levels were detected by qRT-PCR. Down-regulation or over-expression of YB1 by si-YB1 or Ad-GFP-YB1 was detected in SK-BR-3 cells. And MTS cell proliferation assay kit was used to detect cell proliferation. YB1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in breast cancer tissues and MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines than that in adjacent normal breast tissues and HBL-100 mammary epithelial cells respectively (P BR-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. A down-regulation of endogenous YB1 decreases and an over-expression of exogenous YB1 promotes the proliferation activity in SK-BR-3 cells.

  5. Lethal doses of ionizing radiation versus endogenous level of superoxide dismutase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipecka, K; Domanski, T; Dniaszewska, K; Grabowska, B; Pietrowicz, D; Lindner, P; Cisowska, B; Gorski, H [Military Medical Academy, Lodz (Poland). Inst. of Occupational Medicine

    1982-06-22

    The stability of superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as its activity distribution in a human population were investigated. The SOD activity level of the erythrocytes proved to be an index for the endogenous SOD activity in the whole body. In a rat population, having similar SOD frequency distribution as a human population, the mortality due to acute irradiation depended on the SOD level; after a single acute dose approximating the lethal dose (LD/sub 50/30/) the survival depended distinctly on the endogenous SOD activity level.

  6. Gamma-ray spectroscopy in the decay of (83)Se to levels of (83)Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krane, K S

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution γ ray spectroscopy experiments have been done to study the emissions from the radioactive decay of 22-min (83g)Se produced from neutron capture using samples of enriched (82)Se. Energy and intensity values have been obtained to roughly an order of magnitude greater precision than in previous studies. Based on energy sums, 2 new levels are proposed in the daughter (83)Br and one previously proposed level is shown to be doubtful. Some 25 new transitions appear to decay with the (83)Se halflife, about half of which can be accommodated among the previous or newly proposed levels. Several previous γ ray placements are shown to be inconsistent with the new determinations of the (83)Br energy levels, but cannot be accommodated anywhere else among the known levels. As a result of the missing γ ray placements, some of the β branchings in the decay to levels of (83)Br appear to be negative. Gamma rays from the 2.4-h decay of the daughter (83)Br to levels of (83)Kr have also been observed, along with decays of (81g)(,m)Se present as a small impurity in the enriched samples and also as a strong component in irradiated samples of natural Se. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Matrix isolation and computational study of isodifluorodibromomethane (F2CBr-Br): a route to Br2 formation in CF2Br2 photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Lisa; Kalume, Aimable; El-Khoury, Patrick Z; Tarnovsky, Alexander; Reid, Scott A

    2010-02-28

    The photolysis products of dibromodifluoromethane (CF(2)Br(2)) were characterized by matrix isolation infrared and UV/Visible spectroscopy, supported by ab initio calculations. Photolysis at wavelengths of 240 and 266 nm of CF(2)Br(2):Ar samples (approximately 1:5000) held at approximately 5 K yielded iso-CF(2)Br(2) (F(2)CBrBr), a weakly bound isomer of CF(2)Br(2), which is characterized here for the first time. The observed infrared and UV/Visible absorptions of iso-CF(2)Br(2) are in excellent agreement with computational predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Single point energy calculations at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level on the B3LYP optimized geometries suggest that the isoform is a minimum on the CF(2)Br(2) potential energy surface, lying some 55 kcal/mol above the CF(2)Br(2) ground state. The energies of various stationary points on the CF(2)Br(2) potential energy surface were characterized computationally; taken with our experimental results, these show that iso-CF(2)Br(2) is an intermediate in the Br+CF(2)Br-->CF(2)+Br(2) reaction. The photochemistry of the isoform was also investigated; excitation into the intense 359 nm absorption band resulted in isomerization to CF(2)Br(2). Our results are discussed in view of the rich literature on the gas-phase photochemistry of CF(2)Br(2), particularly with respect to the existence of a roaming atom pathway leading to molecular products.

  8. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daojun; Qian, Wenliang; Wang, Yonghu; Meng, Meng; Wei, Ling; Li, Zhiqing; Kang, Lixia; Peng, Jian; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C) is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB) domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  9. Nuclear import of transcription factor BR-C is mediated by its interaction with RACK1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojun Cheng

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Broad Complex (BR-C is an early ecdysone response gene in insects and contains two types of domains: two zinc finger domains for the activation of gene transcription and a Bric-a-brac/Tramtrack/Broad complex (BTB domain for protein-protein interaction. Although the mechanism of zinc finger-mediated gene transcription is well studied, the partners interacting with the BTB domain of BR-C has not been elucidated until now. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using the BTB domain of silkworm BR-C as bait and identified the receptor for activated C-kinase 1 (RACK1, a scaffolding/anchoring protein, as the novel partner capable of interacting with BR-C. The interaction between BR-C and RACK1 was further confirmed by far-western blotting and pull-down assays. Importantly, the disruption of this interaction, via RNAi against the endogenous RACK1 gene or deletion of the BTB domain, abolished the nuclear import of BR-C in BmN4 cells. In addition, RNAi against the endogenous PKC gene as well as phosphorylation-deficient mutation of the predicted PKC phosphorylation sites at either Ser373 or Thr406 in BR-C phenocopied RACK1 RNAi and altered the nuclear localization of BR-C. However, when BTB domain was deleted, phosphorylation mimics of either Ser373 or Thr406 had no effect on the nuclear import of BR-C. Moreover, mutating the PKC phosphorylation sites at Ser373 and Thr406 or deleting the BTB domain significantly decreased the transcriptional activation of a BR-C target gene. Given that RACK1 is necessary for recruiting PKC to close and phosphorylate target proteins, we suggest that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation and nuclear import of BR-C is determined by its interaction with RACK1. This novel finding will be helpful for further deciphering the mechanism underlying the role of BR-C proteins during insect development.

  10. The carcinogenicity of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzok, R; Martin, J; Mendel, J; Thust, R; Schwarz, H

    1983-01-01

    In long-term experiments with Hooded rats the carcinogenic potential of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-1-nitrosourea (Br-MPNU) could be demonstrated for the first time. Br-MPNU is formed also endogenously after combined administration of 1-methyl-3(p-bromophenyl)-urea (Br-MPU) and sodium nitrite. After repeated intragastric administration of 0.33 mmol Br-MPU and 0.73 mmol NaNO2 per kg b.w. papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach developed in 83%. After repeated administration of 0.28 mmol Br-MPNU per kg b.w. these neoplasms were observed in 88%. The comparison of results obtained in similar experiments with 1-methyl-3-phenyl-1-nitrosourea shows that bromine substitution led to a reduction of the carcinogenic activity. The present paper is part of a complex program studying the interrelationships between structure, physico-chemical properties, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of nitrosoureas.

  11. Matrix isolation and computational study of isodifluorodibromomethane (F2CBr-Br): A route to Br2 formation in CF2Br2 photolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Lisa; Kalume, Aimable; Reid, Scott A.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Tarnovsky, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The photolysis products of dibromodifluoromethane (CF 2 Br 2 ) were characterized by matrix isolation infrared and UV/Visible spectroscopy, supported by ab initio calculations. Photolysis at wavelengths of 240 and 266 nm of CF 2 Br 2 :Ar samples (∼1:5000) held at ∼5 K yielded iso-CF 2 Br 2 (F 2 CBrBr), a weakly bound isomer of CF 2 Br 2 , which is characterized here for the first time. The observed infrared and UV/Visible absorptions of iso-CF 2 Br 2 are in excellent agreement with computational predictions at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Single point energy calculations at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ level on the B3LYP optimized geometries suggest that the isoform is a minimum on the CF 2 Br 2 potential energy surface, lying some 55 kcal/mol above the CF 2 Br 2 ground state. The energies of various stationary points on the CF 2 Br 2 potential energy surface were characterized computationally; taken with our experimental results, these show that iso-CF 2 Br 2 is an intermediate in the Br+CF 2 Br→CF 2 +Br 2 reaction. The photochemistry of the isoform was also investigated; excitation into the intense 359 nm absorption band resulted in isomerization to CF 2 Br 2 . Our results are discussed in view of the rich literature on the gas-phase photochemistry of CF 2 Br 2 , particularly with respect to the existence of a roaming atom pathway leading to molecular products.

  12. Calculations for Adjusting Endogenous Biomarker Levels During Analytical Recovery Assessments for Ligand-Binding Assay Bioanalytical Method Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelletti, John F; Evans, Cindy L; Saxena, Manju; Lopez, Adriana E

    2015-07-01

    It is often necessary to adjust for detectable endogenous biomarker levels in spiked validation samples (VS) and in selectivity determinations during bioanalytical method validation for ligand-binding assays (LBA) with a matrix like normal human serum (NHS). Described herein are case studies of biomarker analyses using multiplex LBA which highlight the challenges associated with such adjustments when calculating percent analytical recovery (%AR). The LBA test methods were the Meso Scale Discovery V-PLEX® proinflammatory and cytokine panels with NHS as test matrix. The NHS matrix blank exhibited varied endogenous content of the 20 individual cytokines before spiking, ranging from undetectable to readily quantifiable. Addition and subtraction methods for adjusting endogenous cytokine levels in %AR calculations are both used in the bioanalytical field. The two methods were compared in %AR calculations following spiking and analysis of VS for cytokines having detectable endogenous levels in NHS. Calculations for %AR obtained by subtracting quantifiable endogenous biomarker concentrations from the respective total analytical VS values yielded reproducible and credible conclusions. The addition method, in contrast, yielded %AR conclusions that were frequently unreliable and discordant with values obtained with the subtraction adjustment method. It is shown that subtraction of assay signal attributable to matrix is a feasible alternative when endogenous biomarkers levels are below the limit of quantitation, but above the limit of detection. These analyses confirm that the subtraction method is preferable over that using addition to adjust for detectable endogenous biomarker levels when calculating %AR for biomarker LBA.

  13. Thermodynamic assessment of EuBr2 unary and LiBr-EuBr2 and NaBr-EuBr2 binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Weiping; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle

    2009-01-01

    As a basis for the design and development of molten salt mixtures, thermodynamic calculations of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties were carried out on the EuBr 2 unary and LiBr-EuBr 2 and NaBr-EuBr 2 binary systems over a wide temperature and composition range, respectively. The Gibbs energy of EuBr 2 was evaluated using an independent polynomial to fit the experimental heat capacity, the thermodynamic parameters for each phase in the LiBr-EuBr 2 and NaBr-EuBr 2 systems were optimized by using available experimental information on phase diagrams. A regular substitutional solution model for the liquid phase and Neumann-Kopp rule for the stoichiometric compound LiEu 2 Br 5 were adopted to reproduce the experimental data with reasonable excess Gibbs energy. Comparisons between the calculated phase diagrams and thermodynamic quantities show that all reliable experimental information is satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic description. Some thermodynamic properties were predicted to check the suitability of the present calculation.

  14. Dye adsorbates BrPDI, BrGly, and BrAsp on anatase TiO2(001) for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, D.; Gülseren, O.; Mete, E.; Ellialtıoǧlu, Ş.

    2009-07-01

    Using the first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method within density functional theory, we systematically investigated the interaction of perylenediimide (PDI)-based dye compounds (BrPDI, BrGly, and BrAsp) with both unreconstructed (UR) and reconstructed (RC) anatase TiO2(001) surfaces. All dye molecules form strong chemical bonds with surface in the most favorable adsorption structures. In UR-BrGly, RC-BrGly, and RC-BrAsp cases, we have observed that highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels of molecules appear within band gap and conduction-band region, respectively. Moreover, we have obtained a gap narrowing upon adsorption of BrPDI on the RC surface. Because of the reduction in effective band gap of surface-dye system and possibly achieving the visible-light activity, these results are valuable for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications. We have also considered the effects of hydration of surface to the binding of BrPDI. It has been found that the binding energy drops significantly for the completely hydrated surfaces.

  15. Pathways for the OH + Br2 → HOBr + Br and HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Qiu, Yudong; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-02-11

    The OH radical reaction with Br2 and the subsequent reaction HOBr + Br are of exceptional importance to atmospheric chemistry and environmental chemistry. The entrance complex, transition state, and exit complex for both reactions have been determined using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations CCSD(T) with correlation consistent basis sets up to size cc-pV5Z and cc-pV5Z-PP. Coupled cluster effects with full triples (CCSDT) and full quadruples (CCSDTQ) are explicitly investigated. Scalar relativistic effects, spin-orbit coupling, and zero-point vibrational energy corrections are evaluated. The results from the all-electron basis sets are compared with those from the effective core potential (ECP) pseudopotential (PP) basis sets. The results are consistent. The OH + Br2 reaction is predicted to be exothermic 4.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol, compared to experiment, 3.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The entrance complex HO···BrBr is bound by 2.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol. The transition state lies similarly well below the reactants OH + Br2. The exit complex HOBr···Br is bound by 2.7 ± 0.6 kcal/mol relative to separated HOBr + Br. The endothermicity of the reaction HOBr + Br → HBr + BrO is 9.6 ± 0.7 kcal/mol, compared with experiment 8.7 ± 0.3 kcal/mol. For the more important reverse (exothermic) HBr + BrO reaction, the entrance complex BrO···HBr is bound by 1.8 ± 0.6 kcal/mol. The barrier for the HBr + BrO reaction is 6.8 ± 0.9 kcal/mol. The exit complex (Br···HOBr) for the HBr + BrO reaction is bound by 1.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol with respect to the products HOBr + Br.

  16. Bilirubin: an endogenous molecule with antiviral activity in vitro.

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    Rosaria eSantangelo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bilirubin-IX-alpha (BR is the final product of heme metabolism through the heme oxygenase/biliverdin reductase (HO/BVR system. Previous papers reported on the microbicidal effects of the HO by-products biliverdin-IX-alpha, carbon monoxide and iron, through either direct or indirect mechanisms. In this paper the evidence of a virucidal effect of BR against human herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and the enterovirus EV71 was provided. Bilirubin-IX-alpha, at concentrations 1-10 µM, close to those found in blood and tissues, significantly reduced HSV-1 and EV71 replication in Hep-2 and Vero cell lines, respectively. Bilirubin-IX-alpha inhibited viral infection of Hep-2 and Vero cells when given 2 hours before, concomitantly and 2 hours after viral infection. Furthermore, BR retained its antiviral activity even complexed with a saturating concentration of human serum-albumin. Moreover, 10 µM BR increased the formation of nitric oxide and the phosphorylation of JNK in Vero and Hep-2 cell lines, respectively, thus implying a role of these two pathways in the mechanism of antiviral activity of the bile pigment. In conclusion, these results support the antiviral effect of BR against HSV-1 and enterovirus in vitro, and put the basis for further basic and clinical studies to understand the real role of BR as an endogenous antiviral molecule.

  17. Addition reaction of adamantylideneadamantane with Br2 and 2Br2: a computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shahidul M; Poirier, Raymond A

    2008-01-10

    Ab initio calculations were carried out for the reaction of adamantylideneadamantane (Ad=Ad) with Br2 and 2Br2. Geometries of the reactants, transition states, intermediates, and products were optimized at HF and B3LYP levels of theory using the 6-31G(d) basis set. Energies were also obtained using single point calculations at the MP2/6-31G(d)//HF/6-31G(d), MP2/6-31G(d)//B3LYP/6-31G(d), and B3LYP/6-31+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) levels of theory. Intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) calculations were performed to characterize the transition states on the potential energy surface. Only one pathway was found for the reaction of Ad=Ad with one Br2 producing a bromonium/bromide ion pair. Three mechanisms for the reaction of Ad=Ad with 2Br2 were found, leading to three different structural forms of the bromonium/Br3- ion pair. Activation energies, free energies, and enthalpies of activation along with the relative stability of products for each reaction pathway were calculated. The reaction of Ad=Ad with 2Br2 was strongly favored over the reaction with only one Br2. According to B3LYP/6-31G(d) and single point calculations at MP2, the most stable bromonium/Br3- ion pair would form spontaneously. The most stable of the three bromonium/Br3- ion pairs has a structure very similar to the observed X-ray structure. Free energies of activation and relative stabilities of reactants and products in CCl4 and CH2ClCH2Cl were also calculated with PCM using the united atom (UA0) cavity model and, in general, results similar to the gas phase were obtained. An optimized structure for the trans-1,2-dibromo product was also found at all levels of theory both in gas phase and in solution, but no transition state leading to the trans-1,2-dibromo product was obtained.

  18. Investigation of the connection between the quality of protein, protein level and endogenous N excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, R.; Gebhardt, G.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of various protein qualities as well as of different levels of protein on the amount of endogenous N excretion, metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and endogenous urinary N (EUN) was determined in growing albino rats. The test rations were labelled with admixtures of 15 N-DL-methionine and 15 N-DL-lysine, respectively, or contained feed protein enriched with 15 N. EUN and MFN and their sum (the N maintenance requirement) showed the influence of the respective protein source and its dependence on the protein level. The endogenous N excretions showed an opposite tendency to the N balance; for high-quality protein feedstuffs with a high N balance (e.g. dried eggs) they are lower than for protein sources of inferior quality, with a low N-balance only (e.g. wheat gluten). Presumably this interaction of retention and maintenance is due to the complementary effect of exogenous and endogenous amino acids in the N and amino acid pool, respectively. Provided that the N dose and the live weight of the animals are comparable, the N balance appears to be more suitable as parameter for the description of the protein quality and the calculation of the protein utilisation than N retention, as the sum of N balance and the values of MFN and EUN (depending on the feedstuffs and the N level). (author)

  19. ENDOGENOUS OR EXOGENOUS INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT IN INDUSTRY ON REGIONAL LEVEL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Świadek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available At the moment endogenous growth theory has become increasingly popular in the world of science, particularly in developed countries. This article aims to show, for two regions case, the needs and sense of applying this theory in the polish regions. Due to the low level of economic development of many Polish regions, they are unable to growth in a comparable rate as regions in developed countries. This explains the economic divergence between polish regions and the highly developed regions of Europe and the World. Stimulating economic growth is insufficient in such cases, because of the weakness of its internal factors. Therefore it is important to strengthen an external impact to keep internal development. It means that the endogenous growth theory is no reason to exist, in conditions of poor polish regions. Without external inputs there can’t be convergences processes. Therefore, the economic development of the Polish regions should be based on the exogenous growth theory.

  20. Angular correlation for gamma-gamma transitions in 81Br and 83Br nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheus, R.

    1984-01-01

    The directional angular correlation of coincident gamma transitions in 81 Br and 83 Br have been measured following the β - decay of 81 Se(T sub(1/2) = 18.6 min) and 83 Se(T sub(1/2) = 22.6 min) respectively, using Ge(Li) - high purity Ge and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) spectrometers. The radioactive sources were prepared by irradiating with neutrons in the IEA-R1 reactor, metallic selenium (natural) to produce 81 Se and samples of metallic selenium enriched (to approx. 90% in 82 Se) to produce 83 Se. Measurements have been carried out for the gamma cascades 260-276 KeV, 290-276 KeV and 552-276 KeV in 81 Br and the gamma cascades 225(510)-356 KeV, 510-356 KeV, 572-(510)-356 KeV, 718-(225)-(510)-356 KeV, 1064-356 KeV, 718-225 KeV, 718-(225)-510 KeV, 836-718 KeV, 718-(225)-866 KeV, 883-718 KeV and 1895-799 KeV in 83 Br. The multipole mixing ratios, σ(E2/M1), were determined for 3 gamma transitions in 81 Br and 11 gamma transitions in 83 Br. In the case of 81 Br present results confirmed some of the earlier results. The spin and parity assignment were made to the majority of levels in 81 Br and 83 Br involved in the present study, some of them confirming the earlier results. A comparison of some of the nuclear properties of the 79 Br, 81 Br and 83 Br is made based on the available experimental data. The experimental results are also discussed qualitatively in terms of some nuclear models applicable for the description of the properties of odd-A bromine isotopes. (Author) [pt

  1. Thermodynamic assessment of NdBr3 unary and LiBr-NdBr3 binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Weiping; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle

    2006-01-01

    Phase diagram and thermodynamic properties calculations were carried out on the NdBr 3 unary and the LiBr-NdBr 3 binary systems over the entire temperature and composition range, respectively. The Gibbs energy of NdBr 3 was evaluated using an independent polynomial to fit the experimental thermodynamic properties. The liquid phase in the LiBr-NdBr 3 system was described by the two sub-lattice ionic solution model (Li + ) P : (Br - , NdBr 6 -3 , NdBr 3 ) Q . Comparisons between the calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic quantities show that all reliable experimental information was satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic description

  2. Treatment response in Kawasaki disease is associated with sialylation levels of endogenous but not therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin G.

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    Shohei Ogata

    Full Text Available Although intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is highly effective in Kawasaki disease (KD, mechanisms are not understood and 10-20% of patients are treatment-resistant, manifesting a higher rate of coronary artery aneurysms. Murine models suggest that α2-6-linked sialic acid (α2-6Sia content of IVIG is critical for suppressing inflammation. However, pro-inflammatory states also up-regulate endogenous levels of β-galactoside:α2-6 sialyltransferase-I (ST6Gal-I, the enzyme that catalyzes addition of α2-6Sias to N-glycans. We asked whether IVIG failures correlated with levels of α2-6Sia on infused IVIG or on the patient's own endogenous IgG.We quantified levels of α2-6Sia in infused IVIG and endogenous IgG from 10 IVIG-responsive and 10 resistant KD subjects using multiple approaches. Transcript levels of ST6GAL1, in patient whole blood and B cell lines were evaluated by RT-PCR. Plasma soluble (sST6Gal-I levels were measured by ELISA.There was no consistent difference in median sialylation levels of infused IVIG between groups. However, α2-6Sia levels in endogenous IgG, ST6GAL1 transcript levels, and ST6Gal-I protein in serum from IVIG-resistant KD subjects were lower than in responsive subjects at both pre-treatment and one-year time points (p <0.001, respectively.Our data indicate sialylation levels of therapeutic IVIG are unrelated to treatment response in KD. Rather, lower sialylation of endogenous IgG and lower blood levels of ST6GALI mRNA and ST6Gal-I enzyme predict therapy resistance. These differences were stable over time, suggesting a genetic basis. Because IVIG-resistance increases risk of coronary artery aneurysms, our findings have important implications for the identification and treatment of such individuals.

  3. Molecular elimination of Br2 in photodissociation of CH2BrC(O)Br at 248 nm using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, He; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Yan, Chi-Yu; Yang, Shu-Wei; Chang, A H H

    2012-12-07

    The primary elimination channel of bromine molecule in one-photon dissociation of CH(2)BrC(O)Br at 248 nm is investigated using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. By means of spectral simulation, the ratio of nascent vibrational population in v = 0, 1, and 2 levels is evaluated to be 1:(0.5 ± 0.1):(0.2 ± 0.1), corresponding to a Boltzmann vibrational temperature of 581 ± 45 K. The quantum yield of the ground state Br(2) elimination reaction is determined to be 0.24 ± 0.08. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, the obtained Br(2) fragments are anticipated to dissociate on the electronic ground state, yielding vibrationally hot Br(2) products. The temperature-dependence measurements support the proposed pathway via internal conversion. For comparison, the Br(2) yields are obtained analogously from CH(3)CHBrC(O)Br and (CH(3))(2)CBrC(O)Br to be 0.03 and 0.06, respectively. The trend of Br(2) yields among the three compounds is consistent with the branching ratio evaluation by Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus method. However, the latter result for each molecule is smaller by an order of magnitude than the yield findings. A non-statistical pathway so-called roaming process might be an alternative to the Br(2) production, and its contribution might account for the underestimate of the branching ratio calculations.

  4. Treatment response in Kawasaki disease is associated with sialylation levels of endogenous but not therapeutic intravenous immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Shohei; Shimizu, Chisato; Franco, Alessandra; Touma, Ranim; Kanegaye, John T; Choudhury, Biswa P; Naidu, Natasha N; Kanda, Yutaka; Hoang, Long T; Hibberd, Martin L; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Varki, Ajit; Burns, Jane C

    2013-01-01

    Although intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is highly effective in Kawasaki disease (KD), mechanisms are not understood and 10-20% of patients are treatment-resistant, manifesting a higher rate of coronary artery aneurysms. Murine models suggest that α2-6-linked sialic acid (α2-6Sia) content of IVIG is critical for suppressing inflammation. However, pro-inflammatory states also up-regulate endogenous levels of β-galactoside:α2-6 sialyltransferase-I (ST6Gal-I), the enzyme that catalyzes addition of α2-6Sias to N-glycans. We asked whether IVIG failures correlated with levels of α2-6Sia on infused IVIG or on the patient's own endogenous IgG. We quantified levels of α2-6Sia in infused IVIG and endogenous IgG from 10 IVIG-responsive and 10 resistant KD subjects using multiple approaches. Transcript levels of ST6GAL1, in patient whole blood and B cell lines were evaluated by RT-PCR. Plasma soluble (s)ST6Gal-I levels were measured by ELISA. There was no consistent difference in median sialylation levels of infused IVIG between groups. However, α2-6Sia levels in endogenous IgG, ST6GAL1 transcript levels, and ST6Gal-I protein in serum from IVIG-resistant KD subjects were lower than in responsive subjects at both pre-treatment and one-year time points (p treatment response in KD. Rather, lower sialylation of endogenous IgG and lower blood levels of ST6GALI mRNA and ST6Gal-I enzyme predict therapy resistance. These differences were stable over time, suggesting a genetic basis. Because IVIG-resistance increases risk of coronary artery aneurysms, our findings have important implications for the identification and treatment of such individuals.

  5. Urinary endogenous sex hormone levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onland-Moret, N.C.; Kaaks, R.; Noord, P.A.H. van; Rinaldi, S.; Key, T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Peeters, P.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the relation between urinary endogenous sex steroid levels and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, a nested case–cohort study was conducted within a large cohort (the DOM cohort) in the Netherlands (n¼9 349). Until the end of follow-up (1 January 1996), 397 postmenopausal breast

  6. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerd, Chris de; Lin, Junhao; Gomez, Leyre; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2017-09-07

    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX 3 , X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr 3 , its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs 4 PbBr 6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in detail the optical characteristics of simultaneously synthesized green-emitting CsPbBr 3 and insulating Cs 4 PbBr 6 nanocrystals. We demonstrate that, in this case, the two materials inevitably hybridize, forming nanoparticles with a spherical shape. The actual amount of these Cs 4 PbBr 6 nanocrystals and nanohybrids increases for synthesis at lower temperatures, i.e., the condition typically used for the development of perovskite CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with smaller sizes. We use state-of-the-art electron energy loss spectroscopy to characterize nanoparticles at the single object level. This method allows distinguishing between optical characteristics of a pure Cs 4 PbBr 6 and CsPbBr 3 nanocrystal and their nanohybrid. In this way, we resolve some of the recent misconceptions concerning possible visible absorption and emission of Cs 4 PbBr 6 . Our method provides detailed structural characterization, and combined with modeling, we conclusively identify the nanospheres as CsPbBr 3 /Cs 4 PbBr 6 hybrids. We show that the two phases are independent of each other's presence and merge symbiotically. Herein, the optical characteristics of the parent materials are preserved, allowing for an increased absorption in the UV due to Cs 4 PbBr 6 , accompanied by the distinctive efficient green emission resulting from CsPbBr 3 .

  7. Theoretical study and rate constant calculation for the reactions of SH (SD) with Cl2, Br2, and BrCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Jing-Yao; Li, Ze-Sheng; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2005-01-30

    The mechanisms of the SH (SD) radicals with Cl2 (R1), Br2 (R2), and BrCl (R3) are investigated theoretically, and the rate constants are calculated using a dual-level direct dynamics method. The optimized geometries and frequencies of the stationary points are calculated at the MP2/6-311G(d,p) and MPW1K/6-311G(d,p) levels. Higher-level energies are obtained at the approximate QCISD(T)/6-311++G(3df, 2pd) level using the MP2 geometries as well as by the multicoefficient correlation method based on QCISD (MC-QCISD) using the MPW1K geometries. Complexes with energies less than those of the reactants or products are located at the entrance or the exit channels of these reactions, which indicate that the reactions may proceed via an indirect mechanism. The enthalpies of formation for the species XSH/XSD (X = Cl and Br) are evaluated using hydrogenation working reactions method. By canonical variational transition-state theory (CVT), the rate constants of SH and SD radicals with Cl2, Br2, and BrCl are calculated over a wide temperature range of 200-2000 K at the a-QCISD(T)/6-311++G(3df, 2pd)//MP2/6-311G(d, p) level. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental rate constants is obtained in the measured temperature range. Our calculations show that for SH (SD) + BrCl reaction bromine abstraction (R3a or R3a') leading to the formation of BrSH (BrSD) + Cl in a barrierless process dominants the reaction with the branching ratios for channels 3a and 3a' of 99% at 298 K, which is quite different from the experimental result of k3a'/k3' = 54 +/- 10%. Negative activation energies are found at the higher level for the SH + Br2 and SH + BrCl (Br-abstraction) reactions; as a result, the rate constants show a slightly negative temperature dependence, which is consistent with the determination in the literature. The kinetic isotope effects for the three reactions are "inverse". The values of kH/kD are 0.88, 0.91, and 0.69 at room temperature, respectively, and they increase

  8. Bromine-rich Zinc Bromides: Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5, Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3, and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, David; Feldmann, Claus

    2016-06-20

    The bromine-rich zinc bromides Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1), Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3 (2), and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2 (3) are prepared by reaction of ZnBr2, 18-crown-6, and elemental bromine in the ionic liquid [MeBu3N][N(Tf)2] (N(Tf)2 = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide). Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1) is formed instantaneously by the reaction. Even at room temperature, compound 1 releases bromine, which was confirmed by thermogravimetry (TG) and mass spectrometry (MS). The release of Br2 can also be directly followed by the color and density of the title compounds. With controlled conditions (2 weeks, 25 °C, absence of excess Br2) Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)5 (1) slowly releases bromine with conconcurrent generation of Zn4Br8(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)3 (2) (in ionic liquid) and Zn6Br12(18-crown-6)2×(Br2)2 (3) (in inert oil). All bromine-rich zinc bromides contain voluminous uncharged (e.g., Zn3Br6(18-crown-6), Zn2Br4(18-crown-6)) or ionic (e.g., [Zn2Br3(18-crown-6)](+), [(Zn2Br6)×(Br2)2](2-)) building units with dibromine molecules between the Zn oligomers and partially interconnecting the Zn-containing building units. Due to the structural similarity, the bromine release is possible via crystal-to-crystal transformation with retention of the crystal shape.

  9. γ-Secretase modulators reduce endogenous amyloid β42 levels in human neural progenitor cells without altering neuronal differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Avanzo, Carla; Sliwinski, Christopher; Wagner, Steven L.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon; Kovacs, Dora M.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble γ-secretase modulators (SGSMs) selectively decrease toxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides (Aβ42). However, their effect on the physiologic functions of γ-secretase has not been tested in human model systems. γ-Secretase regulates fate determination of neural progenitor cells. Thus, we studied the impact of SGSMs on the neuronal differentiation of ReNcell VM (ReN) human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that treatment of neurosphere-like ReN cell aggregate cultures with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), but not SGSMs, induced a 2- to 4-fold increase in the expression of the neuronal markers Tuj1 and doublecortin. GSI treatment also induced neuronal marker protein expression, as shown by Western blot analysis. In the same conditions, SGSM treatment selectively reduced endogenous Aβ42 levels by ∼80%. Mechanistically, we found that Notch target gene expressions were selectively inhibited by a GSI, not by SGSM treatment. We can assert, for the first time, that SGSMs do not affect the neuronal differentiation of hNPCs while selectively decreasing endogenous Aβ42 levels in the same conditions. Our results suggest that our hNPC differentiation system can serve as a useful model to test the impact of GSIs and SGSMs on both endogenouslevels and γ-secretase physiologic functions including endogenous Notch signaling.—D’Avanzo, C., Sliwinski, C., Wagner, S. L., Tanzi, R. E., Kim, D. Y., Kovacs, D. M. γ-Secretase modulators reduce endogenous amyloid β42 levels in human neural progenitor cells without altering neuronal differentiation. PMID:25903103

  10. [Endogenous nociceptin level in ischemic stroke: connection to serotonin system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Hantos, Mónika; Bátor, György; Gyenge, Melinda; Laufer, Rudolf; Folyovich, András

    2006-06-01

    Particular role of the heptadecapeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ), the endogenous agonist of the NOP receptor, has been widely demonstrated in the regulation of pain sensation and anxiety-related behavior. In our best knowledge this is the first study reporting plasma nociceptin levels in 26 acute stroke and 6 transiens ischemic attack (TIA) patients. We have found significantly elevated plasma nociceptin levels in all the three groups of patients studied (stroke influencing the carotis or the lacunar region and TIA). We suggest that elevated plasma nociceptin level is the consequence of stroke as in the group of patients recovered from previous stroke was found similar the control value. Plasma serotonin level was found non-significantly decreased in patients with stroke influencing the lacunar region and TIA patients. However the plasma 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels were found significantly elevated in patient groups with stroke influencing both the carotis and the lacunar regions. Data may serve as further evidence for the serotonergic dysregulation in stroke.

  11. Time-dependent changes of levels of endogenous epidermal growth factor in submandibular glands, in kidneys, and in urine in rats during systemic treatment with EGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Jørgensen, P E; Thulesen, J

    1998-01-01

    Exogenous EGF influences the levels of endogenous EGF differently in the submandibular glands (SMG) and the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to examine the time-dependent changes in levels of endogenous EGF during 1-4 weeks of EGF treatment.......Exogenous EGF influences the levels of endogenous EGF differently in the submandibular glands (SMG) and the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to examine the time-dependent changes in levels of endogenous EGF during 1-4 weeks of EGF treatment....

  12. Relationship between variations in the level of endogenous thiols and antioxidant activity of lipids and radiosensitivity of animals of different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Graevskaya, B.M.; Ivanenko, G.F.; Shishkina, L.N.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1978-01-01

    Initial levels of total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and antioxidant activity (AOA) of lipids of the spleen and liver are measured in animals of different species. Radiosensitivity of animals is assessed by the value of LDsub(50/30). No reliable correlation has been revealed between initial levels of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids. There is a positive correlation between AOA of the spleen lipids and LDsub(50/30) as well as between the level of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of the animal species under study. It is likely that the level of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids reflect various aspects of cellular metabolism which is responsible for radioresistance of the organism

  13. Contributions of BrCl, Br2, BrOCl, Br2O, and HOBr to regiospecific bromination rates of anisole and bromoanisoles in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivey, John D; Bickley, Mark A; Victor, Daniel A

    2015-04-21

    When bromide-containing waters are chlorinated, conventional wisdom typically assumes HOBr is the only active brominating agent. Several additional and often-overlooked brominating agents (including BrCl, Br2, BrOCl, Br2O) can form in chlorinated waters, albeit at generally lower concentrations than HOBr. The extent to which these additional brominating agents influence bromination rates of disinfection byproduct precursors is, however, poorly understood. Herein, the influence of BrCl, Br2, BrOCl, Br2O, and HOBr toward rates of sequential bromination of anisole was quantified. Conditions affecting bromine speciation (e.g., pH, concentrations of chloride, bromide, and chlorine) were varied, and regiospecific second-order rate constants were calculated for reactions of each brominating agent with anisole, 2-bromoanisole, and 4-bromoanisole. The regioselectivity of anisole bromination changed with pH, consistent with the participation of more than one brominating agent. Under conditions representative of chlorinated drinking water, contributions to bromination rates decreased as BrCl > BrOCl > HOBr > Br2O (Br2 negligible). The second-order rate constant determined for net bromination of anisole by HOBr is up to 3000-times less than reported in previous studies (which assumed HOBr was the only active brominating agent). Accordingly, models that assume HOBr is the only kinetically relevant brominating agent in solutions of free bromine may be insufficient for reactions involving modestly nucleophilic organic compounds.

  14. Radiosensitizing Effects of Ectopic miR-101 on Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells Depend on the Endogenous miR-101 Level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Susie; Wang Hongyan; Ng, Wooi Loon; Curran, Walter J.; Wang Ya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Previously, we showed that ectopic miR-101 could sensitize human tumor cells to radiation by targeting ATM and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to inhibit DNA repair, as the endogenous miR-101 levels are low in tumors in general. However, the heterogeneity of human cancers may result in an exception. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a few tumor cell lines with a high level of endogenous miR-101 would prove less response to ectopic miR-101. Methods and Materials: Fourteeen non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and one immortalized non-malignant lung epithelial cell line (NL20) were used for comparing endogenous miR-101 levels by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Based on the different miR-101 levels, four cell lines with different miR-101 levels were chosen for transfection with a green fluorescent protein–lentiviral plasmid encoding miR-101. The target protein levels were measured by using Western blotting. The radiosensitizing effects of ectopic miR-101 on these NSCLC cell lines were determined by a clonogenic assay and xenograft mouse model. Results: The endogenous miR-101 level was similar or lower in 13 NSCLC cell lines but was 11-fold higher in one cell line (H157) than in NL20 cells. Although ectopic miR-101 efficiently decreased the ATM and DNA-PKcs levels and increased the radiosensitization level in H1299, H1975, and A549 cells, it did not change the levels of the miR-101 targets or radiosensitivity in H157 cells. Similar results were observed in xenograft mice. Conclusions: A small number of NSCLC cell lines could have a high level of endogenous miR-101. The ectopic miR-101 was able to radiosensitize most NSCLC cells, except for the NSCLC cell lines that had a much higher endogenous miR-101 level. These results suggest that when we choose one miRNA as a therapeutic tool, the endogenous level of the miRNA in each tumor should be considered.

  15. Radiosensitizing Effects of Ectopic miR-101 on Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells Depend on the Endogenous miR-101 Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Susie; Wang Hongyan; Ng, Wooi Loon; Curran, Walter J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and the Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Wang Ya, E-mail: ywang94@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine and the Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Previously, we showed that ectopic miR-101 could sensitize human tumor cells to radiation by targeting ATM and DNA-PK catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to inhibit DNA repair, as the endogenous miR-101 levels are low in tumors in general. However, the heterogeneity of human cancers may result in an exception. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a few tumor cell lines with a high level of endogenous miR-101 would prove less response to ectopic miR-101. Methods and Materials: Fourteeen non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and one immortalized non-malignant lung epithelial cell line (NL20) were used for comparing endogenous miR-101 levels by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Based on the different miR-101 levels, four cell lines with different miR-101 levels were chosen for transfection with a green fluorescent protein-lentiviral plasmid encoding miR-101. The target protein levels were measured by using Western blotting. The radiosensitizing effects of ectopic miR-101 on these NSCLC cell lines were determined by a clonogenic assay and xenograft mouse model. Results: The endogenous miR-101 level was similar or lower in 13 NSCLC cell lines but was 11-fold higher in one cell line (H157) than in NL20 cells. Although ectopic miR-101 efficiently decreased the ATM and DNA-PKcs levels and increased the radiosensitization level in H1299, H1975, and A549 cells, it did not change the levels of the miR-101 targets or radiosensitivity in H157 cells. Similar results were observed in xenograft mice. Conclusions: A small number of NSCLC cell lines could have a high level of endogenous miR-101. The ectopic miR-101 was able to radiosensitize most NSCLC cells, except for the NSCLC cell lines that had a much higher endogenous miR-101 level. These results suggest that when we choose one miRNA as a therapeutic tool, the endogenous level of the miRNA in each tumor should be considered.

  16. Temperature dependent absorption spectra of Br(-), Br2(•-), and Br3(-) in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingzhang; Archirel, Pierre; Van-Oanh, Nguyen Thi; Muroya, Yusa; Fu, Haiying; Yan, Yu; Nagaishi, Ryuji; Kumagai, Yuta; Katsumura, Yosuke; Mostafavi, Mehran

    2011-05-05

    The absorption spectra of Br(2)(•-) and Br(3)(-) in aqueous solutions are investigated by pulse radiolysis techniques from room temperature to 380 and 350 °C, respectively. Br(2)(•-) can be observed even in supercritical conditions, showing that this species could be used as a probe in pulse radiolysis at high temperature and even under supercritical conditions. The weak temperature effect on the absorption spectra of Br(2)(•-) and Br(3)(-) is because, in these two systems, the transition occurs between two valence states; for example, for Br(2)(-) we have (2)Σ(u) → (2)Σ(g) transition. These valence transitions involve no diffuse final state. However, the absorption band of Br(-) undergoes an important red shift to longer wavelengths. We performed classical dynamics of hydrated Br(-) system at 20 and 300 °C under pressure of 25 MPa. The radial distribution functions (rdf's) show that the strong temperature increase (from 20 to 300 °C) does not change the radius of the solvent first shell. On the other hand, it shifts dramatically (by 1 Å) the second maximum of the Br-O rdf and introduces much disorder. This shows that the first water shell is strongly bound to the anion whatever the temperature. The first two water shells form a cavity of a roughly spherical shape around the anion. By TDDFT method, we calculated the absorption spectra of hydrated Br(-) at two temperatures and we compared the results with the experimental data.

  17. Estimating BrAC from transdermal alcohol concentration data using the BrAC estimator software program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Rosen, I Gary

    2014-08-01

    Transdermal alcohol sensor (TAS) devices have the potential to allow researchers and clinicians to unobtrusively collect naturalistic drinking data for weeks at a time, but the transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) data these devices produce do not consistently correspond with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) data. We present and test the BrAC Estimator software, a program designed to produce individualized estimates of BrAC from TAC data by fitting mathematical models to a specific person wearing a specific TAS device. Two TAS devices were worn simultaneously by 1 participant for 18 days. The trial began with a laboratory alcohol session to calibrate the model and was followed by a field trial with 10 drinking episodes. Model parameter estimates and fit indices were compared across drinking episodes to examine the calibration phase of the software. Software-generated estimates of peak BrAC, time of peak BrAC, and area under the BrAC curve were compared with breath analyzer data to examine the estimation phase of the software. In this single-subject design with breath analyzer peak BrAC scores ranging from 0.013 to 0.057, the software created consistent models for the 2 TAS devices, despite differences in raw TAC data, and was able to compensate for the attenuation of peak BrAC and latency of the time of peak BrAC that are typically observed in TAC data. This software program represents an important initial step for making it possible for non mathematician researchers and clinicians to obtain estimates of BrAC from TAC data in naturalistic drinking environments. Future research with more participants and greater variation in alcohol consumption levels and patterns, as well as examination of gain scheduling calibration procedures and nonlinear models of diffusion, will help to determine how precise these software models can become. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Endogenous oxytocin levels are associated with the perception of emotion in dynamic body expressions in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Koenig, James I; Sullivan, Sara K; Gold, James M; Buchanan, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Lower endogenous oxytocin levels have been associated with impaired social cognition in schizophrenia, particularly facial affect identification. Little is known about the relationship between oxytocin and other forms of emotion perception. In the current study, 41 individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN) completed a forced-choice affective body expression classification task. Stimuli included dynamic videos of male and female actors portraying 4 discrete emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, and neutral. Plasma oxytocin levels were determined via radioimmunoassay. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ were also less accurate at identifying expressions of happiness and sadness; however, there were no group differences for anger or neutral stimuli. A group×sex interaction was also present, such that female CN were more accurate than male CN, whereas male SZ were more accurate than female SZ. Higher endogenous oxytocin levels were associated with better total recognition in both SZ and CN; this association was specific to females in SZ. Findings indicate that sex plays an important role in identifying emotional expressions in body gestures in SZ, and that individual differences in endogenous oxytocin predict emotion perception accuracy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of elevated endogenous GABA levels on movement-related network oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaraswamy, S D; Myers, J F M; Wilson, S J; Nutt, D J; Lingford-Hughes, A; Singh, K D; Hamandi, K

    2013-02-01

    The EEG/MEG signal is generated primarily by the summation of the post-synaptic potentials of cortical principal cells. At a microcircuit level, these glutamatergic principal cells are reciprocally connected to GABAergic interneurons and cortical oscillations are thought to be dependent on the balance of excitation and inhibition between these cell types. To investigate the dependence of movement-related cortical oscillations on excitation-inhibition balance, we pharmacologically manipulated the GABA system using tiagabine, which blocks GABA Transporter 1(GAT-1), the GABA uptake transporter and increases endogenous GABA activity. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, in 15 healthy participants we administered either 15mg of tiagabine or a placebo. We recorded whole-head magnetoencephalograms, while the participants performed a movement task, prior to, one hour post, three hour post and five hour post tiagabine ingestion. Using time-frequency analysis of beamformer source reconstructions, we quantified the baseline level of beta activity (15-30Hz), the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR), beta event-related desynchronisation (beta-ERD) and movement-related gamma synchronisation (MRGS) (60-90Hz). Our results demonstrated that tiagabine, and hence elevated endogenous GABA levels causes, an elevation of baseline beta power, enhanced beta-ERD and reduced PMBR, but no modulation of MRGS. Comparing our results to recent literature (Hall et al., 2011) we suggest that beta-ERD may be a GABAA receptor mediated process while PMBR may be GABAB receptor mediated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Further comparisons of endogenous pyrogens and leukocytic endogenous mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschmidt, R F; Upchurch, H F; Worthington, M L

    1983-07-01

    It was recently shown (Murphy et al., Infect. Immun. 34:177-183), that rabbit macrophages produce two biochemically and immunologically distinct endogenous pyrogens. One of these has or copurifies with substances having a molecular weight of 13,000 and a pI of 7.3. This protein was produced by blood monocytes or inflammatory cells elicited in 16-h rabbit peritoneal exudates. These acute peritoneal exudates were produced by the intraperitoneal injection of large volumes of saline containing shellfish glycogen. When the leukocytes in these exudates were washed and incubated at 37 degrees C in saline, they released an endogenous pyrogen. The injection of this pyrogen into rabbits, rats, or mice caused the biological manifestations which have been attributed to leukocytic endogenous mediator. These effects were increases in blood neutrophils, the lowering of plasma iron and zinc levels, and the increased synthesis of the acute-phase proteins. The other rabbit endogenous pyrogen seems to be a family of proteins with isoelectric points between 4.5 and 5.0. These proteins are produced by macrophages in the lung, liver, or in chronic peritoneal exudates. In these experiments, the lower-isoelectric-point endogenous pyrogens were produced by macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of rabbits that had been injected 4 days earlier with 50 ml of light mineral oil. These rabbit pyrogens were found to have leukocytic endogenous mediator activity in mice but to be completely inactive in rats. When injected into rabbits, these proteins produced fever, lowered plasma iron, increased blood neutrophils, but failed to elevate plasma fibrinogen.

  1. High Defect Tolerance in Lead Halide Perovskite CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2017-01-19

    The formation energies and charge-transition levels of intrinsic point defects in lead halide perovskite CsPbBr 3 are studied from first-principles calculations. It is shown that the formation energy of dominant defect under Br-rich growth condition is much lower than that under moderate or Br-poor conditions. Thus avoiding the Br-rich condition can help to reduce the defect concentration. Interestingly, CsPbBr 3 is found to be highly defect-tolerant in terms of its electronic structure. Most of the intrinsic defects induce shallow transition levels. Only a few defects with high formation energies can create deep transition levels. Therefore, CsPbBr 3 can maintain its good electronic quality despite the presence of defects. Such defect tolerance feature can be attributed to the lacking of bonding-antibonding interaction between the conduction bands and valence bands.

  2. Comparative study of α and β-ThBr4: structure and luminescence. Spectroscopy of U4+ in α-ThBr4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoni, E.

    1988-05-01

    UV absorption of β-ThBr 4 : presents a plain absorption front and for the same temperature the threshold energy has the same value than the threshold energy of excitation function and photocurrent peak. Emission intensity and lifetime decrease when temperature increases from 300 K to 400K (extinction temperature). Results are interpreted either by molecular orbital levels of the ThBr 8 4- cluster or either by conduction and valence bands of the matrix above. Absorption and emission spectra of U 4+ in α-ThBr 4 (where U 4+ has a S 4 symmetry) between 300 K and 4.2 K allow indexation of 30 levels. Spectroscopic parameters are calculated in D 2d and S 4 symmetry. Comparison of these parameters with those of U 4+ in β-ThBr 4 and β-ThCl 4 shows that crystal field force is practically the same in the three matrices but the structure transformation from β to α has more influence on B q k than ligand change from Br - to Cl - . Owing to very low phonon energy, fluorescence spectra of U 4+ is easy to observe in α-ThBr 4 as it is in β-ThBr 4 and ThCl 4 [fr

  3. Comparative study of the antioxidant properties of monocarbonyl curcumin analogues C66 and B2BrBC in isoproteranol induced cardiac damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzi-Petrushev, Nikola; Bogdanov, Jane; Krajoska, Jovanka; Ilievska, Jovana; Bogdanova-Popov, Biljana; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Mitrokhin, Vadim; Sopi, Ramadan; Gagov, Hristo; Kamkin, Andre; Mladenov, Mitko

    2018-03-15

    To test the antioxidant properties of the newly synthesized (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-bromobenzylidene)cyclohexanone (B2BrBC) in parallel with C66 in rats with cardiac hypertrophy. The protective effects of both C66 and B2BrBC against oxidative stress in rats with cardiac hypertrophy, was studied by evaluating the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the relationship between the ratio of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes R = SOD/(GPx + CAT) and levels of thiols and lipid peroxidation in the heart. In order to gain better understanding of the antioxidant properties of the studied compounds, computational methods were utilized. The properties of selected structurally related derivatives were obtained on optimized geometries for ground states, using semi-empirical PM3 quantum mechanical calculations. The ratio R shows disequilibrium in rats with induced hypertrophy (p antioxidant. The obtained results indicated that the antioxidant ability of B2BrBC is positively associated with the catalytic SOD and GPx activities expressed through preserved t-SH levels. It seems plausible that for a compound to exhibit antioxidant activity, as most of the 2,6-bis(benzylidene)cyclohexanones do, they should be good electron donors. Understanding the relationship between cardiac hypertrophy induced oxidative injuries and supporters of endogenous reparatory machinery will help in establishing the beneficial role of adequate antioxidant supplementation. In this study reliable data on the preventive effects of newly synthesized symmetric monocarbonyl curcumin analogue B2BrBC and its role in the prevention of oxidative injuries on three levels (enzymatic, protein and lipid), in the heart hypertrophic onset, were obtained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Br2 elimination in 248-nm photolysis of CF2Br2 probed by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Yi; Huang, Hong-Yi; Lin, King-Chuen

    2005-10-01

    By using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy technique, we have observed the channel of Br2 molecular elimination following photodissociation of CF2Br2 at 248 nm. A tunable laser beam, which is crossed perpendicular to the photolyzing laser beam in a ring-down cell, is used to probe the Br2 fragment in the B 3Piou+-X1Sigmag+ transition. The vibrational population is obtained in a nascent state, despite ring-down time as long as 500-1000 ns. The population ratio of Br2(v=1)/Br2(v=0) is determined to be 0.4+/-0.2, slightly larger than the value of 0.22 evaluated by Boltzmann distribution at room temperature. The quantum yield of the Br2 elimination reaction is also measured to be 0.04+/-0.01. This work provides direct evidence to support molecular elimination occurring in the CF2Br2 photodissociation and proposes a plausible pathway with the aid of ab initio potential-energy calculations. CF2Br2 is excited probably to the 1B1 and 3B2 states at 248 nm. As the C-Br bond is elongated upon excitation, the coupling of the 1A'(1B1) state to the high vibrational levels of the ground state X 1A'(1A1) may be enhanced to facilitate the process of internal conversion. After transition, the highly vibrationally excited CF2Br2 feasibly surpasses a transition barrier prior to decomposition. According to the ab initio calculations, the transition state structure tends to correlate with the intermediate state CF2Br+Br(CF2Br...Br) and the products CF2+Br2. A sequential photodissociation pathway is thus favored. That is, a single C-Br bond breaks, and then the free-Br atom moves to form a Br-Br bond, followed by the Br2 elimination. The formed Br-Br bond distance in the transition state tends to approach equilibrium such that the Br2 fragment may be populated in cold vibrational distribution. Observation of a small vibrational population ratio of Br2(v=1)Br2(v=0) agrees with the proposed mechanism.

  5. Studies on the phase diagram of LiBr-SrBr2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahendran, K.H.; Sujatha, K.; Sridharan, R.; Gnanasekaran, T.

    2003-01-01

    Binary LiBr-SrBr 2 system was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the equilibrium phases at different compositions were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD). This system has a compound LiSr 2 Br 5 , and exhibits a eutectic reaction between this compound and LiBr at 434 deg. C and the eutectic has a composition of 35 mol% SrBr 2 . The compound LiSr 2 Br 5 undergoes peritectic decomposition at 484 deg. C. From the DSC and XRD results, phase diagram of the LiBr-SrBr 2 system is constructed

  6. Variation in levels of non-starch polysaccharides and endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanases affects the nutritive value of wheat for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, V; Fernandes, E A; Santos, H M M; Maçãs, B; Lordelo, M M; Telo da Gama, Luis; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A; Ribeiro, T

    2018-04-01

    1. Endo-1,4-β-xylanase is known to improve the nutritive value of wheat-based diets for poultry by degrading dietary arabinoxylans. However, broilers' response to supplementation of wheat-based diets with exogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase is not always observed. 2. In this study, 108 different wheat lots were analysed for levels of extract viscosity as well as for endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity, and the impact of these two variables in animal performance was tested. 3. Results revealed that endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity and extract viscosity content varied widely among different wheat lots. Thus, a trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of exogenous enzyme supplementation in broiler diets using wheats with different levels of extract viscosity and endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity. 4. The data revealed that exogenous enzyme supplementation was only effective when the wheat present in the diet had high levels of extract viscosity (14.8 cP) with low endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity (347.0 U/kg). Nevertheless, it is apparent that exogenous microbial xylanases reduce digesta extract viscosity and feed conversion ratio independently of the endogenous properties presented by different wheat lots. 5. The data suggest that extract viscosity and/or endogenous endo-1,4-β-xylanase activity affect the response to enzyme supplementation by poultry fed on wheat-based diets.

  7. Reducing cannabinoid abuse and preventing relapse by enhancing endogenous brain levels of kynurenic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinova, Zuzana; Mascia, Paola; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Secci, Maria E.; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Scherma, Maria; Barnes, Chanel; Parashos, Alexandra; Zara, Tamara; Fratta, Walter; Solinas, Marcello; Pistis, Marco; Bergman, Jack; Kangas, Brian D.; Ferré, Sergi; Tanda, Gianluigi; Schwarcz, Robert; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    In the reward circuitry of the brain, alpha-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) modulate effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), marijuana’s main psychoactive ingredient. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous negative allosteric modulator of α7nAChRs. Here we report that the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) inhibitor Ro 61-8048 increases brain KYNA levels and attenuates cannabinoid-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in reward-related brain areas. In the self-administration model of drug abuse, Ro 61-8048 reduced the rewarding effects of THC and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 in squirrel monkeys and rats, respectively, and it also prevented relapse to drug-seeking induced by re-exposure to cannabinoids or cannabinoid-associated cues. The effects of enhancing endogenous KYNA levels with Ro 61-8048 were prevented by positive allosteric modulators of α7nAChRs. Despite a clear need, there are currently no medications approved for treatment of marijuana dependence. Modulation of KYNA provides a novel pharmacological strategy for achieving abstinence from marijuana and preventing relapse. PMID:24121737

  8. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejborn, H.

    1990-01-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis

  9. Electronic structure of Co(III) doped bromo-bridged Ni complexes, [Ni1-xCox(chxn)2Br]Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jimin; Wu, Hashen; Kawakami, Daisuke; Iguchi, Hiroaki; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Hisaaki; Kuroda, Shin-ichi

    2008-03-17

    This article describes the electronic structure of the Co(III) doped Br bridged Ni(III) complexes, [Ni(1-x)Cox(chxn)2Br]Br2 (x = 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.11) by using a optical spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. In the optical reflectivity spectrum, the new band was formed at about 0.5 eV, which is reasonably recognized as the d(z2) band of doped Co(III) ions. In the STM images of [Ni(1-x)Cox(chxn)2Br]Br2, the bright spots attributable to the tunnel current from the Fermi level of the STM tip to the conduction band of the sample were observed. In addition, some brighter spots were also observed. Because the number of the brighter spots is in good agreement with that of doped Co species, the brighter spots can be assigned to doped Co(III) sites. These are reasonably explained by the tunnel current from the Fermi level of the tip to the d(z2) band of Co(III). The Curie spin concentration was gradually increased with increasing Co(III) ions, which is explained by the scissions of the S = 1/2 1D antiferromagnetic chains.

  10. Structure and luminescence of α and β ThBr4: optical properties of U4+ in α ThBr4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoni, E.

    1988-05-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the comparative structural and intrinsic luminescence properties of the pure matrices α and β - ThBr 4 , and to study the electronic structure by optical spectroscopy of the U 4+ ion in the α-ThBr 4 matrix. 1)Under U.V. excitation, βThBr 4 is intensively fluorescent in the blue-purple and α-ThBr 4 is fluorescent in the red. The main results concerning β-ThBr 4 are the following: -the optical absorption in the U.V. is under the form of a sudden absorption front and for a same temperature, its threshold energy has the same value as the threshold energy of the excitation function and of the photocurrent peak; -the intensity and the life time of the emission decrease when the temperature increases from 300 K until 400 K ( extinction temperature). All the obtained results have been explained either with the molecular orbitals levels of the ThBr 8 4- cluster or with the valence and conduction bands of the pure matrix. 2)The absorption and emission spectra of U 4+ in α-ThBr 4 (in which U 4+ has a point symmetry S 4 ) obtained between 300 K and 4.2 K have allowed to index 30 levels. The calculation of the spectroscopic parameters F k , ξ and B k q has been carried out in symmetry D 2d and S 4 . The comparison of these parameters with those calculated for U 4+ in β-ThBr 4 and β-ThCl 4 show that the global force of the crystalline field is practically the same in the three matrices, but that the structure transformation β→α occurs more on the values of these B k q than on the change of the ligands Br - →Cl - . On the other hand, it has been possible with the α-ThBr 4 matrix, or the β-ThBr 4 and the β-ThCl 4 , to observe the fluorescence spectra of the U 4+ ion (particularly weak phonons energies). (O.M.)

  11. Ab Initio Potential Energy Surfaces for Both the Ground (X̃1A′ and Excited (A∼1A′′ Electronic States of HSiBr and the Absorption and Emission Spectra of HSiBr/DSiBr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio potential energy surfaces for the ground (X̃1A′ and excited (A˜A′′1 electronic states of HSiBr were obtained by using the single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory with a noniterative perturbation treatment of triple excitations and the multireference configuration interaction with Davidson correction, respectively, employing an augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple zeta basis set. The calculated vibrational energy levels of HSiBr and DSiBr of the ground and excited electronic states are in excellent agreement with the available experimental band origins. In addition, the absorption and emission spectra of HSiBr and DSiBr were calculated using an efficient single Lanczos propagation method and are in good agreement with the available experimental observations.

  12. Surfactant-promoted reactions of Cl2 and Br2 with Br- in glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Jennifer A; Dempsey, Logan P; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2013-10-17

    Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to explore reactions of gaseous Cl2 and Br2 with a 0.03 M solution of the surfactant tetrahexylammonium bromide (THABr) dissolved in glycerol. At thermal collision energies, 79 ± 2% of incident Cl2 molecules react with Br(-) to form Cl2Br(-) in the interfacial region. This reaction probability is three times greater than the reactivity of Cl2 with 3 M NaBr-glycerol, even though the interfacial Br(-) concentrations are similar in each solution. We attribute the high 79% uptake to the presence of surface THA(+) ions that stabilize the Cl2Br(-) intermediate as it is formed in the charged, hydrophobic pocket created by the hexyl chains. Cl2Br(-) generates the single exchange product BrCl in a 1% yield close to the surface, while the remaining 99% desorbs as the double exchange product Br2 over >0.1 s after diffusing deeply into the bulk. When NaCl is added to the surfactant solution in a 20:1 Cl(-)/Br(-) ratio, the Cl2 reaction probability drops from 79% to 46 ± 1%, indicating that Cl(-) in the interfacial region only partially blocks reaction with Br(-). In parallel, we observe that gaseous Br2 molecules dissolve in 0.03 M THABr for 10(4) times longer than in 3 M NaBr. We attribute this change to formation of stabilizing interfacial and bulk-phase THA(+)Br3(-) ion pairs, in analogy with the capture of Cl2 and formation of THA(+)Cl2Br(-) pairs. The THA(+) ion appears to be a powerful interfacial catalyst for promoting reaction of Cl2 and Br2 with Br(-) and for ferrying the resultant ions into solution.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Reveals Disordered Level-Crossing Physics in the Bose-Glass Regime of the Br-Doped Ni(Cl_{1-x}Br_{x})_{2}-4SC(NH_{2})_{2} Compound at a High Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Anna; Blinder, Rémi; Kermarrec, Edwin; Dupont, Maxime; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Capponi, Sylvain; Mayaffre, Hadrien; Berthier, Claude; Paduan-Filho, Armando; Horvatić, Mladen

    2017-02-10

    By measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) T_{1}^{-1} relaxation rate in the Br (bond) doped DTN compound, Ni(Cl_{1-x}Br_{x})_{2}-4SC(NH_{2})_{2}(DTNX), we show that the low-energy spin dynamics of its high magnetic field "Bose-glass" regime is dominated by a strong peak of spin fluctuations found at the nearly doping-independent position H^{*}≅13.6  T. From its temperature and field dependence, we conclude that this corresponds to a level crossing of the energy levels related to the doping-induced impurity states. Observation of the local NMR signal from the spin adjacent to the doped Br allowed us to fully characterize this impurity state. We have thus quantified a microscopic theoretical model that paves the way to better understanding of the Bose-glass physics in DTNX, as revealed in the related theoretical study [M. Dupont, S. Capponi, and N. Laflorencie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 067204 (2017).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.118.067204].

