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Sample records for endogenous androgenic anabolic

  1. Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction of Anabolic Androgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Anabolic androgenic compounds, supported liquid membrane, liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry. 1. Introduction ... monitoring of some of the anabolic hormones in muscles via pentafluoropropionyl derivatization and ... androgenic steroid hormones involve the use of solid phase extraction ...

  2. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IHSAN SARI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are used for sportive, cosmetic, therapeutic and occupational reasons and there are many side effects reported (George, 2005; Nieminen et al., 1996; O'Sullivan et al., 2000. Prevalence of anabolic steroids’ use also indicates the importance of this topic. Moreover, it is now known that use of anabolic steroids could lead to dependence which could be psychological or/and physiological (Copeland et al., 2000. It isimportant to know about all aspects of anabolic steroids including dependence. Therefore, this study has attempted to give an insight into use of anabolic steroids and dependence. The discussion will focus on prevalence, reasons, and side effects of use and physiological and psychological dependence

  3. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-01-01

    According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS) is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports and widespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem. Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, ...

  4. Determination of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids and ratios in urine by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and isotope pattern deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch-Motellón, J; Sancho, J V; Ibáñez, M; Pozo, O; Roig-Navarro, A F

    2017-09-15

    An isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method for the determination of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS has been developed using the isotope pattern deconvolution (IPD) mathematical tool. The method has been successfully validated for testosterone, epitestosterone, androsterone and etiocholanolone, employing their respective deuterated analogs using two certified reference materials (CRM). Accuracy was evaluated as recovery of the certified values and ranged from 75% to 108%. Precision was assessed in intraday (n=5) and interday (n=4) experiments, with RSDs below 5% and 10% respectively. The method was also found suitable for real urine samples, with limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) below the normal urinary levels. The developed method meets the requirements established by the World Anti-Doping Agency for the selected steroids for Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) measurements, except in the case of androsterone, which is currently under study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. ABUSE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Yavari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Olympic Committee, the abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASS is found in over 50% of positive doping tests. AASS abuse is not restricted to the organized sports andwidespread use. It remains as an unsolved public-health problem.Lower black market price, easier access to AASS, bodybuilding clubs and internet advertising are factors of this increasingly misuse. There is not real data about the prevalence of AASS abuse in various populations or countries, because most of athletes or students, due to their prohibition or ethical aspects do not admit to AASS abuse. Often they are aware of the risks of their choice and yet, are eager to put themselves at risk without deeper consideration. The abusers use them to improve their physical fitness and appearance.Present article has been collected to elucidate the risks and adverse effects of AASS and explanation of mechanisms of these events.

  6. Anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and liver toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, M; Bello, S; Bonsignore, A; Cantatore, S; Riezzo, I; Turillazzi, E; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    In the athletes the wide use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) cause series damage in various organs, in particular, analyzing the liver, elevation on the levels of liver enzymes, cholestatic jaundice, liver tumors, both benign and malignant, and peliosis hepatis are described. A prolonged AAS administration provokes an increase in the activities of liver lysosomal hydrolases and a decrease in some components of the microsomal drug-metabolizing system and in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes without modifying classical serum indicators of hepatic function. Liver is a key organ actively involved in numerous metabolic and detoxifying functions. As a consequence, it is continuously exposed to high levels of endogenous and exogenous oxidants that are by-products of many biochemical pathways and, in fact, it has been demonstrated that intracellular oxidant production is more active in liver than in tissues, like the increase of inflammatory cytokines, apoptosis and the inhibitors of apoptosis NF- κB and Heat Shock Proteins.

  7. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, Andrea; Iaquinto, Gaetano; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......The objectives were to assess the beneficial and harmful effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  8. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Đukanović; Vesko Drašković; Svetlana Višnjić; Zoran Mašić

    2011-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially o...

  9. Androgenic anabolic steroids also impair right ventricular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasikcioglu, Erdem; Oflaz, Huseyin; Umman, Berrin; Bugra, Zehra

    2009-05-01

    Chronic anabolic steroid use suppresses left ventricular functions. However, there is no information regarding the chronic effects of anabolic steroids on right ventricular function which also plays a key role in global cardiac function. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of androgenic anabolic steroids usage among athletes on remodeling the right part of the heart. Androgenic-anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders had smaller diastolic velocities of both ventricles than drug-free bodybuilders and sedentary counterparts. This study shows that androgenic anabolic steroids-using bodybuilders exhibited depressed diastolic functions of both ventricles.

