WorldWideScience

Sample records for endogenous antioxidant system

  1. Cultivated Sea Lettuce is a Multiorgan Protector from Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress by Enhancing the Endogenous Antioxidant Defense System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ranjala; Liu, Yanxia; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    The health-promoting effects of seaweeds have been linked to antioxidant activity that may counteract cancer-causing oxidative stress-induced damage and inflammation. While antioxidant activity is commonly associated with direct radical scavenging activity, an alternative way to increase the antioxidant status of a cell is to enhance the endogenous (phase II) defense system consisting of cytoprotective antioxidant enzymes, including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). These enzymes are transcriptionally regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) via the transcription factor Nrf2. Extracts derived from cultivated Ulva sp., a green alga regarded as a marine vegetable (sea lettuce), potently activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway in IMR-32 neuroblastoma and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. RNA interference studies demonstrated that Nrf2 and PI3 kinase are essential for the phase II response in IMR-32 cells. Activity-enriched fractions induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and target gene transcription, and boosted the cellular glutathione level and therefore antioxidant status. A single-dose gavage feeding of Ulva-derived fractions increased Nqo1 transcript levels in various organs. Nqo1 induction spiked in different tissues, depending on the specific chemical composition of each administered fraction. We purified and characterized four ARE inducers in this extract, including loliolide (1), isololiolide (2), a megastigmen (3), and a novel chlorinated unsaturated aldehyde (4). The ARE-active fractions attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS and Cox2 gene expression in macrophagic RAW264.7 cells, decreasing nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, respectively. Nqo1 activity and NO production were abrogated in nrf2−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, providing a direct link between the induction of phase II response and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24005795

  2. Modulation of endogenous antioxidant system by wine polyphenols in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ramón; Miranda, Andrés; Vergara, Leonardo

    2011-02-20

    Numerous studies indicate that moderate red wine consumption is associated with a protective effect against all-cause mortality. Since oxidative stress constitutes a unifying mechanism of injury of many types of disease processes, it should be expected that polyphenolic antioxidants account for this beneficial effect. Nevertheless, beyond the well-known antioxidant properties of these compounds, they may exert several other protective mechanisms. Indeed, the overall protective effect of polyphenols is due to their large array of biological actions, such as free radical-scavenging, metal chelation, enzyme modulation, cell signalling pathways modulation and gene expression effects, among others. Wine possesses a variety of polyphenols, being resveratrol its most outstanding representative, due to its pleiotropic biological properties. The presence of ethanol in wine aids to polyphenol absorption, thereby contributing to their bioavailability. Before absorption, polyphenols must be hydrolyzed by intestinal enzymes or by colonic microflora. Then, they undergo intestinal and liver metabolism. There have been no reported polyphenol adverse effects derived from intakes currently associated with the normal diet. However, supplements for health-protection should be cautiously used as no level definition has been given to make sure the dose is safe. The role of oxidative stress and the beneficial effects of wine polyphenols against cardiovascular, cancer, diabetes, microbial, inflammatory, neurodegenerative and kidney diseases and ageing are reviewed. Future large scale randomized clinical trials should be conducted to fully establish the therapeutic use of each individual wine polyphenol against human disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Involvement of endogenous antioxidant systems in the protective activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damages in cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douiri, Salma; Bahdoudi, Seyma; Hamdi, Yosra; Cubì, Roger; Basille, Magali; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Vaudry, David; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2016-06-01

    Astroglial cells possess an array of cellular defense mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase antioxidant enzymes, to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, astroglial cell viability and functionality can be affected by significant oxidative stress. We have previously shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent glioprotective agent that prevents hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced apoptosis in cultured astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of PACAP against oxidative-generated alteration of astrocytic antioxidant systems. Incubation of cells with subnanomolar concentrations of PACAP inhibited H2 O2 -evoked reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial respiratory burst, and caspase-3 mRNA level increase. PACAP also stimulated SOD and catalase activities in a concentration-dependent manner, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2 O2 on the activity of these two antioxidant enzymes. The protective action of PACAP against H2 O2 -evoked inhibition of antioxidant systems in astrocytes was protein kinase A, PKC, and MAP-kinase dependent. In the presence of H2 O2 , the SOD blocker NaCN and the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole, both suppressed the protective effects of PACAP on SOD and catalase activities, mitochondrial function, and cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-apoptotic effect of PACAP on astroglial cells can account for the activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduction in respiration rate, thus preserving mitochondrial integrity and preventing caspase-3 expression provoked by oxidative stress. Considering its powerful anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties, the PACAPergic signaling system should thus be considered for the development of new therapeutical approaches to cure various pathologies involving oxidative neurodegeneration. We propose the following cascade for the

  4. Salt tolerance of Glycine max.L induced by endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus CSH1, via regulating its endogenous hormones and antioxidative system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubna; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Jan, Rahmatullah; Lee, In-Jung; Hussain, Anwar

    2018-07-01

    Abiotic stress resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input and enhance plant productivity. In current study, an endophytic fungus, Aspergillus flavus CHS1 was isolated from Chenopodium album Roots. CHS1 was initially screened for growth promoting activities like siderphore, phosphate solubilization, and the production of indole acetic acid and gibberellins and were further assayed for its ability to promote the growth of mutant Waito-C rice. The results revealed that different plant growth characteristic such as chlorophyll content, root-shoot length, and biomass production were significantly promoted during CHS1 treatment. This growth promotion action was due to the presence of various types of GAs and IAA in the endophyte culture filtrate. Significant up regulation with respect to levels in the control was observed in all endogenous plant GAs, after treatment with CHS1. Furthermore, to evaluate the potential of CHS1 against NaCl stress up to 400 mM, it was tested for its ability to improve soybean plant growth under NaCl stress. In endophyte-soybean interaction, CHS1 association significantly increased plant growth and attenuated the NaCl stress by down regulating ABA and JA synthesis. Similarly, it significantly elevated antioxidant activities of enzymes catalase, polyphenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase as compared to non-inoculated salt stress plants. Thus, CHS1 ameliorated the adverse effect of high NaCl stress and rescued soybean plant growth by regulating the endogenous plant hormones and antioxidative system. We conclude that CHS1 isolate could be exploited to increase salt resistant and yield in crop plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Antidiabetic and Plasma Endogenous Antioxidant Activity of alstonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alstonia boonei is a well-known plant of medicinal value but its effect on endogenous plasma antioxidant in diabetes remains unknown. Thus, need to investigate the effects of the methanolic extract of the plant on plasma bilirubin and uric acid level in alloxan induced diabetes rabbits. Twenty five rabbits divided into five ...

  6. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Karthivashan

    2016-07-01

    treatment. Therefore, MO leaf extract has demonstrated some therapeutic effectiveness against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity through enhancement of the endogenous antioxidant system and a modulatory effect on specific inflammatory cytokines in kidney tissues.

  7. Alkyl caffeates as antioxidants in O/W emulsions: Impact of emulsifier type and endogenous tocopherols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Villeneuve, Pierre; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    , the aim was to evaluate the impact of emulsifiers (Citrem and Tween80) and presence of endogenous tocopherols on the efficacies of caffeic acid and caffeates (C1–C20) as antioxidants in emulsions. Lipid oxidation was evaluated during storage and partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was estimated...... by measuring their concentrations in the aqueous phase. Partitioning of caffeic acid and caffeates was influenced by emulsifier type and the presence of endogenous tocopherols. Caffeic acid was the most efficient antioxidant in Citrem and Tween stabilized emulsions in the presence of endogenous tocopherol....... In contrast, for Tween stabilized emulsions, caffeic acid acted as a prooxidant and the evaluated caffeates acted as strong antioxidants in the absence of endogenous tocopherol. Thus, when endogenous tocopherol was present lipophilization of caffeic acid did not increase its efficacy as an antioxidant...

  8. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Mayengbam, Shyamchand; Aachary, Ayyappan; Thiyam-Holländer, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous sinapic acid (SA), sinapine (SP), sinapoyl glucose (SG) and canolol (CAN) of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and...

  9. Endogenous network of firms and systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianting; He, Jianmin; Li, Shouwei

    2018-02-01

    We construct an endogenous network characterized by commercial credit relationships connecting the upstream and downstream firms. Simulation results indicate that the endogenous network model displays a scale-free property which exists in real-world firm systems. In terms of the network structure, with the expansion of the scale of network nodes, the systemic risk increases significantly, while the heterogeneities of network nodes have no effect on systemic risk. As for firm micro-behaviors, including the selection range of trading partners, actual output, labor requirement, price of intermediate products and employee salaries, increase of all these parameters will lead to higher systemic risk.

  10. [The endogenous opioid system and drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, R

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder leading to complex adaptive changes within the brain reward circuits. Several neurotransmitters, including the endogenous opioid system are involved in these changes. The opioid system plays a pivotal role in different aspects of addiction. Thus, opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides are largely distributed in the mesolimbic system and modulate dopaminergic activity within the reward circuits. Opioid receptors and peptides are selectively involved in several components of the addictive processes induced by opioids, cannabinoids, psychostimulants, alcohol and nicotine. This review is focused on the contribution of each component of the endogenous opioid system in the addictive properties of the different drugs of abuse. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, pbilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  12. MnTM-4-PyP modulates endogenous antioxidant responses and protects primary cortical neurons against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kuo-Yuan; Guo, Fei; Lu, Jia-Qi; Cao, Yuan-Zhao; Wang, Tian-Chang; Yang, Qi; Xia, Qing

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress is a direct cause of injury in various neural diseases. Manganese porphyrins (MnPs), a large category of superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics, shown universally to have effects in numerous neural disease models in vivo. Given their complex intracellular redox activities, detailed mechanisms underlying the biomedical efficacies are not fully elucidated. This study sought to investigate the regulation of endogenous antioxidant systems by a MnP (MnTM-4-PyP) and its role in the protection against neural oxidative stress. Primary cortical neurons were treated with MnTM-4-PyP prior to hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. MnTM-4-PyP increased cell viability, reduced intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, inhibited mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and ameliorated endoplasmic reticulum function. The protein levels and activities of endogenous SODs were elevated, but not those of catalase. SOD2 transcription was promoted in a transcription factor-specific manner. Additionally, we found FOXO3A and Sirt3 levels also increased. These effects were not observed with MnTM-4-PyP alone. Induction of various levels of endogenous antioxidant responses by MnTM-4-PyP has indispensable functions in its protection for cortical neurons against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Studies on changes in fatty acid composition and content of endogenous antioxidants during gamma irradiation of rice seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramarathnam, N.; Osawa, T.; Namiki, M.; Kawakishi, S.

    1989-01-01

    Accelerated aging effects, induced by y irradiation, were investigated on the fatty acid composition of lipids and on the content of endogenous antioxidants of four Indica and four Japonica rice seeds with and without intact hull. While the linoleic acid content of the phospholipids decreased gradually with the increase in irradiation doses, there was a corresponding increase in the linoleic acid content of the free fatty acids. Such changes were drastic, especially in the case of Japonica rice seeds irradiated without intact hull. However, the neutral lipids were found to be resistant to γ irradiation. The α-tocopherol content was found to decrease (markedly) in rice seeds irradiated with or without hull, especially in the Japonica rice seeds. At a dose of 15 kGy only traces of a-tocopherol could be detected in Japonica and Indica rice seeds irradiated with and without intact hull. Oryzanol, a relatively weaker anti-oxidant, was found to be more resistant to oxidative damage than a-tocopherol. At 15 kGy, the oryzanol content ranged from 59 μg to 170 μg/g lipid in rice seeds irradiated with intact hull, while the corresponding value for rice seeds irradiated without hull was 52 μg to 153 μg/g lipid. The overall susceptibility to oxidative damage was less in Indica rice seeds, indicating that the antioxidative defense system offered better protection in overcoming oxidative stress in Indica rice hull than in Japonica rice hull

  14. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centralized systems to indicate the presence of fecal pathogens, but are ineffective decentralized treatment process indicators as they generally occur at levels too low to assess log reduction targets. System challenge testing by spiking with high loads of fecal indicator organisms, like MS2 coliphage, has limitations, especially for large systems. Microbes that are endogenous to the decentralized system, occur in high abundances and mimic removal rates of bacterial, viral and/or parasitic protozoan pathogens during treatment could serve as alternative treatment process indicators to verify log reduction targets. To identify abundant microbes in wastewater, the bacterial and viral communities were examined using deep sequencing. Building infrastructure-associated bacteria, like Zoogloea, were observed as dominant members of the bacterial community in graywater. In blackwater, bacteriophage of the order Caudovirales constituted the majority of contiguous sequences from the viral community. This study identifies candidate treatment process indicators in decentralized systems that could be used to verify log removal during treatment. The association of the presence of treatment process indic

  15. Melatonin as a Potent and Inducible Endogenous Antioxidant: Synthesis and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dun-Xian Tan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is a tryptophan-derived molecule with pleiotropic activities. It is present in almost all or all organisms. Its synthetic pathway depends on the species in which it is measured. For example, the tryptophan to melatonin pathway differs in plants and animals. It is speculated that the melatonin synthetic machinery in eukaryotes was inherited from bacteria as a result of endosymbiosis. However, melatonin’s synthetic mechanisms in microorganisms are currently unknown. Melatonin metabolism is highly complex with these enzymatic processes having evolved from cytochrome C. In addition to its enzymatic degradation, melatonin is metabolized via pseudoenzymatic and free radical interactive processes. The metabolic products of these processes overlap and it is often difficult to determine which process is dominant. However, under oxidative stress, the free radical interactive pathway may be featured over the others. Because of the complexity of the melatonin degradative processes, it is expected that additional novel melatonin metabolites will be identified in future investigations. The original and primary function of melatonin in early life forms such as in unicellular organisms was as a free radical scavenger and antioxidant. During evolution, melatonin was selected as a signaling molecule to transduce the environmental photoperiodic information into an endocrine message in multicellular organisms and for other purposes as well. As an antioxidant, melatonin exhibits several unique features which differ from the classic antioxidants. These include its cascade reaction with free radicals and its capacity to be induced under moderate oxidative stress. These features make melatonin a potent endogenously-occurring antioxidant that protects organisms from catastrophic oxidative stress.

  16. A systems biology perspective on Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Pi Jingbo; Woods, Courtney G.; Andersen, Melvin E.

    2010-01-01

    Cells in vivo are constantly exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated endogenously and exogenously. To defend against the deleterious consequences of ROS, cells contain multiple antioxidant enzymes expressed in various cellular compartments to scavenge these toxic species. Under oxidative stresses, these antioxidant enzymes are upregulated to restore redox homeostasis. Such an adaptive response results from the activation of a redox-sensitive gene regulatory network mediated by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2. To more completely understand how the redox control system is designed by nature to meet homeostatic goals, we have examined the network from a systems perspective using engineering approaches. As with man-made control devices, the redox control system can be decomposed into distinct functional modules, including transducer, controller, actuator, and plant. Cells achieve specific performance objectives by utilizing nested feedback loops, feedforward control, and ultrasensitive signaling motifs, etc. Given that endogenously generated ROS are also used as signaling molecules, our analysis suggests a novel mode of action to explain oxidative stress-induced pathological conditions and diseases. Specifically, by adaptively upregulating antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress may inadvertently attenuate ROS signals that mediate physiological processes, resulting in aberrations of cellular functions and adverse consequences. Lastly, by simultaneously considering the two competing cellular tasks-adaptive antioxidant defense and ROS signaling-we re-examine the premise that dietary antioxidant supplements is generally beneficial to human health. Our analysis highlights some possible adverse effects of these widely consumed antioxidants.

  17. Endogenous Phenolics in Hulls and Cotyledons of Mustard and Canola: A Comparative Study on Its Sinapates and Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamchand Mayengbam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous sinapic acid (SA, sinapine (SP, sinapoyl glucose (SG and canolol (CAN of canola and mustard seeds are the potent antioxidants in various lipid-containing systems. The study investigated these phenolic antioxidants using different fractions of canola and mustard seeds. Phenolic compounds were extracted from whole seeds and their fractions: hulls and cotyledons, using 70% methanol by the ultrasonication method and quantified using HPLC-DAD. The major phenolics from both hulls and cotyledons extracts were SP, with small amounts of SG, and SA with a significant difference of phenolic contents between the two seed fractions. Cotyledons showed relatively high content of SP, SA, SG and total phenolics in comparison to hulls (p < 0.001. The concentration of SP in different fractions ranged from 1.15 ± 0.07 to 12.20 ± 1.16 mg/g and followed a decreasing trend- canola cotyledons > mustard cotyledons > mustard seeds > canola seeds > mustard hulls > canola hulls. UPLC-tandem Mass Spectrometry confirmed the presence of sinapates and its fragmentation in these extracts. Further, a high degree of correlation (r = 0.93 was noted between DPPH scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

  18. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr 3 ) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of Pp

  19. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, Kriya L; Reynolds, Arleigh J; Duffy, Lawrence K; Gerlach, S Craig

    2011-01-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  20. CART peptide is a potential endogenous antioxidant and preferentially localized in mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peizhong Mao

    Full Text Available The multifunctional neuropeptide Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART is secreted from hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal gland and pancreas. It also can be found in circulatory system. This feature suggests a general role for CART in different cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that CART protects mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, cellular proteins and lipids against the oxidative action of hydrogen peroxide, a widely used oxidant. Using cis-parinaric acid as a sensitive reporting probe for peroxidation in membranes, and a lipid-soluble azo initiator of peroxyl radicals, 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile we found that CART is an antioxidant. Furthermore, we found that CART localized to mitochondria in cultured cells and mouse brain neuronal cells. More importantly, pretreatment with CART by systemic injection protects against a mouse oxidative stress model, which mimics the main features of Parkinson's disease. Given the unique molecular structure and biological features of CART, we conclude that CART is an antioxidant peptide (or antioxidant hormone. We further propose that it may have strong therapeutic properties for human diseases in which oxidative stress is strongly involved such as Parkinson's disease.

  1. Mercury interferes with endogenous antioxidant levels in Yukon River subsistence-fed sled dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Kriya L.; Reynolds, Arleigh J.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Duffy, Lawrence K.

    2011-10-01

    Before adopting modern corn-and-grain-based western processed diets, circumpolar people had a high fat and protein subsistence diet and exhibited a low incidence of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some health benefits are attributable to a subsistence diet that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants. Pollution, both global and local, is a threat to wild foods, as it introduces contaminants into the food system. Northern indigenous people and their sled dogs are exposed to a variety of contaminants, including mercury, that accumulate in the fish and game that they consume. The sled dogs in Alaskan villages are maintained on the same subsistence foods as their human counterparts, primarily salmon, and therefore they can be used as a food systems model for researching the impact of changes in dietary components. In this study, the antioxidant status and mercury levels were measured for village sled dogs along the Yukon River. A reference kennel, maintained on a nutritionally balanced commercial diet, was also measured for comparison. Total antioxidant status was inversely correlated with the external stressor mercury.

  2. Endogenous versus exogenous shocks in systems with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, D.; Helmstetter, A.

    2003-02-01

    Systems with long-range persistence and memory are shown to exhibit different precursory as well as recovery patterns in response to shocks of exogenous versus endogenous origins. By endogenous, we envision either fluctuations resulting from an underlying chaotic dynamics or from a stochastic forcing origin which may be external or be an effective coarse-grained description of the microscopic fluctuations. In this scenario, endogenous shocks result from a kind of constructive interference of accumulated fluctuations whose impacts survive longer than the large shocks themselves. As a consequence, the recovery after an endogenous shock is in general slower at early times and can be at long times either slower or faster than after an exogenous perturbation. This offers the tantalizing possibility of distinguishing between an endogenous versus exogenous cause of a given shock, even when there is no “smoking gun”. This could help in investigating the exogenous versus self-organized origins in problems such as the causes of major biological extinctions, of change of weather regimes and of the climate, in tracing the source of social upheaval and wars, and so on. Sornette et al., Volatility fingerprints of large stocks: endogenous versus exogenous, cond-mat/0204626 has already shown how this concept can be applied concretely to differentiate the effects on financial markets of the 11 September 2001 attack or of the coup against Gorbachev on 19 August 1991 (exogenous) from financial crashes such as October 1987 (endogenous).

  3. Reduced endogenous urinary total antioxidant power and its relation of plasma antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Kunio; Tanuma, Nasoyuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Yohei

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impaired detoxification capacity. Investigating the neurobiological bases of impaired antioxidant capacity is thus a research priority in the pathophysiology of ASD. We measured the urinary levels of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) which is a new oxidative stress biomarker, total antioxidant power (TAP) and DNA methylation biomarker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the plasma levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is a major antioxidant enzyme. We examined whether the urinary levels of these enzymes and biomarkers may be related to symptoms of social impairment in 20 individuals with ASD (meanage,11.1±5.2years) and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (meanage,14.3±6.2years). Symptoms of social impairment were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The dietary TAP of the fruit juice, chocolate, cookies, biscuits, jam and marmalade were significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group, although the intake of nutrients was not significantly different between the groups. The urinary TAP levels were significantly lower in the ASD group than in the control group. There were no significantly differences in urinary HEL and 8-OHdG levels between the ASD and control groups. The SRS scores were significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that urinary TAP levels and plasma SOD levels can differences in the biomarkers and the SRS scores between the ASD group and the control group. The endogenous antioxidant capacity may be deficient without altered urinary HEL and 8-OHdG levels in individuals with ASD. The plasma SOD levels may be related to reduced endogenous antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder: A Dysregulation of the Endogenous Opioid System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Schmahl, Christian; Falkai, Peter; Wedekind, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains unclear. Dysfunctions of several neurobiological systems, including serotoninergic, dopaminergic, and other neurotransmitter systems, have been discussed. Here we present a theory that alterations in the sensitivity of opioid receptors or the availability of endogenous opioids…

  5. Electrophoretic characterization of D. melanogaster strains deficient in endogenous anti-oxidants in combination with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomar A, S.

    2012-01-01

    The free radicals derived of the oxygen and other reactive species are generated by endogenous processes as sub-products of the aerobic metabolism or by exogenous factors as the environmental pollution, the biological half life of these free radicals is of microseconds, but they have the capacity of reacting with any atom or molecule to its around causing oxidant stress and damage to molecules, cellular membranes and tissues. To counteract them, there is endogenous and exogenous anti-oxidants, the first ones are synthesized by the organism for maintaining the cellular homeostasis as the superoxide dismutase and catalase. There are recent evidences that indicate that the sodium cooper chlorophyllin (SCC) presents a dual effect reducing and/or increasing the induced genetic damage by different mutagenic agents. One hypothesis for this effect is that the SCC can act as oxidant per se or through some of their metabolites. Results more recent indicated that a similar of the SCC, the protoporphyrin-Ix, can produce genetic damage. In this work exogenous anti-oxidants were used, as the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or the bilirubin in the induction of endogenous anti-oxidants enzymes to evaluate the supposed oxidant activity of the SCC and/or their metabolites. Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in superoxide dismutase, catalase and withered were used and a rustic strain Canton-S as control. In the three experiments were treated 60 males of 1 day of age, with SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or bilirubin to one concentration of 69 m M during 12 days. Every 4 days 10 males were isolated to measure them the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results showed that the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix and bilirubin considered like anti-oxidants, were able to increase the induction of the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes. This result maybe is because they are able to generate reactive species of oxygen, as the anion superoxide and the hydrogen peroxide. Among the three

  6. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah A. Hibbert; Rachel E.B. Watson; Neil K. Gibbs; Patrick Costello; Clair Baldock; Anthony S. Weiss; Christopher E.M. Griffiths; Michael J. Sherratt

    2015-01-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (contain...

  7. Systemic risk with endogenous loss given default

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJtsma, Pieter; Spierdijk, Laura

    2017-01-01

    When many financial institutions fail simultaneously, the remaining institutions in the system are unlikely to have sufficient liquidity to acquire all failed institutions. As a result, some assets will have to be liquidated and sold to outsiders at firesale prices, giving rise to a potentially high

  8. The endogenous opioid system: a common substrate in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, José Manuel; Martin-García, Elena; Berrendero, Fernando; Robledo, Patricia; Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-05-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disorder leading to complex adaptive changes within the brain reward circuits that involve several neurotransmitters. One of the neurochemical systems that plays a pivotal role in different aspects of addiction is the endogenous opioid system (EOS). Opioid receptors and endogenous opioid peptides are largely distributed in the mesolimbic system and modulate dopaminergic activity within these reward circuits. Chronic exposure to the different prototypical drugs of abuse, including opioids, alcohol, nicotine, psychostimulants and cannabinoids has been reported to produce significant alterations within the EOS, which seem to play an important role in the development of the addictive process. In this review, we will describe the adaptive changes produced by different drugs of abuse on the EOS, and the current knowledge about the contribution of each component of this neurobiological system to their addictive properties.

  9. Selective inhibition of endogenous antioxidants with Auranofin causes mitochondrial oxidative stress which can be countered by selenium supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenkovic, Filip; Holland, Olivia; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-12-15

    Auranofin is a thiol-reactive gold (I)-containing compound with potential asa chemotherapeutic. Auranofin has the capacity to selectively inhibit endogenous antioxidant enzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), resulting in oxidative stress and the initiation of a pro-apoptotic cascade. The effect of Auranofin exposure on TrxR and GPx, and the potential for cellular protection through selenium supplementation was examined in the non-cancerous human cell line Swan-71. Auranofin exposure resulted in a concentration dependent differential inhibition of selenoprotein antioxidants. Significant inhibition of TrxR was observed at 20nM Auranofin with inhibition of GPx from 10µM. Significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) were associated with antioxidant inhibition at Auranofin concentrations of 100nM (TrxR inhibition) and 10µM (TrxR and GPx inhibition), respectively. Evaluation of mitochondrial respiration demonstrated significant reductions in routine and maximal respiration at both 100nM and 10μM Auranofin. Auranofin treatment at concentrations of 10μM and higher concentrations resulted in a ∼68% decrease in cellular viability and was associated with elevations in pro-apoptotic markers cytochrome c flux control factor (FCFc) at concentration of 100nM and mitochondrial Bax at 10μM. The supplementation of selenium (100nM) prior to treatment had a generalized protective affect through the restoration of antioxidant activity with a significant increase in TrxR and GPx activity, a significant reduction in ROS and associated improvement in mitochondrial respiration and cellular viability (10µM ∼48% increase). Selenium supplementation reduced the FCFc at low doses of Auranofin (selenium exposure. Therefore, Auranofin dose and the selenium status of patients are important considerations in the therapeutic use of Auranofin as an agent of chemosensitization. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systemic antioxidants and skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Gloria; Torres, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Most dermatologists agree that antioxidants help fight free radical damage and can help maintain healthy skin. They do so by affecting intracellular signaling pathways involved in skin damage and protecting against photodamage, as well as preventing wrinkles and inflammation. In today's modern world of the rising nutraceutical industry, many people, in addition to applying topical skin care products, turn to supplementation of the nutrients missing in their diets by taking multivitamins or isolated, man-made nutraceuticals, in what is known as the Inside-Out approach to skin care. However, ingestion of large quantities of isolated, fragmented nutrients can be harmful and is a poor representation of the kind of nutrition that can be obtained from whole food sources. In this comprehensive review, it was found that few studies on oral antioxidants benefiting the skin have been done using whole foods, and that the vast majority of current research is focused on the study of compounds in isolation. However, the public stands to benefit greatly if more research were to be devoted toward the impact that physiologic doses of antioxidants (obtained from fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) can have on skin health, and on health in general.

  11. Phenolipids as antioxidants in emulsified systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Bayrasy, Christelle; Laguerre, Mickäel

    Lipid oxidation is a major issue in foods containing LC PUFA and substantial efforts have been made to protect lipids against oxidation. Recent studies carried out with phenolipids (lipophilized phenolics) in emulsified systems have shown that increased lipophilicity did not necessarily lead...... antioxidant effect has been shown to be influenced by the specific phenolic compound and the type of emulsion. The overall aim for our work was to evaluate phenolipids with different lipophilicity as antioxidants in emulsified food. In the study presented here caffeic, ferulic and coumaric acid were selected...... along with their corresponding alkyl esters (C4-C20). The methods used to evaluate the antioxidative effect of the different phenolipids were the CAT assay (o/w emulsion), antioxidant assays (DPPH, Iron chelating and reducing power) and partitioning studies. Moreover, the results from the CAT assay...

  12. The role of the antioxidant system during intense endurance exercise: lessons from migrating birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Mullin, Clara; McWilliams, Scott R

    2016-12-01

    During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration. Here, we use bird migration as an example to discuss how RS are produced during endurance exercise and how the complex antioxidant system can protect against cellular damage caused by RS. Understanding how a bird's antioxidant system responds during migration can lend insights into how antioxidants protect birds during other life-history stages when metabolic rate may be high, and how antioxidants protect other vertebrates from oxidative damage during endurance exercise. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Anti-Aging Effect of Riboflavin Via Endogenous Antioxidant in Fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y-X; Ruan, M-H; Luan, J; Feng, X; Chen, S; Chu, Z-Y

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of riboflavin on aging in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly). Experimental study. Naval Medical Research Institute. Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. After lifelong supplement of riboflavin, the lifespan and the reproduction of fruit flies were observed. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to mimic oxidative stress damage to fruit flies and the survival time was recorded. The activity of copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), manganese containing SOD (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) and lipofuscin (LF) content were determined. Riboflavin significantly prolonged the lifespan (Log rank χ2=16.677, Priboflavin supplement. Riboflavin prolonged the lifespan and increased the reproduction of fruit flies through anti-oxidative stress pathway involving enhancing the activity of SOD1 and CAT and inhibiting LF accumulation. Riboflavin deserves more attention for slowing human aging.

  14. The Antioxidant Cofactor Alpha-Lipoic Acid May Control Endogenous Formaldehyde Metabolism in Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Shindyapina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The healthy human body contains small amounts of metabolic formaldehyde (FA that mainly results from methanol oxidation by pectin methylesterase, which is active in a vegetable diet and in the gastrointestinal microbiome. With age, the ability to maintain a low level of FA decreases, which increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. It has been shown that 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoic acid or alpha lipoic acid (ALA, a naturally occurring dithiol and antioxidant cofactor of mitochondrial α-ketoacid dehydrogenases, increases glutathione (GSH content and FA metabolism by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 thus manifests a therapeutic potential beyond its antioxidant property. We suggested that ALA can contribute to a decrease in the FA content of mammals by acting on ALDH2 expression. To test this assumption, we administered ALA in mice in order to examine the effect on FA metabolism and collected blood samples for the measurement of FA. Our data revealed that ALA efficiently eliminated FA in mice. Without affecting the specific activity of FA-metabolizing enzymes (ADH1, ALDH2, and ADH5, ALA increased the GSH content in the brain and up-regulated the expression of the FA-metabolizing ALDH2 gene in the brain, particularly in the hippocampus, but did not impact its expression in the liver in vivo or in rat liver isolated from the rest of the body. After ALA administration in mice and in accordance with the increased content of brain ALDH2 mRNA, we detected increased ALDH2 activity in brain homogenates. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of ALA on patients with Alzheimer's disease may be associated with accelerated ALDH2-mediated FA detoxification and clearance.

  15. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Hibbert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm2 of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB. We show that: i purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR

  16. A potential role for endogenous proteins as sacrificial sunscreens and antioxidants in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, Sarah A; Watson, Rachel E B; Gibbs, Neil K; Costello, Patrick; Baldock, Clair; Weiss, Anthony S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Sherratt, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Excessive ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure of the skin is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Although both exogenous sunscreens and endogenous tissue components (including melanins and tryptophan-derived compounds) reduce UVR penetration, the role of endogenous proteins in absorbing environmental UV wavelengths is poorly defined. Having previously demonstrated that proteins which are rich in UVR-absorbing amino acid residues are readily degraded by broadband UVB-radiation (containing UVA, UVB and UVC wavelengths) here we hypothesised that UV chromophore (Cys, Trp and Tyr) content can predict the susceptibility of structural proteins in skin and the eye to damage by physiologically relevant doses (up to 15.4 J/cm(2)) of solar UVR (95% UVA, 5% UVB). We show that: i) purified suspensions of UV-chromophore-rich fibronectin dimers, fibrillin microfibrils and β- and γ-lens crystallins undergo solar simulated radiation (SSR)-induced aggregation and/or decomposition and ii) exposure to identical doses of SSR has minimal effect on the size or ultrastructure of UV chromophore-poor tropoelastin, collagen I, collagen VI microfibrils and α-crystallin. If UV chromophore content is a factor in determining protein stability in vivo, we would expect that the tissue distribution of Cys, Trp and Tyr-rich proteins would correlate with regional UVR exposure. From bioinformatic analysis of 244 key structural proteins we identified several biochemically distinct, yet UV chromophore-rich, protein families. The majority of these putative UV-absorbing proteins (including the late cornified envelope proteins, keratin associated proteins, elastic fibre-associated components and β- and γ-crystallins) are localised and/or particularly abundant in tissues that are exposed to the highest doses of environmental UVR, specifically the stratum corneum, hair, papillary dermis and lens. We therefore propose that UV chromophore-rich proteins are localised in regions of high UVR exposure

  17. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed. PMID:29180965

  18. Cerebral systems in the pathogenesis of endogenous psychoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Silveira

    1962-12-01

    Full Text Available Mental processes imply a harmonious functioning of psychic systems, assembled into larger units, psychic spheres (Table I. Their neurophysiological representatives are brain systems of areas and pathways (Fig. 1-4. Under functional and/or organic disturbances these systems originate the leading mental symptoms (Table II characterizing the diverse endogenous psychoses: hence, the latter's distinctive patterns. Accordingly, understanding and classification of psychoses should rest on the pathogenic dynamisms, not on clinical description. This is why Kleist's and Leonhard's conceptions of the endogenous psychoses surpass any other to exist. Kleist stands among the founders of psychiatry, by describing the "degeneration psychoses" and many single psychoses, as well as redefining, isolating and clarifying the progressive ones, later on renamed as schizophrenias (Table III. Such pathogenic criterion may also be useful to define mental conditions other than psychoses, as hysteria, neuroses and psychopathic inferiority (Tables IV and V. One should consider here, besides the psychic systems and spheres involved, the way they were caught and the corresponding developmental phase. In Kleist's "degeneration psychoses" - cyclic or episodic (Table VI - the systems and spheres are disturbed by functional transient processes due to latent dispositions, while his and Leonhard's schizophrenias (Table VII show a rather progressive, deteriorating course. The nature of the disorder is itself genetically determined, as is either its confinement to one sphere or its spreading out. The spread out pattern, while exceptional in schizophrenia, represents a rule for the "degeneration psychoses", in discussant's mind. Both groups may have symptoms alike by involvement of the same sphere (Table VIII, but proper diagnosis is reached by taking pathogenesis into consideration.

  19. Optimal Control of Heterogeneous Systems with Endogenous Domain of Heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, Anton O.; Tsachev, Tsvetomir; Veliov, Vladimir M.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with optimal control of heterogeneous systems, that is, families of controlled ODEs parameterized by a parameter running over a domain called domain of heterogeneity. The main novelty in the paper is that the domain of heterogeneity is endogenous: it may depend on the control and on the state of the system. This extension is crucial for several economic applications and turns out to rise interesting mathematical problems. A necessary optimality condition is derived, where one of the adjoint variables satisfies a differential inclusion (instead of equation) and the maximization of the Hamiltonian takes the form of “min-max”. As a consequence, a Pontryagin-type maximum principle is obtained under certain regularity conditions for the optimal control. A formula for the derivative of the objective function with respect to the control from L ∞ is presented together with a sufficient condition for its existence. A stylized economic example is investigated analytically and numerically.

  20. Oxidative inactivation of the endogenous antioxidant protein DJ-1 by the food contaminants 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrke, Thorsten; Voss, Linn; Briese, Anja; Stephanowitz, Heike; Krause, Eberhard; Braeuning, Albert; Lampen, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    3-Chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and 2-chloro-1,3-propanediol (2-MCPD) are heat-induced food contaminants being present either as free substances or as fatty acid esters in numerous foods. 3-MCPD was classified to be possibly carcinogenic to humans (category 2B) with kidney and testis being the primary target organs according to animal studies. A previous 28-day oral feeding study with rats revealed that the endogenous antioxidant protein DJ-1 was strongly deregulated at the protein level in kidney, liver, and testis of the experimental animals that had been treated either with 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD or their dipalmitate esters. Here we show that this deregulation is due to the oxidation of a conserved, redox-active cysteine residue (Cys106) of DJ-1 to a cysteine sulfonic acid which is equivalent to loss of function of DJ-1. Irreversible oxidation of DJ-1 is associated with a number of oxidative stress-related diseases such as Parkinson, cancer, and type II diabetes. It is assumed that 3-MCPD or 2-MCPD do not directly oxidize DJ-1, but that these substances induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which in turn trigger DJ-1 oxidation. The implications of 3-MCPD/2-MCPD-mediated ROS formation in vivo for the ongoing risk assessment of these compounds as well as the potential of oxidized DJ-1 to serve as a novel effect biomarker for 3-MCPD/2-MCPD toxicity are being discussed.

  1. Relationship between variations in the level of endogenous thiols and antioxidant activity of lipids and radiosensitivity of animals of different species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Graevskaya, B.M.; Ivanenko, G.F.; Shishkina, L.N.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Ehvolyutsionnoj Morfologii i Ehkologii Zhivotnykh)

    1978-01-01

    Initial levels of total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups and antioxidant activity (AOA) of lipids of the spleen and liver are measured in animals of different species. Radiosensitivity of animals is assessed by the value of LDsub(50/30). No reliable correlation has been revealed between initial levels of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids. There is a positive correlation between AOA of the spleen lipids and LDsub(50/30) as well as between the level of endogenous thiols and radioresistance of the animal species under study. It is likely that the level of endogenous thiols and AOA of lipids reflect various aspects of cellular metabolism which is responsible for radioresistance of the organism

  2. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Sakhila K.; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E 2 ) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E 2 , increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E 2 levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E 2 . This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance of estradiol in the

  3. Resveratrol protects the ovary against chromium-toxicity by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting metabolic clearance of estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Sakhila K., E-mail: skbanu@cvm.tamu.edu; Stanley, Jone A.; Sivakumar, Kirthiram K.; Arosh, Joe A.; Burghardt, Robert C.

    2016-07-15

    Resveratrol (RVT), a polyphenolic component in grapes and red wine, has been known for its cytoprotective actions against several diseases. However, beneficial effects of RVT against early exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have not been understood. EDCs are linked to several ovarian diseases such as premature ovarian failure, polycystic ovary syndrome, early menopause and infertility in women. Hexavalent chromium (CrVI) is a heavy metal EDC, and widely used in > 50 industries. Environmental contamination with CrVI in the US is rapidly increasing, predisposing the human to several illnesses including cancers and still birth. Our lab has been involved in determining the molecular mechanism of CrVI-induced female infertility and intervention strategies to mitigate CrVI effects. Lactating mother rats were exposed to CrVI (50 ppm potassium dichromate) from postpartum days 1–21 through drinking water with or without RVT (10 mg/kg body wt., through oral gavage daily). During this time, F1 females received respective treatments through mother's milk. On postnatal day (PND) 25, blood and the ovary, kidney and liver were collected from the F1 females for analyses. CrVI increased atresia of follicles by increasing cytochrome C and cleaved caspase-3; decreasing antiapoptotic proteins; decreasing estradiol (E{sub 2}) biosynthesis and enhancing metabolic clearance of E{sub 2}, increasing oxidative stress and decreasing endogenous antioxidants. RVT mitigated the effects of CrVI by upregulating cell survival proteins and AOXs; and restored E{sub 2} levels by inhibiting hydroxylation, glucuronidation and sulphation of E{sub 2}. This is the first study to report the protective effects of RVT against any toxicant in the ovary. - Highlights: • Resveratrol (RVT) protects the ovary against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT mitigated CrVI-induced apoptosis and follicle atresia. • RVT restored estradiol level against CrVI-toxicity. • RVT inhibited metabolic clearance of

  4. Polyphenols, Antioxidants and the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Rosa Maria; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    A high dietary intake of polyphenols has been associated with a reduced cardiovascular mortality, due to their antioxidant properties. However, growing evidence suggests that counteracting oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease might also reduce sympathetic nervous system overactivity. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques to measure sympathetic activity in humans; the role of sympathetic activation in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases; current evidence demonstrating that oxidative stress is involved in the regulation of sympathetic activity and how antioxidants and polyphenols might counteract sympathetic overactivity, particularly focusing on preliminary data from human studies. The main mechanisms by which polyphenols are cardioprotective are related to the improvement of vascular function and their anti-atherogenic effect. Furthermore, a blood pressure-lowering effect was consistently demonstrated in randomized controlled trials in humans, when the effect of flavonoid-rich foods, such as tea and chocolate, was tested. More recent studies suggest that inhibition of sympathetic overactivity might be one of the mechanisms by which these substances exert their cardioprotective effects. Indeed, an increased adrenergic traffic to the vasculature is a major mechanism of disease in a number of cardiovascular and extra-cardiac diseases, including hypertension, obesity, metabolic syndrome and heart failure. A considerable body of evidence, mostly from experimental studies, support the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species might exert sympathoexcitatory effects both at the central and at the peripheral level. Accordingly, supplementation with antioxidants might reduce adrenergic overdrive to the vasculature and blunt cardiovascular reactivity to stress. While supplementation with "classical" antioxidants such as ROS-scavengers has many limitations, increasing the intake of polyphenol-rich foods seems to be a promising novel therapeutic

  5. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism and cardiovascular system: time to reconsider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Sturiale, Mauro

    2011-05-19

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is an increasingly recognized entity that is defined as a normal serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine levels with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level suppressed below the normal range and usually undetectable. Exogenous sublinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state caused by L-thyroxine administration. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is a thyroid metabolic state in patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule or multinodular goiter, various forms of thyroiditis, in areas with endemic goiter and particularly in elderly subjects. Endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism is currently the subject of numerous studies and it yet remains controversial particularly as it relates to its treatment and to cardiovascular impact nevertheless established effects have been demonstrated. Recently, acute myocardial infarction without significant coronary stenoses and recurrent acute pulmonary embolism have been reported associated with subclinical hyperthyroidism without L-thyroxine administration. So, it is very important to recognize and to treat promptly also endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endogenous antipyretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Joachim

    2006-09-01

    The febrile increase of body temperature is regarded as a component of the complex host response to infection or inflammation that accompanies the activation of the immune system. Late phases of fever appear mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines called endogenous pyrogens. The rise of body temperature is beneficial because it accelerates several components of the activated immune system. To prevent an excessive and dangerous rise of body temperature the febrile response is controlled, limited in strength and duration, and sometimes even prevented by the actions of endogenous antipyretic substances liberated systemically or within the brain during fever. In most cases the antipyretic effects are achieved by an inhibitory influence on the formation or action of endogenous pyrogens, or by effects on neuronal thermoregulatory circuits that are activated during fever. Endogenous antipyretic substances include steroid hormones, neuropeptides, cytokines and other molecules. It is the purpose of this review to consider the current state in the research on endogenous antipyretic systems.

  7. Human gut endogenous proteins as a potential source of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I)-, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Lakshmi A; Hayes, Maria; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2016-02-01

    It is well known that endogenous bioactive proteins and peptides play a substantial role in the body's first line of immunological defence, immune-regulation and normal body functioning. Further, the peptides derived from the luminal digestion of proteins are also important for body function. For example, within the peptide database BIOPEP (http://www.uwm.edu.pl/biochemia/index.php/en/biopep) 12 endogenous antimicrobial and 64 angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitory peptides derived from human milk and plasma proteins are listed. The antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.php) lists over 111 human host-defence peptides. Several endogenous proteins are secreted in the gut and are subject to the same gastrointestinal digestion processes as food proteins derived from the diet. The human gut endogenous proteins (GEP) include mucins, serum albumin, digestive enzymes, hormones, and proteins from sloughed off epithelial cells and gut microbiota, and numerous other secreted proteins. To date, much work has been carried out regarding the health altering effects of food-derived bioactive peptides but little attention has been paid to the possibility that GEP may also be a source of bioactive peptides. In this review, we discuss the potential of GEP to constitute a gut cryptome from which bioactive peptides such as ACE-I inhibitory, renin inhibitory and antioxidant peptides may be derived. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. School system evaluation by value added analysis under endogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Jorge; San Martín, Ernesto; Van Bellegem, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Value added is a common tool in educational research on effectiveness. It is often modeled as a (prediction of a) random effect in a specific hierarchical linear model. This paper shows that this modeling strategy is not valid when endogeneity is present. Endogeneity stems, for instance, from a correlation between the random effect in the hierarchical model and some of its covariates. This paper shows that this phenomenon is far from exceptional and can even be a generic problem when the covariates contain the prior score attainments, a typical situation in value added modeling. Starting from a general, model-free definition of value added, the paper derives an explicit expression of the value added in an endogeneous hierarchical linear Gaussian model. Inference on value added is proposed using an instrumental variable approach. The impact of endogeneity on the value added and the estimated value added is calculated accurately. This is also illustrated on a large data set of individual scores of about 200,000 students in Chile.

  9. Evolutionary Systems Theory, Universities, and Endogenous Regional Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Universities today are increasingly being viewed in terms of serving the purpose of economic development. This paper postulates that their chief purpose is to advance knowledge and that in doing so they effectuate regional economic growth and development through processes specified in the endogenous economic growth model. To achieve this purpose…

  10. Chilling-enhanced photooxidation: evidence for the role of singlet oxygen and superoxide in the breakdown of pigments and endogenous antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, R.R.; Naylor, A.W.

    1987-02-01

    Chilling temperatures (5/sup 0/C) and high irradiance (1000 microeinsteins per square meter per second) were used to induce photooxidation in detached leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a chilling-sensitive plant. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, ..beta.. carotene, and three xanthophylls were degraded in a light-dependent fashion at essentially the same rate. Lipid peroxidation (measured as ethane evolution) showed an O/sub 2/ dependency. The levels of three endogenous antioxidants, ascorbate, reduced glutathione, and ..cap alpha.. tocopherol, all showed an irradiance-dependent decline. ..cap alpha..-Tocopherol was the first antioxidant affected and appeared to be the only antioxidant that could be implicated in long-term protection of the photosynthetic pigments. Results from the application of antioxidants having relative selectivity for /sup 1/O/sub 2/, O/sub 2//sup +/, or OH indicated that both /sup 1/O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2//sup -/ were involved in the chilling- and light-induced lipid peroxidation which accompanied photooxidation. Application of D/sub 2/O (which enhances the lifetime of /sup 1/O/sub 2/) corroborated these results. Chilling under high light produced no evidence of photooxidative damage in detached leaves of chilling-resistant pea (Pisum sativum L.). Their results suggest a fundamental difference in the ability of pea to reduce the destructive effects of free-radical and /sup 1/O/sub 2/ production in chloroplasts during chilling in high light.

  11. Chilling-enhanced photooxidation: evidence for the role of singlet oxygen and superoxide in the breakdown of pigments and endogenous antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, R.R.; Naylor, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Chilling temperatures (5 0 C) and high irradiance (1000 microeinsteins per square meter per second) were used to induce photooxidation in detached leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a chilling-sensitive plant. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, β carotene, and three xanthophylls were degraded in a light-dependent fashion at essentially the same rate. Lipid peroxidation (measured as ethane evolution) showed an O 2 dependency. The levels of three endogenous antioxidants, ascorbate, reduced glutathione, and α tocopherol, all showed an irradiance-dependent decline. α-Tocopherol was the first antioxidant affected and appeared to be the only antioxidant that could be implicated in long-term protection of the photosynthetic pigments. Results from the application of antioxidants having relative selectivity for 1 O 2 , O 2 + , or OH indicated that both 1 O 2 and O 2 - were involved in the chilling- and light-induced lipid peroxidation which accompanied photooxidation. Application of D 2 O (which enhances the lifetime of 1 O 2 ) corroborated these results. Chilling under high light produced no evidence of photooxidative damage in detached leaves of chilling-resistant pea (Pisum sativum L.). Their results suggest a fundamental difference in the ability of pea to reduce the destructive effects of free-radical and 1 O 2 production in chloroplasts during chilling in high light

  12. Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and ... are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include Beta-carotene Lutein Lycopene Selenium Vitamin A ...

  13. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols, the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils.

  14. Role of Endogenous and Exogenous Tocopherols in the Lipid Stability of Marine Oil Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe Miroslava; López-Saiz, Carmen María; Ramírez-Guerra, Hugo Enrique; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido

    2016-01-01

    In marine organisms primarily intended for human consumption, the quality of the muscle and the extracted oils may be affected by lipid oxidation during storage, even at low temperatures. This has led to a search for alternatives to maintain quality. In this sense, antioxidant compounds have been used to prevent such lipid deterioration. Among the most used compounds are tocopherols, which, due to their natural origin, have become an excellent alternative to prevent or retard lipid oxidation and maintain the quality of marine products. Tocopherols as antioxidants have been studied both exogenously and endogenously. Exogenous tocopherols are often used by incorporating them into plastic packaging films or adding them directly to fish oil. It has been observed that exogenous tocopherols incorporated in low concentrations maintain the quality of both muscle and the extracted oils during food storage. However, it has been reported that tocopherols applied at higher concentrations act as a prooxidant molecule, probably because their reactions with singlet oxygen may generate free radicals and cause the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. However, when tocopherols are included in a fish diet (endogenous tocopherols), the antioxidant effect on the muscle lipids is more effective due to their incorporation into the membrane lipids, which can help extend the shelf life of seafood by reducing the lipid deterioration that occurs due to antioxidant synergy with other phenolic compounds used supplements in fish muscle. This review focuses on the most important studies in this field and highlights the potential of using tocopherols as antioxidants in marine oils. PMID:27886145

  15. Studies on the hepatic antioxidant defense system in &lambda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the hepatic antioxidant defense system in λ cyhalothrin-induced ... Significant (P<0.05) elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation was observed in λ ... The results of the present investigation have indicated that the tissue antioxidant defense system is operating at a lower rate despite ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  16. Influence of endogenous pyrogen on the cerebral prostaglandin-synthetase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziel, R; Krupp, P

    1976-11-15

    The biotransformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins in vitro is specifically augmented by endogenous pyrogen to a degree depending on the concentration applied, providing that the microsomal fraction of the cerebral cortex is used as prostaglandin-synthetase system. This effect is inhibited by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that prostaglandins might act as mediators of the febrile reaction induced by endogenous pyrogen.

  17. Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Penkowa, Milena; Hidalgo, Juan

    2005-01-01

    lower levels of MT-I+II were also detected in the plasma of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. These results suggest that, in control subjects, the MT-I+II defense system is active and inducible within skeletal muscle tissue and plasma. In type 2 diabetes, reduced levels of MT......Oxidative stress is implicated in diabetes complications, during which endogenous antioxidant defenses have important pathophysiological consequences. To date, the significance of endogenous antioxidants such as metallothioneins I and II (MT-I+II) in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. To examine....... Immunohistochemical analysis revealed reduced MT-I+II levels in the skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects compared with control subjects. Control subjects produced a robust increase of MT-I+II in response to training; however, in type 2 diabetes, MT-I+II levels remained essentially unchanged. Significantly...

  18. [Endogenous nociceptin level in ischemic stroke: connection to serotonin system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Hantos, Mónika; Bátor, György; Gyenge, Melinda; Laufer, Rudolf; Folyovich, András

    2006-06-01

    Particular role of the heptadecapeptide nociceptin (orphanin FQ), the endogenous agonist of the NOP receptor, has been widely demonstrated in the regulation of pain sensation and anxiety-related behavior. In our best knowledge this is the first study reporting plasma nociceptin levels in 26 acute stroke and 6 transiens ischemic attack (TIA) patients. We have found significantly elevated plasma nociceptin levels in all the three groups of patients studied (stroke influencing the carotis or the lacunar region and TIA). We suggest that elevated plasma nociceptin level is the consequence of stroke as in the group of patients recovered from previous stroke was found similar the control value. Plasma serotonin level was found non-significantly decreased in patients with stroke influencing the lacunar region and TIA patients. However the plasma 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5HIAA) levels were found significantly elevated in patient groups with stroke influencing both the carotis and the lacunar regions. Data may serve as further evidence for the serotonergic dysregulation in stroke.

  19. Endogenous retinoic acid activity in principal cells and intercalated cells of mouse collecting duct system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Fei Wong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid is the bioactive derivative of vitamin A, which plays an indispensible role in kidney development by activating retinoic acid receptors. Although the location, concentration and roles of endogenous retinoic acid in post-natal kidneys are poorly defined, there is accumulating evidence linking post-natal vitamin A deficiency to impaired renal concentrating and acidifying capacity associated with increased susceptibility to urolithiasis, renal inflammation and scarring. The aim of this study is to examine the presence and the detailed localization of endogenous retinoic acid activity in neonatal, young and adult mouse kidneys, to establish a fundamental ground for further research into potential target genes, as well as physiological and pathophysiological roles of endogenous retinoic acid in the post-natal kidneys.RARE-hsp68-lacZ transgenic mice were employed as a reporter for endogenous retinoic acid activity that was determined by X-gal assay and immunostaining of the reporter gene product, β-galactosidase. Double immunostaining was performed for β-galactosidase and markers of kidney tubules to localize retinoic acid activity. Distinct pattern of retinoic acid activity was observed in kidneys, which is higher in neonatal and 1- to 3-week-old mice than that in 5- and 8-week-old mice. The activity was present specifically in the principal cells and the intercalated cells of the collecting duct system in all age groups, but was absent from the glomeruli, proximal tubules, thin limbs of Henle's loop and distal tubules.Endogenous retinoic acid activity exists in principal cells and intercalated cells of the mouse collecting duct system after birth and persists into adulthood. This observation provides novel insights into potential roles for endogenous retinoic acid beyond nephrogenesis and warrants further studies to investigate target genes and functions of endogenous retinoic acid in the kidney after birth, particularly in the

  20. The human endogenous circadian system causes greatest platelet activation during the biological morning independent of behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A J L Scheer

    Full Text Available Platelets are involved in the thromboses that are central to myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes. Such adverse cardiovascular events have day/night patterns with peaks in the morning (~9 AM, potentially related to endogenous circadian clock control of platelet activation. The objective was to test if the human endogenous circadian system influences (1 platelet function and (2 platelet response to standardized behavioral stressors. We also aimed to compare the magnitude of any effects on platelet function caused by the circadian system with that caused by varied standardized behavioral stressors, including mental arithmetic, passive postural tilt and mild cycling exercise.We studied 12 healthy adults (6 female who lived in individual laboratory suites in dim light for 240 h, with all behaviors scheduled on a 20-h recurring cycle to permit assessment of endogenous circadian function independent from environmental and behavioral effects including the sleep/wake cycle. Circadian phase was assessed from core body temperature. There were highly significant endogenous circadian rhythms in platelet surface activated glycoprotein (GP IIb-IIIa, GPIb and P-selectin (6-17% peak-trough amplitudes; p ≤ 0.01. These circadian peaks occurred at a circadian phase corresponding to 8-9 AM. Platelet count, ATP release, aggregability, and plasma epinephrine also had significant circadian rhythms but with later peaks (corresponding to 3-8 PM. The circadian effects on the platelet activation markers were always larger than that of any of the three behavioral stressors.These data demonstrate robust effects of the endogenous circadian system on platelet activation in humans--independent of the sleep/wake cycle, other behavioral influences and the environment. The 9 AM timing of the circadian peaks of the three platelet surface markers, including platelet surface activated GPIIb-IIIa, the final common pathway of platelet aggregation, suggests that endogenous

  1. FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATIONS WITH ENDOGENOUS SYSTEM SIZING

    OpenAIRE

    Gunter, Lewell F.; Smathers, Webb M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is concerned with analysis of economic feasibility of solar energy systems. Methodology for estimating energy output from different sized systems is briefly presented, and this is used to determine technical coefficients for a mixed integer model which optimizes the size of the solar heating unit for a particular use. An empirical example of hot water heating on a Georgia dairy is presented. Cost curves are provided for the dairy example to illustrate the effect of sizing on the ec...