  14. A comparative ab initio study of Br2*- and Br2 water clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Mukherjee, T; Maity, D K

    2006-01-14

    The work presents ab initio results on structure and electronic properties of Br2*-.nH2O(n=1-10) and Br2.nH2O(n=1-8) hydrated clusters to study the effects of an excess electron on the microhydration of the halide dimer. A nonlocal density functional, namely, Becke's half-and-half hybrid exchange-correlation functional is found to perform well on the present systems with a split valence 6-31++G(d,p) basis function. Geometry optimizations for all the clusters are carried out with several initial guess structures and without imposing any symmetry restriction. Br2*-.nH2O clusters prefer to have symmetrical double hydrogen-bonding structures. Results on Br2.nH2O(n>or=2) cluster show that the O atom of one H2O is oriented towards one Br atom and the H atom of another H2O is directed to other Br atom making Br2 to exist as Br+-Br- entity in the cluster. The binding and solvation energies are calculated for the Br2*-.nH2O and Br2.nH2O clusters. Calculations of the vibrational frequencies show that the formation of Br2*- and Br2 water clusters induces significant shifts from the normal modes of isolated water. Excited-state calculations are carried out on Br2*-.nH2O clusters following configuration interaction with single electron excitation procedure and UV-VIS absorption profiles are simulated. There is an excellent agreement between the present theoretical UV-VIS spectra of Br2*-.10H2O cluster and the reported transient optical spectra for Br2*- in aqueous solution.

  15. Genomic identification and characterization of the elite strains Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense BR 3267 and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi BR 3262 recommended for cowpea inoculation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jakson; Passos, Samuel Ribeiro; Simões-Araújo, Jean Luiz; Rumjanek, Norma Gouvêa; Xavier, Gustavo Ribeiro; Zilli, Jerri Édson

    2017-03-31

    The leguminous inoculation with nodule-inducing bacteria that perform biological nitrogen fixation is a good example of an "eco-friendly agricultural practice". Bradyrhizobium strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 are recommended for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) inoculation in Brazil and showed remarkable responses; nevertheless neither strain was characterized at species level, which is our goal in the present work using a polyphasic approach. The strains presented the typical phenotype of Bradyrhizobium with a slow growth and a white colony on yeast extract-mannitol medium. Strain BR 3267 was more versatile in its use of carbon sources compared to BR 3262. The fatty acid composition of BR 3267 was similar to the type strain of Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense; while BR 3262 was similar to Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and three housekeeping genes placed both strains within the genus Bradyrhizobium: strain BR 3267 was closest to B. yuanmingense and BR 3262 to B. pachyrhizi. Genome average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA reassociation confirmed the genomic identification of B. yuanmingense BR 3267 and B. pachyrhizi BR 3262. The nodC and nifH gene analyses showed that strains BR 3267 and BR 3262 hold divergent symbiotic genes. In summary, the results indicate that cowpea can establish effective symbiosis with divergent bradyrhizobia isolated from Brazilian soils. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  16. Die Interhalogenkationen [Br2F5]+ und [Br3F8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivlev, Sergei; Karttunen, Antti; Buchner, Magnus; Conrad, Matthias; Kraus, Florian

    2018-05-02

    Wir berichten über die Synthese und Charakterisierung der bislang einzigen Polyhalogenkationen, in denen verbrückende Fluoratome vorliegen. Das [Br2F5]+-Kation enthält eine symmetrische [F2Br-µ-F-BrF2]-Brücke, das [Br3F8]+-Kation enthält unsymmetrische µ-F-Brücken. Die Fluoronium-Ionen wurden in Form ihrer [SbF6]--Salze erhalten und Raman-, und 19F-NMR-spektroskopisch, sowie durch Röntgenbeugung am Einkristall untersucht. Quantenchemische Rechnungen, sowohl für die isolierten Kationen in der Gasphase, als auch für die Festkörper selbst, wurden durchgeführt. Populationsanalysen zeigen, dass die µ-F-Atome die am stärksten negativ partialgeladenen Atome der Kationen sind. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. BMP9 inhibits proliferation and metastasis of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells through ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Liu, Yuehong; Wan, Shaoheng; Fei, Chang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yingying; Zhang, Zhihui; Wang, Ting; Wang, Jinshu; Zhou, Lan; Weng, Yaguang; He, Tongchuan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), a member of TGF-β superfamily, is reported to inhibit the growth and migration of prostate cancer, osteosarcoma and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. However, little is known about the effect of on the biological behaviors of HER2-positive SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the effects of BMP9 on the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression or BMP9 down-regulated expression. Results indicated that exogenously expressed BMP9 inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells while decreased endogenous BMP9 expression in SK-BR-3 cells promoted the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 over-expression, the phosphorylation of HER2, ERK1/2 and AKT was markedly suppressed and the HER2 expression decreased at both mRNA and protein levels, while opposite results were observed in SK-BR-3 cells with BMP9 knock down. When the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002, respectively, the decreased proliferation and invasion induced by BMP9 knock down were eliminated. These findings suggest that BMP9 can inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of SK-BR-3 cells via inactivating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Thus, BMP9 may serve as a useful agent in the treatment of HER-2 positive breast cancer.

  18. Circulating levels of pegvisomant and endogenous growth hormone during prolonged pegvisomant therapy in patients with acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Fisker, Sanne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether pegvisomant treatment in acromegaly induces gradual elevations in endogenous serum growth hormone (GH) levels and whether serum pegvisomant levels predict the therapeutic outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients (6 women), mean age 46·3 years (range: 23...... correlated with baseline growth hormone levels, whereas no associations between serum pegvisomant and either dose, gender, age or body weight were found. CONCLUSIONS: (1) Serum GH levels increased initially, but remained stable during prolonged pegvisomant treatment in patients with acromegaly, (2) serum...

  19. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has diminished capacity to counteract redox stress induced by elevated levels of endogenous superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Priyanka; Dharmaraja, Allimuthu T; Bhaskar, Ashima; Chakrapani, Harinath; Singh, Amit

    2015-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved protective and detoxification mechanisms to maintain cytoplasmic redox balance in response to exogenous oxidative stress encountered inside host phagocytes. In contrast, little is known about the dynamic response of this pathogen to endogenous oxidative stress generated within Mtb. Using a noninvasive and specific biosensor of cytoplasmic redox state of Mtb, we for first time discovered a surprisingly high sensitivity of this pathogen to perturbation in redox homeostasis induced by elevated endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS). We synthesized a series of hydroquinone-based small molecule ROS generators and found that ATD-3169 permeated mycobacteria to reliably enhance endogenous ROS including superoxide radicals. When Mtb strains including multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) patient isolates were exposed to this compound, a dose-dependent, long-lasting, and irreversible oxidative shift in intramycobacterial redox potential was detected. Dynamic redox potential measurements revealed that Mtb had diminished capacity to restore cytoplasmic redox balance in comparison with Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), a fast growing nonpathogenic mycobacterial species. Accordingly, Mtb strains were extremely susceptible to inhibition by ATD-3169 but not Msm, suggesting a functional linkage between dynamic redox changes and survival. Microarray analysis showed major realignment of pathways involved in redox homeostasis, central metabolism, DNA repair, and cell wall lipid biosynthesis in response to ATD-3169, all consistent with enhanced endogenous ROS contributing to lethality induced by this compound. This work provides empirical evidence that the cytoplasmic redox poise of Mtb is uniquely sensitive to manipulation in steady-state endogenous ROS levels, thus revealing the importance of targeting intramycobacterial redox metabolism for controlling TB infection. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  20. Elevating Endogenous GABA Levels with GAT-1 Blockade Modulates Evoked but Not Induced Responses in Human Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Myers, Jim F M; Wilson, Sue J; Nutt, David J; Hamandi, Khalid; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Singh, Krish D

    2013-01-01

    The electroencephalographic/magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) signal is generated primarily by the summation of the postsynaptic currents of cortical principal cells. At a microcircuit level, these glutamatergic principal cells are reciprocally connected to GABAergic interneurons. Here we investigated the relative sensitivity of visual evoked and induced responses to altered levels of endogenous GABAergic inhibition. To do this, we pharmacologically manipulated the GABA system using tiagabine, which blocks the synaptic GABA transporter 1, and so increases endogenous GABA levels. In a single-blinded and placebo-controlled crossover study of 15 healthy participants, we administered either 15 mg of tiagabine or a placebo. We recorded whole-head MEG, while participants viewed a visual grating stimulus, before, 1, 3 and 5 h post tiagabine ingestion. Using beamformer source localization, we reconstructed responses from early visual cortices. Our results showed no change in either stimulus-induced gamma-band amplitude increases or stimulus-induced alpha amplitude decreases. However, the same data showed a 45% reduction in the evoked response component at ∼80 ms. These data demonstrate that, in early visual cortex the evoked response shows a greater sensitivity compared with induced oscillations to pharmacologically increased endogenous GABA levels. We suggest that previous studies correlating GABA concentrations as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy to gamma oscillation frequency may reflect underlying variations such as interneuron/inhibitory synapse density rather than functional synaptic GABA concentrations. PMID:23361120

  1. Core electron binding energy shifts of AlBr3 and Al2Br6 vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Astrid M.; Plenge, Juergen; Leone, Stephen R.; Canton, Sophie E.; Rude, Bruce S.; Bozek, John D.

    2006-01-01

    The Al 2p and Br 3d inner-shell photoelectron spectra of aluminum tribromide monomer and dimer vapor were measured at 90 and 95 eV photon energy, respectively, to determine the core electron binding energies of the atoms in the two molecular species. While AlBr 3 has three identical Br atoms, Al 2 Br 6 exhibits four terminal and two bridging Br atoms. The species are identified by their distinct valence photoelectron spectra. Comparison of the observed Al 2p 1/2 and Al 2p 3/2 electron binding energies of AlBr 3 with those of Al 2 Br 6 shows that there is a chemical shift of (0.15 ± 0.03) eV to lower energy in the dimer. In Al 2 Br 6 , an assignment is proposed in which the Br 3d 3/2 and Br 3d 5/2 binding energies of terminal Br atoms are (1.18 ± 0.03) eV lower than those of bridging Br atoms. This assignment assumes that both types of Br atoms have similar cross-sections for ionization. With this result, the Br 3d 3/2 and Br 3d 5/2 binding energies of Br atoms in AlBr 3 are (0.81 ± 0.03) eV lower than those of bridging Br atoms of the dimer but (0.37 ± 0.03) eV higher than those of terminal Br atoms of the dimer. The obtained chemical shifts are considered in terms of the binding relations and electron density distributions in both molecules. Chemical shifts that are larger than a few hundred millielectron volts, as observed in the Al 2 Br 6 /AlBr 3 system, offer potential to study the dissociation dynamics of the dimer in a femtosecond visible or ultraviolet-pump/XUV-probe experiment

  2. Revised and extended analysis of Br IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyaz, A.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of three-times ionized bromine Br IV has been studied in the 319–2350 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark, respectively. The ground configuration of Br IV 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2 , the excited configurations 3d 10 4s4p 3 +3d 10 4s 2 4p (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s) in the odd parity system and 3d 10 4s 2 4p (5p+4f+5f)+3d 10 4s4p 2 (4d+5s)+3d 10 4p 4 in the even parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree–Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed spectrum. 120 Levels of Br IV have now been established, 58 being new. Among 424 spectral lines, 277 are newly classified. The levels 4s4p 35 S 2 , 4s 2 4p4d 3 F 4 and 4p5p ( 3 P 0,1 , 3 D 1,2 , 3 S 1 ) are revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelength for sharp and unblended lines to be ±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 385,390±100 cm −1 (47.782±0.012 eV). -- Highlights: • The spectrum of Br was recorded on a 3-m spectrograph with triggered spark source. • Atomic transitions for Br IV were identified to established new energy levels. • CI calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Weighted oscillator strength (gf) and transition probabilities (gA) were calculated. • Ionization potential of Br IV was determined experimentally

  3. Computer simulation of the structure of liquid metal halides RbBr, CuCl, CuBr, CuI, and AgBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belashchenko, D.K.; Ostrovskij, O.I.

    2003-01-01

    The computerized models of the RbBr, AgBr, CuCl, CuBr and CuI liquid ion systems of 498 ions dimension are simulated at the temperatures of 753-960 K on the basis of the known diffraction data through the BELION algorithm. Good agreement of diffraction and model partial pair correlation functions (PPCF), excluding the PPCF first peaks heights, is obtained in all the cases. The simulation is carried out by the varied ion charges (the atomization energy values, close to the real ones, are obtained by ion charges ±1.00 for the RbBr, ±1.15 for AgBr, ±1.20 for CuCl, ±1.48 for CuBr and ±1.367 for CuI). The noncoulomb contributions in the interparticle potentials are calculated [ru

  4. Rate constant for the reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunning, J.; Stief, L.

    1986-01-01

    The rate of the radical-radical reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br has been determined at 298 K in a discharge flow system near 1 torr pressure with detection of SO and BrO via collision-free sampling mass spectrometry. The rate constant was determined using two different methods: measuring the decay of SO radicals in the presence of an excess of BrO and measuring the decay of BrO radicals in excess SO. The results from the two methods are in reasonable agreement and the simple mean of the two values gives the recommended rate constant at 298 K, k = (5.7 + or - 2.0) x 10 to the -11th cu cm/s. This represents the first determination of this rate constant and it is consistent with a previously derived lower limit based on SO2 formation. Comparison is made with other radical-radical reactions involving SO or BrO. The reaction SO + BrO yields SO2 + Br is of interest for models of the upper atmosphere of the earth and provides a potential coupling between atmospheric sulfur and bromine chemistry.

  5. Photodissociation of C3H5Br and C4H7Br at 234 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Kook; Paul, Dababrata; Hong, Ki Ryong; Cho, Ha Na; Kim, Tae Kyu; Lee, Kyoung Seok

    2012-01-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of cyclopropyl bromide (C-3H 5 Br) and cyclobutyl bromide (C 4 H 7 Br) at 234 nm was investigated. A two-dimensional photofragment ion-imaging technique coupled with a [2+1] resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization scheme was utilized to obtain speed and angular distributions of the nascent Br( 2 P 3/2 ) and Br*( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms. The recoil anisotropies for the Br and Br* channels were measured to be βBr = 0.92 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.52 ± 0.04 for C 3 H 5 Br and βBr = 1.10 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.49 ± 0.05 for C 4 H 7 Br. The relative quantum yield for Br was found to be ΦBr = 0.13 ± 0.03 and for C 3 H 5 Br and C 4 H 7 Br, respectively. The soft radical limit of the impulsive model adequately modeled the related energy partitioning. The nonadiabatic transition probability from the 3A' and 4A' potential energy surfaces was estimated and discussed

  6. Association of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki Motoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although global hypomethylation of leukocyte DNA has been associated with an increased risk of several sites of cancer, including breast cancer, determinants of global methylation level among healthy individuals remain largely unexplored. Here, we examined whether postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones were associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Nagano, Japan. Subjects were postmenopausal women aged 55 years or over who provided blood samples. We measured global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by luminometric methylation assay; estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex-hormone binding globulin by immunoradiometric assay. A linear trend of association between methylation and hormone levels was evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable liner regression model. A total of 185 women were included in the analyses. Results Mean global methylation level (standard deviation was 70.3% (3.1 and range was from 60.3% to 79.2%. Global methylation level decreased 0.27% per quartile category for estradiol and 0.39% per quartile category for estrone while it increased 0.41% per quartile category for bioavailable estradiol. However, we found no statistically significant association of any sex hormone level measured in the present study with global methylation level of leukocyte DNA. Conclusions Our findings suggest that endogenous sex hormones are not major determinants of the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA.

  7. [Roles of KLF5 in inhibition TNFα-induced SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell apoptosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianhong; Liu, Caiyun; Zhang, Anyi; Cui, Naipeng; Wang, Bing; Chen, Baoping; Ma, Zhenfeng

    2014-07-08

    To explore the expression levels and roles of Krüpple-like factor 5 (KLF5) in tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells were stimulated by TNFα at different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20 µg/L) for specified durations (0, 6, 12, 24, 36 h). Western blot was performed to detect KLF5 protein levels. Then Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to detect the expression levels of apoptosis genes. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR were used to observe the effects of exogenous KLF5 on TNFα-induced apoptosis of SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell. KLF5 expression levels significantly decreased in TNFα-stimulated SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that TNFα up-regulate apoptosis gene caspase 3, caspase 9 and bax expression levels and down-regulate bcl-1 level in SK-BR-3 cells. Adenovirus expression vectors of pAd-GFP and pAd-GFP-KLF5 were constructed and used to infect SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. Over-expression of GFP-KLF5 inhibited apoptosis in TNFα-stimulated SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. TNFα reduces KLF5 expression in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells and KLF5 participates in TNFα-induced SK-BR-3 cell apoptosis.

  8. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjan-Odedra, Shetal; Swanson, Chad M; Sherer, Nathan M; Wolinsky, Steven M; Malim, Michael H

    2012-06-22

    The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells.

  9. A Reverse-Genetics Mutational Analysis of the Barley HvDWARF Gene Results in Identification of a Series of Alleles and Mutants with Short Stature of Various Degree and Disturbance in BR Biosynthesis Allowing a New Insight into the Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszka, Damian; Gorniak, Malgorzata; Glodowska, Ewelina; Wierus, Ewa; Oklestkova, Jana; Janeczko, Anna; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-04-22

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones, regulating a broad range of physiological processes. The largest amount of data related with BR biosynthesis has been gathered in Arabidopsis thaliana, however understanding of this process is far less elucidated in monocot crops. Up to now, only four barley genes implicated in BR biosynthesis have been identified. Two of them, HvDWARF and HvBRD, encode BR-6-oxidases catalyzing biosynthesis of castasterone, but their relation is not yet understood. In the present study, the identification of the HvDWARF genomic sequence, its mutational and functional analysis and characterization of new mutants are reported. Various types of mutations located in different positions within functional domains were identified and characterized. Analysis of their impact on phenotype of the mutants was performed. The identified homozygous mutants show reduced height of various degree and disrupted skotomorphogenesis. Mutational analysis of the HvDWARF gene with the "reverse genetics" approach allowed for its detailed functional analysis at the level of protein functional domains. The HvDWARF gene function and mutants' phenotypes were also validated by measurement of endogenous BR concentration. These results allowed a new insight into the BR biosynthesis in barley.

  10. $^{80}$Br $^{80}$Br-a new electron-gamma PAC probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A

    2001-01-01

    Conversion electron-gamma PAC measurements of the 49-37 keV cascade in /sup 80/Br through the intermediate 2/sup -/ state with T/sub 1/2 /=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF/sub 2/ scintillation detectors. The parent /sup 80m/Br activity with a halflife of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2/sup -/ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained. (7 refs).

  11. Preparation of 80Br or 82Br-biomolecules via excitation labelling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.; Ache, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    The direct decay-induced 82 Br (or 80 Br) labelling by exposing the solid substrate molecules, such as deoxyuridine, L-tyrosine, guanosine, deoxycytidine, phenylalanine, and acetic acid, to gaseous CF 3 82 /sup m/Br (or CF 3 80 /sup m/Br) was studied. The radiochemical yields of the brominated products are relatively small and range from 1 percent in the case of bromo deoxyuridine to 11 percent for bromoacetic acid. The modification of this technique by adding Cl 2 gas to the reaction mixture improves the yields in several cases drastically (up to 80 percent for bromo-guanosine and bromo-L-tyrosine). Similar improvement can be achieved by exposing crystalline KBrO 3 for some time to CF 3 82 /sup m/Br (or CF 3 80 /sup m/Br) and dissolving subsequently the KBrO 3 in an acidic solution of the substrate. (auth)

  12. Cognitive function and endogenous cytokine levels in children with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Faddan, N H; Shehata, G A; Abd Elhafeez, H A; Mohamed, A O; Hassan, H S; Abd El Sameea, F

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how hepatitis C (HCV) infection affects cognitive function in children. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of HCV infection on cognitive function of children with normal liver functions and their relationships to endogenous IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α. IFN-α, IL-6 and TNF-α were measured and the Arabic version of the Stanford-Binet test used to assess cognitive functions in 35 children with HCV infection and 23 controls. Serum levels of IL-6 and IFN-α were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. There was a significant effect on vocabulary, comprehension, and abstract visual reasoning, quantitative reasoning and bead memory tests, as well as total short-term memory and intelligence quotient in patients compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between IFN-α and IL-6. Also there were significant negative correlations between IFN-α and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test, Bead memory test, Total short-term memory and Intelligence quotient; and between IL-6 and Abstract visual reasoning test, Quantitative reasoning test and Intelligence quotient. There was no significant correlation between TNF-α and any of the cognitive functions. Cytokine levels were not related to demographic characteristics of the patients or viral load (PCR). Children with chronic hepatitis C infection in its early stages showed signs of cognitive impairment, with the memory tasks being mostly affected. There was a significant correlation between endogenous cytokines and cognitive impairment in these children. Further studies are needed to define the effect of successful antiviral treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identification of the transition arrays 3d74s-3d74p in Br X and 3d64s-3d64p in Br XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Jupen, C.; Bengtsson, P.; Engstroem, L.; Westerlind, M.; Martinson, I.

    1991-01-01

    We report a beam-foil study of multiply ionized bromine in the region 400-1300A, performed with 6 and 8 MeV Br ions from a tandem accelerator. At these energies transitions belonging to Fe-like Br X and Mn-like Br XI are expected to be prominent. We have identified 31 lines as 3d 7 4s-3d 7 4p transitions in Br X, from which 16 levels of the previously unknown 3d 7 4s configuration could be established. We have also added 6 new 3d 7 4p levels to the 99 previously known. For Br XI we have classified 9 lines as 3d 6 4s-3d 6 4p combinations. The line identifications have been corroborated by isoelectronic comparisons and theoretical calculations using the superposition-of-configurations technique. (orig.)

  14. [Effect of 3-bromopyruvate on mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis of human breast carcinoma SK-BR-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Qianwen; Chao, Zhenhua; Zhang, Pei; Xia, Fei; Jiang, Chenchen; Liu, Hao; Jiang, Zhiwen

    2013-09-01

    To study the effect of glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) in inducing apoptosis of human breast carcinoma cells SK-BR-3 and the possible mechanism. MTT assay was used to detect the growth inhibition induced by 3-BrPA in breast cancer cells SK-BR-3. The apoptotic cells were detected by flow cytometry with propidium iodide (PI). ATP levels in the cells were detected by ATP assay kit, and DHE fluorescent probe technique was used to determine superoxide anion levels; the mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 staining assay. MTT assay showed that the proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells was inhibited by 3-BrPA in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Exposure to 80, 160, and 320 µmol·L(-1) 3-BrPA for 24 h resulted in cell apoptosis rates of 6.7%, 22.3%, and 79.6%, respectively, and the intracellular ATP levels of SK-BR-3 cells treated with 80, 160, 320 µmol·L(-1) 3-BrPA for 5 h were 87.7%, 60.6%, and 23.7% of the control levels. 3-BrPA at 160 µmol·L(-1) increased reactive oxygen levels and lowered mitochondrial membrane potential of SK-BR-3 cells. 3-BrPA can inhibit cell proliferation, reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential and induce apoptosis in SK-BR-3 cells, the mechanism of which may involve a reduced ATP level by inhibiting glycolysis and increasing the reactive oxygen level in the cells.

  15. Visible Light Driven Nanosecond Bromide Oxidation by a Ru Complex with Subsequent Br-Br Bond Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guocan; Ward, William M; Meyer, Gerald J

    2015-07-08

    Visible light excitation of [Ru(deeb)(bpz)2](2+) (deeb = 4,4'-diethylester-2,2'-bipyridine; bpz = 2,2'-bipyrazine), in Br(-) acetone solutions, led to the formation of Br-Br bonds in the form of dibromide, Br2(•-). This light reactivity stores ∼1.65 eV of free energy for milliseconds. Combined (1)H NMR, UV-vis and photoluminescence measurements revealed two distinct mechanisms. The first involves diffusional quenching of the excited state by Br(-) with a rate constant of (8.1 ± 0.1) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1). At high Br(-) concentrations, an inner-sphere pathway is dominant that involves the association of Br(-), most likely with the 3,3'-H atoms of a bpz ligand, before electron transfer from Br(-) to the excited state, ket = (2.5 ± 0.3) × 10(7) s(-1). In both mechanisms, the direct photoproduct Br(•) subsequently reacts with Br(-) to yield dibromide, Br(•) + Br(-) → Br2(•-). Under pseudo-first-order conditions, this occurs with a rate constant of (1.1 ± 0.4) × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) that was, within experimental error, the same as that measured when Br(•) were generated with ultraviolet light. Application of Marcus theory to the sensitized reaction provided an estimate of the Br(•) formal reduction potential E(Br(•)/Br(-)) = 1.22 V vs SCE in acetone, which is about 460 mV less positive than the accepted value in H2O. The results demonstrate that Br(-) oxidation by molecular excited states can be rapid and useful for solar energy conversion.

  16. Impact Of Exogenous And Endogenous Risks On Systemic Risk In Indonesian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfiana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Weaknesses of the Banking Pressure Index and Financial Stability Index as an early detection system were not to involve contagion and bank run. This study aimed at determining impacts of endogenous and exogenous risks on systemic risks. It was a descriptive verificatory study using monthly secondary data of 2011-2014 and multiple regressions. Utilizing credit risk liquidity risk market risk capital adequacy risk contagion bank run inflation BI rate exchange rate and systemic risk variables of the 2011-2014 period it turned out that only endogenous risks of contagion and bank run variables impacted on systemic risk in Indonesian banking. The result showed that after the test of classical linear regression assumption credit risk capital adequacy risk contagion bank run and inflation variables simultaneously impacted on systemic risk and contributed to the movement of systemic risk. However our findings suggested that only contagion CONT bank run BR and inflation INF variables significantly impacted on systemic risk in a positive direction.

  17. RESONANCE CARS IN BR2 MOLECULES AND BR-ATOMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aben, I.; Levelt, P.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1991-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced CARS processes were studied in molecular bromine. On the basis of the known spectroscopic constants of the two electronic states involved, the features in the spectra could be identified. CARS signals from Br-atoms produced from dissociation of Br2 were obtained by tuning (omega-1

  18. In vivo imaging of estrogen receptor concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using FES PET - influence of menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)]. E-mail: tsucchy@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp; Okazawa, Hidehiko [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Mori, Tetsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masato [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Yoshio [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Yoshida-gun, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to measure estrogen receptor (ER) concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-17{beta}-estradiol (FES) positron emission tomography (PET) and to investigate the relationship between changes in these parameters with the menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen levels. Methods: Sixteen female healthy volunteers were included in this study. After blood sampling to measure endogenous estrogen level, FES PET image was acquired 60 min postinjection of FES. After whole-body imaging of FES PET, averaged standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the endometrium and myometrium were measured, and the relationship between FES uptake and menstrual cycle or endogenous estrogen level was evaluated. Results: Endometrial SUV was significantly higher in the proliferative phase than in the secretory phase (6.03{+-}1.05 vs. 3.97{+-}1.29, P=.022). In contrast, there was no significant difference in myometrial SUV when the proliferative and secretory phases were compared (P=.23). Further, there was no correlation between SUV and endogenous estrogen level in the proliferative phase. Conclusions: The change of ER concentration relative to menstrual cycle as characterized by FES PET was consistent with those from previous reports that used an immunohistochemical technique. These data suggest that FES PET is a feasible, noninvasive method for characterizing changes in ER concentration.

  19. In vivo imaging of estrogen receptor concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using FES PET - influence of menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Yoshida, Yoshio; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Itoh, Harumi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to measure estrogen receptor (ER) concentration in the endometrium and myometrium using 16α-[ 18 F]fluoro-17β-estradiol (FES) positron emission tomography (PET) and to investigate the relationship between changes in these parameters with the menstrual cycle and endogenous estrogen levels. Methods: Sixteen female healthy volunteers were included in this study. After blood sampling to measure endogenous estrogen level, FES PET image was acquired 60 min postinjection of FES. After whole-body imaging of FES PET, averaged standardized uptake values (SUVs) in the endometrium and myometrium were measured, and the relationship between FES uptake and menstrual cycle or endogenous estrogen level was evaluated. Results: Endometrial SUV was significantly higher in the proliferative phase than in the secretory phase (6.03±1.05 vs. 3.97±1.29, P=.022). In contrast, there was no significant difference in myometrial SUV when the proliferative and secretory phases were compared (P=.23). Further, there was no correlation between SUV and endogenous estrogen level in the proliferative phase. Conclusions: The change of ER concentration relative to menstrual cycle as characterized by FES PET was consistent with those from previous reports that used an immunohistochemical technique. These data suggest that FES PET is a feasible, noninvasive method for characterizing changes in ER concentration

  20. Endogenous MOV10 inhibits the retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements but not the replication of exogenous retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of cellular factors that regulate the replication of exogenous viruses and endogenous mobile elements provides fundamental understanding of host-pathogen relationships. MOV10 is a superfamily 1 putative RNA helicase that controls the replication of several RNA viruses and whose homologs are necessary for the repression of endogenous mobile elements. Here, we employ both ectopic expression and gene knockdown approaches to analyse the role of human MOV10 in the replication of a panel of exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. Results MOV10 overexpression substantially decreased the production of infectious retrovirus particles, as well the propagation of LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements. Most significantly, RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous MOV10 enhanced the replication of both LTR and non-LTR endogenous retroelements, but not the production of infectious retrovirus particles demonstrating that natural levels of MOV10 suppress retrotransposition, but have no impact on infection by exogenous retroviruses. Furthermore, functional studies showed that MOV10 is not necessary for miRNA or siRNA-mediated mRNA silencing. Conclusions We have identified novel specificity for human MOV10 in the control of retroelement replication and hypothesise that MOV10 may be a component of a cellular pathway or process that selectively regulates the replication of endogenous retroelements in somatic cells. PMID:22727223

  1. Irradiation of novel MTR fuel plates in BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboomen, B.; Aoust, Th.; Beeckmans De Westmeerbeeck, A.; De Raedt, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Since the end of 1999, novel MTR fuel plates with very high-density meat are being irradiated in BR2. The purpose of the irradiation is to investigate the behaviour of these fuel plates under very severe reactor operation conditions. The novel fuel plates are inserted in two standard six-tube BR2 fuel elements in the locations normally occupied by the standard outer fuel plates. The irradiation in BR2 was prepared by carrying out detailed neutron Monte Carlo calculations of the whole BR2 core containing the two experimental fuel elements for various positions in the reactor and for various azimuthal orientations of the fuel elements. Comparing the thus determined fission density levels and azimuthal profiles in the new MTR fuel plates irradiated in the various channels allowed the experimenters to choose the most appropriate BR2 channel and the most appropriate fuel element orientation. (author)

  2. Extended analysis of fifth spectrum of bromine: Br V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyaz, A.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.

    2014-01-01

    The fifth spectrum of bromine (Br V) has been studied in the 200–2400 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was photographed on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark. The ground configuration of Br V is 4s 2 4p. The excited configurations 4s4p 2 +4s 2 (4d+5d+5s+6s+7s+5g+6g)+4s4p(5p+4f)+4p 2 4d in the even parity system and the 4p 3 +4s 2 (5p+6p+7p+4f)+4s4p4d+4s4p5s configurations in the odd parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree–Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations have been used to interpret the observed spectrum. 99 levels of Br V have now been established, 43 being new. Among 394 classified spectral lines, 181 are newly classified. The level 4s 2 7s 2 S 1/2 is revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelengths for sharp and unblended lines to be±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 479,657±200 cm −1 (59.470±0.025 eV). - Highlights: • The spectrum of Br was recorded on a 3-m spectrograph with triggered spark source. • Atomic transitions for Br V were identified to established new energy levels. • CI calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Weighted oscillator strength (gf) and transition probabilities (gA) were calculated. • Ionization potential of Br V was determined experimentally

  3. Abnormal nociception and opiate sensitivity of STOP null mice exhibiting elevated levels of the endogenous alkaloid morphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aunis Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Mice deficient for the stable tubule only peptide (STOP display altered dopaminergic neurotransmission associated with severe behavioural defects including disorganized locomotor activity. Endogenous morphine, which is present in nervous tissues and synthesized from dopamine, may contribute to these behavioral alterations since it is thought to play a role in normal and pathological neurotransmission. Results- In this study, we showed that STOP null brain structures, including cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and spinal cord, contain high endogenous morphine amounts. The presence of elevated levels of morphine was associated with the presence of a higher density of mu opioid receptor with a higher affinity for morphine in STOP null brains. Interestingly, STOP null mice exhibited significantly lower nociceptive thresholds to thermal and mechanical stimulations. They also had abnormal behavioural responses to the administration of exogenous morphine and naloxone. Low dose of morphine (1 mg/kg, i.p. produced a significant mechanical antinociception in STOP null mice whereas it has no effect on wild-type mice. High concentration of naloxone (1 mg/kg was pronociceptive for both mice strain, a lower concentration (0.1 mg/kg was found to increase the mean mechanical nociceptive threshold only in the case of STOP null mice. Conclusions- Together, our data show that STOP null mice displayed elevated levels of endogenous morphine, as well as an increase of morphine receptor affinity and density in brain. This was correlated with hypernociception and impaired pharmacological sensitivity to mu opioid receptor ligands.

  4. Expression of BAFF and BR3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Duan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF and BAFF receptor in patients with disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Real-time RT-PCR was used to examine BAFF mRNA expression in peripheral blood monocytes of active and stable SLE patients and healthy controls. The percentage of BAFF receptor 3 (BR3 on B lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Soluble BAFF levels in serum were assayed by ELISA. Microalbumin levels were assayed by an automatic immune analysis machine. BAFF mRNA and soluble BAFF levels were highest in the active SLE group, followed by the stable SLE group, and controls (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was downregulated in the active SLE group compared with the stable SLE group and controls (P<0.01. BAFF mRNA levels and soluble BAFF levels were higher in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The percentage of BR3 on B lymphocytes was lower in patients who were positive for proteinuria than in those who were negative (P<0.01. The BAFF/BR3 axis may be over-activated in SLE patients. BAFF and BR3 levels may be useful parameters for evaluating treatment.

  5. Reactor BR2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2000-07-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  6. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  7. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  8. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2001-01-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given

  9. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  10. The TbBr3–LiBr binary system: Experimental thermodynamic investigation and assessment of phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rycerz, L.; Gong, W.; Gaune-Escard, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► DSC measurements for the (LiBr + TbBr 3 ) system. ► congruently Li3TbBr 6 and incongruently melting Li5TbBr 8 compounds. ► Thermodynamic description of the liquid phase in the (LiBr + TbBr 3 ) system. ► Assessment with a two-sublattice ionic solution model. - Abstract: DSC was used to study the phase equilibrium in the TbBr 3 –LiBr binary system. The results obtained provided a basis for constructing the phase diagram of this system. It exhibits two compounds: Li 5 TbBr 8 , which decomposes in the solid state at 611 K, and Li 3 TbBr 6 , which melts congruently at 785 K with the related enthalpy 59.1 kJ·mol −1 . The binary LiBr–TbBr 3 system was then optimized using the available experimental information on phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. A two-sub-lattice ionic solution model (Li + ) P :(Br − , TbBr 6 −3 , TbBr 3 ) Q was adopted to describe the liquid phase. The present assessment of the binary LiBr–TbBr 3 system was in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and confirmed their consistency.

  11. $^{80m}$Br/$^{80}$Br a new electron-$\\gamma$ - PAC Probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Araújo, J P; Marques, J G; Soares, J C; Melo, A A

    2001-01-01

    Conversion electron-$\\gamma$ PAC measurements of the 49 keV - 37 keV cascade in $^{80}$Br through the intermediate 2$^{-}$ state with T$_{1/2}$=7.4 ns were performed with a system of two magnetic lens spectrometers and two BaF$_{2}$ scintillation detectors. The parent $^{80m}$Br activity with half-life of 4.4 hrs was implanted into Ni, Zn and graphite at the ISOLDE separator at CERN. The observed interaction frequency in the nickel matrix is in good agreement with the known value of the hyperfine field for Br in Ni and the magnetic moment of the 2$^{-}$ state. From the measured quadrupole interaction in Zn and graphite the electric field gradients at Br were obtained.

  12. Elimination of nonspecific radioactivity from [76Br]bromide in PET study with [76Br]bromodeoxyuridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lu; Bergstroem, Mats; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Wu Feng; Eriksson, Barbro; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1999-01-01

    [ 76 Br]Bromodeoxyuridine ([ 76 Br]BrdU) might allow a determination of proliferation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), but only with consideration of organ nonspecific radioactivity constituted by [ 76 Br]bromide. A first study assessed the potential of diuretics to eliminate [ 76 Br]bromide. [ 76 Br]Bromide was injected in the vein of rats and different diuretic combinations were given. Urine was collected and radioactivity measured. Torasemide plus sodium chloride gave better 76 Br elimination than the other diuretics. In a second experiment, rats were given [ 76 Br]BrdU. After the radioactivity injection, the rats of the treatment group were given torasemide plus NaCl. At 44 h after the radioactivity injection, the radioactivity concentration and the fraction incorporated into DNA were measured in different organs. Using diuretics, the elimination of [ 76 Br]bromide was increased. The radioactivity decreased 30-50% in most of the organs but the highest radioactivity uptake was found in the organs with more active DNA synthesis. This method may facilitate the use of [ 76 Br]BrdU as a tracer for DNA synthesis using PET

  13. The issue of HPLC determination of endogenous lipoic acid in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechovcová, Soňa; Královcová, Pavla; Kanďár, Roman; Ventura, Karel

    2018-05-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is used extensively as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of various diseases. Many methods have been reported for the determination of LA plasma levels and its metabolites after its supplementation, but available information concerning endogenous plasma levels is still scarce. Studies which directly focused on determining the endogenous plasma levels provided highly controversial results, endogenous plasma levels of LA: 2.4 and 4.9 nmol/L respectively. However, the levels of free LA in the plasma of nonsupplemented voluntary blood donors were not detectable in all cases. The presented results of our study show that endogenous concentrations of LA are <1.85 nmol/L. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Improved production of Br atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br2 molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, L Z; Yin, J P

    2014-10-28

    We theoretically investigated the improvement on the production rate of the decelerated bromine (Br) atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br2 precursors. Adiabatic alignment of Br2 precursors exposed to long laser pulses with duration on the order of nanoseconds was investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The dynamical fragmentation of adiabatically aligned Br2 precursors was simulated and velocity distribution of the Br atoms produced was analyzed. Our study shows that the larger the degree of the precursor alignment, ⟨cos(2) θ⟩, the higher the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed. For Br2 molecules with an initial rotational temperature of ~1 K, a ⟨cos(2) θ⟩ value of ~0.88 can result in an improvement factor of over ~20 on the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed, requiring a laser intensity of only ~1 × 10(12) W/cm(2) for alignment.

  15. Symptomless endophytic fungi suppress endogenous levels of salicylic acid and interact with the jasmonate-dependent indirect defense traits of their host, lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Meléndez, Ariana L; Heil, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Symptomless ‘type II’ fungal endophytes colonize their plant host horizontally and exert diverse effects on its resistance phenotype. Here, we used wild Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants that were experimentally colonized with one of three strains of natural endophytes (Bartalinia pondoensis, Fusarium sp., or Cochliobolus lunatus) to investigate the effects of fungal colonization on the endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) and on two JA-dependent indirect defense traits. Colonization with Fusarium sp. enhanced JA levels in intact leaves, whereas B. pondoensis suppressed the induction of endogenous JA in mechanically damaged leaves. Endogenous SA levels in intact leaves were significantly decreased by all strains and B. pondoensis and Fusarium sp. decreased SA levels after mechanical damage. Colonization with Fusarium sp. or C. lunatus enhanced the number of detectable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from intact leaves, and all three strains enhanced the relative amount of several VOCs emitted from intact leaves as well as the number of detectable VOCs emitted from slightly damaged leaves. All three strains completely suppressed the induced secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) after the exogenous application of JA. Symptomless endophytes interact in complex and strain-specific ways with the endogenous levels of SA and JA and with the defense traits that are controlled by these hormones. These interactions can occur both upstream and downstream of the defense hormones.

  16. All-Ambient Processed Binary CsPbBr3-CsPb2Br5 Perovskites with Synergistic Enhancement for High-Efficiency Cs-Pb-Br-Based Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xisheng; Jin, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingru; Bai, Dongliang; Bian, Hui; Wang, Kang; Sun, Jie; Wang, Qian; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2018-02-28

    All-inorganic CsPbBr 3 perovskite solar cells display outstanding stability toward moisture, light soaking, and thermal stressing, demonstrating great potential in tandem solar cells and toward commercialization. Unfortunately, it is still challenging to prepare high-performance CsPbBr 3 films at moderate temperatures. Herein, a uniform, compact CsPbBr 3 film was fabricated using its quantum dot (QD)-based ink precursor. The film was then treated using thiocyanate ethyl acetate (EA) solution in all-ambient conditions to produce a superior CsPbBr 3 -CsPb 2 Br 5 composite film with a larger grain size and minimal defects. The achievement was attributed to the surface dissolution and recrystallization of the existing SCN - and EA. More specifically, the SCN - ions were first absorbed on the Pb atoms, leading to the dissolution and stripping of Cs + and Br - ions from the CsPbBr 3 QDs. On the other hand, the EA solution enhances the diffusion dynamics of surface atoms and the surfactant species. It is found that a small amount of CsPb 2 Br 5 in the composite film gives the best surface passivation, while the Br-rich surface decreases Br vacancies (V Br ) for a prolonged carrier lifetime. As a result, the fabricated device gives a higher solar cell efficiency of 6.81% with an outstanding long-term stability.

  17. P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gen, R; Akbay, E; Camsari, A; Ozcan, T

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Seventy-one patients with sublinical thyrotoxicosis (34 endogenous, 37 exogenous) and 69 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Pmax and minimum P wave duration (Pmin) on electrocardiogram recordings were measured and PWD was calculated as Pmax-Pmin. Pmax (pendogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with the control group. Pmax (pexogenous subclinical thyrotoxicosis compared with the control group. Pmax (p=0.710) and PWD (p=0.127) were not significantly different in patients with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism compared with exogenous subclinical hyperthyroid patients. Pmax and PWD negatively associated with TSH in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. In the present study, we observed that Pmax and PWD were longer in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.

  18. New measurement of BR(D→ρμν)BR(D→Kμν) branching ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOCUS Collaboration; Link, J. M.; Yager, P. M.; Anjos, J. C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A. A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Pepe, I. M.; Polycarpo, E.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Uribe, C.; Vá, F.; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J. P.; O'Reilly, B.; Segoni, I.; Stenson, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chiodini, G.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garren, L. A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P. H.; Kreymer, A. E.; Kutschke, R.; Wang, M.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Pacetti, S.; Zallo, A.; Reyes, M.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J.; Gardner, R.; Kryemadhi, A.; Chung, Y. S.; Kang, J. S.; Ko, B. R.; Kwak, J. W.; Lee, K. B.; Cho, K.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Barberis, S.; Boschini, M.; Cerutti, A.; D'Angelo, P.; Dicorato, M.; Dini, P.; Edera, L.; Erba, S.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, S.; Davenport, T. F.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Merlo, M. M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Gö, C.; Otalora, J.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A. M.; Mendez, H.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Ramirez, J. E.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Handler, T.; Mitchell, R.; Engh, D.; Hosack, M.; Johns, W. E.; Luiggi, E.; Moore, J. E.; Nehring, M.; Sheldon, P. D.; Vaandering, E. W.; Webster, M.; Sheaff, M.

    2006-06-01

    Using data collected by the FOCUS experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the charm semileptonic branching ratio BR(D→ρμν)BR(D→Kμν). From a sample of 320±44 and 11372±161D→ρμν and D→Kπμν events respectively, we find BR(D→ρμν)BR(D→Kμν)=0.041±0.006 (stat)±0.004 (syst).

  19. High-Level Accumulation of Exogenous Small RNAs Not Affecting Endogenous Small RNA Biogenesis and Function in Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Wan-xia; Neil A Smith; ZHOU Chang-yong; WANG Ming-bo

    2014-01-01

    RNA silencing is a fundamental plant defence and gene control mechanism in plants that are directed by 20-24 nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNA (siRNA) and microRNA (miRNA). Infection of plants with viral pathogens or transformation of plants with RNA interference (RNAi) constructs is usually associated with high levels of exogenous siRNAs, but it is unclear if these siRNAs interfere with endogenous small RNA pathways and hence affect plant development. Here we provide evidence that viral satellite RNA (satRNA) infection does not affect siRNA and miRNA biogenesis or plant growth despite the extremely high level of satRNA-derived siRNAs. We generated transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants that no longer develop the speciifc yellowing symptoms generally associated with infection by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y-satellite RNA (Y-Sat). We then used these plants to show that CMV Y-Sat infection did not cause any visible phenotypic changes in comparison to uninfected plants, despite the presence of high-level Y-Sat siRNAs. Furthermore, we showed that the accumulation of hairpin RNA (hpRNA)-derived siRNAs or miRNAs, and the level of siRNA-directed transgene silencing, are not signiifcantly affected by CMV Y-Sat infection. Taken together, our results suggest that the high levels of exogenous siRNAs associated with viral infection or RNAi-inducing transgenes do not saturate the endogenous RNA silencing machineries and have no signiifcant impact on normal plant development.

  20. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liasko, L.I.; Souchkevitch, G.N.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  1. Arabidopsis PIZZA has the capacity to acylate brassinosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katja; Breuer, Christian; Kawamura, Ayako; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Hanada, Atsushi; Fujioka, Shozo; Ichikawa, Takanari; Kondou, Youichi; Matsui, Minami; Kamiya, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Shinjiro; Sugimoto, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) affect a wide range of developmental processes in plants and compromised production or signalling of BRs causes severe growth defects. To identify new regulators of plant organ growth, we searched the Arabidopsis FOX (Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressor gene) collection for mutants with altered organ size and isolated two overexpression lines that display typical BR deficient dwarf phenotypes. The phenotype of these lines, caused by an overexpression of a putative acyltransferase gene PIZZA (PIZ), was partly rescued by supplying exogenous brassinolide (BL) and castasterone (CS), indicating that endogenous BR levels are rate-limiting for the growth of PIZ overexpression lines. Our transcript analysis further showed that PIZ overexpression leads to an elevated expression of genes involved in BR biosynthesis and a reduced expression of BR inactivating hydroxylases, a transcriptional response typical to low BR levels. Taking the advantage of relatively high endogenous BR accumulation in a mild bri1-301 background, we found that overexpression of PIZ results in moderately reduced levels of BL and CS and a strong reduction of typhasterol (TY) and 6-deoxocastasterone (6-deoxoCS), suggesting a role of PIZ in BR metabolism. We tested a set of potential substrates in vitro for heterologously expressed PIZ and confirmed its acyltransferase activity with BL, CS and TY. The PIZ gene is expressed in various tissues but as reported for other genes involved in BR metabolism, the loss-of-function mutants did not display obvious growth phenotypes under standard growth conditions. Together, our data suggest that PIZ can modify BRs by acylation and that these properties might help modulating endogenous BR levels in Arabidopsis.

  2. Exploring Polaronic, Excitonic Structures and Luminescence in Cs4PbBr6/CsPbBr3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byungkyun; Biswas, Koushik

    2018-02-15

    Among the important family of halide perovskites, one particular case of all-inorganic, 0-D Cs 4 PbBr 6 and 3-D CsPbBr 3 -based nanostructures and thin films is witnessing intense activity due to ultrafast luminescence with high quantum yield. To understand their emissive behavior, we use hybrid density functional calculations to first compare the ground-state electronic structure of the two prospective compounds. The dispersive band edges of CsPbBr 3 do not support self-trapped carriers, which agrees with reports of weak exciton binding energy and high photocurrent. The larger gap 0-D material Cs 4 PbBr 6 , however, reveals polaronic and excitonic features. We show that those lattice-coupled carriers are likely responsible for observed ultraviolet emission around ∼375 nm, reported in bulk Cs 4 PbBr 6 and Cs 4 PbBr 6 /CsPbBr 3 composites. Ionization potential calculations and estimates of type-I band alignment support the notion of quantum confinement leading to fast, green emission from CsPbBr 3 nanostructures embedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 .

  3. Are endogenous feline leukemia viruses really endogenous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H; Jarrett, O; Hosie, M J; Willett, B J

    2011-10-15

    Full length endogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviruses exist within the genomes of many breeds of domestic cat raising the possibility that they may also exist in a transmissible exogenous form. Such viruses would share receptor usage with the recombinant FeLV-B subgroup, a viral subgroup that arises in vivo by recombination between exogenous subgroup A virus (FeLV-A) and endogenous FeLV. Accordingly, all isolates of FeLV-B made to date have contained a "helper" FeLV-A, consistent with their recombinatorial origin. In order to assess whether endogenous viruses are transmitted between cats, we examined primary isolates of FeLV for which the viral subgroup had been determined for the presence of a subgroup B virus that lacked an FeLV-A. Here we describe the identification of two primary field isolates of FeLV (2518 and 4314) that appeared to contain subgroup B virus only by classical interference assays, raising the possibility of between-host transmission of endogenous FeLV. Sequencing of the env gene and U3 region of the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) confirmed that both viral genomes contained endogenous viral env genes. However the viral 3' LTRs appeared exogenous in origin with a putative 3' recombination breakpoint residing at the 3' end of the env gene. Further, the FeLV-2518 virions also co-packaged a truncated FeLV-A genome containing a defective env gene, termed FeLV-2518(A) whilst no helper subgroup A viral genome was detected in virions of FeLV-4314. The acquisition of an exogenous LTR by the endogenous FeLV in 4314 may have allowed a recombinant FeLV variant to outgrow an exogenous FeLV-A virus that was presumably present during first infection. Given time, a similar evolution may also occur within the 2518 isolate. The data suggest that endogenous FeLVs may be mobilised by acquisition of exogenous LTRs yielding novel viruses that type biologically as FeLV-B. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Yrityksen brändin uudistaminen

    OpenAIRE

    Saarimaa, Petri

    2015-01-01

    Brändin rakentaminen on tänä päivänä tärkeä osa yrityksen näkyvyyden ja kilpailukyvyn edistämisessä. Huolellisesti rakennetulla brändillä ja hyvällä markkinoinnilla yritys voi erottua kilpailijoistaan positiivisesti. Tie menestyvään brändiin on kuitenkin pitkä prosessi. Toimeksiantajana opinnäytetyössä toimi rakennusyritys Rakennus Vuoriot Oy. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli toteuttaa yritykselle brändin uudistaminen luomalla kokonaan uusi perusta ja rakennusosat olemassa olevalle brändille...

  5. Contagion risk in endogenous financial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shouwei; Sui, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose an endogenous financial network model. • Endogenous networks include interbank networks, inter-firm networks and bank-firm networks. • We investigate contagion risk in endogenous financial networks. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigate contagion risk in an endogenous financial network, which is characterized by credit relationships connecting downstream and upstream firms, interbank credit relationships and credit relationships connecting firms and banks. The findings suggest that: increasing the number of potential lenders randomly selected can lead to an increase in the number of bank bankruptcies, while the number of firm bankruptcies presents a trend of increase after the decrease; after the intensity of choice parameter rises beyond a threshold, the number of bankruptcies in three sectors (downstream firms, upstream firms and banks) shows a relatively large margin of increase, and keeps at a relatively high level; there exists different trends for bankruptcies in different sectors with the change of the parameter of credits’ interest rates.

  6. Endogenous antipyretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim

    2006-09-01

    The febrile increase of body temperature is regarded as a component of the complex host response to infection or inflammation that accompanies the activation of the immune system. Late phases of fever appear mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines called endogenous pyrogens. The rise of body temperature is beneficial because it accelerates several components of the activated immune system. To prevent an excessive and dangerous rise of body temperature the febrile response is controlled, limited in strength and duration, and sometimes even prevented by the actions of endogenous antipyretic substances liberated systemically or within the brain during fever. In most cases the antipyretic effects are achieved by an inhibitory influence on the formation or action of endogenous pyrogens, or by effects on neuronal thermoregulatory circuits that are activated during fever. Endogenous antipyretic substances include steroid hormones, neuropeptides, cytokines and other molecules. It is the purpose of this review to consider the current state in the research on endogenous antipyretic systems.

  7. Electronic parameters and top surface chemical stability of RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, V.V., E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Isaenko, L.I. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Kesler, V.G. [Laboratory of Physical Principles for Integrated Microelectronics, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Pokrovsky, L.D. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation); Tarasova, A.Yu. [Laboratory of Crystal Growth, Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 90, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-01-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bridgman growth of RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electronic structure measurements with XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical crystalline surface fabrication. - Abstract: The RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} crystal has been grown by Bridgman method. The electronic structure of RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} has been measured with XPS for a powder sample. High chemical stability of RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} surface is verified by weak intensity of O 1s core level recorded by XPS and structural RHEED measurements. Chemical bonding effects have been observed by the comparative analysis of element core levels and crystal structure of RbPb{sub 2}Br{sub 5} and several rubidium- and lead-containing bromides using binding energy difference parameters {Delta}{sub Rb} = (BE Rb 3d - BE Br 3d) and {Delta}{sub Pb} = (BE Pb 4f{sub 7/2} - BE Br 3d).

  8. Low levels of endogenous or X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks activate apoptosis in adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara; Rickett, Nicole; Ju, Limei; Jeggo, Penny A

    2015-10-01

    The embryonic neural stem cell compartment is characterised by rapid proliferation from embryonic day (E)11 to E16.5, high endogenous DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and sensitive activation of apoptosis. Here, we ask whether DSBs arise in the adult neural stem cell compartments, the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the sub-granular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, and whether they activate apoptosis. We used mice with a hypomorphic mutation in DNA ligase IV (Lig4(Y288C)), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (Atm(-/-)) and double mutant Atm(-/-)/Lig4(Y288C) mice. We demonstrate that, although DSBs do not arise at a high frequency in adult neural stem cells, the low numbers of DSBs that persist endogenously in Lig4(Y288C) mice or that are induced by low radiation doses can activate apoptosis. A temporal analysis shows that DSB levels in Lig4(Y288C) mice diminish gradually from the embryo to a steady state level in adult mice. The neonatal SVZ compartment of Lig4(Y288C) mice harbours diminished DSBs compared to its differentiated counterpart, suggesting a process selecting against unfit stem cells. Finally, we reveal high endogenous apoptosis in the developing SVZ of wild-type newborn mice. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Chanel-brändin nuorentaminen Suomessa

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinen, Elina

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kartoittaa Chanel-kosmetiikkabrändin imagoa ja asiakaskuntaa Suomessa sekä luoda saatujen tulosten pohjalta kehitysehdotuksia Chanel-brändin markkinointiin Suomessa brändin nuorentamisen näkökulmasta. Työn toimeksiantaja oli Chanel-brändin jakelija Oy Transmeri Ab. Teoriataustassa käsiteltiin laajasti erilaisia brändin nuorentamiseen liittyviä aihepiirejä; bränditeoriaa, brändien uudistamista, luksusbrändien erityispiirteitä sekä niiden asiakkaita, digitaal...

  10. Combining Semi-Endogenous and Fully Endogenous Growth: a Generalization.

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that combining the semi-endogenous and the fully endogenous growth mechanisms with a general CES aggregator, either growth process can prevail in the balanced growth path depending on their degree of complementarity/substitutability. Policy-induced long-run economic switches to the fully endogenous steady state as the R&D employment ratio surpasses a positive threshold are possible if the two growth engines are gross substitutes.

  11. Photoresponse of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6 Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Ji-Hyun; Han, Jae Hoon; Yin, Wenping; Park, Cheolwoo; Park, Yongmin; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Cho, Jeong Ho; Jung, Duk-Young

    2017-02-02

    High-quality and millimeter-sized perovskite single crystals of CsPbBr 3 and Cs 4 PbBr 6 were prepared in organic solvents and studied for correlation between photocurrent generation and photoluminescence (PL) emission. The CsPbBr 3 crystals, which have a 3D perovskite structure, showed a highly sensitive photoresponse and poor PL signal. In contrast, Cs 4 PbBr 6 crystals, which have a 0D perovskite structure, exhibited more than 1 order of magnitude higher PL intensity than CsPbBr 3 , which generated an ultralow photoresponse under illumination. Their contrasting optoelectrical characteristics were attributed to different exciton binding energies, induced by coordination geometry of the [PbBr 6 ] 4- octahedron sublattices. This work correlated the local structures of lead in the primitive perovskite and its derivatives to PL spectra as well as photoconductivity.

  12. In situ Spectroscopy of Solid-State Chemical Reaction in PbBr2-Deposited CsBr Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shin-ichi; Matsunaga, Toshihiro; Saito, Tadaaki; Asada, Hiroshi

    2003-09-01

    It is possible to measure the fundamental optical absorption spectra of CsPbBr3 and Cs4PbBr6, whose stability is predicted by the study of phase diagram in the binary system CsBr-PbBr2, by means of in situ optical absorption and reflection spectroscopy of thermally induced solid-state chemical reaction in PbBr2-deposited CsBr crystals. On heavy annealing of the crystals, the Pb2+ ions are uniformly dispersed in the crystal matrix. The present experiment provides a novel method for measuring intrinsic optical absorption of ternary metal halides and also for in situ monitoring of doping metal halide crystal with impurities (metal ions or halogen ions).