  10. ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

  11. Structural characteristics of anabolic androgenic steroids contributing to binding to the androgen receptor and to their anabolic and androgenic activities. Applied modifications in the steroidal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Kokotos, G; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone introduced for therapeutic purposes providing enhanced anabolic potency with reduced androgenic effects. Androgens mediate their action through their binding to the androgen receptor (AR) which is mainly expressed in androgen target tissues, such as the prostate, skeletal muscle, liver and central nervous system. This paper reviews some of the wide spectrum of testosterone and synthetic AAS structure modifications related to the intended enhancement in anabolic activity. The structural features of steroids necessary for effective binding to the AR and those which contribute to the stipulation of the androgenic and anabolic activities are also presented.

  12. Review of Androgenic Anabolic Steroid Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Borges; G. Eisele; C. Byrd

    2001-07-31

    An area that has been overlooked within personnel security evaluations is employee use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). Current drug testing within the federal government does not include testing for anabolic steroids, and the difficulties to implement such testing protocols-not to mention the cost involved-make AAS testing highly improbable. The basis of this report is to bring to the forefront the damage that anabolic steroids can cause from both a physical and a psychological standpoint. Most individuals who use AASs do so to increase their muscle mass because they wish to gain some type of competitive edge during athletic competition or they wish to enhance their physical features for self-satisfaction and self-esteem (i.e., body building). Security officers are one group of men who often take high doses of anabolic steroids, according to the Second Report of the Senate Standing Committee (1990). The negative psychological characteristics for AAS use is extensive and includes prominent hostility, aggressiveness, irritability, euphoria, grandiose beliefs, hyperactivity, reckless behavior, increased sexual appetite, unpredictability, poor impulse control, mood fluctuations, and insomnia. The drug may invoke a sense of power and invincibility (Leckman and Scahill, 1990). Depressive symptoms, such as anhedonia, fatigue, impaired concentration, decreased libido, and even suicidality (Pope and Katz, 1992) have been noted with steroid withdrawal. It appears that long-term users of AAS experience similar characteristics as other substance abusers (i.e., craving, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms).

  13. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  14. Current concepts in anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick A

    2004-03-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. According to surveys and media reports, the legal and illegal use of these drugs is gaining popularity. Testosterone restores sex drive and boosts muscle mass, making it central to 2 of society's rising preoccupations: perfecting the male body and sustaining the male libido. The anabolic effects of AAS have been questioned for decades, but recent scientific investigation of supraphysiologic doses supports the efficacy of these regimens. Testosterone has potent anabolic effects on the musculoskeletal system, including an increase in lean body mass, a dose-related hypertrophy of muscle fibers, and an increase in muscle strength. For athletes requiring speed and strength and men desiring a cosmetic muscle makeover, illegal steroids are a powerful lure, despite the risk of subjective side effects. Recent clinical studies have discovered novel therapeutic uses for physiologic doses of AAS, without any significant adverse effects in the short term. In the wake of important scientific advances during the past decade, the positive and negative effects of AAS warrant reevaluation. Guidelines for the clinical evaluation of AAS users will be presented for sports medicine practitioners.

  15. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS AND ADVERSE EVENTS OF THEIR APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Đukanović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic compounds originating from testosterone. Their main effects are the control of development and expression of male secondary sexual characteristics, which are known as androgenic effects, and encourage muscle growth or anabolic effects. Anabolic androgenic steroids are most commonly used illegal substances. Besides these physiological effects, which are achieved using therapeutic doses of these preparations, higher doses than recommended, especially over the longer term, may be associated with the emergence of numerous adverse events. Adverse events may be registered in almost all organs and organ systems, but usually include changes in the reproductive system, skin, liver and cardiovascular system.