  2. Endogenous opioid systems: physiological role in the self-limitation of seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, F C; Long, J B; Holaday, J W

    1985-04-15

    Immediately following a seizure, the severity of subsequent seizures is significantly reduced. The involvement of endogenous opioid systems as a physiological regulator of this postseizure inhibition was studied in rats using repeated maximal electroshock (MES) seizures. Both the opiate antagonist (-)-naloxone and morphine tolerance abolished the progressive seizure protection associated with repeated MES. We propose that endogenous opioids, activated by a prior seizure, provide a central homeostatic inhibitory mechanism which may be responsible for the initiation of a postictal refractory state in the epileptic.

  3. The endogenous preproglucagon system is not essential for gut growth homeostasis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Wismann

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The present study indicates that the endogenous preproglucagon system, exemplified by the entire GCG gene and the receptors for GLP-1 and GLP-2, does not play a major role in normal gut development in the mouse. Furthermore, elevation in local intestinal and circulating levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 achieved after VSG has limited impact on intestinal morphometry. Hence, although exogenous treatment with GLP-1 and GLP-2 analogs enhances gut growth, the contributions of endogenously-secreted GLP-1 and GLP-2 to gut growth may be more modest and highly context-dependent.

  4. Two cognitive and neural systems for endogenous and exogenous spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chica, Ana B; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2013-01-15

    Orienting of spatial attention is a family of phylogenetically old mechanisms developed to select information for further processing. Information can be selected via top-down or endogenous mechanisms, depending on the goals of the observers or on the task at hand. Moreover, salient and potentially dangerous events also attract spatial attention via bottom-up or exogenous mechanisms, allowing a rapid and efficient reaction to unexpected but important events. Fronto-parietal brain networks have been demonstrated to play an important role in supporting spatial attentional orienting, although there is no consensus on whether there is a single attentional system supporting both endogenous and exogenous attention, or two anatomical and functionally different attentional systems. In the present paper we review behavioral evidence emphasizing the differential characteristics of both systems, as well as their possible interactions for the control of the final orienting response. Behavioral studies reporting qualitative differences between the effects of both systems as well as double dissociations of the effects of endogenous and exogenous attention on information processing, suggest that they constitute two independent attentional systems, rather than a single one. Recent models of attentional orienting in humans have put forward the hypothesis of a dorsal fronto-parietal network for orienting spatial attention, and a more ventral fronto-parietal network for detecting unexpected but behaviorally relevant events. Non-invasive neurostimulation techniques, as well as neuropsychological data, suggest that endogenous and exogenous attention are implemented in overlapping, although partially segregated, brain circuits. Although more research is needed in order to refine our anatomical and functional knowledge of the brain circuits underlying spatial attention, we conclude that endogenous and exogenous spatial orienting constitute two independent attentional systems, with

  5. Endogenous enforcement and effectiveness of China's pollution levy system

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Wang; Wheeler, David

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigate two aspects of China's pollution levy system, which was first implemented about 20 years ago. First, they analyze what determines differences in enforcement of the pollution levy in various urban areas. They find that collection of the otherwise uniform pollution levy is sensitive to differences in economic development and environmental quality. Air and water pollution levies are higher in areas that are heavily polluted. Second, they analyze the impact of pollution ch...

  6. Neurobiological mechanisms involved in nicotine dependence and reward: participation of the endogenous opioid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrendero, Fernando; Robledo, Patricia; Trigo, José Manuel; Martín-García, Elena; Maldonado, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine is the primary component of tobacco that maintains the smoking habit and develops addiction. The adaptive changes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors produced by repeated exposure to nicotine play a crucial role in the establishment of dependence. However, other neurochemical systems also participate in the addictive effects of nicotine including glutamate, cannabinoids, GABA and opioids. This review will cover the involvement of these neurotransmitters in nicotine addictive properties, with a special emphasis on the endogenous opioid system. Thus, endogenous enkephalins and beta-endorphins acting on mu-opioid receptors are involved in nicotine rewarding effects, whereas opioid peptides derived from prodynorphin participate in nicotine aversive responses. An upregulation of mu-opioid receptors has been reported after chronic nicotine treatment that could counteract the development of nicotine tolerance, whereas the downregulation induced on kappa-opioid receptors seems to facilitate nicotine tolerance. Endogenous enkephalins acting on mu-opioid receptors also play a role in the development of physical dependence to nicotine. In agreement with these actions of the endogenous opioid system, the opioid antagonist naltrexone has shown to be effective for smoking cessation in certain subpopulations of smokers. PMID:20170672

  7. Chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion effects on the cognitive function and antioxidant system of rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Renata Viana; Silva-Oliveira, Eliane Moretto; Moraes, Márcio Flávio Dutra; Pereira, Grace Schenatto; Moraes-Santos, Tasso

    2011-10-01

    Coffee is a popular beverage consumed worldwide and its effect on health protection has been well studied throughout literature. This study investigates the effect of chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion on cognitive behavior and the antioxidant system of rat brains. The paradigms of open field and object recognition were used to assess locomotor and exploratory activities, as well as learning and memory. The antioxidant system was evaluated by determining the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione content. Five groups of male rats were fed for approximately 80 days with different diets: control diet (CD), fed a control diet; 3% coffee diet (3%Co) and 6% coffee diet (6%Co), both fed a diet containing brewed coffee; 0.04% caffeine diet (0.04%Ca) and 0.08% caffeine diet (0.08%Ca), both fed a control diet supplemented with caffeine. The estimated caffeine intake was approximately 20 and 40 mg/kg per day, for the 3%Co-0.04%Ca and 6%Co-0.08%Ca treatments, respectively. At 90 days of life, the animals were subjected to the behavioral tasks and then sacrificed. The results indicated that the intake of coffee, similar to caffeine, improved long-term memory when tested with object recognition; however, this was not accompanied by an increase in locomotor and exploratory activities. In addition, chronic coffee and caffeine ingestion reduced the lipid peroxidation of brain membranes and increased the concentration of reduced-glutathione. The activities of the GR and SOD were similarly increased, but no change in GPx activity could be observed. Thus, besides improving cognitive function, our data show that chronic coffee consumption modulates the endogenous antioxidant system in the brain. Therefore, chronic coffee ingestion, through the protection of the antioxidant system, may play an important role in preventing age-associated decline in the cognitive

  8. Antioxidant status, immune system, blood metabolites and carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary turmeric rhizome powder (TP) on performance, blood metabolite, immune system, antioxidant status, and relative weight of organs in pre and post heat stressed broilers. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) day-old male Arian broiler chicks were randomly ...

  9. Overexpression of Endogenous Anti-Oxidants with Selenium Supplementation Protects Trophoblast Cells from Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Apoptosis in a Bcl-2-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Alisha; Vanderlelie, Jessica J; Holland, Olivia; Perkins, Anthony V

    2017-06-01

    The human placenta provides life support for the developing foetus, and a healthy placenta is a prerequisite to a healthy start to life. Placental tissue is subject to oxidative stress which can lead to pathological conditions of pregnancy such as preeclampsia, preterm labour and intrauterine growth restriction. Up-regulation of endogenous anti-oxidants may alleviate placental oxidative stress and provide a therapy for these complications of pregnancy. In this study, selenium supplementation, as inorganic sodium selenite (NaSel) or organic selenomethionine (SeMet), was used to increase the protein production and cellular activity of the important redox active proteins glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red). Placental trophoblast cell lines, BeWo, JEG-3 and Swan-71, were cultured in various concentrations of NaSel or SeMet for 24 h and cell extracts prepared for western blots and enzyme assays. Rotenone and antimycin were used to stimulate mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induce apoptosis. Trophoblast cells supplemented with 100 nM NaSel and 500 nM SeMet exhibited significantly enhanced expression and activity of both GPx and Thx-Red. Antimycin and rotenone were found to generate ROS when measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) assay, and selenium supplementation was shown to reduce ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. Rotenone, 100 μM treatment for 4 h, caused trophoblast cell apoptosis as evidenced by increased Annexin V binding and decreased expression of Bcl-2. In both assays of apoptosis, selenium supplementation was able to prevent apoptosis, preserve Bcl-2 expression and protect trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. This data suggests that selenoproteins such as GPx and Thx-Red have an important role in protecting trophoblast cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress and that selenium supplementation may be important in treating some placental pathologies.

  10. An in vitro system from Plasmodium falciparum active in endogenous mRNA translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreras Ana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro translation system has been prepared from Plasmodium falciparum by saponin lysis of infected-erythrocytes to free parasites which were homogeneized with glass beads, centrifuged to obtain a S-30 fraction followed by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration. This treatment produced a system with very low contamination of host proteins (<1%. The system, optimized for Mg2+ and K+, translates endogenous mRNA and is active for 80 min which suggests that their protein factors and mRNA are quite stable.

  11. Impact Of Exogenous And Endogenous Risks On Systemic Risk In Indonesian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfiana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Weaknesses of the Banking Pressure Index and Financial Stability Index as an early detection system were not to involve contagion and bank run. This study aimed at determining impacts of endogenous and exogenous risks on systemic risks. It was a descriptive verificatory study using monthly secondary data of 2011-2014 and multiple regressions. Utilizing credit risk liquidity risk market risk capital adequacy risk contagion bank run inflation BI rate exchange rate and systemic risk variables of the 2011-2014 period it turned out that only endogenous risks of contagion and bank run variables impacted on systemic risk in Indonesian banking. The result showed that after the test of classical linear regression assumption credit risk capital adequacy risk contagion bank run and inflation variables simultaneously impacted on systemic risk and contributed to the movement of systemic risk. However our findings suggested that only contagion CONT bank run BR and inflation INF variables significantly impacted on systemic risk in a positive direction.

  12. Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and the respiratory activity of durum wheat ( Triticum durum L .). ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Root respiratory activity was also determined using a polarographic method ...

  13. Discovery of endogenous opioid systems: what it has meant for the clinician's understanding of pain and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Jane C; Sullivan, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Before the discovery of the endogenous opioid system in the 1970s, opioids were understood only through the lens of opioid drug effects. Opium produced sleep, pain relief, and addiction. Once a variety of opioids had been extracted from opium, and still others synthesized chemically, it became clear that there must be endogenous receptors to explain differential drug effects. So, the search was on to identify the receptors, and subsequently their endogenous ligands. Even then, the consequential ways in which the endogenous opioid system influences the way we respond to the environment and survive took time to unravel. Today's understanding extends far beyond simply accepting pain relief and addiction as separate processes, to the realization that the endogenous opioid system achieves constant adjustments between punishment (pain) and reward in communicating areas of the brain previously thought to subserve separate functions. The system also plays a crucial role in socialization. Taken together, these 2 lines of research have led to new insights into why the endogenous opioid system is so important in terms of evolution, individual survival and day-to-day function, and how important it is to consider opioid medications within the context of these critical natural functions.

  14. Endogenous Molecular-Cellular Network Cancer Theory: A Systems Biology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaowei; Yuan, Ruoshi; Zhu, Xiaomei; Ao, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In light of ever apparent limitation of the current dominant cancer mutation theory, a quantitative hypothesis for cancer genesis and progression, endogenous molecular-cellular network hypothesis has been proposed from the systems biology perspective, now for more than 10 years. It was intended to include both the genetic and epigenetic causes to understand cancer. Its development enters the stage of meaningful interaction with experimental and clinical data and the limitation of the traditional cancer mutation theory becomes more evident. Under this endogenous network hypothesis, we established a core working network of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to the hypothesis and quantified the working network by a nonlinear dynamical system. We showed that the two stable states of the working network reproduce the main known features of normal liver and HCC at both the modular and molecular levels. Using endogenous network hypothesis and validated working network, we explored genetic mutation pattern in cancer and potential strategies to cure or relieve HCC from a totally new perspective. Patterns of genetic mutations have been traditionally analyzed by posteriori statistical association approaches in light of traditional cancer mutation theory. One may wonder the possibility of a priori determination of any mutation regularity. Here, we found that based on the endogenous network theory the features of genetic mutations in cancers may be predicted without any prior knowledge of mutation propensities. Normal hepatocyte and cancerous hepatocyte stable states, specified by distinct patterns of expressions or activities of proteins in the network, provide means to directly identify a set of most probable genetic mutations and their effects in HCC. As the key proteins and main interactions in the network are conserved through cell types in an organism, similar mutational features may also be found in other cancers. This analysis yielded straightforward and testable

  15. Possible role of a dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Wedekind, Dirk

    2015-11-01

    Around half the inmates in prison institutions have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). A recent theory has proposed that a dysfunction of the endogenous opioid system (EOS) underlies the neurobiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present theoretical paper, based on a comprehensive database and hand search of the relevant literature, this hypothesis is extended to ASPD, which may be the predominant expression of EOS dysfunction in men, while the same pathology underlies BPD in women. According to evidence from human and animal studies, the problematic behaviours of persons with antisocial, callous, or psychopathic traits may be seen as desperate, unconscious attempts to stimulate their deficient EOS, which plays a key role in brain reward circuits. If the needs of this system are not being met, the affected persons experience dysphoric mood, discomfort, or irritability, and strive to increase binding of endogenous opioids to receptors by using the rewarding effects of aggression by exertion of physical or manipulative power on others, by abusing alcohol or substances that have the reward system as target, by creating an "endorphin rush" by self-harm, by increasing the frequency of their sexual contacts, or by impulsive actions and sensation seeking. Symptoms associated with ASPD can be treated with opioid antagonists like naltrexone, naloxone, or nalmefene. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Early social environment affects the endogenous oxytocin system: a review and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eAlves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g. genetic variation (of the OXTR, age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences such as social experiences, stress or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences and function. Secondly, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention.

  17. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eFont

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (opioid peptides and receptors in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference. Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc, which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine. The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: 1 implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and 2 the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR.

  18. The antioxidative system of Norway spruce: Effects of different stress factors. Das antioxidative System der Fichte: Einfluss von verschiedenen Stressfaktoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schittenhelm, J. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Westphal, S. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Toder, S. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany)); Wagner, E. (Freiburg Univ., Inst. fuer Biologie 2, Abt. Botanik (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    The effects of different stress factors on the antioxidative system of 6-year-old Norway spruces of the same clone were examined. Flooding and permanent darkness had only minor effects. On the other hand drought, chilling, intense light, and very high ozone concentrations showed strong but distinct consequences. This indicates that the damages by these stress factors are due to different toxic oxygen species, and that the stress factors could produce synergistic damages under natural field conditions. (orig.)

  19. [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong Fang; DU, Shu Xu; Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Su Qing; Tian, Yue; Bu, Ding Fang; Tang, Chao Shu; DU, Jun Bao

    2007-08-18

    Since the 1980's nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), the endogenous gas molecules produced from metabolic pathway, have been realized as signal molecules to be involved in the regulation of body homeostasis and to play important roles under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The researches on these endogenous gas signal molecules opened a new avenue in life science. To explore the new member of gasotransmitter family, other endogenous gas molecules which have been regarded as metabolic waste up to date, and their biological regulatory effects have been paid close attention to in the current fields of life science and medicine. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) can be produced endogenously from normal metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. L-cysteine is oxidized via cysteine dioxygenase to L-cysteinesulfinate, and the latter can proceed through transamination by glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) to beta-sulfinyl pyruvate which decomposes spontaneously to pyruvate and SO(2). In mammals, activated neutrophils by oxidative stress can convert H(2)S to sulfite through a reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent process. The authors detected endogenous production of SO(2) in all cardiovascular tissues, including in heart, aorta, pulmonary artery, mesenteric artery, renal artery, tail artery and the plasma SO(2) content. As the key enzyme producing SO(2), GOT mRNA in cardiovascular system was detected and found to be located enriched in endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells near the endothelial layer. When the normal rats were treated with hydroxamate(HDX), a GOT inhibitor, at a dose of 3.7 mg/kg body weight, the blood pressure (BP) went high markedly, the ratio of wall thickness to lumen radius was increased by 18.34%, and smooth muscle cell proliferation was enhanced. The plasma SO(2) level in the rats injected with 125 micromol/kg body weight SO(2) donor was

  20. Electrophoretic characterization of D. melanogaster strains deficient in endogenous anti-oxidants in combination with gamma radiation; Caracterizacion electroforetica de cepas de D. melanogaster deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos en combinacion con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomar A, S.

    2012-07-01

    The free radicals derived of the oxygen and other reactive species are generated by endogenous processes as sub-products of the aerobic metabolism or by exogenous factors as the environmental pollution, the biological half life of these free radicals is of microseconds, but they have the capacity of reacting with any atom or molecule to its around causing oxidant stress and damage to molecules, cellular membranes and tissues. To counteract them, there is endogenous and exogenous anti-oxidants, the first ones are synthesized by the organism for maintaining the cellular homeostasis as the superoxide dismutase and catalase. There are recent evidences that indicate that the sodium cooper chlorophyllin (SCC) presents a dual effect reducing and/or increasing the induced genetic damage by different mutagenic agents. One hypothesis for this effect is that the SCC can act as oxidant per se or through some of their metabolites. Results more recent indicated that a similar of the SCC, the protoporphyrin-Ix, can produce genetic damage. In this work exogenous anti-oxidants were used, as the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or the bilirubin in the induction of endogenous anti-oxidants enzymes to evaluate the supposed oxidant activity of the SCC and/or their metabolites. Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in superoxide dismutase, catalase and withered were used and a rustic strain Canton-S as control. In the three experiments were treated 60 males of 1 day of age, with SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix or bilirubin to one concentration of 69 m M during 12 days. Every 4 days 10 males were isolated to measure them the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The results showed that the SCC, protoporphyrin-Ix and bilirubin considered like anti-oxidants, were able to increase the induction of the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes. This result maybe is because they are able to generate reactive species of oxygen, as the anion superoxide and the hydrogen peroxide. Among the three

  1. Lipophilized phenolics as antioxidants in fish oil enriched food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Food products containing long chain omega-3 PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation, which causes undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... hypothesis is that lipophilization of such polar phenolic compounds may improve their efficacy in fish oil enriched food systems. Our study aimed at evaluating rutin and dihydrocaffeic acid and their esters as antioxidants in o/w emulsion model system and milk enriched with fish oil. Moreover, the effect...

  2. Endogenous retroviruses of sheep: a model system for understanding physiological adaptation to an evolving ruminant genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas E; Palmarini, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are present in the genome of all vertebrates and are remnants of ancient exogenous retroviral infections of the host germline transmitted vertically from generation to generation. Sheep betaretroviruses offer a unique model system to study the complex interaction between retroviruses and their host. The sheep genome contains 27 endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) related to the exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), the causative agent of a transmissible lung cancer in sheep. The enJSRVs can protect their host against JSRV infection by blocking early and late steps of the JSRV replication cycle. In the female reproductive tract, enJSRVs are specifically expressed in the uterine luminal and glandular epithelia as well as in the conceptus (embryo and associated extraembryonic membranes) trophectoderm and in utero loss-of-function experiments found the enJSRVs envelope (env) to be essential for conceptus elongation and trophectoderm growth and development. Collectively, available evidence in sheep and other mammals indicate that ERVs coevolved with their hosts for millions of years and were positively selected for biological roles in genome plasticity and evolution, protection of the host against infection of related pathogenic and exogenous retroviruses, and placental development.

  3. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenberg, Roy; Zwinkels, Remco C J

    2015-01-01

    Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news.

  4. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Kouwenberg

    Full Text Available Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news.

  5. Endogenous Price Bubbles in a Multi-Agent System of the Housing Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Economic history shows a large number of boom-bust cycles, with the U.S. real estate market as one of the latest examples. Classical economic models have not been able to provide a full explanation for this type of market dynamics. Therefore, we analyze home prices in the U.S. using an alternative approach, a multi-agent complex system. Instead of the classical assumptions of agent rationality and market efficiency, agents in the model are heterogeneous, adaptive, and boundedly rational. We estimate the multi-agent system with historical house prices for the U.S. market. The model fits the data well and a deterministic version of the model can endogenously produce boom-and-bust cycles on the basis of the estimated coefficients. This implies that trading between agents themselves can create major price swings in absence of fundamental news. PMID:26107740

  6. Social touch modulates endogenous μ-opioid system activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Tuominen, Lauri; Dunbar, Robin; Hirvonen, Jussi; Manninen, Sandra; Arponen, Eveliina; Machin, Anna; Hari, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko

    2016-09-01

    In non-human primates, opioid-receptor blockade increases social grooming, and the endogenous opioid system has therefore been hypothesized to support maintenance of long-term relationships in humans as well. Here we tested whether social touch modulates opioidergic activation in humans using in vivo positron emission tomography (PET). Eighteen male participants underwent two PET scans with [11C]carfentanil, a ligand specific to μ-opioid receptors (MOR). During the social touch scan, the participants lay in the scanner while their partners caressed their bodies in a non-sexual fashion. In the baseline scan, participants lay alone in the scanner. Social touch triggered pleasurable sensations and increased MOR availability in the thalamus, striatum, and frontal, cingulate, and insular cortices. Modulation of activity of the opioid system by social touching might provide a neurochemical mechanism reinforcing social bonds between humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of Flaxseed Extracts in Lipid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Slavova-Kazakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the antioxidant activity of the extract of flaxseed and its alkaline hydrolysate in two model systems: lipid autoxidation of triacylglycerols of sunflower oil (TGSO—in a homogeneous lipid media and during β-carotene-linoleate emulsion system. In addition, pure lignans were tested. The material was defatted with hexane and then phenolic compounds were extracted using dioxane-ethanol (50:50, v/v mixture. Carbohydrates were removed from the crude extract using an Amberlite XAD-16 column chromatography. The content of total phenolic compounds in the crude extract and after alkaline hydrolysis was determined using a Folin-Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent. Individual phenolic compounds were determined by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (RP-HPLC method in gradient system. The alkaline hydrolysis increased the content of total phenolics in the extract approximately by 10%. In the extracts of flaxseed, phenolic compounds were present in the form of macromolecular complex. In the alkaline hydrolysate, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG was found as the main phenolic compound. Small amounts of p-coumaric and ferulic acids were also determined. SDG and both extracts were not able to inhibit effectively lipid autoxidation. The kinetics of TGSO autoxidation at 80 °C in absence and in presence of the extract before hydrolysis (EBH and after hydrolysis (EAH was monitored and compared with known standard antioxidants. Ferulic acid (FA and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT showed much higher antioxidant efficiency and reactivity than that of both extracts. Secoisolariciresinol (SECO showed a higher activity in both model systems than SDG. However, the activity of SECO was much lower than that of nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA.

  8. Alpha-tocopherol alters endogenous oxidative defense system in mungbean plants under water-deficit condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, M.; Akram, N.A.; Javed, M.T.

    2016-01-01

    Foliar spray of plant growth regulating compounds including antioxidants is an effective strategy to overcome the adverse effects of environmental constraints on different plants. A pot experiment was conducted to assess the influence of exogenously applied alpha-tocopherol (Toc) in up-regulating the oxidative defense system in two mungbean cultivars (Cyclone 7008 and Cyclone 8009) grown under normal and water deficit conditions. After 30-day of water deficit treatment, four levels of Toc (0 (non spray), 100, 200 and 300 mg L-1) were applied as a foliage application (at vegetative growth stage). A significant reduction was observed in plant height and total soluble proteins, while an increase was observed in the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), ascorbic acid, total phenolics, malondialdehyde (MDA), total free amino acids and the activities of enzymatic (SOD, POD and CAT) antioxidants in both mungbean cultivars under drought conditions. Foliar spray of Toc was effective in improving plant height, AsA, total soluble proteins, total free amino acids, and activities of POD and CAT enzymes, but reduced MDA under water stress conditions. However, no prominent change was observed on the concentrations of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, phenolics, and SOD enzyme due to foliar-applied Toc in both mungbean cultivars under both water regimes. Both mungbean cultivars were almost similar in all attributes measured except that cv. Cyclone 7008 was higher in the levels of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and TSP while cv. Cyclone 8009 in phenolics. So, from the results of this study we can suggest that exogenous application of Toc is effective in improving growth and antioxidative potential of mungbean plants under dry arid environment. (author)

  9. Research on an antioxidant capacity of honeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Hołderna-Kędzia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human organism is exposed to harmful action of free radicals which are produced as well endogenically as egzogenically. The oxidation activity of free radicals can lead to the conversion of systemic biomolecules. As a consequence, there is a threat of, many severe diseases. Antioxidative agents which occur in natural products (also in honey raise a possibility of protection against the harmful action of above mentioned radicals. Polyphenolic compounds - flavonoids, phenolic acids and ascorbic acid - are the most important antioxidative agents. The research of many authors proves that honey, given orally, shows an antioxidative activity. The level of antioxidative agents in serum after the consumption of honey is high and surpasses the antioxidative activity of tea. Dark honeys (honeydew and heather have considerably higher antioxidative activity in comparison to light ones (acacia, lime, polyfloral.

  10. Ginsan activated the antioxidant defense systems in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie Young; Son, Soo Jung; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Ji Young; Han, Young Soo; Jung, In Sung; Yun, Yeon Sook [KIRMS Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Ginsan, a polysaccharide extracted from Panax ginseng, has hematopoietic activity and is also known as a good biological-response modifier. In this investigation, we studied the effects of ginsan on the {gamma}-radiation induced alterations of some antioxidant systems in spleen of Balb/c mice. There are many data that irradiation induces Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which plays an important causative role in radiation damage of cell. The level of ROS in cells is regulated by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. The most powerful ones among them are superoxide dismutases (SODs) catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide anion radical o{sub 2} to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, catalase deactivating h-2O{sub 2} and reduced glutathion (GSH) detoxifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and other ROS> At the 5{sub th} day after sublethal whole body irradiation, splenocytes of irradiated mice expressed only marginally increased levels of Mn-SOD, however, Cu/Zn-SOD, catalase, thioredoxine reductase (TR) and thioredoxine (TRX) mRNA (135% increase compared to control), however, the combination of irradiation with ginsan increased the SODs and GPX production more effectively. In addition to the above results, we obtained the similar data of protein expression. The enzyme activities of SOD, catalase, and GPX of ginsan-treated and irradiated mice were significantly enhanced by 140, 115, 126% respectively, compared with those of irradiated mice. Based on these results, we propose that the induction of antioxidant enzymes of ginsan is at least in part due to its capacity to protect against radiation.

  11. Dietary antioxidant synergy in chemical and biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2017-07-24

    Antioxidant (AOX) synergies have been much reported in chemical ("test-tube" based assays focusing on pure chemicals), biological (tissue culture, animal and clinical models), and food systems during the past decade. Tentative synergies differ from each other due to the composition of AOX and the quantification methods. Regeneration mechanism responsible for synergy in chemical systems has been discussed. Solvent effects could contribute to the artifacts of synergy observed in the chemical models. Synergy in chemical models may hardly be relevant to biological systems that have been much less studied. Apparent discrepancies exist in understanding the molecular mechanisms in both chemical and biological systems. This review discusses diverse variables associated with AOX synergy and molecular scenarios for explanation. Future research to better utilize the synergy is suggested.

  12. The endogenous preproglucagon system is not essential for gut growth homeostasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismann, Pernille; Barkholt, Pernille; Secher, Thomas; Vrang, Niels; Hansen, Henrik B; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Baggio, Laurie L; Koehler, Jacqueline A; Drucker, Daniel J; Sandoval, Darleen A; Jelsing, Jacob

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity and related co-morbidities is reaching pandemic proportions. Today, the most effective obesity treatments are glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs and bariatric surgery. Interestingly, both intervention paradigms have been associated with adaptive growth responses in the gut; however, intestinotrophic mechanisms associated with or secondary to medical or surgical obesity therapies are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the local basal endogenous and pharmacological intestinotrophic effects of glucagon-like peptides and bariatric surgery in mice. We used in situ hybridization to provide a detailed and comparative anatomical map of the local distribution of GLP-1 receptor ( Glp1r ), GLP-2 receptor ( Glp2r ), and preproglucagon ( Gcg ) mRNA expression throughout the mouse gastrointestinal tract. Gut development in GLP-1R-, GLP-2R-, or GCG-deficient mice was compared to their corresponding wild-type controls, and intestinotrophic effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 analogs were assessed in wild-type mice. Lastly, gut volume was determined in a mouse model of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG). Comparison of Glp1r , Glp2r , and Gcg mRNA expression indicated a widespread, but distinct, distribution of these three transcripts throughout all compartments of the mouse gastrointestinal tract. While mice null for Glp1r or Gcg showed normal intestinal morphology, Glp2r -/- mice exhibited a slight reduction in small intestinal mucosa volume. Pharmacological treatment with GLP-1 and GLP-2 analogs significantly increased gut volume. In contrast, VSG surgery had no effect on intestinal morphology. The present study indicates that the endogenous preproglucagon system, exemplified by the entire GCG gene and the receptors for GLP-1 and GLP-2, does not play a major role in normal gut development in the mouse. Furthermore, elevation in local intestinal and circulating levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 achieved after VSG has limited impact

  13. The Role of the Nrf2/ARE Antioxidant System in Preventing Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that consuming foods and beverages that have high concentrations of antioxidants can prevent cardiovascular diseases and many types of cancer. As a result, many articles have been published that give the total antioxidant capacities of foods in vitro. However, many antioxidants behave quite differently in vivo. Some of them, such as resveratrol (in red wine and epigallocatechin gallate or EGCG (in green tea can activate the nuclear erythroid-2 like factor-2 (Nrf2 transcription factor. It is a master regulator of endogenous cellular defense mechanisms. Nrf2 controls the expression of many antioxidant and detoxification genes, by binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs that are commonly found in the promoter region of antioxidant (and other genes, and that control expression of those genes. The mechanisms by which Nrf2 relieves oxidative stress and limits cardiac injury as well as the progression to heart failure are described. Also, the ability of statins to induce Nrf2 in the heart, brain, lung, and liver is mentioned. However, there is a negative side of Nrf2. When over-activated, it can cause (not prevent cardiovascular diseases and multi-drug resistance cancer.

  14. The response of antioxidant systems in Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation and the protective effects of exogenous antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Li, Dunhai; Zhang, Delu; Li, Xiaoyan; Chen, Kun; Liu, Yongding

    UV radiation is one of many harmful factors found in space that are detrimental to organisms on earth in space exploration. In the present work, we examined the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides Kütz (Cyanobacterium) and the effects of exogenously applied antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation. It was found that UV-B radiation promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II (PSII) and exogenously applied antioxidant: sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) and content of MDA (malondialdehyde) and ASC (ascorbate) were improved by 0.5 mM and 1 mM SNP, but 0.1 mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxidant system. Addition of exogenous NAC decreased the activity of SOD, POD, CAT and the content MDA and ASC. In contrast, exogenously applied NAC increased GSH content. The results suggest that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms: SNP may play double roles as both sources of reactive free radicals as well as ROS scavengers in mediating the protective role of PSII on algae under UV-B radiation. On the other hand, NAC functions as an antioxidant or precursor of glutathione, which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation.

  15. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  16. FPL-PELPS : a price endogenous linear programming system for economic modeling, supplement to PELPS III, version 1.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Henry Spelter; Peter J. Ince

    2003-01-01

    This report provides documentation and user information for FPL-PELPS, a personal computer price endogenous linear programming system for economic modeling. Originally developed to model the North American pulp and paper industry, FPL-PELPS follows its predecessors in allowing the modeling of any appropriate sector to predict consumption, production and capacity by...

  17. Differential regulation of morphine antinociceptive effects by endogenous enkephalinergic system in the forebrain of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wei-Zen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice lacking the preproenkephalin (ppENK gene are hyperalgesic and show more anxiety and aggression than wild-type (WT mice. The marked behavioral changes in ppENK knock-out (KO mice appeared to occur in supraspinal response to painful stimuli. However the functional role of enkephalins in the supraspinal nociceptive processing and their underlying mechanism is not clear. The aim of present study was to compare supraspinal nociceptive and morphine antinociceptive responses between WT and ppENK KO mice. Results The genotypes of bred KO mice were confirmed by PCR. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive neurons were labeled in the caudate-putamen, intermediated part of lateral septum, lateral globus pallidus, intermediated part of lateral septum, hypothalamus, and amygdala of WT mice. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive neurons were not found in the same brain areas in KO mice. Tail withdrawal and von Frey test results did not differ between WT and KO mice. KO mice had shorter latency to start paw licking than WT mice in the hot plate test. The maximal percent effect of morphine treatments (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, i.p. differed between WT and KO mice in hot plate test. The current source density (CSD profiles evoked by peripheral noxious stimuli in the primary somatosenstory cortex (S1 and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC were similar in WT and KO mice. After morphine injection, the amplitude of the laser-evoked sink currents was decreased in S1 while the amplitude of electrical-evoked sink currents was increased in the ACC. These differential morphine effects in S1 and ACC were enhanced in KO mice. Facilitation of synaptic currents in the ACC is mediated by GABA inhibitory interneurons in the local circuitry. Percent increases in opioid receptor binding in S1 and ACC were 5.1% and 5.8%, respectively. Conclusion The present results indicate that the endogenous enkephalin system is not involved in acute nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord

  18. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (−0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2⋅− in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and O2⋅− generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological features and drought

  19. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M. (Univ. of London (England)); Smith, L.L. (Imperial Chemical Industries PLC, Cheshire (England))

    1990-04-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 {mu}M) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP{sup +}, and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} from D-({sup 14}C(U))-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone.

  20. The State of the Antioxidant System in Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnozakhon Z. Aripkhodjaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis of viral etiology ranks very high in human pathology with respect to its socio-economic and medical significance. In viral hepatitis, membrane destruction occurs via the processes of lipoperoxidation, a valid factor that triggers the mechanism of hepatocyte necrosis. The glutathione system is also involved in the first line of cell defense actions against the effect of the free radicals. In this study, 128 patients with Chronic Hepatitis C (CHC were examined. The degree of antioxidant defense was determined by the indicators of the activity of the glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes. The total, reduced and oxidized glutathione levels were determined by V. G. Chernishov. The activity of the glutathione-dependent enzymes, viz., glutathione peroxidase (GP, glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione transferase (GT was measured by the method prescribed by S. N. Vlasova and co-authors (1990. The results of the investigations performed revealed that in CHC patients, deep-seated disorders were observed in the glutathione system manifested by a decrease in the total glutathione levels, its oxidized and reduced forms, changes in the glutathione enzymes and the interrelationships between the intensity of the changes and the degree of the intoxication syndrome.

  1. A novel lung slice system with compromised antioxidant defenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, S.J.; Adam, A.; Cohen, G.M.; Smith, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    In order to facilitate the study of oxidative stress in lung tissue, rat lung slices with impaired antioxidant defenses were prepared and used. Incubation of lung slices with the antineoplastic agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) (100 μM) in an amino acid-rich medium for 45 min produced a near-maximal (approximately 85%), irreversible inhibition of glutathione reductase, accompanied by only a modest (approximately 15%) decrease in pulmonary nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) and no alteration in intracellular ATP, NADP + , and NADPH levels. The amounts of NADP(H), ATP, and NPSH were stable over a 4-hr incubation period following the removal from BCNU. The viability of the system was further evaluated by measuring the rate of evolution of 14 CO 2 from D-[ 14 C(U)]-glucose. The rates of evolution were almost identical in the compromised system when compared with control slices over a 4-hr time period. By using slices with compromised oxidative defenses, preliminary results have been obtained with paraquat, nitrofurantoin, and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone

  2. Toxic effects of erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole exposure to the antioxidant system in Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie Xiangping; Liu Binyang; Yu Huijuan; Liu Weiqiu; Yang Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    We tested antioxidant responses of the green microalga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata exposed to different concentrations of the three antibiotics erythromycin (ETM), ciprofloxacin (CPF) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ). Measurements included the level of lipid peroxidation, the total antioxidative capacity and three major antioxidant mechanisms: the ascorbate–glutathione cycle, the xanthophyll cycle and the enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Three antibiotics significantly affect the antioxidant system of P. subcapitata, but in different ways the alga was more tolerant to CPF and SMZ exposures than to ETM exposure. ETM caused reductions in AsA and GSH biosynthesis, ascorbate–glutathione cycle, xanthophylls cycle and antioxidant enzyme activities. The toxicity of CPF seems to be mainly overcome via induction of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle and CAT, SOD and GPX activities, while the toxicity of SMZ on the photosynthetic apparatus is predominantly reduced by the xanthophyll cycle and GST activity. - Highlights: ► Antibiotics may affect the antioxidant system of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. ► Erythromycin decreased AsA, GSH biosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities. ► Ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole were lower toxic than erythromycin. - Antibiotics (Erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole) cause the change of antioxidant system and lead to oxidative stress to a green microalga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

  3. Studies on the hepatic antioxidant defense system in λ cyhalothrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    induced oxidative stress in fresh water tilapia ... Key words: Antioxidant status, λ cyhalothrin, lipid peroxidation, Oreochromis mossambicus, oxidative stress, synthetic pyrethroid. ..... and Stress: A case history for red–sore disease in largemouth bass.

  4. Main approaches for delivering antioxidant vitamins through the skin to prevent skin ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašperlin, Mirjana; Gosenca, Mirjam

    2011-07-01

    One of the major contributions to skin photoageing and diseases is oxidative stress, caused by UV radiation inducing reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Successful prophylaxis and therapy would necessitate control of the oxidant/antioxidant balance at the affected site, which can be achieved through the external supply of endogenous antioxidants. This review discusses possible strategies for dermal delivery of the antioxidant vitamins E and C, as oral supplementation has proved insufficient. These antioxidants have low skin bioavailability, owing to their poor solubility, inefficient skin permeability, or instability during storage. These drawbacks can be overcome by various approaches, such as chemical modification of the vitamins and the use of new colloidal drug delivery systems. New knowledge is included about the importance of: enhancing the endogenous skin antioxidant defense through external supply; the balance between various skin antioxidants; factors that can improve the skin bioavailability of antioxidants; and new delivery systems, such as microemulsions, used to deliver vitamins C and E into the skin simultaneously. A promising strategy for enhancing skin protection from oxidative stress is to support the endogenous antioxidant system, with antioxidants containing products that are normally present in the skin.

  5. Estudio del D-004 sobre la defensa antioxidante endógena en ratas con hiperplasia prostática inducida por inyección de testosterona Study of D-004 on the endogenous antioxidant defence in rats presenting with prostate hyperplasia induced by testosterone injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohani Pérez Guerra

    2010-06-01

    prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone in rodents and to produce in vitro and in vivo antioxidant effects nut its effects on endogenous antioxidant4e system enzymes haven't been studied. Present paper researched the effects of D-004 oral treatment over 14 days on dismutase and catalase superoxide enzymes in rats with prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone. Animals were randomized distributed into 4 groups: a negative control ant three-testosterone injected: one treated with the vehicle (positive control and two with D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg, respectively. The plasma total antioxidant ability was determined as well as the activity of catalase and dismutase superoxide enzymes in lysed erythrocyte and plasma, respectively. D-004 (400 and 800 mg/kg oral treatment markedly and significantly prevented the prostate enlargement induced with testosterone in rats and increased very much the plasma antioxidant activity and of catalase, without modify the superoxide dismutase. These results suggest that D-004 antioxidant activity is partially related to stimulation of some enzymes of the endogenous antioxidant system.

  6. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva eBozic

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes – catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and •O2- production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells.

  7. Benfotiamine upregulates antioxidative system in activated BV-2 microglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Stevanovic, Ivana; Pekovic, Sanja; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Chronic microglial activation and resulting sustained neuroinflammatory reaction are generally associated with neurodegeneration. Activated microglia acquires proinflammatory cellular profile that generates oxidative burst. Their persistent activation exacerbates inflammation, which damages healthy neurons via cytotoxic mediators, such as superoxide radical anion and nitric oxide. In our recent study, we have shown that benfotiamine (S-benzoylthiamine O-monophosphate) possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, the effects of benfotiamine on the pro-oxidative component of activity of LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells were investigated. The activation of microglia was accompanied by upregulation of intracellular antioxidative defense, which was further promoted in the presence of benfotiamine. Namely, activated microglia exposed to non-cytotoxic doses of benfotiamine showed increased levels and activities of hydrogen peroxide- and superoxide-removing enzymes-catalase and glutathione system, and superoxide dismutase. In addition, benfotiamine showed the capacity to directly scavenge superoxide radical anion. As a consequence, benfotiamine suppressed the activation of microglia and provoked a decrease in NO and (·)O(-) 2 production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, benfotiamine might silence pro-oxidative activity of microglia to alleviate/prevent oxidative damage of neighboring CNS cells.

  8. Antioxidants of edible mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrović, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M.; Griensven, Van Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic

  9. Antioxidant system parameters in children from different follow-up groups who suffered from Chernobyl accident and their changes at application of antioxidants (vitamin E and iskador)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipkyin, Yu.G.; Pochinok, T.V.; Omel'chenko, L.Yi.; Arabs'ka, L.P.; Osins'ka, L.F.; Vasyuk, O.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low-dose radiation causes changes in the lipid peroxidation-antioxidant protective system in children who frequently suffer from acute respiratory virus infections. To improve the general condition and to normalize the metabolic disturbances it is advisable to administer antioxidants (vitamin E, Iskador)

  10. Evaluation of the oxidative stress modulation in Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in endogenous antioxidants and with chronic exposure to casiopeina Cas II-gly and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez V, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    The casiopeinas are a family of coordination compounds with copper metallic center that have shown to have antineoplastic activity. The experimental evidences suggest that its action mechanism is through the generation of free radicals. The casiopeina (Cas II-gly) is believed to causes oxidative damage in the mitochondria, leading to the cellular death. The present study has the purpose to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the tetrapyrroles: cupro-sodica chlorophyllin (CSC), protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) and the bilirubin (Bili) against the oxidant action of the Cas II-gly. The present study will also contribute in the characterization of the biological activity of the Cas II-gly. For this purpose is quantifies the effect of these compounds in the enzymes activity, superoxide dismutase (Sod) and catalase (Cat) in wild Drosophila melanogaster strains Canton-S and in the deficient in Sod and Cat. Two protocols were used, in the first male of 1-24 h of age were pre-treated with 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 m M of Cas II-gly and later on they were treated with radiation (15 Gy), and the second 69 m M of CSC, Pp-Ix or Bili, during 8 days and later they were treated with 0.1 m M of Cas II-gly during 24 h. The enzymatic activity was measured with the detection packages of enzymes Sod and Cat of Sigma. It was found that none of the three pigments increment the Sod activity but, if they diminished that of Cat (p≤0.007). The three concentrations of Cas II-gly did not increase the Sod activity significantly, only the concentration of 0.1 m M diminishes in 5.6 U the Cat activity (p <0.03) the same as the treatment with 15 Gy of gamma rays (8 U, p <0.004). The Cas II-gly combination 0.1 m M with the pigments does not modify the Sod and Cat activity. These results suggest that the proven pigments act as antioxidants, avoiding the induction of exogenous antioxidants caused by the gamma rays or the Cas II-gly. (Author)

  11. The role of disorders of the prooxidant-antioxidant system in diabetes etiopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mrowicka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia is believed to play a pivotal role in the development of diabetic complications. It was found that hyperglycemia triggered a number of mechanisms that evoke overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased level of free radicals, disturbances of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system and lower concentration of exogenous antioxidants. In consequence, these abnormalities lead to a redox imbalance called oxidative stress. The aim of the present study is to summarize the role of reactive oxygen species and changes in the antioxidant defense system in the development of diabetic complications.

  12. Endogene CGRP

    OpenAIRE

    Höfer, Martina

    2010-01-01

    Hintergrund und Ziele Die vorliegende tierexperimentelle Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Frage, welche Rolle endogenes Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) in der Niere spielt. Hierbei untersuchten wir die renale CGRP Freisetzung aus renalen Afferenzen in vitro anhand von gesunden Tieren und einem pathologischen Modell der Glomerulonephritis. Man weiß bereits, dass sowohl sympathische als auch primär sensorische Neuronen die Entzündung und die Immunantwort in der Peripherie regulieren (68)....

  13. The Regulation of GluN2A by Endogenous and Exogenous Regulators in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjun; Zhan, Liying; Cheng, Xiaokun; Zhang, Linan; Hu, Jie; Gao, Zibin

    2017-04-01

    The NMDA receptor is the most widely studied ionotropic glutamate receptor, and it is central to many physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system. GluN2A is one of the two main types of GluN2 NMDA receptor subunits in the forebrain. The proper activity of GluN2A is important to brain function, as the abnormal regulation of GluN2A may induce some neuropsychiatric disorders. This review will examine the regulation of GluN2A by endogenous and exogenous regulators in the central nervous system.

  14. Functional interactions between endogenous cannabinoid and opioid systems: focus on alcohol, genetics and drug-addicted behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Moreno, J A; López-Jiménez, A; Gorriti, M A; de Fonseca, F Rodríguez

    2010-04-01

    Although the first studies regarding the endogenous opioid system and addiction were published during the 1940s, addiction and cannabinoids were not addressed until the 1970s. Currently, the number of opioid addiction studies indexed in PubMed-Medline is 16 times greater than the number of cannabinoid addiction reports. More recently, functional interactions have been demonstrated between the endogenous cannabinoid and opioid systems. For example, the cannabinoid brain receptor type 1 (CB1) and mu opioid receptor type 1 (MOR1) co-localize in the same presynaptic nerve terminals and signal through a common receptor-mediated G-protein pathway. Here, we review a great variety of behavioral models of drug addiction and alcohol-related behaviors. We also include data providing clear evidence that activation of the cannabinoid and opioid endogenous systems via WIN 55,512-2 (0.4-10 mg/kg) and morphine (1.0-10 mg/kg), respectively, produces similar levels of relapse to alcohol in operant alcohol self-administration tasks. Finally, we discuss genetic studies that reveal significant associations between polymorphisms in MOR1 and CB1 receptors and drug addiction. For example, the SNP A118G, which changes the amino acid aspartate to asparagine in the MOR1 gene, is highly associated with altered opioid system function. The presence of a microsatellite polymorphism of an (AAT)n triplet near the CB1 gene is associated with drug addiction phenotypes. But, studies exploring haplotypes with regard to both systems, however, are lacking.

  15. Effects of Rhizobium inoculation on Trifolium resupinatum antioxidant system under sulfur dioxide pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Bayat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plant growth stimulating rhizobacteria are beneficial bacteria that can cause resistance to various stresses in plants. One of these stresses is SO2 air pollution. SO2 is known as a strong damaging air pollutant that limits growth of plants. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effects of bacterial inoculation with native and standard Rhizobium on Persian clover root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity under air SO2 pollution. Materials and methods: In this study, 31 days plants (no-inoculated and inoculated with two strains of Rhizobium exposed to the different concentrations of SO2 (0 as a control, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 ppm for 5 consecutive days and 2 hours per day. Results: Results showed different concentrations of SO2 had a significant effect on Persian clover root weight and antioxidant system. Increasing SO2 stress decreased root fresh and dry weight and antioxidant capacities (IC50 and increased antioxidant activities (I% of Persian clover leaves significantly in comparison to the control plants (under 0 ppm and increased SOD, CAT and GPX activity. Inoculation of Persian clover plants with native and standard Rhizobium increased root weight and did not show a significant effect on antioxidants activity and capacity, but interaction between Rhizobium inoculation and SO2 treatment reduced significantly the stress effects of high concentration of SO2 on root growth and antioxidants activity and capacity. In fact, level of this change of root growth and antioxidant system under SO2 pollution stress in inoculated plants was lower than in the non-inoculated plants. Discussion and conclusion: As a result, an increase in SO2 concentration caused a decrease in root weight, increase in antioxidants activity and capacity of Persian clover. Inoculation with Rhizobium strains could alleviate the effect of SO2 pollution on antioxidant system by effects on root growth.

  16. Physiological antioxidant system and oxidative stress in stomach cancer patients with normal renal and hepatic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Prabhakar Reddy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Role of free radicals has been proposed in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, and leading cause of cancer death in India. Severe oxidative stress produces reactive oxygen species (ROS and induces uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. Albumin, uric acid (UA and Bilirubin are important physiological antioxidants. We aimed to evaluate and assess the role of oxidative stress (OS and physiological antioxidant system in stomach cancer patients. Lipid peroxidation measured as plasma Thio Barbituric Acid Reactive substances (TBARS, was found to be elevated significantly (p=0.001 in stomach cancer compared to controls along with a decrease in plasma physiological antioxidant system. The documented results were due to increased lipid peroxidation and involvement of physiological antioxidants in scavenging free radicals but not because of impaired hepatic and renal functions.

  17. Antioxidant Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Vitro and in Food Emulsion Systems Enriched With Fish Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. Bioactive components like polyphenols have been identified in marine algae. In this presentation we will discuss results from our...... ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary...... antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different...

  18. Antioxidative properties of harmane and beta-carboline alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, S Y; Mak, I T; Dickens, B F

    1991-07-15

    beta-Carboline alkaloids are derived as a result of condensation between indoleamine (e.g. tryptamine) and short-chain carboxylic acid (e.g. pyruvic acid) or aldehyde (e.g. acetaldehyde), a reaction that occurs readily at room temperature. These compounds have been found endogenously in human and animal tissues and may be formed as a byproduct of secondary metabolism: their endogenous functions however, are not well understood. Indoles and tryptophan derivatives exhibit antioxidative actions by scavenging free radicals and forming resonance stabilized indolyl radicals. Harmane and related compounds exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation (measured as thiobarbiturate reactive products) in a hepatic microsomal preparation incubated with either enzymatic dependent (Fe3+ ADP/NADPH) or non-enzymatic dependent (Fe3+ ADP/dihydroxyfumarate) oxygen radical producing systems. Alkaloids with hydroxyl substitution and a partially desaturated pyridyl ring were found to have the highest antioxidative potencies. Substitution of a hydroxyl group by a methoxyl group at the 6-position resulted in a decrease of greater than 10-fold in the antioxidative activities. Harmane showed high efficacy in an enzymatic system but low efficacy in a non-enzymatic system. The antioxidative effects of harmane in the former system may be attributed to its ability to inhibit oxidative enzymes in the microsomal system. These results suggest that beta-carbolines may also serve as endogenous antioxidants.

  19. Limiting immunopathology: Interaction between carotenoids and enzymatic antioxidant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, A; Saciat, C; Teixeira, M; Troussard, J-P; Motreuil, S; Moreau, J; Moret, Y

    2015-04-01

    The release of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) during the inflammatory response generates damages to host tissues, referred to as immunopathology, and is an important factor in ecological immunology. The integrated antioxidant system, comprising endogenous antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase SOD, and catalase CAT) and dietary antioxidants (e.g. carotenoids), helps to cope with immune-mediated oxidative stress. Crustaceans store large amounts of dietary carotenoids for yet unclear reasons. While being immunostimulants and antioxidants, the interaction of these pigments with antioxidant enzymes remains unclear. Here, we tested the interaction between dietary supplementation with carotenoids and immune challenge on immune defences and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT, in the amphipod crustacean Gammarus pulex. Dietary supplementation increased the concentrations of circulating carotenoids and haemocytes in the haemolymph, while the immune response induced the consumption of circulating carotenoids and a drop of haemocyte density. Interestingly, supplemented gammarids exhibited down-regulated SOD activity but high CAT activity compared to control ones. Our study reveals specific interactions of dietary carotenoids with endogenous antioxidant enzymes, and further underlines the potential importance of carotenoids in the evolution of immunity and/or of antioxidant mechanisms in crustaceans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytokines as endogenous pyrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1999-03-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic molecules mediating several pathologic processes. Long before the discovery of cytokines as immune system growth factors or as bone marrow stimulants, investigators learned a great deal about cytokines when they studied them as the endogenous mediators of fever. The terms "granulocytic" or "endogenous pyrogen" were used to describe substances with the biologic property of fever induction. Today, we recognize that pyrogenicity is a fundamental biologic property of several cytokines and hence the clinically recognizeable property of fever links host perturbations during disease with fundamental perturbations in cell biology. In this review, the discoveries made on endogenous pyrogens are revisited, with insights into the importance of the earlier work to the present-day understanding of cytokines in health and in disease.

  1. The endogenous preproglucagon system is not essential for gut growth homeostasis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wismann, Pernille; Barkholt, Pernille; Secher, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity and related co-morbidities is reaching pandemic proportions. Today, the most effective obesity treatments are glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs and bariatric surgery. Interestingly, both intervention paradigms have been associated with adaptive growth...... responses in the gut; however, intestinotrophic mechanisms associated with or secondary to medical or surgical obesity therapies are poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the local basal endogenous and pharmacological intestinotrophic effects of glucagon-like peptides...... for GLP-1 and GLP-2, does not play a major role in normal gut development in the mouse. Furthermore, elevation in local intestinal and circulating levels of GLP-1 and GLP-2 achieved after VSG has limited impact on intestinal morphometry. Hence, although exogenous treatment with GLP-1 and GLP-2 analogs...

  2. Evolution of endogenous analgesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous pain modulation is a complex phenomenon involved in the perception of pain. It consists of top-down inhibitory and facilitatory pathways that originate at higher sites within the central nervous system and converge at dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord, to modulate incoming afferent

  3. Role of Endogenous Opioid System in Ischemic-Induced Late Preconditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Fraessdorf

    Full Text Available Opioid receptors (OR are involved in myocardial late preconditioning (LPC induced by morphine and δ1-opioid receptor (δ1-OR agonists. The role of OR in ischemic-induced LPC is unknown. We investigated whether 1 OR are involved in the trigger and/or mediation phase of LPC and 2 a time course effect on the expression of different opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands exists.Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups (each group n = 8. Awake animals were ischemic preconditioned by a 5 minutes coronary occlusion. 24 hours later, anesthetized animals underwent 25 minutes coronary occlusion followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. The role of OR was investigated by treatment with intraperitoneal naloxone (Nal 10 minutes prior to LPC (Nal-LPC; trigger phase or 10 min prior to sustained ischemia (LPC-Nal; mediation phase.LPC reduced infarct size from 61±10% in controls to 25±9% (P<0.001. Naloxone during trigger or mediation phase completely abolished LPC-induced cardioprotection (59±9% and 62±9%; P<0.001 vs. LPC. 8, 12 and 24 hours after the ischemic stimulus, expression of δ-OR in the heart was increased, whereas μ-opioid receptor (μ-OR and κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR were not. Plasma concentrations of β-endorphin and leu-enkephalin but not dynorphin were increased by LPC.Ischemic LPC is triggererd and mediated by OR. Expression of δ-OR and plasma levels of endogenous opioid peptides are increased after ischemic LPC.