  13. Environmental toxin acrolein alters levels of endogenous lipids, including TRP agonists: A potential mechanism for headache driven by TRPA1 activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Leishman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to airborne toxins can trigger headaches, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Some environmental toxins, such as acrolein, activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1, a receptor involved in pain sensation that is highly expressed in the trigeminovascular system. It has been shown in rat models that repeated exposure to acrolein induces trigeminovascular sensitization to both TRPA1 and TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 agonists, a phenomenon linked to headache. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the sensitization of trigeminovascular responses in rats after acrolein exposure via inhalation is associated with changes in levels of endogenous lipids, including TRPV1 agonists, in the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, and cerebellum. Lipidomics analysis of 80 lipids was performed on each tissue after acute acrolein, chronic acrolein, or room air control. Both acute and chronic acrolein exposure drove widespread alterations in lipid levels. After chronic acrolein exposure, levels of all 6 N-acyl ethanolamines in the screening library, including the endogenous cannabinoid and TRPV1 agonist, N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine, were elevated in trigeminal tissue and in the cerebellum. This increase in TRPV1 ligands by acrolein exposure may indicate further downstream signaling, in that we also show here that a combination of these TRPV1 endogenous agonists increases the potency of the individual ligands in TRPV1-HEK cells. In addition to these TRPV1 agonists, 3 TRPV3 antagonists, 4 TRPV4 agonists, and 25 orphan lipids were up and down regulated after acrolein exposure. These data support the hypothesis that lipid signaling may represent a mechanism by which repeated exposure to the TRPA1 agonist and environmental toxin, acrolein, drives trigeminovascular sensitization. Keywords: Lipidomics, Endogenous cannabinoid, TRPA1, TRPV1, Lipoamine, Acrolein, Migraine

  14. Determining level of endogenous serum erythropoietin for differential diagnosis of polycythemia vera and symptomatic polycythemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostyukevych O.M.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with determining possibility of the assessment of the level of endogenous serum erythropoietin (EPO for differential diagnosis of polycythemia vera (PV and secondary erythrocytosis (SE. The determination of subnormal level of this cytokine for the diagnosis of PV has been detected. The relation between the level of endogenous erythropoietin and iron metabolism also has been analyzed. The study involved 88 patients with PV and 119 patients with SE. Statistically significant decrease in EPO concentration level has been detected in PV patients. The mean EPO level was equal to 6.38 ± 0.84 mIU/mL and 17.98 ±2.48 mIU/mL in PV and SE patients respectively. In control group of individuals EPO concentration was equal to 9,81 ±0,58 mIU/mL, the significant difference was found between all studied groups (р<0.01. According to our data, EPO was increased in 28 SE patients (23.53%, it was not observed in control group and in group of PV patients (φ*emp = 4.355, р<0.01. The decrease of EPO level in PV patients has been detected more often than in SE patients (84.09% versus 11.76% , φ*emp = 5.218, р<0.01, it has not been observed in control group. Only 14 (15.91% PV patients had normal EPO level, in contrast 77 (64.71% SE patients demonstrated normal EPO level (φ*emp = 4.578, р<0.01. The average level of ferritin was equal to 57.41 ± 9.74 ng/mL in PV patients and 199.77 ± 14.32 ng/mL in SE patients (р<0.01. Significantly more patients with PV demonstrated decrease of ferritin level (31.81% versus 7.56%, φ*emp = 4.438, р<0.01. Patients with SE more often had raised level of EPO than PV patients (15.12% versus 4.54%, φ*emp = 2.453, р<0.01. The sensitivity of test with detecting of the reduced level of EPO for the diagnosis of PV was 84.1%, specificity - 87.4%, positive predictive value - 83.1%, negative predictive value - 88.1%. Normal range of EPO significantly (rs = 0,5494 correlated with decreased levels of serum ferritin in

  15. High endogenous activated protein C levels attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Cong; von der Thüsen, Jan; Isermann, Berend; Weiler, Hartmut; van der Poll, Tom; Borensztajn, Keren; Spek, Chris A.

    2016-01-01

    Coagulation activation accompanied by reduced anticoagulant activity is a key characteristic of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although the importance of coagulation activation in IPF is well studied, the potential relevance of endogenous anticoagulant activity in IPF progression

  16. Energy of the 4(+) isomer and new bands in the odd-odd nucleus 74Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, J.; Holcomb, J.W.; Johnson, T.D.; Riley, M.A.; Tabor, S.L.; Womble, P.C.; Winter, G.

    1993-01-01

    High-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 74 Br were investigated via the reactions 58 Ni ( 19 F,2pn) 74 Br and 65 Cu( 12 C,3n) 74 Br at beam energies of 62 and 50 MeV, respectively. On the basis of coincidence data new levels have been introduced and partly grouped into rotational bands. Some of these new states decay to known levels of negative-parity bands built on both the ground state and the long-lived 4 (+) isomer. Thus, an excitation energy of 13.8 keV has been deduced for the long-lived isomer in 74 Br. The level sequences observed are interpreted in terms of Nilsson configurations in conjunction with collective excitations

  17. Tunable CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 phase transformation and their optical spectroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Chen, Daqin; Li, Junni; Fang, Gaoliang; Sheng, Hongchao; Zhong, Jiasong

    2018-04-24

    As a novel type of promising materials, metal halide perovskites are a rising star in the field of optoelectronics. On this basis, a new frontier of zero-dimensional perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 with bright green emission and high stability has attracted an enormous amount of attention, even though its photoluminescence still requires to clarification. Herein, the controllable phase transformation between three-dimensional CsPbBr3 and zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 is easily achieved in a facile ligand-assisted supersaturated recrystallization synthesis procedure via tuning the amount of surfactants, and their unique optical properties are investigated and compared in detail. Both Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3 produce remarkably intense green luminescence with quantum yields up to 45% and 80%, respectively; however, significantly different emitting behaviors are observed. The fluorescence lifetime of Cs4PbBr6 is much longer than that of CsPbBr3, and photo-blinking is easily detected in the Cs4PbBr6 product, proving that the zero-dimensional Cs4PbBr6 is indeed a highly luminescent perovskite-related material. Additionally, for the first time, tunable emissions over the visible-light spectral region are demonstrated to be achievable via halogen composition modulations in the Cs4PbX6 (X = Cl, Br, I) samples. Our study brings a simple method for the phase control of CsPbBr3/Cs4PbBr6 and demonstrates the intrinsic luminescence nature of the zero-dimensional perovskite-related Cs4PbX6 products.

  18. Electronic structure of the CsPbBr3/polytriarylamine (PTAA) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, James; Kulbak, Michael; Zhao, Lianfeng; Rand, Barry P.; Cahen, David; Hodes, Gary; Kahn, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    The inorganic lead halide perovskite CsPbBr3 promises similar solar cell efficiency to its hybrid organic-inorganic counterpart CH3NH3PbBr3 but shows greater stability. Here, we exploit this stability for the study of band alignment between perovskites and carrier selective interlayers. Using ultraviolet, X-ray, and inverse photoemission spectroscopies, we measure the ionization energy and electron affinities of CsPbBr3 and the hole transport polymer polytriarylamine (PTAA). We find that undoped PTAA introduces a barrier to hole extraction of 0.2-0.5 eV, due to band bending in the PTAA and/or a dipole at the interface. p-doping the PTAA eliminates this barrier, raising PTAA's highest occupied molecular orbital to 0.2 eV above the CsPbBr3 valence band maximum and improving hole transport. However, IPES reveals the presence of states below the PTAA lowest unoccupied molecular level. If present at the CsPbBr3/PTAA interface, these states may limit the polymer's efficacy at blocking electrons in solar cells with wide band gap materials like CsPbBr3 and CH3NH3PbBr3.

  19. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Dora, José Miguel; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Aquino, Valério; Maia, Ana Luiza; Canani, Luis Henrique; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing's original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. PMID:24470886

  20. Tuning growth cycles of Brassica crops via natural antisense transcripts of BrFLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaorong; Zhang, Shaofeng; Bai, Jinjuan; He, Yuke

    2016-03-01

    Several oilseed and vegetable crops of Brassica are biennials that require a prolonged winter cold for flowering, a process called vernalization. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering. Here, we report that the overexpression of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) of Brassica rapa FLC (BrFLC) greatly shortens plant growth cycles. In rapid-, medium- and slow-cycling crop types, there are four copies of the BrFLC genes, which show extensive variation in sequences and expression levels. In Bre, a biennial crop type that requires vernalization, five NATs derived from the BrFLC2 locus are rapidly induced under cold conditions, while all four BrFLC genes are gradually down-regulated. The transgenic Bre lines overexpressing a long NAT of BrFLC2 do not require vernalization, resulting in a gradient of shortened growth cycles. Among them, a subset of lines both flower and set seeds as early as Yellow sarson, an annual crop type in which all four BrFLC genes have non-sense mutations and are nonfunctional in flowering repression. Our results demonstrate that the growth cycles of biennial crops of Brassica can be altered by changing the expression levels of BrFLC2 NATs. Thus, BrFLC2 NATs and their transgenic lines are useful for the genetic manipulation of crop growth cycles. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Elimination mechanisms of Br2+ and Br+ in photodissociation of 1,1- and 1,2-dibromoethylenes using velocity imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Linqiang; Zhang Bing; Lee, Wei-Bin; Chao, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, King-Chuen

    2011-01-01

    Elimination pathways of the Br 2 + and Br + ionic fragments in photodissociation of 1,2- and 1,1-dibromoethylenes (C 2 H 2 Br 2 ) at 233 nm are investigated using time-of-flight mass spectrometer equipped with velocity ion imaging. The Br 2 + fragments are verified not to stem from ionization of neutral Br 2 , that is a dissociation channel of dibromoethylenes reported previously. Instead, they are produced from dissociative ionization of dibromoethylene isomers. That is, C 2 H 2 Br 2 is first ionized by absorbing two photons, followed by the dissociation scheme, C 2 H 2 Br 2 + + hv→Br 2 + + C 2 H 2 . 1,2-C 2 H 2 Br 2 gives rise to a bright Br 2 + image with anisotropy parameter of -0.5 ± 0.1; the fragment may recoil at an angle of ∼66 deg. with respect to the C = C bond axis. However, this channel is relatively slow in 1,1-C 2 H 2 Br 2 such that a weak Br 2 + image is acquired with anisotropy parameter equal to zero, indicative of an isotropic recoil fragment distribution. It is more complicated to understand the formation mechanisms of Br + . Three routes are proposed for dissociation of 1,2-C 2 H 2 Br 2 , including (a) ionization of Br that is eliminated from C 2 H 2 Br 2 by absorbing one photon, (b) dissociation from C 2 H 2 Br 2 + by absorbing two more photons, and (c) dissociation of Br 2 + . Each pathway requires four photons to release one Br + , in contrast to the Br 2 + formation that involves a three-photon process. As for 1,1-C 2 H 2 Br 2 , the first two pathways are the same, but the third one is too weak to be detected.

  2. Photodissociation of C{sub 3}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 4}H{sub 7}Br at 234 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Kook; Paul, Dababrata; Hong, Ki Ryong; Cho, Ha Na; Kim, Tae Kyu [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The photodissociation dynamics of cyclopropyl bromide (C-3H{sub 5}Br) and cyclobutyl bromide (C{sub 4}H{sub 7}Br) at 234 nm was investigated. A two-dimensional photofragment ion-imaging technique coupled with a [2+1] resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization scheme was utilized to obtain speed and angular distributions of the nascent Br({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) and Br*({sup 2}P{sub 1/2}) atoms. The recoil anisotropies for the Br and Br* channels were measured to be βBr = 0.92 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.52 ± 0.04 for C{sub 3}H{sub 5}Br and βBr = 1.10 ± 0.03 and βBr* = 1.49 ± 0.05 for C{sub 4}H{sub 7}Br. The relative quantum yield for Br was found to be ΦBr = 0.13 ± 0.03 and for C{sub 3}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 4}H{sub 7}Br, respectively. The soft radical limit of the impulsive model adequately modeled the related energy partitioning. The nonadiabatic transition probability from the 3A' and 4A' potential energy surfaces was estimated and discussed.

  3. XeBr exciplex laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searles, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser emission from the recently discovered XeBr exciplex laser was investigated as a function of the partial pressures of Xe and Br 2 . An optical loss process appears to limit high-pressure operation

  4. Elimination of nonspecific radioactivity from [{sup 76}Br]bromide in PET study with [{sup 76}Br]bromodeoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Lu; Bergstroem, Mats E-mail: Mats.Bergstroem@pet.uu.se; Fasth, Karl-Johan; Wu Feng; Eriksson, Barbro; Laangstroem, Bengt

    1999-10-01

    [{sup 76}Br]Bromodeoxyuridine ([{sup 76}Br]BrdU) might allow a determination of proliferation in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), but only with consideration of organ nonspecific radioactivity constituted by [{sup 76}Br]bromide. A first study assessed the potential of diuretics to eliminate [{sup 76}Br]bromide. [{sup 76}Br]Bromide was injected in the vein of rats and different diuretic combinations were given. Urine was collected and radioactivity measured. Torasemide plus sodium chloride gave better {sup 76}Br elimination than the other diuretics. In a second experiment, rats were given [{sup 76}Br]BrdU. After the radioactivity injection, the rats of the treatment group were given torasemide plus NaCl. At 44 h after the radioactivity injection, the radioactivity concentration and the fraction incorporated into DNA were measured in different organs. Using diuretics, the elimination of [{sup 76}Br]bromide was increased. The radioactivity decreased 30-50% in most of the organs but the highest radioactivity uptake was found in the organs with more active DNA synthesis. This method may facilitate the use of [{sup 76}Br]BrdU as a tracer for DNA synthesis using PET.

  5. Partial structures in molten AgBr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Hiroki [Department of Condensed Matter Chemistry and Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)], E-mail: ueno@gemini.rc.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tahara, Shuta [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Science, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Kawakita, Yukinobu [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, Shinji [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 4-2-1 Ropponmatsu, Chuo-ku, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    The structure of molten AgBr has been studied by means of neutron and X-ray diffractions with the aid of structural modeling. It is confirmed that the Ag-Ag correlation has a small but well-defined first peak in the partial pair distribution function whose tail penetrates into the Ag-Br nearest neighbor distribution. This feature on the Ag-Ag correlation is intermediate between that of molten AgCl (non-superionic melt) and that of molten AgI (superionic melt). The analysis of Br-Ag-Br bond angle reveals that molten AgBr preserves a rocksalt type local ordering in the solid phase, suggesting that molten AgBr is clarified as non-superionic melt like molten AgCl.

  6. Investigations on the system Te/O/Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, H.; Kunze, G.; Wolf, E.; Titov, V.A.; Kokovin, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The melting point diagram of the system TeBr 4 -TeO 2 was obtained by total pressure measurements and DTA measurements. A congruent melting composition Te 6 O 11 Br 2 exists, the melting point is 570 0 C. The enthalpy of formation and the standard entropy of the species TeOBr 2 ,g was derived from measurements of the total pressure over Te 6 O 11 Br 2 /TeBr 4 and from the transport behaviour of the TeO 2 with Br 2 . From the decomposition-pressure measurements over Te 6 O 11 Br 2 /TeO 2 follow the partial pressures. The enthalpy of formation ΔH 0 (Te 6 O 11 Br 2 ,f,298) -453.5 kcal/Mol was obtained from the enthalpy of solution. The transport-behaviour of TeO 2 with HBr, TeBr 4 and Br 2 and that of Te 6 O 11 Br 2 is clear with the thermodynamic data of TeOBr 2 . (author)

  7. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Jeong Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin and yellow leaves (Wheessen were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE, lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6 were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8 that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants.

  8. Polymeric anionic networks using dibromine as a crosslinker; the preparation and crystal structure of [(C4H9)4N]2[Pt2Br10].(Br2)7 and [(C4H9)4N]2[PtBr4Cl2].(Br2)6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkei, Michael; Bickley, Jamie F; Heaton, Brian T; Steiner, Alexander

    2002-09-21

    The reaction of M[PtX3(CO)] (M+ = [(C4H9)4N]+, X = Br, Cl) with an excess of Br2 gives the new platinum(IV) salts, [(C4H9)4N]2[Pt2Br10].(Br2)7, 1, and [(C4H9)4N]2[PtBr4Cl2].(Br2)6, 2, which, in the solid state, contain strong Br Br interactions resulting in the formation of polymeric networks; they could provide useful solid storage reservoirs for elemental bromine.

  9. Humidity-Induced Photoluminescence Hysteresis in Variable Cs/Br Ratio Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John M; Tennyson, Elizabeth M; Barik, Sabyasachi; Szostak, Rodrigo; Waks, Edo; Toney, Michael F; Nogueira, Ana F; Neves, Bernardo R A; Leite, Marina S

    2018-06-12

    Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites containing Cs are a promising new material for light-absorbing and light-emitting optoelectronics. However, the impact of environmental conditions on their optical properties is not fully understood. Here, we elucidate and quantify the influence of distinct humidity levels on the charge carrier recombination in Cs x FA 1- x Pb(I y Br 1- y ) 3 perovskites. Using in situ environmental photoluminescence (PL), we temporally and spectrally resolve light emission within a loop of critical relative humidity (rH) levels. Our measurements show that exposure up to 35% rH increases the PL emission for all Cs (10-17%) and Br (17-38%) concentrations investigated here. Spectrally, samples with larger Br concentrations exhibit PL redshift at higher humidity levels, revealing water-driven halide segregation. The compositions considered present hysteresis in their PL intensity upon returning to a low-moisture environment due to partially reversible hydration of the perovskites. Our findings demonstrate that the Cs/Br ratio strongly influences both the spectral stability and extent of light emission hysteresis. We expect our method to become standard when testing the stability of emerging perovskites, including lead-free options, and to be combined with other parameters known for affecting material degradation, e.g., oxygen and temperature.

  10. Computations on the primary photoreaction of Br2 with CO2: stepwise vs concerted addition of Br atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kewei; Korter, Timothy M; Braiman, Mark S

    2015-04-09

    It was proposed previously that Br2-sensitized photolysis of liquid CO2 proceeds through a metastable primary photoproduct, CO2Br2. Possible mechanisms for such a photoreaction are explored here computationally. First, it is shown that the CO2Br radical is not stable in any geometry. This rules out a free-radical mechanism, for example, photochemical splitting of Br2 followed by stepwise addition of Br atoms to CO2-which in turn accounts for the lack of previously observed Br2+CO2 photochemistry in gas phases. A possible alternative mechanism in liquid phase is formation of a weakly bound CO2:Br2 complex, followed by concerted photoaddition of Br2. This hypothesis is suggested by the previously published spectroscopic detection of a binary CO2:Br2 complex in the supersonically cooled gas phase. We compute a global binding-energy minimum of -6.2 kJ mol(-1) for such complexes, in a linear geometry. Two additional local minima were computed for perpendicular (C2v) and nearly parallel asymmetric planar geometries, both with binding energies near -5.4 kJ mol(-1). In these two latter geometries, C-Br and O-Br bond distances are simultaneously in the range of 3.5-3.8 Å, that is, perhaps suitable for a concerted photoaddition under the temperature and pressure conditions where Br2 + CO2 photochemistry has been observed.

  11. Endophytic Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens RG11 May Transform Tryptophan to Melatonin and Promote Endogenous Melatonin Levels in the Roots of Four Grape Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaner; Jiao, Jian; Fan, Xiucai; Sun, Haisheng; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jianfu; Liu, Chonghuai

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes have been verified to synthesize melatonin in vitro and promote abiotic stress-induced production of endogenous melatonin in grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) roots. This study aimed to further characterize the biotransformation of tryptophan to melatonin in the endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens RG11 and to investigate its capacity for enhancing endogenous melatonin levels in the roots of different grape cultivars. Using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with 15N double-labeled L -tryptophan as the precursor for melatonin, we detected isotope-labeled 5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, N -acetylserotonin, and melatonin, but tryptamine was not detected during the in vitro incubation of P. fluorescens RG11. Furthermore, the production capacity of these four compounds peaked during the exponential growth phase. RG11 colonization increased the endogenous levels of 5-hydroxytryptophan, N -acetylserotonin, and melatonin, but reduced those of tryptamine and serotonin, in the roots of the Red Globe grape cultivar under salt stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that RG11 reduced the transcription of grapevine tryptophan decarboxylase and serotonin N -acetyltransferase genes when compared to the un-inoculated control. These results correlated with decreased reactive oxygen species bursts and cell damage, which were alleviated by RG11 colonization under salt stress conditions. Additionally, RG11 promoted plant growth and enhanced the levels of endogenous melatonin in different grape cultivars. Intraspecific variation in the levels of melatonin precursors was found among four grape cultivars, and the associated root crude extracts appeared to significantly induce RG11 melatonin biosynthesis in vitro . Overall, this study provides useful information that enhances the existing knowledge of a potential melatonin synthesis pathway in rhizobacteria, and it reveals plant-rhizobacterium interactions that affect

  12. Density Functional Study of Structures and Electron Affinities of BrO4F/BrO4F-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The structures, electron affinities and bond dissociation energies of BrO4F/BrO4F− species have been investigated with five density functional theory (DFT methods with DZP++ basis sets. The planar F-Br…O2…O2 complexes possess 3A' electronic state for neutral molecule and 4A' state for the corresponding anion. Three types of the neutral-anion energy separations are the adiabatic electron affinity (EAad, the vertical electron affinity (EAvert, and the vertical detachment energy (VDE. The EAad value predicted by B3LYP method is 4.52 eV. The bond dissociation energies De (BrO4F → BrO4-mF + Om (m = 1-4 and De- (BrO4F- → BrO4-mF- + Om and BrO4F- → BrO4-mF + Om- are predicted. The adiabatic electron affinities (EAad were predicted to be 4.52 eV for F-Br…O2…O2 (3A'← 4A' (B3LYP method.

  13. Propiconazole is a specific and accessible brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis inhibitor for Arabidopsis and maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Thomas; Corvalan, Claudia; Best, Norman B; Budka, Joshua S; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Choe, Sunghwa; Schulz, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal hormones that play pivotal roles during plant development. In addition to the characterization of BR deficient mutants, specific BR biosynthesis inhibitors played an essential role in the elucidation of BR function in plants. However, high costs and limited availability of common BR biosynthetic inhibitors constrain their key advantage as a species-independent tool to investigate BR function. We studied propiconazole (Pcz) as an alternative to the BR inhibitor brassinazole (Brz). Arabidopsis seedlings treated with Pcz phenocopied BR biosynthetic mutants. The steady state mRNA levels of BR, but not gibberellic acid (GA), regulated genes increased proportional to the concentrations of Pcz. Moreover, root inhibition and Pcz-induced expression of BR biosynthetic genes were rescued by 24epi-brassinolide, but not by GA(3) co-applications. Maize seedlings treated with Pcz showed impaired mesocotyl, coleoptile, and true leaf elongation. Interestingly, the genetic background strongly impacted the tissue specific sensitivity towards Pcz. Based on these findings we conclude that Pcz is a potent and specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis and an alternative to Brz. The reduced cost and increased availability of Pcz, compared to Brz, opens new possibilities to study BR function in larger crop species.

  14. Global observations of BrO in the troposphere using GOME-2 satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, N.; van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.; Xin, Y.; Isabelle, D.; Richter, A.; Mathias, B.; Quentin, E.; Johnston, P. V.; Kreher, K.; Martine, D.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements from the GOME-2 satellite instrument have been analyzed for tropospheric BrO using a residual technique that combines measured BrO columns and estimates of the stratospheric BrO content from a climatological approach driven by O3 and NO2 observations. Comparisons between the GOME-2 results and correlative data including ground-based BrO vertical columns and total BrO columns derived from SCIAMACHY nadir observations, present a good level of consistency. We show that the adopted technique enables to separate the stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the measured total BrO columns and allows studying the BrO plumes in polar region in more detail. While several satellite BrO plumes can largely be explained by an influence of stratospheric descending air, we show that numerous tropospheric BrO hotspots are associated to regions with low tropopause heights as well. Elaborating on simulations using the p-TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this finding is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events. Outside the polar region, evidences are provided for a global tropospheric BrO background with columns of 1-3 x 1013 molec/cm2.

  15. Sink limitation induces the expression of multiple soybean vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs while the endogenous jasmonic acid level remains low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, T W; Koetje, D S; Stephenson, L C; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E; Grimes, H D

    1995-08-01

    The response of individual members of the lipoxygenase multigene family in soybeans to sink deprivation was analyzed. RNase protection assays indicated that a novel vegetative lipoxygenase gene, vlxC, and three other vegetative lipoxygenase mRNAs accumulated in mature leaves in response to a variety of sink limitations. These data suggest that several members of the lipoxygenase multigene family are involved in assimilate partitioning. The possible involvement of jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule regulating assimilate partitioning into the vegetative storage proteins and lipoxygenases was directly assessed by determining the endogenous level of jasmonic acid in leaves from plants with their pods removed. There was no rise in the level of endogenous jasmonic acid coincident with the strong increase in both vlxC and vegetative storage protein VspB transcripts in response to sink limitation. Thus, expression of the vegetative lipoxygenases and vegetative storage proteins is not regulated by jasmonic acid in sink-limited leaves.

  16. Global observations of tropospheric BrO columns using GOME-2 satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, N.; van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.; Yang, X.; de Smedt, I.; Richter, A.; Begoin, M.; Errera, Q.; Johnston, P. V.; Kreher, K.; de Mazière, M.

    2011-02-01

    Measurements from the GOME-2 satellite instrument have been analyzed for tropospheric BrO using a residual technique that combines measured BrO columns and estimates of the stratospheric BrO content from a climatological approach driven by O3 and NO2 observations. Comparisons between the GOME-2 results and BrO vertical columns derived from correlative ground-based and SCIAMACHY nadir observations, present a good level of consistency. We show that the adopted technique enables separation of stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the measured total BrO columns and allows quantitative study of the BrO plumes in polar regions. While some satellite observed plumes of enhanced BrO can be explained by stratospheric descending air, we show that most BrO hotspots are of tropospheric origin, although they are often associated to regions with low tropopause heights as well. Elaborating on simulations using the p-TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this result is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events. No definitive conclusion can be drawn however on the importance of blowing snow sources in comparison to other bromine release mechanisms. Outside polar regions, evidence is provided for a global tropospheric BrO background with column of 1-3 × 1013 molec cm-2, consistent with previous estimates.

  17. Endogenous fertility and development traps with endogenous lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We extend the literature on endogenous lifetime and economic growth by Chakraborty (2004) and Bunzel and Qiao (2005) to endogenous fertility. We show that development traps due to underinvestments in health cannot appear when fertility is an economic decision variable and the costs of children are represented by a constant fraction of the parents' income used for their upbringing.

  18. Postsynthesis Transformation of Insulating Cs4PbBr6 Nanocrystals into Bright Perovskite CsPbBr3 through Physical and Chemical Extraction of CsBr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazon, Francisco; Urso, Carmine; De Trizio, Luca; Akkerman, Quinten; Marras, Sergio; Locardi, Federico; Nelli, Ilaria; Ferretti, Maurizio; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato

    2017-10-13

    Perovskite-related Cs 4 PbBr 6 nanocrystals present a "zero-dimensional" crystalline structure where adjacent [PbBr 6 ] 4- octahedra do not share any corners. We show in this work that these nanocrystals can be converted into "three-dimensional" CsPbBr 3 perovskites by extraction of CsBr. This conversion drastically changes the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals that become highly photoluminescent. The extraction of CsBr can be achieved either by thermal annealing (physical approach) or by chemical reaction with Prussian Blue (chemical approach). The former approach can be simply carried out on a dried film without addition of any chemicals but does not yield a full transformation. Instead, reaction with Prussian Blue in solution achieves a full transformation into the perovskite phase. This transformation was also verified on the iodide counterpart (Cs 4 PbI 6 ).

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-BR23 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-BR23 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15008-1 FC-BR23Z (Li...nk to Original site) - - FC-BR23Z 641 - - - - Show FC-BR23 Library FC (Link to library) Clone ID FC-BR23 (Li.../dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-BR/FC-BR23Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-BR2...3Z (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-BR23 (FC-BR23Q) /CSM/FC/FC-BR/FC-BR23Q.Seq....9 0.0 SLA211 (SLA211Q) /CSM/SL/SLA2-A/SLA211Q.Seq.d/ 1029 0.0 FC-BR23 (FC-BR23Q) /CSM/FC/FC-BR/FC-BR2

  20. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A; Mitrofanov, I; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Benkhoff, J; Bakhtin, B; Fedosov, F; Golovin, D; Litvak, M; Malakhov, A; Mokrousov, M; Nuzhdin, I; Sanin, A; Tretyakov, V; Vostrukhin, A; Timoshenko, G; Shvetsov, V; Granja, C; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce(3+)) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  1. Balloon-borne stratospheric BrO measurements: comparison with Envisat/SCIAMACHY BrO limb profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dorf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, results of four stratospheric BrO profiling instruments, are presented and compared with reference to the SLIMCAT 3-dimensional chemical transport model (3-D CTM. Model calculations are used to infer a BrO profile validation set, measured by 3 different balloon sensors, for the new Envisat/SCIAMACHY (ENVIronment SATellite/SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY satellite instrument. The balloon observations include (a balloon-borne in situ resonance fluorescence detection of BrO (Triple, (b balloon-borne solar occultation DOAS measurements (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy of BrO in the UV, and (c BrO profiling from the solar occultation SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenithale balloon instrument. Since stratospheric BrO is subject to considerable diurnal variation and none of the measurements are performed close enough in time and space for a direct comparison, all balloon observations are considered with reference to outputs from the 3-D CTM. The referencing is performed by forward and backward air mass trajectory calculations to match the balloon with the satellite observations. The diurnal variation of BrO is considered by 1-D photochemical model calculation along the trajectories. The 1-D photochemical model is initialised with output data of the 3-D model with additional constraints on the vertical transport, the total amount and photochemistry of stratospheric bromine as given by the various balloon observations. Total [Bry]=(20.1±2.5 pptv obtained from DOAS BrO observations at mid-latitudes in 2003, serves as an upper limit of the comparison. Most of the balloon observations agree with the photochemical model predictions within their given error estimates. First retrieval exercises of BrO limb profiling from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument on average agree to around 20% with the photochemically-corrected balloon observations of the remote sensing instruments (SAOZ

  2. Transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced brown adipocytes dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guifen; Whang Kong, Hyerim; Gil, Victoria; Liew, Chong Wee

    2017-01-09

    In contrast to white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to play critical roles for both basal and inducible energy expenditure. Obesity is associated with reduction of BAT function; however, it is not well understood how obesity promotes BAT dysfunction, especially at the molecular level. Here we show that the transcription regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates ER stress-induced inhibition of lipolysis and thermogenesis in BAT. Using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced inflammation upregulates brown adipocytes TRIP-Br2 expression via the ER stress pathway and amelioration of ER stress in mice completely abolishes high fat diet-induced upregulation of TRIP-Br2 in BAT. We find that increased TRIP-Br2 significantly inhibits brown adipocytes thermogenesis. Finally, we show that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates ER stress-induced inhibition on lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, oxidative metabolism, and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Taken together, our current study demonstrates a role for TRIP-Br2 in ER stress-induced BAT dysfunction, and inhibiting TRIP-Br2 could be a potential approach for counteracting obesity-induced BAT dysfunction.

  3. Energikravene i BR15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Aggerholm, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Bygningsreglement 2015 – BR15 – gælder fra 1. januar 2016 med en overgangsfase frem til 1. juli 2016. Det bygger videre på BR10 og de tidligere udmeldte krav til nybyggeriet frem mod 2020. I denne kvikguide får du hurtigt overblik over, hvordan du sikrer, at de bygninger, du er med til at opføre...... eller renovere, lever op til BR15’s energikrav. Disse krav findes primært i reglementets kapitel 7 om energiforbrug og i kapitel 8 om installationer samt i kapitel 6 om indeklima....

  4. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Bota, Maria; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Zaridze, David G; Perrin, Paul; Fitzpatrick, John; Burnett, Arthur L; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    To review and quantify the association between endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. Literature searches were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Prospective cohort studies that reported data on the associations between endogenous testosterone and prostate cancer, and placebo-controlled randomized trials of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) that reported data on PSA and/or prostate cancer cases were retained. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with tests for publication bias and heterogeneity. Twenty estimates were included in a meta-analysis, which produced a summary relative risk (SRR) of prostate cancer for an increase of 5 nmol/L of testosterone of 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96, 1.02) without heterogeneity (I² = 0%). Based on 26 trials, the overall difference in PSA levels after onset of use of TRT was 0.10 ng/mL (-0.28, 0.48). Results were similar when conducting heterogeneity analyses by mode of administration, region, age at baseline, baseline testosterone, trial duration, type of patients and type of TRT. The SRR of prostate cancer as an adverse effect from 11 TRT trials was 0.87 (95% CI 0.30; 2.50). Results were consistent across studies. Prostate cancer appears to be unrelated to endogenous testosterone levels. TRT for symptomatic hypogonadism does not appear to increase PSA levels nor the risk of prostate cancer development. The current data are reassuring, although some caution is essential until multiple studies with longer follow-up are available. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Longpath DOAS observations of surface BrO at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Stutz

    2011-09-01

    on 4 July 2008, during which marine air from the Greenland east coast was rapidly transported to Summit, led to enhanced mixing ratios of BrO and a number of marine tracers. However, rapid transport of marine air from the Greenland east coast is rare and most likely not the main source of bromide in surface snow at Summit. The observed levels of BrO are predicted to influence NOx chemistry as well as impact HOx partitioning. However, impact of local snow photochemistry on HOx is smaller than previously suggested for Summit.

  6. Solvation dynamics through Raman spectroscopy: hydration of Br2 and Br3(-), and solvation of Br2 in liquid bromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Edward T; Halberstadt, N; Apkarian, V A

    2011-05-07

    Raman spectroscopy of bromine in the liquid phase and in water illustrates uncommon principles and yields insights regarding hydration. In liquid Br(2), resonant excitation over the B((3)Π(0u)(+)) ← X((1)Σ(g)(+)) valence transition at 532 nm produces a weak resonant Raman (RR) progression accompanied by a five-fold stronger non-resonant (NR) scattering. The latter is assigned to pre-resonance with the C-state, which in turn must be strongly mixed with inter-molecular charge transfer states. Despite the electronic resonance, RR of Br(2) in water is quenched. At 532 nm, the homogeneously broadened fundamental is observed, as in the NR case at 785 nm. The implications of the quenching of RR scattering are analyzed in a simple, semi-quantitative model, to conclude that the inertial evolution of the Raman packet in aqueous Br(2) occurs along multiple equivalent water-Br(2) coordinates. In distinct contrast with hydrophilic hydration in small clusters and hydrophobic hydration in clathrates, it is concluded that the hydration shell of bromine in water consists of dynamically equivalent fluxional water molecules. At 405 nm, the RR progression of Br(3)(-) is observed, accompanied by difference transitions between the breathing of the hydration shell and the symmetric stretch of the ion. The RR scattering process in this case can be regarded as the coherent photo-induced electron transfer to the solvent and its radiative back-transfer.

  7. Measurement of the ratio of branching ratios BR(B+ → J/ψK+)/BR(B0 → J/φK0) and BR(B+ → J/ψK+)/BR(B+ → J/ψK*+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atavales, J. B. G.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary measurement of the ratio of branching ratios BR(B + → J/ψK + )/BR(B 0 → J/ψK 0 ) and BR(B + → J/ψK + )/BR(B + → J/ψK *+ ) is made by fully reconstructing each mode, where J/ψ → μ + μ - , K *+ → K 0 s π + and K 0 s → π + π - . The data were taken with the CDF detector during the 1993 run. The total integrated luminosity is ∼ 20pb -1 resulting in a sample of about 170 J/ψK ± , 50 J/ψK 0 S and 25 J/ψK *± candidate events. The results will be reported

  8. Derivation of endogenous equivalent values to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for an endogenous carcinogen: Ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirman, C R; Hays, S M

    2017-12-01

    An approach is presented for ethylene oxide (EO) to derive endogenous equivalent (EE) values, which are endogenous levels normally found within the body expressed in terms of exogenous exposures. EE values can be used to support risk assessment and risk management decisions for chemicals such as EO that have both endogenous and exogenous exposure pathways. EE values were derived using a meta-analysis of data from the published literature characterizing the distribution for an EO biomarker of exposure, hemoglobin N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-valine (HEV), in unexposed populations. These levels are compared to the those reported in exposed populations (smokers, workers). Correlation between the biomarker of exposure and external exposures of EO were applied to this distribution to determine corresponding EE values, which range from 0.13 to 6.9 ppb for EO in air. These values are orders of magnitude higher than risk-based concentration values derived for EO using default methods, and are provided as a pragmatic, data-driven alternative approach to managing the potential risks from exogenous exposures to EO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactivity of BrCl, Br₂, BrOCl, Br₂O, and HOBr toward dimethenamid in solutions of bromide + aqueous free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivey, John D; Arey, J Samuel; Tentscher, Peter R; Roberts, A Lynn

    2013-02-05

    HOBr, formed via oxidation of bromide by free available chlorine (FAC), is frequently assumed to be the sole species responsible for generating brominated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Our studies reveal that BrCl, Br(2), BrOCl, and Br(2)O can also serve as brominating agents of the herbicide dimethenamid in solutions of bromide to which FAC was added. Conditions affecting bromine speciation (pH, total free bromine concentration ([HOBr](T)), [Cl(-)], and [FAC](o)) were systematically varied, and rates of dimethenamid bromination were measured. Reaction orders in [HOBr](T) ranged from 1.09 (±0.17) to 1.67 (±0.16), reaching a maximum near the pK(a) of HOBr. This complex dependence on [HOBr](T) implicates Br(2)O as an active brominating agent. That bromination rates increased with increasing [Cl(-)], [FAC](o) (at constant [HOBr](T)), and excess bromide (where [Br(-)](o)>[FAC](o)) implicate BrCl, BrOCl, and Br(2), respectively, as brominating agents. As equilibrium constants for the formation of Br(2)O and BrOCl (aq) have not been previously reported, we have calculated these values (and their gas-phase analogues) using benchmark-quality quantum chemical methods [CCSD(T) up to CCSDTQ calculations plus solvation effects]. The results allow us to compute bromine speciation and hence second-order rate constants. Intrinsic brominating reactivity increased in the order: HOBr ≪ Br(2)O Br(2) < BrCl. Our results indicate that species other than HOBr can influence bromination rates under conditions typical of drinking water and wastewater chlorination.

  10. Global observations of tropospheric BrO columns using GOME-2 satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Theys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements from the GOME-2 satellite instrument have been analyzed for tropospheric BrO using a residual technique that combines measured BrO columns and estimates of the stratospheric BrO content from a climatological approach driven by O3 and NO2 observations. Comparisons between the GOME-2 results and BrO vertical columns derived from correlative ground-based and SCIAMACHY nadir observations, present a good level of consistency. We show that the adopted technique enables separation of stratospheric and tropospheric fractions of the measured total BrO columns and allows quantitative study of the BrO plumes in polar regions. While some satellite observed plumes of enhanced BrO can be explained by stratospheric descending air, we show that most BrO hotspots are of tropospheric origin, although they are often associated to regions with low tropopause heights as well. Elaborating on simulations using the p-TOMCAT tropospheric chemical transport model, this result is found to be consistent with the mechanism of bromine release through sea salt aerosols production during blowing snow events. No definitive conclusion can be drawn however on the importance of blowing snow sources in comparison to other bromine release mechanisms. Outside polar regions, evidence is provided for a global tropospheric BrO background with column of 1–3 × 1013 molec cm−2, consistent with previous estimates.

  11. The BR eigenvalue algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.; Howell, G.W. [Florida Inst. of Tech., Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Watkins, D.S. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Pure and Applied Mathematics

    1997-11-01

    The BR algorithm, a new method for calculating the eigenvalues of an upper Hessenberg matrix, is introduced. It is a bulge-chasing algorithm like the QR algorithm, but, unlike the QR algorithm, it is well adapted to computing the eigenvalues of the narrowband, nearly tridiagonal matrices generated by the look-ahead Lanczos process. This paper describes the BR algorithm and gives numerical evidence that it works well in conjunction with the Lanczos process. On the biggest problems run so far, the BR algorithm beats the QR algorithm by a factor of 30--60 in computing time and a factor of over 100 in matrix storage space.

  12. Study of the excitation bands in 75Br and 77Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luehmann, L.

    1985-01-01

    Via the compound-nucleus reactions 62 Ni( 16 O,p2n) 75 Br, 66 Zn( 12 C,p2n) 75 Br, and 40 Ca( 40 Ca,3p) 77 Rb the excitation behaviour of the nuclei 75 Br and 77 Rb was studied. By the application of different gamma-spectroscopic methods as the measurement of γ angular anisotropies, nγ-spectra, excitation functions, and γγ-coincidences the known level schemes could be extended by 10 respectively 16 transitions. Recoil-distance Doppler-shift and Doppler-shift attenuation measurements served for the determination of the lifetimes of 42 nuclear states in the range 0.1 ps [de

  13. Monocular channels have a functional role in endogenous orienting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saban, William; Sekely, Liora; Klein, Raymond M; Gabay, Shai

    2018-03-01

    The literature has long emphasized the role of higher cortical structures in endogenous orienting. Based on evolutionary explanation and previous data, we explored the possibility that lower monocular channels may also have a functional role in endogenous orienting of attention. Sensitive behavioral manipulation was used to probe the contribution of monocularly segregated regions in a simple cue - target detection task. A central spatially informative cue, and its ensuing target, were presented to the same or different eyes at varying cue-target intervals. Results indicated that the onset of endogenous orienting was apparent earlier when the cue and target were presented to the same eye. The data provides converging evidence for the notion that endogenous facilitation is modulated by monocular portions of the visual stream. This, in turn, suggests that higher cortical mechanisms are not exclusively responsible for endogenous orienting, and that a dynamic interaction between higher and lower neural levels, might be involved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-BR21 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC (Link to library) FC-BR21 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15384-1 | Contig-U16443-1 FC-BR2...1P (Link to Original site) FC-BR21F 551 FC-BR21Z 122 FC-BR21P 673 - - Show FC-BR21 Library FC (L...ink to library) Clone ID FC-BR21 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Cont...ig-U15384-1 | Contig-U16443-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/FC/FC-BR/FC-BR2...1Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID FC-BR21P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >FC-BR21 (FC-BR2

  15. The production and recovery of 77Br at Los Alamos for nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, P.M.; Whipple, R.E.; Barnes, J.W.; Bentley, G.E.; Wanek, P.M.; O'Brien, H.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for the synthesis and isolation of 77 Br for nuclear medicine research has been developed at LASL. Metallic Mo targets are irradiated at LAMPF with medium-energy protons at high beam current. Following dissolution, volatilization, precipitation, and ion exchange techniques, 77 Br is recovered with a (91 +- 7)% chemical yield and is completely free of all other radioactive species with the exception of small levels of 76 Br and 82 Br. Ci-quantity production capabilities have been demonstrated, and the product is proving successful for the labelling of diverse radiopharmaceuticals. Future improvements in the process are also discussed. (author)

  16. The usefulness of cytogenetic parameters, level of p53 protein and endogenous glutathione as intermediate end-points in raw betel-nut genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpawat, K; Chatterjee, A

    2003-07-01

    Betel-nut (BN) chewing related oral mucosal lesions are potential hazards to a large population worldwide. Genotoxicity of betel alkaloids, polyphenol and tannin fractions have been reported. It has been shown earlier that BN ingredients altered the level of endogenous glutathione (GSH) which could modulate the host susceptibility to the action of other chemical carcinogens. The north-east Indian variety of BN, locally known as 'kwai', is raw, wet and consumed unprocessed with betel-leaf and slaked lime and contains higher alkaloids, polyphenol and tannins as compared to the dried one. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of DNA damage, pattern of cell kinetics, the level of p53-protein and endogenous GSH in kwai chewers in the tribal population of Meghalaya state in the northeastern region of India with an aim to see whether these end-points could serve as biomarkers of genetic damage of relevance for genotoxic/carcinogenic process. The present data show higher DNA damage, delay in cell kinetics, p53 expression and lower GSH-level in heavy chewers (HC) than nonchewers (NC). The influence of bleomycin (BLM) on chromatid break induction in G2-phase of peripheral blood lymphocytes in NC and HC has been analysed to determine individual susceptibility to carcinogenic assaults. HC showed higher induction of chromatid breaks than NC. Risk assessment in this study suggests an interaction between carcinogen exposure and mutagen sensitivity measures, risk estimates being higher in those individuals who both consume kwai and express sensitivity to free radical oxygen damage in vitro. From this study it seems that besides cytogenetical parameters, the level of endogenous GSH and the level of p53 protein could act as effective biomarkers for kwai chewers.

  17. Airborne Measurements of BrO and the Sum of HOBr and Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific from 1 to 15 Km During the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dexian; Huey, L. Gregory; Tanner, David J.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Anderson, Daniel C.; Wales, Pamela A.; Pan, Laura L.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometer was used to measure BrO and HOBr + Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific Ocean within the altitude range of 1 to 15 km, during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign in 2014. Isolated episodes of elevated BrO (up to 6.6 pptv) and/or HOBr + Br2 (up to 7.3 pptv) were observed in the tropical free troposphere (TFT) and were associated with biomass burning. However, most of the time we did not observe significant BrO or HOBr + Br2 in the TFT and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above our limits of detection (LOD). The 1 min average LOD for BrO ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 pptv and for HOBr + Br2 ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 pptv. During one flight, BrO observations from the TTL to the extratropical lowermost stratosphere were used to infer a profile of inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)). Based on this profile, we estimated the product gas injection of bromine species into the stratosphere to be 2 pptv. Analysis of Br(sub y) partitioning further indicates that BrO levels are likely very low in the TFT environment and that future studies should target the measurement of HBr or atomic Br.

  18. Oxidation mechanisms of CF2Br2 and CH2Br2 induced by air nonthermal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiorlin, Milko; Marotta, Ester; Dal Molin, Marta; Paradisi, Cristina

    2013-01-02

    Oxidation mechanisms in air nonthermal plasma (NTP) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure were investigated in a corona reactor energized by +dc, -dc, or +pulsed high voltage.. The two bromomethanes CF(2)Br(2) and CH(2)Br(2) were chosen as model organic pollutants because of their very different reactivities with OH radicals. Thus, they served as useful mechanistic probes: they respond differently to the presence of humidity in the air and give different products. By FT-IR analysis of the postdischarge gas the following products were detected and quantified: CO(2) and CO in the case of CH(2)Br(2), CO(2) and F(2)C ═ O in the case of CF(2)Br(2). F(2)C ═ O is a long-lived oxidation intermediate due to its low reactivity with atmospheric radicals. It is however removed from the NTP processed gas by passage through a water scrubber resulting in hydrolysis to CO(2) and HF. Other noncarbon containing products of the discharge were also monitored by FT-IR analysis, including HNO(3) and N(2)O. Ozone, an important product of air NTP, was never detected in experiments with CF(2)Br(2) and CH(2)Br(2) because of the highly efficient ozone depleting cycles catalyzed by BrOx species formed from the bromomethanes. It is concluded that, regardless of the type of corona applied, CF(2)Br(2) reacts in air NTP via a common intermediate, the CF(2)Br radical. The possible reactions leading to this radical are discussed, including, for -dc activation, charge exchange with O(2)(-), a species detected by APCI mass spectrometry.

  19. Neurotransmitters behind pain relief with transcranial magnetic stimulation - positron emission tomography evidence for release of endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamusuo, S; Hirvonen, J; Lindholm, P; Martikainen, I K; Hagelberg, N; Parkkola, R; Taiminen, T; Hietala, J; Helin, S; Virtanen, A; Pertovaara, A; Jääskeläinen, S K

    2017-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at M1/S1 cortex has been shown to alleviate neuropathic pain. To investigate the possible neurobiological correlates of cortical neurostimulation for the pain relief. We studied the effects of M1/S1 rTMS on nociception, brain dopamine D2 and μ-opioid receptors using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded crossover study design and 3D-positron emission tomography (PET). Ten healthy subjects underwent active and sham rTMS treatments to the right M1/S1 cortex with E-field navigated device. Dopamine D2 and μ-receptor availabilities were assessed with PET radiotracers [ 11 C]raclopride and [ 11 C]carfentanil after each rTMS treatment. Thermal quantitative sensory testing (QST), contact heat evoked potential (CHEP) and blink reflex (BR) recordings were performed between the PET scans. μ-Opioid receptor availability was lower after active than sham rTMS (P ≤ 0.0001) suggested release of endogenous opioids in the right ventral striatum, medial orbitofrontal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and left insula, superior temporal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus. There were no differences in striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability between active and sham rTMS, consistent with lack of long-lasting measurable dopamine release. Active rTMS potentiated the dopamine-regulated habituation of the BR compared to sham (P = 0.02). Thermal QST and CHEP remained unchanged after active rTMS. rTMS given to M1/S1 activates the endogenous opioid system in a wide brain network associated with processing of pain and other salient stimuli. Direct enhancement of top-down opioid-mediated inhibition may partly explain the clinical analgesic effects of rTMS. Neurobiological correlates of rTMS for the pain relief are unclear. rTMS on M1/S1 with 11 C-carfentanyl-PET activates endogenous opioids. Thermal and heat pain thresholds remain unchanged. rTMS induces top-down opioid-mediated inhibition

  20. Scientific activities in support of the BR2 operation and irradiation programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.

    2006-01-01

    One of the major characteristics of the BR2 reactor is the fact that the core configuration is essentially variable. This allows to optimize the irradiation conditions of various experiments and to minimize the fuel consumption. In order to do that, BR2 has its own autonomous reactor physics cell. In order to allow for on-line measurements of the major irradiation parameters, BR2 has extended its own proven data acquisition system to serve this purpose. This system, called BIDASSE (for BR2 Integrated Data Acquisition System for Survey and Experiments), originally designed for the follow-up of all BR2 operational parameters, is since several years extensively used for experiments. The object rives of research at the BR2 are to evaluate and adjust provisional irradiation conditions by adjustments of the environment, axial and azimuthal positioning of the samples, global power level, ... ; to deliver reliable, well defined irradiation condition and fluence data during and after irradiation; to assist the designer of new irradiation devices by simulations and neutronic optimisations of design options and o provide the experimenters with accurate on-line information on the evolution of their ongoing irradiation projects

  1. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  2. Hybridization of Single Nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and CsPbBr3

    OpenAIRE

    Weerd, Chris de; Lin, Junhao; Gomez, Leyre; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Nanocrystals of all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) feature high absorption and efficient narrow-band emission which renders them promising for future generation of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Colloidal ensembles of these nanocrystals can be conveniently prepared by chemical synthesis. However, in the case of CsPbBr3, its synthesis can also yield nanocrystals of Cs4PbBr6 and the properties of the two are easily confused. Here, we investigate in de...

  3. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Selbach Scheffel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing’s original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endo-genous Cushing’s syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease.

  4. Cd4As2Br3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kars

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of Cd4As2Br3 (tetracadmium biarsenide tribromide were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure is isotypic with the members of the cadmium and mercury pnictidohalides family with general formula M4A2X3 (M = Cd, Hg; A = P, As, Sb; X = Cl, Br, I and contains two independent As atoms on special positions with site symmetry -3 and two independent Cd atoms, of which one is on a special position with site symmetry -3. The Cd4As2Br3 structure consists of AsCd4 tetrahedra sharing vertices with isolated As2Cd6 octahedra that contain As–As dumbbells in the centre of the octahedron. The Br atoms are located in the voids of this three-dimensional arrangement and bridge the different polyhedra through Cd...Br contacts.

  5. Localization of endogenous amyloid-β to the coeruleo-cortical pathway: consequences of noradrenergic depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer A; Reyes, Beverly A S; Thomas, Steven A; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2018-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC)-norepinephrine (NE) system is an understudied circuit in the context of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases involving catecholamine neurotransmitters. Understanding the expression and distribution of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide, a primary component of AD, under basal conditions and under conditions of NE perturbation within the coeruleo-cortical pathway may be important for understanding its putative role in pathological states. Thus, the goal of this study is to define expression levels and the subcellular distribution of endogenous Aβ with respect to noradrenergic profiles in the rodent LC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and, further, to determine the functional relevance of NE in modulating endogenous Aβ 42 levels. We report that endogenous Aβ 42 is localized to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactive somatodendritic profiles of the LC and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) immunoreactive axon terminals of the infralimbic mPFC (ILmPFC). Male and female naïve rats have similar levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage products demonstrated by western blot, as well as similar levels of endogenous Aβ 42 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Two models of NE depletion, DSP-4 lesion and DβH knockout (KO) mice, were used to assess the functional relevance of NE on endogenous Aβ 42 levels. DSP-4 lesioned rats and DβH-KO mice show significantly lower levels of endogenous Aβ 42 . Noradrenergic depletion did not change APP-cleavage products resulting from β-secretase processing. Thus, resultant decreases in endogenous Aβ 42 may be due to decreased neuronal activity of noradrenergic neurons, or, by decreased stimulation of adrenergic receptors which are known to contribute to Aβ 42 production by enhancing γ-secretase processing under normal physiological conditions.

  6. Tissue-specific tagging of endogenous loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein tags have revolutionized cell and developmental biology, and in combination with binary expression systems they enable diverse tissue-specific studies of protein function. However these binary expression systems often do not recapitulate endogenous protein expression levels, localization, binding partners and/or developmental windows of gene expression. To address these limitations, we have developed a method called T-STEP (tissue-specific tagging of endogenous proteins that allows endogenous loci to be tagged in a tissue specific manner. T-STEP uses a combination of efficient CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting and tissue-specific recombinase-mediated tag swapping to temporally and spatially label endogenous proteins. We have employed this method to GFP tag OCRL (a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase in the endocytic pathway and Vps35 (a Parkinson's disease-implicated component of the endosomal retromer complex in diverse Drosophila tissues including neurons, glia, muscles and hemocytes. Selective tagging of endogenous proteins allows, for the first time, cell type-specific live imaging and proteomics in complex tissues.

  7. Revised and extended analysis of Br IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, A.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of three-times ionized bromine Br IV has been studied in the 319-2350 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark, respectively. The ground configuration of Br IV 3d104s24p2, the excited configurations 3d104s4p3+3d104s24p (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s) in the odd parity system and 3d104s24p (5p+4f+5f)+3d104s4p2 (4d+5s)+3d104p4 in the even parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed spectrum. 120 Levels of Br IV have now been established, 58 being new. Among 424 spectral lines, 277 are newly classified. The levels 4s4p35S2, 4s24p4d 3F4 and 4p5p (3P0, 1, 3D1, 2, 3S1) are revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelength for sharp and unblended lines to be ±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 385,390±100 cm-1 (47.782±0.012 eV).

  8. Brændeovnes bidrag til luftforurening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Christian

    2010-01-01

    Brændeovnenes bidrag til luftforurening er blevet kortlagt med en hidtil uset detaljeringsgrad. Det er forskere fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU) på Aarhus Universitet som står bag kortlægningen. En omfattende målekampagne i Slagslunde viser at brændeovnene bidrager væsentligt til partikelfor......Brændeovnenes bidrag til luftforurening er blevet kortlagt med en hidtil uset detaljeringsgrad. Det er forskere fra Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser (DMU) på Aarhus Universitet som står bag kortlægningen. En omfattende målekampagne i Slagslunde viser at brændeovnene bidrager væsentligt til...

  9. Emission characteristics of Xe-RbBr plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneral, A. A.; Avtaeva, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The luminescence spectra of the longitudinal pulsed-periodic discharge in Xe-RbBr gas-vapour mixtures at low pressures are experimentally studied. Conditions for obtaining strong UV radiation of XeBr* exiplex molecules in the spectral range of 200-425 nm are found. The greatest output of the XeBr* UV radiation is provided at temperature of the gas-discharge tube walls of ~1000 K. The maximum UV emission power of the whole plasma volume is 4.8 W. Formation of XeBr* exciplex molecules in the pulsed-periodic discharge in Xe-RbBr gas-vapour mixtures at low pressures is discussed.

  10. Free-tropospheric BrO investigations based on GOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, P.; van Roozendael, M.; Backman, L.; Damski, J.; Thölix, L.; Fayt, C.; Taalas, P.

    2003-04-01

    Bromine compounds contribute significantly to the stratospheric ozone depletion. However measurements of most bromine compounds are sparse or non-existent, and experimental studies essentially rely on BrO observations. The differences between balloon and ground based measurements of stratospheric BrO columns and satellite total column measurements are too large to be explained by measurement uncertainties. Therefore, it has been assumed that there is a concentration of BrO in the free troposphere of about 1-3 ppt. In a previous work, we have calculated the tropospheric BrO abundance as the difference between total BrO and stratospheric BrO columns. The total vertical column densities of BrO are extracted from GOME measurements using IASB-BIRA algorithms. The stratospheric amount has been calculated using chemical transport models (CTM). Results from SLIMCAT and FinROSE simulations are used for this purpose. SLIMCAT is a widely used 3D CTM that has been tested against balloon measurements. FinROSE is a 3D CTM developed at FMI. We have tried several different tropospheric BrO profiles. Our results show that a profile with high BrO concentrations in the boundary layer usually gives unrealistically high tropospheric column values over areas of low albedo (like oceans). This suggests that the tropospheric BrO would be predominantly distributed in the free troposphere. In this work, attempts are made to identify the signature of a free tropospheric BrO content when comparing cloudy and non-cloudy scenes. The possible impact of orography on measured BrO columns is also investigated.

  11. Measurement of the relative branching ratio BR(Ξc+-- >p+K- π+)/BR(Ξc+-->Ξ- π+π+)

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOCUS Collaboration; Link, J. M.; Reyes, M.; Yager, P. M.; Anjos, J. C.; Bediaga, I.; Göbel, C.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Pepe, I. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Sima~o, F. R. A.; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Uribe, C.; Vázquez, F.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat, J. P.; O'Reilly, B.; Ramirez, J. E.; Vaandering, E. W.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garren, L. A.; Gottschalk, E.; Kasper, P. H.; Kreymer, A. E.; Kutschke, R.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F. L.; Sarwar, S.; Zallo, A.; Cawlfield, C.; Kim, D. Y.; Rahimi, A.; Wiss, J.; Gardner, R.; Chung, Y. S.; Kang, J. S.; Ko, B. R.; Kwak, J. W.; Lee, K. B.; Park, H.; Alimonti, G.; Boschini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; D'Angelo, P.; DiCorato, M.; Dini, P.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Mezzadri, M.; Milazzo, L.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Pontoglio, C.; Prelz, F.; Rovere, M.; Sala, A.; Sala, S.; Davenport, T. F., III; Agostino, L.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Bonomi, G.; Gianini, G.; Liguori, G.; Merlo, M. M.; Pantea, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Segoni, I.; Viola, L.; Vitulo, P.; Hernandez, H.; Lopez, A. M.; Mendez, H.; Mendez, L.; Mirles, A.; Montiel, E.; Olaya, D.; Paris, A.; Quinones, J.; Rivera, C.; Xiong, W.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Cho, K.; Handler, T.; Engh, D.; Hosack, M.; Johns, W. E.; Nehring, M.; Sheldon, P. D.; Stenson, K.; Webster, M.; Sheaff, M.

    2001-07-01

    We report the observation of the Cabibbo suppressed decay Ξc+-->pK-π+ using data collected with the FOCUS spectrometer during the 1996-1997 Fermilab fixed target run. We find a Ξc+ signal peak of /202+/-35 events. We have measured the relative branching ratios BR(Ξ+c-->pK- π+)/BR(Ξ+c-->Ξ- π+π+)=0.234+/-0.047+/-0.022 and BR(Ξ+c-- >pK¯*(892)0)/BR(Ξ+c-->pK-π+)=0.54+/-0.09+/-0.05.

  12. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Endogenous Exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jun; Mutlu, Esra; Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard; Bodnar, Wanda; Yu, Rui; Lai, Yongquan; Moeller, Benjamin; Lu, Kun; Swenberg, James

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the Exposome, is a compilation of diseases and one’s lifetime exposure to chemicals, whether the exposure comes from environmental, dietary, or occupational exposures; or endogenous chemicals that are formed from normal metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, infections, and other natural metabolic processes such as alteration of the gut microbiome. In this review, we have focused on the Endogenous Exposome, the DNA damage that arises from the production of endogenous electrophilic molecules in our cells. It provides quantitative data on endogenous DNA damage and its relationship to mutagenesis, with emphasis on when exogenous chemical exposures that produce identical DNA adducts to those arising from normal metabolism cause significant increases in total identical DNA adducts. We have utilized stable isotope labeled chemical exposures of animals and cells, so that accurate relationships between endogenous and exogenous exposures can be determined. Advances in mass spectrometry have vastly increased both the sensitivity and accuracy of such studies. Furthermore, we have clear evidence of which sources of exposure drive low dose biology that results in mutations and disease. These data provide much needed information to impact quantitative risk assessments, in the hope of moving towards the use of science, rather than default assumptions. PMID:24767943

  14. Production of endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1979-01-01

    The production and release of endogenous pyrogen by the host is the first step in the pathogenesis of fever. Endogenous pyrogen is a low-molecular-weight protein released from phagocytic leukocytes in response to several substances of diverse nature. Some of these agents stimulate production of endogenous pyrogen because they are toxic; others act as antigens and interact with either antibody or sensitized lymphocytes in order to induce its production. Some tumors of macrophage origin produce the molecule spontaneously. Whatever the mechanism involved, endogenous pyrogen is synthesized following transcription of new DNA and translation of mRNA into new protein. Once synthesis is completed, the molecule is released without significant intracellular storage. Recent evidence suggests that following release, molecular aggregates form which are biologically active. In its monomer form, endogenous pyrogen is a potent fever-producing substance and mediates fever by its action on the thermoregulatory center.