  16. [Control measures for anabolic androgenic steroid medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Ces Gens, Eugenio; Cadórniga Valiño, Luis; Álvaro Esteban, Pilar; Pose Reino, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) can cause serious adverse effects when used without a therapeutic purpose. This article aims to show that the AAS are susceptible to being sold on the black market. We also aim to describe how certain limitations on the health inspection services of the Galician health service to pursue these illegal actions prompted a regulatory initiative demanding that additional actions be granted to community pharmacies when dispensing AAS. Four pharmacy inspections detected the diversion of a total of 3118 packages of AAS, which led to the opening of four disciplinary proceedings. In two of these, specialized police forces were called in as there was sufficient evidence of possible diversion to gymnasiums, resulting in a police operation called Operation Fitness. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Peter; Llewellyn, William; Van Mol, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused for decades by both professional and amateur athletes in order to improve physical performance or muscle mass. AAS abuse can cause adverse effects, among which are hepatotoxic effects. These effects include cholestatic icterus and possibly peliosis hepatis and hepatocellular carcinoma or adenoma. In particular, 17α-alkylated AAS appear to be hepatotoxic, whereas nonalkylated AAS appear not to be. The 17α-alkyl substitution retards hepatic metabolism of the AAS rendering it orally bioavailable. The mechanism responsible for the hepatotoxicity induced by 17α-alkylated AAS remains poorly understood. However, oxidative stress has been repeatedly shown to be associated with it. In this manuscript we present a hypothesis which describes a potential mechanism responsible for AAS-induced hepatotoxicity, based on several observations from the literature which suggest oxidative stress being a causal factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple arterial thromboses associated with anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Neil Arthur; Abbas, Jonathan Raihan; Simms, Malcolm Harold

    2014-03-01

    The use of supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids can have serious side effects. This article reports the case of a young man who suffered potentially life-threatening arterial thromboses following the use of these drugs.

  19. Anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Iaquinto, G; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is one of the most common causes of liver disease in the Western World today. Randomised clinical trials have examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids for alcoholic liver disease....

  20. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and awareness of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among male bodybuilders visiting gyms in Jazan ... Health educational programs are required to increase the awareness about the side effects of anabolic steroids ..... Brand (generic name). Testosterone (Enanthate). 54. 37.5.

  1. [Anabolic androgenic steroids in amateur sports in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; de Hon, Olivier; Levi, Marcel; de Ronde, W Pim

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands an estimated 20,000 people use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). The use of AAS is particularly common in regular visitors to gyms and fitness centres. AAS are usually synthetic derivatives of testosterone with both an anabolic and an androgenic effect. AAS have many side effects like liver damage (oral use) or infections (intramuscular use), which can be explained partly by the androgenic effect and partly by the manner of use. Many of these side effects are only reported in case studies and have not been systematically investigated.

  2. Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both “body-image” drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years, but remains little studied. PMID:19769977

  3. Dermatologists and anabolic-androgenic drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M J; Scott, M J

    1989-07-01

    The use of huge self-administered dosages of anabolic-androgenic steroids by athletes and body builders is widespread in the United States, increasing at a rapid rate among athletes of both sexes and involving an ever-expanding age group. Athletes are very wary of revealing steroid use to their physicians, so a high index of suspicion is a prerequisite in diagnosing the use of these agents. Since many of the side effects of steroids are manifested in the skin, dermatologists are in a unique and favorable position to detect their use, if they are aware of such clinical signs. Once alerted to this possibility during a dermatologic examination, the dermatologist has an excellent opportunity to make users aware of the potential hazards and dangers of taking such drugs. Counselling these athletes can do much to stem the tide against the rising problem of drug abuse. It is a worthwhile service to sports in general as well as to the patient's personal health. Many of our conclusions are based on our personal experience with elite and Olympic athletes in almost every sport, body builders, and junior high school, high school, and college students and athletes.