  4. Oxidative stress and the antioxidant enzyme system in the developing brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So-Yeon Shim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants are vulnerable to the oxidative stress due to the production of large amounts of free radicals, antioxidant system insufficiency, and immature oligodendroglial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a pivotal role in the development of periventricular leukomalacia. The three most common ROS are superoxide (O2&#8226;-, hydroxyl radical (OH&#8226;, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Under normal physiological conditions, a balance is maintained between the production of ROS and the capacity of the antioxidant enzyme system. However, if this balance breaks down, ROS can exert toxic effects. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase are considered the classical antioxidant enzymes. A recently discovered antioxidant enzyme family, peroxiredoxin (Prdx, is also an important scavenger of free radicals. Prdx1 expression is induced at birth, whereas Prdx2 is constitutively expressed, and Prdx6 expression is consistent with the classical antioxidant enzymes. Several antioxidant substances have been studied as potential therapeutic agents; however, further preclinical and clinical studies are required before allowing clinical application.

  5. Intracellular antioxidants dissolve man-made antioxidant nanoparticles: using redox vulnerability of nanoceria to develop a responsive drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faheem; Wang, Aifei; Qi, Wenxiu; Zhang, Shixing; Zhu, Guangshan

    2014-01-01

    Regeneratable antioxidant property of nanoceria has widely been explored to minimize the deleterious influences of reactive oxygen species. Limited information is, however, available regarding the biological interactions and subsequent fate of nanoceria in body fluids. This study demonstrates a surprising dissolution of stable and ultrasmall (4 nm) cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in response to biologically prevalent antioxidant molecules (glutathione, vitamin C). Such a redox sensitive behavior of CeO2 NPs is subsequently exploited to design a redox responsive drug delivery system for transporting anticancer drug (camptothecin). Upon exposing the CeO2 capped and drug loaded nanoconstruct to vitamin c or glutathione, dissolution-accompanied aggregation of CeO2 nanolids unleashes the drug molecules from porous silica to achieve a significant anticancer activity. Besides stimuli responsive drug delivery, immobilization of nanoceria onto the surface of mesoporous silica also facilitates us to gain a basic insight into the biotransformation of CeO2 in physiological mediums.

  6. Polyamine regulates tolerance to water stress in leaves of white clover associated with antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes via involvement in calcium messenger system and hydrogen peroxide signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou eLi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyamine (PA may play a critical role in tolerance to water stress in plants acting as a signaling molecule activator. Water stress caused increases in endogenous PA content in leaves, including putrescine (Put, spermidine (Spd, and spermine (Spm. Exogenous application of Spd could induce the instantaneous H2O2 burst and accumulation of cytosolic free Ca2+, and activate NADPH oxidase and CDPK gene expression in cells. To a great extent, PA biosynthetic inhibitor reduced the water stress-induced H2O2 accumulation, free cytosolic Ca2+ release, antioxidant enzyme activities and genes expression leading to aggravate water stress-induced oxidative damage, while these suppressing effects were alleviated by the addition of exogenous Spd, indicating PA was involved in water stress-induced H2O2 and cytosolic free Ca2+ production as well as stress tolerance. Dehydrin genes (Y2SK, Y2K, and SK2 were showed to be highly responsive to exogenous Spd. PA-induced antioxidant defense and dehydrin genes expression could be blocked by the scavenger of H2O2 and the inhibitors of H2O2 generation or Ca2+ channels blockers, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as the inhibitor of CDPK. These findings suggested that PA regulated tolerance to water stress in white clover associated with antioxidant defenses and dehydrins via involvement in the calcium messenger system and H2O2 signaling pathways. PA-induced H2O2 production required Ca2+ release, while PA-induced Ca2+ release was also essential for H2O2 production, suggesting an interaction between PA-induced H2O2 and Ca2+ signaling.

  7. Impaired endogenous nighttime melatonin secretion relates to intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activation and renal damage in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Sayaka; Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Tsuji, Naoko; Iwakura, Takamasa; Ono, Masafumi; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Tsuji, Takayuki; Kato, Akihiko; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. The circadian rhythm of intrarenal RAS activation leads to renal damage and hypertension, which are associated with diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation. The activation of intrarenal RAS following reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation, sympathetic hyperactivity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition leads to the development of renal damage. Melatonin is a hormone regulating the circadian rhythm, and has multiple functions such as anti-oxidant and anti-adrenergic effects and enhancement of NO bioavailability. Nocturnal melatonin concentrations are lower in CKD patients. However, it is not known if impaired endogenous melatonin secretion is related to BP, intrarenal RAS, or renal damage in CKD patients. We recruited 53 CKD patients and conducted 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. urine was collected during the daytime and nighttime. We investigated the relationship among the melatonin metabolite urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (U-aMT6s), BP, renal function, urinary angiotensinogen (U-AGT), and urinary albumin (U-Alb). Patients' U-aMT6s levels were significantly and negatively correlated with clinical parameters such as renal function, systolic BP, U-AGT, and U-Alb, during both day and night. Multiple regression analyses for U-aMT6s levels were performed using age, gender, renal function, and each parameter (BPs, U-AGT or U-Alb), at daytime and nighttime. U-aMT6s levels were significantly associated with U-AGT (β = -0.31, p = 0.044) and U-Alb (β = -0.25, p = 0.025) only at night. Impaired nighttime melatonin secretion may be associated with nighttime intrarenal RAS activation and renal damage in CKD patients.

  8. Phytotoxicity of pesticides mancozeb and chlorpyrifos: correlation with the antioxidative defence system in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, Firdos; Verma, Sonam; Kamal, Aisha; Srivastava, Alka

    2018-02-01

    Pesticides are a group of chemical substances which are widely used to improve agricultural production. However, these substances could be persistent in soil and water, accumulative in sediment or bio-accumulative in biota depending on their solubility, leading to different types of environmental pollution. The present study was done to assess the impact of pesticides-mancozeb and chlorpyrifos, via morphological and physiological parameters using Allium cepa test system. Phytotoxic effects of pesticides were examined via germination percentage, survival percentage, root and shoot length, root shoot length ratio, seedling vigor index, percentage of phytotoxicity and tolerance index. Oxidative stress on Allium seedlings caused by pesticides was also assessed by investigating the activity of antioxidative enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Correlation was worked out between morphological parameters and antioxidative enzymes to bring out the alliance between them. Mancozeb and chlorpyrifos concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the activity of antioxidative enzymes and negatively correlated with morphological parameters. Significant positive correlation between various morphological parameters showed their interdependency. However, negative correlation was obtained between activity of antioxidative enzymes and morphological parameters. The enzymes however, showed positive correlation with each other. Based on our result we can conclude that all morphological parameters were adversely affected by the two pesticides as reflected by phytotoxicity in Allium . Their negative correlation with activity of antioxidative enzymes indicates that upregulation of antioxidative enzymes is not sufficient to overcome the toxic effect, thereby signifying the threat being caused by the regular use of these pesticides.

  9. Induction of endogenous Type I interferon within the central nervous system plays a protective role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen; Holm, Thomas Hellesøe

    2015-01-01

    show elevated levels of Type I IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a role for endogenous Type I IFN during inflammation. However, the therapeutic benefit of Type I IFN produced in the CNS remains to be established. The aim of this study was to examine whether experimentally induced CNS......-endogenous Type I IFN influences EAE. Using IFN-β reporter mice, we showed that direct administration of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a potent inducer of IFN-β, into the cerebrospinal fluid induced increased leukocyte numbers and transient upregulation of IFN-β in CD45/CD11b-positive cells located...... in the meninges and choroid plexus, as well as enhanced IFN-β expression by parenchymal microglial cells. Intrathecal injection of poly I:C to mice showing first symptoms of EAE substantially increased the normal disease-associated expression of IFN-α, IFN-β, interferon regulatory factor-7 and IL-10 in CNS...

  10. Endogenous glycosphingolipid acceptor specificity of sialosyltransferase systems in intact golgi membranes, synaptosomes, and synaptic plasma membranes from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrie, R.; Saito, M.; Rosenberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    Preparations highly enriched in Golgi complex membranes, synaptosomes, and synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) by marker enzyme analysis and electron microscopic morphology were made from the brains of 28-day-old rats. These were incubated with cytidine 5'-monophosphate-N-acetyl[ 14 C]neuraminic acid (CMP-NeuAc) in a physiologic buffer, without detergents. Glycolipid sialosyltransferase activities (SATs) were measured by analyzing incorporation of radiolabeled NeuAc into endogenous membrane gangliosides. Golgi SAT was diversified in producing all the various molecular species of labeled gangliosides. Synaptosomal SAT exhibited a lower activity, but it was highly specific in its labeling pattern, with a marked preference for labeling NeuAcα2 → 8NeuAcα2 → 3Galβ1 → 4Glcβ1 → 1Cer (GD3 ganglioside). SPM prepared from the synaptosomes retained the GD3-related SAT (or SAT-2), and the total specific activity increased, which suggests that the location of the synaptosomal activity is in the SPM. These results indicate that SAT activity in Golgi membranes differs from that in synaptosomes with regard to endogenous acceptor substrate specificity and SAT activity of synaptosomes should be located in the synaptosomal plasma membrane. This SAT could function as an ectoenzyme in concert with ecto-sialidase to modulate the GD3 and other ganglioside population in situ at the SPM of the central nervous system

  11. Evidence that platelet-derived growth factor may be a novel endogenous pyrogen in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelá, I R; Ferreira, M E; Melo, M C; Silva, C A; Coelho, M M; Valenzuela, C F

    2000-05-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exerts neurotrophic and neuromodulatory actions in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Like the cytokines, PDGF primarily signals through tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent pathways that activate multiple intracellular molecules including Janus family kinases. We previously showed that microinjection of PDGF-BB into the lateral ventricle induced a febrile response in rats that was reduced by pretreatment with Win 41662, a potent inhibitor of PDGF receptors (Pelá IR, Ferreira MES, Melo MCC, Silva CAA, and Valenzuela CF. Ann NY Acad Sci 856: 289-293, 1998). In this study, we further characterized the role of PDGF-BB in the febrile response in rats. Microinjection of PDGF-BB into the third ventricle produced a dose-dependent increase in colonic temperature that peaked 3-4 h postinjection. Win 41662 attenuated fever induced by intraperitoneal injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that endogenous PDGF participates in the febrile response to this exogenous pyrogen. Importantly, febrile responses induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, and interleukin-6 were unchanged by Win 41662. Both indomethacin and dexamethasone blocked the PDGF-BB-induced increase in colonic temperature, and, therefore, we postulate that PDGF-BB may act via prostaglandin- and/or inducible enzyme-dependent pathways. Thus our findings suggest that PDGF-BB is an endogenous CNS mediator of the febrile response in rats.

  12. The antioxidant system of seminal fluid during in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzyuba, Viktoriya; Cosson, Jacky; Dzyuba, Borys; Yamaner, Gunes; Rodina, Marek; Linhart, Otomar

    2016-04-01

    The role of the seminal fluid antioxidant system in protection against damage to spermatozoa during in vitro sperm storage is unclear. This study investigated the effect of in vitro storage of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus spermatozoa together with seminal fluid for 36 h at 4 °C on spermatozoon motility rate and curvilinear velocity, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance level, and components of enzyme and non-enzyme antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and uric acid concentration) in seminal fluid. Spermatozoon motility parameters after sperm storage were significantly decreased, while the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and uric acid concentration did not change. Our findings suggest that the antioxidant system of sterlet seminal fluid is effective in preventing oxidative stress during short-term sperm storage and prompt future investigations of changes in spermatozoon homeostasis and in spermatozoon plasma membrane structure which are other possible reasons of spermatozoon motility deterioration upon sperm storage.

  13. Ozone Therapy on Rats Submitted to Subtotal Nephrectomy: Role of Antioxidant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Calunga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic renal failure (CRF represents a world health problem. Ozone increases the endogenous antioxidant defense system, preserving the cell redox state. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ozone/oxygen mixture in the renal function, morphology, and biochemical parameters, in an experimental model of CRF (subtotal nephrectomy. Ozone/oxygen mixture was applied daily, by rectal insufflation (0.5 mg/kg for 15 sessions after the nephrectomy. Renal function was evaluated, as well as different biochemical parameters, at the beginning and at the end of the study (10 weeks. Renal plasmatic flow (RPF, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, the urine excretion index, and the sodium and potassium excretions (as a measurement of tubular function in the ozone group were similar to those in Sham group. Nevertheless, nephrectomized rats without ozone (positive control group showed the lowest RPF, GFR, and urine excretion figures, as well as tubular function. Animals treated with ozone showed systolic arterial pressure (SAP figures lower than those in the positive control group, but higher values compared to Sham group. Serum creatinine values and protein excretion in 24 hours in the ozone group were decreased compared with nephrectomized rats, but were still higher than normal values. Histological study demonstrated that animals treated with ozone showed less number of lesions in comparison with nephrectomized rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were significantly increased in nephrectomized and ozone-treated nephrectomized rats in comparison with Sham group. In the positive control group, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT showed the lowest figures in comparison with the other groups. However, ozone/oxygen mixture induced a significant stimulation in the enzymatic activity of CAT, SOD, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as reduced glutathione in relation with Sham and positive control groups. In this animal model of CRF, ozone

  14. Modification of antioxidant systems in cell walls of maize roots by different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V; Vuletić, M.; Marković, K.; Željko, Vučinić; Kravić, N.

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses than cell walls grown on NO3-. Irrespective of N treatment, the activities of all studied enzymes and protein content were higher in cell walls of lateral compared to primary roots. Phenolic content of cell walls isolated from lateral roots was higher in NO3--grown than in mixed N grown plants. No significant differences could be observed in the isozyme patterns of cell wall peroxidases isolated from plants grown on different nutrient solution. Our results indicate that different N treatments modify the antioxidant systems of root cell walls. Treatment with NO3- resulted in an increase of constitutive phenolic content, while the combination of NO3-+NH4+ elevated the redox enzyme activities in root cell walls.

  15. Modification of antioxidant systems in cell walls of maize roots by different nitrogen sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadži-Tašković Šukalović V; Vuletić, M.; Marković, K.; Željko, Vučinić; Kravić, N.

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant systems of maize root cell walls grown on different nitrogen sources were evaluated. Plants were grown on a medium containing only NO3- or the mixture of NO3-+NH4+, in a 2:1 ratio. Eleven-day old plants, two days after the initiation of lateral roots, were used for the experiments. Cell walls were isolated from lateral roots and primary root segments, 2-7 cm from tip to base, representing zones of intense or decreased growth rates, respectively. Protein content and the activity of enzymes peroxidase, malate dehydrogenase and ascorbate oxidase ionically or covalently bound to the walls, as well as cell wall phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, were determined. Cell walls of plants grown on mixed N possess more developed enzymatic antioxidant systems and lower non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses than cell walls grown on NO3-. Irrespective of N treatment, the activities of all studied enzymes and protein content were higher in cell walls of lateral compared to primary roots. Phenolic content of cell walls isolated from lateral roots was higher in NO3--grown than in mixed N grown plants. No significant differences could be observed in the isozyme patterns of cell wall peroxidases isolated from plants grown on different nutrient solution. Our results indicate that different N treatments modify the antioxidant systems of root cell walls. Treatment with NO3- resulted in an increase of constitutive phenolic content, while the combination of NO3-+NH4+ elevated the redox enzyme activities in root cell walls.

  16. [Formation of the compensation answer in the system "lipid peroxidation - antioxidant protection" in rats with alimentary dislipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Iu K; Novgorodtseva, T P; Vitkina, T I; Lobanova, E G

    2011-01-01

    It is investigated conditions of system "lipid peroksidation - antioxidant protection" at rats of the line Wistar at prolonged formation alimentary dyslipidemia (DLP). It is established, that at formation DLP during 46 days in cells there was no increase in resistance and capacity of processes antioxidant protection. In prolonged DLP (90 days) was characterized by occurrence of the compensation-adaptive answer in the system "lipid peroksidation - antioxidant protection".

  17. The effect of biologically active feed additives of humilid substances on the antioxidant system in liver mitochondria of gerbils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Dyomshina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are organelles that are most sensitive to the action of stressors on any cell of the entire organism and exposure to chemicals which can cause its dysfunction and cell death in general. Especially sensitive to adverse conditions are liver mitochondria, where the processes of biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous metabolites are formed, not only in the liver, but also in other organs and tissues. Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause instant hepatic cytolysis and steatosis. Therefore, early detection of mitochondrial toxicity is important during preclinical studies of new pharmacological agents, as this will help avoid remote negative effects. The biologically active feed additive Humilid, a complex of humic acids known for their antidiarrheal, analgesic, immune-stimulating, and antimicrobial properties; shows a corrective effect on the activity of the lysosomal cathepsin; enhances the positive effect of hematopoiesis on hemoglobin and its quality indicators consisting of red blood cells; and activates the synthesis and accumulation of fibronectin expression that takes part in the formation of immunological protection of animals. The objective of our experiment was to determine the effect of complex biologically active feed additives based on humic substances on the biochemical indicators of the liver mitochondrial antioxidant system of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus Milne-Edwards, 1867. The experiment was conducted on mature (6 months Mongolian gerbils. The data obtained showing the influence of the biologically active feed additives Humilid, alone or in combination with ascorbate and Eco-impulse Animal, on the antioxidant defense system of liver mitochondria of gerbils are presented in this article. The proven antioxidant effect of humic substances in the mitochondrial fraction of the liver which inhibits the accumulation of oxidized products in the cells is shown, confirmed by the decrease in the number of TBA

  18. Antioxidant system for the preservation of vitamin A in Ultra Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao Olive; Lam, Jane; Diosady, Levente L; Jankowski, Shirley

    2009-03-01

    Ultra Rice grains are micronutrient-fortified, extruded rice grains designed to address specific nutritional deficiencies in populations where rice is a staple food. Vitamin A and some of the B vitamins, as well as iron and zinc, are target nutrients for fortification through Ultra Rice technology. Vitamin A is sensitive to degradation. Therefore, the original Ultra Rice formulations included stabilizers, some of which were not approved as food additives in all of the receiving markets. To develop a new antioxidant system for improving vitamin A storage stability in Ultra Rice grains, while complying with international food regulations. Ten formulations were prepared containing various combinations of hydrophilic and hydrophobic antioxidants, as well as moisture stabilizers. Accelerated vitamin A storage stability tests were conducted at 25 degrees, 35 degrees, and 45 degrees C with 70% to 100% relative humidity. The most stable samples contained one or more phenolic antioxidants, a water-soluble antioxidant, and stabilizing agents. The best results were obtained by using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in combination with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the hydrophobic antioxidants and ascorbic acid as the hydrophilic antioxidant. Citric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) were used to chelate metal ions and to stabilize moisture, respectively. The best formulations retained more than 85% and approximately 70% of the added vitamin A at 25 degrees and 45 degrees C, respectively, after 24 weeks storage. The best antioxidant system, composed of generally accepted food additives, improved vitamin A stability while reducing the price, thus greatly improving the commercial viability of Ultra Rice grains for use as a ricefortificant.

  19. 28-Homobrassinolide mitigates boron induced toxicity through enhanced antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish relationship between boron induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants and also to investigate whether brassinosteroids will enhance the level of antioxidant system that could confer tolerance to the plants from the boron induced oxidative stress. The mung bean (V. radiata cv. T-44) plants were administered with 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 mM boron at 6 d stage for 7 d along with nutrient solution. At 13 d stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 10(-8) M of 28-homobrassinolide and plants were harvested at 21 d stage to assess growth, leaf gas-exchange traits and biochemical parameters. The boron treatments diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activity in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H(2)O(2) as well as proline, and various antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of mung bean which were more pronounced at higher concentrations of boron. However, the follow-up application of 28-homobrassinolide to the boron stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis and further enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the B-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gemfibrozil pretreatment affecting antioxidant defense system and inflammatory, but not Nrf-2 signaling pathways resulted in female neuroprotection and male neurotoxicity in the rat models of global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Fatemeh; Khalaj, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Rahmani, Behrouz

    2013-04-01

    Two important pathophysiological mechanisms involved during cerebral ischemia are oxidative stress and inflammation. In pathological conditions such as brain ischemia the ability of free radicals production is greater than that of elimination by endogenous antioxidative systems, so brain is highly injured due to oxidation and neuroinflammation. Fibrates as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α ligands, are reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. In this study, gemfibrozil, a fibrate is investigated for its therapeutic potential against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of male and female rats. This study particularly has focused on inflammatory and antioxidant signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor erythroid-related factor (Nrf)-2, as well as the activity of some endogenous antioxidant agents. It was found that pretreatment of animals with gemfibrozil prior to I/R resulted in a sexually dimorphic outcome. Within females it proved to be protective, modulating inflammatory factors and inducing antioxidant defense system including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, as well as glutathione level. However, Nrf-2 signaling pathway was not affected. It also decreased malondialdehyde level as an index of lipid peroxidation. In contrast, gemfibrozil pretreatment was toxic to males, enhancing the expression of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB, and cyclooxygenase-2, and decreasing Nrf-2 expression and SOD activity, leading to hippocampal neurodegeneration. Considering that gemfibrozil is a commonly used anti-hyperlipidemic agent in clinic, undoubtedly more investigations are crucial to exactly unravel its sex-dependent neuroprotective/neurodegenerative potential.

  1. Action of the protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) in the life period of Drosophila mutants deficient in endogenous antioxidants; Accion de la protoporfirina-IX (PP-IX) en el periodo de vida de mutantes de Drosophila deficientes en antioxidantes endogenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal E, L. M.

    2012-07-01

    The human being is daily exposed to free radicals or reactive oxygen species (Ros), as a result of the breathing and the interactions with xenobiotics that can cause irreversible lesions in molecules and cellular structures and that they are associated to diseases like the cancer, neuro degenerative and to the acceleration of the normal process of aging. Fortunately, to reduce the damaging effect of the Ros the cell has endogenous antioxidant systems constituted by antioxidant enzymes as: the superoxide dismutase (Sod), the catalase (Cat), and the glutathione peroxidase and reductase. Even, when these systems are not enough, we find to the exogenous antioxidants that cooperate in the balance of the Ros, as the porphyrins that include to the chlorophyllin, the hemin and the bilirubin among others. The protoporphyrin-Ix (Pp-Ix) is a tetra pyrrole without metallic center with antimutagenic and antioxidant activity similar to that of the chlorophyllin. However, is also known that their over-expression has toxic effects, because induces Ros. In Drosophila melanogaster, recently was found that the Pp-Ix have dual action anti and persistent mutagenic. One of their possible mechanism to act like mutagen is through the Ros induction. To evaluate this possibility and based in that the increase in the Ros levels can accelerate the aging process, in the present work the Pp-Ix role was evaluated, in the life period of Drosophila melanogaster strains deficient in Sod and Cat, sensitive to radiation or oxidative stress (rad, whd and flr{sup 3}) and a wild one as control (C-S). Females and males of each strain were treated chronically for separate with sucrose or Pp-Ix and every 15 days a group of each sex was irradiated with 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results indicated that the chronic treatment with Pp-Ix and in combination with radiation, increased the life period of the C-S strain. The Sod strain had a contrary effect and this effect was pronounced with the combined treatment of

  2. A circadian clock in Antarctic krill: an endogenous timing system governs metabolic output rhythms in the euphausid species Euphausia superba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Teschke

    Full Text Available Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, shapes the structure of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Its central position in the food web, the ongoing environmental changes due to climatic warming, and increasing commercial interest on this species emphasize the urgency of understanding the adaptability of krill to its environment. Krill has evolved rhythmic physiological and behavioral functions which are synchronized with the daily and seasonal cycles of the complex Southern Ocean ecosystem. The mechanisms, however, leading to these rhythms are essentially unknown. Here, we show that krill possesses an endogenous circadian clock that governs metabolic and physiological output rhythms. We found that expression of the canonical clock gene cry2 was highly rhythmic both in a light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. We detected a remarkable short circadian period, which we interpret as a special feature of the krill's circadian clock that helps to entrain the circadian system to the extreme range of photoperiods krill is exposed to throughout the year. Furthermore, we found that important key metabolic enzymes of krill showed bimodal circadian oscillations (∼9-12 h period in transcript abundance and enzymatic activity. Oxygen consumption of krill showed ∼9-12 h oscillations that correlated with the temporal activity profile of key enzymes of aerobic energy metabolism. Our results demonstrate the first report of an endogenous circadian timing system in Antarctic krill and its likely link to metabolic key processes. Krill's circadian clock may not only be critical for synchronization to the solar day but also for the control of seasonal events. This study provides a powerful basis for the investigation into the mechanisms of temporal synchronization in this marine key species and will also lead to the first comprehensive analyses of the circadian clock of a polar marine organism through the entire photoperiodic cycle.

  3. Targeting of the Glutathione, Thioredoxin, and Nrf2 Antioxidant Systems in Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Jang, Hyejin; Kim, Eun Hye; Shin, Daiha

    2017-07-10

    The glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx), and Nrf2 systems represent a major defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS), the cellular imbalance of which in cancer promotes growth and therapeutic resistance. This study investigated whether targeting the GSH, Trx, and Nrf2 antioxidant systems effectively eliminated head and neck cancer (HNC). At high concentrations, auranofin, but not buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) alone, decreased the viability of HNC, whereas even at low concentrations, auranofin plus BSO synergized to kill HNC cells. Dual silencing of the genes for GCLM and TrxR1 induced GSH depletion, Trx activity inhibition, and ROS accumulation, synergistically killing HNC cells. Inhibition of the GSH and Trx systems resulted in activation of the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway, which may result in suboptimal GSH and Trx inhibition where HNC is resistant. Genetic inhibition of Nrf2 and/or HO-1 or trigonelline enhanced growth suppression, ROS accumulation, and cell death from GSH and Trx inhibition. The in vivo effects of GSH, Trx, and Nrf2 system inhibition were confirmed in a mouse HNC xenograft model by achieving growth inhibition >60% compared with those of control. Innovations: This study is the first to show that triple inhibition of GSH, Trx, and Nrf2 pathways could be an effective method to overcome the resistance of HNC. Inhibition of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in addition to dual inhibition of the GSH and Trx antioxidant systems can effectively eliminate resistant HNC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 106-114.

  4. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Merete Boye; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147.......Meyer, A. S. & C. Jacobsen, 1996. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise: Partion of ascorbic acid, J. Food Lipids, 3, 139-147....

  5. RITA plus 3-MA overcomes chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells via dual inhibition of autophagy and antioxidant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiha Shin

    2017-10-01

    Condensed abstract: This study revealed a novel RITA resistant mechanism associated with the sustained induction of autophagy, p62 overexpression, and Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant system activation. The combined treatment of RITA with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine overcomes RITA resistance via dual inhibition of autophagy and antioxidant systems in vitro and in vivo.

  6. REFERENCE MODELS OF ENDOGENOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    GEAMĂNU MARINELA

    2012-01-01

    The new endogenous growth theories are a very important research area for shaping the most effective policies and long term sustainable development strategies. Endogenous growth theory has emerged as a reaction to the imperfections of neoclassical theory, by the fact that the economic growth is the endogenous product of an economical system.

  7. Establishment of a ternary network system for evaluating the antioxidant fraction of Danhong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Jiang, Zhenzuo; Yang, Fan; Chai, Xin; Zhu, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoya; Jiang, Miaomiao; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Buchang; Qian, Ke; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in numerous cardiovascular diseases. As an effective therapy, Danhong injection (DHI) is considered to act through an antioxidant mechanism for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In our study, we focused on the potential contribution of the antioxidant capacity of DHI fractions (Frs) and established an innovative screening method based on a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay. A ternary network evaluation system, which was constructed based on the radical scavenging activity, the area under the activity-concentration curve and the solid content of the fractions, was implemented to select the fractions that posed the greatest antioxidant effect. As a result, Frs 5-7 and Frs 17-19 were shown to exhibit superior antioxidant activity according to the regression area of the ternary network, which was >0.5. Furthermore, the active fractions were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with nuclear magnetic resonance. This study provided an effective method for the comprehensive evaluation of the antioxidant effect of DHI fractions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Contribution of galloylation and polymerization to the antioxidant activity of polyphenols in fish lipid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Jacobo; Pazos, Manuel; Lois, Salomé; Medina, Isabel

    2010-06-23

    Polyphenolic fractions extracted from pine (Pinus pinaster) bark, grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace, and witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) bark were selected for investigating the influence of the number of phenolic units, polymerization, and the content of esterified galloyl residues (galloylation) on their efficacy for inhibiting lipid oxidation in fish lipid enriched foodstuffs. Experiments carried out with nongalloylated pine bark fractions with different polymerization degrees demonstrated that the number of catechin residues per molecule modulates their reducing and chelating properties in solution. In real food systems such as bulk fish oil and fish oil-in-water emulsions, the efficacy against lipid oxidation was highly dependent on the physical location of the antioxidant at the oxidative sensitive sites. The lowest polymerized fractions were the most efficient in bulk fish oil samples, whereas proanthocyanidins with an intermediate polymerization degree showed the highest activity in fish oil-in-water emulsions. Galloylation did not influence the antioxidant effectiveness of proanthocyanidins in bulk fish oils. The presence of galloyl groups favored the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols in emulsions, although results indicated that a high degree of galloylation did not improve significantly the activity found with medium galloylated proanthocyanidins. The results obtained in this research provide useful information about the relationship between structure and antioxidant activity in order to design antioxidant additives with application in fish oil-enriched functional foods.

  9. EXTRACT OF Punica granatum L.: AN ALTERNATIVE TO BHT AS AN ANTIOXIDANT IN SEMISSOLID EMULSIFIED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Tiago Tozetto

    Full Text Available Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. is a fruit which has important pharmacological activities and has been attracting attention due to its important antioxidant activity, a significant feature in relation to cosmetics. Formulations containing different concentrations of an ethanolic extract of pomegranate (0.1, 1.0 and 5.0% (w/w as an antioxidant agent showed that this is an interesting alternative for the use of natural products with biological activity. The stability and rheology of semissolid systems containing an extract of this plant were evaluated. Preliminary stability studies showed greater physico-chemical stability of the formulation, and thus it was used in an accelerated stability study, as well the quantification of total phenolic compounds and the determination of antioxidant activity. It was observed that different concentrations of the extract did not significantly influence the stability. Moreover, the formulation was found to have better stability when stored at room temperature than under heated or cooled conditions. Formulations containing 0.1 and 5.0% of extract showed more stable rheological behavior, due to the absence of a solid/liquid transition in the rheogram. Tests confirmed the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity, demonstrating the potential of this plant for use in cosmetology as an antioxidant.

  10. [Responses of antioxidation system of Cynodon dactylon to recirculated landfill leachate irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruyi; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Bin; Li, Guojian

    2005-05-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the membrane lipid peroxidation and the variations of antioxidation system in Cynodon dactylon under recirculated landfill leachate irrigation. The results showed that when irrigated with low dilution ratio ( 25%), there existed an obvious negative fect on Cynodon dactylon, i.e., the chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased, while cell membrane permeability and MDA and H2O2 contents increased, which meant that the membrane lipid peroxidation was accelerated. The contents antioxidants AsA, GSH and Car also showed the similar trend, i.e., they increased with increasing leachate dilution ratio when irrigated with low dilution ratio leachate, but decreased under medium or high dilution ratio leachate irrigation. Among three test anti-oxidative enzymes, SOD and POD activities showed a similar change test antioxidants, and POD activity was more sensitive, while CAT activity was on the contrary. The contents test antioxidants and the activities of SOD and POD were negatively and significantly correlated to MDA content, indicating that they might play an important role in preventing Cynodon dactylon from cell membrane lipid peroxdation.

  11. [Formation of antioxidant defence system of geese in embryogenesis and early postnatal ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, O O; Kalytka, V V

    2002-01-01

    The features of antioxidant protection of tissues of a liver and blood of the gooses in embriogenesis and early postnatal ontogenesis are found out. Maximal contents TBA active products both in a liver, and in a blood are observed in 28 diurnal embriones. Is shown, that in a liver the activity of basic antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) in a liver is developed already at early stages embriogenesis and is considerably enlarged in the end embriogenesis. The becoming of enzymatic system of a blood descends much more slower.

  12. Impact of reactive oxygen species on antioxidant capacity of male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Mahmood, Zahed; Shahid, Muhammad; Saeed, M Usman Qamar; Tahir, Imtiaz Mahmood; Shah, Sm Ali; Munir, Naveed; El-Ghorab, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    The present research work was aimed to study the mutual interaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and basal cells antioxidant capacity in the male reproductive system and to further establish the association between selected heavy metals and stress markers. Total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) of serum and seminal plasma were determined by automated photometric methods. The concentrations of Selenium (Se), Lead (Pb), and Cadmium (Cd) were determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The TOS was increased significantly (P male infertility. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Consequences for central nervous system functional state of exposure to ionizing radiation modification with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukalenko, Je.V.; Varets'kij, V.V.; Rakochyi, O.G.; Dmyitryijeva, Yi.R.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: to estimate the pattern of ionizing radiation effects modification by antioxidants using central nervous system functional state indices. The studies were carried out using 84 rats. Beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were found to significantly improve conditioned activity indices level of the animals exposed to ionizing radiation and emotional-pain stress

  14. Development of new antioxidant systems for frying oil and omega-3 oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of natural antioxidant systems for frying oil will be discussed in this presentation. This study aimed to utilize vegetable oils such as soybean oil for frying, of which the United States is the world’s largest producer. To overcome the vulnerability of soybean oil to oxidation due t...

  15. Autophagy as an essential cellular antioxidant pathway in neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Giordano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress including DNA damage, increased lipid and protein oxidation, are important features of aging and neurodegeneration suggesting that endogenous antioxidant protective pathways are inadequate or overwhelmed. Importantly, oxidative protein damage contributes to age-dependent accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria or protein aggregates. In addition, environmental toxins such as rotenone and paraquat, which are risk factors for the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, also promote protein oxidation. The obvious approach of supplementing the primary antioxidant systems designed to suppress the initiation of oxidative stress has been tested in animal models and positive results were obtained. However, these findings have not been effectively translated to treating human patients, and clinical trials for antioxidant therapies using radical scavenging molecules such as α-tocopherol, ascorbate and coenzyme Q have met with limited success, highlighting several limitations to this approach. These could include: (1 radical scavenging antioxidants cannot reverse established damage to proteins and organelles; (2 radical scavenging antioxidants are oxidant specific, and can only be effective if the specific mechanism for neurodegeneration involves the reactive species to which they are targeted and (3 since reactive species play an important role in physiological signaling, suppression of endogenous oxidants maybe deleterious. Therefore, alternative approaches that can circumvent these limitations are needed. While not previously considered an antioxidant system we propose that the autophagy-lysosomal activities, may serve this essential function in neurodegenerative diseases by removing damaged or dysfunctional proteins and organelles.

  16. SERPINA3K plays antioxidant roles in cultured pterygial epithelial cells through regulating ROS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhu

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that SERPINA3K, a serine proteinase inhibitor, has antioxidant activity in the cornea. Here we investigated the antioxidant effects of SERPINA3K on the pterygial, which is partially caused by oxidative stress in pathogenesis. The head part of primary pterygial tissue was dissected and then cultured in keratinocyte serum-free defined medium (KSFM. The cultured pterygial epithelial cells (PECs were treated with SERPINA3K. The cell proliferation and migration of PECs were measured and analyzed. Western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay were performed. It showed that SERPINA3K significantly suppressed the cell proliferation of PECs in a concentration-dependent manner, compared with cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells. SERPINA3K also inhibited the cell migration of PECs. Towards its underlying mechanism, SERPINA3K had antioxidant activities on the PECs by significantly inhibiting NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4, which is an important enzyme of ROS generation, and by elevating the levels of key antioxidant factors of ROS: such as NAD(PH dehydrogenase (quinone 1 (NQO1, NF-E2-related factor-2 (NRF2 and superoxide dismutases (SOD2. Meanwhile, SERPINA3K down-regulated the key effectors of Wnt signaling pathway: β-catenin, nonphospho-β-catenin, and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6. We provided novel evidence that SERPINA3K had inhibitory effects on pterygium and SERPINA3K played antioxidant role via regulating the ROS system and antioxidants.

  17. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process Indicators for Decentralized Non-potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centraliz...

  18. Effect of Whole-Body Cryotherapy on Antioxidant Systems in Experimental Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC in rats on their antioxidant systems, lipid peroxidation products, and their total oxidative status at different exposure times and temperatures. Methods. Antioxidants in serum, plasma, liver, and erythrocytes were evaluated in two study groups following 1 min of exposure to −60°C and −90°C, for 5 and 10 consecutive days. Results. WBC increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase in the group subjected to 5 and 10 days exposure, −60°C. The glutathione S-transferase activity increased in the groups subjected to 10 days WBC sessions. Total antioxidant capacity increased after 5 and 10 days of 1 min WBC, −60°C; a decrease was observed at −90°C. A decreased level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration was observed at −60°C after 5 and 10 days of cryostimulation. An increased concentration was measured at −90°C after 10 days, and increase of erythrocyte malondialdehyde concentration after 5 days, −90°C. Conclusions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first research showing the effect of WBC in rats at different exposure times and temperatures. The effect of cryotherapy on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems was observed in the serum of animals exposed to a temperature of −60°C in comparison to control.

  19. Trichoderma harzianum T-78 supplementation of compost stimulates the antioxidant defence system in melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Vicente, Agustina; Pascual, José A; Tittarelli, Fabio; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-08-30

    Compost is emerging as an alternative plant growing medium in efforts to achieve more sustainable agriculture. The addition of specific microorganisms such as Trichoderma harzianum to plant growth substrates increases yields and reduces plant diseases, but the mechanisms of such biostimulants and the biocontrol effects are not yet fully understood. In this work we investigated how the addition of citrus and vineyard composts, either alone or in combination with T. harzianum T-78, affects the antioxidant defence system in melon plants under nursery conditions. Compost application and/or Trichoderma inoculation modulated the antioxidant defence system in melon plants. The combination of citrus compost and Trichoderma showed a biostimulant effect that correlated with an increase in ascorbate recycling enzymes (monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase) and peroxidase. Moreover, the inoculation of both composts with Trichoderma increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially those involved in ascorbate recycling. Based on the long-established relationship between ascorbic acid and plant defence responses as well as plant growth and development, it can be suggested that ascorbate recycling activities play a major role in the protection provided by Trichoderma and its biostimulant effect and that these outcomes are linked to increases in antioxidant enzymes. We can conclude that the combination of citrus compost and T. harzianum T-78 constitutes a viable, environmentally friendly strategy for improving melon plant production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antioxidant system of erythrocytes after γ-irradiation against the background of preliminary long-term overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, O.G.; Kozlov, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of the influence of preliminary long-term heating on the state of the antioxidant system of erythrocytes after γ-irradiation. The activity of antioxidant protection enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase) in erythrocytes varied in different directions depending on the preliminary long-term overheating schedule and perhaps on the structure and intracellular localization of the enzyme

  1. Characterization and antioxidant activity of bovine serum albumin and sulforaphane complex in different solvent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xueyan; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Hao, E-mail: h200521@cau.edu.cn

    2014-02-15

    Modes and influencing factors of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and sulforaphane (SFN) interaction will help us understand the interaction mechanisms and functional changes of bioactive small molecule and biomacromolecule. This study investigated interaction mechanisms of BSA and SFN and associated antioxidant activity in three solvent systems of deionized water (dH{sub 2}O), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethanol (EtOH), using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that SFN had ability to quench BSA's fluorescence in static modes, and to interact with BSA at both tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues, while the Trp residues were highly sensitive, which was demonstrated by fluorescence at 340 nm. Hydrophobic forces, hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions were all involved in BSA and SFN interaction, which were not significantly changed by three solvents. The binding constant values and binding site numbers were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. The values of free energy change were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH, which indicated that the binding forces were in a descending order of dH{sub 2}O>DMSO>EtOH. There was no significant difference in antioxidant activity between SFN and BSA–SFN. Moreover, three solvents had not significant influence on antioxidant activity of SFN and BSA–SFN. -- Highlights: • We report interaction mechanisms of BSA and sulforaphane in three solvent systems. • We report antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane complex in three solvent systems. • Decreasing the solvent polarity will decrease the binding of BSA and sulforaphane. • Three solvents had not influence on antioxidant activity of BSA–sulforaphane.

  2. Skin and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar

    2013-04-01

    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  3. Development of an active food packaging system with antioxidant properties based on green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gullo, Giuseppe; Bosetti, Osvaldo; Nerín, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    A formula including green tea extract (GTE) was developed as an active food packaging material. This formula was moulded to obtain an independent component/device with antioxidant properties that could be easily coupled to industrial degassing valves for food packaging in special cases. GTE components (i.e., gallic acid, catechins and caffeine) were identified and quantified by HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS and migration/diffusion studies were carried out. Antioxidant properties of the formula alone and formula-valve were measured with static and dynamic methods. The results showed that the antioxidant capacity (scavenging of free radicals) of the new GTE formula was 40% higher than the non-active system (blank). This antioxidant activity increased in parallel with the GTE concentration. The functional properties of the industrial target valve (e.g., flexibility) were studied for different mixtures of GTE, and good results were found with 17% (w/w) of GTE. This new active formula can be an important addition for active packaging applications in the food packaging industry, with oxidative species-scavenging capacity, thus improving the safety and quality for the consumer and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  4. Influence Of Pentoxifylline And Mexidol On Lipid Peroxidation And Anti-oxidant System In Patients With Urolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Polozov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to prove correction possibility of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system protection in neph-rolithiasis by taking pentoxifylline and mexidol. 158 patients with kidney concretion have been under the research. Distance shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL has been carried out. Structure of stones and antioxidant system state have been investigated in all patients. They have been divided into three groups - control, receiving pentoxifylline and receiving mexidol. Influence of indicated preparations on processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system has been studied in case of different structure of concretion

  5. Radical improvement of signs and symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus when treated with hemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Francesco Giuseppe; Bellei, Elisa; Cuoghi, Aurora; Caiazzo, Marialuisa; Bruni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Lupus nephritis is one of the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the kidney, immune complexes and autoantibodies activate mesangial cells that secrete cytokines that can further amplify inflammatory processes. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with lupus nephritis accompanied by periods of exacerbation of SLE, with necrotic-like skin lesions, psoriatic arthritis without skin psoriasis, purpura of the lower limb, petechial rash, joint pain, fever, eyelid edema with bilateral conjunctival hyperemia and itching. The patient underwent a dialytic treatment of hemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion. The technique uses the super-high-flux membrane Synclear 02 (SUPRA treatment) coupled with an adsorbent cartridge that has affinity for many toxins and mediators. Fever and joint pain were immediately reduced after treatment and, subsequently, there was a notable reduction of the skin damage. Prednisone and immunosuppressive drugs were gradually reduced until complete suspension. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer was performed for identification of proteins captured by a resin bed during a dialysis session of the patient. This technique identified several biomarkers of kidney injuries, uremic toxins, fragments of immunoglobulins, antigens involved in antiphospholipid syndrome and a new marker (α-defensin) that correlated significantly with disease activity. The removal of these different proteins could possibly provide an explanation of the improvement in the patient's symptoms and the normalization of her SLE. SUPRA coupled with an adsorption may be a promising new technique for the treatment of lupus nephritis.

  6. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kozarski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality.

  7. Whole body exposure to low-dose γ-radiation enhances the antioxidant defense system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, C.M.; Avti, P.K.; Khanduja, K.L.; Sharma, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that the extent of cellular damage by low- radiation dose is proportional to the effects observed at high radiation dose as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. However, this notion may not be true at low-dose radiation exposure in the living system. Recent evidence suggest that the living organisms do not respond to ionizing radiations in a linear manner in the low dose range 0.01-0.5Gy and rather restore the homeostasis both in vivo and in vitro by normal physiological mechanisms such as cellular and DNA repair processes, immune reactions, antioxidant defense, adaptive responses, activation of immune functions, stimulation of growth etc. In this study, we have attempted to find the critical radiation dose range and the post irradiation period during which the antioxidant defense systems in the lungs, liver and kidneys remain stimulated in these organs after whole body exposure of the animals to low-dose radiation

  8. [The activity of glutathione antioxidant system at melaksen and valdoxan action under experimental hyperthyroidism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of glutathione antioxidant system activity and diene conjugates content in rats liver and blood serum at the influence of melaksen and valdoxan under experimental hyperthyroidism (EG) has been revealed. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione transferase (GT), growing at pathological conditions, change to the side of control value at these substunces introduction. Reduced glutathione content (GSH) at melaxen and valdoxan action increased compared with values under the pathology, that, obviously, could be associated with a reduction of its spending on the detoxication of free radical oxidation (FRO) toxic products. Diene conjugates level in rats liver and blood serum, increasing at experimental hyperthyroidism conditions, under introduction of melatonin level correcting drugs, also approached to the control meaning. Results of the study indicate on positive effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical homeostasis, that appears to be accompanied by decrease of load on the glutathione antioxidant system in comparison with the pathology.

  9. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wei Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30% or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p<0.05. Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1 of hypercholesterolemic rats (p<0.05, except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p<0.05. In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  10. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1) of hypercholesterolemic rats (p < 0.05), except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:29849908

  11. Opiate Drugs with Abuse Liability Hijack the Endogenous Opioid System to Disrupt Neuronal and Glial Maturation in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2017-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS) regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Although typically mediated by μ-opioid receptors, opiate drugs can also act through δ- and κ-opioid receptors to modulate growth in a cell-type, region-specific, and developmentally regulated manner. Opioids act as biological response modifiers and their actions are highly contextual, plastic, modifiable, and influenced by other physiological processes or pathophysiological conditions, such as neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To date, most studies have considered the acute effects of opiates on cellular maturation. For example, activating opioid receptors typically results in acute growth inhibition in both neurons and glia. However, with sustained opioid exposure, compensatory factors become operative, a concept that has been largely overlooked during CNS maturation. Accordingly, this article surveys prior studies on the effects of opiates on CNS maturation, and also suggests new directions for future research in this area. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive responses to chronic opiate exposure (e.g., tolerance) during maturation is crucial toward understanding the consequences of perinatal opiate exposure on the CNS.

  12. Modulatory Effects of Exogenously Applied Polyamines on Postharvest Physiology, Antioxidant System and Shelf Life of Fruits: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil; Pareek, Sunil; Sagar, Narashans Alok; Valero, Daniel; Serrano, Maria

    2017-08-17

    Polyamines (PAs) are natural compounds involved in many growth and developmental processes in plants, and, specifically in fruits, play a vital role regulating its development, ripening and senescence processes. Putrescine (PUT), spermine (SPE), and spermidine (SPD) are prominent PAs applied exogenously to extend shelf life of fruits. They also originate endogenously during developmental phases of horticultural crops and simultaneously affect the quality attributes and shelf life. Their anti-ethylene nature is being exploited to enhance the shelf life when exogenously applied on fruits. In growth and development of fruits, PA levels generally fall, which marks the beginning of senescence at postharvest phase. PUT, SPE and SPD treatments are being applied during postharvest phase to prolong the shelf life. They enhance the shelf life of fruits by reducing respiration rate, ethylene release and enhance firmness and quality attributes in fruits. PAs have a mitigating impact on biotic and abiotic stresses including chilling injury (CI) in tropical and sub-tropical fruits. PAs are environment friendly in nature and are biodegradable without showing any negative effect on environment. Biotechnological interventions by using chimeric gene constructs of PA encoding genes has boosted the research to develop transgenic fruits and vegetables which would possess inherent or in situ mechanism of enhanced biosynthesis of PAs at different stages of development and thereby will enhance the shelf life and quality in fruits. Internal and external quality attributes of fruits are improved by modulation of antioxidant system and by strengthening biophysical morphology of fruits by electrostatic interaction between PAs and phospholipids in the cell wall.

  13. A study of Some Hormones and AntioxidantSystems Disturbances in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Abdul-Raheem Al-Saadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available      Ageing is a physiological phenomenon that manifested itself with disturbances of many homeostatic regulating mechanisms of the body . The present study was conducted and employed to investigate two major systems( hormones and antioxidant systems that can be implicated in progress of aging .The total number of subjects included in the present study was fifty (50 healthy men and classified according to their ages into two groups, the first group included 25 younger men (control group and their ages ranged between 21 to 30 years old whereas the second group included 25 older men and their ages were between 61 to 70 years old.  Data obtained from this study indicated a significant decrease(p0.05 occurring among hormones( testosterone  , T3 and glutathione peroxidase and of malondehyde .   From these results ,one can be concluded that with ageing there are many disturbances and fluctuations of hypothalamic-adrenal and thyroid axis that accompanied with drop of essential antioxidant components that may be lead to suppress of defense against free radicals and the present study concluded that the changes occurring in studied hormones have not relations and effects on the antioxidant systems.

  14. Endogenous interleukin (IL)-17A promotes pristane-induced systemic autoimmunity and lupus nephritis induced by pristane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, S A; Odobasic, D; Khouri, M B; Steinmetz, O M; Yang, Y; Holdsworth, S R; Kitching, A R

    2014-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17A is increased both in serum and in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis, but direct evidence of pathogenicity is less well established. Administration of pristane to genetically intact mice results in the production of autoantibodies and proliferative glomerulonephritis, resembling human lupus nephritis. These studies sought to define the role of IL-17A in experimental lupus induced by pristane administration. Pristane was administered to wild-type (WT) and IL-17A(-/-) mice. Local and systemic immune responses were assessed after 6 days and 8 weeks, and autoimmunity, glomerular inflammation and renal injury were measured at 7 months. IL-17A production increased significantly 6 days after pristane injection, with innate immune cells, neutrophils (Ly6G(+)) and macrophages (F4/80(+)) being the predominant source of IL-17A. After 8 weeks, while systemic IL-17A was still readily detected in WT mice, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) were diminished in the absence of endogenous IL-17A. Seven months after pristane treatment humoral autoimmunity was diminished in the absence of IL-17A, with decreased levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and anti-dsDNA antibodies. Renal inflammation and injury was less in the absence of IL-17A. Compared to WT mice, glomerular IgG, complement deposition, glomerular CD4(+) T cells and intrarenal expression of T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated proinflammatory mediators were decreased in IL-17A(-/-) mice. WT mice developed progressive proteinuria, but functional and histological renal injury was attenuated in the absence of IL-17A. Therefore, IL-17A is required for the full development of autoimmunity and lupus nephritis in experimental SLE, and early in the development of autoimmunity, innate immune cells produce IL-17A. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  15. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  16. COMBINED EFFECTS OF CO2 AND O3 ON ANTIOXIDATIVE AND PHOTOPROTECTIVE DEFENSE SYSTEMS IN NEEDLES OF PONDEROSA PINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine interactive effects of important environmental stresses on biochemical defense mechanisms of tree seedlings, we studied responses to elevated O3 and elevated atmospheric CO2 on antioxidative and photoprotective systems in needles of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Do...

  17. Critical Role of Zinc as Either an Antioxidant or a Prooxidant in Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ryul Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is recognized as an essential trace metal required for human health; its deficiency is strongly associated with neuronal and immune system defects. Although zinc is a redox-inert metal, it functions as an antioxidant through the catalytic action of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase, stabilization of membrane structure, protection of the protein sulfhydryl groups, and upregulation of the expression of metallothionein, which possesses a metal-binding capacity and also exhibits antioxidant functions. In addition, zinc suppresses anti-inflammatory responses that would otherwise augment oxidative stress. The actions of zinc are not straightforward owing to its numerous roles in biological systems. It has been shown that zinc deficiency and zinc excess cause cellular oxidative stress. To gain insights into the dual action of zinc, as either an antioxidant or a prooxidant, and the conditions under which each role is performed, the oxidative stresses that occur in zinc deficiency and zinc overload in conjunction with the intracellular regulation of free zinc are summarized. Additionally, the regulatory role of zinc in mitochondrial homeostasis and its impact on oxidative stress are briefly addressed.

  18. Determination of antioxidant activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Croton caudatus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhaswaraj, Pattnaik; Sowmya, M; Bhavana, V; Dyavaiah, Madhu; Siddhardha, Busi

    2017-08-01

    From ancient times, plants and plant derived products are exploited as a prominent source of folkloric medicines with tremendous therapeutic potential for an array of health disorders. In the present study, ethanolic leaf extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Croton caudatus were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae model system. H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus showed tremendous DPPH free radical scavenging potential with an IC 50 value of 184.88 and 305.39 µg/mL respectively at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The ethanolic leaf extract of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus also showed significant hydoxyl radical scavenging and total antioxidant activity. Ascorbic acid was used as positive control. The in vitro antioxidant activity was further supported by in vivo studies using radical scavenging mechanism in S. cerevisiae wild type and its isogenic deletion strains sod1∆ and tsa1∆ . The mutant yeast cells substantially scavenged the stress generated by H 2 O 2 when supplemented with ethanolic leaf extract of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus as evident from spot assays followed by fluorescence assay (DCF-DA) using fluorescence microscopic and intensity studies. H. sabdariffa and C.caudatus significantly neutralize the ROS level in yeast mutants with concomitant decrease in fluorescence intensity as compared to the untreated yeast cells. The results suggested the efficacy of H. sabdariffa and C. caudatus as potent antioxidants in yeast system and thus their futuristic applications in therapeutics.

  19. Self-Assembly of Multi-nanozymes to Mimic an Intracellular Antioxidant Defense System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Ju, Enguo; Zhang, Yan; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, for the first time, we constructed a novel multi-nanozymes cooperative platform to mimic intracellular antioxidant enzyme-based defense system. V2 O5 nanowire served as a glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mimic while MnO2 nanoparticle was used to mimic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Dopamine was used as a linker to achieve the assembling of the nanomaterials. The obtained V2 O5 @pDA@MnO2 nanocomposite could serve as one multi-nanozyme model to mimic intracellular antioxidant enzyme-based defense procedure in which, for example SOD, CAT, and GPx co-participate. In addition, through assembling with dopamine, the hybrid nanocomposites provided synergistic antioxidative effect. Importantly, both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that our biocompatible system exhibited excellent intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) removal ability to protect cell components against oxidative stress, showing its potential application in inflammation therapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Prevention of lipid oxidation in omega-3 enriched oofds by antioxidants and the use of delivery systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Due to the health beneficial effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids there is an increasing interest in developing functional foods containing these healthy fatty acids. However, such foods are very susceptible to lipid oxidation, which will give rise to undesirable off-flavours and unhealthy...... oxidation products. Efficients strategies to prevent lipid oxidation are therefore required. Such strategies include addition of antioxidants or the use of omega-3 delivery emulsions. However, antioxidant efficacy in complex omega-3 enriched foods are influenced by many factors including the lipophilicity...... of the antioxidants. Selection of the optimal antioxidant system is therefore a major challenge. Likewise, a range of factors can influence the ability of omega-3 delivery systems to protect the omega-3 fatty acids against oxidation after addition to food systems. These challenges will be discussed...