  15. A comparative study of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) and CeBr{sub 3} based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyrev, A., E-mail: kozyrev@mx.iki.rssi.ru; Mitrofanov, I.; Bakhtin, B.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Litvak, M.; Malakhov, A.; Mokrousov, M.; Nuzhdin, I.; Sanin, A.; Tretyakov, V.; Vostrukhin, A. [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya St., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Owens, A.; Benkhoff, J. [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Quarati, F. [AP, RST, FAME, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Gonitec BV, J. Bildersstraat 60, 2596 EJ Den Haag (Netherlands); Timoshenko, G.; Shvetsov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Slavicek, T.; Pospisil, S. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Horska 3a/22, 12800 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-15

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA’s BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr{sub 3} became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr{sub 3} crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) and CeBr{sub 3} provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr{sub 3} is a more attractive system than LaBr{sub 3}(Ce{sup 3+}) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr{sub 3} now forms

  16. The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boedijn, K.B.

    1959-01-01

    The genus Actiniceps Berk. & Br. is shown to be a Basidiomycete. Wiesnerina Höhn. and Dimorphocystis Corner are regarded synonymous. The type species A. thwaitesii Berk. & Br. is redescribed with D. capitatus Corner as synonym. The following new combinations are proposed: A. horrida (Höhn.) Boedijn,

  17. Hierarchical Honeycomb Br-, N-Codoped TiO2 with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic H2 Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yuming; Bao, Jiehua; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Chen, Wenxia

    2018-06-06

    The halogen elements modification strategy of TiO 2 encounters a bottleneck in visible-light H 2 production. Herein, we have for the first time reported a hierarchical honeycomb Br-, N-codoped anatase TiO 2 catalyst (HM-Br,N/TiO 2 ) with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H 2 production. During the synthesizing process, large amounts of meso-macroporous channels and TiO 2 nanosheets were fabricated in massive TiO 2 automatically, constructing the hierarchical honeycomb structure with large specific surface area (464 m 2 g -1 ). cetyl trimethylammonium bromide and melamine played a key role in constructing the meso-macroporous channels. Additionally, HM-Br,N/TiO 2 showed a high visible-light H 2 production rate of 2247 μmol h -1 g -1 , which is far more higher than single Br- or N-doped TiO 2 (0 or 63 μmol h -1 g -1 , respectively), thereby demonstrating the excellent synergistic effects of Br and N elements in H 2 evolution. In HM-Br,N/TiO 2 catalytic system, the codoped Br-N atoms could reduce the band gap of TiO 2 to 2.88 eV and the holes on acceptor levels (N acceptor) can passivate the electrons on donor levels (Br donor), thereby preventing charge carriers recombination significantly. Furthermore, the proposed HM-Br,N/TiO 2 fabrication strategy had a wide range of choices for N source (e.g., melamine, urea, and dicyandiamide) and it can be applied to other TiO 2 materials (e.g., P25) as well, thereby implying its great potential application in visible-light H 2 production. Finally, on the basis of experimental results, a possible photocatalytic H 2 production mechanism for HM-Br,N/TiO 2 was proposed.

  18. Brûlure chez l’épileptique: brûlure pas comme les autres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukind, S.; Elatiqi, O.K.; Dlimi, M.; Elamrani, D.; Benchamkha, Y.; Ettalbi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary L’association brûlure et épilepsie est une constatation fréquente au Maroc. Ces brûlures, souvent itératives, touchent le plus souvent des femmes jeunes de milieu rural. L’accident survient habituellement au domicile, le plus souvent dans la cuisine à la suite d’une chute sur un moyen de cuisson posé au sol. Elles peuvent être inaugurales de la maladie mais surviennent plus souvent chez des patients connus mais au traitement mal suivi. Les conséquences de ces brûlures, toujours profondes, sont souvent dramatiques en termes de séquelles, chez des patients ayant déjà une insertion sociale rendue difficile par l’épilepsie. La prise en charge doit être multidisciplinaire et concerner à la fois la brûlures et l’épilepsie. Des mesures de prévention simples, visant à équilibrer l’épilepsie et éviter au patient de se trouver seul à proximité d’une source de chaleur, doivent être mises en place. PMID:27252613

  19. Combgap Promotes Ovarian Niche Development and Chromatin Association of EcR-Binding Regions in BR-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitrik, Anna; Popliker, Malka; Gancz, Dana; Mukamel, Zohar; Lifshitz, Aviezer; Schwartzman, Omer; Tanay, Amos; Gilboa, Lilach

    2016-11-01

    The development of niches for tissue-specific stem cells is an important aspect of stem cell biology. Determination of niche size and niche numbers during organogenesis involves precise control of gene expression. How this is achieved in the context of a complex chromatin landscape is largely unknown. Here we show that the nuclear protein Combgap (Cg) supports correct ovarian niche formation in Drosophila by controlling ecdysone-Receptor (EcR)- mediated transcription and long-range chromatin contacts in the broad locus (BR-C). Both cg and BR-C promote ovarian growth and the development of niches for germ line stem cells. BR-C levels were lower when Combgap was either reduced or over-expressed, indicating an intricate regulation of the BR-C locus by Combgap. Polytene chromosome stains showed that Cg co-localizes with EcR, the major regulator of BR-C, at the BR-C locus and that EcR binding to chromatin was sensitive to changes in Cg levels. Proximity ligation assay indicated that the two proteins could reside in the same complex. Finally, chromatin conformation analysis revealed that EcR-bound regions within BR-C, which span ~30 KBs, contacted each other. Significantly, these contacts were stabilized in an ecdysone- and Combgap-dependent manner. Together, these results highlight Combgap as a novel regulator of chromatin structure that promotes transcription of ecdysone target genes and ovarian niche formation.

  20. The states of 73Se populated by the beta decay of 73Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiguchi, K.; Mitarai, S.; Min, B.J.; Kuroyanagi, T.

    1987-01-01

    Decay of mass-separated samples of the nuclide 73 Br have been investigated by means of an on-line isotope separator in the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of Kyushu University. Twenty eight γ-rays were assigned to the decay of 73 Br. The half-life was measured to be 3.4±0.2 min. The decay scheme of 73 Br was constructed on the basis of γ-ray energies, intensities of γ-rays and conversion electrons, and relations of γγ-, βγ- and γ(ce)-coincidences. Spins and parities of the ten levels of 73 Se were assigned or limited according to log ft values, conversion coefficients and branching ratios of the transitions. Systematical trends in the level schemes of N=39 isotones 69 Zn, 71 Ge, 73 Se, 75 Kr and 77 Sr are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Reactions of N2O5 with Salty and Surfactant-Coated Glycerol: Interfacial Conversion of Br- to Br2 Mediated by Alkylammonium Cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaloski, Michael A; Gord, Joseph R; Staudt, Sean; Quinn, Sarah L; Bertram, Timothy H; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2017-05-18

    Gas-liquid scattering and product-yield experiments are used to investigate reactions of N 2 O 5 with glycerol containing Br - and surfactant ions. N 2 O 5 oxidizes Br - to Br 2 for every solution tested: 2.7 M NaBr, 0.03 M tetrahexylammonium bromide (THABr), 0.03 M THABr + 0.5 M NaBr, 0.03 M THABr + 0.5 M NaCl, 0.03 M THABr + 0.01 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and 0.01 M cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr). N 2 O 5 also reacts with glycerol itself to produce mono- and dinitroglycerin. Surface tension measurements indicate that 0.03 M THABr and 2.7 M NaBr have similar interfacial Br - concentrations, though their bulk Br - concentrations differ by 90-fold. We find that twice as much Br 2 is produced in the presence of THA + , implying that the conversion of Br - to Br 2 is initiated at the interface, perhaps mediated by the charged, hydrophobic pocket within the surface THA + cation. The addition of 0.5 M NaBr, 0.5 M NaCl, or 0.01 M SDS to 0.03 M THABr lowers the Br 2 production rate by 23%, 63%, and 67% of the THABr value, respectively. When CTA + is substituted for THA + , Br 2 production drops to 12% of the THABr value. The generation of Br 2 under such different conditions implies that trace amounts of surface-active alkylammonium ions can catalyze interfacial N 2 O 5 reactions, even when salts and other surfactants are present.

  2. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  3. Effects of soil drought stress on plant regeneration efficiency and endogenous hormone levels of immature embryos in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bie, X.; Wang, K.; Liu, C.; Du, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the water supply in soil for wheat mother donor plants was controlled, leading to drought stress conditions, and the relative soil water content (RSWC) was measured in different soil depths. The immature embryos of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 13 days post anthesis (DPA) were used to test regeneration capacity. The accumulation of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) including abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the wheat embryos grown under the two conditions was measured. The results indicated that RSWC difference between the drought treatment and the irrigated control was more than 13% at the various soil depths, with the maximum difference was observed at 40 cm depth. Tissue culture evaluation showed that the plant regeneration efficiency of the immature embryos grown under drought stress treatment was significantly higher than that of the tissues grown under the control condition. Assay for PGR found that the drought stress caused obviously increased concentration of endogenous ABA and H2O2, and slightly decreased level of IAA in the target tissues. Therefore, it seems that the concentration of endogenous ABA, IAA, and H2O2 in immature wheat embryos is very important in regeneration capacity. Drought stress can improve the regeneration capacity by changing the levels of ABA, IAA, and H2O2. Our results would be helpful to efficient development of genetically modified wheat plants through improvement of regeneration via manipulating the endogenous PGRs. (author)

  4. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  5. OsGSR1 is involved in crosstalk between gibberellins and brassinosteroids in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Yunyuan; Joo, Se-Hwan; Kim, Seong-Ki; Xue, Zhen; Xu, Zhihong; Wang, Zhiyong; Chong, Kang

    2009-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) and brassinosteroids (BRs), two growth-promoting phytohormones, regulate many common physiological processes. Their interactions at the molecular level remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that OsGSR1, a member of the GAST (GA-stimulated transcript) gene family, is induced by GA and repressed by BR. RNA interference (RNAi) transgenic rice plants with reduced OsGSR1 expression show phenotypes similar to plants deficient in BR, including short primary roots, erect leaves and reduced fertility. The OsGSR1 RNAi transgenic rice shows a reduced level of endogenous BR, and the dwarf phenotype could be rescued by the application of brassinolide. The yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that OsGSR1 interacts with DIM/DWF1, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion from 24-methylenecholesterol to campesterol in BR biosynthesis. These results suggest that OsGSR1 activates BR synthesis by directly regulating a BR biosynthetic enzyme at the post-translational level. Furthermore, OsGSR1 RNAi plants show a reduced sensitivity to GA treatment, an increased expression of the GA biosynthetic gene OsGA20ox2, which is feedback inhibited by GA signaling, and an elevated level of endogenous GA: together, these suggest that OsGSR1 is a positive regulator of GA signaling. These results demonstrate that OsGSR1 plays important roles in both BR and GA pathways, and also mediates an interaction between the two signaling pathways.

  6. Targeted detection of in vivo endogenous DNA base damage reveals preferential base excision repair in the transcribed strand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, António M C; Mills, Wilbur K; Ramachandran, Ilangovan; Friedberg, Errol C; Thompson, David; Queimado, Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous DNA damage is removed mainly via base excision repair (BER), however, whether there is preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage is still under intense debate. We developed a highly sensitive primer-anchored DNA damage detection assay (PADDA) to map and quantify in vivo endogenous DNA damage. Using PADDA, we documented significantly higher levels of endogenous damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in stationary phase than in exponential phase. We also documented that yeast BER-defective cells have significantly higher levels of endogenous DNA damage than isogenic wild-type cells at any phase of growth. PADDA provided detailed fingerprint analysis at the single-nucleotide level, documenting for the first time that persistent endogenous nucleotide damage in CAN1 co-localizes with previously reported spontaneous CAN1 mutations. To quickly and reliably quantify endogenous strand-specific DNA damage in the constitutively expressed CAN1 gene, we used PADDA on a real-time PCR setting. We demonstrate that wild-type cells repair endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. In contrast, yeast BER-defective cells accumulate endogenous damage preferentially on the CAN1 transcribed strand. These data provide the first direct evidence for preferential strand repair of endogenous DNA damage and documents the major role of BER in this process.

  7. Proteomics investigation of endogenous S-nitrosylation in Arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fares, Abasse; Rossignol, Michel; Peltier, Jean-Benoît

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Identification and quantification of nitrosothiols. ► A first dataset of endogenously nitrosylated cysteines in Arabidopsis cells. ► Nitrosothiols display apolar motifs not located in close vicinity of cysteines. ► Salt stress alters the endogenous nitrosylation of specific cysteines in Arabidopsis. -- Abstract: S-Nitrosylation emerges as an important protein modification in many processes. However, most data were obtained at the protein level after addition of a NO donor, particularly in plants where information about the cysteines nitrosylated in these proteins is scarce. An adapted work-flow, combining the classical biotin switch method and labeling with isotope-coded affinity tags (ICAT), is proposed. Without addition of NO donor, a total of 53 endogenous nitrosocysteines was identified in Arabidopsis cells, in proteins belonging to all cell territories, including membranes, and covering a large panel of functions. This first repertoire of nitrosothiols in plants enabled also preliminary structural description. Three apolar motifs, not located in close vicinity of cysteines and accounting for half the dataset, were detected and are proposed to complement nitrosylation prediction algorithms, poorly trained with plant data to date. Analysis of changes induced by a brief salt stress showed that NaCl modified the nitrosylation level of a small proportion of endogenously nitrosylated proteins and did not concern all nitrosothiols in these proteins. The possible role of some NO targets in the response to salt stress was discussed.

  8. Dynamic equilibrium of endogenous selenium nanoparticles in selenite-exposed cancer cells: a deep insight into the interaction between endogenous SeNPs and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Peng; Chen, Song-Can; Xiao, Ke-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Elemental selenium (Se) was recently found to exist as endogenous nanoparticles (i.e., SeNPs) in selenite-exposed cancer cells. By sequestrating critical intracellular proteins, SeNPs appear capable of giving rise to multiple cytotoxicity mechanisms including inhibition of glycolysis, glycolysis-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, microtubule depolymerization and inhibition of autophagy. In this work, we reveal a dynamic equilibrium of endogenous SeNP assembly and disassembly in selenite-exposed H157 cells. Endogenous SeNPs are observed both in the cytoplasm and in organelles. There is an increase in endogenous SeNPs between 24 h and 36 h, and a decrease between 36 h and 72 h according to transmission electron microscopy results and UV-Vis measurements. These observations imply that elemental Se in SeNPs could be oxidized back into selenite by scavenging superoxide radicals and ultimately re-reduced into selenide; then the assembly and disassembly of SeNPs proceed simultaneously with the sequestration and release of SeNP high-affinity proteins. There is also a possibility that the reduction of elemental Se to selenide pathway may lie in selenite-exposed cancer cells, which results in the assembly and disassembly of endogenous SeNPs. Genome-wide expression analysis results show that endogenous SeNPs significantly altered the expression of 504 genes, compared to the control. The endogenous SeNPs induced mitochondrial impairment and decreasing of the annexin A2 level can lead to inhibition of cancer cell invasion and migration. This dynamic flux of endogenous SeNPs amplifies their cytotoxic potential in cancer cells, thus provide a starting point to design more efficient intracellular self-assembling systems for overcoming multidrug resistance.

  9. Preparation and characterization of (R,S)-[76Br]BrQNB: an analogue of QNB for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strijckmans, V.; Loc'h, C.; Ottaviani, M.; Maziere, B.; Lee, K.S.; Zeeberg, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    (R,S)-[ 76 Br]BrQNB was prepared for imaging mAChR by PET . (R,S)QNB was labelled with bromine-76 by electrophilic substitution of the tributylstannyl precursor using peracetic acid as oxidizing agent. The exchange between bromine-76 and the leaving group occurred in 20 min at room temperature. A chemically and radiochemically pure product was obtained with a final radiolabelling yield of 30%. Preliminary evaluation of pharmacological properties was performed in rats. In brain, biodistribution and autoradiography studies showed that the preferential localization of (R,S)-[ 76 Br]BrQNB was m-AChR rich structures. 6 h p.i. the radioactivity uptake in the posterior cortex was 1% ID/g and the striatum to cerebellum radioactivity ratio was 13.5. Metabolite study revealed that the radiotracer remains unchanged in brain for at least 3 h. (Author)

  10. Z-(-,-)-[76Br]BrQNP: a high affinity PET radiotracer for central and cardiac muscarinic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strijckmans, V.; Coulon, C.; Loc'h, C.; Maziere, B.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F.

    1996-01-01

    Racemic E-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl α-(1-bromo-1-1-propen-3-yl)-α -hydroxy-α-phenylacetate (BrQNP) was prepared and evaluated in vivo as a potential candidate for imaging muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptors by Positron Emission Tomography. Initial in vivo blocking studies utilizing Z-(-,-)-[ 125 I]IQNP as a radiolabelled muscarinic probe demonstrated that a preinjection of cold E-BrQNP effectively blocks the uptake of the radiolabelled probe in the brain and heart, by 71% and 86% respectively. Z-(-,-)-[ 76 Br]BrQNP was prepared by electrophilic substitution from a tributylstannyl precursor. Peracetic acid and chloramine T was evaluated as oxidizing agents. After purification by SPE and RP-HPLC, radiolabelling yields of 85% and 95% were obtained with peracetic acid and chloramine T, respectively. The final radiochemical yield was 70% for both oxidizing agents. (author)

  11. Dietary counselling effectively improves lipid levels in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia: emphasis on weight reduction and alcohol limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F. H.; van der Laarse, A.; Hopman, E. G.; Gevers Leuven, J. A.; Onkenhout, W.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Smelt, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term effect of dietary counselling in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia and evaluate the effects of advised nutrient changes. A prospective dietary intervention study in patients with endogenous hypertriglyceridemia from January I st 1988 to December 31 st 1996

  12. Theoretical investigation of the Te4Br2 molecule in ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elfgen, Roman; Holloczki, Oldamur; Ray, Promit; Kirchner, Barbara; Groh, Matthias F.; Ruck, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Material synthesis in ionic liquids, at or near room temperature, is currently a subject of immense academic interest. In order to illuminate molecular-level details and the underlying chemistry, we carried out molecular simulations of a single Te 4 Br 2 molecule dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, as well as in the ionic liquid mixed with aluminum chloride. Although the ethyl side chain is much too short to show detailed microheterogeneity, significant structuring with the small chloride anions is seen in case of the pure ionic liquid. In the case of the mixture, formation of larger anionic clusters is distinctly observed and analyzed. Due to the tendency of ionic liquids to dissociate, there is a pronounced shift to elongated Te-Br distances in both investigated solvents. However, only in the AlCl 3 -containing liquid, we observe the reaction of the open chain-like Te 4 Br 2 molecule to a closed square-like Te 4 Br + and AlCl 3 Br - ion. The molecular arrangement of the [Te 4 ] 2+ unit shows negligible deviation from that in the experimental crystal structure. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. New results for the formation of a muoniated radical in the Mu + Br2 system: a van der Waals complex or evidence for vibrational bonding in Br-Mu-Br?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Donald G; Cottrell, Stephen P; McKenzie, Iain; Macrae, Roderick M

    2012-08-21

    New evidence is presented for the observation of a muoniated radical in the Mu + Br(2) system, from μSR longitudinal field (LF) repolarisation studies in the gas phase, at Br(2) concentrations of 0.1 bar in a Br(2)/N(2) mixture at 300 K and at 10 bar total pressure. The LF repolarisation curve, up to a field of 4.5 kG, reveals two paramagnetic components, one for the Mu atom, formed promptly during the slowing-down process of the positive muon, with a known Mu hyperfine coupling constant (hfcc) of 4463 MHz, and one for a muoniated radical formed by fast Mu addition. From model fits to the Br(2)/N(2) data, the radical component is found to have an unusually high muon hfcc, assessed to be ∼3300 MHz with an overall error due to systematics expected to exceed 10%. This high muon hfcc is taken as evidence for the observation of either the Br-Mu-Br radical, and hence of vibrational bonding in this H[combining low line]-L[combining low line]-H[combining low line] system, or of a MuBr(2) van der Waals complex formed in the entrance channel. Preliminary ab initio electronic structure calculations suggest the latter is more likely but fully rigorous calculations of the effect of dynamics on the hfcc for either system have yet to be carried out.

  14. Detection efficiency of low levels of boron and cadmium with a LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Anezi, M.S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Kalakada, Zameer [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Al Matouq, Faris Ahmed; Khateeb-ur-Rehman; Khiari, F.Z.; Garwan, M.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-02-11

    The response of a cylindrical 3 in. Multiplication-Sign 3 in. (height Multiplication-Sign diameter) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector was measured for low energy prompt gamma-rays from boron and cadmium contaminated water samples using a newly designed portable neutron generator-based Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup. Prompt gamma-rays were measured from water samples contaminated with 0.031, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.5 wt% boron and 0.0625, 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500 wt% cadmium. The experimental yield of boron and cadmium prompt gamma-rays measured with the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector based PGNAA setup were compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations. An excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of 478 keV gamma-ray from boron and 558 keV gamma-rays from cadmium from boron and cadmium contaminated water samples, indicate an excellent response of the LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector for the low energy prompt gamma-rays.

  15. Interfacial Energy-Level Alignment for High-Performance All-Inorganic Perovskite CsPbBr3 Quantum Dot-Based Inverted Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Alagesan; Pan, Zhenghui; Zhang, Zhenbo; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Chen, Jing; Liu, Meinan; Cheng, Shuang; Xu, Yijun; Wu, Jun; Lei, Wei; Khan, Qasim; Zhang, Yuegang

    2018-04-18

    All-inorganic perovskite light-emitting diode (PeLED) has a high stability in ambient atmosphere, but it is a big challenge to achieve high performance of the device. Basically, device design, control of energy-level alignment, and reducing the energy barrier between adjacent layers in the architecture of PeLED are important factors to achieve high efficiency. In this study, we report a CsPbBr 3 -based PeLED with an inverted architecture using lithium-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles as the electron transport layer (ETL). The optimal lithium doping balances the charge carrier injection between the hole transport layer and ETL, leading to superior device performance. The device exhibits a current efficiency of 3 cd A -1 , a luminance efficiency of 2210 cd m -2 , and a low turn-on voltage of 2.3 V. The turn-on voltage is one of the lowest values among reported CsPbBr 3 -based PeLEDs. A 7-fold increase in device efficiencies has been obtained for lithium-doped TiO 2 compared to that for undoped TiO 2 -based devices.

  16. Stig Brøgger's Artists' Books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania; Hvis Kromann, Thomas

    Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger......Introduction and presentation of the many artist's books made by the Danish artist Stig Brøgger...

  17. UV-Induced Anisotropy In CdBr2-CdBr2: Cu Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Naggar A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have found an occurrence of anisotropy in the nanostructure CdBr2-CdBr2: Cu nanocrystalline films. The film thickness was varied from 4 nm up to 80 nm. The films were prepared by successive deposition of the novel layers onto the basic nanocrystals. The detection of anisotropy was performed by occurrence of anisotropy in the polarized light at 633 nm He-Ne laser wavelength. The occurrence of anisotropy was substantially dependent on the film thickness and the photoinduced power density. Possible mechanisms of the observed phenomena are discussed.

  18. Finding the Missing Stratospheric Br(sub y): A Global Modeling Study of CHBr3 and CH2Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Stolarski, R. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Nielsen, J. E.; Douglass, A. R.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Blake, D. R.; Atlas, E. L.; Ott, L. E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent in situ and satellite measurements suggest a contribution of 5 pptv to stratospheric inorganic bromine from short-lived bromocarbons. We conduct a modeling study of the two most important short-lived bromocarbons, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), with the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOS CCM) to account for this missing stratospheric bromine. We derive a "top-down" emission estimate of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 using airborne measurements in the Pacific and North American troposphere and lower stratosphere obtained during previous NASA aircraft campaigns. Our emission estimate suggests that to reproduce the observed concentrations in the free troposphere, a global oceanic emission of 425 Gg Br yr(exp -1) for CHBr3 and 57 Gg Br yr(exp -l) for CH2Br2 is needed, with 60% of emissions from open ocean and 40% from coastal regions. Although our simple emission scheme assumes no seasonal variations, the model reproduces the observed seasonal variations of the short-lived bromocarbons with high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. This indicates that the seasonality of short-lived bromocarbons is largely due to seasonality in their chemical loss and transport. The inclusion of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 contributes 5 pptv bromine throughout the stratosphere. Both the source gases and inorganic bromine produced from source gas degradation (BrSLS) in the troposphere are transported into the stratosphere, and are equally important. Inorganic bromine accounts for half (2.5 pptv) of the bromine from the inclusion of CHBr3 and CHzBr2 near the tropical tropopause and its contribution rapidly increases to 100% as altitude increases. More than 85% of the wet scavenging of Br(sub y)(sup VSLS) occurs in large-scale precipitation below 500 hPa. Our sensitivity study with wet scavenging in convective updrafts switched off suggests that Br(sub y)(sup SLS) in the stratosphere is not sensitive to convection. Convective scavenging only

  19. Endogenous Prospect Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zank, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This paper provides an axiomatization of a new specification of cumulative prospect theory, termed endogenous prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  20. Pathogenesis of fever: effects of various endogenous pyrogens upon the level of circulating granulocytes in normal rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KING, M K

    1960-11-01

    The endogenous pyrogen in the serum or plasma of rabbits 2 hours after the intravenous injection of typhoid vaccine had a marked effect on the circulating leucocytes of normal rabbits. Immediately following intravenous injection there was a brief, but marked, granulocytopenia which was quickly followed by a granulocytosis. Under the same circumstances pooled heterologous serum or plasma from normal rabbits produced no fever or significant change in the level of circulating leucocytes. The cell-free fluid of sterile peritoneal exudates produced a marked leucocytosis without a preceding leucopenia when injected intravenously into normal rabbits. When comparably pyrogenic doses of typhoid vaccine were injected in the same manner no significant change in the level of circulating leucocytes occurred. The relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of fever is discussed.

  1. Decommissioning of a small reactor (BR3 reactor, Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadoumont, J.; Massaut, V.; Klein, M.; Demeulemeester, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1989, SCK-CEN has been dismantling its PWR reactor BR3 (Belgian Reactor No. 3). After gaining a great deal of experience in remote dismantling of highly radioactive components during the actual dismantling of the two sets of internals, the BR3 team completed the cutting of its reactor pressure vessel (RPV). During the feasibility phase of the RPV dismantling, a decision was made to cut it under water in the refuelling pool of the plant, after having removed it from its cavity. The RPV was cut into segments using a milling cutter and a bandsaw machine. These mechanical techniques have shown their ability for this kind of operations. Prior to the segmentation, the thermal insulation situated around the RPV was remotely removed and disposed of. The paper will describe all these operations. The BR3 decommissioning activities also include the dismantling of contaminated loops and equipment. After a careful sorting of the pieces, optimized management routes are selected in order to minimize the final amount of radioactive waste to be disposed of. Some development of different methods of decontamination were carried out: abrasive blasting (or sand blasting), chemical decontamination (Oxidizing-Reducing process using Cerium). The main goal of the decontamination program is to recycle most of the metallic materials either in the nuclear world or in the industrial world by reaching the respective recycling or clearance level. Overall the decommissioning of the BR3 reactor has shown the feasibility of performing such a project in a safe and economical way. Moreover, BR3 has developed methodologies and decontamination processes to economically reduce the amount of radwaste produced. (author)

  2. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  3. Imbedded Nanocrystals of CsPbBr3 in Cs4 PbBr6 : Kinetics, Enhanced Oscillator Strength, and Application in Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junwei; Huang, Wenxiao; Li, Peiyun; Onken, Drew R; Dun, Chaochao; Guo, Yang; Ucer, Kamil B; Lu, Chang; Wang, Hongzhi; Geyer, Scott M; Williams, Richard T; Carroll, David L

    2017-11-01

    Solution-grown films of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals imbedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 are incorporated as the recombination layer in light-emitting diode (LED) structures. The kinetics at high carrier density of pure (extended) CsPbBr 3 and the nanoinclusion composite are measured and analyzed, indicating second-order kinetics in extended and mainly first-order kinetics in the confined CsPbBr 3 , respectively. Analysis of absorption strength of this all-perovskite, all-inorganic imbedded nanocrystal composite relative to pure CsPbBr 3 indicates enhanced oscillator strength consistent with earlier published attribution of the sub-nanosecond exciton radiative lifetime in nanoprecipitates of CsPbBr 3 in melt-grown CsBr host crystals and CsPbBr 3 evaporated films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Endogenous ROS levels in C. elegans under exogenous stress support revision of oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samson W; Latta, Leigh C; Denver, Dee R; Estes, Suzanne

    2014-07-24

    The oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs states that oxidative stress caused by damaging free radicals directly underpins tradeoffs between reproduction and longevity by altering the allocation of energetic resources between these tasks. We test this theory by characterizing the effects of exogenous oxidative insult and its interaction with thermal stress and diet quality on a suite of life-history traits and correlations in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. We also quantify demographic aging rates and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in live animals. Our findings indicate a tradeoff between investment in reproduction and antioxidant defense (somatic maintenance) consistent with theoretical predictions, but correlations between standard life-history traits yield little evidence that oxidative stress generates strict tradeoffs. Increasing oxidative insult, however, shows a strong tendency to uncouple positive phenotypic correlations and, in particular, to reduce the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. We also found that mild oxidative insult results in lower levels of endogenous ROS accompanied by hormetic changes in lifespan, demographic aging, and reproduction that disappear in combined-stress treatments--consistent with the oxidative stress theory of aging. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct contributor to life-history trait variation and that traditional tradeoffs are not necessary to invoke oxidative stress as a mediator of relationships between life-history traits, supporting previous calls for revisions to theory.

  5. High energy XeBr electric discharge laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Robert C.; Scott, Peter B.

    1981-01-01

    A high energy XeBr laser for producing coherent radiation at 282 nm. The XeBr laser utilizes an electric discharge as the excitation source to minimize formation of molecular ions thereby minimizing absorption of laser radiation by the active medium. Additionally, HBr is used as the halogen donor which undergoes harpooning reactions with Xe.sub.M * to form XeBr*.

  6. BrO measurements over the Eastern North-Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Platt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work presented here was to detect BrO in the marine boundary layer over the Eastern North-Atlantic by Multi AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS of scattered sunlight. With this technique, information about the concentration and the vertical profile of trace gases in the atmosphere can be gained. BrO can be formed in the marine atmosphere by degradation of biogenic organohalogens or by oxidation of bromide in sea salt aerosol. BrO influences the chemistry in marine air in many ways, e.g. since it catalytically destroys ozone, changes the NO2/NO-ratio as well as the OH/HO2-ratio and oxidises DMS. However, the abundance and the significance of BrO in the marine atmosphere is not yet fully understood. <br>> We report on data collected during a ship cruise, which took place along the West African Coast in February 2007, within the framework of the Surface Ocean PRocesses in the ANthropocene project (SOPRAN. Tropospheric BrO could be detected during this cruise at peak mixing ratios of (10.2±3.7 ppt at an assumed layer height of 1 km on 18 February 2007. Furthermore, it was found that the mean BrO concentrations increased when cruising close to the African Coast suggesting that at least part of the BrO might have originated from there.

  7. The dynamics of the Hg + Br2 reaction: elucidation of the reaction mechanism for the Br exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina, P G; Menéndez, M; Aoiz, F J

    2017-06-28

    In spite of its importance in the Hg atmospheric chemistry, the dynamics of the Hg + Br 2 → HgBr + Br reaction is poorly understood. In this article, we have carried out a comprehensive study of the reaction mechanism of this reaction by means of quasiclassical trajectories (QCTs) on an existing ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The reaction has a non trivial dynamics, as a consequence of its large endothermicity, the presence of a deep potential well, and the competition between the Br exchange and the collision induced dissociation processes. Our calculations demonstrate that insertion is only relevant at energies just above the reaction threshold and that, at energies above 2.3 eV, HgBr formation typically takes place via a sort of frustrated dissociation. In order to compare directly with the results obtained in extensive cross molecular beam experiments for the homologous reaction with I 2 , angular distributions in the laboratory frame for Hg + Br 2 have been simulated under similar experimental conditions. The lack of agreement at the highest energies considered suggests that either the two reactions have substantially different mechanisms or that calculations on a single PES cannot account for the dynamics at those energies.

  8. Rashba split surface states in BiTeBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, S V; Rusinov, I P; Nechaev, I A; Chulkov, E V

    2013-01-01

    Within density functional theory, we study the bulk band structure and surface states of BiTeBr. We consider both ordered and disordered phases, which differ in atomic order in the Te–Br sublattice. On the basis of relativistic ab initio calculations, we show that the ordered BiTeBr is energetically preferable as compared with the disordered one. We demonstrate that both Te- and Br-terminated surfaces of the ordered BiTeBr hold surface states with a giant spin–orbit splitting. The Te-terminated surface-state spin splitting has Rashba-type behavior with the coupling parameter α R ∼ 2 eVÅ. (paper)

  9. Retrieval of free-tropospheric BrO from MAX-DOAS measurements at the high-altitude alpine station of Jungfraujoch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; De Smedt, Isabelle; Fayt, Caroline; Gielen, Clio; Hermans, Christian; Pinardi, Gaia; Tack, Frederik; Theys, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    There are currently many open questions about the sources, transport, and photochemical processing that control the abundance of BrO and its precursors in the global troposphere. Recent experimental studies based on various platforms and instrumentations indicate contrasting results reflecting the scarcity of the measurements and the experimental challenge of quantifying the typically low abundance levels of BrO. Modeling studies indicate however that the presence of only 1-2 pptv levels of reactive bromine has important consequences for free tropospheric ozone with indirect climate implications. The MAX-DOAS technique offers high sensitivity for near-surface trace gas measurements and it is well suited to BrO detection. From a high altitude site such as the Jungfraujoch which is located in the Swiss Alps at about 3600 m ASL, the free-troposphere can be sampled under favourable conditions. We report on attempts to quantify the free tropospheric BrO level based on MAXDOAS measurements performed by BIRA-IASB in the period from June 2010 until December 2012. Retrievals are based on the DOAS method followed by vertical profile inversion using an Optimal Estimation scheme. The possible sources of bias that can affect the spectral retrieval of BrO are carefully investigated and various sensitivity tests are performed to assess the stability of the inversion. Results are compared with independent estimates of the mid-latitude tropospheric BrO based on satellite measurements.

  10. Brominated methanes as photoresponsive molecular storage of elemental Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Kazumitsu; Tsuda, Akihiko

    2012-10-01

    The photochemical generation of elemental Br(2) from brominated methanes is reported. Br(2) was generated by the vaporization of carbon oxides and HBr through oxidative photodecomposition of brominated methanes under a 20 W low-pressure mercury lamp, wherein the amount and situations of Br(2) generation were photochemically controllable. Liquid CH(2)Br(2) can be used not only as an organic solvent but also for the photoresponsive molecular storage of Br(2), which is of great technical benefit in a variety of organic syntheses and in materials science. By taking advantage of the in situ generation of Br(2) from the organic solvent itself, many organobromine compounds were synthesized in high practical yields with or without the addition of a catalyst. Herein, Br(2) that was generated by the photodecomposition of CH(2)Br(2) retained its reactivity in solution to undergo essentially the same reactions as those that were carried out with solutions of Br(2) dissolved in CH(2)Br(2) that were prepared without photoirradiation. Furthermore, HBr, which was generated during the course of the photodecomposition of CH(2)Br(2), was also available for the substitution of the OH group for the Br group and for the preparation of the HBr salts of amines. Furthermore, the photochemical generation of Br(2) from CH(2)Br(2) was available for the area-selective photochemical bleaching of natural colored plants, such as red rose petals, wherein Br(2) that was generated photochemically from CH(2)Br(2) was painted onto the petal to cause radical oxidations of the chromophoric anthocyanin molecules. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Zn2(TeO3Br2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Johnsson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of dizinc tellurium dibromide trioxide, Zn2(TeO3Br2, were synthesized via a transport reaction in sealed evacuated silica tubes. The compound has a layered crystal structure in which the building units are [ZnO4Br] distorted square pyramids, [ZnO2Br2] distorted tetrahedra, and [TeO3E] tetrahedra (E being the 5s2 lone pair of Te4+ joined through sharing of edges and corners to form layers of no net charge. Bromine atoms and tellurium lone pairs protrude from the surfaces of each layer towards adjacent layers. This new compound Zn2(TeO3Br2 is isostructural with the synthetic compounds Zn2(TeO3Cl2, CuZn(TeO32, Co2(TeO3Br2 and the mineral sophiite, Zn2(SeO3Cl2.

  12. On the electrodeposition of /sup 80m/Br, /sup 80/Br and /sup 82/Br species from (eta, gamma) activated dibromoethane - N,N-dimethyl aniline mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal neutron activation have been carried out in dibromomethane (DBM)-n,n-dimethyl aniline (N,N-DMA) system and the /sup 80m/Br, /sup 82/Br species have been electrodeposited on Ag/AgBr electrodes under a constant electric field of 175 volts cm/sup -1/. With the addition of N,N-DMA, anodic deposition has been severely decreased for all the radiobromines and cathode plate shows zero activities. Results are critically discussed by explaining the chemical reactivity of the amine. Electrode deposition pattern and the chemical stabilization mode of the nucleogenic bromine species in this system are deduced to some extents. (author)

  13. Modeling study of vibrational photochemical isotope enrichment. [HBr + Cl/sub 2/; HCl + Br/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badcock, C.C.; Hwang, W.C.; Kalsch, J.F.

    1978-09-29

    Chemical kinetic modeling studies of vibrational-photochemical isotope enrichment have been performed on two systems: Model (I), H/sup 79/Br(H/sup 81/Br) + Cl/sub 2/ and, Model (II), H/sup 37/Cl(H/sup 35/Cl) + Br. Pulsed laser excitation was modeled to the first excited vibrational level of H/sup 79/Br in Model I and the first and second excited vibrational levels of both HCl isotopes in Model II. These are prototype systems of exoergic (Model I) and endoergic (Model II) reactions. The effects on enrichment of varying the external parameters (pressure, laser intensity) and the internal parameters (rate constants for V-V exchange and excited-state reactions) were examined. Studies of these prototype systems indicate that a favorable reaction for enrichment, with isotopically-specific excitation and a significantly accelerated vibrationally-excited-state reaction should have the following properties: the reaction from v = 0 should be only moderately exoergic, and the most favorable coreactant should be a polyatomic species, such as alkyl radical. Direct excitation of the reacting vibrational level is at least an order of magnitude more favorable for enrichment than is population by energy transfer. Enrichment of the minor isotope by these processes is more effective than is major isotope enrichment. Within limits, increased laser intensity is beneficial. However, for sequential excitation of a second vibrational level, major isotope enrichment can be diminished by high populations of the first vibrational level.

  14. Solution-Grown CsPbBr3 /Cs4 PbBr6 Perovskite Nanocomposites: Toward Temperature-Insensitive Optical Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Yu, Dejian; Wang, Zeng; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Nalla, Venkatram; Zeng, Haibo; Sun, Handong

    2017-09-01

    With regards to developing miniaturized coherent light sources, the temperature-insensitivity in gain spectrum and threshold is highly desirable. Quantum dots (QDs) are predicted to possess a temperature-insensitive threshold by virtue of the separated electronic states; however, it is never observed in colloidal QDs due to the poor thermal stability. Besides, for the classical II-VI QDs, the gain profile generally redshifts with increasing temperature, plaguing the device chromaticity. Herein, this paper addresses the above two issues simultaneously by embedding ligands-free CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals in a wider band gap Cs 4 PbBr 6 matrix by solution-phase synthesis. The unique electronic structures of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals enable temperature-insensitive gain spectrum while the lack of ligands and protection from Cs 4 PbBr 6 matrix ensure the thermal stability and high temperature operation. Specifically, a color drift-free stimulated emission irrespective of temperature change (20-150 °C) upon two-photon pumping is presented and the characteristic temperature is determined to be as high as ≈260 K. The superior gain properties of the CsPbBr 3 /Cs 4 PbBr 6 perovskite nanocomposites are directly validated by a vertical cavity surface emitting laser operating at temperature as high as 100 °C. The results shed light on manipulating optical gain from the advantageous CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals and represent a significant step toward the temperature-insensitive frequency-upconverted lasers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. 248 nm photolysis of CH2Br2 by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy: Br2 molecular elimination at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pei-Ying; Chang, Yuan-Ping; Lee, Wei-Bin; Hu, Zhengfa; Huang, Hong-Yi; Lin, King-Chuen; Chen, K T; Chang, A H H

    2006-10-07

    Following photodissociation of CH2Br2 at 248 nm, Br2 molecular elimination is detected by using a tunable laser beam, as crossed perpendicular to the photolyzing laser beam in a ring-down cell, probing the Br2 fragment in the B 3Piou+ -X 1Sigmag+ transition. The nascent vibrational population is obtained, yielding a population ratio of Br2(v = 1)Br2(v = 0) to be 0.7 +/- 0.2. The quantum yield for the Br2 elimination reaction is determined to be 0.2 +/- 0.1. Nevertheless, when CH2Br2 is prepared in a supersonic molecular beam under cold temperature, photofragmentation gives no Br2 detectable in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. With the aid of ab initio potential energy calculations, a plausible pathway is proposed. Upon excitation to the 1B1 or 3B1 state, C-Br bond elongation may change the molecular symmetry of Cs and enhance the resultant 1 1,3A'-X 1A' (or 1 1,3B1-X 1A1 as C2v is used) coupling to facilitate the process of internal conversion, followed by asynchronous concerted photodissociation. Temperature dependence measurements lend support to the proposed pathway.

  16. On the origins of endogenous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillas, Alexandros

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Interestingly, IFG is also closely related to silent talking, as well as volition. The connection between IFG and volition is important given that endogenous thoughts are or at least greatly resemble voluntary actions. Against this background, I argue that IFG is key to understanding the origins of conscious endogenous thoughts. Furthermore, I look into goal-directed thinking and show that IFG plays a key role also in unconscious endogenous thinking.

  17. Performance of LiAlloy/Ag(2)CrO(4) Couples in Molten CsBr-LiBr-KBr Eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.

    1999-01-01

    The performance of Li-alloy/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag(sub 2)CrO(sub 4) systems was studied over a temperature range of 250 C to 300 C, for possible use as a power source for geothermal borehole applications. Single cells were discharged at current densities of 15.8 and 32.6 mA/cm(sup 2) using Li-Si and Li-Al anodes. When tested in 5-cell batteries, the Li-Si/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/Ag(sub 2)CrO(sub 4) system exhibited thermal runaway. Thermal analytical tests showed that the Ag(sub 2)CrO(sub 4) cathode reacted exothermically with the electrolyte on activation. Consequently, this system would not be practical for the envisioned geothermal borehole applications

  18. Chemical consequences of radioactive decay. 1. Study of 249Cf ingrowth into crystalline 249BkBr3: a new crystalline phase of CfBr3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.P.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.; Ensor, D.D.; Fellows, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Spectrophotometric and x-ray powder diffraction methods have been applied to a study of the ingrowth of californium-249 by β - decay of berkelium-249 in crystalline 249 BkBr 3 . It was found that the Cf daughter grows in with the same oxidation state and crystal structure as the parent. Thus, six-coordinate BkBr 3 (AlCl 3 -type monoclinic structure) generates six-coordinate CfBr 3 , and eight-coordinate BkBr 3 (PuBr 3 -type orthorhombic structure) generates eight-coordinate CfBr 3 , a previously unknown form of CfBr 3 . It was also found that the daughter Cf(III) in the BkBr 3 parent compound can be reduced to Cf(II) by treatment with H 2 , as it can in pure CfBr 3 . 5 figures

  19. Zn2(TeO3)Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Johnsson, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Single crystals of dizinc tellurium dibromide trioxide, Zn2(TeO3)Br2, were synthesized via a transport reaction in sealed evacuated silica tubes. The compound has a layered crystal structure in which the building units are [ZnO4Br] distorted square pyramids, [ZnO2Br2] distorted tetra­hedra, and [TeO3 E] tetra­hedra (E being the 5s 2 lone pair of Te4+) joined through sharing of edges and corners to form layers of no net charge. Bromine atoms and tellurium lone pairs protrude from the surfaces of each layer towards adjacent layers. This new compound Zn2(TeO3)Br2 is isostructural with the synthetic compounds Zn2(TeO3)Cl2, CuZn(TeO3)2, Co2(TeO3)Br2 and the mineral sophiite, Zn2(SeO3)Cl2. PMID:21202162

  20. CRM1-mediated nuclear export is required for 26 S proteasome-dependent degradation of the TRIP-Br2 proto-oncoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Jit Kong; Gunaratnam, Lakshman; Hsu, Stephen I-Hong

    2008-04-25

    Overexpression of the proto-oncogene TRIP-Br2 (SERTAD2) has been shown to induce E2F activity and promote tumorigenesis, whereas ablation of TRIP-Br2 arrests cell proliferation. Timely degradation of many cell cycle regulators is fundamental to the maintenance of proper cell cycle progression. Here we report novel mechanism(s) that govern the tight regulation of TRIP-Br2 levels during cell cycle progression. TRIP-Br2 was observed to be a short-lived protein in which the expression level peaks at the G(1)/S boundary. TRIP-Br2 accumulated in cells treated with 26 S proteasome inhibitors. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that TRIP-Br2 forms ubiquitin conjugates. In silico analysis identified a putative leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) motif that overlaps with the PHD-Bromo interaction domain in the acidic C-terminal transactivation domain (TAD) of TRIP-Br2. This NES motif is highly conserved in widely divergent species and in all TRIP-Br family members. TRIP-Br2 was shown to be stabilized in G(2)/M phase cells through nuclear entrapment, either by deletion of the acidic C-terminal TAD, which includes the NES motif, or by leptomycin B-mediated inhibition of the CRM1-dependent nuclear export machinery. Mutation of leucine residue 238 of this NES motif abolished the interaction between CRM1 and TRIP-Br2, as well as the nuclear export of TRIP-Br2 and its subsequent 26 S proteasome-dependent degradation. These data suggest that CRM1-mediated nuclear export may be required for the proper execution of ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation of TRIP-Br2.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of (S)-Amino-2-methyl-4-[(76)Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic Acid (BrVAIB) for Brain Tumor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkemper, Jennifer L; Huang, Chaofeng; Li, Aixiao; Yuan, Liya; Rich, Keith; McConathy, Jonathan; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2015-11-12

    The novel compound, (S)-amino-2-methyl-4-[(76)Br]bromo-3-(E)-butenoic acid (BrVAIB, [(76)Br]5), was characterized against the known system A tracer, IVAIB ([(123)I]8). [(76)Br]5 was prepared in a 51% ± 19% radiochemical yield with high radiochemical purity (≥98%). The biological properties of [(76)Br]5 were compared with those of [(123)I]8. Results showed that [(76)Br]5 undergoes mixed amino acid transport by system A and system L transport, while [(123)I]8 had less uptake by system L. [(76)Br]5 demonstrated higher uptake than [(123)I]8 in DBT tumors 1 h after injection (3.7 ± 0.4% ID/g vs 1.5 ± 0.3% ID/g) and also showed higher uptake vs [(123)I]8 in normal brain. Small animal PET studies with [(76)Br]5 demonstrated good tumor visualization of intracranial DBTs up to 24 h with clearance from normal tissues. These results indicate that [(76)Br]5 is a promising PET tracer for brain tumor imaging and lead compound for a mixed system A and system L transport substrate.

  2. Extended analysis of fifth spectrum of bromine: Br V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, A.; Tauheed, A.; Rahimullah, K.

    2014-11-01

    The fifth spectrum of bromine (Br V) has been studied in the 200-2400 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was photographed on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark. The ground configuration of Br V is 4s24p. The excited configurations 4s4p2+4s2(4d+5d+5s+6s+7s+5g+6g)+4s4p(5p+4f)+4p24d in the even parity system and the 4p3+4s2(5p+6p+7p+4f)+4s4p4d+4s4p5s configurations in the odd parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations have been used to interpret the observed spectrum. 99 levels of Br V have now been established, 43 being new. Among 394 classified spectral lines, 181 are newly classified. The level 4s27s 2S1/2 is revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelengths for sharp and unblended lines to be±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 479,657±200 cm-1 (59.470±0.025 eV).

  3. Synthesis and structure of [(NH2)2CSSC(NH2)2]2[OsBr6]Br2 . 3H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnitskaya, O. V.; Kultyshkina, E. K.; Stash, A. I.; Glukhova, A. A.; Venskovskii, N. U.

    2008-01-01

    The complex [(NH 2 ) 2 CSSC(NH 2 ) 2 ] 2 [OsBr 6 ]Br 2 . 3H 2 O is synthesized by the reaction of K 2 OsBr 6 with thiocarbamide in concentrated HBr and characterized using electronic absorption and IR absorption spectroscopy. Its crystal structure is determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystals are orthorhombic, a = 11.730(2) A, b = 14.052(3) A, c = 16.994(3) A, space group Cmcm, and Z = 4. The [OsBr 6 ] 2- anionic complex has an octahedral structure. The Os-Br distances fall in the range 2.483-2.490 A. The α,α'-dithiobisformamidinium cation is a product of the oxidation of thiocarbamide. The S-S and C-S distances are 2.016 and 1.784 A, respectively. The H 2 O molecules, Br - ions, and NH 2 groups of the cation are linked by hydrogen bonds.

  4. Acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses associated with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2012-04-05

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. It has been reported that subclinical hyperthyroidism is not associated with coronary heart disease or mortality from cardiovascular causes but it is sufficient to induce arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Nowadays, there is growing interest regarding endogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism and the cardiovascular system. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses in a 75-year-old Italian woman with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Also this case focuses attention on the importance of a correct evaluation of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  6. Irradiation techniques at BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebel, W.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1963 the material testing reactor BR2 at Mol is operated for the realisation of numerous research programs and experiments on the behavior of materials under nuclear radiation and in particular under intensive neutron exposure. During this period special irradiation techniques and experimental devices were developed according to the desiderata of the different experiments and to the irradiation possibilities offered at BR2. The design and the operating characteristics of quite a number of those irradiation rigs of proven reliability may be used or can be made available for new irradiation experiments. A brief description is given of some typical irradiation devices designed and constructed by CEN/SCK, Technology and Energy Dpt. They are compiled according to their main use for the different research and development programs realized at BR2. Their eventual application however for different objectives could be possible. A final chapter summarizes the principal irradiation conditions offered by BR2 reactor. (author)

  7. Endogenous jasmonic and salicylic acids levels in the Cd-hyperaccumulator Noccaea (Thlaspi) praecox exposed to fungal infection and/or mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llugany, M; Martin, S R; Barceló, J; Poschenrieder, C

    2013-08-01

    Sensitivity to Erysiphe in Noccaea praecox with low metal supply is related to the failure in enhancing SA. Cadmium protects against fungal-infection by direct toxicity and/or enhanced fungal-induced JA signaling. Metal-based defense against biotic stress is an attractive hypothesis on evolutionary advantages of plant metal hyperaccumulation. Metals may compensate for a defect in biotic stress signaling in hyperaccumulators (metal-therapy) by either or both direct toxicity to pathogens and by metal-induced alternative signaling pathways. Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are well-established components of stress signaling pathways. However, few studies evaluate the influence of metals on endogenous concentrations of these defense-related hormones. Even less data are available for metal hyperaccumulators. To further test the metal-therapy hypothesis we analyzed endogenous SA and JA concentrations in Noccaea praecox, a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator. Plants treated or not with Cd, were exposed to mechanical wounding, expected to enhance JA signaling, and/or to infection by biotrophic fungus Erysiphe cruciferarum for triggering SA. JA and SA were analyzed in leaf extracts using LC-ESI(-)-MS/MS. Plants without Cd were more susceptible to fungal attack than plants receiving Cd. Cadmium alone tended to increase leaf SA but not JA. Either or both fungal attack and mechanical wounding decreased SA levels and enhanced JA in the Cd-rich leaves of plants exposed to Cd. High leaf Cd in N. praecox seems to hamper biotic-stress-induced SA, while triggering JA signaling in response to fungal attack and wounding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the endogenous JA and SA levels in a Cd-hyperaccumulator exposed to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Our results support the view of a defect in SA stress signaling in Cd hyperaccumulating N. praecox.

  8. Idle behaviors of the hippocampus reflect endogenous cortisol levels in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Moriah E; Tocco, Maria A; Quednau, Kelly A; Bedway, Andrea R; Carré, Justin M

    2013-06-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that disruption in functional connectivity (FC) in brain networks underlies many psychiatric and developmental disorders. Current theory posits that biological (i.e., cortisol) and environmental (i.e., stress) experiences in early life are strong determinants in the development of functional brain systems and formative in the genesis of such disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which individual differences in cortisol concentrations during FC magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) would map onto variability in hippocampal to default mode network (DMN) connectivity in typically developing youth. Salivary cortisol and FC MRI data were collected concurrently in 33 scan-naive 7- to 15-year-old participants. Twenty-nine of these participants previously completed the Trier Social Stress Test. Hippocampal to DMN FC and endogenous cortisol variability during MRI were examined. A possible association between MRI cortisol and cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test during the preceding visit or a participant's ratings of anxiety during MRI was tested. There were significant positive relations between MRI cortisol levels and measurements in the following 3 areas: hippocampal to DMN FC during the resting state, cortisol levels during the Trier Social Stress Test, and fear/anxiety ratings during MRI. Fear/anxiety ratings during MRI also related to self-reported anxiety on standardized measurements. This study shows for the first time that FC of the hippocampus is altered with changing cortisol responsivity in youth. Altered FC during the resting state may represent altered alertness or monitoring resulting from variation in glucocorticoid function in youth, which carries implications for the effect of stress on response monitoring and decision making. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endogenous lycopene improves ethanol production under acetic acid stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuo; Jia, Bin; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhen; Chai, Meng-Zhe; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xia; Li, Chun; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid, generated from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, is a significant obstacle for lignocellulosic ethanol production. Reactive oxidative species (ROS)-mediated cell damage is one of important issues caused by acetic acid. It has been reported that decreasing ROS level can improve the acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Lycopene is known as an antioxidant. In the study, we investigated effects of endogenous lycopene on cell growth and ethanol production of S. cerevisiae in acetic acid media. By accumulating endogenous lycopene during the aerobic fermentation of the seed stage, the intracellular ROS level of strain decreased to 1.4% of that of the control strain during ethanol fermentation. In the ethanol fermentation system containing 100 g/L glucose and 5.5 g/L acetic acid, the lag phase of strain was 24 h shorter than that of control strain. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol titer of yPS002 got to 2.08 g/L/h and 44.25 g/L, respectively, which were 2.6- and 1.3-fold of the control strain. Transcriptional changes of INO1 gene and CTT1 gene confirmed that endogenous lycopene can decrease oxidative stress and improve intracellular environment. Biosynthesis of endogenous lycopene is first associated with enhancing tolerance to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae . We demonstrate that endogenous lycopene can decrease intracellular ROS level caused by acetic acid, thus increasing cell growth and ethanol production. This work innovatively   puts forward a new strategy for second generation bioethanol production during lignocellulosic fermentation.

  10. BR2 Reactor: Irradiation of fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwimp, A.

    2005-01-01

    Safe, reliable and economical operation of reactor fuels, both UO 2 and MOX types, requires in-pile testing and qualification up to high target burn-up levels. In-pile testing of advanced fuels for improved performance is also mandatory. The objectives of research performed at SCK-CEN are to perform Neutron irradiation of LWR (Light Water Reactor) fuels in the BR2 reactor under relevant operating and monitoring conditions, as specified by the experimenter's requirements and to improve the on-line measurements on the fuel rods themselves

  11. Host-virus interactions of mammalian endogenous retroviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Farkašová, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) originate by germline infection and subsequent mendelian inheritance of their exogenous counterparts. With notable exceptions, all mammalian ERVs are evolutionarily old and fixed in the population of its host species. Some groups of retroviruses were believed not to be able to form endogenous copies. We discovered an additional endogenous Lentivirus and a first endogenous Deltaretrovirus. Both of these groups were previously considered unable to form endogenous ...

  12. Origin of halides (Cl- and Br-) and of their stable isotopes (d37Cl and d81Br) at the Tournemire URL (France) - Experimental and numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir-Bey, Nassim; Matray, Jean-Michel

    2014-05-01

    This work is part of research conducted by the Institute of Radiological and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) on the geological disposal of High-Level and Intermediate-Level Long-Lived (HL-ILLL) radioactive waste in deep clayrocks. In France, the choice of the potential host rock for the geological storage is focused on the Callovian-Oxfordian (COx) of Meuse/Haute-Marne from its low permeability, capacity for self- sealing, high sorption and ability to radionuclide (RN) transport by diffusion. IRSN, which plays an expert role for ASN has its own underground research laboratory in a clayrock which has strong analogies to the COx. This is the Toarcian/Domerian clayrock located at Tournemire in southern Aveyron in France. The purpose of this study was to assess the transfer of RN in the Tournemire clayrock through the study of halides contents and of their stable isotopes (Cl-, Br-, Cl-/Br-, d37Cl, d81Br). The approach used was multiple and consisted for halides to: 1) Assess their stock in different fractions of the rock by applying several techniques including i) alkaline fusion for their total stock, ii) leaching to access their stock in porewater and to mineral phases sensitive to dissolution iii) cubic diffusion for their stock in porewater, 2) Get their diffusive transport parameters of a selection of samples from the upper Toarcian by cubic diffusion experiments modelled using the Hytec transport code developed by Mines ParisTech and 3) Model their transport after palaeohydrogeological known changes of the Tournemire massif. The experimental approach, conducted at the LAME lab, did not lead to an operational protocol for the alkaline fusion due to an incomplete rock dissolution. Leaching was used to characterize the concentrations of halides in the fractions of pore water and of minerals sensitive to dissolution. The results show levels of halides much higher than those of pore water with very low Cl/Br ratios likely resulting from the dissolution of mineral species. The

  13. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  14. Long-term exposure to endogenous levels of tributyltin decreases GluR2 expression and increases neuronal vulnerability to glutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro; Takishita, Tomoko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been used commercially as a heat stabilizer, agricultural pesticide and component of antifouling paints. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT on neuronal glutamate receptors. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to 1-50 nM TBT for 9 days (from day 2 to day 10 in vitro). The number of neurons was reduced by long-term exposure to 50 nM TBT, but not to 1-20 nM TBT. Long-term exposure to 20 nM TBT decreased the mRNA expression of glutamate receptors NR1, NR2A, GluR1 and GluR2, and increased that of NR2B, GluR3 and GluR4. GluR2 protein was also reduced by long-term exposure to TBT. Because AMPA receptor lacking GluR2 exhibits Ca 2+ permeability, we investigated whether Ca 2+ influx or glutamate toxicity was affected. Indeed, glutamate-induced Ca 2+ influx was increased in TBT-treated neurons. Consistent with this, neurons became more susceptible to glutamate toxicity as a result of long-term exposure to TBT and this susceptibility was abolished by an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptor. Thus, it is suggested that long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT induces a decrease of GluR2 protein, causing neurons become more susceptible to glutamate toxicity.

  15. Long-term exposure to endogenous levels of tributyltin decreases GluR2 expression and increases neuronal vulnerability to glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kotake, Yaichiro; Takishita, Tomoko; Ohta, Shigeru

    2009-10-15

    Tributyltin (TBT), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been used commercially as a heat stabilizer, agricultural pesticide and component of antifouling paints. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT on neuronal glutamate receptors. Cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to 1-50 nM TBT for 9 days (from day 2 to day 10 in vitro). The number of neurons was reduced by long-term exposure to 50 nM TBT, but not to 1-20 nM TBT. Long-term exposure to 20 nM TBT decreased the mRNA expression of glutamate receptors NR1, NR2A, GluR1 and GluR2, and increased that of NR2B, GluR3 and GluR4. GluR2 protein was also reduced by long-term exposure to TBT. Because AMPA receptor lacking GluR2 exhibits Ca2+ permeability, we investigated whether Ca2+ influx or glutamate toxicity was affected. Indeed, glutamate-induced Ca2+ influx was increased in TBT-treated neurons. Consistent with this, neurons became more susceptible to glutamate toxicity as a result of long-term exposure to TBT and this susceptibility was abolished by an antagonist of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptor. Thus, it is suggested that long-term exposure to endogenous levels of TBT induces a decrease of GluR2 protein, causing neurons become more susceptible to glutamate toxicity.