  4. Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are a family of hormones that includes testosterone and its derivatives. These substances have been used by elite athletes since the 1950s, but they did not become widespread drugs of abuse in the general population until the 1980s. Thus, knowledge of the medical and behavioral effects of illicit AAS use is still evolving. Surveys suggest that many millions of boys and men, primarily in Western countries, have abused AAS to enhance athletic performance or personal appearance. AAS use among girls and women is much less common. Taken in supraphysiologic doses, AAS show various long-term adverse medical effects, especially cardiovascular toxicity. Behavioral effects of AAS include hypomanic or manic symptoms, sometimes accompanied by aggression or violence, which usually occur while taking AAS, and depressive symptoms occurring during AAS withdrawal. However, these symptoms are idiosyncratic and afflict only a minority of illicit users; the mechanism of these idiosyncratic responses remains unclear. AAS users may also ingest a range of other illicit drugs, including both "body image" drugs to enhance physical appearance or performance, and classical drugs of abuse. In particular, AAS users appear particularly prone to opioid use. There may well be a biological basis for this association, since both human and animal data suggest that AAS and opioids may share similar brain mechanisms. Finally, AAS may cause a dependence syndrome in a substantial minority of users. AAS dependence may pose a growing public health problem in future years but remains little studied. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. Howev...

  6. The Central Effects of Androgenic-anabolic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mędraś, Marek; Brona, Anna; Jóźków, Paweł

    2018-02-21

    : Millions of men use androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) to stimulate muscle growth and improve physical appearance. Although 1 out of 3 people who uses androgenic-anabolic steroids develops a steroid use disorder, the effects of the drugs on the central nervous system and the psyche are still not well understood. Although most addictive substances improve mood immediately after administration, AAS exert less pronounced euphoric effects. Instead, they are primarily taken for the delayed gratification of increased muscle mass. Withdrawal from AAS may lead to a range of somatic and psychiatric symptoms, and, in many cases, comprehensive treatment supervised by an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist is required.

  7. Prevalence and awareness of anabolic androgenic steroid use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the prevalence and awareness of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among male bodybuilders visiting gyms in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 male bodybuilders visiting gyms in the Jazan region of Saudi Arabia. Information on ...

  8. Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S.

    This review of the literature on the psychological and behavioral effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) first looks at aspects of the history and prevalence of AS use in competitive sports. Research suggests that one-quarter to one-half million adolescents in the United States have used, or are currently using AS. Some effects of androgens…

  9. Hypercholesterolemia in Male Power Lifters Using Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of serum cholesterol concentrations in male power lifters who used anabolic-androgenic steroids for eight weeks, three years, or eight years indicated that mean serum cholesterol levels increased with drug use, but decreased promptly to near pre-steroid levels after steroid use ended. (Author/CB)

  10. External calibration in gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry measurements of endogenous androgenic anabolic steroids in sports doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioussi, Maroula K; Angelis, Yiannis S; Cawley, Adam T; Koupparis, Michalis; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Brenna, J Thomas; Georgakopoulos, Costas G

    2011-08-19

    An alternative calibration procedure for the gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) measurements of the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) Accredited Laboratories is presented. To alleviate the need for externally calibrated CO₂ gas for GC-C-IRMS analysis of urinary steroid metabolites, calibration using an external standard mixture solution of steroids with certified isotopic composition was investigated. The reference steroids of the calibration mixture and routine samples underwent identical instrumental processes. The calibration standards bracketed the entire range of the relevant δ¹³C values for the endogenous and exogenous steroids as well as their chromatographic retention times. The certified δ¹³C values of the reference calibrators were plotted in relation to measured m/z ¹³CO₂/¹²CO₂ (i.e. R(45/44)) mass spectrometric signals of each calibrator. δ¹³C values of the sample steroids were calculated from the least squares fit through the calibration curve. The effect of the external calibration on δ¹³C values, using the same calibration standards and set of urine samples but different brands of GC-C-IRMS instruments, was assessed by an interlaboratory study in the WADA Accredited Laboratories of Sydney, Australia and Athens, Greece. Relative correspondence between the laboratories for determination of androsterone, etiocholanolone, 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diacetate, and pregnanediacetate means were SD(δ¹³C)=0.12‰, 0.58‰, -0.34‰, and -0.40‰, respectively. These data demonstrate that accurate intralaboratory external calibration with certified steroids provided by United States Antidoping Agency (USADA) and without external CO₂ calibration is feasible and directly applicable to the WADA Accredited Laboratories for the harmonization of the GC-C-IRMS measurements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    .... Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods...