  1. Influence of drugs with antioxidant properties on the state of the sperm antioxidant system in men with excretory-toxic forms of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Onufrovych

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of many disorders of the reproductive function in men involves processes of free radical oxidation, the purpose of this study was to form an evaluation of the pro- and antioxidant status of sperm and to restore its biological usefulness in men with excretory-toxic forms of infertility by using drugs with antioxidant properties. It is shown that excretory-toxic forms of infertility in men are mostly caused by such infectious agents as Chlamydia (22%, Chlamydia + Ureaplasma (16%, Chlamydia + Trichomonas (13%, Ureaplasma (10%. This reduces the total number of sperm in the ejaculate by 2.7 times, and motility by 1.8 times. The number of abnormal forms increases by 1.75 times. With the development of chronic inflammation of the male sex organs sperm lipid peroxidation increases by 1.3 times while the activity of glutathione peroxidase decreases (by 2.3 times and that of glutathione reductase (by 1.7 times. We observed a close correlation between the low biological quality of sperm (low concentration, low number and motility of sperm in the ejaculate with activation of lipid peroxidation and inhibition of activity of the glutathione antioxidant system. In the case of superoxide dismutase, the negative impact of reactive oxygen species on this enzyme was not observed. A course of drugs with antioxidant properties – vitamin E, vitamin C and zinc sulfate leads to improvement in the indicators on the spermagram (mostly sperm mobility and morphology, to reduction of the number of peroxide compounds and activation of the glutathione antioxidant system. In this case, the activity of glutathione peroxidase is increased by 1.5 times and the activity of glutathione reductase by 1.3 times. The activity of superoxide dismutase at the same time approaches the norm for zoospermia. The data obtained show that one of the pathogenic factors of the chronic inflammation of male sex organs, considered as a main developmental reason for infertility

  2. Antioxidant effect of seaweed extracts in food emulsion systems enriched with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. In this presentation we will discuss results from our ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains...... such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different extracts of F. Vesiculosus in a range of different food models...

  3. Simulating of Top-Cross system for enhancement of antioxidants in maize grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vancetovic

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blue maize (Zea mays L. is grown for its high content of antioxidants. Conversion of yellow and white to blue maize is time consuming because several genes affect blue color. After each backcross selfing is needed for color to be expressed. In order to overcome the problem of time and effort needed for conversion to blue kernel color, we have set a pilot experiment simulating a Top-cross system for increasing antioxidants in maize grain. The idea is to alternately sow six rows of sterile standard quality hybrid and two rows of blue maize in commercial production. Five commercial ZP hybrids were crossed with a blue pop-corn population. Xenia effect caused by cross-pollination produced blue grain on all hybrids in the same year. Chemical analyses of the grains of five selfed original hybrids, five cross-pollinated hybrids and selfed blue popcorn pollinator were performed. Cross-fertilization with blue popcorn had different impact on antioxidant capacity and phytonutrients, increasing them significantly in some but not all cross-pollinated hybrids. Popcorn blue pollinator had higher values for all the analyzed traits than either selfed or cross-pollinated hybrids. Selfed vs. pollinated hybrids showed significant difference for total antioxidant capacity (p<0.1, total phenolics and total yellow pigments (p<0.01, with the increase of total phenolics and decrease of total yellow pigments in pollinated ones. Total flavonoids showed a little non-significant decrease in pollinated hybrids, while total anthocyanins were not detected in selfed yellow hybrids. Blue maize obtained this way has shown good potential for growing high quality phytonutrient genotypes.

  4. Opiate Drugs with Abuse Liability Hijack the Endogenous Opioid System to Disrupt Neuronal and Glial Maturation in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt F. Hauser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Although typically mediated by μ-opioid receptors, opiate drugs can also act through δ- and κ-opioid receptors to modulate growth in a cell-type, region-specific, and developmentally regulated manner. Opioids act as biological response modifiers and their actions are highly contextual, plastic, modifiable, and influenced by other physiological processes or pathophysiological conditions, such as neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To date, most studies have considered the acute effects of opiates on cellular maturation. For example, activating opioid receptors typically results in acute growth inhibition in both neurons and glia. However, with sustained opioid exposure, compensatory factors become operative, a concept that has been largely overlooked during CNS maturation. Accordingly, this article surveys prior studies on the effects of opiates on CNS maturation, and also suggests new directions for future research in this area. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive responses to chronic opiate exposure (e.g., tolerance during maturation is crucial toward understanding the consequences of perinatal opiate exposure on the CNS.

  5. Construction of a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering the endogenous toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sen; Kang, Zhen; Cao, Wenlong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus subtilis as an important workhorse that has been widely used to produce enzymes and metabolites. To broaden its applications, especially in the food and feed industry, we constructed a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering its type II toxin-antitoxin system. The expression of the toxin EndoA, encoded by the chromosomal ydcE gene, was regulated by an endogenous, xylose-inducible promoter, while the ydcD gene, which encodes the unstable antitoxin EndoB, was inserted into a food-grade vector backbone, where its expression was driven by the native, constitutive promoter PylxM. By maintaining the xylose concentration above 2.0 g L(-1), this auto-regulated expression system was absolutely stable after 100 generations. Compared with traditional antibiotic-dependent expression systems, this novel expression system resulted in greater biomass and higher titers of desired products (enzymes or metabolites). Our results demonstrate that this stable, food-grade expression system is suitable for enzyme production and pathway engineering, especially for the production of food-grade enzymes and metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exogenous 5-Aminolevulenic Acid Promotes Antioxidative Defence System, Photosynthesis and Growth in Soybean against Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe MANAFI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the possibility of enhancing cold stress tolerance of young soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr by exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA was investigated. ALA was applied at various concentrations (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mM by seed priming and foliar application method. After ALA treatment, the plants were subjected to cold stress at 10 ± 0.5 °C for 72 h. Cold stress significantly decreased plant growth, relative water content, chlorophyll, photosynthesis and stomatal conductivity, while it increased electrolyte leakage and proline accumulation. ALA at low concentrations (0.3 mM protected plants against cold stress, enhancing plant height, shoot fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductivity as well as relative water content. Increase of electrolyte leakage was also prevented by 0.6 mM ALA. ALA also enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activities at 0.6 mM concentration especially under cold stress conditions. Proline increased with increasing in ALA concentration under both temperature conditions. In most cases, application of ALA by spraying method was better than seed priming method. Results showed that ALA, which is considered as an endogenous plant growth regulator, can be used effectively to protect soybean plants from the damaging effects of cold stress, by enhancing the activity of antioxidative enzymes, protecting cell membrane against reactive oxygen species and finally by promoting chlorophyll synthesis, leading to more intense photosynthesis and more carbon fixation, without any adverse effect on the plant growth.

  7. The Effect of Hydroxylated Fullerene Nanoparticles on Antioxidant Defense System in Brain Ischemia Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: According to the previous findings, brain ischemia attenuates the brain antioxidant defense system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxylated fullerene nanoparticle on antioxidant defense system in ischemic brain rat. Methods: In this Experimental study, rats were divided into three groups (n=6 in each group: sham, ischemic control, and ischemic treatment group. Brain ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion for 90 minutes followed by a 24-hour reperfusion. Ischemic treatment animals received fullerene nanoparticles intraperitoneally at a dose of 10mg/kg immediately after the end of MCA occlusion. After 24-h reperfusion period, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione activities were assessed by biochemical methods. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The mean glutathione level and catalase and SOD activities in sham animals were 1±0.18%, 1±0.20%, and 1±0.04%, respectively. Induction of brain ischemia decreased the value of glutathione level and catalase and SOD activities in control ischemic rats and their values were obtained to be 0.55±0.09%, 0.44±0.05%, and 0.86±0.02%, respectively. Fullerene significantly increased the activities of catalase (0.93±0.29% and SOD (1.33±0.22% in ischemic treatment group compared to ischemic control rats, but did not change the glutathione level (0.52±0.25%. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that treatment with fullerene nanoparticles improves the brain antioxidant defense system, which is weakened during brain ischemia, through increasing catalase and SOD activities.

  8. Differential responses of the antioxidant system of ametryn and clomazone tolerant bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Priscila Peters

    Full Text Available The herbicides ametryn and clomazone are widely used in sugarcane cultivation, and following microbial degradation are considered as soil and water contaminants. The exposure of microorganisms to pesticides can result in oxidative damage due to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This study investigated the response of the antioxidant systems of two bacterial strains tolerant to the herbicides ametryn and clomazone. Bacteria were isolated from soil with a long history of ametryn and clomazone application. Comparative analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CC07 is phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and strain 4C07 to P. fulva. The two bacterial strains were grown for 14 h in the presence of separate and combined herbicides. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content (GSH and antioxidant enzymes activities were evaluated. The overall results indicated that strain 4C07 formed an efficient mechanism to maintain the cellular redox balance by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS and subsequently scavenging ROS in the presence of the herbicides. The growth of bacterium strain 4C07 was inhibited in the presence of clomazone alone, or in combination with ametryn, but increased glutathione reductase (GR and glutathione S-transferase (GST activities, and a higher GSH concentration were detected. Meanwhile, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and GST activities and a lower concentration of GSH were detected in the bacterium strain CC07, which was able to achieve better growth in the presence of the herbicides. The results suggest that the two bacterial strains tolerate the ametryn and clomazone herbicides with distinctly different responses of the antioxidant systems.

  9. Differential Responses of the Antioxidant System of Ametryn and Clomazone Tolerant Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leila Priscila; Carvalho, Giselle; Martins, Paula Fabiane; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Vilhena, Milca Bartz; Pileggi, Marcos; Azevedo, Ricardo Antunes

    2014-01-01

    The herbicides ametryn and clomazone are widely used in sugarcane cultivation, and following microbial degradation are considered as soil and water contaminants. The exposure of microorganisms to pesticides can result in oxidative damage due to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the response of the antioxidant systems of two bacterial strains tolerant to the herbicides ametryn and clomazone. Bacteria were isolated from soil with a long history of ametryn and clomazone application. Comparative analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain CC07 is phylogenetically related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and strain 4C07 to P. fulva. The two bacterial strains were grown for 14 h in the presence of separate and combined herbicides. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes activities were evaluated. The overall results indicated that strain 4C07 formed an efficient mechanism to maintain the cellular redox balance by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequently scavenging ROS in the presence of the herbicides. The growth of bacterium strain 4C07 was inhibited in the presence of clomazone alone, or in combination with ametryn, but increased glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities, and a higher GSH concentration were detected. Meanwhile, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and GST activities and a lower concentration of GSH were detected in the bacterium strain CC07, which was able to achieve better growth in the presence of the herbicides. The results suggest that the two bacterial strains tolerate the ametryn and clomazone herbicides with distinctly different responses of the antioxidant systems. PMID:25380132

  10. Antioxidant and chelating capacity of Maillard reaction products in amino acid-sugar model systems: applications for food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca-Navarro, Blanca A; Ávila-Villa, Luz A; González-Córdova, Aarón F; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Maillard reaction products (MRP) have gained increasing interest owing to their both positive and negative effects on human health. Aqueous amino acid-sugar model systems were studied in order to evaluate the antioxidant and chelating activity of MRP under conditions similar to those of food processing. Amino acids (cysteine, glycine, isoleucine and lysine) combined with different sugars (fructose or glucose) were heated to 100 and 130 °C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated via ABTS and DPPH free radical scavenging assays, in addition to Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ ion chelating capacity. In the ABTS assay, the cysteine-fructose model system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 7.05 µmol mL -1 (130 °C, 60 min), expressed in Trolox equivalents. In the DPPH assay, the cysteine-glucose system presented the highest antioxidant activity at 3.79 µmol mL -1 (100 °C, 90 min). The maximum rate of chelation of Fe 2+ and Cu 2+ was 96.31 and 59.44% respectively in the lysine-fructose and cysteine-glucose systems (100 °C, 30 min). The model systems presented antioxidant and chelating activity under the analyzed temperatures and heating times, which are similar to the processing conditions of some foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG, which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I and glyoxalase II (Gly II, and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III, has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated

  12. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md. Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  13. Peculiarities of antioxidant system and iron metabolism in organism during development of tumor resistance to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhun, V F; Lozovska, Y V; Burlaka, A P; Lukyanova, N Y; Todor, I N; Naleskina, L A

    2014-09-01

    To study in vivo the peculiarities of changes of iron metabolism and antioxidant system in dynamics of growth of Guerin carcinoma with different sensitivity to cisplatin. In order to evaluate the content of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) in tumor homogenates and blood serum of rats with cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant Guerin carcinoma the immunoenzyme method was used. The evaluation of ceruloplasmin activity, content of "free iron" complexes, superoxide and NO-generating acti-vity of NADPH-oxidase and iNOS activity in neutrophils, blood serum and tumor homogenates was measured by EPR-spectro-scopy. Maximal accumulation of MT-1 in blood serum and tumor, more pronounced in resistant strain, at the border of latent and exponential phase of growth has been shown that is the evidence of protective role of this protein in the respect to the generation of free radical compounds. It has been determined that in animals with cisplatin-resistant strain of Guerin carcinoma, increase of "free iron" complexes is more apparent both on the level of tumor and organism on the background on increase of CP/TR ratio that is the consequence of organism antioxidant protection system disorder. Mentioned changes in metabolism of iron with its accumulation in tumor and further reprogramming of mitochondria metabolism and activity of NADPH-oxidase for non-transformed cells are favorable conditions for the formation of oxidative phenotype of tumor.

  14. Response of antioxidant system to drought stress and re-watering in Alfalfa during branching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tina, R. R.; Shan, X. R.; Wang, Y.; Guo, S. Y.; Mao, B.; Wang, W.; Wu, H. Y.; Zhao, T. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aimed to reveal the response mechanism of active oxygen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities in Alfalfa under drought stress and re-watering, and the pot experiment was used, to explore the changes of H2O2, O2·-, electrolyte leakage conductivity and MDA, SOD, POD, CAT activity in Golden Empress (tolerant cultivar) and Sanditi (non-tolerant cultivar) under drought stress and re-watering during branching stage. Three water gradients were set up: CK (Maximum field capacity of 75%±5%), T1 (Maximum field capacity of 45%±5%), T2 (Maximum field capacity of 35%±5%) to compare, and the drought rehydration was also studied. Results: the results indicated that H2O2 content, O2·-production rate, relative conductivity and MDA content were higher than the control, and the increase extent of Golden Empress was higher than the Sanditi under drought stress and after re-watering the recovery capability of Golden Empress was also higher than the Sanditi. After 7 days of re-watering, all indexes were restored to the control level, indicating that the re-watering have compensation effect after drought. After drought stress, to weaken the damage of active oxygen Golden Empress was mainly by increasing the activity of POD and SOD, but Sanditi was mainly through the POD and CAT activity increased to effectively remove ROS. Under drought stress, active oxygen in leaves of Alfalfa increased, and thus the membrane system was damaged which lead to the increase of MDA content and relative electric conductivity. Plants play a defensive role by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and scavenging reactive oxygen species. After re-watering, the stress effect was reduced, and the physiological indexes of plants were restored to the control level. In general, tolerant cultivar has stronger antioxidant properties under drought and re-watering.

  15. Multisensor system based on bisphthalocyanine nanowires for the detection of antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay Martín, Mónica; Saja, José Antonio de; Muñoz, Raquel; Rodríguez-Méndez, María Luz

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sensors based on LnPc 2 nanowires can be prepared by electrodeposition (EDP). ► An electronic tongue can be constructed by combining EDP sensors with a data treatment system. ► The e-tongue is able to discriminate antioxidants of interest in the food industry. ► The fast preparation and excellent performance of these nanostructured sensors is an advantage. - Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition has been used to prepare thin films based on nanowires of three lanthanoid bisphthalocyaninates (including dysprosium, gadolinium and lutetium). Nanowires of similar structural characteristics have been obtained for the three compounds by tuning the electrophoretic conditions according to the redox properties of each phthalocyanine. The three electrodes have been used to form an array of sensors that has been employed to discriminate phenolic antioxidants of interest in the food industry including caffeic, gallic, vanillic and ferulic acids. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of the electrochemical signals has allowed a clear discrimination of the four phenols analyzed according to the number of phenolic groups attached to the structure (monophenol, diphenol or triphenol). The PCA loading plots indicate that the three electrodes bring complementary information facilitating the discrimination of the studied solutions. In addition, good correlations between the intensity of the redox processes observed in the electrodes and the concentration of phenolic compounds have been found with detection limits in the range of 10 −5 –10 −6 mol L −1 and good reproducibility. The fast preparation of these nanowires based films and their excellent performance offer a new sensing platform for the detection of antioxidants in a fast, reliable way.

  16. Concomitant ingestion of lactic acid bacteria and black tea synergistically enhances flavonoid bioavailability and attenuates d-galactose-induced oxidative stress in mice via modulating glutathione antioxidant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-12-01

    Black tea (BT) has been positively linked to improved redox status, while its efficacy is limited due to the low bioavailability of BT flavonoids. In addition to the direct antioxidant activity, flavonoids regulate redox balance via inducing endogenous antioxidants, particularly glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent antioxidant enzymes. This work first examined the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and BT alone or in combination on flavonoid bioavailability and metabolism; next, the effect of LAB-fermented BT diet in attenuating oxidative stress in mice and the underlying mechanisms were studied. Phenolic profiles of plasma, urine and feces from healthy mice consuming plain yogurt, BT milk (BTM) or BT yogurt (BTY) were acquired using LC-MS/MS. Plasma antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation level, content of nonprotein thiols and expression of GSH-related antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 were examined in d-galactose-treated mice. Total flavonoid content in plasma following a single dose of BTY attained 0.657 μmol/l, increased by 50% compared with the BTM group. Increased excretion of phenolic metabolite and hippuric acid in urine and feces indicated enhanced metabolism of flavonoids in BTY-fed mice. In the second study, 8-week concomitant LAB-BT treatment of oxidatively stressed mice effectively restored plasma antioxidant capacity and GSH levels, and mitigated lipid peroxidation, which were associated with significant induction of GSH-dependent antioxidant enzymes and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Our results demonstrated the effect of LAB fermentation in enhancing BT flavonoid bioavailability in vivo. The synergistic antioxidant efficacy of LAB-BT diet implied its therapeutic potential in enhancing antioxidant defenses and protecting organisms from oxidative damage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Endogenous Prospect Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zank, Horst

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This paper provides an axiomatization of a new specification of cumulative prospect theory, termed endogenous prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  18. Are endogenous feline leukemia viruses really endogenous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H; Jarrett, O; Hosie, M J; Willett, B J

    2011-10-15

    Full length endogenous feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviruses exist within the genomes of many breeds of domestic cat raising the possibility that they may also exist in a transmissible exogenous form. Such viruses would share receptor usage with the recombinant FeLV-B subgroup, a viral subgroup that arises in vivo by recombination between exogenous subgroup A virus (FeLV-A) and endogenous FeLV. Accordingly, all isolates of FeLV-B made to date have contained a "helper" FeLV-A, consistent with their recombinatorial origin. In order to assess whether endogenous viruses are transmitted between cats, we examined primary isolates of FeLV for which the viral subgroup had been determined for the presence of a subgroup B virus that lacked an FeLV-A. Here we describe the identification of two primary field isolates of FeLV (2518 and 4314) that appeared to contain subgroup B virus only by classical interference assays, raising the possibility of between-host transmission of endogenous FeLV. Sequencing of the env gene and U3 region of the 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) confirmed that both viral genomes contained endogenous viral env genes. However the viral 3' LTRs appeared exogenous in origin with a putative 3' recombination breakpoint residing at the 3' end of the env gene. Further, the FeLV-2518 virions also co-packaged a truncated FeLV-A genome containing a defective env gene, termed FeLV-2518(A) whilst no helper subgroup A viral genome was detected in virions of FeLV-4314. The acquisition of an exogenous LTR by the endogenous FeLV in 4314 may have allowed a recombinant FeLV variant to outgrow an exogenous FeLV-A virus that was presumably present during first infection. Given time, a similar evolution may also occur within the 2518 isolate. The data suggest that endogenous FeLVs may be mobilised by acquisition of exogenous LTRs yielding novel viruses that type biologically as FeLV-B. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Endogenous Locus Reporter Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaping; Hermes, Jeffrey; Li, Jing; Tudor, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Reporter gene assays are widely used in high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify compounds that modulate gene expression. Traditionally a reporter gene assay is built by cloning an endogenous promoter sequence or synthetic response elements in the regulatory region of a reporter gene to monitor transcriptional activity of a specific biological process (exogenous reporter assay). In contrast, an endogenous locus reporter has a reporter gene inserted in the endogenous gene locus that allows the reporter gene to be expressed under the control of the same regulatory elements as the endogenous gene, thus more accurately reflecting the changes seen in the regulation of the actual gene. In this chapter, we introduce some of the considerations behind building a reporter gene assay for high-throughput compound screening and describe the methods we have utilized to establish 1536-well format endogenous locus reporter and exogenous reporter assays for the screening of compounds that modulate Myc pathway activity.

  20. Production of endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinarello, C A

    1979-01-01

    The production and release of endogenous pyrogen by the host is the first step in the pathogenesis of fever. Endogenous pyrogen is a low-molecular-weight protein released from phagocytic leukocytes in response to several substances of diverse nature. Some of these agents stimulate production of endogenous pyrogen because they are toxic; others act as antigens and interact with either antibody or sensitized lymphocytes in order to induce its production. Some tumors of macrophage origin produce the molecule spontaneously. Whatever the mechanism involved, endogenous pyrogen is synthesized following transcription of new DNA and translation of mRNA into new protein. Once synthesis is completed, the molecule is released without significant intracellular storage. Recent evidence suggests that following release, molecular aggregates form which are biologically active. In its monomer form, endogenous pyrogen is a potent fever-producing substance and mediates fever by its action on the thermoregulatory center.

  1. Endogenous hydrogen peroxide production in the epithelium of the developing embryonic lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Subhasree; Rajakaruna, Suren; Dickinson, Bryan C; Chang, Christopher J; Menko, A Sue

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an endogenously produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) present in a variety of mammalian systems. This particular ROS can play dichotomous roles, being beneficial in some cases and deleterious in others, which reflects the level and location of H2O2 production. While much is known about the redox regulation of ROS by antioxidant and repair systems in the lens, little is known about the endogenous production of H2O2 in embryonic lens tissue or the physiologic relevance of endogenous H2O2 to lens development. This gap in knowledge exists primarily from a lack of reagents that can specifically detect endogenous H2O2 in the intact lens. Here, using a recently developed chemoselective fluorescent boronate probe, peroxyfluor-6 acetoxymethyl ester (PF6-AM), which selectively detects H2O2 over related ROS, we examined the endogenous H2O2 signals in the embryonic lens. Embryonic day 10 chick whole lenses in ex vivo organ culture and lens epithelial cells in primary culture were loaded with the H2O2 probe PF6-AM. To determine the relationship between localization of mitochondria with active membrane potential and the region of H2O2 production in the lens, cells were exposed to the mitochondrial probe MitoTracker Red CMXRos together with PF6-AM. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), a flavin inhibitor that blocks generation of intracellular ROS production, was used to confirm that the signal from PF6-AM was due to endogenous ROS production. All imaging was performed by live confocal microscopy. PF6-AM detected endogenous H2O2 in lens epithelial cells in whole lenses in ex vivo culture and in lens epithelial cells grown in primary culture. No endogenous H2O2 signal could be detected in differentiating lens fiber cells with this probe. Treatment with DPI markedly attenuated the fluorescence signal from the peroxide-specific probe PF6-AM in the lens epithelium, suggesting that basal generation of ROS occurs in this region. The lens epithelial cells producing an

  2. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M.M.; Alsahli A.A.; Al-Ghamdi A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gua...

  3. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization.

  4. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization. PMID:26251592

  5. Effect of Juglone foliar injection on Superoxide dismutases antioxidant system in two Musa spp cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva Mora

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases in higher plants cause formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS which acts like mediator on tolerance to oxidative stress. Several phytotoxins produced by plant pathogen fungus induce ROS by different mechanisms which damage plant cell tissues. This paper was focused to determine juglone impact (Psedocercospora fijiensis toxin on Superoxide dismutases antioxidant system in Fougamou (ABB and Grande naine (AAA by native Poliacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE 10%. Samples of proteins were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 48h after juglone injection on both Musa cultivar and 65 μl of them (120 μg of total protein were applied to gels. Gels were incubated in staining solution (25 mg.ml-1 de Nitrobluetetrazolium (NTB and 0.1 mg.ml-1 de riboflavin and were exposured to fluorescent light. In both cultivars it was observed changes in expression patterns of superoxide dismutases between injected and not injected plants. On Grande naine (AAA 4 h after injection an isoform of SOD disappeared respect to control. Nevertheless on Fougamou (ABB, 2 h after injection it was activated a new isoform which was observed until 48 h. In the present work it was observed a correspondence between protein patterns expression of SOD isoforms and tolerance to oxidative stress caused by the effect of juglone on Musa spp. Key words: antioxidant enzymes, Mycosphaerella fijiensis,oxidative stress, toxins

  6. Brassinosteroids Denigrate the Seasonal Stress through Antioxidant Defense System in Seedlings of Brassica juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work has been undertaken to study the effect of exogenously application of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL on soluble protein, proline contents and antioxidant defense system of Brassica juncea L. RLM 619 under the influence of seasonal stress. It was observed that 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL treatment enhance the soluble protein, dry weight and shoot length of B. juncea seedlings under seasonal stress. If seeds treated with the different concentrations (10-6, 10-8 and 10-10 M of 24-epiBL and 28-homoBL revealed batter growth, protein and proline contents as compare to untreated seedlings. Similarly the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, APOX, DHAR, PPO and Auxinases were enhanced by the application of different concentration of both brassinosteroids, whereas MDA content was decrease with both brassinosteroids treatments. Then we have concluded that both brassinolides have the seasonal stress ameliorative properties in B. juncea seedlings grown under the influence of seasonal stress. This study culminates to the role of brassinolides as an anti-stress property for protection of plant from various types of stresses.

  7. Antioxidant and Ex Vivo Immune System Regulatory Properties of Boswellia serrata Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Beghelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Boswellia serrata (BS is an important traditional medicinal plant that currently represents an interesting topic for pharmaceutical research since it possesses several pharmacological properties (e.g., anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antitumour. The safety and versatility of this dietary supplement should allow for its use in numerous pathological conditions; however the quality of the extracts needs to be standardized to increase the clinical success rate resulting from its use. In the present study, different commercially available B. serrata extracts were employed to compare their AKBA content and in vitro antioxidant power. Furthermore, their ability to modulate the immune system regulatory properties was investigated. Our results showed that the AKBA content varied from 3.83±0.10 to 0.03±0.004%, with one sample in which it was not detectable. The highest antioxidant power and phenolic content were shown by the same extract, which also exhibited the highest AKBA concentration. Finally, the BS extracts showed the ability to influence the regulatory and effector T-cell compartments. Our results suggest that frankincense should be further investigated for its promising potentiality to modulate not only inflammation/oxidative stress but also immune dysregulation, but attention should be paid to the composition of the commercial extracts.

  8. Responses of Phospholipase D and Antioxidant System to Mechanical Wounding in Postharvest Banana Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Banana fruits are susceptible to mechanical damage. The present study was to investigate the responses of phospholipase D (PLD and antioxidant system to mechanical wounding in postharvest banana fruits. During 16 d storage at 25°C and 90% relative humidity, PLD activity in wounded fruits was significantly higher than that in control (without artificial wounding fruits. The higher value of PLD mRNA was found in wounded fruits than in control. PLD mRNA expression reached the highest peak on day 4 in both groups, but it was 2.67 times in wounded fruits compared to control at that time, indicating that PLD gene expression was activated in response to wounding stress. In response to wounding stress, the higher lipoxygenase (LOX activity was observed and malondialdehyde (MDA production was accelerated. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX in wounded fruits were significantly higher than those in control. The concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS such as superoxide anion (O2•- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in fruits increased under mechanical wounding. The above results provided a basis for further investigating the mechanism of postharvest banana fruits adapting to environmental stress.

  9. Comparison of an antioxidant system in tolerant and susceptible wheat seedlings in response to salt stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feki, K.; Tounsi, S.; Brini, F.

    2017-07-01

    It has been demonstrated previously that the physiological and molecular analysis of seedlings of the tolerant (Om Rabia3) and susceptible (Mahmoudi) Tunisian wheat genotypes were different at short and long-term response to salinity. In this study, we examined the antioxidant defence system in seedlings of these two cultivars at short-term response to different NaCl concentrations. The findings showed that high salinity tolerance of cv. Om Rabia3, as manifested by lower decrease in its dry biomass, was associated with lower malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents, lower accumulation of the superoxide (O2⎯) in the roots and the shoots, and also lower decrease in ascorbate content than those in cv. Mahmoudi. Moreover, the expression of some genes coding for antioxidant enzymes such as the catalase, the superoxide dismutase and the peroxidase were enhanced by NaCl stress especially in the salt-tolerant cultivar. In parallel, their activities were increased in response to the same condition of stress and especially in the cv. Om Rabia3. Taken together, these data suggested that the capacity to limit oxidative damage is important for NaCl tolerance of durum wheat.

  10. Thyroid Hormones and Antioxidant Systems: Focus on Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mancini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In previous works we demonstrated an inverse correlation between plasma Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 and thyroid hormones; in fact, CoQ10 levels in hyperthyroid patients were found among the lowest detected in human diseases. On the contrary, CoQ10 is elevated in hypothyroid subjects, also in subclinical conditions, suggesting the usefulness of this index in assessing metabolic status in thyroid disorders. A Low-T3 syndrome is a condition observed in several chronic diseases: it is considered an adaptation mechanism, where there is a reduction in pro-hormone T4 conversion. Low T3-Syndrome is not usually considered to be corrected with replacement therapy. We review the role of thyroid hormones in regulation of antioxidant systems, also presenting data on total antioxidant capacity and Coenzyme Q10. Published studies suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the clinical course of different heart diseases; our data could support the rationale of replacement therapy in low-T3 conditions.

  11. Modulation of Fibrosis in Systemic Sclerosis by Nitric Oxide and Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Dooley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma: SSc is a multisystem, connective tissue disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular dysfunction, autoimmunity, and enhanced fibroblast activity resulting in fibrosis of the skin, heart, and lungs, and ultimately internal organ failure, and death. One of the most important and early modulators of disease activity is thought to be oxidative stress. Evidence suggests that the free radical nitric oxide (NO, a key mediator of oxidative stress, can profoundly influence the early microvasculopathy, and possibly the ensuing fibrogenic response. Animal models and human studies have also identified dietary antioxidants, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, to function as a protective system against oxidative stress and fibrosis. Hence, targeting EGCG may prove a possible candidate for therapeutic treatment aimed at reducing both oxidant stress and the fibrotic effects associated with SSc.

  12. Diabetic nephropathy and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavafi, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress has crucial role in pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Despite satisfactory results from antioxidant therapy in rodent, antioxidant therapy showed conflicting results in combat with DN in diabetic patients. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar,Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. Treatment of DN in human are insufficient with rennin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, so additional agent ought to combine with this management. Meanwhile based on DN pathogenesis and evidences in experimental and human researches, the antioxidants are the best candidate. New multi-property antioxidants may be improved human DN that show high power antioxidant capacity, long half-life time, high permeability to mitochondrion, improve body antioxidants enzymes activity and anti-inflammatory effects. Based on this review and our studies on diabetic rats, rosmarinic acid a multi-property antioxidant may be useful in DN patients, but of course, needs to be proven in clinical trials studies.

  13. Fate of the synergistic antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin, and tocopherol in mayonnaise : Partition of ascorbic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, A.S.; Jacobsen, Charlotte Munch

    1996-01-01

    The distribution of ascorbic acid between the lipid and aqueous phase was investigated in mayonnaises enriched with fish oil containing a synergistic antioxidant mixture of ascorbic acid, lecithin and gamma-tocopherol, i.e., the A/L/T system (Loliger and Saucy 1989). The ascorbic acid was found...... to be located in the aqueous phase indicating that the A/L/T system broke down in mayonnaises. Based on the hypothesis that synergistic antioxidant action between ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol requires that the three components are in close assembly, the results offer an explanation as to why the A...

  14. Effects of Food Based Yeast on Oxidant-Antioxidant Systems in Rats fed by High Cholesterol Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Savaş, Hasan Basri; Yüksel, Özlem; Şanlıdere Aloğlu, Hatice; Öner, Zübeyde; Demir Özer, Ezgi; Gültekin, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    In living organisms, oxidant and antioxidant systems are in a balance. In the present study, our aim was to study the effects of Cryptococcus humicola, which is a food based yeast whose cholesterol lowering activity is under investigation, on oxidant and antioxidant systems.31 adult male, Wistar albino rats weighing 200-250 gr were included in the study. Rats were divided into four groups based on their diets. Group 1(Control Group) was fed a normal diet, Group 2 was fed a high cholesterol di...

  15. Skin protection against UV light by dietary antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-García, Elisabet

    2014-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the concept of additional endogenous photoprotection by dietary antioxidants. A number of efficient micronutrients are capable of contributing to the prevention of UV damage in humans. These compounds protect molecular targets by scavenging reactive oxygen species, including excited singlet oxygen and triplet state molecules, and also modulate stress-dependent signaling and/or suppress cellular and tissue responses like inflammation. Micronutrients present in the diet such as carotenoids, vitamins E and C, and polyphenols contribute to antioxidant defense and may also contribute to endogenous photoprotection. This review summarizes the literature concerning the use of dietary antioxidants as systemic photoprotective agents towards skin damage induced by UVA and UVB. Intervention studies in humans with carotenoid-rich diets have shown photoprotection. Interestingly, rather long treatment periods (a minimum of 10 weeks) were required to achieve this effect. Likewise, dietary carotenoids exert their protective antioxidant function in several in vitro and in vivo studies when present at sufficiently high concentration. A combination of vitamins E and C protects the skin against UV damage. It is suggested that daily consumption of dietary polyphenols may provide efficient protection against the harmful effects of solar UV radiation in humans. Furthermore, the use of these micronutrients in combination may provide an effective strategy for protecting human skin from damage by UV exposure.

  16. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit extracts in an oil model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto-Obara, T.R.; Pirce, F.; Scheuermann, E.; Spoto, M.H.F.; Vieira, T.M.F.S.

    2017-01-01

    An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz.) fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v) ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g−1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg−1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg−1 oil) in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil. [es

  17. Nanocarriers for Delivery of Antioxidants on the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Vinardell

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin is protected from the harmful effects of free radicals by the presence of an endogenous antioxidant system. However, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV radiation, there is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants, leading to oxidative stress and photoaging of the skin. It has been described that free radicals and other reactive species can cause severe damage to cells and cell components of the skin, which results in skin aging and cancer. To prevent these actions on skin, the use of topical antioxidant supplementation is a strategy used in the cosmetics industry and these antioxidants act on quenching free radicals. There are many studies that demonstrated the antioxidant activity of many phytochemicals or bioactive compounds by free radical scavenging. However, many bioactive substances are unstable when exposed to light or lose activity during storage. The potential sensitivity of these substances to light exposure is of importance in cosmetic formulations applied to skin because photo-degradation might occur, reducing their activity. One strategy to reduce this effect on the skin is the preparation of different types of nanomaterials that allow the encapsulation of the antioxidant substances. Another problem related to some antioxidants is their inefficient percutaneous penetration, which limits the amount of the active ingredient able to reach the site of action in viable epidermis and dermis. In this sense, the encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles could enhance the permeation of these substances. Nanocarriers offers several advantages over conventional passive delivery, such as increased surface area, higher solubility, improved stability, controlled release, reduced skin irritancy, and protection from degradation. The different nanocarrier systems used in cosmetics include nanolipid delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC, nanoemulsions (NEs, nanoparticles (NP

  18. Effects of geographical origin, variety and farming system on the chemical markers and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Brazilian purple grape juices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margraf, Tiago; Santos, Érica Neulyana Taborda; Andrade, de Eriel Forville; Ruth, van Saskia M.; Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of farming system, geographical origin, and grape variety on the in vitro antioxidant capacity, some physicochemical properties and chemical composition were investigated. Major and minor phenolic compounds, reducing and antioxidant assays using chemical and biological systems were

  19. Building up analgesia in humans via the endogenous μ-opioid system by combining placebo and active tDCS: a preliminary report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos F DosSantos

    Full Text Available Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS is a method of non-invasive brain stimulation that has been frequently used in experimental and clinical pain studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying tDCS-mediated pain control, and most important its placebo component, are not completely established. In this pilot study, we investigated in vivo the involvement of the endogenous μ-opioid system in the global tDCS-analgesia experience. Nine healthy volunteers went through positron emission tomography (PET scans with [11C]carfentanil, a selective μ-opioid receptor (MOR radiotracer, to measure the central MOR activity during tDCS in vivo (non-displaceable binding potential, BPND--one of the main analgesic mechanisms in the brain. Placebo and real anodal primary motor cortex (M1/2mA tDCS were delivered sequentially for 20 minutes each during the PET scan. The initial placebo tDCS phase induced a decrease in MOR BPND in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG, precuneus, and thalamus, indicating activation of endogenous μ-opioid neurotransmission, even before the active tDCS. The subsequent real tDCS also induced MOR activation in the PAG and precuneus, which were positively correlated to the changes observed with placebo tDCS. Nonetheless, real tDCS had an additional MOR activation in the left prefrontal cortex. Although significant changes in the MOR BPND occurred with both placebo and real tDCS, significant analgesic effects, measured by improvements in the heat and cold pain thresholds, were only observed after real tDCS, not the placebo tDCS. This study gives preliminary evidence that the analgesic effects reported with M1-tDCS, can be in part related to the recruitment of the same endogenous MOR mechanisms induced by placebo, and that such effects can be purposely optimized by real tDCS.

  20. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  1. The development and application of a multiple gene co-silencing system using endogenous URA3 as a reporter gene in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashuai Mu

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms; however, molecular genetics research on this species has been limited due to a lack of reliable reverse genetic tools. In this study, the endogenous orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene (URA3 was cloned as a silencing reporter, and four gene-silencing methods using hairpin, sense, antisense, and dual promoter constructs, were introduced into G. lucidum through a simple electroporation procedure. A comparison and evaluation of silencing efficiency demonstrated that all of the four methods differentially suppressed the expression of URA3. Our data unequivocally indicate that the dual promoter silencing vector yields the highest rate of URA3 silencing compared with other vectors (up to 81.9%. To highlight the advantages of the dual promoter system, we constructed a co-silencing system based on the dual promoter method and succeeded in co-silencing URA3 and laccase in G. lucidum. The reduction of the mRNA levels of the two genes were correlated. Thus, the screening efficiency for RNAi knockdown of multiple genes may be improved by the co-silencing of an endogenous reporter gene. The molecular tools developed in this study should facilitate the isolation of genes and the characterization of the functions of multiple genes in this pharmaceutically important species, and these tools should be highly useful for the study of other basidiomycetes.

  2. Endogenous Pyrogen Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the physiology of endogenous pyrogen (EP), the fever-producing factor of cellular origin. Included are: its hormone-like role, its molecular nature, bioassay procedures, cellular production and mechanisms of EP action. (SA)

  3. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Y; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly S; Quintero-Lira, Aurora; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Cervantes-Elizarrarás, Alicia; Güemes-Vera, Norma; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-07-21

    Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X₁: 80%-90%) and extraction time (X₂: 10-15 min), and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry weight basis (dw); 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol), ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry.

  4. Endogenous Money, Output and Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes to quantify the macroeconometric relationships among the variables broad money, lending by banks, price, and output in India using simultaneous equations system keeping in view the issue of endogeneity.

  5. Comparison of influence of carmustine and new proline analog of nitrosourea on antioxidant system in breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz-Kranc, Anna; Miltyk, Wojciech; Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    The high toxicity and low selectivity of carmustine restrict its application in anticancer therapy. Therefore, proline analogs of nitrosourea have been synthesized to obtain compounds whose action on neoplastic cells is characterized by higher selectivity. The present studies have aimed at examining the influence of carmustine and a new proline analog of nitrosourea on the redox system of fibroblasts and breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Carmustine and the proline analog of nitrosourea caused an increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration both in fibroblasts and MCF-7 cells. Moreover, administration of carmustine and the new analog of nitrosourea caused a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Observed changes in the antioxidant system correlated with an increase in concentration of dityrosine, as well as a decrease in tryptophan concentration. Changes in the antioxidant system were also accompanied by intensification of the lipid peroxidation process. In conclusion, carmustine and proline analog of nitrosourea produce similar changes in the antioxidant system in normal and cancer cells and are responsible for oxidative stress.

  6. Stereoselective phytotoxicity of HCH mediated by photosynthetic and antioxidant defense systems in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Zhou, Cong; Zhang, Quan; Qian, Haifeng; Liu, Weiping; Zhao, Meirong

    2013-01-01

    Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) has been used for plant protection and sanitation world-widely, and its isomers have been detected in water, soil, and air as well as in vegetation. As a sink for lipophilic pollutants, vegetation is very important for the degradation and fate of organic contamination; however, little was known about their phytotoxicity and mechanisms of toxic effect. In this study, the stereoselective phototoxicity of four isomers (α, β, γ, and δ) of HCHs mediated by independent as well as interconnecting systems of photosynthesis and enzymatic antioxidant defense system in Arabidopsis thaliana were assessed. Our results revealed that all the HCHs not only stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD), but also inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In photosynthesis system, the photosynthetic efficiency of PSI and PSII were all down regulated. Meanwhile, results from both systems showed that δ-HCH was the most toxic one, while α-HCH the least in Arabidopsis thaliana. For the first time, stereoselective effects of different isomers of HCH in plant were demonstrated. And the results suggest that it requires further research to fully elucidate the environmental toxicity and their mechanisms.

  7. Stereoselective phytotoxicity of HCH mediated by photosynthetic and antioxidant defense systems in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH has been used for plant protection and sanitation world-widely, and its isomers have been detected in water, soil, and air as well as in vegetation. As a sink for lipophilic pollutants, vegetation is very important for the degradation and fate of organic contamination; however, little was known about their phytotoxicity and mechanisms of toxic effect. In this study, the stereoselective phototoxicity of four isomers (α, β, γ, and δ of HCHs mediated by independent as well as interconnecting systems of photosynthesis and enzymatic antioxidant defense system in Arabidopsis thaliana were assessed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results revealed that all the HCHs not only stimulated the activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD, but also inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD. In photosynthesis system, the photosynthetic efficiency of PSI and PSII were all down regulated. Meanwhile, results from both systems showed that δ-HCH was the most toxic one, while α-HCH the least in Arabidopsis thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, stereoselective effects of different isomers of HCH in plant were demonstrated. And the results suggest that it requires further research to fully elucidate the environmental toxicity and their mechanisms.

  8. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (endogenous opioids and receptors), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (pain and analgesia); stress and social status (human studies); tolerance and dependence (opioid mediation of other analgesic responses); learning and memory (stress and social status); eating and drinking (stress-induced analgesia); alcohol and drugs of abuse (emotional responses in opioid-mediated behaviors); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (opioid involvement in stress response regulation); mental illness and mood (tolerance and dependence); seizures and neurologic disorders (learning and memory); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (opiates and conditioned place preferences (CPP)); general activity and locomotion (eating and drinking); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (alcohol and drugs of abuse); cardiovascular responses (opiates and ethanol); respiration and thermoregulation (opiates and THC); and immunological responses (opiates and stimulants). This paper is the thirty-seventh consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2014 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular

  9. Bioinspired near-infrared-excited sensing platform for in vitro antioxidant capacity assay based on upconversion nanoparticles and a dopamine-melanin hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Chuan; Ke, Xuebin; Kang, Ning; Shen, Yuqing; Liu, Yongliang; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Hongjun; Chen, Changqing; Ren, Lei

    2015-02-11

    A novel core-shell structure based on upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles (UCNPs) and dopamine-melanin has been developed for evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of biological fluids. In this approach, dopamine-melanin nanoshells facilely formed on the surface of UCNPs act as ultraefficient quenchers for upconversion fluorescence, contributing to a photoinduced electron-transfer mechanism. This spontaneous oxidative polymerization of the dopamine-induced quenching effect could be effectively prevented by the presence of various antioxidants (typically biothiols, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), and Trolox). The chemical response of the UCNPs@dopamine-melanin hybrid system exhibited great selectivity and sensitivity toward antioxidants relative to other compounds at 100-fold higher concentration. A satisfactory correlation was established between the ratio of the "anti-quenching" fluorescence intensity and the concentration of antioxidants. Besides the response of the upconversion fluorescence signal, a specific evaluation process for antioxidants could be visualized by the color change from colorless to dark gray accompanied by the spontaneous oxidation of dopamine. The near-infrared (NIR)-excited UCNP-based antioxidant capacity assay platform was further used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of cell extracts and human plasma, and satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability, and recovery rate were obtained. This approach features easy preparation, fluorescence/visual dual mode detection, high specificity to antioxidants, and enhanced sensitivity with NIR excitation, showing great potential for screening and quantitative evaluation of antioxidants in biological systems.

  10. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05. The levels of TG (p<0.001 and LDL-C (p<0.001 were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01. Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01. Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05, and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05. The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly and SOD (p<0.001, linearly. Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  11. Prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation: novel and safe strategy based on the modulation of the antioxidant system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón eRodrigo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia following cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The pathogenesis of postoperative AF is multifactorial. Oxidative stress, caused by the unavoidable ischemia-reperfusion event occurring in this setting, is a major contributory factor. ROS-derived effects could result in lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation or DNA oxidation of cardiac tissue, thus leading to functional and structural myocardial remodeling. The vulnerability of myocardial tissue to the oxidative challenge is also dependent on the activity of the antioxidant system. High ROS levels, overwhelming this system, should result in deleterious cellular effects, such as the induction of necrosis, apoptosis or autophagy. Nevertheless, tissue exposure to low to moderate ROS levels could trigger a survival response with a trend to reinforce the antioxidant defense system. Administration of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, known to involve a moderate ROS production, is consistent with a diminished vulnerability to the development of postoperative AF. Accordingly, supplementation of n-3 PUFA successfully reduced the incidence of postoperative AF after coronary bypass grafting. This response is due to an up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, as shown in experimental models. In turn, non-enzymatic antioxidant reinforcement through vitamin C administration prior to cardiac surgery has also reduced the postoperative AF incidence. Therefore, it should be expected that a mixed therapy result in an improvement of the cardioprotective effect by modulating both components of the antioxidant system. We present available evidence supporting the view of an effective prevention of postoperative AF including a 2-step therapeutic strategy: n-3 PUFA followed by vitamin C supplementation to patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. The present study should encourage the design of clinical

  12. Tissue Specificity of a Response of the Pro- and Antioxidative System After Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Zhukova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was undertaken to study the resistance of membrane structures and the level of the intracellular defense systems of the heart, brain, and liver in animals with active versus passive behavior in different periods (days 7 and 30 after resuscitation made 10 minutes following systemic circulatory arrest. All the animals in which systemic circulation had been stopped were survivors with the cession of neurological deficit. The activity of antioxidative defense enzymes, such as cata-lase and superoxide dismutase, in cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic tissues was assayed by spectrophotometry using the conventional methods. The level of stress-induced protein HSP70 was measured in the tissue cytosolic fraction by the Western blotting assay. The activity of Ca2+ transport in the myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum was determined on an Orion EA 940 ionomer («Orion Research», USA having a Ca2+-selective electrode. The findings show a significant tissue specificity in different postresuscitative periods (days 7 and 30 and varying (protective to damaging cardiac, cerebral, and hepatic responses in active and passive animals to hypoxia.

  13. Exploiting endogenous CRISPR-Cas system for multiplex genome editing in Clostridium tyrobutyricum and engineer the strain for high-level butanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zong, Wenming; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Zhong-Tian; Wang, Yi

    2018-03-09

    Although CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1 have been employed as powerful genome engineering tools, heterologous CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1 are often difficult to introduce into bacteria and archaea due to their severe toxicity. Since most prokaryotes harbor native CRISPR-Cas systems, genome engineering can be achieved by harnessing these endogenous immune systems. Here, we report the exploitation of Type I-B CRISPR-Cas of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for genome engineering. In silico CRISPR array analysis and plasmid interference assay revealed that TCA or TCG at the 5'-end of the protospacer was the functional protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) for CRISPR targeting. With a lactose inducible promoter for CRISPR array expression, we significantly decreased the toxicity of CRISPR-Cas and enhanced the transformation efficiency, and successfully deleted spo0A with an editing efficiency of 100%. We further evaluated effects of the spacer length on genome editing efficiency. Interestingly, spacers ≤ 20 nt led to unsuccessful transformation consistently, likely due to severe off-target effects; while a spacer of 30-38 nt is most appropriate to ensure successful transformation and high genome editing efficiency. Moreover, multiplex genome editing for the deletion of spo0A and pyrF was achieved in a single transformation, with an editing efficiency of up to 100%. Finally, with the integration of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE1 or adhE2) to replace cat1 (the key gene responsible for butyrate production and previously could not be deleted), two mutants were created for n-butanol production, with the butanol titer reached historically record high of 26.2 g/L in a batch fermentation. Altogether, our results demonstrated the easy programmability and high efficiency of endogenous CRISPR-Cas. The developed protocol herein has a broader applicability to other prokaryotes containing endogenous CRISPR-Cas systems. C. tyrobutyricum could be employed as an excellent platform to be engineered for biofuel

  14. The Endogenous Exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jun; Mutlu, Esra; Sharma, Vyom; Collins, Leonard; Bodnar, Wanda; Yu, Rui; Lai, Yongquan; Moeller, Benjamin; Lu, Kun; Swenberg, James

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the Exposome, is a compilation of diseases and one’s lifetime exposure to chemicals, whether the exposure comes from environmental, dietary, or occupational exposures; or endogenous chemicals that are formed from normal metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, infections, and other natural metabolic processes such as alteration of the gut microbiome. In this review, we have focused on the Endogenous Exposome, the DNA damage that arises from the production of endogenous electrophilic molecules in our cells. It provides quantitative data on endogenous DNA damage and its relationship to mutagenesis, with emphasis on when exogenous chemical exposures that produce identical DNA adducts to those arising from normal metabolism cause significant increases in total identical DNA adducts. We have utilized stable isotope labeled chemical exposures of animals and cells, so that accurate relationships between endogenous and exogenous exposures can be determined. Advances in mass spectrometry have vastly increased both the sensitivity and accuracy of such studies. Furthermore, we have clear evidence of which sources of exposure drive low dose biology that results in mutations and disease. These data provide much needed information to impact quantitative risk assessments, in the hope of moving towards the use of science, rather than default assumptions. PMID:24767943

  15. Exogenic and endogenic Europa minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard-Casely, H. E.; Brand, H. E. A.; Wilson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) identified a significant `non-ice' component upon the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa. Current explanations invoke both endogenic and exogenic origins for this material. It has long been suggested that magnesium and sodium sulfate minerals could have leached from the rock below a putative ocean (endogenic) 1 and that sulfuric acid hydrate minerals could have been radiologically produced from ionised sulfur originally from Io's volcanoes (exogenic) 2. However, a more recent theory proposes that the `non-ice' component could be radiation damaged NaCl leached from Europa's speculative ocean 3. What if the minerals are actually from combination of both endogenic and exogenic sources? To investigate this possibility we have focused on discovering new minerals that might form in the combination of the latter two cases, that is a mixture of leached sulfates hydrates with radiologically produced sulfuric acid. To this end we have explored a number of solutions in the MgSO4-H2SO4-H2O and Na2SO4-H2SO4-H2O systems, between 80 and 280 K with synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction. We report a number of new materials formed in this these ternary systems. This suggests that it should be considered that the `non-ice' component of the Europa's surface could be a material derived from endogenic and exogenic components. 1 Kargel, J. S. Brine volcanism and the interior structures of asteroids and icy satellites. Icarus 94, 368-390 (1991). 2 Carlson, R. W., Anderson, M. S., Mehlman, R. & Johnson, R. E. Distribution of hydrate on Europa: Further evidence for sulfuric acid hydrate. Icarus 177, 461-471, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.03.026 (2005). 3 Hand, K. P. & Carlson, R. W. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride. Geophysical Research Letters, 2015GL063559, doi:10.1002/2015gl063559 (2015).

  16. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vaccination directed against the human endogenous retrovirus-K envelope protein inhibits tumor growth in a murine model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Benjamin; Fischer, Katrin; Büchner, Sarah M; Wels, Winfried S; Löwer, Roswitha; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2013-01-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) genomes are chromosomally integrated in all cells of an individual. They are normally transcriptionally silenced and transmitted only vertically. Enhanced expression of HERV-K accompanied by the emergence of anti-HERV-K-directed immune responses has been observed in tumor patients and HIV-infected individuals. As HERV-K is usually not expressed and immunological tolerance development is unlikely, it is an appropriate target for the development of immunotherapies. We generated a recombinant vaccinia virus (MVA-HKenv) expressing the HERV-K envelope glycoprotein (ENV), based on the modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), and established an animal model to test its vaccination efficacy. Murine renal carcinoma cells (Renca) were genetically altered to express E. coli beta-galactosidase (RLZ cells) or the HERV-K ENV gene (RLZ-HKenv cells). Intravenous injection of RLZ-HKenv cells into syngenic BALB/c mice led to the formation of pulmonary metastases, which were detectable by X-gal staining. A single vaccination of tumor-bearing mice with MVA-HKenv drastically reduced the number of pulmonary RLZ-HKenv tumor nodules compared to vaccination with wild-type MVA. Prophylactic vaccination of mice with MVA-HKenv precluded the formation of RLZ-HKenv tumor nodules, whereas wild-type MVA-vaccinated animals succumbed to metastasis. Protection from tumor formation correlated with enhanced HERV-K ENV-specific killing activity of splenocytes. These data demonstrate for the first time that HERV-K ENV is a useful target for vaccine development and might offer new treatment opportunities for diverse types of cancer.

  18. Abrus precatorius Leaves: Antioxidant Activity in Food and Biological Systems, pH, and Temperature Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Reddy Palvai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural antioxidants present in foods and other biological materials have attracted considerable interest because of their presumed safety and potential nutritional and therapeutic effects. Antioxidant constituents of plant materials act as radical scavengers and convert the radicals to less reactive species. Abrus precatorius (AP was analyzed for its proximate and phytochemical composition. The leaves were extracted with methanol (ME and analyzed for antioxidant activity by radical scavenging method, reducing power, ferric reducing capacity, and in vitro inhibition of Fenton’s reagent-induced oxidation in oil emulsion and microsomes. In addition, the effect of temperature (100∘C, 15, and 30 min and pH (4.5, 7, and 9 C on the antioxidant activity of ME was investigated. The leaves were rich in total polyphenols, flavonoids, β-carotene, glutathione, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. The ME exhibited varying degree of antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. The AP exhibited more inhibition of oxidation in microsomes (73% than compared to oil emulsion (21%. Heat treatment resulted in an increase of radical scavenging activity of extract (28% to 43%. At pH 4.5 the extract exhibited more antioxidant activity and stability compared to pH 7 and 9. Data indicates that potential exists for the utilization of Abrus precatorius as a natural antioxidant.

  19. Time-dependent changes of levels of endogenous epidermal growth factor in submandibular glands, in kidneys, and in urine in rats during systemic treatment with EGF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter-Jensen, Lars; Jørgensen, P E; Thulesen, J

    1998-01-01

    Exogenous EGF influences the levels of endogenous EGF differently in the submandibular glands (SMG) and the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to examine the time-dependent changes in levels of endogenous EGF during 1-4 weeks of EGF treatment.......Exogenous EGF influences the levels of endogenous EGF differently in the submandibular glands (SMG) and the kidneys. The aim of the present study was to examine the time-dependent changes in levels of endogenous EGF during 1-4 weeks of EGF treatment....