  16. Reactor BR2: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. A safety audit was conduced by the IAEA, the conclusions of which demonstrated the excellent performance of the plant in terms of operational safety. In 1999, the CALLISTO facility was extensively used for various programmes involving LWR pressure vessel materials, IASCC of LWR structural materials, fusion reactor materials and martensic steels for use in ADS systems. In 1999, BR2's commercial programmes were further developed

  17. Light-emitting diodes based on two-dimensional PA2(CsPbBr3)n-1PbBr4 layered perovskites%基于PA2(CsPbBr3)n-1PbBr4二维层状钙钛矿的电致发光二极管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟妍; 牛连斌; 许龙; 林春燕; 熊自阳; 熊祖洪; 陈平

    2018-01-01

    进一步提高全无机卤铅钙钛矿材料CsPbBr3的发光效率,对制备高效率、高稳定性的电致发光二极管(PeLED)具有重要意义.制备纳米级的钙钛矿量子点,一方面有助于提高激子的束缚能和钙钛矿晶体的荧光效率,另一方面也有利于形成连续、致密的二维层状钙钛矿薄膜.本文采用“原位生长”的策略,将一种具有长链结构的丙基溴化胺(CH3CH2CH2NH3Br,PABr)作为添加剂,与CsPbBr3的前驱体溶液进行共混,得到PA2(CsPbBr3)n-1PbBr4钙钛矿量子点.形成的二维层状钙钛矿薄膜均匀致密,在光致发光条件下,呈现出明亮的蓝绿光发射(发光峰位于506 nm).在电致发光方面,基于PA2(CsPbBr3)n-1PbBr4的PeLED启亮电压为~4.2 V,最大亮度为~2370 cd/m2,最高电流效率为~1.06 cd/A,最高EQE为~0.57%.相较于传统方法,本工作在制作工艺、成膜质量以及PeLED的发光效率有了显著的提升,为将来进一步探索低成本、高效率的蓝光PeLEDs提供了一种可行的思路.%Solution-processed organometal halide perovskites (formulated as ABX3,where A is the methylammonium (CH3NH3+)(MA) or metal cesium cation (Cs+),B is the lead cation (Pb2+) and X is the halide anion (Br-,I-,Cl-)) are promising candidates for next generation light-emitting materials owing to their unique optoelectronic properties.These properties mainly include extremely high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY),easily tunable band gap and narrow emission characteristics.During the past two years,impressive progresses have been made in perovskite light-emitting diodes (PeLED) with hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials (i.e.,CH3NH3PbBr3).So far,the best external quantum efficiency (EQE) of CH3NH3PbBr3-based PeLED was reaching up to ~8.53% which was close to the results of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED).Despite the remarkable performance of the devices demonstrated,the stability of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

  18. Nitric oxide from both exogenous and endogenous sources activates mitochondria-dependent events and induces insults to human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gong-Jhe; Chen, Tyng-Guey; Chang, Huai-Chia; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2007-08-15

    During inflammation, overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) can damage chondrocytes. In this study, we separately evaluated the toxic effects of exogenous and endogenous NO on human chondrocytes and their possible mechanisms. Human chondrocytes were exposed to sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor, or a combination of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) as the exogenous and endogenous sources of NO, respectively. Administration of SNP or a combination of LPS and IFN-gamma in human chondrocytes increased cellular NO levels but decreased cell viability. Exposure to exogenous or endogenous NO significantly induced apoptosis of human chondrocytes. When treated with exogenous or endogenous NO, the mitochondrial membrane potential time-dependently decreased. Exposure to exogenous or endogenous NO significantly enhanced cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels. Administration of exogenous or endogenous NO increased caspase-3 activity and consequently induced DNA fragmentation. Suppression of caspase-3 activation by Z-DEVD-FMK decreased NO-induced DNA fragmentation and cell apoptosis. Similar to SNP, exposure of human chondrocytes to S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), another NO donor, caused significant increases in Cyt c levels, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation, and induced cell apoptosis. Pretreatment with N-monomethyl arginine (NMMA), an inhibitor of NO synthase, significantly decreased cellular NO levels, and lowered endogenous NO-induced alterations in cellular Cyt c amounts, caspase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis. Results of this study show that NO from exogenous and endogenous sources can induce apoptotic insults to human chondrocytes via a mitochondria-dependent mechanism.

  19. A2BR Adenosine Receptor Modulates Sweet Taste in Circumvallate Taste Buds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  20. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  1. Examination of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT-C) classification, and intended plans for getting home among bar-attending college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The college student population is one of the heaviest drinking demographic groups in the US and impaired driving is a serious alcohol-related problem. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and "plans to get home" among a sample of college students. We conducted four anonymous field studies to examine associations between breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) classification, and plans for getting home among a sample of bar-attending college students (N = 713). The vast majority of participants in our sample (approximately 95%) were not intending to drive and the average BrAC% of those intending to drive was .041. Our one-way ANOVAs indicated that (1) participants classified by the AUDIT-C as not having an alcohol problem had a significantly lower BrAC% than those classified as having a potential problem and (2) participants planning to drive had a significantly lower BrAC% than those with a plan that did not involve them driving and those without a plan to get home. Although it is encouraging that most of our sample was not intending to drive, it is important to continue to attempt to reduce impaired driving in this population. This study helps college health professionals and administrators to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and plans to get home among college students. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. The obesity-induced transcriptional regulator TRIP-Br2 mediates visceral fat endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Guifen; Kong, Hyerim Whang; Fang, Difeng; McCann, Maximilian; Yang, Xiuying; Du, Guanhua; Blüher, Matthias; Zhu, Jinfang; Liew, Chong Wee

    2016-04-25

    The intimate link between location of fat accumulation and metabolic disease risk and depot-specific differences is well established, but how these differences between depots are regulated at the molecular level remains largely unclear. Here we show that TRIP-Br2 mediates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced inflammatory responses in visceral fat. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we demonstrate that obesity-induced circulating factors upregulate TRIP-Br2 specifically in visceral fat via the ER stress pathway. We find that ablation of TRIP-Br2 ameliorates both chemical and physiological ER stress-induced inflammatory and acute phase response in adipocytes, leading to lower circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. Using promoter assays, as well as molecular and pharmacological experiments, we show that the transcription factor GATA3 is responsible for the ER stress-induced TRIP-Br2 expression in visceral fat. Taken together, our study identifies molecular regulators of inflammatory response in visceral fat that-given that these pathways are conserved in humans-might serve as potential therapeutic targets in obesity.

  3. Two-color visible/vacuum ultraviolet photoelectron imaging dynamics of Br2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenge, Jürgen; Nicolas, Christophe; Caster, Allison G; Ahmed, Musahid; Leone, Stephen R

    2006-10-07

    An experimental two-color photoionization dynamics study of laser-excited Br2 molecules is presented, combining pulsed visible laser excitation and tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) synchrotron radiation with photoelectron imaging. The X 1Sigmag + -B 3Pi0+u transition in Br2 is excited at 527 nm corresponding predominantly to excitation of the v' = 28 vibrational level in the B 3Pi0+u state. Tunable VUV undulator radiation in the energy range of 8.40-10.15 eV is subsequently used to ionize the excited molecules to the X 2Pi32,12 state of the ion, and the ionic ground state is probed by photoelectron imaging. Similar experiments are performed using single-photon synchrotron ionization in the photon energy range of 10.75-12.50 eV without any laser excitation. Photoelectron kinetic energy distributions are extracted from the photoelectron images. In the case of two-color photoionization using resonant excitation of the intermediate B 3Pi0+u state, a broad distribution of photoelectron kinetic energies is observed, and in some cases even a bimodal distribution, which depends on the VUV photon energy. In contrast, for single-photon ionization, a single nearly Gaussian-shaped distribution is observed, which shifts to higher energy with photon energy. Simulated spectra based on Franck-Condon factors for the transitions Br2(X 1Sigmag+, v" = 0)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) and Br2(B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28)-Br2 +(X 2Pi12,32, v+) are generated. Comparison of these calculated spectra with the measured images suggests that the differences in the kinetic energy distributions for the two ionization processes reflect the different extensions of the vibrational wave functions in the v" = 0 electronic ground state (X 1Sigmag+) versus the electronically and vibrationally excited state (B 3Pi0+u, v' = 28).

  4. Detection of peanut allergen in human blood after consumption of peanuts is skewed by endogenous immunoglobulins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.; Keijer, J.; Baumert, J.L.; Jong, De Govardus A.H.; Witkamp, R.F.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that allergens may appear in the circulation after ingestion of allergenic food<br/>sources. The reported levels of allergen in serum, however, are low, and conclusions between studies differ.<br/>Here, we investigated factors that determine the detection of allergens in

  5. Endogenous estrogens and the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan B; Hankinson, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Data from laboratory and epidemiologic studies support a relationship between endogenous hormones and the increased risk of several female cancers. In epidemiologic studies, consistent associations have been observed between risk of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers and reproductive and hormonal risk factors such as high postmenopausal body mass index (BMI) and postmenopausal hormone use, which suggest the importance of endogenous hormones in the etiology of these diseases. The relationship between circulating estrogen levels in postmenopausal women and the risk of breast cancer is well established, with an approximately 2-fold higher risk among women in the top 20-25% (versus bottom 20-25%) of levels. However, data evaluating the relationship between endogenous estrogens and premenopausal breast cancer risk are more limited and less consistent. Two studies to date have evaluated the relationship between circulating estrogens and breast cancer risk by menstrual cycle phase at blood collection and only one study has examined this relationship by menopausal status at diagnosis. Three prospective studies have evaluated circulating estrogen levels and endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal women, with consistent strong positive associations reported (with relative risks of 2-4 comparing high versus low hormone levels), while this relationship has not been studied in premenopausal women. Compared to breast and endometrial cancers, reproductive and hormonal characteristics such as postmenopausal hormone use are generally weaker and less consistent risk factors for ovarian cancer, and the only small prospective study conducted to date indicated a non-significant positive relationship between circulating estrogen levels and ovarian cancer risk. In this review, we summarize current evidence and identify key areas to be addressed in future epidemiologic studies of endogenous estrogens and the risk of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers. Copyright © 2015

  6. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  7. Induced pluripotency with endogenous and inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duinsbergen, Dirk; Eriksson, Malin; Hoen, Peter A.C. 't; Frisen, Jonas; Mikkers, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The recent discovery that two partly overlapping sets of four genes induce nuclear reprogramming of mouse and even human cells has opened up new possibilities for cell replacement therapies. Although the combination of genes that induce pluripotency differs to some extent, Oct4 and Sox2 appear to be a prerequisite. The introduction of four genes, several of which been linked with cancer, using retroviral approaches is however unlikely to be suitable for future clinical applications. Towards developing a safer reprogramming protocol, we investigated whether cell types that express one of the most critical reprogramming genes endogenously are predisposed to reprogramming. We show here that three of the original four pluripotency transcription factors (Oct4, Klf4 and c-Myc or MYCER TAM ) induced reprogramming of mouse neural stem (NS) cells exploiting endogenous SoxB1 protein levels in these cells. The reprogrammed neural stem cells differentiated into cells of each germ layer in vitro and in vivo, and contributed to mouse development in vivo. Thus a combinatorial approach taking advantage of endogenously expressed genes and inducible transgenes may contribute to the development of improved reprogramming protocols

  8. NY-BR-1 Antigen Expression and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients: Clinicopathological and Prognostic Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghazy, Amany A; Ghoneim, Hossam E; Zoheir, Malak; Ahmed, Ahmed S; Sorour, Sally S; Abouelella, Amira M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common gynecological malignancy in the world. In Egypt, it ranks the first among female malignancies with incidence of 37.7%. Over the last decades, the integration of prognostic and predictive markers in treatment decisions has led to more individualized and optimized therapy. NY-BR-1 antigen has been shown to be frequently expressed in breast cancers. The study aimed to assess the tissue expression of NY-BR-1 antigen and serum IgG antibody to this antigen in Egyptian breast cancer females. The study was conducted on 60 females (10 healthy, 10 having benign breast lesions, 40 with malignant breast cancer). NY-BR-1 Ag expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG was assessed by ELISA. Results revealed a significant difference in NY-BR-1 Ag expression between benign and malignant breast cancer patients. There was a significant correlation between NY-BR-1 antigen expression and estrogen receptor's status (P = 0.019), stage of the disease (P = 0.008), menopausal status (P = 0.008), lymph node involvement (P = 0.022) and anti-NY-BR-1 IgG (P = 0.032) among the studied individuals. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in anti-NY-BR-1 IgG O.D. results among malignant breast cancer group. It is correlated with tumor type (P < 0.001) and progesterone receptor status (P = 0.038). In conclusion, our work may represent a step towards identification of a new prognostic marker specific for breast cancer.

  9. REFERENCE MODELS OF ENDOGENOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    GEAMĂNU MARINELA

    2012-01-01

    The new endogenous growth theories are a very important research area for shaping the most effective policies and long term sustainable development strategies. Endogenous growth theory has emerged as a reaction to the imperfections of neoclassical theory, by the fact that the economic growth is the endogenous product of an economical system.

  10. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  11. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  12. Theoretical investigation of potential energy surface and bound states for the van der Waals complex Ar–BrCl dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Rui [School of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China); Li, Song, E-mail: lsong@yangtzeu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Chen, Shan-Jun; Chen, Yan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Yangtze University, Jingzhou (China); Zheng, Li-Min [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan (China)

    2015-09-08

    Highlights: • A two-dimensional potential for Ar–BrCl is constructed at the CCSD(T) level. • The PES is characterized by three minima and two saddle points between them. • Bound state calculations were carried out for the complex. - Abstract: The intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) of the ground electronic state for the Ar–BrCl dimer is constructed at the CCSD(T) level with the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set and mid-bond functions. The PES is characterized by three minima and two saddle points. The global minimum corresponding to a collinear Ar–BrCl configuration, which has been observed experimentally, is located at R = 4.10 Å and θ = 2.5° with a well depth of −285.207 cm{sup −1}. A nearly T-shaped structure and an anti-linear Ar–ClBr geometry is also predicted. The bound state calculations are preformed to study intermolecular vibrational modes, rotational levels and average structures for the complex. Our transition frequencies, spectroscopic constants and average structures for all isotopomers of the collinear isomer agree well with experimental data. We have also provided pure rotational transitional frequencies for both nearly T-shaped and anti-linear isomers. These results are significant for further experimental investigations of the Ar–BrCl dimer.

  13. Three new chalcohalides, Ba4Ge2PbS8Br2, Ba4Ge2PbSe8Br2 and Ba4Ge2SnS8Br2: Syntheses, crystal structures, band gaps, and electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zuohong; Feng, Kai; Tu, Heng; Kang, Lei; Lin, Zheshuai; Yao, Jiyong; Wu, Yicheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three new chalcohalides: Ba 4 Ge 2 PbS 8 Br 2 , Ba 4 Ge 2 PbSe 8 Br 2 and Ba 4 Ge 2 SnS 8 Br 2 have been synthesized. • The MQ 5 Br octahedra and GeQ 4 tetrahedra form a three-dimensional framework with Ba 2+ in the channels. • Band Gaps and electronic structures of the three compounds were studied. - Abstract: Single crystals of three new chalcohalides: Ba 4 Ge 2 PbS 8 Br 2 , Ba 4 Ge 2 PbSe 8 Br 2 and Ba 4 Ge 2 SnS 8 Br 2 have been synthesized for the first time. These isostructural compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pnma. In the structure, the tetra-valent Ge atom is tetrahedrally coordinated with four Q (Q = S, Se) atoms, while the bi-valent M atom (M = Pb, Sn) is coordinated with an obviously distorted octahedron of five Q (Q = S, Se) atoms and one Br atom, showing the stereochemical activity of the ns 2 lone pair electron. The MQ 5 Br (M = Sn, Pb; Q = S, Se) distorted octahedra and the GeQ 4 (Q = S, Se) tetrahedra are connected to each other to form a three-dimensional framework with channels occupied by Ba 2+ cations. Based on UV–vis–NIR spectroscopy measurements and the electronic structure calculations, Ba 4 Ge 2 PbS 8 Br 2 , Ba 4 Ge 2 PbSe 8 Br 2 and Ba 4 Ge 2 SnS 8 Br 2 have indirect band gaps of 2.054, 1.952, and 2.066 eV respectively, which are mainly determined by the orbitals from the Ge, M and Q atoms (M = Pb, Sn; Q = S, Se)

  14. Evolutionarily Conserved Roles for Blood-Brain Barrier Xenobiotic Transporters in Endogenous Steroid Partitioning and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Samantha J; Munji, Roeben N; Dolghih, Elena; Gaskins, Garrett; Orng, Souvinh; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Soung, Allison; DeSalvo, Michael; Kitamoto, Toshihiro; Keiser, Michael J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Daneman, Richard; Bainton, Roland J

    2017-10-31

    Central nervous system (CNS) chemical protection depends upon discrete control of small-molecule access by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Curiously, some drugs cause CNS side-effects despite negligible transit past the BBB. To investigate this phenomenon, we asked whether the highly BBB-enriched drug efflux transporter MDR1 has dual functions in controlling drug and endogenous molecule CNS homeostasis. If this is true, then brain-impermeable drugs could induce behavioral changes by affecting brain levels of endogenous molecules. Using computational, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches across diverse organisms, we demonstrate that BBB-localized efflux transporters are critical for regulating brain levels of endogenous steroids and steroid-regulated behaviors (sleep in Drosophila and anxiety in mice). Furthermore, we show that MDR1-interacting drugs are associated with anxiety-related behaviors in humans. We propose a general mechanism for common behavioral side effects of prescription drugs: pharmacologically challenging BBB efflux transporters disrupts brain levels of endogenous substrates and implicates the BBB in behavioral regulation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Operating Experience with the BR-5 Reactor; Experience acquise aupres du reacteur BR-5; Opyt ehkspluatatsii reaktora BR-5; Experiencia practica con el reactor BR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskij, A. I.; Kazachkovskij, O. D.; Pinkhasik, M. S.; Aristarkhov, N. N.; Karpov, A. V.; Larin, E. P.; Efimov, I. A.

    1963-10-15

    The paper discusses the carrying-out of repair and maintenance work on the radioactive liquid-metal circuit of the BR-5 fast neutron reactor. Attention is also given to problems of reactor operation after achievement of the planned 2% fuel burn-up with some disturbance of leak-tightness in individual fuel elements. An account is given of experience in discharging the active section, examining the condition and leak-tightness of the fuel elements, and decontaminating the equipment and piping of the first radioactive circuit after reaching 5% fuel burn-up. (author) [French] Dans ce memoire les auteurs decrivent l'execution des reparations et des travaux d'entretien dans le circuit radioactif liquide-metal du reacteur a neutrons rapides BR-5. Ils etudient egalement les problemes lies au fonctionnement du reacteur au taux de combustion de 2% prevu avec quelques defauts d'etancheite dans des elements combustibles particuliers. Ils decrivent le dechargementen zone active et examinent les conditions d'etancheite des elements combustibles. Ainsi que la decontamination de l'appareillage et des tuyauteries du premier circuit radioactif apres avoir atteint un taux de combustion de 5%. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se examinan los problemas planteados por el mantenimiento del circuito radiactivo de metal liquido del reactor de neutrones rapidos BR-5. Se tratan cuestiones relacionadas con la explotacion del reactor una vez alcanzado el grado de combustion de 2%, previsto en el proyecto y luego de producirse ciertas alteraciones de la densidad de determinados elementos combustibles. Se describen la experiencia adquirida durante la descarga del cuerpo del reactor, las investigaciones del estado general y de la hermeticidad de los elementos combustibles y las operaciones de descontaminacion de la instalacion y de las tuberias del circuito radiactivo primario despues de alcanzado un grado de combustion de 5%. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmatrivayutsya voprosy proizvodstva

  16. X-ray and NQR studies of bromoindate(III) complexes. [C2H5NH3]4InBr7, [C(NH2)3]3InBr6, and [H3NCH2C(CH3)2CH2NH3]InBr5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwakiri, Takeharu; Ishihara, Hideta; Terao, Hiromitsu; Lork, Enno; Gesing, Thorsten M.

    2017-01-01

    The crystal structures of [C 2 H 5 NH 3 ] 4 InBr 7 (1), [C(NH 2 ) 3 ] 3 InBr 6 (2), and [H 3 NCH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 2 NH 3 ]InBr 5 (3) were determined at 100(2) K: monoclinic, P2 1 /n, a=1061.94(3), b=1186.40(4), c=2007.88(7) pm, β= 104.575(1) , Z=4 for 1; monoclinic, C2/c, a=3128.81(12), b=878.42(3), c=2816.50(10) pm, β=92.1320(10) , Z=16 for 2; orthorhombic, P2 1 2 1 2 1 , a=1250.33(5), b=1391.46(6), c=2503.22(9) pm, Z=4 for 3. The structure of 1 contains an isolated octahedral [InBr 6 ] 3- ion and a Br - ion. The structure of 2 contains three different isolated octahedral [InBr 6 ] 3- ions. The structure of 3 has a corner-shared double-octahedral [In 2 Br 11 ] 5- ion and an isolated tetrahedral [InBr 4 ] - ion. The 81 Br nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) lines of the terminal Br atoms of the compounds are widely spread in frequency, and some of them show unusual positive temperature dependence. These observations manifest the N-H..Br-In hydrogen bond networks developed between the cations and anions to stabilize the crystal structures. The 81 Br NQR and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements have revealed the occurrence of unique phase transitions in 1 and 3. When the bond angles were estimated from the electric field gradient (EFG) directions calculated by the molecular orbital (MO) methods, accurate values were obtained for [InBr 6 ] 3- of 1 and for [In 2 Br 11 ] 5- and [InBr 4 ] - of 3, except for several exceptions in those for the latter two ions. On the other hand, the calculations of 81 Br NQR frequencies have produced up to 1.4 times higher values than the observed ones.

  17. Overexpression of YB1 C-terminal domain inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in a SK-BR-3 breast cancer xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Hong; Cui, Nai-Peng; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Bing; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1) is a multifunctional transcription factor with vital roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we have examined the role of its C-terminal domain (YB1 CTD) in proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in breast cancer. Breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 was infected with GFP-tagged YB1 CTD adenovirus expression vector. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) proliferation assay showed that YB1 CTD decreased SK-BR-3 cell proliferation, and down-regulated cyclin B1 and up-regulated p21 levels in SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression changed the cytoskeletal organization and slightly inhibited the migration of SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD also inhibited secreted VEGF expression in SK-BR-3 cells, which decreased SK-BR-3-induced EA.hy926 endothelial cell angiogenesis in vitro. YB1 CTD overexpression attenuated the ability of SK-BR-3 cells to form tumours in nude mice, and decreased in vivo VEGF levels and angiogenesis in the xenografts in SK-BR-3 tumour-bearing mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the vital role of YB1 CTD overexpression in inhibiting proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3.

  18. Refurbishing the BR2 materials testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugnet, J.M.; Dekeyser, J.; Gubel, P.

    1995-01-01

    SCK/CEN is refurbishing its BR2 reactor to allow its further operation during the next 15 years; in doing so, it chooses to keep BR2 available for future scientific and technological irradiation programs within an international context. (author) 2 figs

  19. SV-BR-1-GM, a Clinically Effective GM-CSF-Secreting Breast Cancer Cell Line, Expresses an Immune Signature and Directly Activates CD4+ T Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus D. Lacher

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Targeted cancer immunotherapy with irradiated, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF-secreting, allogeneic cancer cell lines has been an effective approach to reduce tumor burden in several patients. It is generally assumed that to be effective, these cell lines need to express immunogenic antigens coexpressed in patient tumor cells, and antigen-presenting cells need to take up such antigens then present them to patient T cells. We have previously reported that, in a phase I pilot study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00095862, a subject with stage IV breast cancer experienced substantial regression of breast, lung, and brain lesions following inoculation with clinical formulations of SV-BR-1-GM, a GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor cell line. To identify diagnostic features permitting the prospective identification of patients likely to benefit from SV-BR-1-GM, we conducted a molecular analysis of the SV-BR-1-GM cell line and of patient-derived blood, as well as a tumor specimen. Compared to normal human breast cells, SV-BR-1-GM cells overexpress genes encoding tumor-associated antigens (TAAs such as PRAME, a cancer/testis antigen. Curiously, despite its presumptive breast epithelial origin, the cell line expresses major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II genes (HLA-DRA, HLA-DRB3, HLA-DMA, HLA-DMB, in addition to several other factors known to play immunostimulatory roles. These factors include MHC class I components (B2M, HLA-A, HLA-B, ADA (encoding adenosine deaminase, ADGRE5 (CD97, CD58 (LFA3, CD74 (encoding invariant chain and CLIP, CD83, CXCL8 (IL8, CXCL16, HLA-F, IL6, IL18, and KITLG. Moreover, both SV-BR-1-GM cells and the responding study subject carried an HLA-DRB3*02:02 allele, raising the question of whether SV-BR-1-GM cells can directly present endogenous antigens to T cells, thereby inducing a tumor-directed immune response. In support of this, SV-BR-1-GM cells (which also carry the HLA-DRB3*01:01 allele treated with

  20. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  1. Cytokines as endogenous pyrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1999-03-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic molecules mediating several pathologic processes. Long before the discovery of cytokines as immune system growth factors or as bone marrow stimulants, investigators learned a great deal about cytokines when they studied them as the endogenous mediators of fever. The terms "granulocytic" or "endogenous pyrogen" were used to describe substances with the biologic property of fever induction. Today, we recognize that pyrogenicity is a fundamental biologic property of several cytokines and hence the clinically recognizeable property of fever links host perturbations during disease with fundamental perturbations in cell biology. In this review, the discoveries made on endogenous pyrogens are revisited, with insights into the importance of the earlier work to the present-day understanding of cytokines in health and in disease.

  2. "Brücke dreht sich um!". A Deconstructionist Reading of Kafka's "Die Brücke"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hoffmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Franz Kafka's (1883-1924 "Die Brücke" is one of the less well-known texts by one of the most prolific authors of literary modernity. However, this short prose text embodies prevalent questions of literary modernity and philosophy as it reflects the crisis of language in regard of identity, communication, and literary production. Placed in the context of fin-de-siècle's discourse of language crisis, this article provides a dialogue between Kafka's "Die Brücke" and Hannah Arendt's (1906-1975 philosophy of thinking and speaking in The Life of the Mind. Contrary to Arendt's understanding of the metaphor as "a carrying over" between the mental activities of the solitude thinker and a reconciliation with the pluralistic world shared with others, this article argues for a deconstructionist reading of "Die Brücke" as a tool to reevaluate Arendt's notion of a shared human experience ensured through language and illustrates the advantages of poetic texts within philosophical discourses.

  3. Neuronal Rat Brain Damage Caused by Endogenous and Exogenous Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aydın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia may induce pathologic alterations within body systems and organs including brain. In this study, neuronal effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperthermia (41°C were studied in rats. METHODS: The endogenous hyperthermia (41°C was induced by lipopolysaccharide and the exogenous by an (electric heater. Possible neuronal damage was evaluated by examining healthy, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus RESULTS: At cellular level, when all neuronal tissues are taken into account; (i a significant increase in the necrotic cells was observed in the both groups (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The neural tissue of brain can show different degree of response to hyperthermia. But we can conclude that endogenous hyperthermia is more harmful to central nervous system than exogenous hyperthermia

  4. Spatiotemporal expression of endogenous opioid processing enzymes in mouse uterus at peri-implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Bingyan; Chen, Yongjie; Wang, Haibin

    2016-02-01

    Successful implantation requires intimate interactions between a competent blastocyst and a receptive uterus. We recently demonstrated that the aberrant activation of opioid signaling by exogenous ligands adversely affects preimplantation embryonic development and subsequent implantation in mice. However, the underlying machinery governing the dynamic homeostasis of the endogenous opioid system in the uterus during early pregnancy remains elusive. We now show that all three major endogenous opioid precursors are spatiotemporally expressed in the uterus during early pregnancy. Moreover, we observe the well-coordinated expression of the synthetic enzyme prohormone convertases 1/3 (PC1/3) at lower levels and of its inhibitor proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 inhibitor (Pcsk1n) and the degrading enzyme membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) at higher levels in the receptive uterus. Both estrogen and progestin tend to reduce the uterine levels of opioid ligand precursors in the ovariectomized mouse model. This tight regulation of the endogenous opioid system by PC1/3, Pcsk1n and MME has been further confirmed in physiologically related pseudopregnancy and delayed implantation mouse models. The coordinated regulation of opioid precursor biosynthesis and metabolism helps to create appropriate opioid signaling ensuring uterine receptivity for implantation. Thus, endogenous uterine opioid levels are primarily determined by the coordinated expressions of PC1/3, Pcsk1n and MME under the influence of ovarian progestin and estrogen. Our findings raise an additional cautionary note regarding the effects of opioid abuse on early pregnancy events.

  5. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. IX. Characteristics of endogenous serum pyrogen and mechanisms governing its release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETERSDORF, R G; KEENE, W R; BENNETT, I L

    1957-12-01

    The "endogenous serum pyrogen" that appears in the circulating blood after a single intravenous injection of endotoxin does not produce leukopenia in normal animals, fails to provoke the local Shwartzman reaction, and elicits no "tolerance" when injected daily. Suppression of the febrile response to endotoxin by prednisone does not prevent the appearance of pyrogen in the blood. Animals given large amounts of endotoxin daily continue to respond with high fevers despite failure of endogenous serum pyrogen to appear in detectable amounts after the first two or three injections. Analysis of the response to daily injections shows clearly that the fever during the first 2 hours after administration of endotoxin is unrelated to levels of endogenous serum pyrogen; in contrast, the magnitude of the fever after the 2nd hour correlates well with endogenous pyrogen in some instances. The leukopenic response to endotoxin could not be correlated with the appearance of endogenous serum pyrogen. The differences between endotoxin and endogenous pyrogen and the similarities between leukocyte extracts (sterile exudates) and endogenous pyrogen are summarized and discussed. Dissociation of the febrile response to bacterial endotoxin and levels of endogenous serum pyrogen are discussed and it is concluded that a mechanism involving both direct and indirect action of endotoxins offers the best explanation for the pyrogenic action of these bacterial products.

  6. Endogenous growth and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  7. Endogenous growth and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  8. Radiative forcing calculations for CH3Br

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Blass, W.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    Methyl Bromide, CH 3 Br, is the major organobromine species in the lower atmosphere and is a primary source of bromine in the stratosphere. It has a lifetime of 1.3 years. The IR methyl bromide spectra in the atmospheric window region, 7--13μ, was determined using a well tested Coriolis resonance and ell-doubling (and ell-resonance) computational system. A radiative forcing value of 0.00493 W/m 2 /ppbv was obtained for CH 3 Br and is approximately linear in the background abundance. This value is about 2 percent of the forcing of CFC-11 and about 278 times the forcing of C0 2 , on a per molecule basis. The radiative forcing calculation is used to estimate the global warming potential (GWP) of CH 3 Br. The results give GWPs for CH 3 Br of the order of 13 for an integration period of 20 years and 4 for an integration period of 100 years (assuming C0 2 = 1, following IPCC [1994]). While CH 3 Br has a GWP which is approximately 25 percent of the GWP of CH 4 , the current emission rates are too low to cause serious atmospheric greenhouse heating effects at this time

  9. Brüssel Euroopa pealinnaks? / Ülar Mark

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mark, Ülar, 1968-

    2009-01-01

    Brüsseli Euroopa kvartali planeerimisvõistlusest, mille peakorraldaja oli Brüsseli pealinna piirkond koos Brüsseli linna ja Euroopa Komisjoniga. Eestist osales žüriis arhitekt Ülar Mark. Meeskonna Atelier Christian de Portzamparc võidutööst ja teiste teise vooru pääsenud nelja meeskonna (JDS / Julien De Smedt Architects, OMA / Office for Metropolitan Architecture, Xaveer De Geyter Architect, Fletcher Priest Architects) töödest

  10. Endogenous Sheet-Averaged Tension Within a Large Epithelial Cell Colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbali, Sandeep P; Mei, Lanju; Qian, Shizhi; Maruthamuthu, Venkat

    2017-10-01

    Epithelial cells form quasi-two-dimensional sheets that function as contractile media to effect tissue shape changes during development and homeostasis. Endogenously generated intrasheet tension is a driver of such changes, but has predominantly been measured in the presence of directional migration. The nature of epithelial cell-generated forces transmitted over supracellular distances, in the absence of directional migration, is thus largely unclear. In this report, we consider large epithelial cell colonies which are archetypical multicell collectives with extensive cell-cell contacts but with a symmetric (circular) boundary. Using the traction force imbalance method (TFIM) (traction force microscopy combined with physical force balance), we first show that one can determine the colony-level endogenous sheet forces exerted at the midline by one half of the colony on the other half with no prior assumptions on the uniformity of the mechanical properties of the cell sheet. Importantly, we find that this colony-level sheet force exhibits large variations with orientation-the difference between the maximum and minimum sheet force is comparable to the average sheet force itself. Furthermore, the sheet force at the colony midline is largely tensile but the shear component exhibits significantly more variation with orientation. We thus show that even an unperturbed epithelial colony with a symmetric boundary shows significant directional variation in the endogenous sheet tension and shear forces that subsist at the colony level.

  11. Improved methodology for the affinity isolation of human protein complexes expressed at near endogenous levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanski, Michal; Molloy, Kelly; Jiang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    An efficient and reliable procedure for the capture of affinity-tagged proteins and associated complexes from human cell lines is reported. Through multiple optimizations, high yield and low background affinity-purifications are achieved from modest quantities of human cells expressing endogenous...

  12. Ab Initio Calculations on Halogen Bond Between N-Br and Electron-donating Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-hua; CHEN Xue-song; ZOU Jian-wei; YU Qing-sen

    2007-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of complexes formed between N-bromosuccinimide and a series of electron-donating groups were performed at the level of MP2/Lanl2DZ* to gain a deeper insight into the nature of the N-Br halogen stronger halogen-bonding complex than the C-Br. A comparison of neutral hydrogen bond complex series reveals that the electron-donating capacities of the atoms decrease in the order, N>O>S; O(sp3)>O(sp2), which is adequate for the C-Br halogen bonding. Interaction energies, in conjunction with the geometrical parameters show that the affinitive capacity of trihalide anions X-3 with N-bromosuccinimide are markedly lower than that of the corresponding X- with N-bromosuccinimide, even lower than those of neutral molecules with N-bromosuccinimide. AIM analyses further confirmed the above results.

  13. BR2 mixed core management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsard, B.; Beeckmans, A.

    1997-01-01

    The BR2 fuel cycle management can be optimized by the fabrication and the irradiation of fuel elements with uranium recovered from the reprocessing of BR2 spent fuel. The VIn E fuel performances could be upgraded by increasing the amount of burnable poisons, the fuel mass, the fuel density, ... in order to obtain a higher reactivity effect at a burnup of about β=12% and a longer cycle duration. The preliminary results of the calculations need however to be confirmed by measurements on effective reactor loads. (author)

  14. Palveluprosessi toimivaksi, Case: BR-Lelut

    OpenAIRE

    Korpela, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö on tehty toimeksiantona TOP-TOY A/S –konserniin kuluvalle lelumyymäläketju BR-Leluille Suomessa. Opinnäyte on toteutettu produktiluontoisena ja sen tuloksena on syntynyt Asiakaspalvelun ja myynnin käsikirja BR-Lelujen myymälähenkilökunnalle. Ajatus opinnäytetyölle ja eritoten käsikirjalle syntyi, kun kirjoittaja työskenteli kyseisen myymäläketjun myymälässä ja samanaikaisesti opiskeli erilaisia myyntitekniikoita ammattikorkeakoulussa. Kirjoittaja huomasi, että myyntihen...

  15. A subset of osteoblasts expressing high endogenous levels of PPARgamma switches fate to adipocytes in the rat calvaria cell culture model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yoshiko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding fate choice and fate switching between the osteoblast lineage (ObL and adipocyte lineage (AdL is important to understand both the developmental inter-relationships between osteoblasts and adipocytes and the impact of changes in fate allocation between the two lineages in normal aging and certain diseases. The goal of this study was to determine when during lineage progression ObL cells are susceptible to an AdL fate switch by activation of endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARgamma.Multiple rat calvaria cells within the ObL developmental hierarchy were isolated by either fractionation on the basis of expression of alkaline phosphatase or retrospective identification of single cell-derived colonies, and treated with BRL-49653 (BRL, a synthetic ligand for PPARgamma. About 30% of the total single cell-derived colonies expressed adipogenic potential (defined cytochemically when BRL was present. Profiling of ObL and AdL markers by qRT-PCR on amplified cRNA from over 160 colonies revealed that BRL-dependent adipogenic potential correlated with endogenous PPARgamma mRNA levels. Unexpectedly, a significant subset of relatively mature ObL cells exhibited osteo-adipogenic bipotentiality. Western blotting and immunocytochemistry confirmed that ObL cells co-expressed multiple mesenchymal lineage determinants (runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, PPARgamma, Sox9 and MyoD which localized in the cytoplasm initially, and only Runx2 translocated to the nucleus during ObL progression. Notably, however, some cells exhibited both PPARgamma and Runx2 nuclear labeling with concomitant upregulation of expression of their target genes with BRL treatment.We conclude that not only immature but a subset of relatively mature ObL cells characterized by relatively high levels of endogenous PPARgamma expression can be switched to the AdL. The fact that some ObL cells maintain capacity for adipogenic fate selection even at relatively

  16. Flg22-Triggered Immunity Negatively Regulates Key BR Biosynthetic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Góngora, Tamara; Kim, Seong-Ki; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    In plants, activation of growth and activation of immunity are opposing processes that define a trade-off. In the past few years, the growth-promoting hormones brassinosteroids (BR) have emerged as negative regulators of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), promoting growth at the expense of defense. The crosstalk between BR and PTI signaling was described as negative and unidirectional, since activation of PTI does not affect several analyzed steps in the BR signaling pathway. In this work, we describe that activation of PTI by the bacterial PAMP flg22 results in the reduced expression of BR biosynthetic genes. This effect does not require BR perception or signaling, and occurs within 15 min of flg22 treatment. Since the described PTI-induced repression of gene expression may result in a reduction in BR biosynthesis, the crosstalk between PTI and BR could actually be negative and bidirectional, a possibility that should be taken into account when considering the interaction between these two pathways.

  17. Room-temperature synthesis of pure perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals and their ligand-mediated evolution into highly luminescent CsPbBr3 nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Cong; Yao, Wei; Wang, Hao; Huang, Kaixiang

    2017-07-01

    Currently, all-inorganic cesium lead-halide perovskite nanocrystals have attracted enormous attentions owing to their excellent optical performances. While great efforts have been devoted to CsPbBr3 nanocrystals, the perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals, which were newly reported, still remained poorly understood. Here, we reported a novel room-temperature reaction strategy to synthesize pure perovskite-related Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals. Size of the products could be adjusted through altering the amount of ligands, simply. A mixture of two good solvents with different polarity was innovatively used as precursor solvent, being one key to the high-yield Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals synthesis. Other two keys were Cs+ precursor concentration and surface ligands. Ingenious experiments were designed to reveal the underlying reaction mechanism. No excitonic emission was observed from the prepared Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals in our work. We considered the green emission which was observed in other reports originated from the avoidless transformation of Cs4PbBr6 into CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. Indeed, the new-prepared Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals could transform into CsPbBr3 nanosheets with surface ligands mediated. The new-transformed two-dimensional CsPbBr3 nanosheets could evolve into large-size nanosheets. The influences of surface ligand density on the fluorescent intensity and stability of transformed CsPbBr3 nanosheets were also explained. Notably, the photoluminescence quantum yield of the as-transformed CsPbBr3 nanosheets could reach as high as 61.6% in the form of thin film. The fast large-scale synthesis of Cs4PbBr6 nanocrystals and their ligand-mediated transformation into high-fluorescent CsPbBr3 nanosheets will be beneficial to the future optoelectronic applications. Our work provides new approaches to understand the structural evolution and light-emitting principle of perovskite nanocrystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Kuluttaja-asiakkaiden mielikuva Concept.10-brändistä

    OpenAIRE

    Väisänen, Janna-Mari

    2011-01-01

    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, millainen käsitys Concept.10:n kuluttaja-asiakkailla on brändin eri osa-alueista ja millaisia mielleyhtymiä brändin mainonta, nimi, tunnus ja slogan herättävät. Näillä tekijöillä on vaikutusta kokonaismielikuvan syntymiseen brändistä. Tutkimusongelmana on, millainen mielikuva kuluttaja-asiakkailla on Concept.10-brändistä. Concept.10 toimii yhteisenä markkinointinimenä Mikkelin Puhelin Oyj:n omistamille yhtiöille ja niiden palveluille. Teoreettisessa v...

  19. Endogenous pyrogen-like substance produced by reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, H A; Kluger, M J

    1977-06-01

    1. Injection of lizards (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) with rabbit endogenous pyrogen led to a fever. Injections with denatured endogenous pyrogen did not affect body temperature. 2. Injection of lizards with lizard endogenous pyrogen led to a fever of short duration, while injection of denatured lizard endogenous pyrogen produced no change in body temperature. 3. These data support the hypothesis that the febrile mechanism observed in the higher vertebrates has its origins in some primitive vertebrate.

  20. KBr-Li Br and KBr-LiBr doped with Ti mixed single crystal by Czochralski method and glow curve studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faripour, H.; Faripour, N.

    2003-01-01

    Mixed-single Crystals: pure KBr-LiBr and KBr-LiBr with Ti dopant were grown by Czochralski method. Because of difference between lattice parameters of KBr and LiBr, the growth speed of crystals were relatively low, and they were annealed in a special temperature condition providing some cleavages. They were exposed by β radiation and the glow curve was analysed for each crystal. Analysing of glow curve, showed that Ti impurity has been the curves of main peak curve appearance temperature decreasing

  1. Theoretical investigation of the Te{sub 4}Br{sub 2} molecule in ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfgen, Roman [Mulliken Center for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 4+6, 53115, Bonn (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstr. 34-36, 45413, Muehlheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Holloczki, Oldamur; Ray, Promit; Kirchner, Barbara [Mulliken Center for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Bonn, Beringstr. 4+6, 53115, Bonn (Germany); Groh, Matthias F. [Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, 01062, Dresden (Germany); Ruck, Michael [Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Dresden University of Technology, 01062, Dresden (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Noethnitzer Str. 40, 01187, Dresden (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Material synthesis in ionic liquids, at or near room temperature, is currently a subject of immense academic interest. In order to illuminate molecular-level details and the underlying chemistry, we carried out molecular simulations of a single Te{sub 4}Br{sub 2} molecule dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, as well as in the ionic liquid mixed with aluminum chloride. Although the ethyl side chain is much too short to show detailed microheterogeneity, significant structuring with the small chloride anions is seen in case of the pure ionic liquid. In the case of the mixture, formation of larger anionic clusters is distinctly observed and analyzed. Due to the tendency of ionic liquids to dissociate, there is a pronounced shift to elongated Te-Br distances in both investigated solvents. However, only in the AlCl{sub 3}-containing liquid, we observe the reaction of the open chain-like Te{sub 4}Br{sub 2} molecule to a closed square-like Te{sub 4}Br{sup +} and AlCl{sub 3}Br{sup -} ion. The molecular arrangement of the [Te{sub 4}]{sup 2+} unit shows negligible deviation from that in the experimental crystal structure. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Hurtigste versus mest brændstoføkonomiske ruter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Lahrmann, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Der er stort fokus på at forbedre brændstoføkonomien i transportbranchen generelt. I denne artikel anvendes brændstoftallene fra Controller Area Network Bus (CANBus) kombineret med GPS data til at skabe et digitalt vejkort, hvor det er muligt at sammenligne de hurtigste ruter med de mest brændsto...

  3. CsPb2Br5 Single Crystals: Synthesis and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Dursun, Ibrahim

    2017-08-02

    CsPb2Br5 is a ternary halogen-plumbate material with close characteristics to well-reported halide perovskites. Due to its unconventional two-dimensional structure, CsPb2Br5 is being looked at broadly for potential applications in optoelectronics. CsPb2Br5 investigations are currently limited to nanostructures and powder forms of the material, which present unclear and conflicting optical properties. In this study, we present the synthesis and characterization of CsPb2Br5 bulk single crystals, which enabled us to finally clarify the material\\'s optical features. Our CsPb2Br5 crystal has a two-dimensional structure with Pb2Br5- layers spaced by Cs+ cations, and exhibits a ~3.1 eV indirect bandgap with no emission in the visible spectrum.

  4. Elamusturundus: riigi brändimine ja Eesti bränd / Siiri Same

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Same, Siiri

    2015-01-01

    Artikli autor oma 2015. a. Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis kaitstud doktoritööst "Conceptualization of experience marketing and country branding from a marketing management perspective" ("Elamusturunduse ja riigi brändimise kontseptualiseerimine turunduse juhtimise vaatenurgast")

  5. Endogenous leukotriene formation during anaphylactic shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, A.; Oerning, L.; Bernstroem, K.; Hammarstroem, S.

    1987-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT)C 4 is a biologically active substance, presumed to play major roles as a mediator of allergic and anaphylactic reactions. It is formed e.g. by basophilic and eosinophilic leukocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and mast cells. In cells having IgE receptors, bridging of these by divalent anti-IgE-receptor antibodies or by interaction between receptor-bound IgE and anti-IgE will induce LTC 4 formation. Leukotriene formation has also been demonstrated in other in vitro models of immediate hypersensivity. The biological actions of LTC 4 , comprise induction of airway obstruction, constriction of coronary arteries, hypotension, and plasma extravasation. Leukotriene formation in vivo may mediate anaphylactic shock symptoms and cause the death of an animal. In order to prove the presumed mediator role of this substance in anaphylactic reactions, it is necessary to demonstrate its endogenous formation during shock. Studies on the metabolism of LTC 4 have revealed rapid catabolism by various transformations of the peptide substituent. Recently, three metabolites were demonstrated to be excreted as end-products in man (LTE 4 ,) and the rat (N-acetyl LTE 4 and N-acetyl 11-trans LTE 4 ). By monitoring biliary N-acetyl LTE 4 levels, endogenous leukotriene formation in the rat was demonstrated in vivo after tissue trauma and endotoxin shock. We now wish to report evidence for endogenous leukotriene C 4 production during anaphylactic shock in guinea pigs. 37 refs. (author)

  6. A Role of Endogenous Progesterone in Stroke Cerebroprotection Revealed by the Neural-Specific Deletion of Its Intracellular Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Fréchou, Magalie; Liere, Philippe; Zhang, Shaodong; Pianos, Antoine; Fernandez, Neïké; Denier, Christian; Mattern, Claudia; Schumacher, Michael; Guennoun, Rachida

    2017-11-08

    Treatment with progesterone protects the male and female brain against damage after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). However, in both sexes, the brain contains significant amounts of endogenous progesterone. It is not known whether endogenously produced progesterone enhances the resistance of the brain to ischemic insult. Here, we used steroid profiling by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for exploring adaptive and sex-specific changes in brain levels of progesterone and its metabolites after MCAO. We show that, in the male mouse brain, progesterone is mainly metabolized via 5α-reduction leading to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5α-DHP), also a progesterone receptor (PR) agonist ligand in neural cells, then to 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP). In the female mouse brain, levels of 5α-DHP and 3α,5α-THP are lower and levels of 20α-DHP are higher than in males. After MCAO, levels of progesterone and 5α-DHP are upregulated rapidly to pregnancy-like levels in the male but not in the female brain. To assess whether endogenous progesterone and 5α-DHP contribute to the resistance of neural cells to ischemic damage, we inactivated PR selectively in the CNS. Deletion of PR in the brain reduced its resistance to MCAO, resulting in increased infarct volumes and neurological deficits in both sexes. Importantly, endogenous PR ligands continue to protect the brain of aging mice. These results uncover the unexpected importance of endogenous progesterone and its metabolites in cerebroprotection. They also reveal that the female reproductive hormone progesterone is an endogenous cerebroprotective neurosteroid in both sexes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The brain responds to injury with protective signaling and has a remarkable capacity to protect itself. We show here that, in response to ischemic stroke, levels of progesterone and its neuroactive metabolite 5α-dihydroprogesterone are upregulated rapidly in the male mouse brain but not in the

  7. Antidiabetic and Plasma Endogenous Antioxidant Activity of alstonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alstonia boonei is a well-known plant of medicinal value but its effect on endogenous plasma antioxidant in diabetes remains unknown. Thus, need to investigate the effects of the methanolic extract of the plant on plasma bilirubin and uric acid level in alloxan induced diabetes rabbits. Twenty five rabbits divided into five ...

  8. Endogenous GAS6 and Mer receptor signaling regulate prostate cancer stem cells in bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Decker, Ann M; Wang, Jingcheng; Lee, Eunsohl; Kana, Lulia A; Yumoto, Kenji; Cackowski, Frank C; Rhee, James; Carmeliet, Peter; Buttitta, Laura; Morgan, Todd M; Taichman, Russell S

    2016-05-03

    GAS6 and its receptors (Tryo 3, Axl, Mer or "TAM") are known to play a role in regulating tumor progression in a number of settings. Previously we have demonstrated that GAS6 signaling regulates invasion, proliferation, chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We have also demonstrated that GAS6 secreted from osteoblasts in the bone marrow environment plays a critical role in establishing prostate tumor cell dormancy. Here we investigated the role that endogenous GAS6 and Mer receptor signaling plays in establishing prostate cancer stem cells in the bone marrow microenvironment.We first observed that high levels of endogenous GAS6 are expressed by disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow, whereas relatively low levels of endogenous GAS6 are expressed in PCa tumors grown in a s.c. Interestingly, elevated levels of endogenous GAS6 were identified in putative cancer stem cells (CSCs, CD133+/CD44+) compared to non-CSCs (CD133-/CD44-) isolated from PCa/osteoblast cocultures in vitro and in DTCs isolated from the bone marrow 24 hours after intracardiac injection. Moreover, we found that endogenous GAS6 expression is associated with Mer receptor expression in growth arrested (G1) PCa cells, which correlates with the increase of the CSC populations. Importantly, we found that overexpression of GAS6 activates phosphorylation of Mer receptor signaling and subsequent induction of the CSC phenotype in vitro and in vivo.Together these data suggest that endogenous GAS6 and Mer receptor signaling contribute to the establishment of PCa CSCs in the bone marrow microenvironment, which may have important implications for targeting metastatic disease.

  9. Improved Growth Methods for LaBr3 Scintillation Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective is to develop advanced materials for deployment as high-resolution gamma ray detectors. Both LaBr3 and CeBr3 are advanced scintillation materials, and will be studied in this research. Prototype devices, in collaboration Sandia National Laboratories, will be demonstrated along with recommendations for mass production and deployment. It is anticipated that improved methods of crystal growth will yield larger single crystals of LaBr3 for deployable room-temperature operated gamma radiation spectrometers. The growth methods will be characterized. The LaBr3 and CeBr3 scintillation crystals will be characterized for light yield, spectral resolution, and for hardness.

  10. Interaction between exogenous insulin, endogenous insulin, and glucose in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janukonyté, Jurgita; Parkner, Tina; Bruun, Niels Henrik; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl; Laursen, Torben

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the influence of exogenous insulin and actual glucose levels on the release of endogenous insulin in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. This study investigated the interaction among serum endogenous insulin (s-EI), serum exogenous insulin aspart (s-IAsp), and blood glucose levels in an experimental short-term crossover design. Eight T2DM patients (63.52 years old; range, 49-69 years; mean body mass index, 28.8±3.8 kg/m(2)) were randomized to treatment with individual fixed doses of insulin aspart (0.5-1.5 IU/h) as a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) during a 10-h period on two occasions with different duration of hyperglycemia: (1) transient hyperglycemia for 2 h (visit TH) and (2) continuous hyperglycemia for 12 h (visit CH). During steady state the variances of plasma glucose (p-glucose), s-IAsp, and s-EI were equal within visit TH and within visit CH, but variances were significantly higher during visit CH compared with visit TH. The s-IAsp reached lower levels at visit CH compared with visit TH (test for slope=1, P=0.005). The s-EI depended on p-glucose in a nonlinear fashion during the first 100 min of both visits when s-IAsp was undetectable (adjusted R(2)=0.9). A complex but statistically significant interaction among s-IAsp, s-EI, p-glucose, and patients was observed during measurable s-IAsp levels (adjusted R(2)=0.70). Endogenous and exogenous insulin showed higher variation during continuous hyperglycemia. Significantly lower levels of exogenous insulin were observed following CSII during continuous hyperglycemia compared with transient hyperglycemia. Endogenous insulin levels could in a complex way be explained by an individual interaction among p-glucose and serum exogenous insulin, if present.

  11. High glucose enhances cAMP level and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in Chinese hamster ovary cell: Usage of Br-cAMP in foreign protein β-galactosidase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsien; Lee, Tsung-Yih; Liu, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Glucose is a carbon source for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, while low growth rate is considered to enhance the production of recombinant proteins. The present study reveals that glucose concentrations higher than 1 g/L reduce the growth rate and substantially increase in cAMP (∼300%) at a high glucose concentration (10 g/L). High glucose also enhances the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p27 kip by Western blot analysis. To determine whether the phosphorylation of ERK is involved in the mechanism, a cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H-8) or MEK (MAPKK) inhibitor (PD98059) was added to block ERK phosphorylation. We show that both the high glucose-induced ERK phosphorylation and growth rate return to baseline levels. These results suggest that the cAMP/PKA and MAP signaling pathways are involved in the abovementioned mechanism. Interestingly, the direct addition of 8-bromo-cAMP (Br-cAMP), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, can mimic the similar effects produced by high glucose. Subsequently Br-cAMP could induce β-galactosidase (β-Gal) recombinant protein expression by 1.6-fold. Furthermore, Br-cAMP can additionally enhance the β-Gal production (from 2.8- to 4.5-fold) when CHO cells were stimulated with glycerol, thymidine, dimethyl sulfoxide, pentanoic acid, or sodium butyrate. Thus, Br-cAMP may be used as an alternative agent in promoting foreign protein expression for CHO cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Differential RISC association of endogenous human microRNAs predicts their inhibitory potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Omar; Kennedy, Edward M; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-04-01

    It has previously been assumed that the generally high stability of microRNAs (miRNAs) reflects their tight association with Argonaute (Ago) proteins, essential components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). However, recent data have suggested that the majority of mature miRNAs are not, in fact, Ago associated. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous human miRNAs vary widely, by >100-fold, in their level of RISC association and show that the level of Ago binding is a better indicator of inhibitory potential than is the total level of miRNA expression. While miRNAs of closely similar sequence showed comparable levels of RISC association in the same cell line, these varied between different cell types. Moreover, the level of RISC association could be modulated by overexpression of complementary target mRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the level of RISC association of a given endogenous miRNA is regulated by the available RNA targetome and predicts miRNA function.

  13. La Alpaca -vaatemerkin brändäys

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee brändin vahvistamista ja brändiohjeiston luomista vaa-tealan yritykselle La Alpacalle. La Alpaca on suomalainen vaatemerkki, joka suunnit-telee, tuottaa ja myy alpakanvillasta valmistettuja tuotteita. Materiaalin ainutlaatuisuus ja hienous ovat olleet osa yrityksen identiteettiä alusta asti. Brändin lisäksi työssä on tutkittu kaupankäynnin rakenteellista muuttumista perinteisestä myymälätoiminnasta verkkomyyntiin. Työn tavoitteena on ollut luoda materiaalin tun...

  14. Revision and extension to the analysis of the third spectrum of bromine: Br III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Tauheed, A.

    2015-01-01

    The spectrum of doubly ionized bromine (Br III) has been investigated in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength region. Br 2+ is an As-like ion with ground configuration of 4s 2 4p 3 , thus a 3-electron system possessing a complex structure. The theoretical prediction was made using Cowan's quasi-relativistic Hartree–Fock code with superposition of configurations involving the 4s4p 4 , 4s 2 4p 2 (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s), 4s4p 3 (5p+4f), 4p 4 (4d+5s), 4s 2 4p5s5p, 4s4p 2 (4d 2 +5s 2 ), 4s4p 2 4f 2 configurations for the even parity matrix and the 4s 2 4p 3 , 4s 2 4p 2 (5p+6p+4f+5f) configurations for the odd parity matrix. Several previously reported levels of Br III have been revised, and new configurations have been added to the analysis. The spectrum used for this work was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence spectrograph in the wavelength region of 400–1326 Å using a triggered vacuum spark source. One hundred and two energy levels belonging to the 4s 2 4p 3 , 4s4p 4 , 4s 2 4p 2 (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s +7s) configurations have been established, eighty-six being new. Two hundred and seventy-eight lines have been identified in this spectrum. The accuracy of our wavelength measurements for sharp and unblended lines is ±0.006 Å. The ionization potential of Br III was found to be 281,250±100 cm −1 (34.870±0.012 eV). - Highlights: • The spectrum of Br was recorded on a 3-m grating spectrograph with a triggered spark source. • Most of the known energy levels have been revised and further new configurations have been added. • Superposition-of-configurations calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Radiative weighted oscillator strength (gf) & radiative transition probabilities (gA) were calculated. • Ionization Potential of Br III was determined experimentally

  15. Monte Carlo modelling of the Belgian materials testing reactor BR2: present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboomen, B.; Aoust, Th.; Raedt, Ch. de; Beeckmans de West-Meerbeeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    A very detailed 3-D MCNP-4B model of the BR2 reactor was developed to perform all neutron and gamma calculations needed for the design of new experimental irradiation rigs. The Monte Carlo model of BR2 includes the nearly exact geometrical representation of fuel elements (now with their axially varying burn-up), of partially inserted control and regulating rods, of experimental devices and of radioisotope production rigs. The multiple level-geometry possibilities of MCNP-4B are fully exploited to obtain sufficiently flexible tools to cope with the very changing core loading. (orig.)

  16. Photoelectron Emission Studies in CsBr at 257 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Juan R.; Liu, Zhi; Sun, Yun; Pianetta, Piero A.; Pease, Fabian W.

    2006-01-01

    CsBr/Cr photocathodes were found [1,2] to meet the requirements of a multi-electron beam lithography system operating with a light energy of 4.8 eV (257nm). The fact that photoemission was observed with a light energy below the reported 7.3 eV band gap for CsBr was not understood. This paper presents experimental results on the presence of intra-band gap absorption sites (IBAS) in CsBr thin film photo electron emitters, and presents a model based on IBAS to explain the observed photoelectron emission behavior at energies below band gap. A fluorescence band centered at 330 nm with a FWHM of about 0.34 eV was observed in CsBr/Cr samples under 257 nm laser illumination which can be attributed to IBAS and agrees well with previously obtained synchrotron photoelectron spectra[1] from the valence band of CsBr films

  17. Cinnamaldehyde promotes root branching by regulating endogenous hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Meng; Qi, Zhong-Qiang; Li, You-Qin; Shi, Zhiqi; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamaldehyde (CA) has been widely applied in medicine and food preservation. However, whether and how CA regulates plant physiology is largely unknown. To address these gaps, the present study investigated the beneficial effect of CA on root branching and its possible biochemical mechanism. The lateral root (LR) formation of pepper seedlings could be markedly induced by CA at specific concentrations without any inhibitory effect on primary root (PR) growth. CA could induce the generation of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by increasing the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase in roots. By fluorescently tracking endogenous H2S in situ, it could be clearly observed that H2S accumulated in the outer layer cells of the PR where LRs emerge. Sodium hydrosulfide (H2S donor) treatment induced LR formation, while hypotaurine (H2S scavenger) showed an adverse effect. The addition of hypotaurine mitigated the CA-induced increase in endogenous H2S level, which in turn counteracted the inducible effect of CA on LR formation. CA showed great potential in promoting LR formation, which was mediated by endogenous H2S. These results not only shed new light on the application of CA in agriculture but also extend the knowledge of H2S signaling in the regulation of root branching. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Elastic properties of Cs2HgBr4 and Cs2CdBr4 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kityk, A.V.; Zadorozhna, A.V.; Shchur, Y.I.; Martynyuk-Lototska, Y.I.; Burak, Y.; Vlokh, O.G.