  12. Anabolic androgenic steroid-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placci, Angelo; Sella, Gianluigi; Bellanti, Giancarlo; Margheri, Massimo

    2015-03-24

    Anabolic steroid abuse, aimed at increasing muscle mass, has been growing in recent years. We describe a case of a 25-year-old bodybuilder who, after taking nandrolone and stanozolol, presented with Takotsubo syndrome. The angiography showed a normal coronary anatomy with the absence of stenosis. The left ventricular function was completely normalised after 1 week. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Identification of an anabolic selective androgen receptor modulator that actively induces death of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Azriel; Meissner, Robert S; Gentile, Michael A; Chisamore, Michael J; Opas, Evan E; Scafonas, Angela; Cusick, Tara E; Gambone, Carlo; Pennypacker, Brenda; Hodor, Paul; Perkins, James J; Bai, Chang; Ferraro, Damien; Bettoun, David J; Wilkinson, Hilary A; Alves, Stephen E; Flores, Osvaldo; Ray, William J

    2014-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) initially responds to inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) signaling, but inevitably progresses to hormone ablation-resistant disease. Much effort is focused on optimizing this androgen deprivation strategy by improving hormone depletion and AR antagonism. However we found that bicalutamide, a clinically used antiandrogen, actually resembles a selective AR modulator (SARM), as it partially regulates 24% of endogenously 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-responsive genes in AR(+) MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells. These data suggested that passive blocking of all AR functions is not required for PCa therapy. Hence, we adopted an active strategy that calls for the development of novel SARMs, which induce a unique gene expression profile that is intolerable to PCa cells. Therefore, we screened 3000 SARMs for the ability to arrest the androgen-independent growth of AR(+) 22Rv1 and LNCaP PCa cells but not AR(-) PC3 or DU145 cells. We identified only one such compound; the 4-aza-steroid, MK-4541, a potent and selective SARM. MK-4541 induces caspase-3 activity and cell death in both androgen-independent, AR(+) PCa cell lines but spares AR(-) cells or AR(+) non-PCa cells. This activity correlates with its promoter context- and cell-type dependent transcriptional effects. In rats, MK-4541 inhibits the trophic effects of DHT on the prostate, but not the levator ani muscle, and triggers an anabolic response in the periosteal compartment of bone. Therefore, MK-4541 has the potential to effectively manage prostatic hypertrophic diseases owing to its antitumor SARM-like mechanism, while simultaneously maintaining the anabolic benefits of natural androgens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids - doi:10.5020/18061230.2007.p267

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urival Magno Gomes Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences of the increase in the consumption of anabolic steroids and the damages to health caused by their indiscriminate use, mainly among children and youngsters. The anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consist in testosterone and its derivatives. They are produced endogenously in the testicles and adrenal cortex and are responsible for the secondary sexual characteristics associated to masculinity. Although the results of the exogenous use of AAS are still controversial, they have been used for the increase of physical strength and muscle mass. These substances are directly related to different clinical conditions such as: bladder cancer, coronary disease, gynecomastia, hepatic disorders and cancer, and sterility. This study aimed at approaching relevant topics related to the drugs action mechanisms, ways of use and metabolism, and side effects, besides the importance of the prevention in the use of those drugs in most diverse age groups. The abusive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids consists in a problem that has gradually occurred, which has given rise to laws, rules and support groups turned to the prevention, education and restriction of their use.

  15. Pulmonary embolism associated with protein C deficiency and abuse of anabolic-androgen steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhadad, Alaa; Acosta, Stefan; Sarabi, Latif; Kölbel, Tilo

    2010-04-01

    We present the case of a 19-year-old male athlete with protein C deficiency who developed proximal deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism while abusing anabolic-androgenic steroids. Anabolic-androgenic steroids have been reported to have anticoagulatory and profibrinolytic effects in patients with protein C deficiency. Despite these antithrombotic effects, the patient developed repeated venous thromboembolism during treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin. The net effect of anabolic-androgenic steroids on the haemostatic system may change from antithrombotic to prothrombotic in male abusers of anabolic steroids with protein C deficiency.