  20. Biosynthesis of 12α-and 13-hydroxylated gibberellins in a cell-free system from Cucurbita maxima endosperm and the identification of new endogenous gibberellins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, T; Hedden, P; Graebe, J E

    1993-03-01

    Gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis in cell-free systems from Cucurbita maxima L. endosperm was reinvestigated using incubation conditions different from those employed in previous work. The metabolism of GA12 yielded GA13, GA43 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 as major products, GA4, GA37, GA39, GA46 and four unidentified compounds as minor products. The intermediates GA15, GA24 and GA25 accumulated at low protein concentrations. The structure of the previously uncharacterised 12α-hydroxyGA43 was inferred from its mass spectrum and by its formation from both GA39 and GA43. Gibberellin A39 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were formed by a soluble 12α-hydroxylase that had not been detected before. Gibberellin A12-aldehyde was metabolised to essentially the same products as GA12 but with less efficiency. A new 13-hydroxylation pathway was found. Gibberellin A53, formed from GA12 by a microsomal oxidase, was converted by soluble 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxidases to GA1 GA23, GA28, GA44, and putative 2β-hydroxyGA28. Minor products were GA19, GA20, GA38 and three unidentified GAs. Microsomal 13-hydroxylation (the formation of GA53) was suppressed by the cofactors for 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes. Reinvestigation of the endogenous GAs confirmed the significance of the new metabolic products. In addition to the endogenous GAs reported by Blechschmidt et al. (1984, Phytochemistry 23, 553-558), GA1, GA8, GA25, GA28, GA36, GA48 and 12α-hydroxyGA43 were identified by full-scan capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Kovats retention indices. Thus both the 12α-hydroxylation and the 13-hydroxylation pathways found in the cell-free system operate also in vivo, giving rise to 12α-hydroxyGA43 and GA1 (or GA8), respectively, as their end products. Evidence for endogenous GA20 and GA24 was also obtained but it was less conclusive due to interference.

  1. Some observations about the endogenous money theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bertocco Giancarlo

    2006-01-01

    The endogenous money theory constitutes the core element of the post-keynesian monetary theory. The first formulation of this theory can be found in the works of Kaldor published in the 1970s. Taking these studies as a starting point, the post-keynesians elaborated two versions of the endogenous money theory which differ in their assumptions about the behaviour of the monetary authorities and the banking system, and hence offer different conclusions about the slope of the money supply curve. ...

  2. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  3. Antioxidant activity stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmann, Gabriela; Ferreira, Gabrielle de Jesus; Geihs, Márcio Alberto; Vargas, Marcelo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces biological damage, principally oxidative stress. • We analyzed oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) of a crab. • The damage was evaluated using biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry. • We verified the occurrence of apoptosis in the brain of the UV-exposed crabs. • Environmental doses of UV can cause oxidative damage to CNS, including apoptosis. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, principally oxidative stress, by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated biochemical impairments related to the oxidative stress induced by UVA, UVB and UVA + UVB (solar simulator-SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain and eyestalk of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated these regions by sampling on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of UV exposure for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical (ACAP), and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays were performed for anti-activated-caspase 3 in the brains. After the first day of exposure, LPO increased in the eyestalks and brains of the UV-exposed animals; ACAP, and CAT, GPX and GST activities also increased in the brains. On the third day, the LPO values in the eyestalk remained high in the UV-exposed groups, while ACAP decreased in the brain and eyestalk and CAT activity remained high in all irradiated groups in both regions. On the fifth day, LPO decreased in the eyestalk and brain of the UV-exposed groups. These results may have been a consequence of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) activity, since CAT activity was high in both regions, ACAP was high in the eyestalks of the SIM group, and GPX activity remained high in the eyestalks of the UVA and UVB groups. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting

  4. Antioxidant activity stimulated by ultraviolet radiation in the nervous system of a crustacean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, Gabriela, E-mail: gabrielahollmann@biof.ufrj.br [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Ferreira, Gabrielle de Jesus, E-mail: gabi_ferreiira@hotmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Biológicas-Fisiologia, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro-UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-590 (Brazil); Geihs, Márcio Alberto, E-mail: geihs@hotmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas-Fisiologia Animal Comparada. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); Vargas, Marcelo Alves, E-mail: biovargas@gmail.com [Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas-Fisiologia Animal Comparada. Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande-FURG, Rio Grande, RS 96201-900 (Brazil); and others

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation produces biological damage, principally oxidative stress. • We analyzed oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) of a crab. • The damage was evaluated using biochemical tests and immunohistochemistry. • We verified the occurrence of apoptosis in the brain of the UV-exposed crabs. • Environmental doses of UV can cause oxidative damage to CNS, including apoptosis. - Abstract: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation can produce biological damage, principally oxidative stress, by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study evaluated biochemical impairments related to the oxidative stress induced by UVA, UVB and UVA + UVB (solar simulator-SIM) in environmental doses, during five consecutive days of exposure, in the brain and eyestalk of the crab Ucides cordatus. We evaluated these regions by sampling on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days of UV exposure for lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant capacity against the peroxyl radical (ACAP), and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays were performed for anti-activated-caspase 3 in the brains. After the first day of exposure, LPO increased in the eyestalks and brains of the UV-exposed animals; ACAP, and CAT, GPX and GST activities also increased in the brains. On the third day, the LPO values in the eyestalk remained high in the UV-exposed groups, while ACAP decreased in the brain and eyestalk and CAT activity remained high in all irradiated groups in both regions. On the fifth day, LPO decreased in the eyestalk and brain of the UV-exposed groups. These results may have been a consequence of the antioxidant defense system (ADS) activity, since CAT activity was high in both regions, ACAP was high in the eyestalks of the SIM group, and GPX activity remained high in the eyestalks of the UVA and UVB groups. Immunohistochemical assays and immunoblotting

  5. Radioprotective action of beta-carotin and vitamin A, C and E complexes at reproductive system and indices of antioxidant system in male rat blood and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereshchako, G.G.; Konoplya, E.F.; Khodosovskaya, A.M.; Rutkovskaya, Zh.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of total irradiation in low dose at the state of rat mail reproductive system, lipid peroxidation processes and antioxidant system in rat blood and liver tissues as well as radioprotective capacity of beta-carotin with vitamin A, C and E complexes were investigated. It was established that injection of this substances to rat's organism one day before irradiation in 1.0 Gy dose led to normalization of spermatogenic cells number, increase of nucleic acids content in testes and significant improvement of antioxidant status of blood and liver tissue. (authors)

  6. Effect of N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine and alpha-Tocopherol Administration on Endogenous Antioxidant Protection of Liver DNA and RNA and plasma Lipid Profile in gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Ashry, O.M.; Kafafy, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study wasundertaken to evaluate the combined antioxidative capacity of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 120 mg/100g b. wt) and alpha tocopherol (10mg/100g b. wt.) injected intra peritoneally one h before irradiation of male rats. Whole body gamma irradiation (2Gy) induced significant elevation in liver DNA and significant drop in liver protein content, while liver RNA showed no significant changes. Triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol elevated significantly after irradiation, whereas no significant changes were observed in total cholesterol, while HDL-cholesterol significantly decreased. Blood and liver glutathione were significantly decreased, whereas plasma MDA was significantly increased. NAC and alpha-tocopherol injection elevated RNA and blood glutathione levels compared to control and depressed total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, as well as MDA in the liver. The combined treatment prior to irradiation decreased DNA, elevated RNA and normalized liver protein content. Triglycerides were decreased after 1 and 3 days and total cholesterol dropped significantly on the 1 st and 7 th days. LDL was ameliorated while HDL was significantly declined then elevated after 7 days. Blood glutathione was normalized while liver glutathione was significantly elevated and MDA was reduced both in liver and plasma. This combined treatment has proven to be recommended to enhance the natural defenses against deleterious effects of oxidative stress

  7. PVA/Dextran hydrogel patches as delivery system of antioxidant astaxanthin: a cardiovascular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, M; Gregnanin, G; Cencetti, C; Di Meo, C; Gueguen, V; Letourneur, D; Meddahi-Pellé, A; Pavon-Djavid, G; Matricardi, P

    2017-12-28

    After myocardial infarction, the heart's mechanical properties and its intrinsic capability to recover are compromised. To improve this recovery, several groups have developed cardiac patches based on different biomaterials strategies. Here, we developed polyvinylalcohol/dextran (PVA/Dex) elastic hydrogel patches, obtained through the freeze thawing (FT) process, with the aim to deliver locally a potent natural antioxidant molecule, astaxanthin, and to assist the heart's response against the generated myofibril stress. Extensive rheological and dynamo-mechanical characterization of the effect of the PVA molecular weight, number of freeze-thawing cycles and Dex addition on the mechanical properties of the resulting hydrogels, were carried out. Hydrogel systems based on PVA 145 kDa and PVA 47 kDa blended with Dex 40 kDa, were chosen as the most promising candidates for this application. In order to improve astaxanthin solubility, an inclusion system using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was prepared. This system was posteriorly loaded within the PVA/Dex hydrogels. PVA145/Dex 1FT and PVA47/Dex 3FT showed the best rheological and mechanical properties when compared to the other studied systems; environmental scanning electron microscope and confocal imaging evidenced a porous structure of the hydrogels allowing astaxanthin release. In vitro cellular behavior was analyzed after 24 h of contact with astaxanthin-loaded hydrogels. In vivo subcutaneous biocompatibility was performed in rats using PVA145/Dex 1FT, as the best compromise between mechanical support and astaxanthin delivery. Finally, ex vivo and in vivo experiments showed good mechanical and compatibility properties of this hydrogel. The obtained results showed that the studied materials have a potential to be used as myocardial patches to assist infarcted heart mechanical function and to reduce oxidative stress by the in situ release of astaxanthin.

  8. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  9. Effect of balneotherapy on the antioxidant system--a controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Tamás; Bariska, János; Vághy, Richárd; Gomez, Roberto; Imre Kovács

    2007-01-01

    Balneotherapy is among the most widely used modalities of physical therapy in countries rich in mineral waters. This trial was intended to ascertain whether balneotherapy (i.e., therapeutic bath in mineral water) has any influence on the antioxidant system and whether there are any differences compared to bathing in tap water. The ten subjects in Group I bathed in alkaline thermal water, Group II used alkaline, chlorine-containing mineral water, whereas Group III bathed in tap water. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde protein and glutathione peroxidase levels were measured at baseline and after concluding the course of balneotherapy. Balneotherapy with either of the two mineral waters reduced the activity of all four enzymes studied. Using tap water, however, had no influence on either catalase or superoxide dismutase activity after one session or glutathione peroxidase levels after a course of ten balneotherapy treatments. Thermal water may have a beneficial effect on the formation of free radicals. The therapeutic efficacy of mineral vs. tap water is different, although bathing in hot water itself reduces enzyme activity.

  10. Eucalyptus tolerance mechanisms to lanthanum and cerium: subcellular distribution, antioxidant system and thiol pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yichang; Zhang, Shirong; Li, Sen; Xu, Xiaoxun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

    2014-12-01

    Guanglin 9 (Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophlla) and Eucalyptus grandis 5 are two eucalyptus species which have been found to grow normally in soils contaminated with lanthanum and cerium, but the tolerance mechanisms are not clear yet. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the tolerance mechanisms of the eucalyptus to lanthanum and cerium. Cell walls stored 45.40-63.44% of the metals under lanthanum or cerium stress. Peroxidase and catalase activities enhanced with increasing soil La or Ce concentrations up to 200 mg kg(-1), while there were no obvious changes in glutathione and ascorbate concentrations. Non-protein thiols concentrations increased with increasing treatment levels up to 200 mg kg(-1), and then decreased. Phytochelatins concentrations continued to increase under La or Ce stress. Therefore, the two eucalyptus species are La and Ce tolerant plants, and the tolerance mechanisms include cell wall deposition, antioxidant system response, and thiol compound synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of lead on tolerance, bioaccumulation, and antioxidative defense system of green algae, Cladophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, De-ju; Shi, Xiao-dong; Li, Hao; Xie, Pan-pan; Zhang, Hui-min; Deng, Juan-wei; Liang, Yue-gan

    2015-02-01

    Effects of various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mg/L) of lead (Pb(2+)) on the growth, bioaccumulation, and antioxidative defense system of green algae, Cladophora, was investigated. Low concentrations of Pb(2+) accelerated Cladophora growth, but concentrations of 10.0 mg/L and above inhibited the growth because of the hinderance to photosynthesis. The total soluble sugar content of Cladophora was affected by Pb(2+) treatment, but the protein content showed no significant changes. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content and peroxidase(POD) activity of Cladophora gradually increased whereas superoxide dismutase(SOD) decreased with Pb(2+) concentrations. Catalase (CAT) activity exhibited no significant changes following Pb(2+) treatment. Pb(2+) accumulated in Cladophora and that the lead content in Cladophora was correlated with POD growth, MDA, and Metallothionein (MT). POD and MT play a role in the survival of Cladophora in Pb-contaminated environments. This study suggests that Cladophora can be a choice organism for the phytoremediation of Pb-polluted coastal areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Garlic Consumption Alters Testicular Histology and Anti-Oxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent fashion. These histological observations and the depletion in endogenous anti-oxidant status associated with the administration of garlic could result in significant affectation of male reproductive functions. Keywords: garlic, superoxide ...

  13. Oxidative Stress Regulation on Endothelial Cells by Hydrophilic Astaxanthin Complex: Chemical, Biological, and Molecular Antioxidant Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zuluaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An imbalance in the reactive oxygen species (ROS homeostasis is involved in the pathogenesis of oxidative stress-related diseases. Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid with high antioxidant capacities, has been shown to prevent the first stages of oxidative stress. Here, we evaluate the antioxidant capacities of astaxanthin included within hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CD-A to directly and indirectly reduce the induced ROS production. First, chemical methods were used to corroborate the preservation of astaxanthin antioxidant abilities after inclusion. Next, antioxidant scavenging properties of CD-A to inhibit the cellular and mitochondrial ROS by reducing the disturbance in the redox state of the cell and the infiltration of lipid peroxidation radicals were evaluated. Finally, the activation of endogenous antioxidant PTEN/AKT, Nrf2/HO-1, and NQOI gene and protein expression supported the protective effect of CD-A complex on human endothelial cells under stress conditions. Moreover, a nontoxic effect on HUVEC was registered after CD-A complex supplementation. The results reported here illustrate the need to continue exploring the interesting properties of this hydrophilic antioxidant complex to assist endogenous systems to counteract the ROS impact on the induction of cellular oxidative stress state.

  14. Ciliary neurotrophic factor is an endogenous pyrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, L; Zhang, X X; Rupp, R G; Wolff, S M; Dinarello, C A

    1993-09-15

    Fever is initiated by the action of polypeptide cytokines called endogenous pyrogens, which are produced by the host during inflammation, trauma, or infection and which elevate the thermoregulatory set point in the hypothalamus. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) supports the differentiation and survival of central and peripheral neurons. We describe the activity of CNTF as intrinsically pyrogenic in the rabbit. CNTF induced a monophasic fever which rose rapidly (within the first 12 min) following intravenous injection; CNTF fever was blocked by pretreatment with indomethacin. The fever induced by CNTF was not due to contaminating endotoxins. Increasing doses of CNTF resulted in prolongation of the fever, suggesting the subsequent induction of additional endogenous pyrogenic activity. After passive transfer of plasma obtained during CNTF-induced fever, endogenous pyrogen activity was not present in the circulation; CNTF also did not induce the endogenous pyrogens interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin 6 in vitro. Nevertheless, a second endogenous pyrogen may originate within the central nervous system following the systemic injection of CNTF. Of the four endogenous pyrogens described to date (interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, interferon, and interleukin 6), CNTF, like interleukin 6, utilizes the cell-surface gp 130 signal-transduction apparatus.

  15. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the antioxidative system of Coffea sp. under cold conditions in genotypes with contrasting tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Ana S; Lidon, Fernando C; Batista-Santos, Paula; Leitão, António Eduardo; Pais, Isabel P; Ribeiro, Ana I; Ramalho, José Cochicho

    2010-03-15

    Low positive temperature (chilling) is frequently linked to the promotion of oxidative stress conditions, and is of particular importance in the coffee plant due to its severe impact on growth, development, photosynthesis and production. Nevertheless, some acclimation ability has been reported within the Coffea genus, and is possibly related to oxidative stress control. Using an integrated biochemical and molecular approach, the characterization of the antioxidative system of genotypes with different cold acclimation abilities was performed. Experiments were carried out using 1.5-year-old coffee seedlings of Coffea canephora cv. Apoatã, C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. dewevrei and 2 hybrids, Icatu (C. arabicaxC. canephora) and Piatã (C. dewevreixC. arabica) subjected to a gradual cold treatment and a recovery period. Icatu showed the greatest ability to control oxidative stress, as reflected by the enhancement of several antioxidative components (Cu,Zn-SOD and APX activities; ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and chlorogenic acids (CGAs) contents) and lower reactive oxygen species contents (H(2)O(2) and OH). Gene expression studies show that GRed, DHAR and class III and IV chitinases might also be involved in the cold acclimation ability of Icatu. Catuaí showed intermediate acclimation ability through the reinforcement of some antioxidative molecules, usually to a lesser extent than that observed in Icatu. On the other hand, C. dewevrei showed the poorest response in terms of antioxidant accumulation, and also showed the greatest increase in OH values. The difference in the triggering of antioxidative traits supports the hypothesis of its importance to cold (and photoinhibition) tolerance in Coffea sp. and could provide a useful probe to identify tolerant genotypes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in two onion varieties grown under organic and conventional production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feiyue; Reilly, Kim; Gaffney, Michael; Kerry, Joseph P; Hossain, Mohammad; Rai, Dilip K

    2017-07-01

    Onions contain a number of bioactive compounds, in particular polyphenols. They are rich sources of such compounds in the human diet and offer significant health benefits to the consumer. Demand for organic crops is steadily increasing partly based on the expected health benefits of organic food consumption. The current study examines the influence of organic and conventional crop management practices on bioactive polyphenolic content of onion. We examined the effect of conventional, organic, and mixed cultivation practices on the content of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in two varieties of onion grown over 4 years in a split-plot factorial systems comparison trial. Levels of total phenolics and total flavonoids showed a significant year-on-year variation and were significantly different between organic and conventional production systems. The levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity in general were significantly higher (P onion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Cathelicidin (LL-37) and its correlation with pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional human study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebari, M; Roshandel, G; Saadati, N; Saghafi, M; Abdolahi, N; Rezaieyazdi, Z

    2017-08-01

    Background Cathelicidin (LL-37), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has recently been involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To assess whether LL-37 reflects disease activity, we measured serum levels of it in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with active and inactive disease compared to healthy controls. LL-37 was also compared between new and old cases. Moreover, the correlation of LL-37 and pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance (PAB) was measured. Methods The study population consisted of 50 SLE patients and 28 healthy controls. Of those, 39 patients had active and 11 patients had inactive disease. Serum levels of LL-37 were measured by ELISA and PAB values by a special method. Results There was no difference in levels of LL-37 between patients and healthy controls (50.9 ± 20.8 vs. 67.7 ± 43.3 ng/ml, P = 0.31). LL-37 did not correlate with SLEDAI and its items in total patients. LL-37 had a positive correlation with SLEDAI in active patients ( P = 0.01, r = 0.4). In active patients (78% of patients), multivariate regression analysis showed significant negative correlation between LL-37 and C3 ( P = 0.01, standardized beta -0.50). No difference was found in levels of PAB between patients and controls (90.4 ± 34.1 vs. 86.9 ± 25.6 HK, P = 0.4).There was no difference in the levels of PAB between patients with active and inactive disease (93.2 ± 34.1 vs. 80.2 ± 33.7 HK, P = 0.27). No correlation was found between levels of PAB and SLEDAI items and total score. However, a positive correlation between the levels of LL-37 and PAB in SLE patients was found ( r = 0.3, P lupus compared with healthy individuals. LL-37 serum values rose in parallel with SLEDAI in active disease. Positive correlation between serum PAB and LL-37 could be a great achievement of this study that may suggest the role of antioxidants in controlling NETosis.

  18. Camel milk protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties and enhanced antioxidant potential in in vitro and in food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamsi, Kholoud Awad; Mudgil, Priti; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were generated using proteolytic enzymes, such as alcalase, bromelain, and papain, to explore the effect on the technofunctional properties and antioxidant potential under in vitro and in real food model systems. Characterization of the CMPH via degree of hydrolysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and HPLC revealed that different proteins in camel milk underwent degradation at different degrees after enzymatic hydrolysis using 3 different enzymes for 2, 4, and 6 h, with papain displaying the highest degradation. Technofunctional properties, such as emulsifying activity index, surface hydrophobicity, and protein solubility, were higher in CMPH than unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. However, the water and fat absorption capacity were lower in CMPH compared with unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. Antioxidant properties as assessed by 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and metal-chelating activity were enhanced after hydrolysis, in contrast to ferric-reducing antioxidant power which showed a decrease after hydrolysis. The CMPH were also tested in real food model systems for their potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in fish mince and grape seed oil-in-water emulsion, and we found that papain-produced hydrolysate displayed higher inhibition than alcalase- and bromelain-produced hydrolysates. Therefore, the CMPH demonstrated effective antioxidant potential in vitro as well as in real food systems and showed enhanced functional properties, which guarantees their potential applications in functional foods. The present study is one of few reports available on CMPH being explored in vitro as well as in real food model systems. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Heterogeneous role of the glutathione antioxidant system in modulating the response of ESFT to fenretinide in normoxia and hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapiwanashe Magwere

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH is implicated in drug resistance mechanisms of several cancers and is a key regulator of cell death pathways within cells. We studied Ewing's sarcoma family of tumours (ESFT cell lines and three mechanistically distinct anticancer agents (fenretinide, doxorubicin, and vincristine to investigate whether the GSH antioxidant system is involved in the reduced sensitivity to these chemotherapeutic agents in hypoxia. Cell viability and death were assessed by the trypan blue exclusion assay and annexin V-PI staining, respectively. Hypoxia significantly decreased the sensitivity of all ESFT cell lines to fenretinide-induced death, whereas the effect of doxorubicin or vincristine was marginal and cell-line-specific. The response of the GSH antioxidant system in ESFT cell lines to hypoxia was variable and also cell-line-specific, although the level of GSH appeared to be most dependent on de novo biosynthesis rather than recycling. RNAi-mediated knockdown of key GSH regulatory enzymes γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase or glutathione disulfide reductase partially reversed the hypoxia-induced resistance to fenretinide, and increasing GSH levels using N-acetylcysteine augmented the hypoxia-induced resistance in a cell line-specific manner. These observations are consistent with the conclusion that the role of the GSH antioxidant system in modulating the sensitivity of ESFT cells to fenretinide is heterogeneous depending on environment and cell type. This is likely to limit the value of targeting GSH as a therapeutic strategy to overcome hypoxia-induced drug resistance in ESFT. Whether targeting the GSH antioxidant system in conjunction with other therapeutics may benefit some patients with ESFT remains to be seen.

  20. Role of Nrf2 antioxidant defense in mitigating cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the olfactory system of zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lu; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@uw.edu

    2013-01-15

    Exposure to trace metals can disrupt olfactory function in fish leading to a loss of behaviors critical to survival. Cadmium (Cd) is an olfactory toxicant that elicits cellular oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity while also inducing protective cellular antioxidant genes via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathway. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-induced olfactory injury have not been characterized. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense pathway in protecting against Cd-induced olfactory injury in zebrafish. A dose-dependent induction of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes associated with cellular responses to oxidative stress was observed in the olfactory system of adult zebrafish following 24 h Cd exposure. Zebrafish larvae exposed to Cd for 3 h showed increased glutathione S-transferase pi (gst pi), glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (gclc), heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1) and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1) mRNA levels indicative of Nrf2 activation, and which were blocked by morpholino-mediated Nrf2 knockdown. The inhibition of antioxidant gene induction in Cd-exposed Nrf2 morphants was associated with disruption of olfactory driven behaviors, increased cell death and loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nrf2 morphants also exhibited a downregulation of OSN-specific genes after Cd exposure. Pre-incubation of embryos with sulforaphane (SFN) partially protected against Cd-induced olfactory tissue damage. Collectively, our results indicate that oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated injury in the zebrafish olfactory system. Moreover, the Nrf2 pathway plays a protective role against cellular oxidative damage and is important in maintaining zebrafish olfactory function. -- Highlights: ► Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of Cd-mediated olfactory injury. ► Cd induces antioxidant gene expression in the zebrafish olfactory system. ► The

  1. Strain-Related Differences on Response of Liver and Kidney Antioxidant Defense System in Two Rat Strains Following Diazinon Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diazinon (DZN is one of the most organophosphates that widely used in agriculture and ectoparasiticide formulations. Its extensive use as an effective pesticide was associated with the environmental deleterious effects on biological systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the potency of DZN to affect serum biochemical parameters and the antioxidant defense system in the liver and kidney of two rat strains. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 30 female Wistar and 30 female Norway rats were randomly divided into control and DZN groups. DZN group was divided into four subgroups: 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of DZN administered groups by i.p. injection. The parameters were evaluated after 24 hours. Results At higher doses of DZN, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney of Wistar rats were higher than Norway rats. At these concentrations, DZN increased some serum biochemical indices such as liver enzymes activities and levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in Wistar rat. Conclusions DZN at higher doses alters the oxidant-antioxidant balance in liver and kidney of both rat strains and induces oxidative stress, which is associated with a depletion of GSH and increased lipid peroxidation. However, Wistar rats are found to be more sensitive to the toxicity of DZN compared to Norway rats. In addition, the effect of DZN on liver antioxidant system was more than kidney.

  2. Modulatory role of allopurinol on xanthine oxidoreductase system and antioxidant status in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.; Abbady, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, used for management of hyperuricaema. It acts on purine catabolism without disrupting the biosynthesis of purine. The present work was conducted to examine the role of xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) in minimizing radiation injuries in male albino rats. Allopurinol was given to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a dose of 30 mg/kg body wt/day for 7 successive days before starting irradiation and 14 successive days during and in between exposure to gamma radiation. Rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation, delivered as 1 Gy every other day up to total dose 8 Gy. Results demonstrate that treatment with allopurinol by the regime assumed in the present study minimized significantly the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), product of lipid peroxidation, in liver, intestine and plasma. This effect was associated with significant amelioration in xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) system as observed on the 1st and 7th days post last radiation fraction. The severity of changes in antioxidant parameters namely: superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were less manifested in liver, intestine and blood as compared to irradiated rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were significantly improved in plasma and the two investigated tissues as compared to irradiated rats. A significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentration was recorded on the 1st and 7th days post last allopurinol dose. However, significant amelioration was recorded in the plasma uric acid of rats treated with allopurinol before and during radiation exposure as compared to irradiated rats. Accordingly, it could be concluded that XO inhibitor (allopurinol) play a significant role in minimizing the tissue damages upon exposure to ionizing radiation via preventing the over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells through the XOR system of irradiation rats

  3. Fermented wheat powder induces the antioxidant and detoxifying system in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Margherita; Beffy, Pascale; Pugliese, Annalisa; Longo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Many plants exhibit antioxidant properties which may be useful in the prevention of oxidative stress reactions, such as those mediated by the formation of free radical species in different pathological situations. In recent years a number of studies have shown that whole grain products in particular have strong antioxidant activity. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were used to investigate whether and how a fermented powder of wheat (Lisosan G) is able to modulate antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, and whether or not it can activate Nrf2 transcription factor or inhibit NF-kB activation. All of the antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes studied were significantly up-regulated by 0.7 mg/ml Lisosan G treatment. In particular, quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase-1 were induced, although to different degrees, at the transcriptional, protein and/or activity levels by the treatment. As for the Nrf2 transcription factor, a partial translocation of its protein from the cytosol to the nucleus after 1 h of Lisosan G treatment was revealed by immunoblotting. Lisosan G was also observed to decrease H2O2-induced toxicity Taken together, these results show that this powder of wheat is an effective inducer of ARE/Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and detoxifying genes and has the potential to inhibit the translocation of NF-kB into the nucleus.

  4. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and superatmospheric oxygen on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of golden needle mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes) during postharvest storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Cheng T.; Wang, Chang T.; Cao, Y.P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sun, B.G.; Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the effect of oxygen concentrations on the quality and antioxidant enzyme system of stored golden needle mushroom, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with low and initial superatmospheric oxygen was applied during mushroom storage, and physiological changes associated with postharvest

  5. Endogenous growth and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  6. Endogenous growth and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  7. Endogenous lycopene improves ethanol production under acetic acid stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuo; Jia, Bin; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhen; Chai, Meng-Zhe; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xia; Li, Chun; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid, generated from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, is a significant obstacle for lignocellulosic ethanol production. Reactive oxidative species (ROS)-mediated cell damage is one of important issues caused by acetic acid. It has been reported that decreasing ROS level can improve the acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Lycopene is known as an antioxidant. In the study, we investigated effects of endogenous lycopene on cell growth and ethanol production of S. cerevisiae in acetic acid media. By accumulating endogenous lycopene during the aerobic fermentation of the seed stage, the intracellular ROS level of strain decreased to 1.4% of that of the control strain during ethanol fermentation. In the ethanol fermentation system containing 100 g/L glucose and 5.5 g/L acetic acid, the lag phase of strain was 24 h shorter than that of control strain. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol titer of yPS002 got to 2.08 g/L/h and 44.25 g/L, respectively, which were 2.6- and 1.3-fold of the control strain. Transcriptional changes of INO1 gene and CTT1 gene confirmed that endogenous lycopene can decrease oxidative stress and improve intracellular environment. Biosynthesis of endogenous lycopene is first associated with enhancing tolerance to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae . We demonstrate that endogenous lycopene can decrease intracellular ROS level caused by acetic acid, thus increasing cell growth and ethanol production. This work innovatively   puts forward a new strategy for second generation bioethanol production during lignocellulosic fermentation.

  8. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  9. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramey, Garey

    2008-01-01

    This paper assesses how various approaches to modelling the separation margin a¤ect the ability of the Mortensen-Pissarides job matching model to explain key facts about the aggregate labor market. Allowing for realistic time variation in the separation rate, whether exogenous or endogenous, greatly in- creases the unemployment variability generated by the model. Speci…cations with exogenous separation rates, whether constant or time-varying, fail to pro- duce realistic volatility and prod...

  10. Toxic effects of boron on growth and antioxidant system parameters of maize (Zea mays L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esim, Nevzat; Tiryaki, Deniz; Karadagoglu, Omer; Atici, Okkes

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible oxidative stress and the antioxidant response, which were caused on maize by boron (B). For this, 11- and 15-day-old maize seedlings were subjected to 2 or 4 mM B in the form of boric acid (H₃BO₃) for 2 and/or 6 days. At the end of the treatment period, root length, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were measured. The results revealed that root length of plants, activity of antioxidative enzymes such as SOD, POX and CAT and also H₂O₂ contents and MDA levels were seriously affected by excess B. These results suggested that the oxidative stress occurred due to the toxic effect of B.

  11. Involvement of an antioxidant defense system in the adaptive response to cadmium in maize seedlings (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Liu, Cuiying; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Renying; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were used to investigate the growth response and antioxidant defense mechanism of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) grown in soils with 0-100 mg kg(-1) Cd. Results showed that maize seedlings have strong abilities to accumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd. For soil with 50 mg kg(-1) Cd, the Cd contents in roots and shoots of maize seedlings are as large as 295.6 and 153.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively, without visible symptoms of toxicity. Lower soil Cd concentrations lead to a decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content in leaves of maize seedlings, whereas higher soil Cd concentrations resulted in an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Maize seedlings have strong capacities to adapt to low concentrations of Cd by consuming GSH and to develop an antioxidative enzyme system to defend against high-Cd stress.

  12. Condition of pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems in guinea pigs’ lungs under the condition of immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Stepanovych Reheda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the results of alterations in indices of pro-oxidant (conjugated diene and malondialdehyde and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, catalase systems in guinea pigs’ lungs  under the conditions of immobilization stress. The experiment was conducted on 40 female guinea pigs weighing 0.18-0.20 kg. The animals were divided into 4 groups, each contained 10 guinea pigs: I – intact guinea pigs ( control, II–guinea pigs with model of IS on1st day of experiment;Ш–animals on 2nd  day of experiment;IV- group of animals on 34th day of experimental model of IS. The results of our experimental work showed  a significant accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in the lung`s tissure in different periods ( on 1st, 2nd and 34th days of immobilization stress. The state of antioxidant defence was characterized by moderate decrease of inzymes activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ceruloplasmin. disorders of balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems couse oxidative stress development.

  13. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit extracts in an oil model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Augusto-Obara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An oil model system was used to analyze the antioxidant activity of Chilean fruit extracts and to determine their odor sensory effect. Hydroalcoholic extracts from wild and 14-4 genotype murtilla (Ugni molinae Turcz. fruit were assessed by the Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for producing high total phenolic-content extracts were 49.5% (v/v ethanol at 30 ºC, which yielded 18.39 and 26.14 mg GAE·g-1 dry matter, respectively. The optimized extracts were added to a lipid model system and evaluated via the Schaal Oven Test. After 96 hours, 150 and 200 mg·kg-1 oil of the wild and 14-4 genotype extracts, respectively, showed an antioxidant capacity similar to TBHQ (200 mg·kg-1 oil in terms of peroxide values and odor. Thus, murtilla fruit extracts are a natural source of antioxidants for protecting lipidic foods, such as soybean oil.

  14. Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. aqueous extract and its impact on systemic antioxidant potential in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Thomas; Netzel, Gabriele; Kammerer, Dietmar R; Carle, Reinhold; Kler, Adolf; Kriesl, Erwin; Bitsch, Irmgard; Bitsch, Roland; Netzel, Michael

    2012-08-15

    To evaluate health benefits attributed to Hibiscus sabdariffa L. a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study was undertaken to compare the impact of an aqueous H. sabdariffa L. extract (HSE) on the systemic antioxidant potential (AOP; assayed by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) with a reference treatment (water) in eight healthy volunteers. The biokinetic variables were the areas under the curve (AUC) of plasma FRAP, ascorbic acid and urate that are above the pre-dose concentration, and the amounts excreted into urine within 24 h (Ae(0-24) ) of antioxidants as assayed by FRAP, ascorbic acid, uric acid, malondialdehyde (biomarker for oxidative stress), and hippuric acid (metabolite and potential biomarker for total polyphenol intake). HSE caused significantly higher plasma AUC of FRAP, an increase in Ae(0-24) of FRAP, ascorbic acid and hippuric acid, whereas malondialdehyde excretion was reduced. Furthermore, the main hibiscus anthocyanins as well as one glucuronide conjugate could be quantified in the volunteers' urine (0.02% of the administered dose). The aqueous HSE investigated in this study enhanced the systemic AOP and reduced the oxidative stress in humans. Furthermore, the increased urinary hippuric acid excretion after HSE consumption indicates a high biotransformation of the ingested HSE polyphenols, most likely caused by the colonic microbiota. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. In vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective properties of Maillard reaction products from phloridzin-amino acid model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Linna; Li, Feng; Yu, Qijian; Li, Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effect of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) from phloridzin (Pz)-amino acid model systems. Their structures were also characterised by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). MRPs were prepared from the Pz-methionine (Met), Pz-lysine (Lys), Pz-isoleucine (Ile), Pz-histidine (His) or Pz-glutamic acid (Glu) model system. The Pz-Lys MRPs, rich in antioxidant potency, were subjected to ultrafiltration to yield four MRPs fractions with different molecular weights (Mw). The fraction with Mw 30-50 kDa had significantly (P Maillard reaction. The results obtained in this study may provide some basis for the purported health-promoting effects of MRPs and their potential application as antioxidant agents in food industry. Also, it is important for our understanding of the variation of bioactive substances in food during thermal processing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Combining the auxin-inducible degradation system with CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing for the conditional depletion of endogenous Drosophila melanogaster proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bence, Melinda; Jankovics, Ferenc; Lukácsovich, Tamás; Erdélyi, Miklós

    2017-04-01

    Inducible protein degradation techniques have considerable advantages over classical genetic approaches, which generate loss-of-function phenotypes at the gene or mRNA level. The plant-derived auxin-inducible degradation system (AID) is a promising technique which enables the degradation of target proteins tagged with the AID motif in nonplant cells. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this method employed during the adult oogenesis of Drosophila. Furthermore, with the help of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing, we improve the utility of the AID system in the conditional elimination of endogenously expressed proteins. We demonstrate that the AID system induces efficient and reversible protein depletion of maternally provided proteins both in the ovary and the early embryo. Moreover, the AID system provides a fine spatiotemporal control of protein degradation and allows for the generation of different levels of protein knockdown in a well-regulated manner. These features of the AID system enable the unraveling of the discrete phenotypes of genes with highly complex functions. We utilized this system to generate a conditional loss-of-function allele which allows for the specific degradation of the Vasa protein without affecting its alternative splice variant (solo) and the vasa intronic gene (vig). With the help of this special allele, we demonstrate that dramatic decrease of Vasa protein in the vitellarium does not influence the completion of oogenesis as well as the establishment of proper anteroposterior and dorsoventral polarity in the developing oocyte. Our study suggests that both the localization and the translation of gurken mRNA in the vitellarium is independent from Vasa. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. The Responses of Antioxidant System against the Heavy Metal-Induced Stress in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun KISA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants maintain their life cycles under the various environmental conditions such as oxidative stress induced by heavy metals. Accumulation of metal ions in plants causes the formation of free radicals and stimulates the antioxidative defense systems. In this study, the activities of APX, POD, and SOD are investigated in the leaves and roots of tomato cultivated under the heavy metal-induced stress. The activities of APX, POD, and SOD exhibited remarkable induction with the treatment of Cd, Cu and Pb (10, 20 and 50 ppm in the leaves of tomato compared to control plants except for 50 ppm Pb. In roots, APX activity changed depending on the heavy metal types and concentrations, while Cd clearly increased it with stress conditions, but Cu decreased in tomato compared to control. The activity of POD clearly exhibited that the all doses of heavy metals reduced the enzyme activity in roots polluted with heavy metals. The treatment of Cd (10, 20 and 50 ppm significantly increased the activity of SOD, however, Cu showed the opposite effect which significantly decreased with increasing doses in roots compared to uncontaminated plants. Also, roots from plants grown on the high concentration of Pb (20 and 50 ppm induced the activity of SOD. Briefly, it is clear responses which Cd significantly raised the activities of APX and SOD in leaves and roots of tomato. The decreases caused by these metals in the activity of POD and Cu in the activities of APX and SOD in roots of tomato can be clarified by the result of heavy metal-induced the over production of free radical.

  19. Vanadyl sulfate, taurine, and combined vanadyl sulfate and taurine treatments in diabetic rats: effects on the oxidative and antioxidative systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Sibel; Sarandol, Emre; Ayvalik, Sedef Ziyanok; Serdar, Zehra; Dirican, Melahat

    2007-04-01

    Vanadyl sulfate (VS) and taurine are two promising agents in the treatment of diabetes related to their antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic effects. Data about the effects of VS on the oxidant-antioxidant system is limited and controversial. However, taurine is a well-documented antioxidant agent and our aim was to investigate the effects of VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination on the oxidative-antioxidative systems in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) diabetic rats. Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered. VS (0.75 mg/mL) and taurine (1%) were added to drinking water for 5 weeks. Rats were divided as control (C), diabetes (D), diabetes+VS (D+VS), diabetes+taurine (D+T), diabetes+VS and taurine (D+VST). Plasma and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. Paraoxonase and arylesterase activities were measured by spectrophotometric methods and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined using commercial kits. VS, taurine and VS and taurine combination treatments reduced the enhanced blood glucose, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride, tissue MDA and plasma MDA (except in the D+VS group) levels and increased the reduced serum insulin level, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities, GSH-Px activity and SOD activity (except in the D+VS group). The findings of the present study suggest that VS and taurine exert beneficial effects on the blood glucose and lipid levels in STZ-NA diabetic rats. However, VS might exert prooxidative or antioxidative effects in various components of the body and taurine and VS combination might be an alternative for sole VS administration.

  20. Optimised formation of blue Maillard reaction products of xylose and glycine model systems and associated antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Xi; Jing, Hao

    2014-05-01

    A blue colour can be formed in the xylose (Xyl) and glycine (Gly) Maillard reaction (MR) model system. However, there are fewer studies on the reaction conditions for the blue Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The objective of this study is to investigate characteristic colour formation and antioxidant activities in four different MR model systems and to determine the optimum reaction conditions for the blue colour formation in a Xyl-Gly MR model system, using the random centroid optimisation program. The blue colour with an absorbance peak at 630 nm appeared before browning in the Xyl-Gly MR model system, while no blue colour formation but only browning was observed in the xylose-alanine, xylose-aspartic acid and glucose-glycine MR model systems. The Xyl-Gly MR model system also showed higher antioxidant activity than the other three model systems. The optimum conditions for blue colour formation were as follows: xylose and glycine ratio 1:0.16 (M:M), 0.20 mol L⁻¹ NaHCO₃, 406.1 mL L⁻¹ ethanol, initial pH 8.63, 33.7°C for 22.06 h, which gave a much brighter blue colour and a higher peak at 630 nm. A characteristic blue colour could be formed in the Xyl-Gly MR model system and the optimum conditions for the blue colour formation were proposed and confirmed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Chronic nicotine-induced changes in gene expression of delta and kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands in the mesocorticolimbic system of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugur, Muzeyyen; Kaya, Egemen; Gozen, Oguz; Koylu, Ersin O; Kanit, Lutfiye; Keser, Aysegul; Balkan, Burcu

    2017-09-01

    Delta and kappa opioid receptors (DOR and KOR, respectively) and their endogenous ligands, proenkephalin (PENK) and prodynorphin (PDYN)-derived opioid peptides are proposed as important mediators of nicotine reward. This study investigated the regulatory effect of chronic nicotine treatment on the gene expression of DOR, KOR, PENK and PDYN in the mesocorticolimbic system. Three groups of rats were injected subcutaneously with nicotine at doses of 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6 mg/kg/day for 6 days. Rats were decapitated 1 hr after the last dose on day six, as this timing coincides with increased dopamine release in the mesocorticolimbic system. mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), amygdala (AMG), dorsal striatum (DST), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed that nicotine upregulated DOR mRNA in the VTA at all of the doses employed, in the AMG at the 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg doses, and in the DST at the 0.4 mg/kg dose. Conversely, PDYN mRNA was reduced in the LHA with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine and in the AMG with 0.4 mg/kg nicotine. KOR mRNA was also decreased in the DST with 0.6 mg/kg nicotine. Nicotine did not regulate PENK mRNA in any brain region studied. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed at the study of the effects of Artea, a systemic azole fungicide, on durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. cv. GTA dur). Seeds were grown in a medium containing respectively 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight-day-old plants were used to determine catalase, ...

  3. Influence of separate and combined impact both of radiation and chemical factors on state of lipid peroxide oxidation system and antioxidant protection at pregnant rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danil'chik, V.S.; Spivak, L.V.; Kolb, V.G.; Zubovskaya, E.T.; Rogov, Yu.I.

    2000-01-01

    Influence of low dozed ionizing irradiation and chemical toxicant was studied both under separate and combined action in the process of pregnancy. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) indices and antioxidant protection (AOP) parameters of females rats were studied. The result received proved that irradiation during pregnancy induced activation both of lipids free radical oxidation and of antioxidant protection in female rats. Chemical toxicants introduction resulted in shifts on the LPO-AOP system the hydrogen peroxide blood level increasing and the antioxidants ones reducing. Combined action of both factors led to development of a new level of LPO-AOP

  4. Influence of Roasting on the Antioxidant Activity and HMF Formation of a Cocoa Bean Model Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, T.; Capuano, E.; Cämmerer, B.; Fogliano, V.

    2009-01-01

    During the roasting of cocoa beans chemical reactions lead to the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products and to the degradation of catechin-containing compounds, which are very abundant in these seeds. To study the modifications occurring during thermal treatment of fat and antioxidant rich

  5. A comparison of chemical systems for luminometric determination of antioxidant capacity towards individual reactive oxygen species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komrsková, Daniela; Lojek, Antonín; Hrbáč, J.; Číž, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 239-244 ISSN 1522-7235 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/01/1219 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : antioxidant capacity * luminometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.874, year: 2006

  6. Endogenous influences on anammox and sulfocompound-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification coupling system (A/SAD) and dynamic operating strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinbo; Du, Lingfeng; Hou, Yuqian; Cheng, Shaoju; Zhang, Xuxiang; Liu, Bo

    2018-02-21

    The anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) and sulfocompound-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification coupling system (A/SAD) was initiated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor for nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater. Owing to cooperation between anammox and partial sulfocompound-oxidation autotrophic denitrification coupling system (PSAD), the highest nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of 98.1% ± 0.4% achieved at the optimal influent conditions of conversion efficiency of ammonium (CEA) of 55% and S 2 O 3 2- -S/NO 3 - -N (S/N) of 1.4 mol mol -1 . The activity of the short-cut sulfocompound-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification (SSAD) was also regulated to cope with dynamic CEA in the influent by changing the S/N, which was demonstrated to be effective in alleviating nitrite accumulation when the CEA was between 57% and 61%. Both the anammox and SAD bacteria enriched in the reactor after long-term incubation. Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Jettenia might be potentially contributing the most to anammox, while the Thiobacillus was the dominant taxa related to SAD. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Grygiel-Górniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA. Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC, therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT. The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  8. The influence of endogenous and exogenous sex hormones on systemic lupus erythematosus in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Puszczewicz, Mariusz Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic inflammatory disease that occurs mainly in women. Typically, symptoms appear within the first few years of adolescence, but currently an increase can be observed in the percentage of postmenopausal women with this condition. This is possibly due to the sophisticated treatment of the disease, which significantly improves the survival curve and prognosis. Genetic and environmental factors are involved in the development of SLE. Both regulation of the immune system and the activity of this disease are influenced by a variety of hormones, including: 17β-estradiol, testosterone, prolactin, progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Early menarche, menstrual cyclicity, the total number of years characterized by ovulatory cycles and early menopause are correlated with the development of SLE. Because of the health risks, attempts are increasingly being made to evaluate the impact of exogenous hormones (especially those applied exogenously) on the course of SLE. In particular, the role of estrogens is being highlighted, either endo- or exogenous, including oral contraceptives (OC), therapy used in the treatment of infertility, and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). The purpose of this manuscript is the revision of the literature concerning the impact of both endo- and exogenous estrogens on the development of lupus, inducement of flares and any possible complications.

  9. Use of a highly sensitive two-dimensional luminescence imaging system to monitor endogenous bioluminescence in plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor-Henry Michel

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All living organisms emit spontaneous low-level bioluminescence, which can be increased in response to stress. Methods for imaging this ultra-weak luminescence have previously been limited by the sensitivity of the detection systems used. Results We developed a novel configuration of a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD for 2-dimensional imaging of light emission from biological material. In this study, we imaged photon emission from plant leaves. The equipment allowed short integration times for image acquisition, providing high resolution spatial and temporal information on bioluminescence. We were able to carry out time course imaging of both delayed chlorophyll fluorescence from whole leaves, and of low level wound-induced luminescence that we showed to be localised to sites of tissue damage. We found that wound-induced luminescence was chlorophyll-dependent and was enhanced at higher temperatures. Conclusions The data gathered on plant bioluminescence illustrate that the equipment described here represents an improvement in 2-dimensional luminescence imaging technology. Using this system, we identify chlorophyll as the origin of wound-induced luminescence from leaves.

  10. The Assessment of the Integrated Antioxidant System of the Body in the Course of Radon Therapy: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Kuciel-Lewandowska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The sources of Reactive Oxidative Species (ROS in the organism are the respiratory processes occurring in cells catalyzed by different enzymes. Operation of ROS is balanced by antioxidants, the compounds; although present in low concentrations, they significantly inhibit the degree of oxidation of particular molecules. The Aim of the Study. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the integrated antioxidant system under the influence of radon therapy in osteoarthritis patients. Material and Methods. Observation included 35 patients suffering from degenerative joints and disc disease (mean age 56.5 years undergoing radon water therapy and control group that consisted of 15 osteoarthritis patients (mean age 54.2 without contact with radon water. Before therapy and after 18 days of treatment, serum total antioxidant status (TAS was assessed with the use of standard colorimetric assay. Results. In the study group, we observed trends to increase TAS concentration, whereas, in the control group, TAS concentration was decreasing. Conclusions. (1 Radon waters treatment influenced the level of TAS of osteoarthritis patients treated with the radon water. (2 The change in TAS concentrations in the study group may be the result of low doses of ionizing radiation, but further studies on larger patient’s groups are demanded. This study is registered with number NCT03274128.

  11. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongqin; Wang, Zhenzhen; Ma, Yong; Qu, Yanghua; Lu, Xiaonan; Luo, Hailing

    2015-07-01

    Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05). The levels of TG (pCAT, pCAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  12. Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Edible Coatings on Quality and Antioxidant Enzyme System of Strawberry during Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is a nutritious, but highly perishable fruit. Three polysaccharide-based edible coatings (alginate, chitosan, and pullulan were applied to postharvest strawberry fruit during cold storage (4°C, and their effects on fruit quality and antioxidant enzyme system were investigated in the present study. The results showed that polysaccharide coatings showed a significant delay in fruit softening and rot and reduced changes in total soluble solid and titratable acidity content during 16 d storage. Polysaccharide coatings also maintained higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents than control from day 2 and significantly inhibited fruit decay and respiration after 12 d storage (p<0.05. Polysaccharide treatments enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and ascorbate peroxidase so as to prevent lipid peroxidation and reduce membrane damage. Additionally, chitosan coating had the most positive effects on fruit quality amongst three polysaccharide-based edible coatings and presented the highest relative activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results indicated that polysaccharide-based edible coatings were helpful in postharvest quality maintenance of strawberry fruit.

  13. Comparison of effects on the oxidant/antioxidant system of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol infusion during general anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Erbas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Desflurane and sevoflurane are frequently used for maintenance of anesthesia and studies have shown that these anesthetics cause a variety of changes to the oxidative stress and antioxidative defense mechanisms. This study aims to compare the effects of sevoflurane, desflurane and propofol infusion anesthesia on the oxidant and antioxidant systems of patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: 45 patients between 18 and 50 years with planned laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthetic were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups on the way to surgery: propofol (group P n: 15, sevoflurane (group S n: 15 and desflurane (group D n: 15. All groups were given hypnotic 2 mg/kg propofol IV, 1 mcg/kg fentanyl IV and 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium IV for induction. For maintenance of anesthesia group S were ventilated with 2% sevoflurane, group D cases were given 6% desflurane and group P were given propofol infusions of 12 mg/kg/h for the first 10 min, 9 mg/kg/h for the second 10 min and 6 mg/kg/h after that. Before induction and after the operation venous blood samples were taken to evaluate the levels of glutation peroxidase, total oxidants and antioxidants. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The 45 patients included in the study were 22 male and 23 female patients. The demographic characteristics of the groups were similar. In the postoperative period we observed that while sevoflurane and propofol increased antioxidants by a statistically significant level, desflurane increased the total oxidants level by a significant amount compared to levels before the operation.

  14. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Dobrakowski, Michał; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning

  15. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  16. Antioxidant Activity of Ixora parviflora in a Cell/Cell-Free System and in UV-Exposed Human Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Mei Chiang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols and flavonoids possess a variety of biological activities including antioxidant and anti-tumor activities. Ixora parviflora is a member of the flavonoid-rich Rubiaceae family of flowering plants and used as folk medicine in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of Ixora parviflora extract (IPE in a cell-free system and erythrocytes, and the ability of IPE to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS generation in human fibroblasts (Hs68 after ultraviolet (UV exposure. Various in vitro antioxidant assays were employed in this study. The extraction yield of IPE was 17.4 ± 3.9%, the total phenolic content of IPE was 26.2 μg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/mg leaves dry weight and the total flavonoids content was 54.2 ± 4.4 μg quercetin equvalent (QE/mg extract. The content of chlorogenic acid was 9.7 ± 1.2 mg/g extract. IPE at 1000 μg/mL exhibited a reducing capacity of 90.5 ± 0.6%, a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH radical scavenging activity of 96.0 ± 0.4%, a ferrous chelating activity of 72.2 ± 3.5%, a hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of 96.8 ± 1.4%, and a hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of 99.5 ± 3.3%. IPE at 500 μg/mL also possessed inhibitory activity against 2,2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine dihydrochloride (AAPH-induced hemolysis of erythrocytes (89.4 ± 1.8% and resulted in a 52.9% reduction in ROS generation in UV-exposed fibroblasts. According to our findings, IPE is a potent antioxidant and a potential anti-photoaging agent.

  17. Comparison of Watermelon and Carbohydrate Beverage on Exercise-Induced Alterations in Systemic Inflammation, Immune Dysfunction, and Plasma Antioxidant Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Andrew Shanely

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Consuming carbohydrate- and antioxidant-rich fruits during exercise as a means of supporting and enhancing both performance and health is of interest to endurance athletes. Watermelon (WM contains carbohydrate, lycopene, l-citrulline, and l-arginine. WM may support exercise performance, augment antioxidant capacity, and act as a countermeasure to exercise-induced inflammation and innate immune changes. Trained cyclists (n = 20, 48 ± 2 years participated in a randomized, placebo controlled, crossover study. Subjects completed two 75 km cycling time trials after either 2 weeks ingestion of 980 mL/day WM puree or no treatment. Subjects drank either WM puree containing 0.2 gm/kg carbohydrate or a 6% carbohydrate beverage every 15 min during the time trials. Blood samples were taken pre-study and pre-, post-, 1 h post-exercise. WM ingestion versus no treatment for 2-weeks increased plasma l-citrulline and l-arginine concentrations (p < 0.0125. Exercise performance did not differ between WM puree or carbohydrate beverage trials (p > 0.05, however, the rating of perceived exertion was greater during the WM trial (p > 0.05. WM puree versus carbohydrate beverage resulted in a similar pattern of increase in blood glucose, and greater increases in post-exercise plasma antioxidant capacity, l-citrulline, l-arginine, and total nitrate (all p < 0.05, but without differences in systemic markers of inflammation or innate immune function. Daily WM puree consumption fully supported the energy demands of exercise, and increased post-exercise blood levels of WM nutritional components (l-citrulline and l-arginine, antioxidant capacity, and total nitrate, but without an influence on post-exercise inflammation and changes in innate immune function.