    1998-01-01

    Using ultrasonic velocity measurements, all components of the elastic constant matrix C ij , elastic compliances matrix S ij , and linear compressibility constants matrix K ij of orthorhombic Cs 2 HgBr 4 and Cs 2 CdBr 4 crystals have been determined over a wide temperature range, including the region of the phase transition from the normal to the incommensurate phase. Results obtained are considered within the framework of the phenomenological theory. Preliminary analysis of the acoustical properties at room temperature clearly indicates that both crystals are relatively important materials for acousto-optical applications. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia

  19. Br...Br and van der Waals interactions along a homologous series: crystal packing of 1,2-dibromo-4,5-dialkoxybenzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Sebastián A; Muller, Federico; Gutiérrez Suburu, Matías E; Fonrouge, Ana; Baggio, Ricardo F; Cukiernik, Fabio D

    2016-10-01

    The crystalline structures of four homologues of the 1,2-dibromo-4,5-dialkoxybenzene series [Br 2 C 6 H 2 (OC n H 2n + 1 ) 2 for n = 2, 12, 14 and 18] have been solved by means of single-crystal crystallography. Comparison along the series, including the previously reported n = 10 and n = 16 derivatives, shows a clear metric trend (b and c essentially fixed along the series and a growing linearly with n), in spite of some subtle differences in space groups and/or packing modes. A uniform packing pattern for the aliphatic chains has been found for the n = 12 to 18 homologues, which slightly differs from that of the n = 10 derivative. The crystalline structures of all the higher homologues (n = 10-18) seem to arise from van der Waals interchain interactions and, to a lesser extent, type II Br...Br interactions. The dominant role of interchain interactions provides direct structural support for the usual interpretation of melting point trends like that found along this series. Atoms in Molecules (AIM) analysis allows a comparison of the relative magnitude of the interchain and Br...Br interactions, an analysis validated by the measured melting enthalpies.

  20. Performance evaluation of LaBr3: Ce scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ming; Lin Li; Liu Shihao; Xiao Peng; Xie Qingguo

    2012-01-01

    The cerium doped lanthanum bromide crystal (LaBr 3 : Ce) is a new kind of scintillator with many advantages such as good energy resolution, high light output, short decay time, good proportionality response. These properties make the LaBr 3 : Ce attractive substantial interest to use in the radiation detection. The energy resolution were investigated with Φ25 × 25 mm LaBr 3 : Ce coupled to a Hamamatsu R8900 photomultiplier tube. Energy resolution of 3.6% (FWHM) have been achieved for 511 keV photons ( 18 F source) at room temperature. Decay time constant of 20 ns have been acquired with a Hamamatsu fast-time-response R9800 photomultiplier tube. The results approve the excellent characterizations of LaBr 3 : Ce and imply its enormous potentiality in the radiation detectors of gamma-ray spectroscopy and PET. (authors)

  1. Synthesis and crystal structure determination of Br2SeIBr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    termined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. This compound was ... company and SeBr4 was prepared from the reaction of Se powder (0⋅1 g) with Br2 ... angles of Br2SeIBr and table 4 shows anisotropic displace- ment parameters.

  2. Role of endogenous opioid peptides in the pathogenesis of motion sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasnetsov, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.; Karsanova, S.K.; Medvedev, O.S.; Mokrousova, A.V.; Sabaev, V.V.; Shashkov, V.A.; Tigranyan, R.A.; Vakulina, O.P

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the pathogenesis of motion sickness and the role of the various neurochemical systems of the body in the genesis of the condition. It has been shown that the endogenous opioid system participates in the genesis of several pathological processes; this was the motivation for the study. The plasma beta-endorphin level was determined in samples from 19 clinically healthy males. Considering the positive prophylactic and therapeutic effect of naloxone against motion sickness it can be postulated that endogenous opioid peptides participate in the genesis of the vestibulo-autonomic disorders in motion sickness

  3. Role of endogenous opioid peptides in the pathogenesis of motion sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasnetsov, V.V.; Il' ina, S.L.; Karsanova, S.K.; Medvedev, O.S.; Mokrousova, A.V.; Sabaev, V.V.; Shashkov, V.A.; Tigranyan, R.A.; Vakulina, O.P

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the pathogenesis of motion sickness and the role of the various neurochemical systems of the body in the genesis of the condition. It has been shown that the endogenous opioid system participates in the genesis of several pathological processes; this was the motivation for the study. The plasma beta-endorphin level was determined in samples from 19 clinically healthy males. Considering the positive prophylactic and therapeutic effect of naloxone against motion sickness it can be postulated that endogenous opioid peptides participate in the genesis of the vestibulo-autonomic disorders in motion sickness.

  4. Effect of CPPU on Carbohydrate and Endogenous Hormone Levels in Young Macadamia Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zeng

    Full Text Available N-(2-Chloro-4-pyridyl-N'-phenylurea (CPPU is a highly active cytokinin-like plant growth regulator that promotes chlorophyll biosynthesis, cell division, and cell expansion. It also increases fruit set and accelerates fruit enlargement. However, there has been no report about the effect of CPPU on fruit development and its physiological mechanism in macadamia. In this study, we investigated the effect of CPPU treatment at early fruit development via foliar spray or raceme soaking at 20 mg·L-1 on fruit set and related physiology in macadamia. Changes in carbohydrate contents and endogenous hormones in leaves, bearing shoots and fruit were also examined. Results showed that CPPU significantly reduced young fruit drop and delayed the wave of fruit drop by 1-2 weeks. The treatment significantly decreased the contents of total soluble sugars and starch in the leaves, but increased them in the bearing shoots and total soluble sugars in the husk (pericarp and seeds. These findings suggested that CPPU promoted carbohydrate mobilization from the leaves to the fruit. In addition, CPPU increased the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, gibberellin acid (GA3, and zeatin riboside (ZR and decreased the abscisic acid (ABA in the husk. Therefore, CPPU treatment reduced the early fruit drop by increasing carbohydrate availability and by modifying the balance among endogenous hormones.

  5. Water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent CsPbBr3/CsPb2Br5 core-shell-like structure lead halide perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bo; Song, Pengjie; Cao, Jingyue; Zhao, Suling; Shen, Zhaohui; Gao, Di; Liang, Zhiqin; Xu, Zheng; Song, Dandan; Xu, Xurong

    2017-11-01

    Lead halide perovskite materials are thriving in optoelectronic applications due to their excellent properties, while their instability due to the fact that they are easily hydrolyzed is still a bottleneck for their potential application. In this work, water-resistant, monodispersed and stably luminescent cesium lead bromine perovskite nanocrystals coated with CsPb2Br5 were obtained using a modified non-stoichiometric solution-phase method. CsPb2Br5 2D layers were coated on the surface of CsPbBr3 nanocrystals and formed a core-shell-like structure in the synthetic processes. The stability of the luminescence of the CsPbBr3 nanocrystals in water and ethanol atmosphere was greatly enhanced by the photoluminescence-inactive CsPb2Br5 coating with a wide bandgap. The water-stable enhanced nanocrystals are suitable for long-term stable optoelectronic applications in the atmosphere.

  6. The interactions of multisensory integration with endogenous and exogenous attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jinglong; Shen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli from multiple sensory organs can be integrated into a coherent representation through multiple phases of multisensory processing; this phenomenon is called multisensory integration. Multisensory integration can interact with attention. Here, we propose a framework in which attention modulates multisensory processing in both endogenous (goal-driven) and exogenous (stimulus-driven) ways. Moreover, multisensory integration exerts not only bottom-up but also top-down control over attention. Specifically, we propose the following: (1) endogenous attentional selectivity acts on multiple levels of multisensory processing to determine the extent to which simultaneous stimuli from different modalities can be integrated; (2) integrated multisensory events exert top-down control on attentional capture via multisensory search templates that are stored in the brain; (3) integrated multisensory events can capture attention efficiently, even in quite complex circumstances, due to their increased salience compared to unimodal events and can thus improve search accuracy; and (4) within a multisensory object, endogenous attention can spread from one modality to another in an exogenous manner. PMID:26546734

  7. Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 is important for the degradation of both endogenous and exogenous glucagon in anesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Klarskov, Letty; Olesen, Mette

    2004-01-01

    , a selective NEP inhibitor, on plasma levels of endogenous and exogenous glucagon was examined in anesthetized pigs. Candoxatril increased endogenous glucagon concentrations, from 6.3 +/- 2.5 to 20.7 +/- 6.3 pmol/l [COOH-terminal (C)-RIA, P ...-RIA). This study provides evidence that NEP 24.11 is an important mediator of the degradation of both endogenous and exogenous glucagon in vivo....

  8. Endogenous egg immune defenses in the yellow mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Chris G C; Gallagher, Joe D; Evison, Sophie E F; Heckel, David G; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogel, Heiko

    2017-05-01

    In order to survive microbe encounters, insects rely on both physical barriers as well as local and systemic immune responses. Most research focusses on adult or larval defenses however, whereas insect eggs are also in need of protection. Lately, the defense of eggs against microbes has received an increasing amount of attention, be it through endogenous egg defenses, trans-generational immune priming (TGIP) or parental investment. Here we studied the endogenous immune response in eggs and adults of Tenebrio molitor. We show that many immune genes are induced in both adults and eggs. Furthermore, we show that eggs reach comparable levels of immune gene expression as adults. These findings show that the eggs of Tenebrio are capable of an impressive endogenous immune response, and indicate that such inducible egg defenses are likely common in insects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Shape and phase evolution from CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocubes to tetragonal CsPb2Br5 nanosheets with an indirect bandgap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guopeng; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Zhang, Ting; Song, Zihang; Jiang, Yang

    2016-09-13

    Tetragonal CsPb 2 Br 5 nanosheets were obtained by an oriented attachment of orthorhombic CsPbBr 3 nanocubes, involving a lateral shape evolution from octagonal to square. Meanwhile, the experimental results, together with DFT simulation results, indicated that the tetragonal CsPb 2 Br 5 is an indirect bandgap semiconductor that is PL-inactive with a bandgap of 2.979 eV.

  10. Low-spin structure of 51,35,86Br and 50,36,86Kr nuclei: The role of the g7 /2 neutron orbital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, W.; Sieja, K.; Materna, T.; Czerwiński, M.; Rząca-Urban, T.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.; Bernards, C.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Regis, J.-M.; Thomas, T.; Warr, N.

    2016-10-01

    Low-spin excited levels in 51,35,86Br and 50,36,86Kr, populated following β- decay and the neutron-induced fission of 235U, were measured using the Lohengrin fission-fragment separator and the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the PF1B cold-neutron facility of the Institute Laue-Langevin Grenoble. Improved populations of excited levels in 86Br remove inconsistencies existing in the literature on this nucleus. Directional-linear-polarization correlations, analyzed using newly developed formulas, as well as precise angular correlations allowed the unique 1- and 2- spin and parity assignments to the ground state of 86Br and the 4016.3-keV level in 86Kr, respectively. Based on these results we propose that the Gamow-Teller β- decays of 86Se and 86Br involve the ν g7 /2→π g9 /2 transition in addition to the ν p3 /2→π p3 /2 transition proposed earlier. In 86Kr we have identified 11+, 23+, and 31+ levels, analogous to the mixed-symmetry states in 94Mo, which in 86Kr are from proton excitations, only. Large-scale, shell-model calculations with refined interactions reproduce well excitations in 86Br and 86Kr and support our interpretations.

  11. Reversible light-mediated compositional and structural transitions between CsPbBr3 and CsPb2Br5 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Ruan, Longfei; Shen, Zhitao; Deng, Zhengtao

    2018-03-13

    This communication describes a new method to achieve reversible light-induced chemical composition and phase structural transitions from polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped orthorhombic CsPbBr 3 to tetragonal CsPb 2 Br 5 nanosheets or vice versa. This work will deepen our understanding of the controlled synthesis, post-processing, and decomposition pathway of cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals.

  12. Paysans du Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Temple

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eric Sabourin, « Paysans du Brésil : Entre échange marchand et réciprocité » Paris, Editions Quae, 241p, 30 euros, (préface de Maxime Haubert, 2007Dans la présentation du livre, Maxime Haubert dit :«Cet ouvrage propose une analyse socio-anthropologique et agronomique des sociétés rurales et paysannes du Brésil et des transformations qu'elles ont connues ces dernières décennies, en particulier face aux interventions de l'Etat et à l'expansion du marché capitaliste (.... «Le livre pose d'abor...

  13. Clinical study of the hypothesis of endogenous collateral wind on acute coronary syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian; Zhang, Cong; Yang, Ran; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhao, Huaibing; Li, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), is a serious threat to people's health, and life, and in recent years, the incidence has increased yearly. This study was to propose the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" based on the patho-mechanism of thrombogenesis complicated by ruptured plaque on ACS, and the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Through successful coronary angiography (CAG), and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), patients with coronary artery disease were made the differential diagnosis such as blood stasis, blood stasis due to phlegm obstruction, and endogenous collateral wind. The levels of plasma inflammatory marker were measured to study on the characteristics of "endogenous collateral wind". Luo heng dripping pills with promoting blood circulation to expel wind-evil, and remove wetness were made based on the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" on ACS. Patients with unstable angina were randomly divided into 3, groups based on therapeutic methods: conventional therapy group, Luo Heng dripping pills group and Tongxinluo caps. Differences among groups were compared. There were great changes in number and degree of coronary arteriostenosis confirmed by CAG, the types of ACC/AHA lesion and Levin lesion confirmed by CAG, remodeling index, positive or negative remodeling percentage measured by IVUS, the plasma levels of plasma inflammatory marker measured by ELLSA in the patients with endogenous collateral wind, compared with patients with blood stasis and blood stasis due to phlegm obstruction. The total effective rate of improved angina in Luo Heng dripping pills group was significantly higher than those in other two groups. The levels of plasma inflammatory marker were significantly lower in Luo Heng dripping pills group. There were some pathological basis which were found about the hypothesis of "endogenous collateral wind" on acute coronary syndrome. It provided evidences for patients with coronary artery disease treated by medicines with

  14. Design and implementation of tutorials for PLC B&R Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Sýkora, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá návrhem a realizací úloh pro PLC B&R a podrobným návodem práce v Automation Studio. Obsahuje také informace o firmě B&R Automation Ges. m. b. H. a jejích produktech. Návrh úloh probíhal ve vývojovém prostředí B&R Automation Studio. Praktická úloha na regulaci teploty byla řešena a odzkoušena na B&R PLC X20. This bachelor’s thesis deals with the design and the implementation tutorials for PLC B&R as well as the detailed instructions of work in the Automation ...

  15. [Exploration of the Essence of "Endogenous Turbidity" in Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-rong; Tang, Nong; Ji, Yun-xi; Zhang, Yao-zhong; Jiang, Li; Huang, Gui-hua; Xie, Sheng; Li, Liu-mei; Song, Chun-hui; Ling, Jiang-hong

    2015-08-01

    The essence of endogenous turbidity in Chinese medicine (CM) is different from cream, fat, phlegm, retention, damp, toxicity, and stasis. Along with the development of modern scientific technologies and biology, researches on the essence of endogenous turbidity should keep pace with the time. Its material bases should be defined and new connotation endowed at the microscopic level. The essence of turbidity lies in abnormal functions of zang-fu organs. Sugar, fat, protein, and other nutrient substances cannot be properly decomposed, but into semi-finished products or intermediate metabolites. They are inactive and cannot participate in normal material syntheses and decomposition. They cannot be transformed to energy metabolism, but also cannot be synthesized as executive functioning of active proteins. If they cannot be degraded by autophagy-lysosome or ubiquitin-prosome into glucose, fatty acids, amino acids, and other basic nutrients to be used again, they will accumulate inside the human body and become endogenous turbidity. Therefore, endogenous turbidity is different from final metabolites such as urea, carbon dioxide, etc., which can transform vital qi. How to improve the function of zang-fu organs, enhance its degradation by autophagy-lysosome or ubiquitin-prosome is of great significance in normal operating of zang-fu organs and preventing the emergence and progress of related diseases.

  16. Production of 77 Br for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, M.A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Bromine-77 is produced with the variable energy cyclotron (CV-28) at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, via the 75 As. (α, 2 n) 77 Br reaction, by bombarding arsenic trioxide with 28 MeV alpha-particles. The thick target yield is 0.3 mCi/μAh. The target is dissolved in concentrated N H 4 OH and 77 Br, separated from arsenic, by an anionic exchange resin, is obtained carrier-free with a separation yield greater than 90%. All the process is remotely controlled using electric and pneumatic systems, manipulators and tongs. The quality control is made by atomic absorption and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The present production rate of Br-77 is 2.3 mCi per irradiation. (author)

  17. Probing Endogenous Collagen by Laser Induced Autofluorescence in Burn Wound Biopsies- A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Vijendra; Acharya, Anusha; Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish; Rathnakar, Bharath; Kumar, Pramod; Guddattu, Vasudeva; Mahato, Krishna Kishore

    2018-04-19

    The focus of the current study was to interrogate the predictive potential of laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) by objectively assessing collagen synthesis in burn wound granulation tissues ex vivo. Prior grafting, granulation tissues (20 samples) following burn injury were collected from 17 subjects of age range 18- 60 years with patient/donor consent and the corresponding autofluorescence spectra were recorded at 325 nm He-Cd laser (≈ 2 mW) excitations. The resulting endogenous collagen intensity from the above tissue samples was computed by normalizing the NADH levels. In addition, the hydroxyproline content was also estimated biochemically from the same granulation tissues. A comparative assessment of both LIAF and biochemical estimations for endogenous collagen by hydroxyproline resulted in strong positive correlation among them. The above relevant observations suggest that LIAF is equally informative as that of biochemical estimations, in evaluating endogenous collagen content in wound granulation tissues. Thus, it can be concluded that LIAF has the predictive potential, as a non-invasive objective tool to measure the endogenous collagen levels in wound biopsy tissues and provide complementary data conducive for making clinical decisions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of the LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr/FeS(2) System for Potential Use as a Geothermal Borehole Power Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUIDOTTI, RONALD A.; REINHARDT, FREDERICK W.

    1999-01-01

    We are continuing to study the suitability of modified thermal-battery technology as a potential power source for geothermal borehole applications. Previous work focused on the LiSi/FeS(sub 2) couple over a temperature range of 350 C to 400 C with the LiBr-KBr-LiF eutectic, which melts at 324.5 C. In this work, the discharge processes that take place in LiSi/CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic/FeS(sub 2) thermal cells were studied at temperatures between 250 C and 400 C using pelletized cells with immobilized electrolyte. The CsBr-LiBr-KBr eutectic was selected because of its lower melting point (228.5 C). Incorporation of a quasi-reference electrode allowed the determination of the relative contribution of each electrode to the overall cell polarization. The results of single-cell tests and limited battery tests are presented, along with preliminary data for battery stacks tested in a simulated geothermal borehole environment

  19. Predecommissioning radiological survey of BR3 infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrel, E.

    2006-01-01

    The decommissioning of the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) approaches its final phase, in which the buildings infrastructures are being decontaminated targeting either the reuse or the conventional demolition after denuclearisation. In a PWR with a significant operation lifetime, such as the BR3, maintenance operations, failure and/or leakages, incidents occurring in the different circuits of the plant result in the contamination of the buildings infrastructures at various activity levels with contaminants penetrating/migrating up to several cm inside the material bulk structure. Moreover, the BR3 bioshield has been exposed to rather high neutron leakage fluxes during the reactor operation and is therefore activated. The different radiological situations faced require the implementation of different characterization methodologies based on the use of an adequate combination of measurement devices and/or sampling devices. The non-destructive assay of activation depth using the ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) and a specific spectra analysis protocol has been tested in 2004. The first results obtained were encouraging and the qualification program for activated material is running. We are now investigating the possibilities to extend the methodology to building materials contaminated in-depth with 137 Cs. The overall process of dismantling/denuclearization of the BR3 building infrastructure consists of: (1) a preliminary characterization and determination of the contamination or activation depth; (2) the determination of the decontamination method; (3) the effective decontamination and clean up; (4) a possible intermediate characterization followed by an additional decontamination step; and (5) the characterization for clearance. The more accurate the preliminary survey is performed the less additional control/decontamination cycles are needed to reach clearance levels. The pre-decommissioning characterization process includes a preliminary categorisation (see picture

  20. Is the 'Bromine Explosion' generated from the reaction BrO HO2 alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Wolfgang; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2010-05-01

    We observed bromine explosions (a fast production of atomic Br and Cl under tropospheric conditions) in various smog chamber experiments in Teflon bags at room temperature at a relative humidity of about 80% in the presence of NaCl/NaBr-aerosol, simulated sunlight and ozone (200 - 400 ppb). Time profiles of ozone and hydrocarbons (HCs: n-butane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, tetramethylbutane and toluene, initially about 2 ppb each) were monitored to determine concentrations and source strengths of OH radicals, atomic Cl and Br and the corresponding time profiles of BrCl and Br2 as their photolytic precursors. The number and size of aerosols are measured as well as their chemical composition (Br-, Cl- and oxalic acid). Full records of raw data from the smog chamber runs are available at www.eurochamp.org for potential users. Chemical box model calculations deliver concentrations of various intermediates, such as aldehydes, HO2 and RO2 radicals and the inorganic halogen compounds ClO, BrO, HOCl and HOBr, where HOBr from O3 + Br- => BrO- + O2 in the aqueous/adsorbed phase induces the following gas-phase/ heterogeneous chain reaction Br + O3 => BrO + O2(1) BrO + HO2 => HOBr + O2(2a) HOBr + (Aerosol) => HOBrad(3) Surface-adsorbed HOBr reacts with Br- or Cl- to produce Br2 or BrCl, both of which are released and photolysed. Formation of Br2 should prevail up to Cl-/Br- -ratios of about 104 (Fickert, S., J.W. Adams, J.N. Crowley, J. Geophys. Res., D104, 23719-23727, 1999). A maximum of this ratio is reached about 30 minutes after the beginning and decreases during the next hours - probably by reaction of Br2 with oxalate and absorption of HBr, formed from the reaction of Br with aldehydes. Parallel to chain reaction (1)-(3) a chain reaction replacing Br by Cl seems possible but can not be realized, since the main sink of atomic Cl is its reaction with hydrocarbons - leading to chain termination - in contrast to atomic Br (ratio of rates: kCl[O3]/kCl[HC] ~ 0.1; kBr[O3]/kBr

  1. Facile synthesis of CsPbBr3/PbSe composite clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thang Phan; Ozturk, Abdullah; Park, Jongee; Sohn, Woonbae; Lee, Tae Hyung; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

    2018-01-01

    In this work, CsPbBr 3 and PbSe nanocomposites were synthesized to protect perovskite material from self-enlargement during reaction. UV absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the addition of Se into CsPbBr 3 quantum dots modified the electronic structure of CsPbBr 3 , increasing the band gap from 2.38 to 2.48 eV as the Cs:Se ratio increased to 1:3. Thus, the emission color of CsPbBr 3 perovskite quantum dots was modified from green to blue by increasing the Se ratio in composites. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, the structure of CsPbBr 3 quantum dots changed from cubic to orthorhombic due to the introduction of PbSe at the surface. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy confirmed that the atomic distribution in CsPbBr 3 /PbSe composite clusters is uniform and the composite materials were well formed. The PL intensity of a CsPbBr 3 /PbSe sample with a 1:1 Cs:Se ratio maintained 50% of its initial intensity after keeping the sample for 81 h in air, while the PL intensity of CsPbBr 3 reduced to 20% of its initial intensity. Therefore, it is considered that low amounts of Se could improve the stability of CsPbBr 3 quantum dots.

  2. Estimation of the endogenous N proportions in ileal digesta and faeces in 15N-labelled pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, O.; Bergner, H.

    1987-01-01

    4 castrated male pigs 40 kg fitted with simple 'T' cannulas in the terminal ileum were given 15 N-labelled ammonium salts, added to a low protein diet, for 6 days. Excretion of 15 N in urine and feces was monitored daily throughout the labelling and subsequent experimental periods. During the experimental period the pigs were given a diet based on wheat and fish meal, supplemented with varying levels of partially hydrolyzed straw meal to give crude fiber contents ranging from 40 to 132 g/kg. After adaptation to the particular levels of straw meal, feces and ileal digesta were collected during successive 24 h periods. N digestibility values were determined by the chromium oxide ratio method. The retention of 15 N-labelled non-specific N was 0.46 of the dose given. The validity of using urine values as a measure of 15 N abundance in endogenous N was demonstrated by the similarity of 15 N abundance in urine immediately before slaughter at the end of the experiment and in the digestive secretory organs thereafter. The average amount of endogenous N passing the terminal ileum was 3.4 g/day or 0.30-0.50 of total ileal N flow. This was not affected by dietary fiber level. The proportion of fecal N which was of endogenous origin was similar to that in ileal digesta, suggesting similar utilization of endogenous and residual dietary N by hindgut bacteria. Half the endogenous N entering the large intestine was reabsorbed there. Increasing dietary crude fiber from 40 to 132 g/kg increased fecal endogenous N excretion from 1.3 to 2.0 g/animal and day. (author)

  3. Dissociative multiple photoionization of SiBr4 and GeBr4 in the VUV and X-ray regions: a comparative study of inner-shell processes involving Si(2p, 2s), Ge(3d, 3p, 3s), and Br(3d, 3p, 3s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boo, Bong Hyun; Saito, Norio

    2003-01-01

    Dissociative multiple photoionization of MBr 4 (M=Si, Ge) in the Si(2p, 2s), Ge(3d, 3s, 3p), and Br(3d, 3p, 3s) inner-shell regions has been studied by using time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry coupled to synchrotron radiation in the ranges of 50∼944 eV for SiBr 4 and 50∼467 eV for GeBr 4 . Total photoion and photoion-photoion coincidence (PIPICO) yields have been measured as functions of the photon energy. Here, giant shape resonances have been observed beyond the thresholds of the 3d shells owing to the Br(3d 10 )→Br(3d 9 -f) excitation, showing the similar patterns for both of the systems. The ranges and the intensities of the shape resonances are found to be tremendously broad and enhanced, respectively, by the tetrahedral arrangement of the bromine ligands. In addition to the giant resonances, we have observed discrete features corresponding to the Br(3d), Si(2p), and Si(2s) in SiBr 4 and to the Br(3d), Ge(3p), and Ge(3s) in GeBr 4 . The dissociation processes of multiply charged parent ions have also been evaluated from the variations of photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) and PIPICO yields with the photon energy. Over the entire energies examined, most efficient PIPICO channels involve Br + -Br + , Br + -MBr + , and M + -Br + (M=Si, Ge), the formation of which indicates that the total destruction of the molecules is a dominant process in the dissociative photoionization of the molecules

  4. Pyrolysis studies of PP/PE/PS/PVC/HIPS-Br plastics mixed with PET and dehalogenation (Br, Cl) of the liquid products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskar, Thallada; Kaneko, Jun; Muto, Akinori; Sakata, Yusaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima Naka, 700-8530 Okayama (Japan); Jakab, Emma [Research Laboratory of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 17, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Matsui, Toshiki [Toda Kogyo Co. Ltd., Hiroshima 739-0652 (Japan); Uddin, Md. Azhar [Process Safety and Environment Protection Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2004-08-01

    Pyrolysis of polypropylene (PP)/polyethylene (PE)/polystyrene (PS)/poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/high impact polystyrene with brominated flame retardant (HIPS-Br) plastics mixed with poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was performed at 430C under atmospheric pressure using a semi-batch operation. The presence of PET in the pyrolysis mixture of PP/PE/PS/PVC/HIPS-Br affected significantly the formation of decomposition products and the decomposition behavior of the plastic mixture. We observed the following effects of PET on the pyrolysis of PP/PE/PS/PVC/HIPS-Br mixed plastics: (1) the yield of liquid product decreased and the formation of gaseous products increased; (2) a waxy residue was formed in addition to the solid carbon residue; (3) the formation of SbBr{sub 3} was not detected in liquid products; (4) the yield of chlorinated branched alkanes increased as well as vinyl bromide and ethyl bromide were formed. The use of calcium carbonate carbon composite (Ca-C) completely removed the chlorine and bromine content from the liquid products during PP/PE/PS/PVC/HIPS-Br pyrolysis, however in the presence of PET, the catalytic experiment (Ca-C, 8g) yielded liquid products containing 310ppm of Br and 20ppm of Cl. In addition, the Ca-C increased the yield of liquid products about 3-6wt.%, as well as enhanced the gaseous product evolution and decreased the yield of residue. The halogen free liquid hydrocarbons can be used as a feedstock in a refinery or as a fuel.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle composite with poly(p-Br-phenylsilane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lee, Jun; Mo, Soo-Yong; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Yang, Kap Seung; Kim, Bo-Hye; Lee, Byeong-Gweon; Sohn, Honglae

    2012-05-01

    The one-pot synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle-poly(p-Br-phenylsilane) composites have been carried out. The conversion of silver(+1) salt to stable silver(0) nanoparticles is promoted by poly(p-Br-phenylsilane), Br-PPS possessing both possible reactive Si-H bonds in the polymer backbone and C-Br bonds in the substituents. The composites were characterized using XRD, TEM, FE-SEM, and solid-state UV-vis analytical techniques. TEM and FE-SEM data show the formation of the composites where large number of silver nanoparticles (less than 30 nm of size) are well dispersed throughout the Br-PPS matrix. XRD patterns are consistent with that for fcc-typed silver. The elemental analysis for Br atom and the polymer solubility confirm that the cleavage of C-Br bond and the Si-Br dative bonding were not occurred appreciably at ambient temperature. Nonetheless, TGA data suggest that some sort of cross-linking was occurred at high temperature. The size and processability of such nanoparticles depend on the ratio of metal to Br-PPS. In the absence of Br-PPS, most of the silver particles undergo macroscopic aggregation, which indicates that the polysilane is necessary for stabilizing the silver nanoparticles.

  6. Revised and extended analysis of trebly ionized bromine: Br IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauheed, A; Jabeen, S; Joshi, Y N

    2008-01-01

    The spectrum of Br IV has been studied in the wavelength region 320-1290 A based on the recordings made on a 3-m normal incidence spectrograph at Antigonish Laboratory and on a 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at Zeeman Laboratory, Amsterdam.The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark, respectively. The 4s 2 4p 2 -[4s4p 3 +4s 2 4p (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s)] transition array has been investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF) and least squares fitting (LSF) parametric calculations. Previous analysis has been revised and extended considerably. A value of 1 S 0 level of the ground configuration 4s 2 4p 2 has been found at 33575.5 cm -1 . One hundred and forty-two lines have been classified in this spectrum to establish 61 energy levels out of which 43 are new. The wavelength accuracy of our measurements for sharp lines is ±0.005 A. A revised value of the ionization potential of Br IV has been found to be 385 400±250 cm -1 (47.77±0.03 eV).

  7. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

    1993-09-15

    Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) following intravenous injection; CNTF fever was blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin. The fever induced by CNTF was not due to contaminating endotoxins. Increasing doses of CNTF resulted in prolongation of the fever, suggesting the subsequent induction of additional endogenous pyrogenic activity. After passive transfer of plasma obtained during CNTF-induced fever, endogenous pyrogen activity was not present in the circulation; CNTF also did not induce the endogenous pyrogens interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin 6 in vitro. Nevertheless, a second endogenous pyrogen may originate within the central nervous system following the systemic injection of CNTF. Of the four endogenous pyrogens described to date (interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, interferon, and interleukin 6), CNTF, like interleukin 6, utilizes the cell-surface gp 130 signal-transduction apparatus.

  8. Biology and evolution of the endogenous koala retrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlinton, R; Meers, J; Young, P

    2008-11-01

    Although endogenous retroviruses are ubiquitous features of all mammalian genomes, the process of initial germ line invasion and subsequent inactivation from a pathogenic element has not yet been observed in a wild species. Koala retrovirus (KoRV) provides a unique opportunity to study this process of endogenisation in action as it still appears to be spreading through the koala population. Ongoing expression of the endogenous sequence and consequent high levels of viraemia have been linked to neoplasia and immunosuppression in koalas. This apparently recent invader of the koala genome shares a remarkably close sequence relationship with the pathogenic exogenous Gibbon ape leukaemia virus (GALV), and comparative analyses of KoRV and GALVare helping to shed light on how retroviruses in general adapt to a relatively benign or at least less pathogenic existence within a new host genome. (Part of a multi-author review).

  9. Evaluation of endogenous contamination using hair as biomonitor by K0 parametric neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Neves, Otaviano F.; Batista, Jose R.; Maia, Elene Cristina P.

    2000-01-01

    The environment of the work is an important source of pollutant exposition to human beings. The main goal of this paper is to make a survey of the exposures to metals related to occupational diseases. The hair samples as biomonitors were donated by galvanising factory workers in Belo Horizonte. The samples for a Comparative Group were collected from individuals not exposed to a specific environment. The k 0 -neutron activation analysis was applied on the elemental determination. The Comparative Group presented no significant difference compared to literature. Therefore the very high values exhibited by the Workers' Group suggest endogenous contamination. The GBW09101 'Human Hair' Shangai Institute of Nuclear Research, China, Reference Material was also evaluated presenting good agreement to certified and information values. The elements Ag, Al, As Au, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta, Ti, V and Zn were determined. (author)

  10. Development, Validation, and Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Quantitative Multiplexing Method To Assess Levels of Ten Endogenous Allergens in Soybean Seed and Its Application to Field Trials Spanning Three Growing Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan C; Oman, Trent J; Wang, Xiujuan; Shan, Guomin; Schafer, Barry; Herman, Rod A; Tobias, Rowel; Shippar, Jeff; Malayappan, Bhaskar; Sheng, Li; Xu, Austin; Bradshaw, Jason

    2017-07-12

    As part of the regulatory approval process in Europe, comparison of endogenous soybean allergen levels between genetically engineered (GE) and non-GE plants has been requested. A quantitative multiplex analytical method using tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated to measure 10 potential soybean allergens from soybean seed. The analytical method was implemented at six laboratories to demonstrate the robustness of the method and further applied to three soybean field studies across multiple growing seasons (including 21 non-GE soybean varieties) to assess the natural variation of allergen levels. The results show environmental factors contribute more than genetic factors to the large variation in allergen abundance (2- to 50-fold between environmental replicates) as well as a large contribution of Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 to the total allergen profile, calling into question the scientific rational for measurement of endogenous allergen levels between GE and non-GE varieties in the safety assessment.

  11. Formation of new halogenothiocarbonylsulfenyl halides, XC(S)SY, through photochemical matrix reactions starting from CS2 and a dihalogen molecule XY (XY=Cl2, Br2, or BrCl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobón, Yeny A; Romano, Rosana M; Védova, Carlos O Della; Downs, Anthony J

    2007-05-28

    Isolation of a dihalogen molecule XY (XY=Cl2, Br2, or BrCl) with CS2 in a solid Ar matrix at about 15 K leads, by broad-band UV-vis photolysis (200BrC(S)Cl, BrCCl3, and :CBrCl, the following new molecules have also been identified as products of the various photoreactions: syn-ClC(S)SCl, anti-ClC(S)SCl, syn-BrC(S)SBr, anti-BrC(S)SBr, syn-ClC(S)SBr, anti-ClC(S)SBr, syn-BrC(S)SCl, anti-BrC(S)SCl, ClC(S)S*, BrCS*, and Br*...SCS. The IR spectra of these hitherto unknown species have been interpreted with reference to the predictions of ab initio (HF and MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results are analyzed in relation to the reaction pathways accessed by matrix photolysis.

  12. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  13. Brändin nykytila ja kehityskohtien identifiointi : case: Yritys X

    OpenAIRE

    Leinonen, Joonas

    2017-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on selvittää Yritys X:n brändin nykytila sekä identifioida eli tunnistaa sen heikkoudet sekä ryhmät, joiden keskuudessa brändimielikuva on heikompi. Tarkoituksena on käytännössä tarjota yritykselle osuus brändistrategiasuunnitelmasta, jonka avulla se pystyy keskittämään brändinehostustoimenpiteensä tiettyihin asioihin ja ryhmiin. Opinnäytetyön tutkimus suoritettiin määrällisenä tutkimuksena, sillä tavoitteena oli saada selville suuren yleisön käsitys Yrity...

  14. Features of Cytokine Regulation in Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Depending on Severity of Endogenous Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Todoriko

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions. Comprehensive assessment of integral indices of endogenous intoxication and level of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the blood plasma of patients with MDR TB shows a moderate endogenous intoxication, break down of the cellular component of the immune reactivity due to the formation of conditions for the development of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance, with further growth of cytotoxic hypoxia and activation of systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Analysis of plasma concentration of IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 in patients with multidrug-resistance proved, that their level depends on the nature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance.

  15. Single crystal growth and surface chemical stability of KPb2Br5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuchin, V. V.; Isaenko, L. I.; Kesler, V. G.; Tarasova, A. Yu.

    2011-03-01

    Single crystal of KPb2Br5 has been grown using the Bridgman technique. Initially the synthesis of stoichiometric KPb2Br5 compound was performed from high purity bromide salts. Electronic structure of KPb2Br5 has been determined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for powdered sample fabricated by grinding in air. Drastic chemical interaction of KPb2Br5 with atmosphere has not been detected. Chemical bonding in potassium- and lead-containing bromides is considered using binding energy differences ΔK=(BE K 2p3/2-BE Br 3d) and ΔPb=(BE Pb 4f7/2-BE Br 3d), respectively, as representative parameters.

  16. PbBr3 Perovskite Crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Tzu-Chiao

    2018-01-31

    Researchers have recently revealed that hybrid lead halide perovskites exhibit ferroelectricity, which is often associated with other physical characteristics, such as a large nonlinear optical response. In this work, the nonlinear optical properties of single crystal inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbBr3 are studied. By exciting the material with a 1044 nm laser, strong two-photon absorption-induced photoluminescence in the green spectral region is observed. Using the transmission open-aperture Z-scan technique, the values of the two-photon absorption coefficient are observed to be 8.5 cm GW−1, which is much higher than that of standard two-photon absorbing materials that are industrially used in nonlinear optical applications, such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3), LiTaO3, KTiOPO4, and KH2PO4. Such a strong two-photon absorption effect in CH3NH3PbBr3 can be used to modulate the spectral and spatial profiles of laser pulses, as well as to reduce noise, and can be used to strongly control the intensity of incident light. In this study, the superior optical limiting, pulse reshaping, and stabilization properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 are demonstrated, opening new applications for perovskites in nonlinear optics.

  17. Measurement of BR(Bu to phi K)/BR(Bu to J/psi K) at the collider detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napora, Robert A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents evidence for the decay mode B± → ΦK± in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using (120 ± 7)pb-1 of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). This signal is then used to measure the branching ratio relative to the decay mode B± → J/ΨK±. The measurement starts from reconstructing the two decay modes: B± → ΦK±, where Φ → K+K- and B± → J/ΨK±, where J/Ψ → μ+μ-. The measurement yielded 23 ± 7 B± → ΦK± events, and 406 ± 26 B± → J/ΨK± events. The fraction of B± → J/ΨK± events where the J/Ψ subsequently decayed to two muons (as opposed to two electrons) was found to be fμμ = 0.839 ± 0.066. The relative branching ratio of the two decays is then calculated based on the equation: BR(B± → ΦK±)/BR(B± → J/ΨK±) = N ΦK/NΨK • fμμ BR(J/Ψ → μ+μ-)/BR(Φ → K+K-) ϵμμK/ϵKKK R(ϵiso). The measurement finds BR(B± → ΦK±)/BR(B± → J/ΨK±) = 0.0068 ± 0.0021(stat.) ± 0.0007(syst.). The B± → ΦK± branching ratio is then found to be BR(B± → ΦK±) = [6.9 ± 2.1(stat.) ± 0.8(syst.)] x 10-6. This value is consistent with similar measurements reported by the e+e- collider experiments BaBar[1], Belle[2], and CLEO[3].

  18. Effect of cotyledons and epicotyl upon the activity of endogenous gibberellins in roots of flax (Linum usitatissimum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna M. Janas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 11-day-old flax seedlings, the level of endogenous gibberellins in roots decreased within 12 hours after the excision of cotyledons and the epicotyl; however, 24 to 48 hours after excision the gibberellin level increased again. The decrease in the gibberellin level within the first 12 hours after excision suggests a participation of the cotyledons and the epicotyl in the biosynthesis of endogenous gibberellins.

  19. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting in crossmodal attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxi; Chen, Qi; Gao, Dingguo; Yue, Zhenzhu

    2012-08-01

    Using a cue-target paradigm, we investigated the interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting in cross-modal attention. A peripheral (exogenous) cue was presented after a central (endogenous) cue with a variable time interval. The endogenous and exogenous cues were presented in one sensory modality (auditory in Experiment 1 and visual in Experiment 2) whereas the target was presented in another modality. Both experiments showed a significant endogenous cuing effect (longer reaction times in the invalid condition than in the valid condition). However, exogenous cuing produced a facilitatory effect in both experiments in response to the target when endogenous cuing was valid, but it elicited a facilitatory effect in Experiment 1 and an inhibitory effect in Experiment 2 when endogenous cuing was invalid. These findings indicate that endogenous and exogenous cuing can co-operate in orienting attention to the crossmodal target. Moreover, the interaction between endogenous and exogenous orienting of attention is modulated by the modality between the cue and the target. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  1. Inhibition of hydrogen oxidation by HBr and Br2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon-Lewis, Graham; Marshall, Paul; Ruscic, Branko

    2012-01-01

    O. Ab initio calculations were used to obtain rate coefficients for selected reactions of HBr and HOBr, and the hydrogen/bromine/oxygen reaction mechanism was updated. The resulting model was validated against selected experimental data from the literature and used to analyze the effect of HBr and Br2......The high-temperature bromine chemistry was updated and the inhibition mechanisms involving HBr and Br2 were re-examined. The thermochemistry of the bromine species was obtained using the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach, resulting in improved data for, among others, Br, HBr, HOBr and Br...... on laminar, premixed hydrogen flames. Our work shows that hydrogen bromide and molecular bromine act differently as inhibitors in flames. For HBr, the reaction HBr+H⇌H2+Br (R2) is rapidly equilibrated, depleting HBr in favor of atomic Br, which is the major bromine species throughout the reaction zone...

  2. Decreased Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Generation in Penile Tissues of Diabetic Rats with Erectile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Shao-Gang; Liu, Ji-Hong; Yin, Chun-Ping; Ye, Zhang-Qun

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter. The levels of H2S-generating enzyme expression and endogenous H2S production in diabetic rats with erectile dysfunction (ED) remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the H2S-generating enzymes and endogenous production of H2S in penile tissues of diabetic ED rats. Experimental rats were randomly divided into normal control group, apomorphine (APO)-positive group and APO-negative group. Primary rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle cells (CCSMCs) and aortic endothelial cells (AECs) were isolated and cultured in vitro under 3 different conditions: normal glucose (NG) condition, high glucose (HG) condition, and osmotic control (OC) condition. Erectile function; H2S concentrations in plasma or penile tissues; expression of H2S-generating enzymes and endogenous H2S production in penile tissues, CCSMCs, and AECs. Erectile function was significantly decreasedin the APO-negative group. In addition to significantly decreased expression of cysteine aminotransferase (CAT), d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), the H2S concentrations in plasma and penile tissues and endogenous H2S production were significantly decreased in the APO-negative group. Endogenous H2S production by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) decreased to the same levels in the APO-negative and APO-positive groups as that in the normal control group. However, CBS and CSE expression remained unchanged in the 3 groups. Under HG conditions, H2S-generating enzyme expression in AECs did not change, while CAT, DAO, and 3-MST expression in CCSMCs was significantly decreased. In both cell types, H2S production by these enzymes was decreased in the HG group. Endogenous H2S production was significantly decreased in the diabetic ED rats' penile tissues due to downregulated expression of the CAT/3-MST and DAO/3-MST pathways and low activities of CBS and CSE

  3. Initial clinical evaluation of radiolabeled MX-DTPA humanized BrE-3 antibody in patients with advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, E L; Liebes, L; Wasserheit, C; Noz, M E; Blank, E W; Zabalegui, A; Melamed, J; Furmanski, P; Peterson, J A; Ceriani, R L

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate radiometal-labeled humanized BrE-3 (huBrE-3) monoclonal antibody as a radioimmunolocalization and therapeutic agent in breast cancer patients, tumor localization, pharmacokinetics, radiation dosimetry, and immunogenicity of (111)In-labeled combined 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 3-methyl- and 1-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl 4-methyldiethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (MX-DTPA) huBrE-3 were studied. Seven women with BrE-3 antigen-positive, metastatic breast carcinoma underwent (111)In huBrE-3 infusion (5 mCi; 50 mg), followed by serial gamma camera imaging and plasma sampling. Region of interest analysis of images was used to make radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3. Data were extrapolated to 90Y huBrE-3. Human anti-human antibody (HAHA) response was measured in serum samples obtained up to 3 months after infusion. Patients tolerated infusions well. Seventy-six percent of 105 known sites of disease were identified on planar and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. For six of seven patients, a biexponential model fit the plasma time-activity curve best with an average T1/2alpha=10.6+/-8.5 (SD) h and average T1/2beta=114.2+/-39.2 h. Radiation absorbed dose estimates for (111)In huBrE-3 for whole body averaged 0.53+/-.08 rads/mCi. Dose estimates for 90Y huBrE-3 for marrow averaged 8.4+/-11.9 rads/mCi, and for tumors, 70+/-31.5 rads/mCi. Liver radioactivity uptake averaged 19.7+/-8.8% injected dose at 24 h after infusion, translating into an average radiation absorbed dose 21.1+/-12 rads/90Y mCi administered. Only one of seven patients demonstrated a low level of HAHA response. Although the plasma half-lives are longer and marrow dose higher for radiolabeled huBrE-3 compared with the murine construct, the excellent tumor localization, good tumor dosimetry, and low immunogenicity support the use of 90Y-huBrE-3 antibody for radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer.

  4. Picosecond Water Radiolysis at High Temperature. Br- Oxidation - Experiments and MC-Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchino, G.; Saffre, D.; Jeunesse, J.P.; Schmidhammer, U.; Larbre, J.P.; Mostafavi, M.; Beuve, M.; Gervais, B.

    2012-09-01

    Acidic solutions of bromhydric acid have been irradiated by picosecond pulses of 7 MeV-electrons provided by ELYSE accelerator (LCP Orsay). At elevated temperatures up to 350 deg. C, salts like NaBr or KBr usually precipitate and organic compound are decomposed. Another choice of OH-scavenger may be acidic halogenates like HBr or HCl. In this situation, the processes involving H + and Br - must be considerate: while hydrated electrons are scavenged by H + , . OH reacts with Br - . Then the formations of BrOH . and Br 2 .- have been investigated by using a devoted picosecond pump-probe setup. A dedicated small-size high temperature optical flow cell has been developed for fitting the picosecond duration of the electron pulses. This cell replaces the one used also with nanosecond resolution. The picosecond time resolution remains roughly not affected by the material crossed by electrons (0.4 mm of Inconel 718) and by the white light continuum (20 mm of Sapphire windows and 6 mm of liquid solution). Depending on the concentration of HBr, the growing up of the signal can be attributed to mainly BrOH . or Br2 .- . Actually with a relatively low scavenging power ([HBr] = 25 mM), Br 2 .- is formed with a reaction between Br . and Br - which delays of around 4 ns the apparition of Br2 .- . In this particular case we then assume the absorbance is due to BrOH . . With higher and higher temperature, from 100 deg. C to 300 deg. C, the rate constant of this formation is lightly less and less. This observation must be associated to the fact that the formation of BrOH . is actually equilibrium with a lower and lower equilibrium constant value when temperature is increased. This presentation tries to explain this fact in detail by also considering Monte Carlo simulations. This will allows following all transient species from ps to μs. (authors)

  5. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Villesen, Palle; Nissen, Kari K

    2016-01-01

    factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian...... manner. In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus...

  6. Endogenous price flexibility and optimal monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozge Senay; Alan Sutherland

    2014-01-01

    Much of the literature on optimal monetary policy uses models in which the degree of nominal price flexibility is exogenous. There are, however, good reasons to suppose that the degree of price flexibility adjusts endogenously to changes in monetary conditions. This article extends the standard new Keynesian model to incorporate an endogenous degree of price flexibility. The model shows that endogenizing the degree of price flexibility tends to shift optimal monetary policy towards complete i...

  7. The interactions of multisensory integration with endogenous and exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Jinglong; Shen, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Stimuli from multiple sensory organs can be integrated into a coherent representation through multiple phases of multisensory processing; this phenomenon is called multisensory integration. Multisensory integration can interact with attention. Here, we propose a framework in which attention modulates multisensory processing in both endogenous (goal-driven) and exogenous (stimulus-driven) ways. Moreover, multisensory integration exerts not only bottom-up but also top-down control over attention. Specifically, we propose the following: (1) endogenous attentional selectivity acts on multiple levels of multisensory processing to determine the extent to which simultaneous stimuli from different modalities can be integrated; (2) integrated multisensory events exert top-down control on attentional capture via multisensory search templates that are stored in the brain; (3) integrated multisensory events can capture attention efficiently, even in quite complex circumstances, due to their increased salience compared to unimodal events and can thus improve search accuracy; and (4) within a multisensory object, endogenous attention can spread from one modality to another in an exogenous manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2016-01-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  9. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es. Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3% rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing, and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and

  10. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Therese; Ragu, Sandrine; Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S

    2016-05-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  11. Br2 induced oxidative pore modification of a porous coordination network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Hiroyoshi; Kawano, Masaki

    2016-01-14

    Iodinated pores of a Zn-based coordination network were modified by Br2 oxidation to produce brominated pores in a polycrystalline-to-polycrystalline manner while maintaining the same network topology. Ab initio X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the brominated pore can trap Br2 or I2 by strong σ/π-type interactions. A kinetic study in solution revealed that the pore modification by Br2 oxidation is much faster than the Br2 encapsulation process.

  12. A precise investigation of the 76Br decay for PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, K.; Lister, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A.; Broder, B.; Nickles, R. J.; Ellison, P.; Zhu, S.; Greene, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    Radioisotopes are used in over 14 million medical imaging and therapy procedures each year. New isotopes are constantly introduced to optimize targeting or decay radiation. The dose of internal radiation is calculated from data which in some cases have not been updated for several decades. A thorough investigation of these isotopes using modern technologies and improved analysis techniques is vital to ensure accurate quantification of dose to patients. In this work, we explore the decay of 76Br, a β+ emitter for PET (positron emission tomography), which is used with 77Br for therapy. A sample containing several isotopes of interest, including 76,77Br, was produced at the University of Wisconsin Medical School, shipped to Argonne National Lab, and assayed for 7 days using the Gammasphere detector array, running both analog and digital data acquisition systems simultaneously. More than 6 terabytes of data were collected from the 1MBq source. Analysis of this data set shows new strength to high-lying levels, and allows a reappraisal of the received dose as well as an investigation of count-rate advantages of digital Gammasphere. Supported by US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and No. DE-AC02-98CH10946.

  13. Polymorphism in 2-X-adamantane derivatives (X = Cl, Br).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrier, Philippe; Barrio, María; Tamarit, Josep Ll; Mondieig, Denise

    2014-08-14

    The polymorphism of two 2-X-adamantane derivatives, X = Cl, X = Br, has been studied by X-ray powder diffraction and normal- and high-pressure (up to 300 MPa) differential scanning calorimetry. 2-Br-adamantane displays a low-temperature orthorhombic phase (space group P212121, Z = 4) and a high-temperature plastic phase (Fm3̅m, Z = 4) from 277.9 ± 1.0 K to the melting point at 413.4 ± 1.0 K. 2-Cl-adamantane presents a richer polymorphic behavior through the temperature range studied. At low temperature it displays a triclinic phase (P1̅, Z = 2), which transforms to a monoclinic phase (C2/c, Z = 8) at 224.4 ± 1.0 K, both phases being ordered. Two high-temperature orientationally disordered are found for this compound, one hexagonal (P63/mcm, Z = 6) at ca. 241 K and the highest one, cubic (Fm3̅m, Z = 4), being stable from 244 ± 1.0 K up to the melting point at 467.5 ± 1.0 K. No additional phase appears due to the increase in pressure within the studied range. The intermolecular interactions are found to be weak, especially for the 2-Br-adamantane compound for which the Br···Br as well as C-Br···H distances are larger than the addition of the van der Waals radii, thus confirming the availability of this compound for building up diamondoid blocks.

  14. α-Syntrophin stabilizes catalase to reduce endogenous reactive oxygen species levels during myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jae Yun; Choi, Su Jin; Heo, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hwan Myung; Kim, Hye Sun

    2017-07-01

    α-Syntrophin is a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex that interacts with various intracellular signaling proteins in muscle cells. The α-syntrophin knock-down C2 cell line (SNKD), established by infecting lentivirus particles with α-syntrophin shRNA, is characterized by a defect in terminal differentiation and increase in cell death. Since myoblast differentiation is accompanied by intensive mitochondrial biogenesis, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) is also increased during myogenesis. Two-photon microscopy imaging showed that excessive intracellular ROS accumulated during the differentiation of SNKD cells as compared with control cells. The formation of 4-hydroxynonenal adduct, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation during oxidative stress, significantly increased in differentiated SNKD myotubes and was dramatically reduced by epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a well-known ROS scavenger. Among antioxidant enzymes, catalase was significantly decreased during differentiation of SNKD cells without changes at the mRNA level. Of interest was the finding that the degradation of catalase was rescued by MG132, a proteasome inhibitor, in the SNKD cells. This study demonstrates a novel function of α-syntrophin. This protein plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress from endogenously generated ROS during myoblast differentiation by modulating the protein stability of catalase. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. CeBr3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Paul; Reed, Michael; Yuan Ding; Reed, Alexis; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2009-01-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr 3 ) has become a material of interest in the race for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at room temperature. This investigation quantified the potential of CeBr 3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector. The performance of CeBr 3 crystals was compared to other scintillation crystals of similar dimensions and detection environments. Comparison of self-activity of CeBr 3 to cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr 3 :Ce) was performed. Energy resolution and relative intrinsic efficiency were measured and are presented.

  16. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  17. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system

  18. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  19. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2002-11-01

    This report presents the results of decommissioning cost analyses focusing on discrete working packages within the decommissioning program of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium and comparison of them with cost estimate data for the Aagesta research reactor in Sweden. The specific BR3 work packages analysed were: Primary coolant piping decontamination; Primary coolant piping dismantling; Vulcain reactor internals dismantling; Westinghouse reactor internals dismantling; Reactor vessel dismantling. The main conclusions to be drawn from the analyses are that: The fixed costs related to decontamination and dismantling activities generally are a very important part of the overall resources needed to execute the work, with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) seemingly being significantly more demanding than other major components. Cutting activities tend to need something like 150 to 200 labour hours per m 2 of reactor equipment dismantled. Fixed investment costs to set up the equipment needed to cut up major vessels or internals appear to be in the range of MSEK 4 to 8. Consumables costs vary according to the nature of the equipment being dismantled. The thicker the metal being cut, the higher the attrition rate for things such as cutting blades. The range of consumables costs at BR3 have been in the range of MSEK 0.1 to 0.2/m 2 dismantled. The extent of detailed information available in the 1996 Aagesta estimate is not sufficient to enable a full comparison with the BR3 decommissioning results. A global first comparison has been attempted by summing the resources expended on the BR3 work packages described in this report with the combined dismantling data presented in the 1996 Aagesta cost estimate report. Very broadly the cost of decontamination plus dismantling of the main process equipment at Aagesta appears to be in the order of MSEK 70, of which MSEK 4 is labour on preparatory/planning work, MSEK 40 is labour on actual decontamination and dismantling and MSEK 25 is

  20. Structure and bonding of transition metal-boryl compounds. Theoretical study of [(PH3)2(CO)ClOs-BR2] and [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] (BR2 = BH2, BF2, B(OH)2, B(OCH=CHO), Bcat).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giju, K T; Bickelhaupt, F M; Frenking, G

    2000-10-16

    Quantum chemical DFT calculations using the B3LYP functionals have been carried out for the electronically unsaturated 16 VE five-coordinate osmium boryl-complexes [(PH3)2(CO)ClOs-BR2] and the 18 VE six-coordinate complexes [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] with BR2 = BH2, BF2, B(OH)2, B(OHC=CHO), and Bcat (cat = catecholate O2C6H4). The bonding situation of the Os-BR2 bond was analyzed with the help of the NBO partitioning scheme. The Os-B bond dissociation energies of the 16 VE complexes are very high, and they do not change very much for the different boryl ligands. The 18 VE complexes have only slightly lower bond energies than the 16 VE species. The Os-B bond in both classes of compounds is provided by a covalent sigma-bond which is polarized toward osmium and by strong charge attraction. Os-->B pi-donation is not important for the Os-B binding interactions, except for the Os-BH2 complexes. The stability of the boryl complexes [Os]-BR2 comes mainly from BB pi-donation. The intraligand charge distribution of the BR2 group changes little when the Os-B bond is formed, except for BH2. The CO ligand in [(PH3)2(CO)2ClOs-BR2] which is trans to BR2 has a relatively weak bond to the osmium atom.

  1. A theoretical investigation of Brønsted acids chemisorption on ZnO(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarin, Maurizio; Maccato, Chiara; Tondello, Eugenio; Vittadini, Andrea

    1995-12-01

    Density functional theory coupled to the molecular cluster approach has been used to investigate the chemisorption of simple Brønsted acids (H 2O, H 2S and HCN) on the ZnO(0001) polar surface. Geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies for species molecularly and dissociatively chemisorbed have been computed. The agreement with experimental measurements, when available, has been found to be very good. The nature of the bonding between the conjugate base of each examined Brønsted acid and the Lewis acid site on the investigated surface has been thoroughly discussed. In particular, it has been elucidated the role played by the interaction between completely occupied levels in determining the actual chemisorption geometry. Enthalpy variations associated to titration displacement reactions have been evaluated, confirming the leading role played by the bonding between the Brønsted conjugate base anions and the Lewis acid site available on the surface in determining the actual relative acidity scale. The strength of this interaction follows the order OH - ≈ CN ->SH -.

  2. Endogenous hydrogen peroxide production in the epithelium of the developing embryonic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhasree; Rajakaruna, Suren; Dickinson, Bryan C; Chang, Christopher J; Menko, A Sue

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an endogenously produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) present in a variety of mammalian systems. This particular ROS can play dichotomous roles, being beneficial in some cases and deleterious in others, which reflects the level and location of H2O2 production. While much is known about the redox regulation of ROS by antioxidant and repair systems in the lens, little is known about the endogenous production of H2O2 in embryonic lens tissue or the physiologic relevance of endogenous H2O2 to lens development. This gap in knowledge exists primarily from a lack of reagents that can specifically detect endogenous H2O2 in the intact lens. Here, using a recently developed chemoselective fluorescent boronate probe, peroxyfluor-6 acetoxymethyl ester (PF6-AM), which selectively detects H2O2 over related ROS, we examined the endogenous H2O2 signals in the embryonic lens. Embryonic day 10 chick whole lenses in ex vivo organ culture and lens epithelial cells in primary culture were loaded with the H2O2 probe PF6-AM. To determine the relationship between localization of mitochondria with active membrane potential and the region of H2O2 production in the lens, cells were exposed to the mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Red CMXRos together with PF6-AM. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a flavin inhibitor that blocks generation of intracellular ROS production, was used to confirm that the signal from PF6-AM was due to endogenous ROS production. All imaging was performed by live confocal microscopy. PF6-AM detected endogenous H2O2 in lens epithelial cells in whole lenses in ex vivo culture and in lens epithelial cells grown in primary culture. No endogenous H2O2 signal could be detected in differentiating lens fiber cells with this probe. Treatment with DPI markedly attenuated the fluorescence signal from the peroxide-specific probe PF6-AM in the lens epithelium, suggesting that basal generation of ROS occurs in this region. The lens epithelial cells producing an

  3. Magnetic diagnostic plasma position in the TCA/BR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, R.M.O.; Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Nascimento, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The cross-section of the plasma column is TCA/BR has a nearly circular plasma shape. This allows implementation of simplified methods of magnetic diagnostics. Although these methods were in may tokamaks and are well described, their accuracies are not clearly defined because the very simplified theoretical model of plasma equilibrium on which they are based differs from the real conditions in tokamaks like TCA/BR. In this paper we present the methods of plasma position diagnostics in TCA/BR from external magnetic measurements with an error analysis. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  4. Activation of endogenous opioid gene expression in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts by pulsed radiofrequency energy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffett J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available John Moffett,1 Linley M Fray,1 Nicole J Kubat21Life Science Department, 2Independent Consultant, Regenesis Biomedical Inc, Scottsdale, AZ, USABackground: Pulsed radiofrequency energy (PRFE fields are being used increasingly for the treatment of pain arising from dermal trauma. However, despite their increased use, little is known about the biological and molecular mechanism(s responsible for PRFE-mediated analgesia. In general, current therapeutics used for analgesia target either endogenous factors involved in inflammation, or act on endogenous opioid pathways.Methods and Results: Using cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDF and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK, we investigated the effect of PRFE treatment on factors, which are involved in modulating peripheral analgesia in vivo. We found that PRFE treatment did not inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme activity, but instead had a positive effect on levels of endogenous opioid precursor mRNA (proenkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, prodynorphin and corresponding opioid peptide. In HEK cells, increases in opioid mRNA were dependent, at least in part, on endothelin-1. In HDF cells, additional pathways also appear to be involved. PRFE treatment was also followed by changes in endogenous expression of several cytokines, including increased levels of interleukin-10 mRNA and decreased levels of interleukin-1β mRNA in both cell types.Conclusion: These findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying PRFE-mediated analgesia reported in the clinical setting.Keywords: peripheral analgesia, endogenous opioids, endothelin-1, endothelin receptor A, endothelin receptor B, pulsed radiofrequency energy field, cyclooxygenase

  5. CsPbBr3 perovskites: Theoretical and experimental investigation on water-assisted transition from nanowire formation to degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbali, B.; Topcu, G.; Guner, T.; Ozcan, M.; Demir, M. M.; Sahin, H.