  16. Synthetic anabolic agents: steroids and nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    The central role of testosterone in the development of male characteristics, as well as its beneficial effects on physical performance and muscle growth, has led to the search for synthetic alternatives with improved pharmacological profiles. Hundreds of steroidal analogs have been prepared with a superior oral bioavailability, which should also possess reduced undesirable effects. However, only a few entered the pharmaceutical market due to severe toxicological incidences that were mainly attributed to the lack of tissue selectivity. Prominent representatives of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are for instance methyltestosterone, metandienone and stanozolol, which are discussed as model compounds with regard to general pharmacological aspects of synthetic AAS. Recently, nonsteroidal alternatives to AAS have been developed that selectively activate the androgen receptor in either muscle tissue or bones. These so-called selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are currently undergoing late clinical trials (IIb) and will be prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency from January 2008. Their entirely synthetic structures are barely related to steroids, but particular functional groups allow for the tissue-selective activation or inhibition of androgen receptors and, thus, the stimulation of muscle growth without the risk of severe undesirable effects commonly observed in steroid replacement therapies. Hence, these compounds possess a high potential for misuse in sports and will be the subject of future doping control assays.

  17. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eMhillaj

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming the so called androgen anabolic steroids (AAS. These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, the off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combination of different steroids, and doses largely higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. Among the AAS abusers, the frequency of side effects is higher, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because the collection of data is very difficult due to reticent subjects and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in reward process, leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The aim of this review is to discuss what is present in literature in regard to steroid abuse and alteration of reward system in preclinical and clinical studies.

  18. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhillaj, Emanuela; Morgese, Maria G; Tucci, Paolo; Bove, Maria; Schiavone, Stefania; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming androgen anabolic steroids (AAS). These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, their off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combinations of different steroids and doses generally higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. The frequency of side effects is higher among AAS abusers, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because data collection is very difficult due to the subjects' reticence and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in the reward process, leading to increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The goal of this article is to review the literature on steroid abuse and changes to the reward system in preclinical and clinical studies.

  19. Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhillaj, Emanuela; Morgese, Maria G.; Tucci, Paolo; Bove, Maria; Schiavone, Stefania; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are mainly prescribed to treat several diseases caused by testosterone deficiency. However, athletes try to promote muscle growth by manipulating testosterone levels or assuming androgen anabolic steroids (AAS). These substances were originally synthesized to obtain anabolic effects greater than testosterone. Although AAS are rarely prescribed compared to testosterone, their off-label utilization is very wide. Furthermore, combinations of different steroids and doses generally higher than those used in therapy are common. Symptoms of the chronic use of supra-therapeutic doses of AAS include anxiety, depression, aggression, paranoia, distractibility, confusion, amnesia. Interestingly, some studies have shown that AAS elicited electroencephalographic changes similar to those observed with amphetamine abuse. The frequency of side effects is higher among AAS abusers, with psychiatric complications such as labile mood, lack of impulse control and high violence. On the other hand, AAS addiction studies are complex because data collection is very difficult due to the subjects' reticence and can be biased by many variables, including physical exercise, that alter the reward system. Moreover, it has been reported that AAS may imbalance neurotransmitter systems involved in the reward process, leading to increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. The goal of this article is to review the literature on steroid abuse and changes to the reward system in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:26379484

  20. Characteristics and outcome of patients with heart failure due to anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Eva Bjerre; Thune, Jens Jakob; Gustafsson, Finn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to analyse the outcome of patients with advanced heart failure due to abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients admitted or referred for advanced heart failure, due to anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse...... with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers. The remaining 3 patients required implantation of a LV assist device (LVAD) and were listed for heart transplantation. No recovery of LV function in the patients treated with assist device was seen. CONCLUSION: Anabolic-androgenic steroid...

  1. Caution for anabolic androgenic steroid use: a case report of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unai, Shinya; Miessau, Joseph; Karbowski, Pawel; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C; Hirose, Hitoshi

    2013-12-01

    We report a 42-year-old male amateur body builder and user of anabolic androgenic steroids, who developed ARDS, acute kidney injury, and refractory supraventricular tachycardia. He required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, continuous veno-venous hemodialysis, and catheter ablation. We believe that long-term anabolic androgenic steroid abuse predisposed the patient to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, from its immunomodulatory effects in an otherwise healthy patient. Anabolic androgenic steroid use should be part of the history taking process, since it may complicate diagnosis, disease progression, and prognosis.