  18. Crosstalk between liver antioxidant and the endocannabinoid systems after chronic administration of the FAAH inhibitor, URB597, to hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biernacki, Michał; Łuczaj, Wojciech; Gęgotek, Agnieszka [Department of Analytical Chemistry Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-222 Bialystok (Poland); Toczek, Marek [Department of Experimental Physiology and Pathophysiology Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2A, 15-222 Bialystok (Poland); Bielawska, Katarzyna [Department of Analytical Chemistry Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-222 Bialystok (Poland); Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta, E-mail: elzbieta.skrzydlewska@umb.edu.pl [Department of Analytical Chemistry Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza 2D, 15-222 Bialystok (Poland)

    2016-06-15

    Hypertension is accompanied by perturbations to the endocannabinoid and antioxidant systems. Thus, potential pharmacological treatments for hypertension should be examined as modulators of these two metabolic systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)phenyl]N-cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597) on the endocannabinoid system and on the redox balance in the livers of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Hypertension caused an increase in the levels of endocannabinoids [anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)] and CB{sub 1} receptor and the activities of FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). These effects were accompanied by an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in antioxidant activity/level, enhanced expression of transcription factor Nrf2 and changes to Nrf2 activators and inhibitors. Moreover, significant increases in lipid, DNA and protein oxidative modifications, which led to enhanced levels of proapoptotic caspases, were also observed. URB597 administration to the hypertensive rats resulted in additional increases in the levels of AEA, NADA and the CB{sub 1} receptor, as well as decreases in vitamin E and C levels, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and Nrf2 expression. Thus, after URB597 administration, oxidative modifications of cellular components were increased, while the inflammatory response was reduced. This study revealed that chronic treatment of hypertensive rats with URB597 disrupts the endocannabinoid system, which causes an imbalance in redox status. This imbalance increases the levels of electrophilic lipid peroxidation products, which later participate in metabolic disturbances in liver homeostasis. - Highlights: • Chronic administration of URB597 to hypertensive rats reduces liver inflammation. • URB597 enhances the redox imbalance in the

  19. Crosstalk between liver antioxidant and the endocannabinoid systems after chronic administration of the FAAH inhibitor, URB597, to hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernacki, Michał; Łuczaj, Wojciech; Gęgotek, Agnieszka; Toczek, Marek; Bielawska, Katarzyna; Skrzydlewska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is accompanied by perturbations to the endocannabinoid and antioxidant systems. Thus, potential pharmacological treatments for hypertension should be examined as modulators of these two metabolic systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic administration of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl)phenyl]N-cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597) on the endocannabinoid system and on the redox balance in the livers of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Hypertension caused an increase in the levels of endocannabinoids [anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) and N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)] and CB 1 receptor and the activities of FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). These effects were accompanied by an increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a decrease in antioxidant activity/level, enhanced expression of transcription factor Nrf2 and changes to Nrf2 activators and inhibitors. Moreover, significant increases in lipid, DNA and protein oxidative modifications, which led to enhanced levels of proapoptotic caspases, were also observed. URB597 administration to the hypertensive rats resulted in additional increases in the levels of AEA, NADA and the CB 1 receptor, as well as decreases in vitamin E and C levels, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and Nrf2 expression. Thus, after URB597 administration, oxidative modifications of cellular components were increased, while the inflammatory response was reduced. This study revealed that chronic treatment of hypertensive rats with URB597 disrupts the endocannabinoid system, which causes an imbalance in redox status. This imbalance increases the levels of electrophilic lipid peroxidation products, which later participate in metabolic disturbances in liver homeostasis. - Highlights: • Chronic administration of URB597 to hypertensive rats reduces liver inflammation. • URB597 enhances the redox imbalance in the liver of

  20. Genome-Wide Search for Competing Endogenous RNAs Responsible for the Effects Induced by Ebola Virus Replication and Transcription Using a trVLP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Yi Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how infected cells respond to Ebola virus (EBOV and how this response changes during the process of viral replication and transcription are very important for establishing effective antiviral strategies. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide screen to identify long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs, circular RNAs (circRNAs, micro RNAs (miRNAs, and mRNAs differentially expressed during replication and transcription using a tetracistronic transcription and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP system that models the life cycle of EBOV in 293T cells. To characterize the expression patterns of these differentially expressed RNAs, we performed a series cluster analysis, and up- or down-regulated genes were selected to establish a gene co-expression network. Competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA networks based on the RNAs responsible for the effects induced by EBOV replication and transcription in human cells, including circRNAs, lncRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs, were constructed for the first time. Based on these networks, the interaction details of circRNA-chr19 were explored. Our results demonstrated that circRNA-chr19 targeting miR-30b-3p regulated CLDN18 expression by functioning as a ceRNA. These findings may have important implications for further studies of the mechanisms of EBOV replication and transcription. These RNAs potentially have important functions and may be promising targets for EBOV therapy.

  1. Characterization of the hypothermic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 in the rat. Relation to the adrenergic system and endogenous pyrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovadia, H; Wohlman, A; Mechoulam, R; Weidenfeld, J

    1995-02-01

    In the present study we have characterized the hypothermic effect of the psychoactive cannabinoid HU-210, by investigating its interaction with the endogenous pyrogens, IL-1 and PGE2. We also studied the involvement of the adrenergic system in mediation of this hypothermic effect. Injection of HU-210 directly into the preoptic area caused a dose dependent reduction of rectal temperature from 37 to 32.1 degrees C. Injection of the non-psychoactive analog, HU-211 which does not bind to brain cannabinoid receptor, did not affect body temperature. Injection of the adrenergic agonists, CGP-12177 and clonidine (beta, and alpha adrenergic agonists, respectively) abrogated the hypothermia induced by HU-210. Injection of the adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (alpha 1) and propranolol (beta) enhanced the hypothermic effect of HU-210. Intracerebral administration of IL-1 or PGE2 to rats pretreated with HU-210 caused a transient inhibition of the hypothermia. The ex vivo rate of basal or bacterial endotoxin-induced synthesis of PGE2 by different brain regions, including the preoptic area was not affected by HU-210 administration. These results suggest that the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 acts in the preoptic area, probably via the brain cannabinoid receptor to induce hypothermia. The hypothermic effect can be antagonized by adrenergic agonists and enhanced by adrenergic antagonists. HU-210 does not interfere with the pyrogenic effect of IL-1 or PGE2.

  2. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...... of the reviewed theories, appears able to compensate for the explanatory gaps they leave behind. The EFN proposes consciousness as the phenomenon emerging from a distinct network of neural paths broadcasting the neural changes associated to any mental process. It additionally argues for the need to include a 5th...

  3. Hume and Endogenous Money

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pia Paganelli

    2006-01-01

    David Hume’s monetary theory has three standard yet inconsistent readings. As a forefather of the quantity theory of money, Hume sees money as neutral. As an inflationist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy. As a monetarist, Hume sees an active positive role for monetary policy only in the short run. This paper reads Hume consistently instead by showing that for Hume money is endogenous and demand-driven. Hume would read the money equation in terms of reverse causation and ...

  4. The mechanisms of protection of antioxidants on Nostoc sphaeroides against UV-B radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. H.

    UV radiation is one of space harmful factor for earth organisms in space exploration In the present work we studied on the role of antioxidant system in Nostoc sphaeroides K u tz Cyanobacteria and the effects of exogenous antioxidant molecules on its photosynthetic rate under UV-B radiation It was found that UV-B radiation decreased the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterium but promoted the activity of antioxidant system to protect photosystem II PSII and exogenous antioxidant sodium nitroprusside SNP N-acetylcysteine NAC had an obvious protection on PSII activity under UV-B radiation The activity of SOD Superoxide Dismutase EC 1 15 1 1 CAT Catalase EC 1 11 1 6 POD Peroxidase EC 1 11 1 7 and content of MDA and ASC were improved by 0 5mM and 1mM SNP but 0 1mM SNP decreased the activity of antioxide system Exogenous NAC addition decreased the activity of SOD POD CAT and the content MDA and ASC but exogenous NAC addition increased the content of GSH The results suggested that exogenous SNP and NAC may protect algae by different mechanisms in which SNP maybe play double roles as sources of reactive free radicals or ROS scavengers in formation of algae s protection of PSII under UV-B radiation while NAC does function as antioxidant reagent or precursor of glutathione which could protect PSII directly from UV-B radiation Keyword antioxidant system exogenous or endogenous antioxidant Nostoc sphaeroides photosynthesis UV-B radiation

  5. Endogenous Opiates and Behavior: 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the twenty-ninth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning thirty years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2006 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurological disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). PMID:17949854

  6. Endogenous opiates and behavior: 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    This paper is the thirty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2012 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining Semi-Endogenous and Fully Endogenous Growth: a Generalization.

    OpenAIRE

    Cozzi, Guido

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that combining the semi-endogenous and the fully endogenous growth mechanisms with a general CES aggregator, either growth process can prevail in the balanced growth path depending on their degree of complementarity/substitutability. Policy-induced long-run economic switches to the fully endogenous steady state as the R&D employment ratio surpasses a positive threshold are possible if the two growth engines are gross substitutes.

  8. The role of oxidative, inflammatory and neuroendocrinological systems during exercise stress in athletes: implications of antioxidant supplementation on physiological adaptation during intensified physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Katie; Bentley, David; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    During periods of intensified physical training, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release may exceed the protective capacity of the antioxidant system and lead to dysregulation within the inflammatory and neuroendocrinological systems. Consequently, the efficacy of exogenous antioxidant supplementation to maintain the oxidative balance in states of exercise stress has been widely investigated. The aim of this review was to (1) collate the findings of prior research on the effect of intensive physical training on oxidant-antioxidant balance; (2) summarise the influence of antioxidant supplementation on the reduction-oxidation signalling pathways involved in physiological adaptation; and (3) provide a synopsis on the interactions between the oxidative, inflammatory and neuroendocrinological response to exercise stimuli. Based on prior research, it is evident that ROS are an underlying aetiology in the adaptive process; however, the impact of antioxidant supplementation on physiological adaptation remains unclear. Equivocal results have been reported on the impact of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced gene expression. Further research is required to establish whether the interference of antioxidant supplementation consistently observed in animal-based and in vivo research extends to a practical sports setting. Moreover, the varied results reported within the literature may be due to the hormetic response of oxidative, inflammatory and neuroendocrinological systems to an exercise stimulus. The collective findings suggest that intensified physical training places substantial stress on the body, which can manifest as an adaptive or maladaptive physiological response. Additional research is required to determine the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation to minimise exercise-stress during intensive training and promote an adaptive state.

  9. Exogenous spermidine is enhancing tomato tolerance to salinity-alkalinity stress by regulating chloroplast antioxidant system and chlorophyll metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianming; Hu, Lipan; Zhang, Li; Pan, Xiongbo; Hu, Xiaohui

    2015-12-29

    capacities for responding to salinity-alkalinity stress. Exogenous spermidine triggers effective protection against damage induced by salinity-alkalinity stress in tomato seedlings, probably by maintaining chloroplast structural integrity and alleviating salinity-alkalinity-induced oxidative damage, most likely through regulation of chlorophyll metabolism and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in chloroplast. Exogenous spermidine also exerts positive effects at the transcription level, such as down-regulation of the expression of the chlorophyllase gene and up-regulation of the expression of the porphobilinogen deaminase gene.

  10. Dissecting the integrative antioxidant and redox systems in plant mitochondria. Effect of stress and S-nitrosylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Lázaro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial respiration provides the energy needed to drive metabolic and transport processes in cells. Mitochondria are a significant site of reactive oxygen species (ROS production in plant cells, and redox-system components obey fine regulation mechanisms that are essential in protecting the mitochondrial integrity. In addition to ROS, there are compelling indications that nitric oxide (NO. can be generated in this organelle by both reductive and oxidative pathways. ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS play a key role in signaling but they can also be deleterious via oxidation of macromolecules. The high production of ROS obligates mitochondria to be provided with a set of ROS scavenging mechanisms. The first line of mitochondrial antioxidants is composed of superoxide dismutase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which are not only able to scavenge ROS but also to repair cell damage and possibly serve as redox sensors. The dithiol-disulfide exchanges form independent signaling nodes and act as antioxidant defense mechanisms as well as sensor proteins modulating redox signaling during development and stress adaptation. The presence of thioredoxin (Trx, peroxiredoxin (Prx and sulfiredoxin (Srx in the mitochondria has been recently reported. Cumulative results obtained from studies in salt stress models have demonstrated that these redox proteins play a significant role in the establishment of salt tolerance. The Trx/Prx/Srx system may be subjected to a fine regulated mechanism involving post-translational modifications, among which S-glutathionylation and S-nitrosylation seem to exhibit a critical role that is just beginning to be understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge in antioxidative systems in plant mitochondria, their interrelationships, mechanisms of compensation and some unresolved questions, with special focus on their response to abiotic stress.

  11. Influence of Aluminium Chloride on Antioxidant System in the Testis and Epididymis of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kalaiselvi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the use of chemicals in agriculture, industry, and public health has become so common that the environment is continuously contaminated by the toxic substance-like metals. Aluminum released due to anthropogenic activities such as mining and industrial uses. Aluminium has several industrial uses. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 on enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis and epididymis of rats. Methods: Adult male rats were administered with aluminium chloride at two different doses, 50 mg and 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, daily for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and their testis and the epididymis were removed. Antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, and glutathione-s-transferase (GST were assayed. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, vitamin C, and vitamin E levels were also determined. Results: Aluminium chloride administration had no effect on the bodyweight of the animals but the weight of the testis and epididymis was decreased. Almost all the antioxidant enzymes studied markedly diminished in the testis and epididymis of aluminium chloride treated animals. The non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E, also declined. Lipid peroxidation, on the other hand, significantly increased. The influence was found to be more in 100 mg treated rats when compared to 50 mg treated rats. Conclusions: The present study suggests the reproductive toxicity of aluminium by inducing the oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis and possible interference in sperm production and further maturational processes.

  12. Cardioprotective and nonprotective regimens of chronic hypoxia diversely affect the myocardial antioxidant systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašparová, D.; Neckář, Jan; Dabrowská, L.; Novotný, J.; Mráz, J.; Kolář, František; Žurmanová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2015), s. 612-620 ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adaptation to hypoxia * cardioprotection * ischemia-reperfusion injury * oxidative stress * antioxidant defense Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.615, year: 2015

  13. Male Infertility: The Effect of Natural Antioxidants and Phytocompounds on Seminal Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Adewoyin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Defective sperm function has been identified as the most common cause of infertility. The objective of this study was to review recent findings on the effects of various antioxidants on male fertility. High amounts of poly unsaturated fatty acid are found in the mammalian spermatozoa membranes, thereby making them susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Although, free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS play major roles in reproduction, they are strongly associated with oxidative stress. Furthermore, factors such as obesity, inflammation, pollutants and cigarette smoking are negatively correlated with spermatogenesis. Endogenous antioxidants system exists to mediate these damages. In a normal physiological state, the seminal plasma contains antioxidant enzyme mechanism that is capable of quenching these ROS as well as protecting the spermatozoa against any likely damage. However, high level of ROS triggered by inflammatory cells and oxidation of fatty acid in obese subjects may down play antioxidant mechanism resulting in oxidative stress. Evaluation of such oxidative stress is the first step in the treatment of male infertility through administration of suitable antioxidant. Notably, antioxidant such as vitamin E and C, carotenoids and carnitine have been found beneficial in restoring a balance between ROS generation and scavenging activities. There are emerging evidences that herbal products can also boost male reproductive functions. Nonetheless, a good lifestyle, regular exercise, avoidance of stress and observing safety rules at work are habits that can reverse male infertility.

  14. [Vitamins and minerals with antioxidant properties and cardiometabolic risk: controversies and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Antonela Siqueira; Barros, Camila Risso de; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta G

    2009-07-01

    Oxygen reactive species (ROS) are generated during cellular processes. In excess, they may cause damages to the cell. Oxidative stress is an imbalance in the redox state that favors oxidation. Endogenous enzymes and some vitamins and minerals participate in the plasma antioxidant defense. Vitamin E is found in the plasma and in the LDL particle, avoiding lipid peroxidation. Observational studies reported an inverse association between vitamin E consumption and cardiometabolic (CM) risk. However, clinical trials were not able to prove the efficacy of its supplementation on CM endpoints. Vitamin C participates in the vitamin E regeneration system, keeping the plasma's antioxidant potential. Data about beneficial effects of its supplementation in CM risk reduction are inconclusive. The antioxidant activity of carotenoids is partially responsible for its protective role against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Supplementation of this nutrient did not provide consistent findings in terms of CM risk reduction. Recently, zinc and selenium's participation in the antioxidant defense has been studied, yet its supplementation in individuals with normal levels and adequate ingestion of these nutrients does not seem necessary. In summary, the role of these micronutrients for CM risk is still very controversial. Epidemiological studies suggest that diets rich in antioxidants, or simply in fruit and vegetables intake, can reduce CM risk. Further studies are needed before recommending antioxidant supplements for this purpose.

  15. Antioxidant systems are regulated by nitric oxide-mediated post-translational modifications (NO-PTMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Begara-Morales

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a biological messenger that orchestrates a plethora of plant functions, mainly through post-translational modifications (PTMs such as S-nitrosylation or tyrosine nitration. In plants, hundreds of proteins have been identified as potential targets of these NO-PTMs under physiological and stress conditions indicating the relevance of NO in plant-signaling mechanisms. Among these NO protein targets, there are different antioxidant enzymes involved in the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as H2O2, which is also a signal molecule. This highlights the close relationship between ROS/NO signaling pathways. The major plant antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutases (SODs peroxiredoxins (Prx and all the enzymatic components of the ascorbate-glutathione (Asa-GSH cycle, have been shown to be modulated to different degrees by NO-PTMs. This mini-review will update the recent knowledge concerning the interaction of NO with these antioxidant enzymes, with a special focus on the components of the Asa-GSH cycle and their physiological relevance.

  16. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2011-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  17. Endogeneity Of Indonesian Money Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Rachma, Meutia Safrina

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5)-2010(6), the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not hav...

  18. Habits, aspirations and endogenous fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Fanti

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the increasing literature on endogenous preferences as well as on endogenous fertility, this paper investigates the implications of the interaction of the endogenous determination of the number of children with habit and aspiration formation in an OLG model. In contrast with the previous literature, we show that greater aspirations may lead to higher savings, and more interestingly, always increase the neoclassical economic growth.

  19. Endogenous Monetary Policy Regime Change

    OpenAIRE

    Troy Davig; Eric M. Leeper

    2006-01-01

    This paper makes changes in monetary policy rules (or regimes) endogenous. Changes are triggered when certain endogenous variables cross specified thresholds. Rational expectations equilibria are examined in three models of threshold switching to illustrate that (i) expectations formation effects generated by the possibility of regime change can be quantitatively important; (ii) symmetric shocks can have asymmetric effects; (iii) endogenous switching is a natural way to formally model preempt...

  20. Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Sureda, Antoni; Khanjani, Sedigheh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria

    2016-04-28

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate), in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in mouse brain. GA and its synthetic analogues were found to be active (at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg) in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior and, at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses, with M3OMG being the most active of these compounds. SOD, TBARS, and GSH all showed strong correlation with behavioral parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is tightly linked to the pathological processes involved in stroke and PSD. As a whole, the obtained results show that the administration of GA, M3OMG and P3OMG induce a reduction in depressive symptoms and oxidative stress.

  1. Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG, possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate, in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (Cat activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and reduced glutathione (GSH levels in mouse brain. GA and its synthetic analogues were found to be active (at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior and, at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses, with M3OMG being the most active of these compounds. SOD, TBARS, and GSH all showed strong correlation with behavioral parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is tightly linked to the pathological processes involved in stroke and PSD. As a whole, the obtained results show that the administration of GA, M3OMG and P3OMG induce a reduction in depressive symptoms and oxidative stress.

  2. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  3. RITA plus 3-MA overcomes chemoresistance of head and neck cancer cells via dual inhibition of autophagy and antioxidant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Daiha; Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Jaewang; Roh, Jong-Lyel

    2017-10-01

    Reactivation of p53 and induction of tumor cell apoptosis (RITA) is a small molecule that blocks p53-MDM2 interaction, thereby reactivating p53 in tumors. RITA can induce exclusive apoptosis in cancer cells independently of the p53 pathway; however, the resistance of cancer cells remains a major drawback. Here, we found a novel resistance mechanism of RITA treatment and an effective combined treatment to overcome RITA resistance in head and neck cancer (HNC) cells. The effects of RITA and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were tested in different HNC cell lines, including cisplatin-resistant and acquired RITA-resistant HNC cells. The effects of each drug alone and in combination were assessed by measuring cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, glutathione, reactive oxygen species, protein expression, genetic inhibition of p62 and Nrf2, and a mouse xenograft model of cisplatin-resistant HNC. RITA induced apoptosis of HNC cells at different levels without significantly inhibiting normal cell viability. Following RITA treatment, RITA-resistant HNC cells exhibited a sustained expression of other autophagy-related proteins, overexpressed p62, and displayed activation of the Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA sensitized resistant HNC cells to RITA treatment via the dual inhibition of molecules related to the autophagy and antioxidant systems. Silencing of the p62 gene augmented the combined effects. The effective antitumor activity of RITA plus 3-MA was also confirmed in vivo in mouse xenograft models transplanted with resistant HNC cells, showing increased oxidative stress and DNA damage. The results indicate that RITA plus 3-MA can help overcome RITA resistance in HNC cells. This study revealed a novel RITA resistant mechanism associated with the sustained induction of autophagy, p62 overexpression, and Keap1-Nrf2 antioxidant system activation. The combined treatment of RITA with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine overcomes RITA resistance via dual

  4. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  5. Melatonin analgesia is associated with improvement of the descending endogenous pain-modulating system in fibromyalgia: a phase II, randomized, double-dummy, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Central disinhibition is a mechanism involved in the physiopathology of fibromyalgia. Melatonin can improve sleep quality, pain and pain threshold. We hypothesized that treatment with melatonin alone or in combination with amitriptyline would be superior to amitriptyline alone in modifying the endogenous pain-modulating system (PMS) as quantified by conditional pain modulation (CPM), and this change in CPM could be associated with serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We also tested whether melatonin improves the clinical symptoms of pain, pain threshold and sleep quality. Methods Sixty-three females, aged 18 to 65, were randomized to receive bedtime amitriptyline (25 mg) (n = 21), melatonin (10 mg) (n = 21) or melatonin (10 mg) + amitriptyline (25 mg) (n = 21) for a period of six weeks. The descending PMS was assessed with the CPM-TASK. It was assessed the pain score on the Visual Analog Scale (VAS 0-100 mm), the score on Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), heat pain threshold (HPT), sleep quality and BDNF serum. Delta values (post- minus pre-treatment) were used to compare the treatment effect. The outcomes variables were collected before, one and six weeks after initiating treatment. Results Melatonin alone or in combination with amitriptyline reduced significantly pain on the VAS compared with amitriptyline alone (P FIQ and PPT improvement (P FIQ and PPT. Trial registration Current controlled trail is registered at clinical trials.gov upon under number NCT02041455. Registered January 16, 2014. PMID:25052847

  6. Antioxidant status of interval-trained athletes in various sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dékány, M; Nemeskéri, V; Györe, I; Harbula, I; Malomsoki, J; Pucsok, J

    2006-02-01

    Muscular exercise results in an increased production of free radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Further, developing evidence implicates cytotoxins as an underlying etiology of exercise-induced stimuli in muscle redox status, which could result in muscle fatigue and/or injury. Two major classes of endogenous protective mechanisms (enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants) work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. This study examined the effects of acute physical exercise on the enzymatic antioxidant systems of different athletes and comparison was made to the mechanism of action of three main antioxidant enzymes in the blood. Handball players (n = 6), water-polo players (n = 20), hockey players (n = 22), basketball players (n = 24), and a sedentary control group (n = 10 female and n = 9 male) served as the subjects of this study. The athletes were divided into two groups according to the observed changes of activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme. The antioxidant enzyme systems were characterized by catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and measured by spectrophotometry. An important finding in the present investigation is that when the activities of SOD increased, the activities of GPX and CAT increased also and this finding related to the physical status of interval-trained athletes. Positive correlation between SOD and GPX activities was observed (r = 0.38 females, r = 0.56 males; p antioxidant enzyme systems of athletes are sport specific, and different from control subjects. Presumably, with interval-trained athletes, hydrogen-peroxide is significantly eliminated by glutathione-peroxidase. From these results it can be concluded that the blood redox status should be taken into consideration when establishing a fitness level for individual athletes.

  7. Prenatal methylmercury exposure hampers glutathione antioxidant system ontogenesis and causes long-lasting oxidative stress in the mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringari, James; Nunes, Adriana K.C.; Franco, Jeferson L.; Bohrer, Denise; Garcia, Solange C.; Dafre, Alcir L.; Milatovic, Dejan; Souza, Diogo O.; Rocha, Joao B.T.; Aschner, Michael; Farina, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    During the perinatal period, the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely sensitive to metals, including methylmercury (MeHg). Although the mechanism(s) associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity remains obscure, several studies point to the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant system as an important molecular target for this toxicant. To extend our recent findings of MeHg-induced GSH dyshomeostasis, the present study was designed to assess the developmental profile of the GSH antioxidant system in the mouse brain during the early postnatal period after in utero exposure to MeHg. Pregnant mice were exposed to different doses of MeHg (1, 3 and 10 mg/l, diluted in drinking water, ad libitum) during the gestational period. After delivery, pups were killed at different time points - postnatal days (PND) 1, 11 and 21 - and the whole brain was used for determining biochemical parameters related to the antioxidant GSH system, as well as mercury content and the levels of F 2 -isoprostane. In control animals, cerebral GSH levels significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period; gestational exposure to MeHg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of this developmental event. Cerebral glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities significantly increased over time during the early postnatal period in control animals; gestational MeHg exposure induced a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both developmental phenomena. These adverse effects of prenatal MeHg exposure were corroborated by marked increases in cerebral F 2 -isoprostanes levels at all time points. Significant negative correlations were found between F 2 -isoprostanes and GSH, as well as between F 2 -isoprostanes and GPx activity, suggesting that MeHg-induced disruption of the GSH system maturation is related to MeHg-induced increased lipid peroxidation in the pup brain. In utero MeHg exposure also caused a dose-dependent increase in the cerebral levels of mercury at

  8. Endogenous fertility and development traps with endogenous lifetime

    OpenAIRE

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We extend the literature on endogenous lifetime and economic growth by Chakraborty (2004) and Bunzel and Qiao (2005) to endogenous fertility. We show that development traps due to underinvestments in health cannot appear when fertility is an economic decision variable and the costs of children are represented by a constant fraction of the parents' income used for their upbringing.

  9. Do Endogenous and Exogenous Action Control Compete for Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Roland; Heinemann, Alexander; Kiesel, Andrea; Thomaschke, Roland; Janczyk, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Human actions are guided either by endogenous action plans or by external stimuli in the environment. These two types of action control seem to be mediated by neurophysiologically and functionally distinct systems that interfere if an endogenously planned action suddenly has to be performed in response to an exogenous stimulus. In this case, the…

  10. Dermal carotenoid level and kinetics after topical and systemic administration of antioxidants: enrichment strategies in a controlled in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvin, Maxim E; Fluhr, Joachim W; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Meinke, Martina C; Zastrow, Leonhard; Golz, Karin; Doucet, Olivier; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2011-10-01

    High doses of sun-emitted UV-radiation induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) as major pro-oxidants thus inducing premature skin aging. The best prevention of the destructive action of free radicals in human skin is textile coverings, topical sunscreens and the development of a high antioxidative protective network. The effects of topical, systemic and combined application of antioxidants (AO) were investigated on human skin in vivo. Topical application of creams and systemic incorporation of tablets both containing AO was investigated in vivo by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Topical, systemic and combined AO-treatments induced a statistically significant increase of AO levels in human skin while placebo did not show any changes. The highest accumulation was induced by the combination of topical and systemic AO. Carotenoid-tablets combined with placebo-cream induced less carotenoid accumulation than carotenoid-tablets alone. Carotenoid levelling after the end of treatment lasted for around 2 weeks following the topical application of AOs, and up to 5 weeks after systemic administration, depending on the BMI of volunteers. Topically applied AO are stored in the SC for a short time only due to the rapid AO-depletion by desquamation, textile contact, washing and environmental stress. In contrast to topical application, the systemically applied carotenoids are stored in the body fat tissue and slowly released onto the skin surface with sweat and sebum. The combined topical and systemic application of AO represents an optimal form of protection of the AO-network. Copyright © 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antioxidative system in the liver of rates subjected to combined irradiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovic, M.; Stanimirovic, D.; Ivanovic, L.; Markovic, M.; Letic-Gavrilovic, A.; Jovic, P.; Savic, J.; Spasic, M.; Saicic, Z.S.

    1991-01-01

    Until the Chernobyl nuclear plant catastrophe, exposure to radiation combined with other forms of injuries was usually considered as a hazard of nuclear war. The effect of combined irradiation injuries are often defined as the simultaneous effect of irradiation and another noxious stimulus. In the authors' opinion (1) one may talk about combined irradiation injuries (CII) only in the case when the general response of an organism to traumatization is the combination of biological reactions to at least two different etiologic noxious stimuli of which one is irradiation. One of the basic problems of combined injuries in general and CII in particular, is the syndrome of mutual aggravation (SMA) expressed through a very high (potentiated) lethality. The real mechanism(s) of this syndrome is still unknown. In our model of combined irradiation injury, potentiation of irradiation effect was smaller if animals were irradiated in the hypometabolic (open-quotes ebbclose quotes) compared to the hypermetabolic (open-quotes flowclose quotes) phase after thermal injury. Since the oxygen uptake is greater in the hypermetabolic phase the free radical production is also greater. On the other hand, the transition of hypometabolic to hypermetabolic phase could be analogous to a hypoxia/reoxygenation state. According to Granger et al. this state induces an increase in free radical production. When irradiation injury follows scalding it induces a new flux of free radicals. As a result the antioxidative defense of an organism could be overwhelmed and a disturbance of oxidative-antioxidative processes might occur. Thus, the authors suppose that overwhelmed antioxidative defense could be the reason for potentiated lethality in combined irradiation injury. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  12. The responses of antioxidant system in bitter melon, sponge gourd, and winter squash under flooding and chilling stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tuong Ha; Nguyen, Hoang Chinh; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the responses of antioxidant system and physiological parameters of bitter melon (BM), sponge gourd (SG), and winter squash (WS) under waterlogged and low temperature conditions. The BM and SG plants were subjected to 0-72 h flooding treatments, and BM and WS plants were exposed to chilling at 12/7 °C (day/night) for 0-72 h. Different genotypes responded differently to environmental stress according to their various antioxidant system and physiological parameters. Increased ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities provided SG and WS plants with increased waterlogging and chilling stress tolerance, respectively, compared to BM plants. The APX gene from SG and the SOD gene from WS were then cloned, and the regulation of APX and SOD gene expressions under flooding and chilling stress, respectively, were also measured. Increased expression of APX and SOD genes was accompanied by the increased activity of the enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to those stresses. Both APX and SOD activities can be used for selecting BM lines with the best tolerances to water logging and chilling stresses.

  13. Polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of legume based swards are affected by light intensity in a Mediterranean agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Giovanni Antonio; Piluzza, Giovanna; Sanna, Federico; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Sulas, Leonardo

    2018-06-01

    In Mediterranean grazed woodlands, microclimate changes induced by trees influence the growth and development of the understory, but very little is known about its polyphenolic composition in relation to light intensity. We investigated the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of different legume-based swards and variations due to full sunlight and partial shade. The research was carried out in a cork oak agrosilvopastoral system in Sardinia. The highest values of DPPH reached 7 mmol TEAC 100 g -1 DW, total phenolics 67.1 g GAE kg -1 DW and total flavonoids 7.5 g CE kg -1 DW. Compared to full sunlight, partial shade reduced DPPH values by 29 and 42%, and the total phenolic content by 23 and 53% in 100% legume mixture and semi natural pasture. Twelve phenolic compounds were detected: chlorogenic acid in 80% legume mixture (partial shade) and verbascoside in pure sward of bladder clover (full sunlight) were the most abundant. Light intensity significantly affected antioxidant capacity, composition and levels of phenolic compounds. Our results provide new insights into the effects of light intensity on plant secondary metabolites from legume based swards, underlining the important functions provided by agroforestry systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. The Naïve Murine Cornea as a Model System to Identify Novel Endogenous Regulators of Lymphangiogenesis: TRAIL and rtPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenfuß, Birgit; Dreisow, Marie-Luise; Hos, Deniz; Masli, Sharmila; Bock, Felix; Cursiefen, Claus

    2015-06-01

    In the murine cornea, which is an established model for analyzing pathologic lymphatic vessel growth, phenotypic heterogeneity of the endogenous lymphatic vessels in the limbus of the cornea was previously described. In this study, the cornea of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and FVB mice with different limbal lymphangiogenic phenotypes was analyzed to identify novel candidates potentially influencing lymphatic vessel growth. Pathway specific expression analysis of the cornea was performed to identify novel candidate genes. Corneal protein expression of the respective candidates was analyzed by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. The effect of the candidates on proliferation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (HDLECs) was analyzed by BrdU proliferation ELISA. Thirteen genes were differentially regulated in corneas of mouse strains with more endogenous limbal lymphatic vessels (high-lymphangiogenic) (C57BL/6) compared to mouse strains with less endogenous limbal lymphatic vessels (low-lymphangiogenic) (BALB/c, FVB). Two candidates, Tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily member 10 (Tnfsf10/Trail) and Plasminogen activator, tissue (Plat/tPA) were expressed in the cornea of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice on the protein level. In vitro, Trail and recombinant tPA inhibited the proliferation of human dermal lymphatic endothelial cells. Molecular analysis of the naive cornea in mouse strains with different limbal lymphatic phenotypes is a valuable model to identify novel endogenous regulators of lymphangiogenesis.

  15. Effect of antioxidants on x-ray induced DNA SSB and DSB in different cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadu, Kadem

    1998-01-01

    The effect of x-ray radiation or antioxidants such as actinomycin D, cycloheximide and mitomycin C is studied on CHO, BHK and HeLa cells. X-ray radiation caused DNA single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) are prevented by cycloheximide and actinomycin-D. The DSB and SSB are significant in the case of x-ray radiation in combination with MMC, but different with actinomycin-D and cycloheximide in combination with x-ray radiation which causes less number of SSB and DSB. The ISC is observed more with x-ray radiation in combination with antioxidants mitomycin C (MMC) than that of cycloheximide and actinomycin-D, which individually causes inhibition of ISC induced by x-ray radiation. This observation proves that the MMC has an additive effect on x-ray induced ISC during cell proliferation. During cell proliferation, cell viability is observed with x-ray radiation and antioxidants which are dependent on the cell cycle phase. However, in the control cells, the initial Go-phase has shown negligible difference in percent cell viability thereby during S-phase gradual increase in the cell viability, and cell proliferation have been found to be stopped at G2+M-phase. On the contrary, cell viability and the extent of cell proliferation with x-ray radiation in combination with MMC have shown more damage (OH-damage) than is caused by x-ray radiation and MMC, separately. But, the fact is that actinomycin-D and cycloheximide act as antioxidants preventing thereby free radical formation and cell death, caused by x-ray radiation. During cell proliferation, cells observed from S and (G2+M) phase exhibit difference in cell viability in all the treatments alone and in combination. HeLa cells have been found insensitive to x-ray radiation and could be ascribed to the presence of glutathione transferase, which is less in CHO/BHK cell line. (author)

  16. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  17. Controlled cross-over study in normal subjects of naloxone-preceding-lactate infusions; respiratory and subjective responses: relationship to endogenous opioid system, suffocation false alarm theory and childhood parental loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, M; Lee, S H; Petkova, E; Vannucci, M; Kim, S; Klein, D F

    2011-02-01

    The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol. Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded. Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL. Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone+lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area.

  18. Controlled cross-over study in normal subjects of naloxone-preceding-lactate infusions; respiratory and subjective responses: relationship to endogenous opioid system, suffocation false alarm theory and childhood parental loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preter, M.; Lee, S. H.; Petkova, E.; Vannucci, M.; Kim, S.; Klein, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol. Method Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded. Results Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL. Conclusions Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone + lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area. PMID:20444308

  19. Effect of Artemisia absinthium essential oil on antioxidative systems of broiler's liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Ljiljana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Artemisia absinthium essential oil (AAEO on enzymatic activity of super-oxide-dismutase (SOD, glutathione-peroxidase (GSHPx, glutathione-reductase (GR, peroxidase (POD, xantine-oxidase (XOD and non-enzymatic (content of lipid peroxides (LPx and gluthathione (GSH antioxidative status of broilers infected with mixture of oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria mitis and Eimeria necatrix in comparison to coccidiostat salinomycin was investigated. The in vivo investigation were carried out on 120 Arbor acres broilers of both sexes. Broilers were randomly distributed into four groups. Group A was uninfected and untreated; group B was infected and was kept untreated; group C preventively received coccidiostatic salinomycin in quantity of 60 mg/kg of feed and was inoculated with coccidia species at 21st day-of-age and group D received in feed AAEO in quantity of 3 g/kg and was infected with Eimeria oocysts at 21st day-of-age. Livers were collected for the subsequent evaluation of antioxidative status. It was concluded that AAEO added in feed for broilers prevented the development of coccidia oocysts and therefore it can be used as prophylactic feed additive.

  20. Optimal binary solvent extraction system for phenolic antioxidants from mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Ho, Swee Kheng; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-06-14

    Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to enhance product quality by preventing oxidation of susceptible substances. This work was carried out to maximise the recovery of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity and 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity from Morinda citrifolia fruit via modification of the ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature at minimal processing cost. The optimised conditions yielded values of 881.57 ± 17.74 mg GAE/100 g DW for TPC, 552.53 ± 34.16 mg CE/100 g DW for TFC, 799.20 ± 2.97 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for ABTS and 2,317.01 ± 18.13 µmol TEAC/100 g DW for DPPH were 75% ethanol, 40 min of time and 57 °C. The four responses did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) from predicted values, indicating that models obtained are suitable to the optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolics from M. citrifolia. The relative amounts of flavonoids were 0.784 ± 0.01 mg quercetin/g of extract and 1.021 ± 0.04 mg rutin/g of extract. On the basis of the results obtained, M. citrifolia extract can be used as a valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  1. Hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense system of juvenile jumbo squids in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) is a large oceanic squid endemic off the Eastern Tropical Pacific that undertakes diel vertical migrations into mesopelagic oxygen minimum zones. One of the expected physiological effects of such migration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the surface, promoted by the transition between hypoxia and reoxygenation states. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure rates and the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas under normoxia and hypoxia, namely by quantifying oxygen consumption rates, antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], heat shock protein expression (Hsp70/Hsc70), and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. A high significant decrease (68%) in squid's metabolic rates was observed during hypoxia (p0.05), with the latter indicating no enhancement of lipid peroxidation (i.e. cellular damage) at the warmer and normoxic surface waters. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how this species is quickly responding to the impacts of environmental stressors coupled with global climate change.

  2. Oxidative stress and antioxidative systems: recipes for successful data collection and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; Mhamdi, Amna; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-05-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common to many fundamental responses of plants. Enormous and ever-growing interest has focused on this research area, leading to an extensive literature that documents the tremendous progress made in recent years. As in other areas of plant biology, advances have been greatly facilitated by developments in genomics-dependent technologies and the application of interdisciplinary techniques that generate information at multiple levels. At the same time, advances in understanding ROS are fundamentally reliant on the use of biochemical and cell biology techniques that are specific to the study of oxidative stress. It is therefore timely to revisit these approaches with the aim of providing a guide to convenient methods and assisting interested researchers in avoiding potential pitfalls. Our critical overview of currently popular methodologies includes a detailed discussion of approaches used to generate oxidative stress, measurements of ROS themselves, determination of major antioxidant metabolites, assays of antioxidative enzymes and marker transcripts for oxidative stress. We consider the applicability of metabolomics, proteomics and transcriptomics approaches and discuss markers such as damage to DNA and RNA. Our discussion of current methodologies is firmly anchored to future technological developments within this popular research field. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of Platycodin D on Reflux Esophagitis due to Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Yeon Cho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The effects of platycodin D (PD pretreatment were examined in reflux esophagitis (RE induced rats. Methods. Sham, control, and omeprazole (OMP group were pretreated with distilled water or OMP as a reference, respectively, and PD pretreated groups were given 3 different PD doses once a day for 7 days. One hour after last pretreatment, RE was induced by ligation of the forestomach and pylorus. At 8 h after operation, all animals were sacrificed. Results. PD showed significant dose-dependent reduction of gastric secretion, myeloperoxidase activity, and RE lesion areas of esophagus and stomach mucosa. There was a reduction of lipid peroxidation in 2 doses of PD groups and elevation of antioxidant enzyme activity in all PD groups. Gastric hexose and sialic acid were significantly increased in PD groups, while collagen was reduced. Plasma histamine levels were significantly reduced in all PD groups, but not in the OMP group. Total invasive lesion sizes of esophagus and gastric fundus were significantly decreased in all PD groups. Thicknesses in esophagus of all PD groups were significantly decreased and thicknesses of funds were significantly increased except lowest PD dose. Conclusions. Therapeutic effects of PD on the esophageal and gastric lesions were shown in RE induced rats dose-dependently. The PD pretreatment had significant antioxidant effects with regulation of histamine levels. This study provides useful information regarding the effectiveness of the drug for RE and further novel drug discovery using natural herbal products.

  4. Effect of Calcium and Potassium on Antioxidant System of Vicia faba L. Under Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayssam M. Ali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd in soil poses a major threat to plant growth and productivity. In the present experiment, we studied the effect of calcium (Ca2+ and/or potassium (K+ on the antioxidant system, accumulation of proline (Pro, malondialdehyde (MDA, and content of photosynthetic pigments, cadmium (Cd and nutrients, i.e., Ca2+ and K+ in leaf of Vicia faba L. (cv. TARA under Cd stress. Plants grown in the presence of Cd exhibited reduced growth traits [root length (RL plant−1, shoot length (SL plant−1, root fresh weight (RFW plant−1, shoot fresh weight (SFW plant−1, root dry weight (RDW plant−1 and shoot dry weight (SDW plant−1] and concentration of Ca2+, K+, Chlorophyll (Chl a and Chl b content, except content of MDA, Cd and (Pro. The antioxidant enzymes [peroxidase (POD and superoxide dismutase (SOD] slightly increased as compared to control under Cd stress. However, a significant improvement was observed in all growth traits and content of Ca2+, K+, Chl a, Chl b ,Pro and activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT, POD and SOD in plants subjected to Ca2+ and/or K+. The maximum alleviating effect was recorded in the plants grown in medium containing Ca2+ and K+ together. This study indicates that the application of Ca2+ and/or K+ had a significant and synergistic effect on plant growth. Also, application of Ca2+ and/or K+ was highly effective against the toxicity of Cd by improving activity of antioxidant enzymes and solute that led to the enhanced plant growth of faba bean plants.

  5. Changes in Antioxidant Defense System Using Different Lipid Emulsions in Parenteral Nutrition in Children after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Auxiliadora Baena-Gómez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally, lipids used in parenteral nutrition (PN are based on ω-6 fatty acid-rich vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, with potential adverse effects involving oxidative stress. Methods: We evaluated the antioxidant defense system in children, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, who were randomized to use a lipid emulsion with fish oil or soybean oil. Blood samples at baseline, at 10 days, and at the end of the PN were taken to analyze plasma retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, coenzyme Q9 and coenzyme Q10 levels, and catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPOX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels in lysed erythrocytes. Results: An increase in plasma α-tocopherol levels in the group of patients receiving the fish oil-containing emulsion (FO compared with the group receiving the soybean emulsion was observed at day 10 of PN. Concurrently, plasma α-tocopherol increased in the FO group and β-carotene decreased in both groups at day 10 compared with baseline levels, being more significant in the group receiving the FO emulsion. Conclusion: FO-containing emulsions in PN could improve the antioxidant profile by increasing levels of α-tocopherol in children after HSCT who are at higher risk of suffering oxidative stress and metabolic disorders.

  6. Modulation of the Antioxidant System Efficacy in Irradiated Rats Supplemented with Vitamin B12 cobalamin and Folic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, M.F.; Abu-Zied, N.M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study has been performed to investigate the possible curative and protective role of supplemented vitamin B 12 and folic acid in the irradiation induced changes in certain biochemical parameters in hepatic tissue and blood. The biochemical analysis was done at one and fourteen days post irradiation. The data revealed serious effects of radiation exposure on the membrane integrity as reflected by increased serum potassium associated with decreased sodium levels. Oxidation of lipid and protein with antioxidant disorders were recorded after radiation exposure as reflected by increased contents of carbonyl and Gamma glutamyl transferase. The results showed significant increase in the level of lipid peroxide product (malonaldehyde) and significant decrease in the level of antioxidant defense system (glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, super oxid dismutase, catalase and glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase) after one and fourteen day's supplementation with vitamin B 12 and folic acid. Supplemented of vitamin B 12 and folic acid before radiation exposure attenuated the harmful effects of irradiation on the most chosen parameters. The beneficial role of supplemented vitamin B 12 and folic acid may be related to its ability in quenching free radicals scavenging reactive oxygen species and improving regeneration in the biological tissues

  7. Effects of two different high doses of irradiation on antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Yildiz; Bukan, Neslihan; Dizman, Aysen; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Bilgihan, Ayse

    2004-03-01

    To examine the state of the oxidant-antioxidant system in the liver of guinea pig caused by high doses of ionizing radiation in the early period. The research was carried out on guinea pigs irradiated with the doses of 8 Gy (group 2) or 15 Gy (group 3) (single dose/whole body) in comparison with control group (group 1). The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH), the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the levels of selenium in the liver were measured. TBARS levels in the irradiated animals were markedly higher than those in controls. In group 3, GSH levels and GSH-Px activity were significantly increased while activity of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased compared to groups 1 and 2. Liver selenium levels were not influenced by irradiation. The data have shown that gamma-irradiation at the doses of 8 Gy or 15 Gy results in significant increase in free radical formation while antioxidant enzymes were affected only at a dose of 15 Gy.

  8. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Yanping; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Han; Mei, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Dongyou; Wang, Yibing; Li, Weifen

    2017-05-19

    Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells' viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  9. [Effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and NADPH-producing enzymes in rat heart under experimental hyperthyroidism conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    The effects of melaxen and valdoxan on the activity of glutathione antioxidant system and some NADPH-producing enzymes have been studied under conditions of experimental hyperthyroidism in rat heart. Under the action of these drugs, reduced glutathione (GSH) content increased as compared to values observed under the conditions of pathology. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase (increased under pathological conditions) change toward the intact control values upon the introduction of both drugs. The influence of melaxen and valdoxan, capable of producing antioxidant effect, leads apparently to the inhibition of free-radical oxidation processes and, as a consequence, the reduction of mobilization degree of the glutathione antioxidant system.

  10. Response of antioxidant system of tomato to water deficit stress and its interaction with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Daneshmand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses including water deficit stress may produce oxidants such as reactive oxygen species that damage the membrane structure in plants. Among the antioxidants, ascorbic acid has a critical role in the cell and scavenges reactive oxygen species. In this research, effects of ascorbic acid at two levels (0 and 10 mM and water deficit stress based on 3 levels of field capacity (100, 60 and 30% were studied in tomato plants. Both levels of stress increased lipid peroxidation, reduced the amount of ascorbic acid and glutathione and increased the activity of enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guaiacol peroxidase and reduced the growth parameters. Ascorbic acid treatment, reduced lipid peroxidation, increased ascorbic acid and glutathione levels and decreased the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase and positive effects of ascorbic acid treatment appeared to improve the plant growth parameters.

  11. Involvement of Antioxidative Defense System in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Aluminum Toxicity and Phosphorus Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-rong GUO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in acid soils may suffer both phosphorus (P deficiency and aluminum (Al toxicity. Hydroponic experiments were undertaken to assess the single and combination effects of Al toxicity and low P stress on seedling growth, chlorophyll and proline contents, antioxidative response and lipid peroxidation of two rice genotypes (Yongyou 8 and Xiushui 132 differing in Al tolerance. Al toxicity and P deficiency both inhibited rice seedling growth. The development of toxic symptoms was characterized by reduced chlorophyll content, increased proline and malondialdehyde contents in both roots and leaves, and increased peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in roots, but decreased in leaves. The stress condition induced more severe growth inhibition and oxidative stress in Yongyou 8, and Xiushui 132 showed higher tolerance to both Al toxicity and P deficiency. P deficiency aggravated Al toxicity to plant growth and induced more severe lipid peroxidation.

  12. Edible solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN as carrier system for antioxidants of different lipophilicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Oehlke

    Full Text Available Ferulic acid (FA and tocopherol (Toc loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN were prepared by a hot homogenisation method. The particle size distribution, zeta potential and melting behaviour of the SLN as well as the stability, encapsulation efficiency and radical scavenging activity of FA and Toc in the SLN were analysed. The different formulations containing up to 2.8 mg g-1 of FA or Toc were stable during at least 15 weeks of storage at room temperature. Despite partial degradation and / or release of FA and Toc during storage, significant radical scavenging activity was maintained. DSC measurements and radical scavenging tests after different time periods revealed that the re-structuring of the lipid matrix was connected to the enhanced antioxidant activity of Toc but did not affect the activity of FA.

  13. Effect of soil herbicides on the antioxidant system of maize vegetative organs during ontogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.P. Grigoryuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of soil herbicides Harnes, Frontier and Merlin on the activity of enzymes superoxid dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6, and benzidine peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7 in maize (Zea mays L.; cultivar Kadr 267 MV roots and leaves was studied in the field experiment. It was established that the adaptation of maize plants to the herbicides treatment was accompanied by significant activation of antioxidant enzymes both in roots (39%, 57%, and 67% above control level and leaves (50%, 64%, and 77% above control, respectively during different vegetation stages (shoots emergence; 3–5 leaves phase; florescence. The herbicides-induced changes of enzymes activity high correlated with ontogenetic dynamics of control plants activity: r = 0.98 for SOD; r = 0.96 for POD; r = 0.98 for CAT.

  14. The antioxidative response system in Glycine max (L.) Merr. exposed to Deltamethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Fozia; Mahmooduzzafar; Siddiqi, T.O.; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2007-01-01

    Forty-five-day-old plants of Glycine max (soybean) were exposed to several Deltamethrin (synthetic pyrethroid insecticide) concentrations (0.00 %, 0.05 %, 0.10 %, 0.15 % and 0.20 %) through foliar spray in the field conditions. In the treated plants, as observed at the pre-flowering (10 DAT), flowering (45 DAT) and post-flowering (70 DAT) stages, lipid peroxidation, proline content and total glutathione content increased, whereas the total ascorbate content decreased, as compared with the control. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase increased significantly whereas that of catalase declined markedly in relation to increasing concentration of Deltamethrin applied. The changes observed were dose-dependent, showing a strong correlation with the degree of treatment. - The Deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress alters the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in Glycine max

  15. Fibroblast growth factor-mediated proliferation of central nervous system precursors depends on endogenous production of insulin-like growth factor I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, J.; Murphy, M.; Carroll, S.M.; Harvey, R.P.; Bartlett, P.F.

    1991-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor stimulates proliferation and subsequent differentiation of precursor cells isolated from the neuroepithelium of embryonic day 10 mice in vitro. Here we show that fibroblast growth factor-induced proliferation is dependent on the presence of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and that IGF-I is endogenously produced by the neuroepithelial cells. Blocking of endogenous IGF-I activity with anti-IGF-I antibodies results in complete inhibition of fibroblast growth factor-mediated proliferation and in cell death. IGF-I alone acts as a survival agent. These observations correlate with the detection of transcripts for IGF-I and basic fibroblast growth factor in freshly isolated neuroepithelium and are consistent with an autocrine action of these factors in early brain development in vivo

  16. Nrf2 and regulation of the antioxidant system in the Antarctic silverfish, Pleuragramma antarctica: Adaptation to environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Maria Elisa; Benedetti, Maura; Nigro, Marco; Regoli, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Despite the key importance of Nrf2-Keap1 in regulating antioxidant system in vertebrates, this system is still poorly investigated in marine species. The present study focused on the Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarctica which, during the final phases of embryo development in platelet ice, is challenged by a sudden enhancement of environmental oxidative conditions associated to ice melting. Partial coding sequences were identified for Nrf2, its repressor Keap1 and for typical Nrf2-target antioxidant genes, like catalase, glutathione peroxidase isoform 1 and Cu/Zn-dependent superoxide dismutase. Compared to temperate homologues, the protein sequences showed an elevated conservation of amino acids essential for catalytic functions, while a few specific substitutions in non-essential regions may represent a molecular adaptation to improve flexibility and accessibility to active site at cold temperatures. The role of the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway in modulating the activation of antioxidant defences was demonstrated at both transcriptional and functional levels with a clear temporal increase of antioxidant protection in embryos before the hatching. Such findings confirm the importance of Nrf2 and highlight regulation of antioxidants as an adaptive strategy in P. antarctica to protect the early life stages toward the environmental changes of pro-oxidant pressure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Amelioration of Heat Stress Induced Disturbances of Antioxidant Defense System in Chicken by Brahma Rasayana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramnath

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the range of comfort zone or thermo neutral zone of domestic chickens is narrow, they become easily susceptible to heat and cold environmental stress. We evaluated Brahma Rasayana (BR supplementation on concentrations of certain oxidative stress markers associated with heat stress. A total of 48 egg type male chickens of local strain were divided into six groups (n = 8 for the study. Three groups were fed with BR orally at the rate of 2 g/kg bw daily for 10 days prior to and during the period of experiment. Two of the four groups that were exposed to heat stress (HST i.e. to a temperature of 40 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 80 ± 5% in an environmental chamber for 4 h daily for 5 or 10 days, received BR orally. The other two groups remained as BR treated and untreated non-heat stressed (NHST controls. There was a significant (P < 0.05 increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood such as catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as liver CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione reductase (GR in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with untreated controls. A great deal of significant (P < 0.05 variations were seen in serum and liver reduced glutathione (GSH concentration in NHST-BR treated and HST-BR treated (both 5 and 10 days chickens. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher in HST-untreated (both 5 and 10 days chickens when compared with other groups. Thus BR supplementation during HST brings about enhanced action of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullified the undesired side effects of free radicals that are generated during HST.