    2018-03-01

    Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have led to an increased research focus on halide perovskites. Due to the highly ionic crystal structure of perovskite materials, a stability issue pops up, especially against polar solvents such as water. In this study, we investigate water-driven structural evolution of CsPbBr3 by performing experiments and state-of-the-art first-principles calculations. It is seen that while an optical image shows the gradual degradation of the yellowish CsPbBr3 structure under daylight, UV illumination reveals that the degradation of crystals takes place in two steps: transition from a blue-emitting to green-emitting structure and and then a transition from a green-emitting phase to complete degradation. We found that as-synthesized CsPbBr3 nanowires (NWs) emit blue light under a 254 nm UV source. Before the degradation, first, CsPbBr3 NWs undergo a water-driven structural transition to form large bundles. It is also seen that formation of such bundles provides longer-term environmental stability. In addition theoretical calculations revealed the strength of the interaction of water molecules with ligands and surfaces of CsPbBr3 and provide an atomistic-level explanation to a transition from ligand-covered NWs to bundle formation. Further interaction of green-light-emitting bundles with water causes complete degradation of CsPbBr3 and the photoluminescence signal is entirely quenched. Moreover, Raman and x-ray-diffraction measurements revealed that completely degraded regions are decomposed to PbBr2 and CsBr precursors. We believe that the findings of this study may provide further insight into the degradation mechanism of CsPbBr3 perovskite by water.

  6. Endogenous hormones in postmenopausal females with breast cancer--before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, Aniljeet S; Arora, Megha K; Seth, Shashi; Chauhan, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is usually present for many years (as long as 5-10 years) before it can be clinically diagnosed (theory of the 'dormant malignant cell'). This implies that breast cancer cells, during their subclinical period, are likely to have been exposed for a considerable time to endogenous sex hormones and endogenous hormonal milieu predicts the chances of breast cancer in females. So, we planned this study to evaluate the role of endogenous hormones in postmenopausal females excluding the patients on hormone replacement therapy as the relationship between breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy is well known. Hormone therapy is known to affect these hormone levels but whether treatment of breast cancer per se also decreases the hormone levels is not known. We planned the present study to determine hormone levels in patients before and after 4 months of treatment (chemotherapy/surgery and radiotherapy). Circulating hormone levels were measured using a chemiluminescence method. Their results were compared with a group of 25 age matched healthy controls. We found that serum prolactin, testosterone and estrogen levels were very significantly higher in patients before treatment (Group I) as compared to controls (Group III). Serum prolactin and serum estrogen levels were significantly higher and serum testosterone was very significantly higher in patients before treatment (Group I) when compared after 4 months of treatment (Group II). Only serum estrogen levels were significantly high in patients after treatment (Group II) as compared to controls (Group III). Serum progesterone levels showed no significant difference to any of the groups. We concluded that postmenopausal females with breast cancer have abnormalities in hormone levels. These abnormalities may be considered in the pathogenesis of the disease and should be taken into account in the treatment of patients of breast cancer. It might also be helpful to delay the onset of cancer by normalizing the

  7. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    This report presents the results of decommissioning cost analyses focusing on discrete working packages within the decommissioning program of the BR3 reactor in Mol, Belgium and comparison of them with cost estimate data for the Aagesta research reactor in Sweden. The specific BR3 work packages analysed were: Primary coolant piping decontamination; Primary coolant piping dismantling; Vulcain reactor internals dismantling; Westinghouse reactor internals dismantling; Reactor vessel dismantling. The main conclusions to be drawn from the analyses are that: The fixed costs related to decontamination and dismantling activities generally are a very important part of the overall resources needed to execute the work, with the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) seemingly being significantly more demanding than other major components. Cutting activities tend to need something like 150 to 200 labour hours per m{sup 2} of reactor equipment dismantled. Fixed investment costs to set up the equipment needed to cut up major vessels or internals appear to be in the range of MSEK 4 to 8. Consumables costs vary according to the nature of the equipment being dismantled. The thicker the metal being cut, the higher the attrition rate for things such as cutting blades. The range of consumables costs at BR3 have been in the range of MSEK 0.1 to 0.2/m{sup 2} dismantled. The extent of detailed information available in the 1996 Aagesta estimate is not sufficient to enable a full comparison with the BR3 decommissioning results. A global first comparison has been attempted by summing the resources expended on the BR3 work packages described in this report with the combined dismantling data presented in the 1996 Aagesta cost estimate report. Very broadly the cost of decontamination plus dismantling of the main process equipment at Aagesta appears to be in the order of MSEK 70, of which MSEK 4 is labour on preparatory/planning work, MSEK 40 is labour on actual decontamination and dismantling and MSEK

  8. Physical adsorption and charge transfer of molecular Br2 on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheyuan; Darancet, Pierre; Wang, Lei; Crowther, Andrew C; Gao, Yuanda; Dean, Cory R; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Hone, James; Marianetti, Chris A; Brus, Louis E

    2014-03-25

    We present a detailed study of gaseous Br2 adsorption and charge transfer on graphene, combining in situ Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). When graphene is encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers on both sides, in a h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwich structure, it is protected from doping by strongly oxidizing Br2. Graphene supported on only one side by h-BN shows strong hole doping by adsorbed Br2. Using Raman spectroscopy, we determine the graphene charge density as a function of pressure. DFT calculations reveal the variation in charge transfer per adsorbed molecule as a function of coverage. The molecular adsorption isotherm (coverage versus pressure) is obtained by combining Raman spectra with DFT calculations. The Fowler-Guggenheim isotherm fits better than the Langmuir isotherm. The fitting yields the adsorption equilibrium constant (∼0.31 Torr(-1)) and repulsive lateral interaction (∼20 meV) between adsorbed Br2 molecules. The Br2 molecule binding energy is ∼0.35 eV. We estimate that at monolayer coverage each Br2 molecule accepts 0.09 e- from single-layer graphene. If graphene is supported on SiO2 instead of h-BN, a threshold pressure is observed for diffusion of Br2 along the (somewhat rough) SiO2/graphene interface. At high pressure, graphene supported on SiO2 is doped by adsorbed Br2 on both sides.

  9. Synthetic mRNA devices that detect endogenous proteins and distinguish mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shunsuke; Fujita, Yoshihiko; Nagaike, Takashi; Tomita, Kozo; Saito, Hirohide

    2017-07-07

    Synthetic biology has great potential for future therapeutic applications including autonomous cell programming through the detection of protein signals and the production of desired outputs. Synthetic RNA devices are promising for this purpose. However, the number of available devices is limited due to the difficulty in the detection of endogenous proteins within a cell. Here, we show a strategy to construct synthetic mRNA devices that detect endogenous proteins in living cells, control translation and distinguish cell types. We engineered protein-binding aptamers that have increased stability in the secondary structures of their active conformation. The designed devices can efficiently respond to target proteins including human LIN28A and U1A proteins, while the original aptamers failed to do so. Moreover, mRNA delivery of an LIN28A-responsive device into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) revealed that we can distinguish living hiPSCs and differentiated cells by quantifying endogenous LIN28A protein expression level. Thus, our endogenous protein-driven RNA devices determine live-cell states and program mammalian cells based on intracellular protein information. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Characterisation of Population Pharmacokinetics and Endogenous Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Levels after Multiple Dosing of a Recombinant Human FSH, FE 999049, in Healthy Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Trine Høyer; Röshammer, Daniel; Erichsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    : Longitudinal measurements of FSH, luteinising hormone, progesterone, estradiol, and inhibin B levels were collected after repeated subcutaneous dosing with 225 IU of FE 999049 in 24 gonadotropin downregulated healthy women. The FSH data were described using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Results...... increased with body weight in accordance with an allometrically scaled power exponent of 0.75 and 1, respectively. Endogenous FSH levels were lower in individuals with higher progesterone levels at baseline and were further suppressed over time with increasing inhibin B levels. Conclusions......: This characterisation of FE 999049 population pharmacokinetics after repeated dosing is in line with previous findings after single-dose administration. The results provide a basis for study design and data evaluation in the future development of recombinant FSH products, and show it can be of importance to account...

  11. Essentially Trap-Free CsPbBr3 Colloidal Nanocrystals by Postsynthetic Thiocyanate Surface Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscher, Brent A; Swabeck, Joseph K; Bronstein, Noah D; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2017-05-17

    We demonstrate postsynthetic modification of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals by a thiocyanate salt treatment. This treatment improves the quantum yield of both freshly synthesized (PLQY ≈ 90%) and aged nanocrystals (PLQY ≈ 70%) to within measurement error (2-3%) of unity, while simultaneously maintaining the shape, size, and colloidal stability. Additionally, the luminescence decay kinetics transform from multiexponential decays typical of nanocrystalline semiconductors with a distribution of trap sites, to a monoexponential decay, typical of single energy level emitters. Thiocyanate only needs to access a limited number of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystal surface sites, likely representing under-coordinated lead atoms on the surface, in order to have this effect.

  12. Endogenous money: the evolutionary versus revolutionary views

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Rochon; Sergio Rossi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the endogenous nature of money. Contrary to the established post-Keynesian, or evolutionary, view, this paper argues that money has always been endogenous, irrespective of the historical period. Instead of the evolutionary theory of money and banking that can be traced back to Chick (1986), this paper puts forward a revolutionary definition of endogenous money consistent with many aspects of post-Keynesian economics as well as with the monetary ci...

  13. Pulse radiolysis of LiBr-KBr melts. Optical transient absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawamura, S.; Gebicki, J.L.; Mayer, J.; Kroh, J.

    1990-01-01

    Absorption spectra of the irradiated melts of LiBr and LiBr-KBr mixtures were investigated in the temperature range 673-873 K by nanosecond pulse radiolysis. The visible band ascribed to e s - shows the apparent shift towards longer wavelengths with increasing temperature and increasing content of KBr in the mixture. The UV transient absorption was attributed to superimposed Br 2 - and Br 3 - bands. The relation between the transition energy of visible band and the inverse mean ion distance is given for alkali bromide and chloride systems. (author)

  14. The 2015 European Thyroid Association Guidelines on Diagnosis and Treatment of Endogenous Subclinical Hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Bartalena, Luigi; Cooper, David S

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (SHyper) is caused by Graves' disease, autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and multinodular goitre. Its diagnosis is based on a persistently subnormal serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level with free thyroid hormone levels within their respective...

  15. Endogeneity and Specialization in the European Monetary Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a broad discussion about the viability of the European Monetary Union (EMU in its present and prospective confines. Generally, the EMU, consisting of 19 countries, is not considered an optimal currency area due to low labor market flexibility, autonomous fiscal policies, and structural differences among its members. Considerations about the endogeneity effect of currency unions lead to the question whether the EMU will become more viable over time. According to the endogenity hypothesis formulated by Frankel and Rose [1996, 2000], a common currency area may gradually become an optimal currency area at some future point (ex post unification, despite not having been an optimal currency area (OCA prior to (ex ante currency unification. Currency unification should bring about increased intra-industry trade and greater business cycle synchronization among member states. The most recent literature and analyses presented in this paper suggest that the endogenity effect in the EMU has been frail since its onset. While real convergence between EMU member states has not advanced, divergence in i.a. economic structures, national income and productivity levels is observed. The most important economic mechanisms reinforcing convergence and divergence among monetary union members are presented in this paper. Using recent data and related research results, we show a significant divergence in economic structures, business cycle synchronization and productivity levels among Eurozone members in the last decade. The Krugman sectorial dissimilarity index is applied to measure changes in industrial similarity among member countries and the Hodrick-Prescott filter to estimate business cycle synchronization in the EMU. These divergence tendencies have been strengthened by the global financial crisis of 2008 and persist, calling for reforms and new policies within the EMU.

  16. Determination of cyanide by an indirect spectrophotometric method using 5-Br-PADAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-Sheng, W; Yu-Qin, L; Fang, Y; Nai-Kui, S

    1981-09-01

    Complexation of Ni(2+) with cyanide inhibits its colour reaction with 5-Br-PADAP and this reaction is used in the spectrophotometric determination of cyanide at the ug level. Cyanide in industrial waste waters is determined after an initial transfer as hydrogen cyanide from the sample into sodium hydroxide solution with a stream of air.

  17. Structure determination of K2ZnBr4 at 291 and 144 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, J.; Breczewski, T.; Zuniga, F.J.; Arnaiz, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The room-temperature phase of K 2 ZnBr 4 is isomorphous with Sr 2 GeS 4 (P2 1 /m) while the low-temperature structure (P2 1 ) is slightly distorted [the phase transition occurs at 155 K]. Both structures contain highly deformed tetrahedral [ZnBr 4 ] 2- molecules with Br(3)-Zn-Br(3') angles of 103.06(5) and 102.49(9) at 291 and 144 K, respectively. This distortion is caused by the repulsion of Br atoms whose distance 3.712(1) and 3.661(2) A at 291 and 144 K, respectively, is below the Br-Br van der Waals distance (3.9 A). The phase transition is accompanied by minor shifts of cations and [ZnBr 4 ] 2- tetrahedra which are simultaneously rotated about a small angle. Below the phase transition point an inversion twin develops whose twin-fraction parameter was refined to 0.459(65). (orig.)

  18. Be quick about it. Endogenous estradiol level, menstrual cycle phase and trait impulsiveness predict impulsive choice in the context of reward acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and Cognition". Variations in the steroid hormone 17ß-estradiol (E2) may promote intra-individual differences in reward seeking behavior and temporal decision-making (Reimers et al., 2014; Front. Neurosci. 8: 401). Yet, in humans the exact role of E2 in impulsive choice still needs to be determined. The present study assessed the effect of a cycle-dependent rise in endogenous E2 on temporal response adaptation across the follicular phase (FP). For this purpose a reward acquisition paradigm was employed that is sensitive to hormone-induced changes in central dopamine (DA) level. The present data show that women acted more impulsively in the early as opposed to the late FP. Early follicular E2 further correlated with an increased capacity to speed up for reward maximization, while simultaneously the ability to wait for higher reward was compromised. This correlation was most pronounced in women with low trait impulsiveness. In contrast, E2 and optimized response speed failed to correlate in women with high trait impulsiveness and in the late FP, despite a generally higher E2 level. Collectively, these findings support the theory that E2 may act as an endogenous DA agonist. The fact that the hormone-behavior relationship was restricted to women with low trait impulsiveness and thus supposedly lower central DA level provides indirect support for this idea. Yet, choices became relatively less impulsive in the state of heightened E2 (i.e., in the late FP), suggesting that the relationship between E2 and impulsive choice may not be linear, but might resemble an inverted U-function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonadiabatic quantum dynamics and laser control of Br2 in solid argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, A; Borowski, A; Kühn, O

    2009-07-02

    A five-dimensional reaction surface-vibronic coupling model is introduced to describe the B- to C-state predissociation dynamics of Br(2) occupying a double substitutional lattice site in a face-centered cubic argon crystal at low temperatures. The quantum dynamics driven by a Franck-Condon vertical excitation is investigated, revealing the role of matrix cage compression for efficient nonadiabatic transitions. Vibrational preexcitation of the Br(2) bond in the electronic ground state can be used to access a different regime of predissociation which does not require substantial matrix compression because the Franck-Condon window shifts into the energetic range of the B-C level crossing. Using optimal control theory, it is shown how vibrational preexcitation can be achieved via a pump-dump-type mechanism involving the repulsive C state.

  20. Kan lignin omdannes til flydende brændstof?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim Bachmann; Jensen, Anders; Felby, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Ved en solvolytisk omdannelse af plantematerialet lignin til et flydende brændstof behandles det ved høj temperatur og højt tryk i et passende opløsningsmiddel. En sådan proces kan gennemføres ikke-katalytisk og være med til at skabe flydende brændsler baseret på vedvarende energikilder. Her...

  1. Endogenous Peer Effects: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ryan; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine endogenous peer effects, which occur when a student's behavior or outcome is a function of the behavior or outcome of his or her peer group. Endogenous peer effects have important implications for educational policies such as busing, school choice and tracking. In this study, the authors quantitatively review the literature on…

  2. Facile synthesis and characterization of CsPbBr3 and CsPb2Br5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-23

    Mar 23, 2018 ... All-inorganic caesium lead-halide perovskite CsPbBr3 and ... optoelectronic materials owing to their stabilities and highly efficient photoluminescence (PL). ... chemical tenability [2], hybrid organic–inorganic lead halide-.

  3. Simple radiosensitizing of hypoxic tumor tissues by N2O/Br(-) mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billik, P

    2015-07-01

    The radiosensitization model of hypoxic tumor tissues based on the N2O/Br(-) mixture is described. The well-documented radiolysis of water in the presence of N2O and Br(-) ions at a low concentration supports this model. An aqueous solution saturated with N2O gas during the radiolysis generates OH radicals in a large extent. In N2O/Br- media at pHBr2 is formed. Br2 hydrolyzes in an aqueous solution to form a very reactive hypobromous (HOBr) acid. Such process is described by the following chemical reaction: H2O + Br(-) + N2O + ionizing radiation (IR) --> HOBr + OH(-). In vivo formed HOBr as a long-lived product with a high biological activity induces the hypoxic tumor cell damage via many unique mechanisms. A local application or inhalation of an N2O-O2 mixture before or during the radiotherapy to enhance the saturation of tissues with N2O is a key prerequisite. Since the extracellular concentration of Br(-) ions is very low (0.02-0.05 mM), an oral or local application of NaBr should be used to shift the extracellular concentration of Br(-) ions to the mM region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bromide (Br)--Based Synthesis of Ag Nanocubes with High-Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Wang, Wenhui; Xu, Zhongfeng; Li, Fuli

    2015-06-09

    The geometry of metal nanoparticles greatly affects the properties of the localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The synthesis of metal nanoparticles with controllable geometry has thus attracted extensive attentions. In this work, we report a modified polyol synthesis approach of silver (Ag) nanocubes through tuning the concentration of bromide ions (Br(-) ions). We have systematically investigated the effect of Br(-) ions in the polyol process, and find that higher concentration of Br(-) ions can enhance oxidative etching effect, which is the dominative factor in determining nanostructure geometry. Therefore, one can realize control over nanostructure geometry by manipulating the concentration of Br(-) ions. Our work provides an effective approach to control the shape of metallic nanostructures for potential applications.

  5. Steering dissociation of Br2 molecules with two femtosecond pulses via wave packet interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong-Chang; Yuan, Kai-Jun; Hu, Wen-Hui; Yan, Tian-Min; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2008-04-07

    The dissociation dynamics of Br2 molecules induced by two femtosecond pump pulses are studied based on the calculation of time-dependent quantum wave packet. Perpendicular transition from X 1Sigma g+ to A 3Pi 1u+ and 1Pi 1u+ and parallel transition from X 1Sigma g+ to B 3Pi 0u+, involving two product channels Br (2P3/2)+Br (2P3/2) and Br (2P3/2)+Br* (2P1/2), respectively, are taken into account. Two pump pulses create dissociating wave packets interfering with each other. By varying laser parameters, the interference of dissociating wave packets can be controlled, and the dissociation probabilities of Br2 molecules on the three excited states can be changed to different degrees. The branching ratio of Br*/(Br+Br*) is calculated as a function of pulse delay time and phase difference.

  6. Evolutionarily Conserved Roles for Blood-Brain Barrier Xenobiotic Transporters in Endogenous Steroid Partitioning and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Hindle

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Central nervous system (CNS chemical protection depends upon discrete control of small-molecule access by the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Curiously, some drugs cause CNS side-effects despite negligible transit past the BBB. To investigate this phenomenon, we asked whether the highly BBB-enriched drug efflux transporter MDR1 has dual functions in controlling drug and endogenous molecule CNS homeostasis. If this is true, then brain-impermeable drugs could induce behavioral changes by affecting brain levels of endogenous molecules. Using computational, genetic, and pharmacologic approaches across diverse organisms, we demonstrate that BBB-localized efflux transporters are critical for regulating brain levels of endogenous steroids and steroid-regulated behaviors (sleep in Drosophila and anxiety in mice. Furthermore, we show that MDR1-interacting drugs are associated with anxiety-related behaviors in humans. We propose a general mechanism for common behavioral side effects of prescription drugs: pharmacologically challenging BBB efflux transporters disrupts brain levels of endogenous substrates and implicates the BBB in behavioral regulation. : Hindle et al. shed light on the curious finding that some drugs cause behavioral side-effects despite negligible access into the brain. These authors propose a unifying hypothesis that links blood-brain barrier drug transporter function and brain access of circulating steroids to common CNS adverse drug responses. Keywords: drug side effect mechanisms, central nervous system, blood brain barrier, behavior, toxicology, drug transporters, endobiotics, steroid hormones

  7. The time-course relationship between endogenous spleen colony formation and marrow cellularity after midlethal irradiation of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, I.; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Wojskowa Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of appearance and disappearance of endogenous spleen colonies following 4 and 6 Gy of X-irradiation was compared with the kinetics of changes of cellular contents of femur cavities. Additionally, the effect of postirradiation bleeding and this way of the subsequent increase in the level of endogenous erythropoietin was studied. It was found that the kinetics of endogenous haemopoietic recovery in the marrow follows the same characteristic biphasic pattern as in the spleen although it is slightly delayed in time. First wave of regeneration corresponded in time with the formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies 4-7 days postirradiation, and the 2nd wave corresponded in time witn the formation of classical haemopoietic stem-cell derived endogenous spleen colonies 9-12 days following irradiation. Postirradiation bleeding markedly stimulated particularly the first wave of regeneration both in the marrow and in the spleen. (orig.) [de

  8. Investigation of the electronic structure of the BiSBr and BiSeBr clusters by density functional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audzijonis, A.; Gaigalas, G.; Zigas, L.; Pauliukas, A.; Zaltauskas, R.; Kvedaravicius, A.; Cerskus, A.

    2008-01-01

    The energy levels of valence bands (VB) of the BiSBr and BiSeBr crystals have been calculated for investigation of the photoelectron emission spectra of BiSBr, BiSeBr and BiSI crystals. The molecular model of this crystal has been used for the calculation of VB by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. The molecular cluster, consisting of 20 molecules of BiSBr, BiSeBr, has been used for calculations of averaged total density of states, including atom vibrations. The spectra of the averaged total density of states from VB of BiSBr and BiSeBr clusters have been compared with the experimental photoelectron emission spectra from VB of BiSI crystals. The results clarify that the atomic vibrations in A 5 B 6 C 7 type crystals with chain structure create a smoother appearance of the averaged total density of state spectrum and the experimental X-ray photoemission spectra (XPS)

  9. Superconductivity in intercalated and substituted Y2Br2C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baecker, M.; Simon, A.; Kremer, R.K.; Mattausch, H.J.; Dronskowski, R.; Rouxel, J.

    1996-01-01

    Layer compounds of the type Y 2 X 2 C 2 (X=Cl, Br, I) show superconductivity at temperatures between 2.3 and 11.2 K. The transition temperature is related to the tendency of conduction electrons toward pairwise localization in C 2 -π * states at the Fermi level, and changes with the concentration of valence electrons, which is varied by intercalation of Na. (orig.)

  10. Facile synthesis of CsPbBr3/PbSe composite clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thang Phan; Ozturk, Abdullah; Park, Jongee; Sohn, Woonbae; Lee, Tae Hyung; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this work, CsPbBr3 and PbSe nanocomposites were synthesized to protect perovskite material from self-enlargement during reaction. UV absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that the addition of Se into CsPbBr3 quantum dots modified the electronic structure of CsPbBr3, increasing the band gap from 2.38 to 2.48 eV as the Cs:Se ratio increased to 1:3. Thus, the emission color of CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots was modified from green to blue by increasing the Se ratio ...

  11. Therapeutic targeting strategies using endogenous cells and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayath, Neha N; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-07-28

    Targeted drug delivery has become extremely important in enhancing efficacy and reducing the toxicity of therapeutics in the treatment of various disease conditions. Current approaches include passive targeting, which relies on naturally occurring differences between healthy and diseased tissues, and active targeting, which utilizes various ligands that can recognize targets expressed preferentially at the diseased site. Clinical translation of these mechanisms faces many challenges including the immunogenic and toxic effects of these non-natural systems. Thus, use of endogenous targeting systems is increasingly gaining momentum. This review is focused on strategies for employing endogenous moieties, which could serve as safe and efficient carriers for targeted drug delivery. The first part of the review involves cells and cellular components as endogenous carriers for therapeutics in multiple disease states, while the second part discusses the use of endogenous plasma components as endogenous carriers. Further understanding of the biological tropism with cells and proteins and the newer generation of delivery strategies that exploits these endogenous approaches promises to provide better solutions for site-specific delivery and could further facilitate clinical translations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of LiBr on photoluminescence properties of porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimassi, W., E-mail: dimassi_inrst@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Haddadi, I.; Bousbih, R.; Slama, S.; Ali Kanzari, M.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-05-15

    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS), which is first time that LiBr is used for passivation of PS. Immersion of the PS in a LiBr solution, followed by a thermal treatment at 100 {sup o}C for 30 min under nitrogen, leads to a nine fold increase in the intensity of the photoluminescence. The atomic force microscope (AFM) shows an increase of the nanoparticle dimension compared to the initial dimension of the PS nanostructure. The LiBr covers the nanoparticles of silicon without changing the wavelength distribution of the optical excitation and emission spectra. Moreover, a significant decrease of reflectivity was observed for the wavelength in the range of 350-500 nm. - Research highlights: {yields} A new method based on the use of LiBr was developed to enhance nine times the photoluminescence of porous silicon. {yields} The LiBr covers the silicon nanoparticles without changing in the optical excitation and emission spectra. {yields} We observed a significant decrease of the reflectivity in the 350-500 nm spectral range.

  13. Influence of LiBr on photoluminescence properties of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimassi, W.; Haddadi, I.; Bousbih, R.; Slama, S.; Ali Kanzari, M.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new method has been developed to improve the photoluminescence intensity of porous silicon (PS), which is first time that LiBr is used for passivation of PS. Immersion of the PS in a LiBr solution, followed by a thermal treatment at 100 o C for 30 min under nitrogen, leads to a nine fold increase in the intensity of the photoluminescence. The atomic force microscope (AFM) shows an increase of the nanoparticle dimension compared to the initial dimension of the PS nanostructure. The LiBr covers the nanoparticles of silicon without changing the wavelength distribution of the optical excitation and emission spectra. Moreover, a significant decrease of reflectivity was observed for the wavelength in the range of 350-500 nm. - Research highlights: → A new method based on the use of LiBr was developed to enhance nine times the photoluminescence of porous silicon. → The LiBr covers the silicon nanoparticles without changing in the optical excitation and emission spectra. → We observed a significant decrease of the reflectivity in the 350-500 nm spectral range.

  14. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V, E-mail: mironkle@rambler.ru [Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Universitetska 21, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)

    2011-06-29

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B {yields} X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  15. XeBr excilamp based on a non-toxic component mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, V A; Shpenik, Yu O; Zhmenyak, Yu V

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies on obtaining UV luminescence of XeBr* molecules at the excitation of a non-toxic Xe-CsBr gas-vapour mixture by a longitudinal pulse-periodic discharge. Effective UV emission yield of the exciplex XeBr* molecules (spectral maximum at 282 nm) is observed within a wide range of excitation conditions. The spectral distribution in the UV emission under the optimal excitation conditions does not differ essentially from that in other XeBr excilamps based on toxic components. The emission of the B → X band of the XeBr* molecules provides the main contribution to the total power of the discharge UV emission. The determined average power of the UV emission for the experimental discharge tube is 12 W at an efficiency of 1%. Spectral, power-related and time-dependent parameters of the laboratory excilamp are presented for a wide range of excitation parameters. A new mechanism of exciplex molecule formation at the excitation of a rare gas/alkali halide vapour mixture is discussed.

  16. Comparison of aggregation behaviors between ionic liquid-type imidazolium gemini surfactant [C12-4-C12im]Br2 and its monomer [C12mim]Br on silicon wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Mingqi; Xu, Guiying; Pang, Jinyu; Zhao, Taotao

    2009-09-01

    The aggregation of ionic liquid-type imidazolium gemini surfactant [C(12)-4-C(12)im]Br(2) on silicon wafer, which is compared with its monomer [C(12)mim]Br, have been studied. AFM morphology images and contact angle measurements suggest that the aggregations of [C(12)-4-C(12)im]Br(2) and [C(12)mim]Br on silicon wafer follow different mechanisms. Below the critical surface aggregation concentrations (CSAC), both surfactant molecules are adsorbed with their hydrophobic tails facing the air. But above the CSAC, [C(12)-4-C(12)im]Br(2) molecules finally form a bilayer structure with hydrophilic head groups facing the air, whereas [C(12)mim]Br molecules form a multilayer structure, and with increasing its concentration, the layer numbers increase with the hydrophobic chains and hydrophilic head groups facing the air by turns. Besides, the watery wettability of [C(12)-4-C(12)im]Br(2)-treated silica surface is lower than that of [C(12)mim]Br at the concentration of 5.0 cmc, and the infrared spectroscopy suggests that the poorer watery wettability of [C(12)-4-C(12)im]Br(2) may be relative to the less-ordered packing of methylene chains inside the aggregate. These different aggregation behaviors for the two surfactants ascribe to the different molecular structures and electrostatic interactions. This work would have certain theoretical guidance meaning on the modification of solid surface.

  17. Photodissociation of dibromoethanes at 248 nm: an ignored channel of Br2 elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Lung; Lee, Ping-Chen; Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen; Kuo, H H; Chen, P H; Chang, A H H

    2009-05-14

    Br(2) molecular elimination is probed in the photodissociation of 1,1- and 1,2-C(2)H(4)Br(2) isomeric forms at 248 nm by using cavity ring-down absorption spectroscopy. Their photodissociation processes differ markedly from each other. The quantum yield of the Br(2) fragment in 1,2-dibromoethane is 0.36+/-0.18, in contrast to a value of 0.05+/-0.03 in 1,1-dibromoethane. The vibrational population ratios of Br(2)(v=1)/Br(2)(v=0) are 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.5+/-0.2 for 1,2- and 1,1-dibromoethanes, respectively. The Br(2) yield densities are found to increase by a factor of 35% and 190% for 1,2- and 1,1-dibromoethanes within the same temperature increment. In the ab initio potential energy calculations, the transition state (TS) along the adiabatic ground state surface may correlate to the Br(2) products. The TS energy for 1,2-dibromoethane is well below the excitation energy at 483 kJ/mol, whereas that for 1,1-dibromoethane is slightly above. Such a small TS energy barrier impedes the photodissociation of the ground state 1,1-dibromoethane such that the production yield of Br(2) may become relatively low, but rise rapidly with the temperature. The TS structure shows a larger bond distance of Br-Br in 1,2-dibromoethane than that in 1,1-dibromoethane. That explains why the former isomer may result in hotter vibrational population of the Br(2) fragments.

  18. Kinetics of the Br2-CH3CHO Photochemical Chain Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Shackelford, C. J.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was employed in conjunction with laser flash photolysis of Br2 to study the kinetics of the two elementary steps in the photochemical chain reaction nBr2 + nCH3CHO + hv yields nCH3CBrO + nHBr. In the temperature range 255-400 K, the rate coefficient for the reaction Br((sup 2)P(sub 3/2)) + CH3CHO yields CH3CO + HBr is given by the Arrhenius expression k(sub 6)(T) = (1.51 +/- 0.20) x 10(exp -11) exp(-(364 +/- 41)/T)cu cm/(molecule.s). At 298 K, the reaction CH3CO + Br2 yields CH3CBrO + Br proceeds at a near gas kinetic rate, k(sub 7)(298 K) = (1.08 +/- 0.38) x 10(exp -10)cu cm/(molecule.s).

  19. 59 eyes with endogenous endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; la Cour, Morten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the epidemiology of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective and prospective case series of 59 eyes in patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark between 2000 and 2016. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 28 to......, the visual outcome and the mortality of the patients. The epidemiology of the disease is very different in Scandinavia compared to Asia. The visual prognosis remains grave and the majority of the eyes lose useful vision....

  20. On the role of endogenous serotin in the radioprotective action of some aminothiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdlov, A.G.; Pavlova, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    It has been studied whether there is a correlation of the radioprotective effect of cystamine (50 and 150 mg/kg by base) and its analogue, N',N'-tetramethyl cystamine (130 mg/kg by base), with the ability of these compounds to rise the endogenous serotonin content of radiosensitive organs 20 and 60 minutes after intraperitoneal administration to mice. The ability of sulphur-containing radioprotectors does not necessarily correlate with their preventive properties: an ineffective radioprotector analogue, N',N'-tetramethyl cystamine, has the same effect on the endogeneous serotonin level as the protector itself

  1. Independent effects of endogenous and exogenous attention in touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander; Forster, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    Endogenous and exogenous attention in touch have typically been investigated separately. Here we use a double-cueing paradigm manipulating both types of orienting in each trial. Bilateral endogenous cues induced long-lasting facilitation of endogenous attention up to 2 s. However, the exogenous cue only elicited an effect at short intervals. Our results favour a supramodal account of attention and this study provides new insight into how endogenous and exogenous attention operates in the tactile modality.

  2. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavarria-Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, β-endorphins (β-End, and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg, which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg, which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain.

  3. Ce3+-Doping to Modulate Photoluminescence Kinetics for Efficient CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals Based Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ji-Song; Ge, Jing; Han, Bo-Ning; Wang, Kun-Hua; Yao, Hong-Bin; Yu, Hao-Lei; Li, Jian-Hai; Zhu, Bai-Sheng; Song, Ji-Zhong; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Qun; Zeng, Hai-Bo; Luo, Yi; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2018-03-14

    Inorganic perovskite CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals (NCs) are emerging, highly attractive light emitters with high color purity and good thermal stability for light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Their high photo/electroluminescence efficiencies are very important for fabricating efficient LEDs. Here, we propose a novel strategy to enhance the photo/electroluminescence efficiency of CsPbBr 3 NCs through doping of heterovalent Ce 3+ ions via a facile hot-injection method. The Ce 3+ cation was chosen as the dopant for CsPbBr 3 NCs by virtue of its similar ion radius and formation of higher energy level of conduction band with bromine in comparison with the Pb 2+ cation to maintain the integrity of perovskite structure without introducing additional trap states. It was found that by increasing the doping amount of Ce 3+ in CsPbBr 3 NCs to 2.88% (atomic percentage of Ce compared to Pb) the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of CsPbBr 3 NCs reached up to 89%, a factor of 2 increase in comparison with the native, undoped ones. The ultrafast transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy revealed that Ce 3+ -doping can significantly modulate the PL kinetics to enhance the PL efficiency of doped CsPbBr 3 NCs. As a result, the LED device fabricated by adopting Ce 3+ -doped CsPbBr 3 NCs as the emitting layers exhibited a pronounced improvement of electroluminescence with external quantum efficiency (EQE) from 1.6 to 4.4% via Ce 3+ -doping.

  4. Further identification of endogenous gibberellins in the shoots of pea, line G2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halinska, A.; Davies, P.J.; Lee, J.W.; Zhu, Yuxian

    1989-01-01

    To interpret the metabolism of radiolabeled gibberellins A 12 -aldehyde and A 12 in shoots of pea (Pisum sativum L.), the identity of the radiolabeled peaks has to be determined and the endogenous presence of the gibberellins demonstrated. High specific activity [ 14 C]GA 12 and [ 14 C]GA 12 -aldehyde were synthesized using a pumpkin endosperm enzyme preparation, and purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). [ 14 C]GA 12 was supplied to upper shoots of pea, line G2, to produce radiolabeled metabolites on the 13-OH pathway. Endogenous compounds copurifying with the [ 14 C]GAs on HPLC were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The endogenous presence of GA 53 , GA 44 , GA 19 and GA 20 was demonstrated and their HPLC peak identity ascertained. The 14 C was progressively diluted in GAs further down the pathway, proportional to the levels found in the tissue and inversely proportional to the speed of metabolism, ranging from 63% in GA 53 to 4% in GA 20 . Calculated levels of GA 20 , GA 19 , GA 44 , and GA 53 were 42, 8, 10, and 0.5 nanograms/gram, respectively

  5. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in systems with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2003-02-01

    Systems with long-range persistence and memory are shown to exhibit different precursory as well as recovery patterns in response to shocks of exogenous versus endogenous origins. By endogenous, we envision either fluctuations resulting from an underlying chaotic dynamics or from a stochastic forcing origin which may be external or be an effective coarse-grained description of the microscopic fluctuations. In this scenario, endogenous shocks result from a kind of constructive interference of accumulated fluctuations whose impacts survive longer than the large shocks themselves. As a consequence, the recovery after an endogenous shock is in general slower at early times and can be at long times either slower or faster than after an exogenous perturbation. This offers the tantalizing possibility of distinguishing between an endogenous versus exogenous cause of a given shock, even when there is no “smoking gun”. This could help in investigating the exogenous versus self-organized origins in problems such as the causes of major biological extinctions, of change of weather regimes and of the climate, in tracing the source of social upheaval and wars, and so on. Sornette et al., Volatility fingerprints of large stocks: endogenous versus exogenous, cond-mat/0204626 has already shown how this concept can be applied concretely to differentiate the effects on financial markets of the 11 September 2001 attack or of the coup against Gorbachev on 19 August 1991 (exogenous) from financial crashes such as October 1987 (endogenous).

  6. Revision and extension to the analysis of the third spectrum of bromine: Br III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, S.; Tauheed, A.

    2015-03-01

    The spectrum of doubly ionized bromine (Br III) has been investigated in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength region. Br2+ is an As-like ion with ground configuration of 4s24p3, thus a 3-electron system possessing a complex structure. The theoretical prediction was made using Cowan's quasi-relativistic Hartree-Fock code with superposition of configurations involving the 4s4p4, 4s24p2 (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s), 4s4p3 (5p+4f), 4p4(4d+5s), 4s24p5s5p, 4s4p2 (4d2+5s2), 4s4p24f2 configurations for the even parity matrix and the 4s24p3, 4s24p2 (5p+6p+4f+5f) configurations for the odd parity matrix. Several previously reported levels of Br III have been revised, and new configurations have been added to the analysis. The spectrum used for this work was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence spectrograph in the wavelength region of 400-1326 Å using a triggered vacuum spark source. One hundred and two energy levels belonging to the 4s24p3, 4s4p4, 4s24p2 (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s +7s) configurations have been established, eighty-six being new. Two hundred and seventy-eight lines have been identified in this spectrum. The accuracy of our wavelength measurements for sharp and unblended lines is ±0.006 Å. The ionization potential of Br III was found to be 281,250±100 cm-1 (34.870±0.012 eV).

  7. Endogenous glucocorticoids exacerbate cholestasis-associated liver injury and hypercholesterolemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Rick; Ouweneel, Amber B; van der Sluis, Ronald J; Groen, Albert K; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2016-09-01

    Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by a disruption of bile flow, bile acid toxicity, liver injury, and hypercholesterolemia. Relatively high secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenals has been observed under cholestatic conditions. Here we investigated a contribution of the rise in endogenous glucocorticoids to initial stage cholestasis pathology. Adrenalectomized or sham-operated control C57BL/6 mice were given an oral dose of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate to induce cholestasis. Adrenalectomy effectively lowered plasma corticosterone levels (18±5ng/ml vs 472±58ng/ml; Phypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, we have shown that endogenous glucocorticoids exacerbate the liver injury and hypercholesterolemia associated with acute cholestasis in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of the RF system for Alfven wave heating and current drive in a TCA/BR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchko, L.; Andrade, M.L.; Ozono, E.; Galvao, R.M.O.; Degaspari, F.T.; Nascimento, I.C.

    1995-01-01

    The advanced RF system for Alfven wave plasma heating and current drive in TCA/BR tokamak is presented. The antenna system is capable of exciting the standing and travelling wave M = -1,N = 1,N =-4,-6 with single helicity and thus provides the possibility to improve Alfven wave plasma heating efficiency in TCA/BR tokamak and to increase input power level up to P ≅ 1 MW, without the uncontrolled density rise which was encountered in previous TCA (Switzerland) experiments. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  9. Inhibiting Endogenous Cortisol Blunts the Meal-Entrained Rise in Serum Leptin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laferrère, Blandine; Abraham, Cynthia; Awad, Marianne; Jean-Baptiste, Stephanie; Hart, Allison B.; Garcia-Lorda, Pilar; Kokkoris, Peter; Russell, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    Context Administration of glucocorticoids increases serum leptin levels in lean and obese individuals. A morning meal produces an increase in insulin, a cortisol peak, and an increase in leptin; these changes do not occur during fasting. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether inhibiting endogenous cortisol secretion with metyrapone decreases 24-h serum leptin levels and to determine whether a meal-related midmorning surge in cortisol is a prerequisite for the meal-entrained nocturnal rise in leptin. Design This was a randomized, cross-over study. Setting The study was performed at the General Clinical Research Center. Participants Lean males were studied. Intervention In study 1, seven lean men were studied for 24 h while their endogenous cortisol secretions were manipulated as follows: 1) CONTROL; 2) cortisol suppression by metyrapone (MET); and 3) MET and oral hydrocortisone (at 0900 h) (MET + CORT). Subjects were all fed a eucaloric diet (two meals at 1100 and 1700 h). In study 2, six men were studied without pharmacological intervention for 24 h on two occasions: once under a complete fast (FAST) and once in a feeding condition (one meal at 1100 h; FED). Main Outcome Measure The main outcome measure was serum leptin. Results MET significantly suppressed serum cortisol at 0800 h, midmorning, and over the 24-h period. As a result of cortisol suppression, 24-h serum leptin levels were decreased vs. control values despite similar insulin responses to meals. Administering a single dose of hydrocortisone to MET subjects potently stimulated serum leptin compared with the effect of MET alone. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that endogenous cortisol secretion is necessary for the maintenance of serum leptin levels over 24 h in lean, normally fed males. PMID:16537679

  10. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  11. Phase formation in systems Re-Se-Br-MBr (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarovoj, S.S.; Mironov, Yu.V.; Tkachev, S.V.; Fedorov, V.E.

    2009-01-01

    Phase formation in the systems Re-Se-Br-MBr (M=K, Rb, Cs) has been studied by NMR-spectroscopy and X-ray phase analysis. Polymer complexes Re 6 Se 8 Br 2 and M 2 Re 6 Se 8 Br 4 (M=Cs, Rb), and salts containing cluster anions [Re 6 Se 6 Br 8 ] 2- and [Re 6 Se 7 Br 7 ] 3- are the main products of reactions occurring in molten alkali metal halides in the number of cluster anions [{Re 6 Se 8-n Br n }Br 6 ] (4-n)- (0≤n≤4). Effect of alkali metal cation on the composition and ratios of formed products is established

  12. Methylated DNA Immunoprecipitation Analysis of Mammalian Endogenous Retroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Rita; Mager, Dixie L

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are repetitive sequences found abundantly in mammalian genomes which are capable of modulating host gene expression. Nevertheless, most endogenous retrovirus copies are under tight epigenetic control via histone-repressive modifications and DNA methylation. Here we describe a common method used in our laboratory to detect, quantify, and compare mammalian endogenous retrovirus DNA methylation. More specifically we describe methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) followed by quantitative PCR.

  13. International Environmental Agreements with Endogenous or Exogenous Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhai Hong; Larry Karp

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of endogenous and exogenous risk on the equilibrium (expected) membership of an International Environmental Agreement when countries are risk averse. Endogenous risk arises when countries use mixed rather than pure strategies at the participation game, and exogenous risk arises from the inherent uncertainty about the costs and benefits of increased abate- ment. Under endogenous risk, an increase in risk aversion increases expected participation. Under exogenous risk and ...

  14. Pure Cs4PbBr6: Highly Luminescent Zero-Dimensional Perovskite Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaminov, Makhsud I.

    2016-09-26

    So-called zero-dimensional perovskites, such as Cs4PbBr6, promise outstanding emissive properties. However, Cs4PbBr6 is mostly prepared by melting of precursors that usually leads to a coformation of undesired phases. Here, we report a simple low-temperature solution-processed synthesis of pure Cs4PbBr6 with remarkable emission properties. We found that pure Cs4PbBr6 in solid form exhibits a 45% photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY), in contrast to its three-dimensional counterpart, CsPbBr3, which exhibits more than 2 orders of magnitude lower PLQY. Such a PLQY of Cs4PbBr6 is significantly higher than that of other solid forms of lower-dimensional metal halide perovskite derivatives and perovskite nanocrystals. We attribute this dramatic increase in PL to the high exciton binding energy, which we estimate to be ∼353 meV, likely induced by the unique Bergerhoff–Schmitz–Dumont-type crystal structure of Cs4PbBr6, in which metal-halide-comprised octahedra are spatially confined. Our findings bring this class of perovskite derivatives to the forefront of color-converting and light-emitting applications.

  15. Endogenous TSH levels at the time of 131I ablation do not influence ablation success, recurrence-free survival or differentiated thyroid cancer-related mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrachimis, Alexis; Riemann, Burkhard; Maeder, Uwe; Reiners, Christoph; Verburg, Frederik A.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a single older study it is established dogma that TSH levels should be ≥30 mU/l at the time of postoperative 131 I ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. We sought to determine whether endogenous TSH levels, i.e. after levothyroxine withdrawal, at the time of ablation influence ablation success rates, recurrence-free survival and DTC-related mortality. A total of 1,873 patients without distant metastases referred for postoperative adjuvant 131 I therapy were retrospectively included from 1991 onwards. Successful ablation was defined as stimulated Tg <1 μg/l. Age, gender and the presence of lymph node metastases were independent determinants of TSH levels at the time of ablation. TSH levels were not significantly related to ablation success rates (p = 0.34), recurrence-free survival (p = 0.29) or DTC -elated mortality (p = 0.82), but established risk factors such as T-stage, lymph node metastases and age were. Ablation was successful in 230 of 275 patients (83.6 %) with TSH <30 mU/l and in 1,359 of 1,598 patients (85.0 %) with TSH ≥30 mU/l. The difference was not significant (p = 0.55). Of the whole group of 1,873 patients, 21 had recurrent disease. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.16). Ten of the 1,873 patients died of DTC. There were no significant differences in DTC-specific survival between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.53). The precise endogenous TSH levels at the time of 131 I ablation are not related to the ablation success rates, recurrence free survival and DTC related mortality. The established dogma that TSH levels need to be ≥30 mU/l at the time of 131 I ablation can be discarded. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of endogenous soybean food allergens by using a 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquié, David; Capt, Annabelle; Eby, William H; Sekar, Vaithilingam; Hérouet-Guicheney, Corinne

    2010-12-01

    As part of the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) soybean, 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses were performed with the isoxaflutole and glyphosate tolerant soybean FG72, its non-GM near-isogenic counterpart (Jack) and three commercial non-GM soybean lines. The objective was to compare the known endogenous human food allergens in seeds in the five different soybean lines in order to evaluate any potential unintended effect(s) of the genetic modification. In total, 37 protein spots representing five well known soybean food allergen groups were quantified in each genotype. Qualitatively, all the allergenic proteins were detected in the different genetic backgrounds. Quantitatively, among 37 protein spots, the levels of accumulation of three allergens were slightly lower in the GM soybean than in the non-GM counterparts. Specifically, while the levels of two of these three allergens fell within the normal range of variation observed in the four non-GM varieties, the level of the third allergen was slightly below the normal range. Overall, there was no significant increase in the level of allergens in FG72 soybean seeds. Therefore, the FG72 soybean can be considered as safe as its non-GM counterpart with regards to endogenous allergenicity. Additional research is needed to evaluate the biological variability in the levels of endogenous soybean allergens and the correlation between level of allergens and allergenic potential in order to improve the interpretation of these data in the safety assessment of GM soybean context. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Importance of Endogenous Fibrinolysis in Platelet Thrombus Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gue, Ying X; Gorog, Diana A

    2017-08-25

    The processes of thrombosis and coagulation are finely regulated by endogenous fibrinolysis maintaining healthy equilibrium. When the balance is altered in favour of platelet activation and/or coagulation, or if endogenous fibrinolysis becomes less efficient, pathological thrombosis can occur. Arterial thrombosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world despite advances in medical therapies. The role endogenous fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of arterial thrombosis has gained increasing attention in recent years as it presents novel ways to prevent and treat existing diseases. In this review article, we discuss the role of endogenous fibrinolysis in platelet thrombus formation, methods of measurement of fibrinolytic activity, its role in predicting cardiovascular diseases and clinical outcomes and future directions.

  18. Diminished humoral responses against and reduced gene expression levels of human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rashmi; Michaud, Henri-Alexandre; Zeng, Xue; Debbaneh, Maya; Arron, Sarah T; Jones, R Brad; Ormsby, Christopher E; Nixon, Douglas F; Liao, Wilson

    2014-09-16

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial, chronic disease of skin affecting 2-3% of the world's population. Genetic studies of psoriasis have identified a number of susceptibility genes that are involved in anti-viral immunity. Furthermore, physiological studies have also found an increase in anti-viral proteins in psoriatic skin. These findings suggest the presence of an anti-viral state in psoriatic skin. However, the triggers for this anti-viral cascade and its consequences for host immunity are not known. Endogenous retroviruses have previously been described in many autoimmune diseases including psoriasis. In the present study we examined the humoral immune response against human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) proteins and the cutaneous expression levels of multiple HERV-K genes in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. In psoriatic sera we observed a significant decrease in IgM response against three HERV-K proteins: Env surface unit (SU), Env transmembrane protein (TM), and Gag capsid (CA) in comparison to sera obtained from blood bank healthy controls. A decrease in IgG response was also observed against CA. Furthermore, using quantitative RT-PCR we observed a decrease in the expression of HERV-K Env, Gag, Pol and Rec as well as ERV-9 genes in lesional psoriatic skin as compared to healthy skin. Together, our results suggest that the pro-inflammatory, anti-viral state in psoriasis is associated with diminished expression of HERV-K gene transcripts and a concomitant decrease in humoral responses to HERV-K. Our results indicate that a simple model where continuous, minimally changing HERV-K expression serves as an antigenic trigger in psoriasis might not be correct and further studies are needed to decipher the possible relationship between psoriasis and HERVs.

  19. Modulation of electronic and optical properties in mixed halide perovskites CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ziqi; Cui, Yu; Deng, Hui-Xiong; Huang, Le; Wei, Zhongming; Li, Jingbo

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of lead halide perovskites with band gaps in the visible presents important potential in the design of high efficient solar cells. CsPbCl3, CsPbBr3 and CsPbI3 are stable compounds within this new family of semiconductors. By performing the first-principles calculation, we explore the structural, electronic and optical properties of CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) with various compositions of halide atoms. Structural stability is demonstrated with halide atoms distributing randomly at the halide atomic sites. CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) exhibit the modulation of their band gaps by varying the halide composition. Our results also indicate that CsPbCl3xBr3(1-x) and CsPbBr3xI3(1-x) with different halide compositions are suitable to application to solar cells for the general features are well preserved. Good absorption to lights of different wavelengths has been obtained in these mixed halide perovskites.

  20. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  1. Trapping molecular bromine: a one-dimensional bromobismuthate complex with Br2 as a linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, S A; Gorokh, I D; Abramov, P A; Plyusnin, P E; Sokolov, M N; Fedin, V P

    2016-03-07

    The reaction between solid (NMP)n{[BiBr4]}n (1) (NMP = N-methylpyridinium) and Br2, generated in situ in HBr solution, results in the formation of (NMP)3[Bi2Br9]·Br2 (2). In the structure of 2, dibromine molecules connect discrete binuclear [Bi2Br9](3-) anions into an extended network. Complex 2 is thermally stable (up to 150 °C).

  2. Using Halogens (Cl, Br, F, I) and Stable Isotopes of Water (δ18O, δ2H) to Trace Hydrological and Biogeochemical Processes in Prairie Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Z. F.; Lu, Z.; Mills, C. T.; Goldhaber, M. B.; Rosenberry, D. O.; Mushet, D.; Siegel, D. I.; Fiorentino, A. J., II; Gade, M.; Spradlin, J.

    2014-12-01

    Prairie pothole wetlands are ubiquitous features of the Great Plains of North America, and important habitat for amphibians and migratory birds. The salinity of proximal wetlands varies highly due to groundwater-glacial till interactions, which influence wetland biota and associated ecosystem functions. Here we use halogens and stable isotopes of water to fingerprint hydrological and biogeochemical controls on salt cycling in a prairie wetland complex. We surveyed surface, well, and pore waters from a groundwater recharge wetland (T8) and more saline closed (P1) and open (P8) basin discharge wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake Study Area (ND) in August/October 2013 and May 2014. Halogen concentrations varied over a broad range throughout the study area (Cl = 2.2 to 170 mg/L, Br = 13 to 2000 μg/L, F = evaporation-enriched pond water (δ18O = -9.5 to -2.71 ‰) mixes with shallow groundwater in the top 0.6 m of fringing wetland soils and 1.2 m of the substrate in the center of P1. Our results suggest endogenous sources for Br and I within the prairie landscape that may be controlled by biological mechanisms or weathering of shale from glacial till.

  3. Bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jesper Skovlund; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient.......Endogenous Fusarium endophthalmitis is a rare disease predominantly described in immunocompromised patients often due to leukemia. We report a case of bilateral endogenous Fusarium solani endophthalmitis in a liver-transplanted patient....

  4. Hydrogen-bonded structure in highly concentrated aqueous LiBr solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imano, Masahiro; Kameda, Yasuo; Usuki, Takeshi; Uemura, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements were carried out for H/D isotopically substituted aqueous 10, 25 and 33 mol% LiBr solutions in order to obtain structural information on the intermolecular hydrogen bonds among water molecules in highly concentrated aqueous solutions. Observed scattering cross sections for D 2 O (99.9 % D), 0 H 2 O(35.9 % D) and 0-2 H 2 O(68.0 % D) solutions were combined to deduce partial structure factors, a HH (Q), a XH (Q) and a XX (Q) (X: O, Br and Li). The least squares fitting analysis was applied to the observed partial structure factors to determine the nearest neighbor interatomic distance, root-mean-square amplitude and coordination number. Intermolecular distances, r OH =1.91(1) A, r HH =2.38(1) A and r OO =3.02(1) A, between the nearest neighbor water molecules, were obtained for the 10 mol% LiBr solution. On the other hand, the intermolecular O···H interaction was found to almost disappear in concentrated 25 and 33 mol% LiBr solutions. The result implies that the hydrogen-bonded network is completely broken in highly concentrated aqueous LiBr solutions. (author)

  5. Neutron scattering study of MnX2 (X = Br, I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Taku; Kadowaki, Hiroaki.

    1993-01-01

    Successive magnetic phase transitions in MnX 2 (X = Br, I), found by bulk measurements, are studied by neutron scattering experiments. There occur two (T N1 = 2.32K, T N2 = 2.17K) and three (T N1 = 3.95K, T N2 = 3.8K, T N3 = 3.45K) phase transitions in MnBr 2 and MnI 2 , respectively. We have found that magnetic structures of the both compounds in the intermediate temperature phases (MnBr 2 : T N1 > T > T N2 ; MnI 2 : T N1 > T > T N3 ) are transverse sinusoidally-modulated structures with incommensurate wave-vectors which vary as a function of temperature. As the temperature is lowered into the lowest temperature phases, the magnetic structures change via first order transition into ↑↑↓↓ and a helical structure for MnBr 2 and MnI 2 , respectively, which were determined by previous experiments. The successive phase transitions in MnBr 2 are accounted for quantitatively using a mean field approximation of a Hamiltonian consisting of exchange interactions up to third inter- and third intra-layer neighbor sites and the dipolar interaction. (author)

  6. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate cancer: decreased-, increased- or null-risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Advani, Shailesh; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Wang, Run; Canfield, Steven

    2017-06-01

    For more than 70 years, the contention that high levels of testosterone or that the use of testosterone therapy (TTh) increases the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) has been widely accepted and practiced. Yet, the increasing and emerging evidence on testosterone research seems to challenge that contention. To review literature on the associations of endogenous and exogenous testosterone with decreased-, increased-, or null-risk of PCa, and to further evaluate only those studies that reported magnitude of associations from multivariable modeling as it minimizes confounding effects. We conducted a literature search to identify studies that investigated the association of endogenous total testosterone [continuous (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) and categorical (high vs. low)] and use of TTh with PCa events [1990-2016]. Emphasis was given to studies/analyses that reported magnitude of associations [odds ratio (OR), relative risk (RR) and hazard ratios (HRs)] from multivariable analyses to determine risk of PCa and their statistical significance. Most identified studies/analyses included observational and randomized placebo-controlled trials. This review was organized in three parts: (I) association of endogenous total testosterone (per 1 unit increment and 5 nmol/L increment) with PCa; (II) relationship of endogenous total testosterone (categorical high vs. low) with PCa; and (III) association of use of TTh with PCa in meta-analyses of randomized placebo-controlled trials. The first part included 31 observational studies [20 prospective (per 5 nmol/L increment) and 11 prospective and retrospective cohort studies (per 1 unit increment)]. None of the 20 prospective studies found a significant association between total testosterone (5 nmol/L increment) and increased- or decreased-risk of PCa. Two out of the 11 studies/analyses showed a significant decreased-risk of PCa for total testosterone per 1 unit increment, but also two other

  7. Void distributions in liquid BiBr{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, K [Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Endo, H [Faculty of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8224 (Japan); Hoshino, H [Faculty of Education, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8560 (Japan); Kawakita, Y [Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 810-8560 (Japan); Kohara, S; Itou, M [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute(JASRI), Sayo-cho 679-5198 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    The X-ray diffraction experiments and the reverse Monte Carlo analysis for liquid BiBr{sub 3} have been performed to clarify the distribution of Bi and Br ions around voids, comparing with previous results derived in the neutron diffraction experiments. The hexagonal cages involving voids are formed by the corner-sharing of the trigonal pyramidal BiBr{sub 3} blocks. The neighboring cages are linked together in highly correlated fashion. The observed pre-peak in S(Q) at 1.3A{sup -1} is related to the pre-peak of the void-based S'{sub CC} (Q) due to an intermediate chemical order in the structure. The pre-peak intensity increases with increasing temperature. This characteristic change for the pre-peak intensity is discussed by considering the modifications of the topology and stacking in the hexagonal cages.

  8. Enzymatic Inactivation of Endogenous IgG by IdeS Enhances Therapeutic Antibody Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järnum, Sofia; Runström, Anna; Bockermann, Robert; Winstedt, Lena; Crispin, Max; Kjellman, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Endogenous plasma IgG sets an immunologic threshold that dictates the activity of tumor-directed therapeutic antibodies. Saturation of cellular antibody receptors by endogenous antibody limits antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Here, we show how enzymatic cleavage of IgG using the bacterial enzyme IdeS can be utilized to empty both high and low affinity Fcγ-receptors and clear the entire endogenous antibody pool. Using in vitro models, tumor animal models as well as ex vivo analysis of sera collected during a previous clinical trial with IdeS, we show how clearing of competing plasma antibody levels with IdeS unblocks cellular antibody receptors. We show that therapeutic antibodies against breast cancer (trastuzumab), colon cancer (cetuximab), and lymphomas (rituximab and alemtuzumab) can be potentiated when endogenous IgG is removed. Overall, IdeS is shown to be a potent tool to reboot the human antibody repertoire and to generate a window to preferentially load therapeutic antibodies onto effector cells and thereby create an armada of dedicated tumor-seeking immune cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(9); 1887-97. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Productivity and Unemployment in a Two-country Model with Endogenous Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Relative to the United States, most European countries have high rates of unemployment and low levels of productivity in manufacturing. To relate these issues, we develop a leader-follower model with endogenous growth and dual labour markets, stressing the role of high-tech and high-wage sectors in

  10. The Endogenous-Exogenous Partition in Attribution Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglanski, Arie W.