  18. Responses of Landoltia punctata to cobalt and nickel: Removal, growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant system and starch metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ling; Ding, Yanqiang; Xu, Yaliang; Li, Zhidan; Jin, Yanling; He, Kaize; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai

    2017-09-01

    Landoltia punctata has been considered as a potential bioenergy crop due to its high biomass and starch yields in different cultivations. Cobalt and nickel are known to induce starch accumulation in duckweed. We monitored the growth rate, net photosynthesis rate, total chlorophyll content, Rubisco activity, Co 2+ and Ni 2+ contents, activity of antioxidant enzymes, starch content and activity of related enzymes under various concentrations of cobalt and nickel. The results indicate that Co 2+ and Ni 2+ (≤0.5mgL -1 ) can facilitate growth in the beginning. Although the growth rate, net photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content and Rubisco activity were significantly inhibited at higher concentrations (5mgL -1 ), the starch content increased sharply up to 53.3% dry weight (DW) in L. punctata. These results were attributed to the increase in adenosine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and soluble starch synthase (SSS) activities and the decrease in α-amylase activity upon exposure to excess Co 2+ and Ni 2+ . In addition, a substantial increase in the antioxidant enzyme activities and high flavonoid contents in L. punctata may have largely resulted in the metal tolerance. Furthermore, the high Co 2+ and Ni 2+ contents (2012.9±18.8 and 1997.7±29.2mgkg -1 DW) in the tissue indicate that L. punctata is a hyperaccumulator. Thus, L. punctata can be considered as a potential candidate for the simultaneous bioremediation of Co 2+ - and Ni 2+ -polluted water and high-quality biomass production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Indole-3-butyric acid mediates antioxidative defense systems to promote adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings under cadmium and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Weng; Zeng, Xiao-Ying; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Kang, Xiao-Hu

    2018-06-08

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine whether auxin can mediate the formation of adventitious roots in response to heavy metal and drought stresses using a model rooting plant, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. The treatments with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of adventitious roots in mung bean seedlings. In contrast, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), IBA considerably cancelled the inhibition of adventitious rooting by stresses. Treatment with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly increased the soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. CdCl 2 and mannitol stress each induced differentially significant changes in the activities of antioxidative enzyme and antioxidant levels during adventitious rooting. Notably, both CdCl 2 and mannitol stress strongly reduced the peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and glutathione (GSH) and phenols levels. Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were enhanced by CdCl 2 but reduced by mannitol. CdCl 2 increased the ascorbate acid (ASA) level, which was decreased by mannitol. Furthermore, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with IBA, IBA counteracted the CdCl 2 - or mannitol-induced increase or decrease in certain antioxidants, MDA, and antioxidative enzymes. These results suggest that Cd and mannitol stress inhibition of adventitious rooting is associated with the regulation of antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants in cells to defense the oxidative stress. Moreover, IBA alleviates the effects of Cd and mannitol stress on the rooting process partially through the regulation of antioxidative defense systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide regulates the levels of key metabolites and antioxidant defense system to counteract oxidative stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants exposed to high zinc regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Cengiz; Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2018-02-21

    In the present experiment, we aimed to test the impact of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) on growth, key oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide, mineral elements, and antioxidative defense in Capia-type red sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants subjected to high concentration of zinc (Zn). A factorial experiment was designed with two Zn levels (0.05 and 0.5 mM) and 0.2 mM sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) as a donor of H 2 S supplied in combination plus nutrient solution through the root zone. High level of Zn led to reduce dry mass, chlorophyll pigments, fruit yield, leaf maximum fluorescence, and relative water content, but enhanced endogenous hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), free proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), electrolyte leakage (EL), H 2 S, as well as the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. Exogenously applied NaHS significantly enhanced plant growth, fruit yield, water status, the levels of H 2 S and proline as well as the activities of different antioxidant enzymes, while it significantly suppressed EL, MDA, and H 2 O 2 contents in the pepper plants receiving low level Zn. NaHS application to the control plants did not significantly change all these parameters tested except the dry matter which increased significantly. High Zn regime led to increase intrinsic Zn levels in the leaves and roots, but it lowered leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe) concentrations. However, NaHS reduces the Zn conc. and enhances Fe and N in leaf and root organs. It can be concluded that NaHS can mitigate the harmful effects of Zn on plant growth particularly by lowering the concentrations of H 2 O 2 , Zn, EL, and MDA, and enhancing the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and levels of essential nutrients in pepper plants.

  1. Alternative oxidase pathway optimizes photosynthesis during osmotic and temperature stress by regulating cellular ROS, malate valve and antioxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DINAKAR eCHALLABATHULA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study reveals the importance of alternative oxidase (AOX pathway in optimizing photosynthesis under osmotic and temperature stress conditions in the mesophyll protoplasts of Pisum sativum. The responses of photosynthesis and respiration were monitored at saturating light intensity of 1000 µmoles m-2 s-1 at 25 oC under a range of sorbitol concentrations from 0.4 M to 1.0M to induce hyper-osmotic stress and by varying the temperature of the thermo-jacketed pre-incubation chamber from 25 oC to 10 oC to impose sub-optimal temperature stress. Compared to controls (0.4 M sorbitol and 25 OC, the mesophyll protoplasts showed remarkable decrease in NaHCO3-dependent O2 evolution (indicator of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, under both hyper-osmotic (1.0 M sorbitol and sub-optimal temperature stress conditions (10 OC, while the decrease in rates of respiratory O2 uptake were marginal. The capacity of AOX pathway increased significantly in parallel to increase in intracellular pyruvate and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels under both hyper-osmotic stress and sub-optimal temperature stress under the background of saturating light. The ratio of redox couple (Malate/OAA related to malate valve increased in contrast to the ratio of redox couple (GSH/GSSG related to antioxidative system during hyper-osmotic stress. Nevertheless, the ratio of GSH/GSSG decreased in the presence of sub-optimal temperature, while the ratio of Malate/OAA showed no visible changes. Also, the redox ratios of pyridine nucleotides increased under hyper-osmotic (NADH/NAD and sub-optimal temperature (NADPH/NADP stresses, respectively. However, upon restriction of AOX pathway by using salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, the observed changes in NaHCO3 dependent O2 evolution, cellular ROS, redox ratios of Malate/OAA, NAD(PH/NAD(P and GSH/GSSG were further aggravated under stress conditions with concomitant modulations in NADP-MDH and antioxidant enzymes. Taken together, the

  2. Bioactive Peptides from Angelica sinensis Protein Hydrolyzate Delay Senescence in Caenorhabditis elegans through Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS is known to be associated with aging and age-related diseases, strategies modulating ROS level and antioxidant defense systems may contribute to the delay of senescence. Here we show that the protein hydrolyzate from Angelica sinensis was capable of increasing oxidative survival of the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans intoxicated by paraquat. The hydrolyzate was then fractionated by ultrafiltration, and the antioxidant fraction (<3 kDa was purified by gel filtration to obtain the antioxidant A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps, which were mostly composed of peptides with <20 amino acid residues. Further studies demonstrate that AsiPeps were able to reduce the endogenous ROS level, increase the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, and decrease the content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde in nematodes treated with paraquat or undergoing senescence. AsiPeps were also shown to reduce age pigments accumulation and extend lifespan but did not affect the food-intake behavior of the nematodes. Taken together, our results demonstrate that A. sinensis peptides (AsiPeps are able to delay aging process in C. elegans through antioxidant activities independent of dietary restriction.

  3. LEVEL OF ZINC AND ITS FRACTIONS AS REFLECTION OF A CONDITION OF ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM AT THE CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE LUNG DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shevcova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate a possibility of use of zinc and its fractions as the indicator reflecting a condition of antioxidant system at sick HOBL and persons from risk groups. Materials and methods. Patients with COPD, smokers and non-smoking healthy people have participated in a research. Everything participated in a research has carried out spirometry with definition of an indicator of FEV1 and the subsequent calculation of FEV1 % of due. Taking into account importance of the occupied role when forming COPD of an oxidative stress have been determined the level of activity of the main enzyme of antitoskidantny protection — superoxide dismutases; level of zinc and its fractions as main component of enzyme and also albumine as main tranporter of metabolic active zinc. The indicator “a share of the related fraction of zinc” for definition of changes in fractions of zinc is entered. Results of the study. It is defined that at the smoking patients with the minimum malfunction of external breath of change of indicators are similar to that at patients with COPD. Statistically significant differences in the level of the studied indicators at non-smoking patients are also revealed. With use of the correlation analysis of Spirmen reliable high correlation communications between FEV1 % from due and activity level superoxide dismutases and also between activity level superoxide dismutases and the general level of zinc and also zinc connected are defined that confirms a hypothesis of a possibility of use of level of zinc and its fractions as the indicator reflecting a condition of antioxidant system at the smoking persons at screening researches. 

  4. ENDOGENEITY OF INDONESIAN MONEY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meutia Safrina Rachma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long debate about the endogeneity of money supply. The main objective of this article is to identify whether money supply in Indonesia is an exogenous or an endogenous variable. Using a Vector Autoregressive model and monthly data 1997(5-2010(6, the estimation result shows that money supply in Indonesia is an endogenous variable. The movement of broad money supply does influence the movement of base money and Consumer Price Index. Consequently, the central bank does not have control power on money supply. The bank is only able to maintain the stability and control the movement of broad money supply. Keywords: Endogenous variable, money supply, vector autoregressionJEL classification numbers: E51, E52, E58

  5. 59 eyes with endogenous endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren Solborg; la Cour, Morten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To study the epidemiology of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective and prospective case series of 59 eyes in patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Denmark between 2000 and 2016. RESULTS: The age of the patients ranged from 28 to......, the visual outcome and the mortality of the patients. The epidemiology of the disease is very different in Scandinavia compared to Asia. The visual prognosis remains grave and the majority of the eyes lose useful vision....

  6. Correlation of nucleotides and carbohydrates metabolism with pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems of erythrocytes depending on age in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuikov, S A; Borzenko, B G; Shatova, O P; Bakurova, E M; Polunin, G E

    2014-06-01

    To examine the relationship between metabolic features of purine nucleotides and antioxidant system depending on the age of patients with colorectal cancer. The activity of adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the NOx concentration and the oxidative modification of proteins were determined spectrophotometricaly in 50 apparently healthy people and 26 patients with colorectal cancer stage -III---IV, aged 40 to 79 years. Increase of pro-oxidant system of erythrocytes with the age against decrease in level of antioxidant protection in both healthy individuals and colorectal cancer patients was determined. A significant increase of pro-ducts of oxidative proteins modification in erythrocytes with ageing was shown. Statistically significant correlation between enzymatic and non enzymatic markers pro-oxidant system and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes in erythrocytes of patient with colorectal cancer was determined. Obtained results have demonstrated the imbalance in the antioxidant system of erythrocytes in colorectal cancer patients that improve the survival of cancer cells that is more distinctly manifested in ageing.

  7. Antioxidant properties of catechins: Comparison with other antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Michalina; Naparło, Katarzyna; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Sadowska-Bartosz, Izabela

    2018-02-15

    Antioxidant properties of five catechins and five other flavonoids were compared with several other natural and synthetic compounds and related to glutathione and ascorbate as key endogenous antioxidants in several in vitro tests and assays involving erythrocytes. Catechins showed the highest ABTS-scavenging capacity, the highest stoichiometry of Fe 3+ reduction in the FRAP assay and belonged to the most efficient compounds in protection against SIN-1 induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123, AAPH-induced fluorescein bleaching and hypochlorite-induced fluorescein bleaching. Glutathione and ascorbate were less effective. (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the most effective compounds in protection against AAPH-induced erythrocyte hemolysis while (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epigallocatechin protected at lowest concentrations against hypochlorite-induced hemolysis. Catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate)] were most efficient in the inhibition of AAPH-induced oxidation of 2'7'-dichlorodihydroflurescein contained inside erythrocytes. Excellent antioxidant properties of catechins and other flavonoids make them ideal candidates for nanoformulations to be used in antioxidant therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Zandalinas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT, and glutathione reductase (GR activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  9. Modulation of Antioxidant Defense System Is Associated with Combined Drought and Heat Stress Tolerance in Citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Balfagón, Damián; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2017-01-01

    Drought and high temperatures are two major abiotic stress factors that often occur simultaneously in nature, affecting negatively crop performance and yield. Moreover, these environmental challenges induce oxidative stress in plants through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carrizo citrange and Cleopatra mandarin are two citrus genotypes with contrasting ability to cope with the combination of drought and heat stress. In this work, a direct relationship between an increased antioxidant activity and stress tolerance is reported. According to our results, the ability of Carrizo plants to efficiently coordinate superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities involved in ROS detoxification along with the maintenance of a favorable GSH/GSSG ratio could be related to their relative tolerance to this stress combination. On the other hand, the increment of SOD activity and the inefficient GR activation along with the lack of CAT and APX activities in Cleopatra plants in response to the combination of drought and heat stress, could contribute to an increased oxidative stress and the higher sensibility of this citrus genotype to this stress combination.

  10. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on oxidant/antioxidant balance system inducing hepatic steatosis in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansoumane Kourouma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging literature suggests that early life exposure to 4-nonylphenol (4-NP, a widespread endocrine disrupting chemical, may increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that intraperitoneal administration of 4-NP induces hepatic steatosis in rat. 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 4-NP (0, 2, 10 and 50 mg/kg b.wt in corn oil for 30 days. Liver histology, biochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were examined. After treatment, abnormal liver morphology and function were observed in the 4-NP-treated rat, and significant changes in gene expression an indicator of hepatic steatosis and apoptosis were observed compared with controls. Up-regulated genes involved in apoptosis, hepatotoxity and oxidative stress, increased ROS and decrease of antioxidant enzyme were observed in the 4-NP exposed rat. Extensive fatty accumulation in liver section and elevated serum GOT, GPT, LDH and γ-GT were also observed. Incidence and severity of liver steatosis was scored and taken into consideration (steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation. Hepatocytes apoptosis could promote NAFLD progression; Fas/FasL, TNF-α and Caspase-9 mRNA activation were important contributing factors to hepatic steatosis. These findings provide the first evidence that 4-NP affects the gene expression related to liver hepatotoxicity, which is correlated with hepatic steatosis.

  11. Impact of Static Magnetic Field on the Antioxidant Defence System of Mice Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Glinka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of research assessing the biological impact of static magnetic fields are controversial. So far, they have not provided a clear answer to their influence on cell functioning. Since the use of permanent magnets both in everyday life and in industry becomes more and more widespread, the investigations are continued in order to explain these controversies and to evaluate positive applications. The goal of current work was to assess the impact of static magnetic field of different intensities on redox homeostasis in cultures of fibroblasts. The use of permanent magnets allowed avoiding the thermal effects which are present in electromagnets. During the research we used 6 chambers, designed exclusively by us, with different values of field flux density (varying from 0.1 to 0.7 T. We have noted the decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. The static magnetic fields did not modify the energy state of fibroblasts— adenosine triphosphate (ATP concentration was stable, as well as the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA—which is a marker of oxidative stress. Results of research suggest that static magnetic fields generated by permanent magnets do not cause oxidative stress in investigated fibroblasts and that they may show slight antioxidizing activity.

  12. Alterations in antioxidant system, mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy in preeclamptic myometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina A. Vishnyakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication which causes significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although intensive research has been performed in the last 40 years, the pathology of preeclampsia is still poorly understood. The present work is a comparative study of the myometrium of women with normal pregnancy, and those with late- and early-onset preeclampsia (n = 10 for each group. We observed significant changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy proteins in preeclamptic myometrium. Levels of superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase were lower in both preeclamptic groups than the control group. In late-onset preeclampsia, expression levels of essential mitochondria-related proteins VDAC1, TFAM, hexokinase 1, PGC-1α and PGC-1β, and autophagy marker LC3A, were significantly elevated. In the myometrium of the early-onset preeclampsia group OPA1 and Bcl-2 were up-regulated compared to those of the control (p < 0.05. These findings suggest that crucial molecular changes in the maternal myometrium occur with the development of preeclampsia.

  13. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Joseph F.; Landauer, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer

  14. Protection against ionizing radiation by antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.F.; Landauer, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The potential of antioxidants to reduce the cellular damage induced by ionizing radiation has been studied in animal models for more than 50 years. The application of antioxidant radioprotectors to various human exposure situations has not been extensive although it is generally accepted that endogenous antioxidants, such as cellular non-protein thiols and antioxidant enzymes, provide some degree of protection. This review focuses on the radioprotective efficacy of naturally-occurring antioxidants, specifically antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals, and how they might influence various endpoints of radiation damage. Results from animal experiments indicate that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and selenium compounds, are protective against lethality and other radiation effects but to a lesser degree than most synthetic protectors. Some antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have the advantage of low toxicity although they are generally protective when administered at pharmacological doses. Naturally-occurring antioxidants also may provide an extended window of protection against low-dose, low-dose-rate irradiation, including therapeutic potential when administered after irradiation. A number of phytochemicals, including caffeine, genistein, and melatonin, have multiple physiological effects, as well as antioxidant activity, which result in radioprotection in vivo. Many antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals have antimutagenic properties, and their modulation of long-term radiation effects, such as cancer, needs further examination. In addition, further studies are required to determine the potential value of specific antioxidant nutrients and phytochemicals during radiotherapy for cancer

  15. Measurement of Antioxidant Effects on the Auto-oxidation Kinetics of Methyl Oleate – Methyl Laurate Blend as a Surrogate Biodiesel System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorde Walmiki Samadhi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the feasibility of methyl oleate-methyl laurate blend as a surrogate biodiesel system which represents jatropha-coconut oil biodiesel, a potentially suitable formulation for tropical climate, to quantify the efficacy of antioxidant additives in terms of their kinetic parameters. This blend was tested by the Rancimat EN14112 standard method. The Rancimat tests results were used to determine the primary oxidation induction period (OIP and first-order rate constants and activation energies. Addition of BHT and EcotiveTM antioxidants reduces the rate constants (k, h-1 between 15 to 90% in the 50-200 ppm dose range, with EcotiveTM producing significantly lower k values. Higher dose reduces the rate constant, while oleate/laurate ratio produces no significant impact. Antioxidants increase the oxidation activation energy (Ea, kJ/mol by 180 to almost 400% relative to the non-antioxidant value of 27.0 kJ/mol. EcotiveTM exhibits lower Ea, implying that its higher efficacy stems from a better steric hindrance as apparent from its higher pre-exponential factors. The ability to quantify oxidation kinetic parameters is indicative of the usefulness of methyl oleate-laurate pure FAME blend as a biodiesel surrogate offering better measurement accuracy due to the absence of pre-existing antioxidants in the test samples. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 6th July 2016; Revised: 7th December 2016; Accepted: 30th January 2017 How to Cite: Samadhi, T.W., Hirotsu, T., Goto, S. (2017. Measurement of Antioxidant Effects on the Auto-oxidation Kinetics of Methyl Oleate-Methyl Laurate Blend as a Surrogate Biodiesel System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 157-166 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.861.157-166 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.861.157-166

  16. Adverse effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and MAPK signaling pathways in the rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Wang, Minghua; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of MeHg on the rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepod Paracyclopina nana, we assessed the effects of MeHg toxicity on life parameters (e.g. growth retardation and fecundity), antioxidant systems, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways at various concentrations (1ng/L, 10ng/L, 100ng/L, 500ng/L, and 1000ng/L). MeHg exposure resulted in the growth retardation with the increased ROS levels but decreased glutathione (GSH) levels in a dose-dependent manner in both B. koreanus and P. nana. Antioxidant enzymatic activities (e.g. glutathione S-transferase [GST], glutathione reductase [GR], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) in B. koreanus showed more positive responses compared the control but in P. nana, those antioxidant enzymatic activities showed subtle changes due to different no observed effect concentration (NOEC) values among the two species. Expression of antioxidant genes (e.g. superoxide dismutase [SOD], GSTs, glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and catalase [CAT]) also demonstrated similar effects as shown in antioxidant enzymatic activities. In B. koreanus, the level of p-ERK was decreased in the presence of 1000ng/L MeHg, while the levels of p-ERK and p-p38 in P. nana were reduced in the presence of 10ng/L MeHg. However, p-JNK levels were not altered by MeHg in B. koreanus and P. nana, compared to the corresponding controls. In summary, life parameters (e.g. reduced fecundity and survival rate) were closely associated with effects on the antioxidant system in response to MeHg. These observations provide a better understanding on the adverse effects of MeHg on in vivo life parameters and molecular defense mechanisms in B. koreanus and P. nana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pensions with Heterogenous Individuals and Endogenous Fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Helmuth; Gahvari, Firouz; Pestieau, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the design of pension schemes in a society where fertility is endogenous and parents differ in their ability to raise children. In a world with perfect information, a pay-as-you-go social security system is characterized by equal pensions for all but different contributions which may or may not increase with the number of children. Additionally, fertility must be subsidized at the margin to correct for the externality that accompanies fertility. In a world of asymmetric inf...

  18. Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Curcumin From Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity in Multi-Test Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bener

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric ( Curcuma longa L. is a medicinal plant, and its biological activities mainly arise from the main constituent, known as diferuloylmethane or curcumin. In the present paper, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE was investigated for the recovery of curcumin from turmeric in comparison to conventional heat-assisted extraction (CHAE technique. Various experimental conditions, such as solvent concentration (0-100%, v/v, MAE temperature (30-130 oC and MAE time (0-20 min were investigated to optimize the extraction of curcumin from turmeric. The identification and quantification of curcumin in extracts were performed by HPLC-DAD system. Antioxidant potential and radical scavenging abilities of microwave-assisted extract and conventional heat-assisted extract of turmeric (MAET and CHAET were evaluated using different systems including total phenolic content (TPC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and radical scavenging activities. MAET and CHAET showed high antioxidant activity in all test systems, but the antioxidant properties of MAET were stronger than those of CHAET.

  19. Effects of antimony on redox activities and antioxidant defence systems in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Ortega

    Full Text Available The alterations induced by the toxicity of antimony (Sb in the roots and leaves of sunflower plants were determined. The plants were grown hydroponically with different concentrations of Sb, a heavy metal which reduces biomass production and growth. There was preferential accumulation of Sb in the tissues of the roots, with the concentrations in the leaves being much lower. The accumulation of other mineral elements was also altered, especially that of Fe and Zn. Chlorophyll content declined, as also did the photosynthetic efficiency, but the carotenoid content remained unaltered. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids, and phenylpropanoid glycosides rose, evidence of their participation in the defence response. Increases were observed in the amount of superoxide anion in both roots and leaves, and in lipid peroxidation levels, especially with the highest Sb concentration of 1.0 mM. The induced oxidative stress leads to a strong increase in the SOD, POX and APX antioxidant activities, while the GR activity was only increased in the leaves and at the 1.0 mM Sb concentration. In contrast, the DHAR activity increased considerably in both organs. The GSNOR activity increased only in roots, and the total RSNOs increased. The total amount of AsA + DHA increased in roots and remained unaltered in leaves, whereas that of GSH + GSSG decreased considerably in all cases. As a whole, these results are evidence for the development of a strong oxidative stress induced by Sb, with there being a clear imbalance in the content of the compounds that constitute the AsA/GSH cycle. 0.5 mM Sb enhances GST expression, especially in leaves. This, together with the increase that was observed in the amount of GSH, may play an important part in detoxification. This oxidative stress affects both the phenolic and the ROS/RNS metabolic processes, which seems to implicate their involvement in the plant's defence and response to the stress.

  20. Studies on the Effect of E-Selen as Antioxidant in Ameliorating the Physiological Status of Gamma-Irradiated Mediterranean Fruit Fly,Ceratits capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, Y.S.; Abbassy, S.A.; Elakhdar, E.A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Biologically based control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), which relies on the sterilization by irradiation of large numbers of insects, is gaining an increasing role in the control of medfly in Mediterranean areas. However, the exposure of cells to ionizing radiation leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are associated with radiation-induced cytotoxicity. Because of the serious damaging potential of ROS, cells depend on the elaboration of the antioxidant defense system (AODS), both enzymatic and non enzymatic oxidant defense mechanisms. Enzymes of antioxidative defense system – peroxidase, esterasase and alcohol dehydrogenase are known to play an important main role in endogenous cell protection from oxidative damage.The antioxidant Eselenis an exogenous antioxidant containing both selenium and vitamin E. It was added to the larval artificial diets of the Mediterranean fruit fly, C. capitata in various concentrations. The produced full grown pupae were exposed to gamma rays at dose rate of 90Gy (sterilizing dose) and are used during this experiment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gamma-irradiation on C. capitata endogenous antioxidant activity (peroxidase, esterase and alcohol dehydrogenase and to examine whether the presence of eselen has the influence on activity of antioxidant and in reducing consequently the oxidative stress and tissue injury induced by gamma radiation in thefruit fly, C. capitata (Wied.). The results indicated that antioxidant pretreatments to the larval rearing dietand irradiation of the produced full grown pupae may have some beneficial effects against irradiation-induced injury to success the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling the Med fly, C. capitata .

  1. Physical performance and antioxidant effects in triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dékány

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise results in an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Two major classes of endogenous protective mechanisms work together to ameliorate the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell: (1 components of the enzymatic scavenging system such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase and catalase and (2 nonenzymatic antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to identify any relationship between duration and intensity of prolonged physical exercise and markers of oxidative stress with the primary antioxidant system. Eleven triathletes performed a field test, which consisted of 1.9 km swimming, 60 km cycling and 21 km running. Venous and arterialized blood enzymatic activities of SOD, CAT, GPX, and creatine kinase and concentrations of glucose, lactate, malondialdehyde and bilirubin were determined. Athletes were divided into two groups: the more efficient group (A, and the less efficient group (B, according to their duration of the field test. The activity of GPX was significantly higher in Group A than Group B, irrespective of the duration of the exercise, but bilirubin concentration was lower. For Group B, SOD activity increased during running while CAT activity decreased after cycling and after running. Upon completion of the test, CK activity was elevated in both groups. The free radical scavenging system appears to be directly related to individiual physiological efficiency with prolonged submaximal physical exercise. According to our estimation of the individual training status and the adequate adaptation level, it is important to take into consideration the markers of free radical production and the activities of the scavenging compounds. Abbreviations: SOD - superoxide dismutase, GPX - glutathione peroxidase, CAT - catalase, MDA - malondialdehyde, CK - creatine kinase.

  2. Further comparisons of endogenous pyrogens and leukocytic endogenous mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampschmidt, R F; Upchurch, H F; Worthington, M L

    1983-07-01

    It was recently shown (Murphy et al., Infect. Immun. 34:177-183), that rabbit macrophages produce two biochemically and immunologically distinct endogenous pyrogens. One of these has or copurifies with substances having a molecular weight of 13,000 and a pI of 7.3. This protein was produced by blood monocytes or inflammatory cells elicited in 16-h rabbit peritoneal exudates. These acute peritoneal exudates were produced by the intraperitoneal injection of large volumes of saline containing shellfish glycogen. When the leukocytes in these exudates were washed and incubated at 37 degrees C in saline, they released an endogenous pyrogen. The injection of this pyrogen into rabbits, rats, or mice caused the biological manifestations which have been attributed to leukocytic endogenous mediator. These effects were increases in blood neutrophils, the lowering of plasma iron and zinc levels, and the increased synthesis of the acute-phase proteins. The other rabbit endogenous pyrogen seems to be a family of proteins with isoelectric points between 4.5 and 5.0. These proteins are produced by macrophages in the lung, liver, or in chronic peritoneal exudates. In these experiments, the lower-isoelectric-point endogenous pyrogens were produced by macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of rabbits that had been injected 4 days earlier with 50 ml of light mineral oil. These rabbit pyrogens were found to have leukocytic endogenous mediator activity in mice but to be completely inactive in rats. When injected into rabbits, these proteins produced fever, lowered plasma iron, increased blood neutrophils, but failed to elevate plasma fibrinogen.

  3. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Sharif A; Norsted, Ebba; Lee, Lillian S; Lang, Penelope D; Lee, Brian S; Woolley, Joshua D; Fields, Howard L

    2006-08-01

    Endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the neural control of food intake. Opioid signaling is thought to regulate palatability, the reward value of a food item as determined by orosensory cues such as taste and texture. The reward value of a food reflects not only these sensory properties but also the relative value of competing food choices. In the present experiment, we used a consummatory contrast paradigm to manipulate the relative value of a sucrose solution for two groups of rats. Systemic injection of the nonspecific opioid antagonist naltrexone suppressed sucrose intake; for both groups, however, this suppression was selective, occurring only for the relatively more valuable sucrose solution. Our results indicate that endogenous opioid signaling contributes to the encoding of relative reward value.

  4. Cumulative abiotic stresses and their effect on the antioxidant defense system in two species of wheat, Triticum durum Desf and Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effects of heat and UV-B on the antioxidant system and photosynthetic pigments were investigated in the leaves of T. durum Desf. and Triticum aestivum L. The photosynthetic pigment content, in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant system activities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, and super oxide anion radical scavenging activity were determined. In addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, were determined. Heat and UV-B irradiation alone caused a significant decrease in the photosynthetic pigment content, radical scavenging activity and super oxide radical scavenging activity in the two studied plants. The antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPX were stimulated in response to UV and/or heat stresses. The elevation of enzyme activities was higher under heat than under UV-B, especially in T. aestivum. According to our findings, it can be concluded that combined heat and UV-B provided cross-tolerance; otherwise, single stress was found to aggravate the responses.

  5. Lycopene activates antioxidant enzymes and nuclear transcription factor systems in heat-stressed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, K; Orhan, C; Tuzcu, M; Sahin, N; Hayirli, A; Bilgili, S; Kucuk, O

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary lycopene supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant status, and muscle nuclear transcription factor [Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)] expressions in broiler chickens exposed to heat stress (HS). A total of 180 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned randomly to one of 2×3 factorially arranged treatments: two housing temperatures (22°C for 24 h/d; thermoneutral, TN or 34°C for 8 h/d HS) and three dietary lycopene levels (0, 200, or 400 mg/kg). Each treatment consisted of three replicates of 10 birds. Birds were reared to 42 d of age. Heat stress caused reductions in feed intake and weight gain by 12.2 and 20.7% and increased feed efficiency by 10.8% (Plycopene level improved performance in both environments. Birds reared under the HS environment had lower serum and muscle lycopene concentration (0.34 vs. 0.50 μg/mL and 2.80 vs. 2.13 μg/g), activities of superoxide dismutase (151 vs. 126 U/mL and 131 vs. 155 U/mg protein), glutathione peroxidase (184 vs. 154 U/mL and 1.39 vs. 1.74 U/mg protein), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.53 vs. 0.83 μg/mL and 0.78 vs. 0.45 μg/ mg protein) than birds reared under the TN environment. Changes in levels of lycopene and MDA and activities of enzymes in serum and muscle varied by the environmental temperature as dietary lycopene level increased. Moreover, increasing dietary lycopene level suppressed muscle Keap1 expression and enhanced muscle Nrf2 expression, which had increased by 150% and decreased by 40%, respectively in response to HS. In conclusion, lycopene supplementation alleviates adverse effects of HS on performance through modulating expressions of stress-related nuclear transcription factors. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. [Effect of population density on enzymatic activity of antioxidative and phenol oxidase systems of imagoes and nymphs of the marble cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzagulov, G S; Saltykova, E S; Gaĭfullina, L R; Nikolenko, A G

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with effect of density of population on functional activity of components pf protective system of adult individuals and nymphs of the marble cockroach. The resistance of individuals has been noted to decrease both at individual maintenance and under conditions of overpopulation. Changes in activities of enzymes of antioxidative and phenoloxidase systems are studied ion the insect hemolymph and intestine. Possible consequences of isolation and overpopulation are discussed both for stability and for individual development.

  7. Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Yamamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amla is one of the most important plants in Indian traditional medicine and has been shown to improve various age-related disorders while decreasing oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a proposed cause of aging through elevated oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of Amla on mitochondrial function in C2C12 myotubes, a murine skeletal muscle cell model with abundant mitochondria. Based on cell flux analysis, treatment with an extract of Amla fruit enhanced mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity, which enables cells to overcome various stresses. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these effects on mitochondrial function, we analyzed mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant systems, both proposed regulators of mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity. We found that Amla treatment stimulated both systems accompanied by AMPK and Nrf2 activation. Furthermore, we found that Amla treatment exhibited cytoprotective effects and lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in cells subjected to t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. These effects were accompanied by increased oxygen consumption, suggesting that Amla protected cells against oxidative stress by using enhanced spare respiratory capacity to produce more energy. Thus we identified protective effects of Amla, involving activation of mitochondrial function, which potentially explain its various effects on age-related disorders.

  8. Combined cadmium and elevated ozone affect concentrations of cadmium and antioxidant systems in wheat under fully open-air conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongyan; Tian, Ran; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Pei, Daping; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Combined effect of elevated O 3 and Cd levels on wheat was studied using the free-air concentration enrichment system. ► Elevated O 3 levels result in an increased concentration of Cd in wheat plants grown on Cd-contaminated soils. ► Combined cadmium and elevated O 3 have a significantly synergic effect on oxidative stress in wheat shoots. - Abstract: Pollution of the environment with both ozone (O 3 ) and heavy metals has been steadily increasing. An understanding of their combined effects on plants, especially crops, is limited. Here we studied the effects of elevated O 3 on oxidative stress and bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) in wheat under Cd stress using a free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) system. In this field experiment in Jiangdu (Jiangsu Province, China), wheat plants were grown in pots containing soil with various concentrations of cadmium (0, 2, and 10 mg kg −1 Cd was added to the soil) under ambient conditions and under elevated O 3 levels (50% higher than the ambient O 3 ). Present results showed that elevated O 3 led to higher concentrations of Cd in wheat tissues (shoots, husk and grains) with respect to contaminated soil. Combined exposure to Cd and elevated O 3 levels strongly affected the antioxidant isoenzymes POD, APX and CAT and accelerated oxidative stress in wheat leaves. Our results suggest that elevated O 3 levels cause a reduction in food quality and safety.

  9. Antioxidant Systems from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): Involvement in the Response to Temperature Changes in Ripe Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rosa M.; Jiménez, Ana; Román, Paloma; Romojaro, Félix; Bacarizo, Sierra; Leterrier, Marina; Gómez, Manuel; Sevilla, Francisca; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which underwent lower temperature conditions. In spite of the important changes observed in the oxidative metabolism in fruits subjected to lower temperature, no oxidative stress appears to occur, as indicated by the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation profiles. Thus, the antioxidative systems of pepper fruits seem to be involved in the response against temperature changes. PMID:23644886

  10. Response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings exposed to UV-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping

    2009-07-01

    To determine the response of antioxidant defense system to laser radiation apical meristem of Isatis indigotica seedlings, Isatis indigotica seedlings were subjected to UV-B radiation (10.08 kJ m(-2)) for 8 h day(-1) for 8 days (PAR, 220 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and then exposed to He-Ne laser radiation (633 nm; 5.23 mW mm(-2); beam diameter: 1.5 mm) for 5 min each day without ambient light radiation. Changes in free radical elimination systems were measured, the results indicate that: (1) UV-B radiation enhanced the concentration of Malondialdahyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in seedlings compared with the control. The concentration of MDA was decreased and the activities of SOD, CAT and POD were increased when seedlings were subjected to elevated UV-B damage followed by laser; (2) the concentration of UV absorbing compounds and proline were increased progressively with UV-B irradiation, laser irradiation and He-Ne laser irradiation plus UV-B irradiation compared with the control. These results suggest that laser radiation has an active function in repairing UV-B-induced lesions in seedlings.

  11. Effects of different rearing and feeding systems on lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignoli, Giovanni; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Mandrioli, Mara; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Rizzi, Laura; Lercker, Giovanni

    2009-12-23

    Lipid oxidation and antioxidant capacity of freeze-dried egg yolks produced with two rearing systems (battery cages and free-range) and two types of feedings (conventional and organic) were studied. Nine fresh egg yolks of each crossed treatment were pooled, frozen for a month, freeze-dried, vacuum-packed, and kept at -18 degrees C until analysis. No significant differences were observed in the lipid (58.0-62.1%) and total sterol contents (33.0-35.5 g/kg of lipids) of the freeze-dried egg yolks. Free rearing and conventional feeding systems resulted in significantly higher total tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, and lutein contents, as compared to the battery cage and the organic feed, respectively. However, no significant differences were found in lipid oxidation (peroxide value = 0.7-0.9 mequiv of O(2)/kg of fat; thiobarbituric reactive substances = 1.0-1.3 mg of malonylaldehyde/kg of sample) and cholesterol oxidation (28.8-43.5 mg of cholesterol oxidation products/kg of lipids; 0.08-0.12% oxidized cholesterol) of freeze-dried egg yolks except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, which was significantly lower in samples obtained with organic feed.

  12. Antioxidant effects of statins in the management of cardiometabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soo; Barter, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Redox systems are key players in vascular health. A shift in redox homeostasis-that results in an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endogenous antioxidant defenses has the potential to create a state of oxidative stress that subsequently plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, including those of the cardiovascular and metabolic system. Statins, which are primarily used to reduce the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, have also been shown to reduce oxidative stress by modulating redox systems. Studies conducted both in vitro and in vivo support the role of oxidative stress in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress may also be responsible for various diabetic complications and the development of fatty liver. Statins reduce oxidative stress by blocking the generation of ROS and reducing the NAD+/NADH ratio. These drugs also have effects on nitric oxide synthase, lipid peroxidation and the adiponectin levels. It is possible that the antioxidant properties of statins contribute to their protective cardiovascular effects, independent of the lipid-lowering actions of these agents. However, possible adverse effects of statins on glucose homeostasis may be related to the redox system. Therefore, studies investigating the modulation of redox signaling by statins are warranted.

  13. Resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Ulidiidae) in sweet corn derived from exogenous and endogenous genetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W

    2007-12-01

    Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias.

  14. Oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise 2 : Assessment of the efficacy of different tocopherol antioxidant systems by discriminant partial least squares regression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lund, Pia

    2000-01-01

    . The rheological and structural properties of the mayonnaise were also affected by the addition of extra emulsifier, but this did not influence the formation of fishy and rancid off-flavours. Addition of the A system caused the immediate formation of distinct fish; and rancid off-flavours in the fresh mayonnaises......Oxidative protection of mayonnaises with 16% fish oil was studied during cold storage (5 degrees C) after supplementation with different tocopherol systems: the ternary antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol (A/L/T), and two commercial mixtures, an oil-soluble (Toco 70......) preparation and a water-soluble (Grindox 1032) preparation, The physical structure of the fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise was manipulated by adding extra emulsifier (Panodan TR) with the purpose of investigating whether or not this affected the antioxidative activity of the tocopherol mixtures. A number...

  15. Responses of antioxidant systems after exposition to rare earths and their role in chilling stress in common duckweed (Lemna minor L.): a defensive weapon or a boomerang?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, M P; Fasciano, C; d'Aquino, L; Morgana, M; Tommasi, F

    2010-01-01

    Extensive agriculture application of rare earth elements (REEs) in Far East countries might cause spreading of these metals in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, thus inducing a growing concern about their environmental impact. In this work the effects of a mix of different REE nitrate (RE) and of lanthanum nitrate (LA) on catalase and antioxidant systems involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle were investigated in common duckweed Lemna minor L. The results indicated that L. minor shows an overall good tolerance to the presence of REEs in the media. Treatments at concentrations up to 5 mM RE and 5 mM LA did not cause either visible symptoms on plants or significant effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, chlorophyll content, and lipid peroxidation. Toxic effects were observed after 5 days of exposition to 10 mM RE and 10 mM LA. A remarkable increase in glutathione content as well as in enzymatic antioxidants was observed before the appearance of the stress symptoms in treated plants. Duckweed plants pretreated with RE and LA were also exposed to chilling stress to verify whether antioxidants variations induced by RE and LA improve plant resistance to the chilling stress. In pretreated plants, a decrease in ascorbate and glutathione redox state and in chlorophyll content and an increase in lipid peroxidation and ROS production levels were observed. The use of antioxidant levels as a stress marker for monitoring REE toxicity in aquatic ecosystems by means of common duckweed is discussed.

  16. Influence of the PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil on redox status and antioxidant defense system in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranti, Guglielmo; Ceci, Roberta; Sgrò, Paolo; Sabatini, Stefania; Di Luigi, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is), widely known for their beneficial effects onto male erectile dysfunction, seem to exert favorable effects onto metabolism as well. Tadalafil exposure increases oxidative metabolism of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. A rise in fatty acid (FA) metabolism, requiring more oxygen, could induce a larger reactive oxygen species (ROS) release as a byproduct thus leading to a redox imbalance. The aim of this study was to determine how PDE5I tadalafil influences redox status in skeletal muscle cells to match the increasing oxidative metabolism. To this purpose, differentiated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells were treated with tadalafil and analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione levels as marker of redox status; enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) engaged in antioxidant defense; and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PrCar) as markers of oxidative damage. Tadalafil increased total intracellular glutathione (tGSH), CAT, SOD, and GPx enzymatic activities while no changes were found in TAC. A perturbation of redox status, as showed by the decrease in the ratio between reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), was observed. Nevertheless, it did not cause any change in TBARS and PrCar levels probably due to the enhancement in the antioxidant enzymatic network. Taken together, these data indicate that tadalafil, besides improving oxidative metabolism, may be beneficial to skeletal muscle cells by enhancing the enzymatic antioxidant system capacity.

  17. Endogenous E. coli endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shammas, H F

    1977-01-01

    A case of Escherichia coli septicemia with associated metastatic en dophthalmitis and endocarditis is presented. The ocular signs and symptoms were the initial manifestations of sepsis. Irreversible damage to the eye occurred in less than 24 hours. The pattern of metastatic bacterial endophthalmitis has changed since the introduction of potent antimicrobial agents, with an increased incidence of Gram-negative bacillemia. E. coli endophthalmitis carries a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and systemic treatment will prevent the life-threatening complications of sepsis.

  18. The state of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant system in victims of the Chernobyl accident that suffer from duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucherenko, M.Je.; Drobyins'ka, O.V.; Ostapchenko, L.Yi.

    2002-01-01

    In the bioptates of mucous membranes of stomach in peptic ulcer patients residing in the regions with a high level of contamination by radionuclides, a high level of products of lipid peroxidation is found. It is experimentally proved that the violations are accompanied by a significant fall of the level of antioxidant enzymes and warrant a wide use of direct antioxidant medicine to normalize all the above-mentioned processes

  19. Peroxiredoxins and sports: new insights on the antioxidative defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Christian; Brixius, Klara

    2013-01-01

    Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are multifunctional proteins that have recently received much attention. They are part of the endogenous antioxidative capacity and function as efficient scavengers, especially for hydrogen peroxides. Studies show that physical training can induce an upregulation of PRDX isoform contents in the long term. This might help counteract chronic diseases that are causally linked to a high amount of free radicals, e.g., diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that PRDX can overoxidize under pathological conditions during acute exercise. Overoxidized PRDXs could be useful because they act as protective chaperones. Taken together, it can be speculated that physical activity has a positive effect on the PRDX system and thereby prevents cells from free radical-induced damage.

  20. Use of a sensitive EnVision +-based detection system for Western blotting: avoidance of streptavidin binding to endogenous biotin and biotin-containing proteins in kidney and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Rosamonde E; Craven, Rachel A; Harnden, Patricia A; Selby, Peter J

    2003-04-01

    Western blotting remains a central technique in confirming identities of proteins, their quantitation and analysis of various isoforms. The biotin-avidin/streptavidin system is often used as an amplification step to increase sensitivity but in some tissues such as kidney, "nonspecific" interactions may be a problem due to high levels of endogenous biotin-containing proteins. The EnVision system, developed for immunohistochemical applications, relies on binding of a polymeric conjugate consisting of up to 100 peroxidase molecules and 20 secondary antibody molecules linked directly to an activated dextran backbone, to the primary antibody. This study demonstrates that it is also a viable and sensitive alternative detection system in Western blotting applications.

  1. Antioxidants in Raspberry: On-line analysis links antioxidant activity to a diversity of individual metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Jonker, H.H.; Hall, R.D.; Meer, van der I.M.; Vos, de C.H.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of antioxidant compounds can be considered as a quality parameter for edible fruit. In this paper, we studied the antioxidant compounds in raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruits by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to an on-line postcolumn antioxidant detection system. Both

  2. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  3. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...

  4. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  5. Endogenizing Prospect Theory's Reference Point

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Schmidt; Horst Zank

    2010-01-01

    In previous models of (cumulative) prospect theory reference-dependence of preferences is imposed beforehand and the location of the reference point is exogenously determined. This note provides a foundation of prospect theory, where reference-dependence is derived from preference conditions and a unique reference point arises endogenously.

  6. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling*#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H2O2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato’s response to chilling stress. PMID:27921397

  7. Nitric oxide induced by polyamines involves antioxidant systems against chilling stress in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Qian-Nan; Song, Yong-Jun; Shi, Dong-Mei; Qi, Hong-Yan

    Polyamines (PAs) and nitric oxide (NO) are vital signals in modulating plant response to abiotic stress. However, to our knowledge, studies on the relationship between NO and PAs in response to cold stress in tomato are limited. Accordingly, in this study, we investigated the effects of putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd) on NO generation and the function of Spd-induced NO in the tolerance of tomato seedling under chilling stress. Spd increased NO release via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like and nitrate reductase (NR) enzymatic pathways in the seedlings, whereas Put had no such effect. Moreover, H 2 O 2 might act as an upstream signal to stimulate NO production. Both exogenous NO donor (sodium nitroprusside (SNP)) and Spd enhanced chilling tolerance in tomato, thereby protecting the photosynthetic system from damage. Compared to chilling treatment alone, Spd enhanced the gene expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and their enzyme activities in tomato leaves. However, a scavenger or inhibitor of NO abolished Spd-induced chilling tolerance and blocked the increased expression and activity due to Spd of these antioxidant enzymes in tomato leaves under chilling stress. The results showed that NO induced by Spd plays a crucial role in tomato's response to chilling stress.

  8. Boron alleviates the aluminum toxicity in trifoliate orange by regulating antioxidant defense system and reducing root cell injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad; Yan, Lei; Wu, Xiuwen; Hussain, Saddam; Aziz, Omar; Wang, Yuhan; Imran, Muhammad; Jiang, Cuncang

    2018-02-15

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the most important soil constraint for plant growth and development in acid soils (pH Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for the growth and development of higher plants. The results of previous studies propose that B might ameliorate Al toxicity; however, none of the studies have been conducted on trifoliate orange to study this effect. Thus, a study was carried out in hydroponics comprising of two different Al concentrations, 0 and 400 μM. For every concentration, two B treatments (0 and 10 μM as H 3 BO 3 ) were applied to investigate the B-induced alleviation of Al toxicity and exploring the underneath mechanisms. The results revealed that Al toxicity under B deficiency severely hampered the root growth and physiology of plant, caused oxidative stress and membrane damage, leading to severe root injury and damage. However, application of B under Al toxicity improved the root elongation and photosynthesis, while reduced Al uptake and mobilization into plant parts. Moreover, B supply regulated the activities of antioxidant enzymes, proline, secondary metabolites (phenylalanine ammonia lyase and polyphenol oxidase) contents, and stabilized integrity of proteins. Our study results imply that B supply promoted root growth as well as defense system by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Al concentrations in plant parts thus B induced alleviation of Al toxicity; a fact that might be significant for higher productivity of agricultural plants grown in acidic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of florfenicol on the antioxidant status, detoxification system and biomolecule damage in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Wang, Zhuqing; Gao, Baoquan; Liu, Ping; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Florfenicol (FLR) is the most commonly used antibacterial agent in aquaculture because of its wide spectrum of activity and few side-effects. We characterized the toxicokinetics of FLR in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) after intravenous (IV) dosing (20, 40 and 80mg/kg). The results showed that FLR significantly suppressed the antioxidant system of the hepatopancreas. FLR induced transcriptional expression of phase I and phase II detoxification genes (CYP3 and GST, respectively) in a dose- and clearance time-dependent manner and altered the expression of their corresponding enzymes (erythromycin N-demethylase and glutathione S-transferase, respectively). Moreover, FLR induced the transcription of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily B (ABCB) and subfamily G (ABCG), although ABCG transcription was not induced by FLR at 20mg/kg. Additionally, higher FLR doses caused significant biomolecule damage during the first 48h after delivery. This study will provide an improved understanding of the exact mechanism underlying toxicity in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Manganese-induced cadmium stress tolerance in rice seedlings: Coordinated action of antioxidant defense, glyoxalase system and nutrient homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Fujita, Masayuki

    The accumulation of cadmium (Cd) alters different physiological and biochemical attributes that affect plant growth and yield. In our study, we investigated the regulatory role of supplemental manganese (Mn) on hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. BRRI dhan29) seedlings under Cd-stress conditions. Exposure of 14-d-old seedlings to 0.3mM CdCl 2 for three days caused growth inhibition, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and higher Cd accumulation. Higher Cd uptake caused oxidative stress through lipid peroxidation, loss of plasma membrane integrity, and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methylglyoxal (MG). The exogenous application of 0.3mM MnSO 4 to Cd-treated seedlings partly recovered Cd-induced water loss, chlorosis, growth inhibition, and nutrient imbalance by reducing Cd uptake and its further translocation to the upper part of the plant. Supplemental Mn also reduced Cd-induced oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation by improved antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems through enhancing ROS and MG detoxification, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatial orienting around the fovea: exogenous and endogenous cueing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Taoxi; Zhang, Jiyuan; Bao, Yan

    2015-09-01

    The effect of covert attention in perifoveal and peripheral locations has been studied extensively. However, it is less clear whether attention operates similarly in the foveal area itself. The present study aims to investigate whether the attentional orienting elicited by an exogenous or endogenous cue can operate within the foveal area and whether attentional orienting operates similarly between foveal and perifoveal regions. By manipulating exogenous orienting in Experiment 1 and endogenous orienting in Experiment 2, we observed both forms of cueing in the foveal area. Specifically, we observed a larger exogenous cue-induced inhibitory effect (i.e., inhibition of return effect) and a similar endogenous cue-elicited facilitatory effect for the perifoveal relative to the foveal targets. We conclude that exogenous and endogenous orienting subject to two independent attentional systems with distinct modulation patterns in the foveal area.

  12. The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in marine food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Geirsdóttir, Margrét; Hamaguchi, Patricia Y; Jamnik, Polona; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in haemoglobin-fortified washed cod mince and iron-containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. The progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as loss of redness and protein carbonyls in the cod system. The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had a high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion. The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro-oxidants present. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Therapeutic targeting strategies using endogenous cells and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parayath, Neha N; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-07-28

    Targeted drug delivery has become extremely important in enhancing efficacy and reducing the toxicity of therapeutics in the treatment of various disease conditions. Current approaches include passive targeting, which relies on naturally occurring differences between healthy and diseased tissues, and active targeting, which utilizes various ligands that can recognize targets expressed preferentially at the diseased site. Clinical translation of these mechanisms faces many challenges including the immunogenic and toxic effects of these non-natural systems. Thus, use of endogenous targeting systems is increasingly gaining momentum. This review is focused on strategies for employing endogenous moieties, which could serve as safe and efficient carriers for targeted drug delivery. The first part of the review involves cells and cellular components as endogenous carriers for therapeutics in multiple disease states, while the second part discusses the use of endogenous plasma components as endogenous carriers. Further understanding of the biological tropism with cells and proteins and the newer generation of delivery strategies that exploits these endogenous approaches promises to provide better solutions for site-specific delivery and could further facilitate clinical translations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of ubiquitous inhibitors on the GUS gene reporter system: evidence from the model plants Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice and correction methods for quantitative assays of transgenic and endogenous GUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerola Paolo D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β-glucuronidase (GUS gene reporter system is one of the most effective and employed techniques in the study of gene regulation in plant molecular biology. Improving protocols for GUS assays have rendered the original method described by Jefferson amenable to various requirements and conditions, but the serious limitation caused by inhibitors of the enzyme activity in plant tissues has thus far been underestimated. Results We report that inhibitors of GUS activity are ubiquitous in organ tissues of Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice, and significantly bias quantitative assessment of GUS activity in plant transformation experiments. Combined with previous literature reports on non-model species, our findings suggest that inhibitors may be common components of plant cells, with variable affinity towards the E. coli enzyme. The reduced inhibitory capacity towards the plant endogenous GUS discredits the hypothesis of a regulatory role of these compounds in plant cells, and their effect on the bacterial enzyme is better interpreted as a side effect due to their interaction with GUS during the assay. This is likely to have a bearing also on histochemical analyses, leading to inaccurate evaluations of GUS expression. Conclusions In order to achieve reliable results, inhibitor activity should be routinely tested during quantitative GUS assays. Two separate methods to correct the measured activity of the transgenic and endogenous GUS are presented.

  15. Vaccination directed against the human endogenous retrovirus-K (HERV-K) gag protein slows HERV-K gag expressing cell growth in a murine model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Benjamin; Fischer, Katrin; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2014-03-26

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) are remnants of ancestral infections and chromosomally integrated in all cells of an individual, are transmitted only vertically and are defective in viral replication. However enhanced expression of HERV-K accompanied by the emergence of anti-HERV-K-directed immune responses has been observed inter-alia in HIV-infected individuals and tumor patients. Therefore HERV-K might serve as a tumor-specific antigen or even as a constant target for the development of an HIV vaccine. To verify our hypothesis, we tested the immunogenicity of HERV-K Gag by using a recombinant vaccinia virus (MVA-HKcon) expressing the HERV-K Gag protein and established an animal model to test its vaccination efficacy. Murine renal carcinoma cells (Renca) were genetically altered to express E. coli beta-galactosidase (RLZ cells) and the HERV-K Gag protein (RLZ-HKGag cells). Subcutaneous application of RLZ-HKGag cells into syngenic BALB/c mice resulted in the formation of local tumors in MVA vaccinated mice. MVA-HKcon vaccination reduced the tumor growth. Furthermore, intravenous injection of RLZ-HKGag cells led to the formation of pulmonary metastases. Vaccination of tumor-bearing mice with MVA-HKcon drastically reduced the number of pulmonary RLZ-HKGag tumor nodules compared to vaccination with wild-type MVA. The data demonstrate that HERV-K Gag is a useful target for vaccine development and might offer new treatment opportunities for cancer patients.

  16. Effects of melatonin injection or green-wavelength LED light on the antioxidant system in goldfish (Carassius auratus) during thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seo Jin; Choi, Young Jae; Kim, Na Na; Choi, Ji Yong; Kim, Bong-Seok; Choi, Cheol Young

    2016-05-01

    We tested the mitigating effects of melatonin injections or irradiation from green-wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to thermal stress (high water temperature, 30 °C). The effects of the two treatments were assessed by measuring the expression and activity levels of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, plasma hydrogen peroxide, lipid hydroperoxide, and lysozyme. In addition, a comet assay was conducted to confirm that high water temperature damaged nuclear DNA. The expression and activity of the antioxidant enzymes, plasma hydrogen peroxide, and lipid hydroperoxide were significantly higher after exposure to high temperature and were significantly lower in fish that received melatonin or LED light than in those that received no mitigating treatment. Plasma lysozyme was significantly lower after exposure to high temperature and was significantly higher after exposure to melatonin or LED light. The comet assay revealed that thermal stress caused a great deal of damage to nuclear DNA; however, treatment with melatonin or green-wavelength LED light prevented a significant portion of this damage from occurring. These results indicate that, although high temperatures induce oxidative stress and reduce immune system strength in goldfish, both melatonin and green-wavelength LED light inhibit oxidative stress and boost the immune system. LED treatment increased the antioxidant and immune system activity more significantly than did melatonin treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal pollution taxes and endogenous technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, I.W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The optimal pollution tax becomes complicated when allowance is made for endogenous innovation, under a patent system. However, if anything, it is below marginal environmental damages, to counteract monopoly pricing by the patent holder, the common pool effect associated with research and a possible excess of patent holder revenue over the social benefits from innovation when environmental damages are convex. In cases where patents are weak at securing appropriability, for example when rivals can easily imitate around patented technologies, awarding research prizes or contracts is probably more efficient than raising the pollution tax. 24 refs., 4 figs

  18. Endogenous population growth may imply chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskawetz, A; Feichtinger, G

    1995-01-01

    The authors consider a discrete-time neoclassical growth model with an endogenous rate of population growth. The resulting one-dimensional map for the capital intensity has a tilted z-shape. Using the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems, they obtain numerical results on the qualitative behavior of time paths for changing parameter values. Besides stable and periodic solutions, erratic time paths may result. In particular, myopic and far-sighted economies--assumed to be characterized by low and high savings rate respectively--are characterized by stable per capita capital stocks, while solutions with chaotic windows exist between these two extremes.

  19. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in food model system of fish peptides released during simulated gastrointestinal digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieva-Echevarria, B.; Jacobsen, Charlotte; García Moreno, Pedro Jesús

    In the last decade, increasing evidences of the occurrence of lipid oxidation during digestion have been reported, in either in vivo or in vitro studies (1,2,3). As a result, the nutritional quality and safety of foodstuffs could be affected by the decrease of certain lipidic compounds of interest...... in the gastrointestinal tract. In fact, several studies have reported antioxidant activity of fish protein hydrolysates, coming from fish industry waste by-products (3,4). Thus, the potential release of peptides showing antioxidant properties during fish digestion cannot be ruled out. In order to shed light...... on these aspects, in vitro digestates of European sea bass were submitted to ultrafiltration using membranes with different cut off size. Afterwards, the potential antioxidant activity of the peptide fractions obtained was evaluated by comparing the oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions (5...

  20. Accumulation of free polyamines enhances the antioxidant response in fruits of grafted tomato plants under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, E; Romero, L; Ruiz, J M

    2016-01-15

    Polyamines, small aliphatic polycations, have been suggested to play key roles in a number of biological processes. In this paper, attempts were made to investigate the possibility of improving antioxidant response of tomato fruits in relation with endogenous free polyamines content. We studied the reactive oxygen species and polyamines content, and antioxidant and polyamine-biosynthesis enzyme activities in fruits of ungrafted and grafted tomato plants under moderate water stress. We used a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensitive cultivar (Josefina) to obtain reciprocal graft, selfgraft and ungraft plants. Fruits contained higher endogenous polyamine content during the course of the experiment relative to the control, coupled with higher arginine decarboxylase and spermine synthase activities in Zarina ungrafted and ZarxJos. In these cultivars, tomato fruits showed a lower reactive oxygen species generation and higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, suggesting that a higher content in polyamines (especially spermine) exerted a positive effect on antioxidant systems. All of these data suggest that spermine leads to more effective reactive oxygen species scavenging (less tissue damage) in tomato fruits, which may function collectively to enhance dehydration tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  2. Activity of the Antioxidant Defense System in a Typical Bioinsecticide-and Synthetic Insecticide-treated Cowpea Storage Beetle F. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems play a major role in detoxification of pro-oxidant endobiotics and xenobiotics. The possible involvement of beetle non-enzymatic [α-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH, and ascorbic acid] and enzymatic [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POX, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO] antioxidant defense system on the insecticidal activity of synthetic insecticides (cypermethrin, 2,2-dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, and λ-cyhalothrin and ethanolic plant extracts of Tithonia diversifolia, Cyperus rotundus, Hyptis suaveolens leaves , and Jatropha Curcas seeds was investigated. 2,2-Dicholorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP; 200 ppm, LC 50 = 13.24 ppm and T. diversifolia (20,000 ppm resulted in 100% beetle mortality at 96-hour post-treatment. The post-treatments significantly increased the beetle α-tocopherol and GSH contents. Activities of CAT, SOD, POX, and PPO were modulated by the synthetic insecticides and bioinsecticides to diminish the adverse effect of the chemical stresses. Quantitative and qualitative allelochemical compositions of bioinsecticides and chemical structure of synthetic insecticides possibly account and for modulation of their respective enzyme activities. Altogether, oxidative stress was enormous enough to cause maladaptation in insects. This study established that oxidative imbalance created could be the molecular basis of the efficacy of both insecticides and bio-insecticides. Two, there was development of functional but inadequate antioxidant defense mechanism in the beetle.

  3. Cysteine-stabilised peptide extract of Morinda lucida (Benth) leaf exhibits antimalarial activity and augments antioxidant defense system in P. berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Joseph O; Adewole, Kayode E; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2017-07-31

    Cysteine-stabilised peptides (CSP) are majorly explored for their bioactivities with applications in medicine and agriculture. Morinda lucida leaf is used indigenously for the treatment of malaria; it also contains CSP but the role of CSP in the antimalarial activity of the leaf has not been evaluated. This study was therefore performed to evaluate the antimalarial activity of partially purified cysteine-stabilised peptide extract (PPCPE) of Morinda lucida leaf and its possible augmentation of the antioxidant systems of liver and erythrocytes in murine malaria. PPCPE was prepared from Morinda lucida leaf. The activity of PPCPE was evaluated in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum W2 and its cytotoxicity against a BGM kidney cell line. PPCPE was also evaluated for its antimalarial activity and its effects on selected liver and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in P. berghei NK65-infected mice. PPCPE was not active against P. falciparum W2 (IC 50 : >50µg/ml) neither was it cytotoxic (MLD 50 : >1000µg/ml). However, PPCPE was active against P. berghei NK65 in vivo, causing 51.52% reduction in parasitaemia at 31.25mg/Kg body weight on day 4 post-inoculation. PPCPE significantly reduced (P activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in a dose-dependent manner, which was significant (P antimalarial effect and that PPCPE may augment the antioxidant defense system to alleviate the reactive oxygen species-mediated complications of malaria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of stripe rust infection on the photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars at the adult plant stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Su, Yan-Qiu; Yuan, Shu; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Huai-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Wheat stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst), is one of the most serious diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. To gain a better understanding of the protective mechanism against stripe rust at the adult plant stage, the differences in photosystem II and antioxidant enzymatic systems between susceptible and resistant wheat in response to stripe rust disease (P. striiformis) were investigated. We found that chlorophyll fluorescence and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were higher in resistant wheat than in susceptible wheat after stripe rust infection. Compared with the susceptible wheat, the resistant wheat accumulated a higher level of D1 protein and a lower level of reactive oxygen species after infection. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that D1 and light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) phosphorylation are involved in the resistance to stripe rust in wheat. The CP29 protein was phosphorylated under stripe rust infection, like its phosphorylation in other monocots under environmental stresses. More extensive damages occur on the thylakoid membranes in the susceptible wheat compared with the resistant wheat. The findings provide evidence that thylakoid protein phosphorylation and antioxidant enzyme systems play important roles in plant responses and defense to biotic stress.

  5. Money, banks and endogenous volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Gomis-Porqueras

    2000-01-01

    In this paper I consider a monetary growth model in which banks provide liquidity, and the government fixes a constant rate of money creation. There are two underlying assets in the economy, money and capital. Money is dominated in rate of return. In contrast to other papers with a larger set of government liabilities, I find a unique equilibrium when agents' risk aversion is moderate. However, indeterminacies and endogenous volatility can be observed when agents are relatively risk averse.

  6. Staphylococcal endogenous endophthalmitis in association with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeples, L R; Jones, N P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis as a rare infection associated with endogenous endophthalmitis.METHODS A retrospective review of three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis and sepsis due to underlying Staphylococcal vertebral osteomyelitis presenting during a 21-month time period. The ophthalmic and systemic features and management and outcomes are presented.RESULTS One patient developed unilateral endophthalmitis with cervical spine osteomyelitis, Staphylococcus aureus being isolated from blood cultures. The second presented with bilateral endophthalmitis with disseminated Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection, with thoracic and lumbar discitis and para-spinal abscesses. MRSA was cultured from vitreous, blood, and synovial fluid. Both patients received prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics. Intravitreal antibiotic therapy was used in the second patient. Excellent visual and systemic outcomes were achieved in both cases with no ocular complications. The third patient developed lumbar osteomyelitis following spinal surgery and presented with disseminated S. aureus sepsis including unilateral endogenous endophthalmitis. Despite systemic antibiotics and intensive care the patient died.CONCLUSIONS Endogenous endophthalmitis should be suspected in septic patients developing eye symptoms. Endogenous endophthalmitis with staphylococcal bone infection is a rare but serious condition. Osteomyelitis should be considered as an infective source in any such patient reporting bone pain or reduced spinal mobility. Prompt investigation and treatment can achieve favourable visual and systemic outcomes.

  7. Relationship between Estradiol and Antioxidant Enzymes Activity of Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sheikh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some evidence suggests the neuroprotection of estrogen provided by the antioxidant activity of this compound. The main objective of this study was to determine the level of estradiol and its correlation with the activity of antioxidant enzymes, total antioxidant status and ferritin from ischemic stroke subjects. The study population consisted of 30 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 30 controls. There was no significant difference between estradiol in stroke and control group. The activity of superoxide dismutase and level of ferritin was higher in stroke compared with control group (<.05, <.001, resp.. There was no significant correlation between estradiol and glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, total antioxidant status, and ferritin in stroke and control groups. We observed inverse correlation between estradiol with superoxide dismutase in males of stroke patients (=−0.54, =.029. Our results supported that endogenous estradiol of elderly men and women of stroke or control group has no antioxidant activity.

  8. [Correction of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system disorders by bioflavonoids during modeling of cholesterol atherosclerosis in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shysh, A M; Pashevin, D O; Dosenko, V Ie; Moĭbenko, O O

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the influence of bioflavonoids (quercetin, corvitin) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in the modeling of cholesterol atherosclerosis in rabbits. It has been shown that simultaneous administration of the quercetin derivative corvitin suppressed lipid peroxidation. We showed that under hypercholesterolemia, the concentration of malone dialdehyde in myocardial tissue in rabbits is significantly increased, while administration of bioflavonoids decreased the concentration of malone dialdehyde by 38.3%. Furthermore, corvitin caused activating effects on antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in cardiac tissue. Our data suggest that bioflavonoids are able to suppress lipid peroxidation and prevent the decrease ofantioxidant enzymes activity in rabbits with cholesterol-rich diet induced atherosclerosis.

  9. Data demonstrating the role of peroxiredoxin 2 as important anti-oxidant system in lung homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica Federti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research paper entitled “peroxiredoxin-2 plays a pivotal role as multimodal cytoprotector in the early phase of pulmonary hypertension” (Federti et al., 2017 [1]. Data show that the absence of peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2 is associated with increased lung oxidation and pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction. Prx2−/− mice displayed activation of the redox-sensitive transcriptional factors, NF-kB and Nrf2, and increased expression of cytoprotective system such as heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1. We also noted increased expression of both markers of vascular activation and extracellular matrix remodeling. The administration of the recombinant fusion protein PEP Prx2 reduced the activation of NF-kB and Nrf2 and was paralleled by a decrease in HO-1 and in vascular endothelial abnormal activation. Prolonged hypoxia was used to trigger pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH. Prx2−/− precociously developed PAH compared to wildtype animals.

  10. Role of garlic oil and selenium as stimulators to some antioxidant defense system in irradiated male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gawish, M.A.; Abdel-Azeem, M.G.

    2002-01-01

    The increased level of lipid peroxide product; malondialdehyde (MDA) in various tissues of irradiated animals, may play a crucial role in damaging effects of exposure to ionizing radiation mediated by reactive free radicals generation. The protective efficiency of oral administration of garlic oil (500 mg/kg b.wt) three times weekly together with a single intraperitoneal injection of selenium (0.5 mg/kg b.wt) weekly for two weeks was examined on some antioxidant defense system as well as ultrastructural study in rats subjected to fractionated doses of gamma radiation up to a dose level of 6 Gy (1.5 Gy day after day). Exposure to gamma radiation induced a significant elevation in the level of malondialdehyde in plasma and liver and non-significant change was observed in superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). Also a significant increase was occurred in hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity. The pretreatment of irradiated rats with garlic oil and selenium caused a significant decrease in elevated level of MDA and a significant increase in the activity of SOD, GSHPx and GSH contents in both blood and liver. Concerning the ultrastructure studies, liver of irradiated rats showed abnormal shape of nucleus and nucleus membrane, swollen mitochondria with ruptured cristae, rupture of endoplasmic reticulum and vaculated cytoplasm, while intestine of irradiated rats exhibited deformed, shortened and abnormal structure of microvilli, accumulation of nuclear chromatin and dilatation of terminal web layer. In group of rats treated with garlic oil and selenium before exposure to gamma radiation, noticeable amelioration in ultrastructure changes of liver and intestine induced by irradiation was observed indicating a beneficial radioprotective role of both garlic oil and selenium

  11. Targeting the Renin–Angiotensin System Combined With an Antioxidant Is Highly Effective in Mitigating Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, Javed [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Radiation Medicine Program, STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jelveh, Salomeh [Radiation Medicine Program, STTARR Innovation Centre, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zaidi, Asif [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Doctrow, Susan R. [Pulmonary Center, Department of Medicine, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Medhora, Meetha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Hill, Richard P., E-mail: hill@uhnres.utoronto.ca [Ontario Cancer Institute and the Campbell Family Institute for Cancer Research, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Departments of Medical Biophysics and Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate the outcome of suppression of the renin angiotensin system using captopril combined with an antioxidant (Eukarion [EUK]-207) for mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage in rats. Methods and Materials: The thoracic cavity of female Sprague-Dawley rats was irradiated with a single dose of 11 Gy. Treatment with captopril at a dose of 40 mg/kg/d in drinking water and EUK-207 given by subcutaneous injection (8 mg/kg daily) was started 1 week after irradiation (PI) and continuing until 14 weeks PI. Breathing rate was monitored until the rats were killed at 32 weeks PI, when lung fibrosis was assessed by lung hydroxyproline content. Lung levels of the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 and macrophage activation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Oxidative DNA damage was assessed by 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels, and lipid peroxidation was measured by a T-BARS assay. Results: The increase in breathing rate in the irradiated rats was significantly reduced by the drug treatments. The drug treatment also significantly decreased the hydroxyproline content, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde levels, and levels of activated macrophages and the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 at 32 weeks. Almost complete mitigation of these radiation effects was observed by combining captopril and EUK-207. Conclusion: Captopril and EUK-207 can provide mitigation of radiation-induced lung damage out to at least 32 weeks PI after treatment given 1-14 weeks PI. Overall the combination of captopril and EUK-207 was more effective than the individual drugs used alone.

  12. Adverse effects of MWCNTs on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and activation of MAPK signaling pathways in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Puthumana, Jayesh; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jin Wuk; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-10-01

    Engineered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received widespread applications in a broad variety of commercial products due to low production cost. Despite their significant commercial applications, CNTs are being discharged to aquatic ecosystem, leading a threat to aquatic life. Thus, we investigated the adverse effect of CNTs on the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Additional to the study on the uptake of CNTs and acute toxicity, adverse effects on life parameters (e.g. growth, fecundity, and size) were analyzed in response to various concentrations of CNTs. Also, as a measurement of cellular damage, oxidative stress-related markers were examined in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, activation of redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the phosphorylation pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of molecular mechanism of oxidative stress-induced toxicity in the copepod P. nana. As a result, significant inhibition on life parameters and evoked antioxidant systems were observed without ROS induction. In addition, CNTs activated MAPK signaling pathway via ERK, suggesting that phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)-mediated adverse effects are the primary cause of in vitro and in vivo endpoints in response to CNTs exposure. Moreover, ROS-independent activation of MAPK signaling pathway was observed. These findings will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of CNTs on the copepod P. nana at cellular and molecular level and insight on possible ecotoxicological implications in the marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Mehmet; Coskun, Omer; Budancamanak, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Nigella sativa L (NS) and Urtica dioica L (UD) on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. METHODS: Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allotted into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated) and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/kg NS or/and 2 mL/kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. RESULTS: The CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A, and increased in groups B, C and D. CONCLUSION: NS and UD decrease the lipid per-oxidation and liver enzymes, and increase the anti-oxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats. PMID:16425366

  14. Resveratrol and Red Wine Function as Antioxidants in the Nervous System without Cellular Proliferative Effects during Experimental Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Carina Duarte; Merlo, Suélen; Souto, André Arigony; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Gomez, Rosane; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress status and has been associated with neurological complications in diabetic individuals. This study compared the antioxidant properties of red wine or resveratrol in different brain areas of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, and investigated the effect of them on hippocampal cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated with red wine (4 mL/kg), resveratrol (20 mg/kg) or saline, by oral gavage, for 21 days. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress and the BrdU-positive cells were assessed to measure changes in cellular proliferation. In diabetic animals, resveratrol showed antioxidant property in the hippocampus and in the striatum, while red wine had an antioxidant effect only in the hippocampus. Neither red wine nor resveratrol reversed the lower hippocampal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. Daily doses of red wine or resveratrol have an antioxidant effect in rats depending on the brain area and the glycemic status. PMID:21307644

  15. Resveratrol and Red Wine Function as Antioxidants in the Nervous System without Cellular Proliferative Effects during Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Duarte Venturini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress status and has been associated with neurological complications in diabetic individuals. This study compared the antioxidant properties of red wine or resveratrol in different brain areas of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, and investigated the effect of them on hippocampal cell proliferation in hippocampal dentate gyrus of diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated with red wine (4 mL/kg, resveratrol (20 mg/kg or saline, by oral gavage, for 21 days. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured to evaluate the oxidative stress and the BrdU-positive cells were assessed to measure changes in cellular proliferation. In diabetic animals, resveratrol showed antioxidant property in the hippocampus and in the striatum, while red wine had an antioxidant effect only in the hippocampus. Neither red wine nor resveratrol reversed the lower hippocampal cell proliferation in diabetic rats. Daily doses of red wine or resveratrol have an antioxidant effect in rats depending on the brain area and the glycemic status.

  16. System of Antioxidant Protection of Corn Roots in Case of Adaptation to Combined Action of Herbicides and Soil Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Rossihina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Reaction of antioxidant enzymes in the maize root (Kadr 267 MVhybrid to the combined action of herbicides and soil drought was studied. These conditions activated superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase and coused oscillation in the catalase enzymatic activity.

  17. RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INHALED METAL-RICH PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species and resultant oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of emission-source PM toxicity. We hypothesized that inducing an antioxidant deficit prior to inhalation of metal-rich PM would worsen adverse health outcom...

  18. Cadmium toxicity in Maize (Zea mays L.): consequences on antioxidative systems, reactive oxygen species and cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Tanveer, Mohsin; Hussain, Saddam; Bao, Mingchen; Wang, Longchang; Khan, Imran; Ullah, Ehsan; Tung, Shahbaz Atta; Samad, Rana Abdul; Shahzad, Babar

    2015-11-01

    Increased cadmium (Cd) accumulation in soils has led to tremendous environmental problems, with pronounced effects on agricultural productivity. Present study investigated the effects of Cd stress imposed at various concentrations (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 μM) on antioxidant activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), Cd accumulation, and productivity of two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars viz., Run Nong 35 and Wan Dan 13. Considerable variations in Cd accumulation and in behavior of antioxidants and ROS were observed under Cd stress in both maize cultivars, and such variations governed by Cd were concentration dependent. Exposure of plant to Cd stress considerably increased Cd concentration in all plant parts particularly in roots. Wan Dan 13 accumulated relatively higher Cd in root, stem, and leaves than Run Nong 35; however, in seeds, Run Nong 35 recorded higher Cd accumulation. All the Cd toxicity levels starting from 75 μM enhanced H2O2 and MDA concentrations and triggered electrolyte leakage in leaves of both cultivars, and such an increment was more in Run Nong 35. The ROS were scavenged by the enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase in response to Cd stress, and these antioxidant activities were higher in Wan Dan 13 compared with Run Nong 35 at all Cd toxicity levels. The grain yield of maize was considerably reduced particularly for Run Nong 35 under different Cd toxicity levels as compared with control. The Wan Dan 13 was better able to alleviate Cd-induced oxidative damage which was attributed to more Cd accumulation in roots and higher antioxidant activities in this cultivar, suggesting that manipulation of these antioxidants and enhancing Cd accumulation in roots may lead to improvement in Cd stress tolerance.

  19. Effects of dicarbonyl trapping agents, antioxidants, and reducing agents on the formation of furan and other volatile components in canned-coffee model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li Wei; Chung, Hyun; Kim, Young-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The formation of furan and certain volatiles related to furan formation mechanisms was studied using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase micro extraction after adding dicarbonyl trapping agents [epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), and catechin], water-soluble antioxidants (Trolox, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid), fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, BHT, and β-carotene), and reducing agents (glutathione and sodium sulfite) to canned-coffee model systems (CMS). The level of furan formation decreased significantly following the addition of EC (by 65.3%), EGCG (by 60.0%), and catechin (by 44.7%). In addition, the formation of Maillard reaction products, including furan derivatives (furfural and 5-methylfurfural), Strecker aldehyde (2-methylbutanal), pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine), and lipid oxidation products (including hexanal and 2-pentylfuran) was suppressed when any of the dicarbonyl trapping agents was added. Among the water-soluble antioxidants studied, chlorogenic acid most significantly decreased the furan level, by 67.0%, followed by ferulic acid (57.6%), Trolox (50.1%), and caffeic acid (48.2%) in the CMS. Chlorogenic acid also reduced the formation of furfural and lipid oxidation products. However, the addition of caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and chlorogenic acid decreased the generation of key coffee aroma components, such as Strecker aldehydes (2-methylpropanal and 2-methylbutanal), 5-methylfurfural, and pyrazines (2,6-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine). Among the fat-soluble antioxidants, BHT and α-tocopherol decreased the furan level by 49.3% and 39.3%, respectively, while β-carotene increased the furan level by 34.8%. The addition of sodium sulfite and glutathione to CMS also led to considerable reductions in furan, of 64.1% and 44.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the origins of endogenous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillas, Alexandros

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Interestingly, IFG is also closely related to silent talking, as well as volition. The connection between IFG and volition is important given that endogenous thoughts are or at least greatly resemble voluntary actions. Against this background, I argue that IFG is key to understanding the origins of conscious endogenous thoughts. Furthermore, I look into goal-directed thinking and show that IFG plays a key role also in unconscious endogenous thinking.

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Probiotic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress defines a condition in which the prooxidant–antioxidant balance in the cell is disturbed, resulting in DNA hydroxylation, protein denaturation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis, ultimately compromising cells’ viability. Probiotics have been known for many beneficial health effects, and the consumption of probiotics alone or in food shows that strain-specific probiotics can present antioxidant activity and reduce damages caused by oxidation. However, the oxidation-resistant ability of probiotics, especially the underling mechanisms, is not properly understood. In this view, there is interest to figure out the antioxidant property of probiotics and summarize the mode of action of probiotic bacteria in antioxidation. Therefore, in the present paper, the antioxidant mechanisms of probiotics have been reviewed in terms of their ability to improve the antioxidant system and their ability to decrease radical generation. Since in recent years, oxidative stress has been associated with an altered gut microbiota, the effects of probiotics on intestinal flora composition are also elaborated.

  2. Tissue-specific tagging of endogenous loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Koles

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein tags have revolutionized cell and developmental biology, and in combination with binary expression systems they enable diverse tissue-specific studies of protein function. However these binary expression systems often do not recapitulate endogenous protein expression levels, localization, binding partners and/or developmental windows of gene expression. To address these limitations, we have developed a method called T-STEP (tissue-specific tagging of endogenous proteins that allows endogenous loci to be tagged in a tissue specific manner. T-STEP uses a combination of efficient CRISPR/Cas9-enhanced gene targeting and tissue-specific recombinase-mediated tag swapping to temporally and spatially label endogenous proteins. We have employed this method to GFP tag OCRL (a phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase in the endocytic pathway and Vps35 (a Parkinson's disease-implicated component of the endosomal retromer complex in diverse Drosophila tissues including neurons, glia, muscles and hemocytes. Selective tagging of endogenous proteins allows, for the first time, cell type-specific live imaging and proteomics in complex tissues.

  3. Antioxidant Protection in Blood against Ionising Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, G.; Meszaros, G.; Koteles, G. J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The quantities of the antioxidants in the human blood are important indicators of health status. The routine determinations of activities/capacities of antioxidant compounds would be of great importance in assessing individual sensitivities against oxidative effects. We have investigated the sensitivities of those antioxidant elements against various doses of ionising radiation tested by the RANDOX assays. Our results show dose-dependent decreases of antioxidant activities caused by the different doses. The total antioxidant status value linearly decreased up to 1 Gy, but further increase of dose (2 Gy) did not influence the respective values although the test system still indicated their presence. It means that the human blood retains 60-70% of its total antioxidant capacity. Radiation induced alterations of the antioxidant enzymes: glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase have been also investigated. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased linearly upon the effects of various doses of ionising radiation till 1 Gy. Between 1 and 2 Gy only further mild decreases could be detected. In this case the human blood retained 40-60% of these two antioxidant enzymes. These observations suggest either the limited response of antioxidant system against ionising radiation, or the existence of protection system of various reactabilities. (author)

  4. The influence of antioxidants on the disturbance of the brain activity induced by low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godukhin, O.V.; Arkhipov, V.I.; Shipakina, T.G.; Kalemenev, S.V.; Burlakova, E.B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of daily intraperitoneal injections of α-tocopherol (30 mg/kg per day) and synthetic antioxidant IHFAN-30 (30 mg/day) in rats were compared during low-level ionizing radiation (10 days, dose rate 5 mGy/h, total dose 1.2 Gy). There were analysed: (1) amplitude of population spike of hippocampal slices; (2) endogenous phosphorilation in vitro of hippocamplal synaptic proteins in the presense of cAMP; (3) formation, manifestation and reduction of food-procuring reflex. The findings showed that antioxidants made some correction of the functional state of pippocampal slices and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation system activity in brain cells from irradiated animals. No influence on training and memory functions was detected. 12 refs.; 3 figs

  5. Neuronal Rat Brain Damage Caused by Endogenous and Exogenous Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aydın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia may induce pathologic alterations within body systems and organs including brain. In this study, neuronal effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperthermia (41°C were studied in rats. METHODS: The endogenous hyperthermia (41°C was induced by lipopolysaccharide and the exogenous by an (electric heater. Possible neuronal damage was evaluated by examining healthy, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus RESULTS: At cellular level, when all neuronal tissues are taken into account; (i a significant increase in the necrotic cells was observed in the both groups (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The neural tissue of brain can show different degree of response to hyperthermia. But we can conclude that endogenous hyperthermia is more harmful to central nervous system than exogenous hyperthermia

  6. Nutraceutical Antioxidants as Novel Neuroprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Linseman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A variety of antioxidant compounds derived from natural products (nutraceuticals have demonstrated neuroprotective activity in either in vitro or in vivo models of neuronal cell death or neurodegeneration, respectively. These natural antioxidants fall into several distinct groups based on their chemical structures: (1 flavonoid polyphenols like epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG from green tea and quercetin from apples; (2 non-flavonoid polyphenols such as curcumin from tumeric and resveratrol from grapes; (3 phenolic acids or phenolic diterpenes such as rosmarinic acid or carnosic acid, respectively, both from rosemary; and (4 organosulfur compounds including the isothiocyanate, L-sulforaphane, from broccoli and the thiosulfonate allicin, from garlic. All of these compounds are generally considered to be antioxidants. They may be classified this way either because they directly scavenge free radicals or they indirectly increase endogenous cellular antioxidant defenses, for example, via activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 transcription factor pathway. Alternative mechanisms of action have also been suggested for the neuroprotective effects of these compounds such as modulation of signal transduction cascades or effects on gene expression. Here, we review the literature pertaining to these various classes of nutraceutical antioxidants and discuss their potential therapeutic value in neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  8. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  9. Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Health and Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals can be overproduced or the natural antioxidant system defenses weakened, first resulting in oxidative stress, and then leading to oxidative injury ... Keywords: Oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, inflammation, cell signaling and transduction mechanisms, antioxidants, dietary phenolics.

  10. GSR is not essential for the maintenance of antioxidant defenses in mouse cochlea: Possible role of the thioredoxin system as a functional backup for GSR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Han

    Full Text Available Glutathione reductase (GSR, a key member of the glutathione antioxidant defense system, converts oxidized glutathione (GSSG to reduced glutathione (GSH and maintains the intracellular glutathione redox state to protect the cells from oxidative damage. Previous reports have shown that Gsr deficiency results in defects in host defense against bacterial infection, while diquat induces renal injury in Gsr hypomorphic mice. In flies, overexpression of GSR extended lifespan under hyperoxia. In the current study, we investigated the roles of GSR in cochlear antioxidant defense using Gsr homozygous knockout mice that were backcrossed onto the CBA/CaJ mouse strain, a normal-hearing strain that does not carry a specific Cdh23 mutation that causes progressive hair cell degeneration and early onset of hearing loss. Gsr-/- mice displayed a significant decrease in GSR activity and GSH/GSSG ratios in the cytosol of the inner ears. However, Gsr deficiency did not affect ABR (auditory brainstem response hearing thresholds, wave I amplitudes or wave I latencies in young mice. No histological abnormalities were observed in the cochlea of Gsr-/- mice. Furthermore, there were no differences in the activities of cytosolic glutathione-related enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and glutamate-cysteine ligase, or the levels of oxidative damage markers in the inner ears between WT and Gsr-/- mice. In contrast, Gsr deficiency resulted in increased activities of cytosolic thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase in the inner ears. Therefore, under normal physiological conditions, GSR is not essential for the maintenance of antioxidant defenses in mouse cochlea. Given that the thioredoxin system is known to reduce GSSG to GSH in multiple species, our findings suggest that the thioredoxin system can support GSSG reduction in the mouse peripheral auditory system.

  11. Human endogenous retroviruses in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system. Notably envelope genes and their gene products (Envs) appear strongly associated with the disease. For SCZ, for ALS, and for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), indications are accumulating for involvement of the HERV-K family, and also HERV-H/F and/or HERV-W. Activation is reasonably a prerequisite for causality as most HERV sequences remain quiescent in non-pathological conditions, so the importance of regulatory pathways and epigenetics involved in regulating HERV activation, derepression, and also involvement of retroviral restriction factors, is emerging. HERV-directed antiretrovirals have potential as novel therapeutic paradigms in neurologic disease, particularly in MS. The possible protective or ameliorative effects of antiretroviral therapy in MS are substantiated by reports that treatment of HIV infection may be associated with a significantly decreased risk of MS. Further studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are essential. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Endogenous fibrinolysis facilitates clot retraction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andre L; Alwis, Imala; Maclean, Jessica A A; Priyananda, Pramith; Hawkett, Brian; Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jackson, Shaun P

    2017-12-07

    Clot retraction refers to the process whereby activated platelets transduce contractile forces onto the fibrin network of a thrombus, which over time increases clot density and decreases clot size. This process is considered important for promoting clot stability and maintaining blood vessel patency. Insights into the mechanisms regulating clot retraction at sites of vascular injury have been hampered by a paucity of in vivo experimental models. By pairing localized vascular injury with thrombin microinjection in the mesenteric circulation of mice, we have demonstrated that the fibrin network of thrombi progressively compacts over a 2-hour period. This was a genuine retraction process, as treating thrombi with blebbistatin to inhibit myosin IIa-mediated platelet contractility prevented shrinkage of the fibrin network. Real-time confocal analysis of fibrinolysis after recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) administration revealed that incomplete proteolysis of fibrin polymers markedly facilitated clot retraction. Similarly, inhibiting endogenous fibrinolysis with tranexamic acid reduced retraction of fibrin polymers in vivo. In vitro clot retraction experiments indicated that subthreshold doses of tPA facilitated clot retraction through a plasmin-dependent mechanism. These effects correlated with changes in the elastic modulus of fibrin clots. These findings define the endogenous fibrinolytic system as an important regulator of clot retraction, and show that promoting clot retraction is a novel and complementary means by which fibrinolytic enzymes can reduce thrombus size. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Endogenous antispermatogenic agents: prospects for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Robaire, B

    1978-01-01

    A review of endogenous antispermatogenic agents as prospects for male contraception is reported. It is demonstrated that endogenous compounds exert regulatory influences at 4 major levels in the male: 1) between germ cells; 2) between Sertoli and germ cells; 3) between Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules; and 4) between the central nervous system and the testis. Efforts to interrupt spermatogenesis have failed to find application as male contraceptives for various reasons: 1) some investigators ignored the vulnerable control points by utilizing nonspecific agents; 2) others attacked a vulnerable control point but used synthetic drugs that had deleterious side effects; and 3) still others attacked a vulnerable control point with a relatively innocuous drug but used an impractical mode of drug administration. The potential for devising innovative techniques for administering relatively innocuous drugs at dosages sufficient to produce sterility without causing deleterious side effects is demonstrated. The most promising solution for the development of an antispermatogenic male contraceptive is the interference with the adenohypophyseal-gonadal axis via the subcutaneous sustained release of steroid formulations containing either androgen-danazol, androgen-progestin, or androgen-estrogen formulations. Another promising agent would be luteinizing releasing hormone agonist-androgen formulation.

  14. Pro- and anticonvulsant actions of morphine and the endogenous opioids: involvement and interactions of multiple opiate and non-opiate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenk, H

    1983-10-01

    The proconvulsant actions of high doses of systemic morphine are probably mediated by 3 different systems. One of them produces non-convulsant electrographic seizures and can be activated separately from the others both by intracerebroventricular injections as well as microinjections into discrete subcortical areas. The enkephalins and beta-endorphin, when administered to the same loci, produce similar effects. Pharmacological evidence suggests that specific opiate receptors of the delta-subtype mediate the epileptiform effects produced by this system. The second system mediating proconvulsant effects of systemic morphine is not mediated by stereo-specific opiate receptors. It produces behavioral convulsions, and the GABA-ergic system has been implicated in its action. A third proconvulsant action of systemic morphine can be activated separately from the other two systems by administering this compound with other convulsive agents or manipulations. Specific mu-type opiate receptors are implicated in this effect. In addition to potent proconvulsant effects, systemic morphine also has anticonvulsant properties which are mediated by specific opiate mu-receptors. The conditions under which morphine acts as a proconvulsant rather than an anticonvulsant agent are, as yet, not understood.

  15. Radiolysis: an efficient method of studying radicalar antioxidant mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes-Albert, M.; Jore, D.

    1998-01-01

    The use of the radiolysis method for studying radicalar antioxidant mechanisms offers the different following possibilities: 1- quantitative evaluation of antioxidant activity of molecules soluble in aqueous or non aqueous media (oxidation yields, molecular mechanisms, rate constants), 2- evaluation of the yield of prevention towards polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation, 3- evaluation of antioxidant activity towards biological systems such as liposomes or low density lipoproteins (LDL), 4- simple comparison in different model systems of drags effect versus natural antioxidants. (authors)

  16. Comparison of gamma- and beta radiation stress responses on anti-oxidative defense system and DNA modifications in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, Arne [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Horemans, Nele; Van Hees, May; Nauts, Robin; Vandenhove, Hildegarde [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200 2400 Mol (Belgium); Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny [University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    frond have been implemented in a dosimetric model derived from ERICA tool. This enabled a reliable comparison of dose-dependent endpoints between gamma- and beta radiation. Dose rates varied from 15 and 1500 mGy/hr, and 19 from 19000 μGy/hr for gamma- and beta radiation respectively. The classic growth related endpoints, like biomass and frond area, were measured and compared with biochemical and molecular endpoints. Therefore, DNA modifications were analyzed to evaluate biological DNA damage and ROS accumulation in plants together with activities of anti-oxidative enzymes to evaluate oxidative stress response. A dose-response curve with 60 percent growth inhibition was determined for gamma radiation and morphological growth effects in root system were observed for beta radiation. Preliminary results showed similar responses in peroxidase activities between both radiation types. These results and ongoing investigations will help to unravel the differences and similarities in response mechanisms for various radiation types in plant systems. As multiple levels in biological organisation of the organism were considered, and also different dose rates taken into account, this approach allows a better understanding the toxic mode of action of radiation stress in higher plants. This research was supported by the European Commission Contract Fission-2010-3.5.1-269672 to Strategy for Allied Radioecology (www.star-radioecology.org) and a project of the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) (authors)

  17. Human-Specific Endogenous Retroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Buzdin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on a small family of human-specific genomic repetitive elements, presented by 134 members that shaped ~330 kb of the human DNA. Although modest in terms of its copy number, this group appeared to modify the human genome activity by endogenizing ~50 functional copies of viral genes that may have important implications in the immune response, cancer progression, and antiretroviral host defense. A total of 134 potential promoters and enhancers have been added to the human DNA, about 50% of them in the close gene vicinity and 22% in gene introns. For 60 such human-specific promoters, their activity was confirmed by in vivo assays, with the transcriptional level varying ~1000-fold from hardly detectable to as high as ~3% of β-actin transcript level. New polyadenylation signals have been provided to four human RNAs, and a number of potential antisense regulators of known human genes appeared due to human-specific retroviral insertional activity. This information is given here in the context of other major genomic changes underlining differences between human and chimpanzee DNAs. Finally, a comprehensive database, is available for download, of human-specific and polymorphic endogenous retroviruses is presented, which encompasses the data on their genomic localization, primary structure, encoded viral genes, human gene neighborhood, transcriptional activity, and methylation status.

  18. Endogenous Receptor Agonists: Resolving Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Bannenberg

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled resolution or the physiologic resolution of a well-orchestrated inflammatory response at the tissue level is essential to return to homeostasis. A comprehensive understanding of the cellular and molecular events that control the termination of acute inflammation is needed in molecular terms given the widely held view that aberrant inflammation underlies many common diseases. This review focuses on recent advances in the understanding of the role of arachidonic acid and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA–derived lipid mediators in regulating the resolution of inflammation. Using a functional lipidomic approach employing LC-MS-MS–based informatics, recent studies, reviewed herein, uncovered new families of local-acting chemical mediators actively biosynthesized during the resolution phase from the essential fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. These new families of local chemical mediators are generated endogenously in exudates collected during the resolution phase, and were coined resolvins and protectins because specific members of these novel chemical families control both the duration and magnitude of inflammation in animal models of complex diseases. Recent advances on the biosynthesis, receptors, and actions of these novel anti-inflammatory and proresolving lipid mediators are reviewed with the aim to bring to attention the important role of specific lipid mediators as endogenous agonists in inflammation resolution.

  19. Obtaining of the antioxidants by supercritical fluid extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Nada V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important trends in the food industry today is demand for natural antioxidants from plant material. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA are now being replaced by the natural antioxidants because of theirs possible toxicity and as they may act as promoters of carcinogens. The natural antioxidants may show equivalent or higher antioxidant activity than the endogenous or the synthetic antioxidants. Thus, great effort is being devoted to the search for alternative and cheap sources of natural antioxidants, as well as to the development of efficient and selective extraction techniques. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE with carbon dioxide is considered to be the most suitable method for producing natural antioxidants for the use in food industry. The supercritical extract does not contain residual organic solvents as in conventional extraction processes, which makes these products suitable for use in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The recovery of antioxidants from plant sources involves many problematic aspects: choice of an adequate source (in terms of availability, cost, difference in phenolic content with variety and season; selection of the optimal recovery procedure (in terms of yield, simplicity, industrial application, cost; chemical analysis of extracts (for optimization purposes a fast colorimetric method is more preferable than a chromatographic one; evaluation of the antioxidant power (preferably by the different assay methods. The paper presents information about different operational methods for SFE of bioactive compounds from natural sources. It also includes the various reports on the antioxidant activity of the supercritical extracts from Lamiaceae herbs, in comparison with the activity of the synthetic antioxidants and the extracts from Lamiaceae herbs obtained by the conventional methods.

  20. 6-Shogaol-Rich Extract from Ginger Up-Regulates the Antioxidant Defense Systems in Cells and Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE...

  1. Melatonin and male reproductive health: relevance of darkness and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C S; Rato, L; Martins, A D; Alves, M G; Oliveira, P F

    2015-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin controls several physiological functions that reach far beyond the regulation of the circadian rhythm. Moreover, it can be produced in extra-pineal organs such as reproductive organs. The role of melatonin in the mammalian seasonal and circadian rhythm is well known. Nevertheless, its overall effect in male reproductive physiology remains largely unknown. Melatonin is a very powerful endogenous antioxidant that can also be exogenously taken safely. Interestingly, its antioxidant properties have been consistently reported to improve the male reproductive dysfunctions associated with pathological conditions and also with the exposure to toxicants. Nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanisms by which melatonin exerts its action in the male reproductive system remain a matter of debate. Herein, we propose to present an up-to-date overview of the melatonin effects in the male reproductive health and debate future directions to disclose possible sites of melatonin action in male reproductive system. We will discuss not only the role of melatonin during darkness and sleep but also the importance of the antioxidant properties of this hormone to male fertility. Since melatonin readily crosses the physiological barriers, such as the blood-testis barrier, and has a very low toxicity, it appears as an excellent candidate in the prevention and/or treatment of the multiple male reproductive dysfunctions associated with various pathologies.

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antioxidant enzyme system in human population exposed to radiation from mobile towers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sachin; Yadav, Anita; Kumar, Neeraj; Priya, Kanu; Aggarwal, Neeraj K; Gupta, Ranjan

    2018-03-01

    In the present era, cellular phones have changed the life style of human beings completely and have become an essential part of their lives. The number of cell phones and cell towers are increasing in spite of their disadvantages. These cell towers transmit radiation continuously without any interruption, so people living within 100s of meters from the tower receive 10,000 to 10,000,000 times stronger signal than required for mobile communication. In the present study, we have examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation assay, and effect of functional polymorphism of SOD and CAT antioxidant genes against mobile tower-induced oxidative stress in human population. From our results, we have found a significantly lower mean value of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, and a high value of lipid peroxidation assay in exposed as compared to control subjects. Polymorphisms in antioxidant MnSOD and CAT genes significantly contributed to its phenotype. In the current study, a significant association of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant genes with genetic damage has been observed in human population exposed to radiations emitted from mobile towers.

  3. Characterisation and changes in the antioxidant system of chloroplasts and chromoplasts isolated from green and mature pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M C; Camejo, D; Olmos, E; Sandalio, L M; Fernández-García, N; Jiménez, A; Sevilla, F

    2009-07-01

    Purification and characterisation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L) chloroplasts and chromoplasts isolated from commercial green, red and yellow mature fruits were undertaken. Induction of the synthesis of several antioxidants in organelles isolated from mature fruits was found. The ultrastructure of organelles and the presence and activity of SOD isozymes and enzymes involved in the ASC-GSH cycle, together with the non-enzymatic antioxidant content and some oxidative parameters, were analysed. It was found that lipids, rather than proteins, seem to be a target for oxidation in the chromoplasts. The ascorbate and glutathione contents were elicited during differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts in both red and yellow fruits. The activity of SOD and of components of the ASC-GSH cycle was up-regulated, suggesting that these enzymes may play a role in the protection of plastids and could act as modulators of signal molecules such as O(2) ( -) and H(2)O(2) during fruit maturation. The presence of an Mn-SOD in chromoplasts isolated from yellow pepper fruits was also investigated in terms of structural and antioxidant differences between the two cultivars.

  4. Endogenous opioids regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Bryony L.; Gregoriou, Gabrielle C.; Kissiwaa, Sarah A.; Wells, Oliver A.; Medagoda, Danashi I.; Hermes, Sam M.; Burford, Neil T.; Alt, Andrew; Aicher, Sue A.; Bagley, Elena E.

    2017-01-01

    Fear and emotional learning are modulated by endogenous opioids but the cellular basis for this is unknown. The intercalated cells (ITCs) gate amygdala output and thus regulate the fear response. Here we find endogenous opioids are released by synaptic stimulation to act via two distinct mechanisms within the main ITC cluster. Endogenously released opioids inhibit glutamate release through the δ-opioid receptor (DOR), an effect potentiated by a DOR-positive allosteric modulator. Postsynaptically, the opioids activate a potassium conductance through the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), suggesting for the first time that endogenously released opioids directly regulate neuronal excitability. Ultrastructural localization of endogenous ligands support these functional findings. This study demonstrates a new role for endogenously released opioids as neuromodulators engaged by synaptic activity to regulate moment-to-moment neuronal communication and excitability. These distinct actions through MOR and DOR may underlie the opposing effect of these receptor systems on anxiety and fear. PMID:28327612

  5. Daily rhythms of catalase and glutathione peroxidase expression and activity are endogenously driven in the hippocampus and are modified by a vitamin A-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navigatore-Fonzo, Lorena S; Delgado, Silvia M; Gimenez, Maria Sofia; Anzulovich, Ana C

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in enzymatic antioxidant defense systems lead to a deficit of cognitive functions and altered hippocampal synaptic plasticity. The objectives of this study were to investigate endogenous rhythms of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) expression and activity, as well as CREB1 mRNA, in the rat hippocampus, and to evaluate to which extent the vitamin A deficiency could affect those temporal patterns. Rats from control and vitamin A-deficient (VAD) groups received a diet containing 4000 IU of vitamin A/kg diet, or the same diet devoid of vitamin A, respectively, during 3 months. Rats were maintained under 12-hour-dark conditions, during 10 days before the sacrifice. Circadian rhythms of CAT, GPx, RXRγ, and CREB1 mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcriptrase polymerase chain reaction in hippocampus samples isolated every 4 hours during a 24-hour period. CAT and GPx enzymatic activities were also determined by kinetic assays. Regulatory regions of clock and antioxidant enzymes genes were scanned for E-box, RXRE, and CRE sites. E-box, RXRE, and CRE sites were found on regulatory regions of GPx and CAT genes, which display a circadian expression in the rat hippocampus. VAD phase shifted CAT, GPx, and RXRγ endogenous rhythms without affecting circadian expression of CREB1. CAT and GPx expression and enzymatic activity are circadian in the rat hippocampus. The VAD affected the temporal patterns antioxidant genes expression, probably by altering circadian rhythms of its RXR receptors and clock factors; thus, it would impair the temporal orchestration of hippocampal daily cognitive performance.

  6. Endogenous money: the evolutionary versus revolutionary views

    OpenAIRE

    Louis-Philippe Rochon; Sergio Rossi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the endogenous nature of money. Contrary to the established post-Keynesian, or evolutionary, view, this paper argues that money has always been endogenous, irrespective of the historical period. Instead of the evolutionary theory of money and banking that can be traced back to Chick (1986), this paper puts forward a revolutionary definition of endogenous money consistent with many aspects of post-Keynesian economics as well as with the monetary ci...

  7. Endogenous price flexibility and optimal monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozge Senay; Alan Sutherland

    2014-01-01

    Much of the literature on optimal monetary policy uses models in which the degree of nominal price flexibility is exogenous. There are, however, good reasons to suppose that the degree of price flexibility adjusts endogenously to changes in monetary conditions. This article extends the standard new Keynesian model to incorporate an endogenous degree of price flexibility. The model shows that endogenizing the degree of price flexibility tends to shift optimal monetary policy towards complete i...

  8. Effects of stocking density of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) on immunities, antioxidant status, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi in a biofloc system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhu, Songming; Liu, Dezhao; Guo, Xishan; Ye, Zhangying

    2017-08-01

    Determining optimum stocking density of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) is a big concern for shrimp farmers. However, few studies have assessed the influence of stocking density on the antioxidant status, immunology, digestive enzyme activities, and growth performance of white shrimp in biofloc systems. In this study, these parameters of white shrimp in a biofloc system were compared at three stocking densities: 300 orgs m -3 as low stocking density (LD), 400 orgs m -3 as medium stocking density (MD), and 500 orgs m -3 as high stocking density (HD). The feed conversion ratio in the LD group was significantly lower than that in the MD and HD groups (P white shrimp can be seriously impaired in the HD condition (i.e., ≥500 m -3 ) in biofloc systems. These findings can be used to determine suitable stocking densities in the white shrimp farming industry using the biofloc system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Long-Term Aerobic Exercise on Antioxidant System and Lymphocyte DNA Damage by Triathlon Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Eun Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle damage markers, lymphocyte DNA damage, and antioxidant system in amateur athletes. Material and Methods: Eleven healthy men in their 30s and 40s without any medical illness, who did not smoke or drink, and had completed at least two amateur triathlon races (O2 and Olympic courses were enrolled. They underwent physical examination and four blood sampling sessions: at rest, immediately after a race, during recovery (3 and 6 days after the race, and after completing an Olympic course. Blood sampling was performed using the same method one month later. Weight (kg and saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2 were measured. Tail intensity, tail moment, and tail length, and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were analyzed. Results: First, the study found significant changes between the body weight at rest and immediately after the race (p<.001 and between those immediately after the race and 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.001 for both courses. Second, for both courses, SpO2 declined immediately after the race and tended to rise again during recovery, but the difference was not significant. Third, in the Olympic course, significant differences were found between lymphocyte tail moment ™ at rest and that immediately after the race (p<.01 and between those immediately after the race and 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.05, p<.01. In the O2 course, significant differences were found between lymphocyte TM at rest and that immediately after the race (p<.01, between those at rest and 3 days of recovery (p<.001, between those immediately after the race and 3 days of recovery (p<.001, between those at rest and 6 days of recovery (p<.01, and between those at 3 and 6 days after the race (p<.01. Both courses significantly differed in lymphocyte TM immediately after the race (p<.05. Fourth, significant

  10. The two faces of endogenous DNA editing enzymes: Promoting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The two faces of endogenous DNA editing enzymes: Promoting gene mutations as well as genome repair. Type B lymphocytes are a specific type of white blood cell within our immune system. They produce and export antibodies which seek out, attach to, and neutralize microbes and toxins. A unique way that B ...

  11. The Role of Endogenous H(2)S in Cardiovascular Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Gouliaev, Anja; Aalling, Mathilde

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the endogenous gas hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a signalling molecule of considerable biological potential and has been suggested to be involved in a vast number of physiological processes. In the vascular system, H(2)S is synthesized from cysteine by cystathionine-...

  12. Biodegradable in situ gelling system for subcutaneous administration of ellagic acid and ellagic acid loaded nanoparticles: evaluation of their antioxidant potential against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G; Italia, J L; Sonaje, K; Tikoo, K; Ravi Kumar, M N V

    2007-03-12

    Ellagic acid (EA) is a potent antioxidant marketed as a nutritional supplement. Its pharmacological activity has been reported in wide variety of disease models; however its use has been limited owing to its poor biopharmaceutical properties, thereby poor bioavailability. The objective of the current study was to develop chitosan-glycerol phosphate (C-GP) in situ gelling system for sustained delivery of ellagic acid (EA) via subcutaneous route. EA was incorporated in the system employing propylene glycol (PG) and triethanolamine (TEA) as co-solvents; on the other hand EA loaded PLGA nanoparticles (np) were dispersed in the gelling system using water. These in situ gelling systems were thoroughly characterized for mechanical, rheological and swelling properties. These systems are liquid at room temperature and gels at 37 degrees C. The EA C-GP system showed an initial burst release in vitro with about 85% drug released in 12 h followed by a steady release till 160 h, on the other hand EA nanoparticles entrapped in the C-GP system displayed sustained release till 360 h. The histopathological analysis indicates the absence of inflammation on administration, suggesting that these formulations are safe during the studied period. Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of EA C-GP and EA np C-GP gels has been evaluated against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The data indicates that formulations were effective against cyclosporine induced nephrotoxicity, where the EA C-GP gels showed activity at 10 times lower dose and the EA np C-GP gels at 150 times lower dose when compared to orally given EA. Formulating nanoparticles of EA and incorporating them in C-GP system results in 15 times lowering of dose in comparison EA C-GP gels which is quite significant. Together, these results indicate that the bioavailability of ellagic acid can be improved by subcutaneous formulations administered as simple EA or EA nps.

  13. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  14. Exogenous and endogenous landforms in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Julia

    2017-04-01

    11th graders have already learned about endogenous forces and now we are having a closer look at the exogenous forces which act on the Earth's surface. The Po River-system, for example, is responsible for the formation of the alpine region. Students are asked to find out how this works with the help of the rock-cycle scheme, several suitable maps and information on weathering and the texture of rocks, erosion, etc. We will form groups that will look at different types of rock formations (including an example in the Mediterranean region each). Depending on the number of lessons available we will add the exogenous effect of flowing water and ice (glacial over forming) to the topic. At the end every group will present their findings explaining the scientific context by using topographic examples.

  15. Transfer of endogenous pyrogens across artificial membranes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnemann, G; Linnenweber, S; Burg, M; Koch, K M

    1998-05-01

    Synthetic high-flux dialyzer membranes used in continuous veno-venous hemofiltration are permeable to middle molecular size endogenous pyrogens, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. The quantities removed by sieving are, however, negligible in vitro as well as in vivo. Adsorption of cytokines to the membrane polymer is the major mechanism of pyrogen removal. Adsorption seems to be semispecific for pro-inflammatory cytokines because levels of anti-inflammatory mediators were not changed or even increased during CVVH. Thus, CVVH may change cytokine profiles in septic patients supporting the predominance of anti-inflammatory over pro-inflammatory activity in plasma. It remains to be demonstrated whether modifications of extracorporeal blood purification systems (high-volume CVVH, plasma separation + adsorption) are able to amplify the change in cytokine profiles and whether this change influences outcome of septic patients.

  16. 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger up-regulates the antioxidant defense systems in cells and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Min-Ji; Ok, Seon; Jun, Mira; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2012-07-04

    The rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is known to have several bioactive compounds including gingerols and shogaols which possess beneficial health properties such as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects. Based on recent observations that 6-shogaol may have more potent bioactivity than 6-gingerol, we obtained a 6-shogaol-rich extract from ginger and examined its effects on the nuclear factor E2-related factor2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in vitro and in vivo. 6-Shogaol-rich extract was produced by extracting ginger powder with 95% ethanol at 80 °C after drying at 80 °C (GEE8080). GEE8080 contained over 6-fold more 6-shogaol compared to the room temperature extract (GEE80RT). In HepG2 cells, GEE8080 displayed much stronger inductions of ARE-reporter gene activity and Nrf2 expression than GEE80RT. GEE8080 stimulated phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK, JNK, and p38. Moreover, the GEE8080-induced expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 were attenuated by treatments of SB202190 (a p38 specific inhibitor) and LY294002 (an Akt specific inhibitor). In a mouse model, the GEE8080 decreased the diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-mediated elevations of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as the DEN-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Inductions of Nrf2 and HO-1 by GEE8080 were also confirmed in the mice. In addition, the administration of GEE8080 to the mice also restored the DEN-reduced activity and protein expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase. In conclusion, GEE8080, a 6-shogaol-rich ginger extract, may enhance antioxidant defense mechanism through the induction of Nrf2 and HO-1 regulated by p38 MAPK and PI3k/Akt pathway in vitro and in vivo.

  17. The functional state of cellular antioxidant defence system of shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to the chronic ionizing radiation in the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, V.S.; Kashparov, V.A.; Levchuk, S.Ye.; Umanska, A.O.; Bishchuk, Ye.V.; Otreshko, L.M

    2016-01-01

    The functional state of the cellular antioxidant defence system of shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that grow in natural conditions in the areas of the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone with the values of the external dose rate of 0.45, 0.61, 1.05, 4.81 and 6.80 .Gy/h was evaluated. The decrease of the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds in the shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana was revealed under the external dose rate of 4.81 and 6.80 .Gy/h by 38 and 48 %, respectively, compared to this parameter value under the external dose rate of 0.45 .Gy/h. In the investigated samples the capacity of guaiacol peroxidase increases, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase decreases significantly with the increase of the external dose rate from 0.45 to 6.80 .Gy/h. Probably, revealed changes in the functional state of the cellular antioxidant defence system of the shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana in the conditions of radioactive contamination are adaptive in nature.

  18. The influence of ripening stage and cultivation system on the total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of yellow passion fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoris, Mariana S; De Marchi, Renata; Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the influence of both ripening stage and cultivation system on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of passion fruit pulp. TPC extraction was optimized using a 2³ central composed design. The variables were fruit pulp volume, methanol volume and extraction solution volume. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, and TAA using the ABTS radical reaction. The conditions to extract TPC were 2 mL passion fruit pulp and 9 mL extraction solution containing 40% methanol:water (v/v). TPC values increased in the passion fruit pulp during ripening for both cultivation systems</