    1975-01-01

    Within lay explanation of actions, several significant inferences are assumed to follow from the partition between endogenous and exogenous attributions. An endogenous action is judged to constitute an end in itself; an exogenous action is judged to serve as a means to some further end. (Editor/RK)

  11. Endogenous Markups, Firm Productivity and International Trade:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellone, Flora; Musso, Patrick; Nesta, Lionel

    ) markups are positively related to firm productivity; 3) markups are negatively related to import penetration; 4) markups are positively related to firm export intensity and markups are higher on the export market than on the domestic ones in the presence of trade barriers and/or if competitors...... on the export market are less efficient than competitors on the domestic market. We estimate micro-level price cost margins (PCMs) using firm-level data extending the techniques developed by Hall (1986, 1988) and extended by Domowitz et al. (1988) and Roeger (1995) for the French manufacturing industry from......In this paper, we test key micro-level theoretical predictions ofMelitz and Ottaviano (MO) (2008), a model of international trade with heterogenous firms and endogenous mark-ups. At the firm-level, the MO model predicts that: 1) firm markups are negatively related to domestic market size; 2...

  12. Br2 production from the heterogeneous reaction of gas-phase OH with aqueous salt solutions: Impacts of acidity, halide concentration, and organic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frinak, Elizabeth K; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2006-09-07

    This study reports the first laboratory measurement of gas-phase Br2 production from the reaction between gas-phase hydroxyl radicals and aqueous salt solutions. Experiments were conducted at 269 K in a rotating wetted-wall flow tube coupled to a chemical-ionization mass spectrometer for analysis of gas-phase components. From both pure NaBr solutions and mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, the amount of Br2 released was found to increase with increasing acidity, whereas it was found to vary little with increasing concentration of bromide ions in the sample. For mixed NaCl/NaBr solutions, Br2 was formed preferentially over Cl2 unless the Br- levels in the solution were significantly depleted by OH oxidation, at which point Cl2 formation was observed. Presence of a surfactant in solution, sodium dodecyl sulfate, significantly suppressed the formation of Br2; this is the first indication that an organic surfactant can affect the rate of interfacial mass transfer of OH to an aqueous surface. The OH-mediated oxidation of bromide may serve as a source of active bromine in the troposphere and contribute to the subsequent destruction of ozone that proceeds in marine-influenced regions of the troposphere.

  13. THE PROCESSES OF ENDOGENIZING IN THE ENDOGENOUS GROWTH: THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSMAN DEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to state how the main inputs of endogenous growth, i.e. knowledge, human capital and technological progress are made endogenous by education, R&D, university-industry cooperation, learning by doing and diffusion within the production process. Competitiveness of firms and countries would increase as educated people enter into workforce; as R&D produces new technologies which are used in the production process; as theoretical knowledge meets with practice by university-industry cooperation; and as workers have more experience by learning by doing. In empirical analysis for Turkey is made by using data of 1970-2001 term it was found that a positive relationship among labour and capital factors and GNP and a negative relationship among education expenditures and foreign trade volume and capital stock.

  14. Endogenous fishing mortalities: a state-space bioeconomic model

    OpenAIRE

    DA-ROCHA JOSÉ MARIA; GARCÍA-CUTRÍN JAVIER; GUTIÉRREZ MARÍA-JOSÉ; GAMITO JARDIM JOSÉ ERNESTO

    2017-01-01

    A methodology that endogenously determines catchability functions that link fishing mortality with contemporaneous stock abundance is presented. We consider a stochastic age-structured model for a fishery composed by a number of fishing units (fleets, vessels or métiers) that optimally select the level of fishing effort to be applied considering total mortalities as given. The introduction of a balance constrain which guarantees that total mortality is equal to the sum of individual fishing m...

  15. Endogenous Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) Maintains Endothelial Cell Homeostasis by Regulating VEGF Receptor-2 Transcription*

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Guangqi; Cao, Ying; Bhattacharya, Santanu; Dutta, Shamit; Wang, Enfeng; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important factors controlling angiogenesis. Although the functions of exogenous VEGF-A have been widely studied, the roles of endogenous VEGF-A remain unclear. Here we focused on the mechanistic functions of endogenous VEGF-A in endothelial cells. We found that it is complexed with VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) and maintains a basal expression level for VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling activation. Endogenous VEGF-A also controls expression of key endothelial specific genes including VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and vascular endothelial cadherin. Of importance, endogenous VEGF-A differs from exogenous VEGF-A by regulating VEGFR-2 transcription through mediation of FoxC2 binding to the FOX:ETS motif, and the complex formed by endogenous VEGF-A with VEGFR-2 is localized within the EEA1 (early endosome antigen 1) endosomal compartment. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of endogenous VEGF-A in endothelial cells by regulating key vascular proteins and maintaining the endothelial homeostasis. PMID:22167188

  16. Synthetic Biology Platform for Sensing and Integrating Endogenous Transcriptional Inputs in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Bartolomeo; Mailand, Erik; Haefliger, Benjamin; Benenson, Yaakov

    2016-08-30

    One of the goals of synthetic biology is to develop programmable artificial gene networks that can transduce multiple endogenous molecular cues to precisely control cell behavior. Realizing this vision requires interfacing natural molecular inputs with synthetic components that generate functional molecular outputs. Interfacing synthetic circuits with endogenous mammalian transcription factors has been particularly difficult. Here, we describe a systematic approach that enables integration and transduction of multiple mammalian transcription factor inputs by a synthetic network. The approach is facilitated by a proportional amplifier sensor based on synergistic positive autoregulation. The circuits efficiently transduce endogenous transcription factor levels into RNAi, transcriptional transactivation, and site-specific recombination. They also enable AND logic between pairs of arbitrary transcription factors. The results establish a framework for developing synthetic gene networks that interface with cellular processes through transcriptional regulators. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychological rehabilitation of patients with endogenous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kryvonis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationale for early psychotherapeutic intervention in combination with psychopharmatherapy in patients with endogenous disorders is provided. The mechanisms of psychological defenses to deal with traumatic experience, used by personalities functioning on a psychotic level, are also described here. Characteristic behavior patterns of extended family members in terms of emotional codependence are provided. Individual pathopsychology is considered as a symptom of abnormal functioning of the family. Emphasis is placed on the importance of inclusion of family members in psychotherapeutic interaction in order to correct interpersonal relations.

  18. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yansong eLi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs, we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs.

  19. Endogenous cortisol levels are associated with an imbalanced striatal sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary cues in pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is a behavioral addiction characterized by a chronic failure to resist the urge to gamble. It shares many similarities with drug addiction. Glucocorticoid hormones including cortisol are thought to play a key role in the vulnerability to addictive behaviors, by acting on the mesolimbic reward pathway. Based on our previous report of an imbalanced sensitivity to monetary versus non-monetary incentives in the ventral striatum of pathological gamblers (PGs), we investigated whether this imbalance was mediated by individual differences in endogenous cortisol levels. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined the relationship between cortisol levels and the neural responses to monetary versus non-monetary cues, while PGs and healthy controls were engaged in an incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and erotic rewards. We found a positive correlation between cortisol levels and ventral striatal responses to monetary versus erotic cues in PGs, but not in healthy controls. This indicates that the ventral striatum is a key region where cortisol modulates incentive motivation for gambling versus non-gambling related stimuli in PGs. Our results extend the proposed role of glucocorticoid hormones in drug addiction to behavioral addiction, and help understand the impact of cortisol on reward incentive processing in PGs.

  20. METCAM/MUC18 promoted tumorigenesis of human breast cancer SK-BR-3 cells in a dosage-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Yu; Wu, Guang-Jer

    2016-04-01

    Overexpression of METCAM/MUC18, an immunoglobulin-like cell-adhesion molecule, promotes tumorigenesis and progression of human breast cancer cells. We also observed an intriguing phenomenon that a high-expressing SK-BR-3 clone manifested a transient tumor suppression effect in vivo. The purpose of this study was to understand if this was caused by clonal variation, METCAM/MUC18-dosage effect, or the number of cells injected. Several G418-resistant clones of SK-BR-3, expressing different levels of METCAM/MUC18, were obtained for testing effects of human METCAM/MUC18 on in vitro motility, invasiveness, and anchorage-independent colony formation (in vitro tumorigenicity) and in vivo tumorigenesis in female Balb/C athymic nude mice. Tumor sections were made for histology and immunohistochemistry analyses, and tumor lysates for Western blot analysis to determine the effects of human METCAM/MUC18 expression on levels of various downstream effectors. METCAM/MUC18 promoted in vitro motility, invasiveness, and in vitro tumorigenicity of SK-BR-3 cells in a dosage-specific manner. Overexpression of METCAM/MUC18 could promote in vivo tumorigenesis of SK-BR-3 cells even when one tenth of the previously used cell number (5 × 10(5)) was injected and in vivo tumorigenesis of SK-BR-3 cells was directly proportional to the dosage of the protein. The previously observed transient tumor suppression effect from the same clone was no longer observed. The downstream effector, such as phospho-AKT/AKT ratio, was elevated in the tumors. Transient suppression observed previously in the clone was caused by injection of a high cell number (2 × 10(6)-5 × 10(6)). METCAM/MUC18 positively promotes tumorigenesis of SK-BR-3 cells by increasing the survival and proliferation pathway. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B

    1978-01-01

    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  2. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C-Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J; King, Simon J; Vallance, Claire; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br(∗)), and C3H5 hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br(∗) atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br(∗) images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C3H5 fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br(∗), indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C3H5 signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C-Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C3H5 radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C3H5 (+) from the photodissociation of the C3H5Br(+) molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  3. Endogenous glucocorticoids exacerbate cholestasis-associated liver injury and hypercholesterolemia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geest, Rick van der; Ouweneel, Amber B.; Sluis, Ronald J. van der; Groen, Albert K.; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by a disruption of bile flow, bile acid toxicity, liver injury, and hypercholesterolemia. Relatively high secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenals has been observed under cholestatic conditions. Here we investigated a contribution of the rise in endogenous glucocorticoids to initial stage cholestasis pathology. Adrenalectomized or sham-operated control C57BL/6 mice were given an oral dose of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate to induce cholestasis. Adrenalectomy effectively lowered plasma corticosterone levels (18 ± 5 ng/ml vs 472 ± 58 ng/ml; P < 0.001) and disrupted the metabolic and anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid function. Adrenal removal did not exacerbate the cholestasis extent. In contrast, the cholestasis-associated liver injury was markedly lower in adrenalectomized mice as compared to controls as evidenced by a 84%–93% decrease in liver necrosis and plasma alanine aminotransferase and bile acid levels (P < 0.001 for all). Gene expression analysis on livers from adrenalectomized mice suggested the absence of bile acid toxicity-associated farnesoid X receptor signaling in the context of a 44% (P < 0.01) and 82% (P < 0.001) reduction in sodium/bile acid cotransporter member 1 transcript level as compared to respectively control and non-diseased mice. Adrenalectomy reduced the expression of the cholesterol synthesis gene HMG-CoA reductase by 70% (P < 0.05), which translated into a 73% lower plasma total cholesterol level (P < 0.05). Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486 recapitulated the protective effect of adrenalectomy on indices of liver injury and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, we have shown that endogenous glucocorticoids exacerbate the liver injury and hypercholesterolemia associated with acute cholestasis in mice. - Highlights: • Cholestasis is associated with increased plasma glucocorticoid levels in mice. • Adrenalectomy lowers cholestasis-associated liver

  4. Endogenous glucocorticoids exacerbate cholestasis-associated liver injury and hypercholesterolemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geest, Rick van der, E-mail: r.van.der.geest@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (Netherlands); Ouweneel, Amber B., E-mail: a.b.ouweneel@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (Netherlands); Sluis, Ronald J. van der, E-mail: r.vandersluis@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (Netherlands); Groen, Albert K., E-mail: a.k.groen@umcg.nl [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands); Van Eck, Miranda, E-mail: m.eck@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (Netherlands); Hoekstra, Menno, E-mail: hoekstra@lacdr.leidenuniv.nl [Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research (Netherlands)

    2016-09-01

    Cholestatic liver disease is characterized by a disruption of bile flow, bile acid toxicity, liver injury, and hypercholesterolemia. Relatively high secretion of glucocorticoids by the adrenals has been observed under cholestatic conditions. Here we investigated a contribution of the rise in endogenous glucocorticoids to initial stage cholestasis pathology. Adrenalectomized or sham-operated control C57BL/6 mice were given an oral dose of alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate to induce cholestasis. Adrenalectomy effectively lowered plasma corticosterone levels (18 ± 5 ng/ml vs 472 ± 58 ng/ml; P < 0.001) and disrupted the metabolic and anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid function. Adrenal removal did not exacerbate the cholestasis extent. In contrast, the cholestasis-associated liver injury was markedly lower in adrenalectomized mice as compared to controls as evidenced by a 84%–93% decrease in liver necrosis and plasma alanine aminotransferase and bile acid levels (P < 0.001 for all). Gene expression analysis on livers from adrenalectomized mice suggested the absence of bile acid toxicity-associated farnesoid X receptor signaling in the context of a 44% (P < 0.01) and 82% (P < 0.001) reduction in sodium/bile acid cotransporter member 1 transcript level as compared to respectively control and non-diseased mice. Adrenalectomy reduced the expression of the cholesterol synthesis gene HMG-CoA reductase by 70% (P < 0.05), which translated into a 73% lower plasma total cholesterol level (P < 0.05). Treatment of C57BL/6 mice with the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU-486 recapitulated the protective effect of adrenalectomy on indices of liver injury and hypercholesterolemia. In conclusion, we have shown that endogenous glucocorticoids exacerbate the liver injury and hypercholesterolemia associated with acute cholestasis in mice. - Highlights: • Cholestasis is associated with increased plasma glucocorticoid levels in mice. • Adrenalectomy lowers cholestasis-associated liver

  5. The endogenous preproglucagon system is not essential for gut growth homeostasis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Wismann

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The present study indicates that the endogenous preproglucagon system, exemplified by the entire GCG gene and the receptors for GLP-1 and GLP-2, does not play a major role in normal gut development in the mouse. Furthermore, elevation in local intestinal and circulating levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 achieved after VSG has limited impact on intestinal morphometry. Hence, although exogenous treatment with GLP-1 and GLP-2 analogs enhances gut growth, the contributions of endogenously-secreted GLP-1 and GLP-2 to gut growth may be more modest and highly context-dependent.

  6. Endogenous Cartilage Repair by Recruitment of Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Gun-Il

    2016-04-01

    Articular cartilage has a very limited capacity for repair after injury. The adult body has a pool of stem cells that are mobilized during injury or disease. These cells exist inside niches in bone marrow, muscle, adipose tissue, synovium, and other connective tissues. A method that mobilizes this endogenous pool of stem cells will provide a less costly and less invasive alternative if these cells successfully regenerate defective cartilage. Traditional microfracture procedures employ the concept of bone marrow stimulation to regenerate cartilage. However, the regenerated tissue usually is fibrous cartilage, which has very poor mechanical properties compared to those of normal hyaline cartilage. A method that directs the migration of a large number of autologous mesenchymal stem cells toward injury sites, retains these cells around the defects, and induces chondrogenic differentiation that would enhance success of endogenous cartilage repair. This review briefly summarizes chemokines and growth factors that induce recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of endogenous progenitor cells, endogenous cell sources for regenerating cartilage, scaffolds for delivery of bioactive factors, and bioadhesive materials that are necessary to bring about endogenous cartilage repair.

  7. Investigation of ionizing sublethal doses effects on endogenous radioresistance background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Goncharenko, E.N.; Antonova, S.V.; Akhalaya, M.Ya.; Bajzhumanov, A.A.; Shestakova, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Sublethal doses of X-radiation (0.5 Gy and 1 Gy) caused the alterations in levels of main components of endogenous radioresistance background in rat tissues. There were demonstrated the decrease of serotonin content in stomach mocosa and spleen, adrenalin, noradrenalin and corticosteroids contents in adrenal glands, nonprotein thiols content in spleen and the increase of lipid peroxide level in serum on the 3-14 days after irradiation. The recovery of the investigated parameters was occurred to the 21 day after exposure. (author)

  8. Novel Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine): Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolko, Lukáš; Černák, Juraj; Kuchár, Juraj; Miklovič, Jozef; Boča, Roman

    2016-09-01

    Green crystals of Co(III)/Co(II) mixed valence compound [Co(bapen)Br2]2[CoBr4] (bapen = N,N‧-bis(3-aminopropyl)ethane-1,2-diamine) were isolated from the aqueous system CoBr2 - bapen - HBr, crystallographically studied and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. Its ionic crystal structure is built up of [Co(bapen)Br2]+ cations and [CoBr4]2- anions. The Co(III) central atoms within the complex cations are hexacoordinated (donor set trans-N4Br2) with bromido ligands placed in the axial positions. The Co(II) atoms exhibit distorted tetrahedral coordination. Beside ionic forces weak Nsbnd H⋯Br intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions contribute to the stability of the structure. Temperature variable magnetic measurements confirm the S = 3/2 behavior with the zero-field splitting of an intermediate strength: D/hc = 8.7 cm-1.

  9. BR-Explorer: A sound and complete FCA-based retrieval algorithm (Poster)

    OpenAIRE

    Messai , Nizar; Devignes , Marie-Dominique; Napoli , Amedeo; Smaïl-Tabbone , Malika

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present BR-Explorer, a sound and complete biological data sources retrieval algorithm based on Formal Concept Analysis and domain ontologies. BR-Explorer addresses the problem of retrieving the relevant data sources for a given query. Initially, a formal context representing the relation between biological data sources and their metadata is provided and its corresponding concept lattice is built. Then BR-Explorer starts by generating the formal concept for the considered quer...

  10. What is the best bonding model of the (σ-H-BR) species bound to a transition metal? Bonding analysis in complexes [(H)2Cl(PMe3)2M(σ-H-BR)] (M = Fe, Ru, Os).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Krishna K

    2012-03-21

    Density Functional Theory calculations have been performed for the σ-hydroboryl complexes of iron, ruthenium and osmium [(H)(2)Cl(PMe(3))(2)M(σ-H-BR)] (M = Fe, Ru, Os; R = OMe, NMe(2), Ph) at the BP86/TZ2P/ZORA level of theory in order to understand the interactions between metal and HBR ligands. The calculated geometries of the complexes [(H)(2)Cl(PMe(3))(2)Ru(HBNMe(2))], [(H)(2)Cl(PMe(3))(2)Os(HBR)] (R = OMe, NMe(2)) are in excellent agreement with structurally characterized complexes [(H)(2)Cl(P(i)Pr(3))(2)Os(σ-H-BNMe(2))], [(H)(2)Cl(P(i)Pr(3))(2)Os{σ-H-BOCH(2)CH(2)OB(O(2)CH(2)CH(2))}] and [(H)(2)Cl(P(i)Pr(3))(2)Os(σ-H-BNMe(2))]. The longer calculated M-B bond distance in complex [(H)(2)Cl(PMe(3))(2)M(σ-H-BNMe(2))] are due to greater B-N π bonding and as a result, a weaker M-B π-back-bonding. The B-H2 bond distances reveal that (i) iron complexes contain bis(σ-borane) ligand, (ii) ruthenium complexes contain (σ-H-BR) ligands with a stretched B-H2 bond, and (iii) osmium complexes contain hydride (H2) and (σ-H-BR) ligands. The H-BR ligands in osmium complexes are a better trans-directing ligand than the Cl ligand. Values of interaction energy, electrostatic interaction, orbital interaction, and bond dissociation energy for interactions between ionic fragments are very large and may not be consistent with M-(σ-H-BR) bonding. The EDA as well as NBO and AIM analysis suggest that the best bonding model for the M-σ-H-BR interactions in the complexes [(H)(2)Cl(PMe(3))(2)M(σ-H-BR)] is the interaction between neutral fragments [(H)(2)Cl(PMe(3))(2)M] and [σ-H-BR]. This becomes evident from the calculated values for the orbital interactions. The electron configuration of the fragments which is shown for C in Fig. 1 experiences the smallest change upon the M-σ-H-BR bond formation. Since model C also requires the least amount of electronic excitation and geometry changes of all models given by the ΔE(prep) values, it is clearly the most appropriate choice of

  11. A recombinant endogenous retrovirus amplified in a mouse neuroblastoma is involved in tumor growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothlichet, Julien; Heidmann, Thierry; Mangeney, Marianne

    2006-08-15

    The theory of immunoediting postulates that tumor cells exhibit a reduced immunogenicity to escape eradication by the host immune system. It has been proposed that endogenous retroviruses--provided that they are active--could play a role in this process, via the immunosuppressive domain carried by their envelope protein. Here, we demonstrate that the Neuro-2a tumor cell line--originating from a spontaneous A/J mouse neuroblastoma--produces an infectious retrovirus that most probably results from a recombination event between 2 mouse endogenous retroviral elements. This Neuro-2a-associated recombinant retrovirus derives from the unique ecotropic provirus located at the Emv-1 locus, but with a gag sequence conferring B-tropism, thus allowing its high-level amplification in Neuro-2a cells. We show that knocking down -by RNA interference- this endogenous retrovirus in Neuro-2a cells has no effect on the transformed phenotype of the cells, but results in delayed tumor growth and prolonged animal survival, following engraftment of the cells into immunocompetent mice. Recombination between endogenous retroviruses, amplification of the resulting element and high-level expression of its immunosuppressive activity are therefore likely steps of an immunoediting process, leading to an invading tumor. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. MM-rallin vaikutus Toyotan brändiin

    OpenAIRE

    Laurila, Heini

    2017-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, millainen vaikutus MM-ralliin palaamisella on Toyotan brändiin Suomessa. Insinöörityö toteutettiin yhteistyössä Suomen Toyotan ja Lexuksen maahantuojayrityksen, Toyota Auto Finland Oy:n sekä AKK Sports Oy:n kanssa. AKK Sports Oy on vastuussa vuosittaisen Suomen MM-ralliosakilpailun, Neste Rallin, järjestämisestä. Tutkimuksen taustatyönä tutustuttiin ensin brändejä ja markkinointia koskevaan kirjallisuuteen. Sen lisäksi käytiin läpi Toyotan ...

  13. Applying Endogenous Knowledge in the African Context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question presented in this article is how to improve the dispute resolution competence of practitioners in Africa. The response offered involves enhancing the endogenous knowledge of a dispute and how to resolve it. This requires not only an understanding of what endogenous knowledge is, but also an alignment of ...

  14. Endogenous and exogenously-induced immunomodulation of tumour-host responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Ablin

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the availability of multiple effector mechanisms of the immune system to combat tumour growth and metastases, their impairment frequently accompanies the appearance of cancer. Factors contributing to this impairment may be related to properties of the host and/or the tumour itself and may be with respect to their origin -endogenous or exogenour. Based on the unique biological behavior of prostate cancer (PCa, and its apparent escape from immune surveillance in the presence of tumour immuno genicity, continuing investigation of endogenous and exogenous factors thought to be relevant to its pathogenesis have been made. For this purpose further studies of the suggested role of human seminal plasma (SePl and the synthetic oestrogen, diethylstiboestrol (DES, as representative endogenous and exogenous immunomodulatory factors (IMF of tumour-host responsiveness, together with evaluation of human prostatic tissue extracts and leuprolide (the luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone proposed as an alternate to DES therapy have been made by evaluating their effect on the lytic activity of natural killer (NK cells. SePl and prostate extracts significantly suppressed NK cell lysis. Physicochemical studies suggest SePl and prostate IMF to be associated with high and low molecular weight macromolecules; and implicate the participation of transglutaminase and prostaglandins. Comparative study of therapeutic levels of DES vs. leuprolide on NK cell lysis demonstrated significant suppression by DES vs. a negligible effect of leuprolide. Metastases are highly prevalent in PCa, and contribute significantly to its morbidity and mortality. Further knowledge of the range of effects of endogenous and exogenous IMF on effector mechanisms of tumour-host responsiveness, to include suppression of NK cells, and elucidation of their nature, may contribute toward our understanding of the unique biological behavior of tumours of the prostate, in addition to

  15. Formation and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticle Composite with Poly(p-Br/F-phenylsilane).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Sung-Hee; Noh, Ji Eun; Woo, Hee-Gweon; Cho, Myong-Shik; Sohn, Honglae

    2015-02-01

    The one-pot production and structural characterization of composites of silver nanoparticles with poly(p-Br/F-phenylsilane), Br/F-PPS, have been performed. The conversion of Ag+ ions to stable Ag0 nanoparticles is mediated by the copolymer Br/F-PPS having both possibly reactive Si-H bonds in the polymer backbone and C-Br bonds in the substituents along with relatively inert C-F bonds. Transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy analyses show the formation of the composites where silver nanoparticles (less than 30 nm of size) are well dispersed over the Br/F-PPS matrix. X-ray diffraction patterns are consistent with that for face-centered-cubic typed silver. The polymer solubility in toluene implys that the cleavage of C-Br bond and the Si-F dative bonding may not be occurred appreciably at ambient temperature. Nonetheless, thermogravimetric analysis data suggest that some sort of cross-linking could take place at high temperature. Most of the silver particles undergo macroscopic aggregation without Br/F-PPS, which indicates that the polysilane is necessary for stabilizing the silver nanoparticles.

  16. Life extension of the BR2 aluminium vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.; Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Verwerft, M.; Raedt, C. de; Winckel, S. van; Wacquier, W.; Dadoumont, J.; Verwimp, A.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor has recently undergone a major refurbishment comprising the replacement of all vessel internals. The vessel itself however was not replaced. An important requalification programme has been executed to prove that the vessel would remain fit during the contemplated life extension period of BR2. Representative material samples could be obtained from the shroud surrounding the vessel. A comprehensive in-service inspection was carried out and a vessel surveillance programme has been established. (author)

  17. Detection of endogenous lithium in neuropsychiatric disorders--a model for biological transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2002-01-01

    The human hypothalamus produces an endogenous membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibitor, digoxin. A digoxin induced model of cellular/neuronal quantal state and perception has been described by the authors. Biological transmutation has been described in microbial systems in the quantal state. The study focuses on the plasma levels of digoxin, RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity, plasma levels of magnesium and lithium in neuropsychiatric and systemic disorders. Inhibition of RBC membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was observed in most cases along with an increase in the levels of serum digoxin and lithium and a decrease in the level of serum Mg(++). The generation of endogenous lithium would obviously occur due to biological transmutation from magnesium. Digoxin and lithium together can produce added membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibition. The role of membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase inhibition in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric and systemic disorders is discussed. The inhibition of membrane Na(+)-K(+) ATPase can contribute to an increase in intracellular calcium and a decrease in magnesium, which can result in a defective neurotransmitter transport mechanism, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis, defective golgi body function and protein processing dysfunction, immune dysfunction and oncogenesis. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Pan-Balti bränding - müüt või tegelikkus? / Joel Volkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volkov, Joel, 1972-

    2006-01-01

    Brändil pole kodumaad, on keel ja päritolumaa. Lokaalsed brändid valivad suhtlemiseks kohalikega nende kodukeele, globaalsed brändid harilikult inglise keele. Üks suuremaid ja tugevamaid lokaalsest süsteemist kasvanud Pan-Balti brände on Hansapank. Lisa: Sulev Vedler. Hansast võib saada Swedbank

  19. Immunoassay of serum alpha-1 antitrypsin level in uveitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, A K; Sarin, G S

    1984-01-01

    The serum alpha-1 antitrypsin level was measured in 60 patients with endogenous uveitis, 27 patients with phacoallergic endophthalmitis, 12 patients with phacolytic glaucoma, and 58 healthy subjects. Thirty-four patients with endogenous uveitis were also followed up for 6 months after treatment, and the serum alpha-1 antitrypsin level was measured again. There was a significant rise in the serum alpha-1 antitrypsin level in cases of endogenous uveitis and phacoallergic endophthalmitis but no ...

  20. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  1. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  2. Comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature (∼260 C) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature (∼970 C) -- a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behavior characterized by a 41J. Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program; this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the BR3 vessel

  3. Transient photoelectron spectroscopy of the dissociative Br2(1Piu) state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel; Goulay, Fabien; Leone, Stephen R

    2007-11-14

    Photodissociation of bromine on the Br2(1Piu) state is probed with ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (53.7 nm) single-photon ionization. Time-resolved photoelectron spectra show simultaneously the depletion of ground state bromine molecules as well as the rise of Br(2P3/2) products due to 402.5 nm photolysis. A partial photoionization cross-section ratio of atomic versus molecular bromine is obtained. Transient photoelectron spectra of a dissociative wave packet on the excited state are presented in the limit of low-power-density, single-photon excitation to the dissociative state. Transient binding energy shifts of "atomic-like" photoelectron peaks are observed and interpreted as photoionization of nearly separated Br atom pairs on the Br2(1Piu) state to repulsive dissociative ionization states.

  4. How Stock Markets Development Affect Endogenous Growth Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeb Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper can bedescribed as a significant exploratory study that will provide a significantcontribution to knowledge to consider crucial issues which need to be barriersto understanding or a temptation/ requirement to judge some practices as‘better’ than others for stock market development effective approach andimplement successful stock market performance and economic growth. Recentanalysis of the link between financial development and growth, gained frominsights acquired as a result of using the technique of endogenous growthmodels, has illustrated that growth without exogenous technical progress andthat growth rates could be related to technology, income distribution andinstitutional arrangements. This provides the theoretical background thatempirical studies have lacked; illustrating that financial intermediationaffects the level of economic growth. Resulting models have provided newimpetus to empirical research of the effects of financial development. Thebirth of the new endogenous growth theory has facilitated the development ofimproved growth models where the long-term rate could be affected by a numberof elements. These included technology, education and health policies in theprocess of economic development, capital accumulation, government policies andinstitutional activities in the role of financial development in economicgrowth.

  5. The mechanical properties of radiation-vulcanized NR/BR blending system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Aoshuang E-mail: yanas@public3.bta.net.cn; Guo Zhengtao; Li Li; Zhai Ying; Zhou Peng

    2002-03-01

    The effect of radiation dose on the mechanical properties of NR/BR blending system is reported in this paper. A comparison was made between sulphur vulcanization and radiation vulcanization for an optimal nature rubber (NR)/ butyl rubber (BR) blending ratio (60/40) at dose range from 10 to 150 kGy. The result shows that the mechanical properties, especially, tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength have been improved significantly by radiation-vulcanization. This finding was also proved by thermal aging experiment on a selected NR/BR blend at 70 deg. C for up to 168 h.

  6. From Gender as Exogenous to Gender as Endogenous in the New Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter argues that gender is endogenous to the economic process. It demonstrates a two-way relationship between the economy and gender relations, and emphasizes the macro level. It demonstrates that inequality in gender relations can have a negative effect on economic policy and

  7. Evidence for concerted ring opening and C–Br bond breaking in UV-excited bromocyclopropane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, Shubhrangshu; Preston, Thomas J.; Orr-Ewing, Andrew J., E-mail: a.orr-ewing@bristol.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); King, Simon J.; Vallance, Claire [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Chemistry Research Laboratory, 12 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-28

    Photodissociation of gaseous bromocyclopropane via its A-band continuum has been studied at excitation wavelengths ranging from 230 nm to 267 nm. Velocity-map images of ground-state bromine atoms (Br), spin-orbit excited bromine atoms (Br{sup ∗}), and C{sub 3}H{sub 5} hydrocarbon radicals reveal the kinetic energies of these various photofragments. Both Br and Br{sup ∗} atoms are predominantly generated via repulsive excited electronic states in a prompt photodissociation process in which the hydrocarbon co-fragment is a cyclopropyl radical. However, the images obtained at the mass of the hydrocarbon radical fragment identify a channel with total kinetic energy greater than that deduced from the Br and Br{sup ∗} images, and with a kinetic energy distribution that exceeds the energetic limit for Br + cyclopropyl radical products. The velocity-map images of these C{sub 3}H{sub 5} fragments have lower angular anisotropies than measured for Br and Br{sup ∗}, indicating molecular restructuring during dissociation. The high kinetic energy C{sub 3}H{sub 5} signals are assigned to allyl radicals generated by a minor photochemical pathway which involves concerted C–Br bond dissociation and cyclopropyl ring-opening following single ultraviolet (UV)-photon absorption. Slow photofragments also contribute to the velocity map images obtained at the C{sub 3}H{sub 5} radical mass, but the corresponding slow Br atoms are not observed. These features in the images are attributed to C{sub 3}H{sub 5}{sup +} from the photodissociation of the C{sub 3}H{sub 5}Br{sup +} molecular cation following two-photon ionization of the parent compound. This assignment is confirmed by 118-nm vacuum ultraviolet ionization studies that prepare the molecular cation in its ground electronic state prior to UV photodissociation.

  8. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  9. Impact of MicroRNA Levels, Target-Site Complementarity, and Cooperativity on Competing Endogenous RNA-Regulated Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzler, Rémy; McGeary, Sean E; Title, Alexandra C; Agarwal, Vikram; Bartel, David P; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-11-03

    Expression changes of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have been proposed to influence microRNA (miRNA) activity and thereby regulate other transcripts containing miRNA-binding sites. Here, we find that although miRNA levels define the extent of repression, they have little effect on the magnitude of the ceRNA expression change required to observe derepression. Canonical 6-nt sites, which typically mediate modest repression, can nonetheless compete for miRNA binding, with potency ∼20% of that observed for canonical 8-nt sites. In aggregate, low-affinity/background sites also contribute to competition. Sites with extensive additional complementarity can appear as more potent, but only because they induce miRNA degradation. Cooperative binding of proximal sites for the same or different miRNAs does increase potency. These results provide quantitative insights into the stoichiometric relationship between miRNAs and target abundance, target-site spacing, and affinity requirements for ceRNA-mediated gene regulation, and the unusual circumstances in which ceRNA-mediated gene regulation might be observed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluorescence Blinking and Photoactivation of All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and CsPbBr2I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Sudipta; Mondal, Navendu; Patra, Satyajit; Samanta, Anunay

    2016-01-21

    Study of the emission behavior of all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals CsPbBr3 and CsPbBr2I as a function of the excitation power employing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and conventional techniques reveals fluorescence blinking in the microsecond time scale and photoinduced emission enhancement. The observation provides insight into the radiative and nonradiative deactivation pathways of these promising substances. Because both blinking and photoactivation processes are intimately linked to the charge separation efficiency and dynamics of the nanocrystals, these key findings are likely to be helpful in realizing the true potential of these substances in photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications.

  11. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (endogenous opioids and receptors), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (pain and analgesia); stress and social status (human studies); tolerance and dependence (opioid mediation of other analgesic responses); learning and memory (stress and social status); eating and drinking (stress-induced analgesia); alcohol and drugs of abuse (emotional responses in opioid-mediated behaviors); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (opioid involvement in stress response regulation); mental illness and mood (tolerance and dependence); seizures and neurologic disorders (learning and memory); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (opiates and conditioned place preferences (CPP)); general activity and locomotion (eating and drinking); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (alcohol and drugs of abuse); cardiovascular responses (opiates and ethanol); respiration and thermoregulation (opiates and THC); and immunological responses (opiates and stimulants). This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular

  12. Diurnal trend in EEG interhemispheric asymmetry in endogenous depressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Melnikova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A trend in EEG interhemispheric asymmetry was studied in patients with endogenous depressions in morning and evening hours. In the morning, the spectral power of alpha rhythm particularly in the occipital cortical regions, proved to be higher than that in the evening. In the morning, the interhemispheric differences in the power of occipital alpha rhythm were leveled off while in the evening there was normalization of interhemispheric balance with the higher power of alpha rhythm in the right occipital region. Analysis of the mean coherence (mean Coh of alpha rhythm in individual cortical regions revealed that the patients with endogenous depression had higher readings mainly in the parietal and central regions of both hemispheres and in the right temporal regions in the morning than in the evening. The occipital and posttemporal regions showed an inverse trend in the mean Coh - it was lower in the morning than in the evening

  13. Stratospheric BrO abundance measured by a balloon-borne submillimeterwave radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Stachnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of mixing ratio profiles of stratospheric bromine monoxide (BrO were made using observations of BrO rotational line emission at 650.179 GHz by a balloon-borne SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor submillimeterwave heterodyne limb sounder (SLS. The balloon was launched from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico (34° N on 22 September 2011. Peak mid-day BrO abundance varied from 16 ± 2 ppt at 34 km to 6 ± 4 ppt at 16 km. Corresponding estimates of total inorganic bromine (Bry, derived from BrO vmr (volume mixing ratio using a photochemical box model, were 21 ± 3 ppt and 11 ± 5 ppt, respectively. Inferred Bry abundance exceeds that attributable solely to decomposition of long-lived methyl bromide and other halons, and is consistent with a contribution from bromine-containing very short lived substances, BryVSLS, of 4 ppt to 8 ppt. These results for BrO and Bry were compared with, and found to be in good agreement with, those of other recent balloon-borne and satellite instruments.

  14. Endogenous TSH levels at the time of {sup 131}I ablation do not influence ablation success, recurrence-free survival or differentiated thyroid cancer-related mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrachimis, Alexis; Riemann, Burkhard [University Hospital Muenster, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Maeder, Uwe; Reiners, Christoph [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Based on a single older study it is established dogma that TSH levels should be ≥30 mU/l at the time of postoperative {sup 131}I ablation in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients. We sought to determine whether endogenous TSH levels, i.e. after levothyroxine withdrawal, at the time of ablation influence ablation success rates, recurrence-free survival and DTC-related mortality. A total of 1,873 patients without distant metastases referred for postoperative adjuvant {sup 131}I therapy were retrospectively included from 1991 onwards. Successful ablation was defined as stimulated Tg <1 μg/l. Age, gender and the presence of lymph node metastases were independent determinants of TSH levels at the time of ablation. TSH levels were not significantly related to ablation success rates (p = 0.34), recurrence-free survival (p = 0.29) or DTC -elated mortality (p = 0.82), but established risk factors such as T-stage, lymph node metastases and age were. Ablation was successful in 230 of 275 patients (83.6 %) with TSH <30 mU/l and in 1,359 of 1,598 patients (85.0 %) with TSH ≥30 mU/l. The difference was not significant (p = 0.55). Of the whole group of 1,873 patients, 21 had recurrent disease. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.16). Ten of the 1,873 patients died of DTC. There were no significant differences in DTC-specific survival between patients with TSH <30 mU/l and TSH ≥30 mU/l (p = 0.53). The precise endogenous TSH levels at the time of {sup 131}I ablation are not related to the ablation success rates, recurrence free survival and DTC related mortality. The established dogma that TSH levels need to be ≥30 mU/l at the time of {sup 131}I ablation can be discarded. (orig.)

  15. Role of endogenous substances in enhancing radioresistance background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharenko, E.N.; Gorskaya, T.G.; Gudz', T.I.; Zolotareva, L.T.; Kovaleva, Z.I.; Peshkova, E.N.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of ''wild type'' diploid cells (more radioresistant than haploid ones) are characterized by a higher content of endogenous biologically active substances, which possess a radioprotective ability (biogenous amines and SOD), and a lower level of radiosensitizing substances (hydroperoxides of higher unsaturated fatty acids). With Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bearing mutation rad 51, not all the components of the radioresistance background shoW this dependence, which is indicative of the presence of additional factors affecting radioresistance of these cells

  16. Endogenous reverse transcriptase (RT) activity and Chromatin remodeling in normal and transformed cells and early embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadafora, C.; Sciamanna, I.; Misteli, T.

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous Reverse Transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme encoded by two classes of genomic retro-elements: retro-transposons and endogenous retroviruses. Basal levels of RT are expressed in all non pathological, differentiated tissues while high RT expression levels characterize tumorigenic cells, germ cells and embryonic tissues. Preliminary studies carried out in our laboratory have shown that RT inhibition using pharmacological inhibitors (nevirapine and efavirenz, two drugs currently used in AIDS therapy) drastically reduces cell proliferation, promotes differentiation of tumorigenic cells in vitro, induces a reprogrammed gene expression and antagonizes tumor progression in nude mice inoculated with tumorigenic human cell lines, including melanoma, prostate and colon carcinoma and microcitoma

  17. Endogenous Nampt upregulation is associated with diabetic nephropathy inflammatory-fibrosis through the NF-κB p65 and Sirt1 pathway; NMN alleviates diabetic nephropathy inflammatory-fibrosis by inhibiting endogenous Nampt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Liang, Yuzhen; Hu, Tingting; Wei, Riming; Cai, Congjie; Wang, Ping; Wang, Lingyu; Qiao, Wei; Feng, Leping

    2017-11-01

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a key enzyme in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) biosynthetic pathway. Exogenous extra cellular Nampt has been reported to increase the synthesis of pro-fibrotic molecules in various types of renal cells. However, the role of endogenous Namptenzymatic activity in diabetic renal cells, particularly those associated with inflammation and fibrosis through the nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 and sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) pathway is still unknown. In the present study, a possible mechanism by which endogenous Nampt upregulation affects the expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines in vivo and in vitro , is reported. The present results demonstrate that the expression of vimentin and fibronectin was directly implicated in endogenous Nampt upregulation. The expression levels of Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, NF-κB p65, forkhead box protein O1 and B-cell lymphoma 2-like protein 4 were also significantly increased at 96 h compared with control group (Pendogenous Nampt upregulation. Furthermore, the expression level of Sirt1 was significantly reduced (Pendogenous Nampt upregulation may be critical in the treatment of DN pro-inflammatory fibrosis and NMN is likely to be a potential pharmacological agent for the treatment of resistant DN nephritic fibrosis.

  18. Validade concorrente da versão Brasileira do SRS-22r com o Br-SF-36 Concurrent validity of the Brazilian version of SRS-22r with Br-SF-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle C. L. Rosanova

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A validade concorrente, relevante na adaptação transcultural, refere-se à relação entre o desempenho do instrumento de interesse e o desempenho de instrumento semelhante com validade conhecida. OBJETIVO: Realizar a validação concorrente da versão brasileira do questionário revisado da Scoliosis Research Society (Br-SRS-22r com a versão brasileira do Short Form-36 (Br-SF-36. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 54 pacientes com escoliose idiopática com média de 19,9 anos (±7,7 e curvaturas com média de 31,6° (±20,5° graus Cobb, variando entre 10º e 92º. Os questionários tiveram seus resultados convertidos em escores, e a análise estatística correlacionou os domínios concorrentes utilizando o cálculo de coeficiente de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os domínios de melhor correlação foram função do Br-SRS-22r com função física do Br-SF-36 (r=0,83 e dor do Br-SRS-22r com dor do Br-SF-36 (r=0,86. Entretanto, os domínios autoimagem e satisfação com o tratamento do Br-SRS-22r apresentaram baixa correlação com seus domínios concorrentes do Br-SF-36. DISCUSSÃO: Houve uma correlação satisfatória entre os questionários, sendo que as melhores correlações indicam maior semelhança nos parâmetros avaliados entre os respectivos instrumentos. As melhores correlações foram as dos domínios função e dor, não ocorrendo em saúde mental, possivelmente devido às dificuldades de interpretação de suas questões no Br-SF-36. Para os domínios autoimagem e satisfação com o tratamento do Br-SRS-22r, a correlação é pouco satisfatória por não serem especificamente abordados pelo SF-36. CONCLUSÃO: A versão brasileira do SRS-22r apresentou resultados satisfatórios para a validação concorrente com o Br-SF-36, sendo considerada válida para a versão adaptada à cultura brasileira.BACKGROUND: An important parameter in cross-cultural adaptations, and concurrent validity are the relationships between the

  19. Attention and predictions: control of spatial attention beyond the endogenous-exogenous dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eMacaluso

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of attention control have been extensively studied with a variety of methodologies in animals and in humans. Human studies using non-invasive imaging techniques highlighted a remarkable difference between the pattern of responses in dorsal fronto-parietal regions vs. ventral fronto-parietal regions, primarily lateralized to the right hemisphere. Initially, this distinction at the neuro-physiological level has been related to the distinction between cognitive processes associated with strategic/endogenous vs. stimulus-driven/exogenous of attention control. Nonetheless, quite soon it has become evident that, in almost any situation, attention control entails a complex combination of factors related to both the current sensory input and endogenous aspects associated with the experimental context. Here, we review several of these aspects first discussing the joint contribution of endogenous and stimulus-driven factors during spatial orienting in complex environments and, then, turning to the role of expectations and predictions in spatial re-orienting. We emphasize that strategic factors play a pivotal role for the activation of the ventral system during stimulus-driven control, and that the dorsal system makes use of stimulus-driven signals for top-down control. We conclude that both the dorsal and the ventral fronto-parietal networks integrate endogenous and exogenous signals during spatial attention control and that future investigations should manipulate both these factors concurrently, so as to reveal to full extent of these interactions.

  20. Attention and predictions: control of spatial attention beyond the endogenous-exogenous dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Emiliano; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of attention control have been extensively studied with a variety of methodologies in animals and in humans. Human studies using non-invasive imaging techniques highlighted a remarkable difference between the pattern of responses in dorsal fronto-parietal regions vs. ventral fronto-parietal (vFP) regions, primarily lateralized to the right hemisphere. Initially, this distinction at the neuro-physiological level has been related to the distinction between cognitive processes associated with strategic/endogenous vs. stimulus-driven/exogenous of attention control. Nonetheless, quite soon it has become evident that, in almost any situation, attention control entails a complex combination of factors related to both the current sensory input and endogenous aspects associated with the experimental context. Here, we review several of these aspects first discussing the joint contribution of endogenous and stimulus-driven factors during spatial orienting in complex environments and, then, turning to the role of expectations and predictions in spatial re-orienting. We emphasize that strategic factors play a pivotal role for the activation of the ventral system during stimulus-driven control, and that the dorsal system makes use of stimulus-driven signals for top-down control. We conclude that both the dorsal and the vFP networks integrate endogenous and exogenous signals during spatial attention control and that future investigations should manipulate both these factors concurrently, so as to reveal to full extent of these interactions. PMID:24155707

  1. Quantifying the timescales over which exogenous and endogenous conditions affect soil respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron-Gafford, Greg A; Cable, Jessica M; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Scott, Russell L; Huxman, Travis E; Jenerette, G Darrel; Ogle, Kiona

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how exogenous and endogenous factors and above-ground-below-ground linkages modulate carbon dynamics is difficult because of the influences of antecedent conditions. For example, there are variable lags between above-ground assimilation and below-ground efflux, and the duration of antecedent periods are often arbitrarily assigned. Nonetheless, developing models linking above- and below-ground processes is crucial for estimating current and future carbon dynamics. We collected data on leaf-level photosynthesis (Asat ) and soil respiration (Rsoil ) in different microhabitats (under shrubs vs under bunchgrasses) in the Sonoran Desert. We evaluated timescales over which endogenous and exogenous factors control Rsoil by analyzing data in the context of a semimechanistic temperature-response model of Rsoil that incorporated effects of antecedent exogenous (soil water) and endogenous (Asat ) conditions. For both microhabitats, antecedent soil water and Asat significantly affected Rsoil , but Rsoil under shrubs was more sensitive to Asat than that under bunchgrasses. Photosynthetic rates 1 and 3 d before the Rsoil measurement were most important in determining current-day Rsoil under bunchgrasses and shrubs, respectively, indicating a significant lag effect. Endogenous and exogenous controls are critical drivers of Rsoil , but the relative importance and the timescale over which each factor affects Rsoil depends on above-ground vegetation and ecosystem structure characteristics. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Attention and predictions: control of spatial attention beyond the endogenous-exogenous dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaluso, Emiliano; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of attention control have been extensively studied with a variety of methodologies in animals and in humans. Human studies using non-invasive imaging techniques highlighted a remarkable difference between the pattern of responses in dorsal fronto-parietal regions vs. ventral fronto-parietal (vFP) regions, primarily lateralized to the right hemisphere. Initially, this distinction at the neuro-physiological level has been related to the distinction between cognitive processes associated with strategic/endogenous vs. stimulus-driven/exogenous of attention control. Nonetheless, quite soon it has become evident that, in almost any situation, attention control entails a complex combination of factors related to both the current sensory input and endogenous aspects associated with the experimental context. Here, we review several of these aspects first discussing the joint contribution of endogenous and stimulus-driven factors during spatial orienting in complex environments and, then, turning to the role of expectations and predictions in spatial re-orienting. We emphasize that strategic factors play a pivotal role for the activation of the ventral system during stimulus-driven control, and that the dorsal system makes use of stimulus-driven signals for top-down control. We conclude that both the dorsal and the vFP networks integrate endogenous and exogenous signals during spatial attention control and that future investigations should manipulate both these factors concurrently, so as to reveal to full extent of these interactions.

  3. Endogene CGRP

    OpenAIRE

    Höfer, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele Die vorliegende tierexperimentelle Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, welche Rolle endogenes Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in der Niere spielt. Hierbei untersuchten wir die renale CGRP Freisetzung aus renalen Afferenzen in vitro anhand von gesunden Tieren und einem pathologischen Modell der Glomerulonephritis. Man weiß bereits, dass sowohl sympathische als auch primär sensorische Neuronen die Entzündung und die Immunantwort in der Peripherie regulieren (68)....

  4. [The endogenous opioid system and drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, R

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder leading to complex adaptive changes within the brain reward circuits. Several neurotransmitters, including the endogenous opioid system are involved in these changes. The opioid system plays a pivotal role in different aspects of addiction. Thus, opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides are largely distributed in the mesolimbic system and modulate dopaminergic activity within the reward circuits. Opioid receptors and peptides are selectively involved in several components of the addictive processes induced by opioids, cannabinoids, psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This review is focused on the contribution of each component of the endogenous opioid system in the addictive properties of the different drugs of abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Refurbishment programme for the BR2-reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonen, E [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, BR2 Department, Boeretang, Mol (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    BR2 is a high flux engineering test reactor, which differs from comparable material testing reactors by its specific core array (fig. 1). It is a heterogeneous, thermal, tank-in-pool type reactor, moderated by beryllium and light water, which serves also as coolant. The fuel elements consist of cylindrical assemblies loaded in channels materialized by hexagonal beryllium prisms. The central 200 mm channel is vertical, while all others are inclined and form a hyperbolical arrangement around the central one. This feature combines a very compact core with the requirement of sufficient space for individual access to all channels through penetrations in the top cover of the aluminium pressure vessel. Each channel may hold a fuel element, a control rod, an experiment, an irradiation device or a beryllium plug. The refurbishment Program According to the present programme of C.E.N./S.C.K., BR2 will be in operation until 1996. At that time, the beryllium matrix will reach its foreseen end-of-life. In order to continue operation beyond this point, a thorough refurbishment of the reactor is foreseen, in addition to the unavoidable replacement of the matrix, to ensure quality of the installation and compliance with modern standards. Some fundamental options have been taken as a starting point: BR2 will continue to be used as a classical MTR, i.e. fuel and material irradiations and safety experiments with some additional service-activities. The present configuration is optimized for that use and there is no specific experimental requirement to change the basic concepts and performance characteristics. From the customers viewpoint, it is desirable to go ahead with the well-known features of BR2, to maintain a high degree of availability and reliability and to minimize the duration of the long shutdown. It is also important to limit the amount of nuclear liabilities. So the objective of the refurbishment programme is the life extension of BR2 for about 15 years, corresponding to

  6. Refurbishment programme for the BR2-reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonen, E.

    1992-01-01

    BR2 is a high flux engineering test reactor, which differs from comparable material testing reactors by its specific core array (fig. 1). It is a heterogeneous, thermal, tank-in-pool type reactor, moderated by beryllium and light water, which serves also as coolant. The fuel elements consist of cylindrical assemblies loaded in channels materialized by hexagonal beryllium prisms. The central 200 mm channel is vertical, while all others are inclined and form a hyperbolical arrangement around the central one. This feature combines a very compact core with the requirement of sufficient space for individual access to all channels through penetrations in the top cover of the aluminium pressure vessel. Each channel may hold a fuel element, a control rod, an experiment, an irradiation device or a beryllium plug. The refurbishment Program According to the present programme of C.E.N./S.C.K., BR2 will be in operation until 1996. At that time, the beryllium matrix will reach its foreseen end-of-life. In order to continue operation beyond this point, a thorough refurbishment of the reactor is foreseen, in addition to the unavoidable replacement of the matrix, to ensure quality of the installation and compliance with modern standards. Some fundamental options have been taken as a starting point: BR2 will continue to be used as a classical MTR, i.e. fuel and material irradiations and safety experiments with some additional service-activities. The present configuration is optimized for that use and there is no specific experimental requirement to change the basic concepts and performance characteristics. From the customers viewpoint, it is desirable to go ahead with the well-known features of BR2, to maintain a high degree of availability and reliability and to minimize the duration of the long shutdown. It is also important to limit the amount of nuclear liabilities. So the objective of the refurbishment programme is the life extension of BR2 for about 15 years, corresponding to

  7. Matrix isolation and theoretical study of the photochemical reactions of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br and 1,2-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Br{sub 2} with CrO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, Christine E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210172, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Goldberg, Nicola [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210172, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Klein-Riffle, Evan T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210172, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Kronberg, Jon K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210172, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Ault, Bruce S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 210172, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)], E-mail: bruce.ault@uc.edu

    2006-08-01

    The matrix-isolation technique has been combined with infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations to characterize the products of the photochemical reactions of C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br and 1,2-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Br{sub 2} with CrO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. For these systems, oxygen-atom transfer occurred upon visible-near ultraviolet irradiation, yielding bromoacetaldehyde and CrOCl{sub 2} in the former case and bromoacetyl bromide and CrCl{sub 2}O in the latter. For each system, the products were formed in the same matrix cage and strongly interacted to form a distinct molecular complex. No evidence was obtained for the acetyl bromide derivative in the C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Br system, indicating the occurrence of oxygen-atom attack at the less substituted carbon of vinyl bromide, nor was any evidence obtained for the formation of a possible five-membered metallocycle. Two different modes of interaction were explored computationally: {eta}{sup 1} (end-on) to the oxygen atom and {eta}{sup 2} (side-on) to the C=O bond. Theoretical calculations indicated that the {eta}{sup 1} complex of CH{sub 2}BrCHO-CrCl{sub 2}O was 13 kcal mol{sup -1} more stable than the {eta}{sup 2} complex at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,2p) level of theory. The binding energy of the {eta}{sup 1} complex was found to be 21 kcal mol{sup -1}, compared to 8 kcal mol{sup -1} for the {eta}{sup 2} complex at this level of theory.

  8. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity, endogeneous cardiac glycoside-like factors (s) and natriuretic hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous factors crossreacting with antidigoxin antibodies (digoxin-like immunoreactive substances=DLIS) have been found in several tissues and body fluids of animals and humans, using commercially avaiable digoxin RIA or EIA methods. Detectable DLIS concentration were found in blood and urine extracts of adults (normal healthy controls, hypertensive patients and salt loaded healthy subjects), while higher levels were generally observed in plasma samples of pregnant women, newborns and patients with renal insufficiency. The chemical characteristics of this endogenous factor are, at present, unknown, although it has been suggested that DLIS could be a substance with low molecular weight. Experimental studies and theoretical consideration suggest that DLIS, in addition to reacting with antibodies, might also bind to the specific cellular receptor of the cardiac glycosides and thus inhibit the membrane Na + /K + ATPase (sodium pump). Therefore, it has been suggested that DLSI is an endogeneous modulator of the membrane sodium-potassium pump and it could play a role in the regulation of fluid and electrolytes muscular tone of myocardial and also in pathogenesis of hypertension

  9. Bréal, un antinaturalisme d’inspiration humboldtienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Jean-Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans De la forme et de la fonction des mots, Bréal formulait, dès 1866, outre une critique générale du formalisme de la philologie comparative depuis Bopp, une thèse radicalement opposée à l’orientation naturaliste de l’évolutionnisme linguistique de Schleicher. Cette thèse, que nous prendrons le risque de définir comme thèse du primat de la fonction sur la forme linguistique, est au coeur de ce programme de linguistique générale pour lequel Bréal allait forger, quelques années plus tard, le mot de sémantique. Fortement marqué par la notion humboldtienne d’innere Sprachform, Bréal, contrairement à Saussure, n'abandonnera jamais le changement linguistique au hasard de l'histoire et maintiendra l'intelligence comme premier moteur des langues, quitte à poser la nécessité de repenser cette intelligence.

  10. C-Reactive Protein Levels in the Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimé Bonny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation in the Brugada syndrome (BrS and its clinical implication have been little studied. Aims. To assess the level of inflammation in BrS patients. Methods. All studied BrS patients underwent blood samples drawn for C-reactive protein (CRP levels at admission, prior to any invasive intervention. Patients with a previous ICD placement were controlled to exclude those with a recent (<14 days shock. We divided subjects into symptomatic (syncope or aborted sudden death and asymptomatic groups. In a multivariable analysis, we adjusted for significant variables (age, CRP ≥ 2 mg/L. Results. Fifty-four subjects were studied (mean age 45 ± 13 years, 49 (91% male. Twenty (37% were symptomatic. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean CRP level was 1,4 ± 0,9 mg/L in asymptomatic and 2,4 ± 1,4 mg/L in symptomatic groups (P = .003. In the multivariate model, CRP concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L remained an independent marker for being symptomatic (P = .018; 95% CI: 1.3 to 19.3. Conclusion. Inflammation seems to be more active in symptomatic BrS. C-reactive protein concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L might be associated with the previous symptoms in BrS. The value of inflammation as a risk factor of arrhythmic events in BrS needs to be studied.

  11. Endogenous Money Supply and Money Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Woon Gyu Choi; Seonghwan Oh

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the behavior of money demand by explicitly accounting for the money supply endogeneity arising from endogenous monetary policy and financial innovations. Our theoretical analysis indicates that money supply factors matter in the money demand function when the money supply partially responds to money demand. Our empirical results with U.S. data provide strong evidence for the relevance of the policy stance to the demand for MI under a regime in which monetary policy is subs...

  12. CsPb2Br5 Single Crystals: Synthesis and Characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Dursun, Ibrahim; de Bastiani, Michele; Turedi, Bekir; Alamer, Badriah Jaber; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Yin, Jun; Gereige, Issam; Alsaggaf, Ahmed; Mohammed, Omar F.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Bakr, Osman

    2017-01-01

    , which enabled us to finally clarify the material's optical features. Our CsPb2Br5 crystal has a two-dimensional structure with Pb2Br5- layers spaced by Cs+ cations, and exhibits a ~3.1 eV indirect bandgap with no emission in the visible spectrum.

  13. Optimized endogenous post-stratification in forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul L. Patterson

    2012-01-01

    An example of endogenous post-stratification is the use of remote sensing data with a sample of ground data to build a logistic regression model to predict the probability that a plot is forested and using the predicted probabilities to form categories for post-stratification. An optimized endogenous post-stratified estimator of the proportion of forest has been...

  14. The synthetic α-bromo-2',3,4,4'-tetramethoxychalcone (α-Br-TMC) inhibits the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinz, Sophia; Unser, Samy; Brueggemann, Susanne; Besl, Elisabeth; Al-Rifai, Nafisah; Petkes, Hermina; Amslinger, Sabine; Rascle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT5 and its upstream activating kinase JAK2 are essential mediators of cytokine signaling. Their activity is normally tightly regulated and transient. However, constitutive activation of STAT5 is found in numerous cancers and a driving force for malignant transformation. We describe here the identification of the synthetic chalcone α-Br-2',3,4,4'-tetramethoxychalcone (α-Br-TMC) as a novel JAK/STAT inhibitor. Using the non-transformed IL-3-dependent B cell line Ba/F3 and its oncogenic derivative Ba/F3-1*6 expressing constitutively activated STAT5, we show that α-Br-TMC targets the JAK/STAT pathway at multiple levels, inhibiting both JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation. Moreover, α-Br-TMC alters the mobility of STAT5A/B proteins in SDS-PAGE, indicating a change in their post-translational modification state. These alterations correlate with a decreased association of STAT5 and RNA polymerase II with STAT5 target genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Interestingly, expression of STAT5 target genes such as Cis and c-Myc was differentially regulated by α-Br-TMC in normal and cancer cells. While both genes were inhibited in IL-3-stimulated Ba/F3 cells, expression of the oncogene c-Myc was down-regulated and that of the tumor suppressor gene Cis was up-regulated i