  2. When color fails: illicit blue tablets containing anabolic androgen steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favretto, Donata; Castagna, Franca; Maietti, Sergio; Boscolo-Berto, Rafael; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2013-09-01

    The necessity of specific, confirmatory tests in the identification of seized illicit products was highlighted by the analysis of eighteen heart shaped, blue tablets confiscated by Police at a street control in the North East of Italy. The tablets responded as amphetamines to a preliminary color test (Marquis); a subsequent, confirmatory assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of two anabolic androgen steroids (AAS), methandienone and methyltestosterone, in concentration of 1.7 and 1.5mg respectively per tablet; no trace of amphetamine-like or nitrogen containing compounds was found. The observed orange coloration was due to the reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid, contained in the Marquis reagent, with the Δ(4) C-3 keto group of steroids. The two AAS, banned under the world antidoping code, are not considered as psychoactive drugs of abuse in most countries, although their trafficking may entangle severe public health concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The metabolism of anabolic-androgenic steroids in the greyhound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Andrew R; Cawley, Adam T; Young, E Bruce; Kerwick, Carmel M; Cunnington, Karen; Stewart, Rhiannon T; Ambrus, Joseph I; Willis, Anthony C; McLeod, Malcolm D

    2013-04-01

    Effective control of the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) in animal sports is essential in order to ensure both animal welfare and integrity. In order to better police their use in Australian and New Zealand greyhound racing, thorough metabolic studies have been carried out on a range of registered human and veterinary AASs available in the region. Canine metabolic data are presented for the AASs boldenone, danazol, ethylestrenol, mesterolone, methandriol, nandrolone and norethandrolone. The principal Phase I metabolic processes observed were the reduction of A-ring unsaturations and/or 3-ketones with either 3α,5β- or 3β,5α-stereochemistry, the oxidation of secondary 17β-hydroxyl groups and 16α-hydroxylation. The Phase II β-glucuronylation of sterol metabolites was extensive. The presented data have enabled the effective analysis of AASs and their metabolites in competition greyhound urine samples.

  4. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Robert D.; Elliot, Diane L.; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E.; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G.

    2012-01-01

    This NATA position statement was developed by the NATA Research & Education Foundation. Objective This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Background Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Recommendations Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research. PMID:23068595

  5. National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Robert D; Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; Kanayama, Gen; Leone, James E; Pavlovich, Mike; Pope, Harrison G

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the best available scholarly evidence related to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) as a reference for health care professionals, including athletic trainers, educators, and interested others. Health care professionals associated with sports or exercise should understand and be prepared to educate others about AAS. These synthetic, testosterone-based derivatives are widely abused by athletes and nonathletes to gain athletic performance advantages, develop their physiques, and improve their body image. Although AAS can be ergogenic, their abuse may lead to numerous negative health effects. Abusers of AAS often rely on questionable information sources. Sports medicine professionals can therefore serve an important role by providing accurate, reliable information. The recommendations provide health care professionals with a current and accurate synopsis of the AAS-related research.

  6. Echocardiographic findings in power athletes abusing anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimoradi, Behzad; Kazerani, Hashem

    2013-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse for improving physical appearance and performance in body builders is common and has been considered responsible for serious cardiovascular effects. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs in published articles, this case control study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic findings in body builder athletes who are current and chronic abusers of these drugs. Body builder athletes with continuous practice for the preceding two years and were training at least twice weekly were selected and divided into AAS abuser and non user and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers (15 cases in each group). There was no significant difference in left ventricular size or function either systolic or diastolic in comparison to cases and control groups. The only difference was in diastolic size of septum and free wall but observed differences were only significant (P = 0.05) between first (athletic with AAS abuser) and third group (non athletic and nonuser). The difference between the above-mentioned indexes were not significant between two groups of athletes. Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid results in accentuation of physiologic hypertrophy due to long term sport most probably due to higher rate pressure product. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic doses do not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  7. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current...

  8. Brain connectivity aberrations in anabolic-androgenic steroid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars T. Westlye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustained anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS use has adverse behavioral consequences, including aggression, violence and impulsivity. Candidate mechanisms include disruptions of brain networks with high concentrations of androgen receptors and critically involved in emotional and cognitive regulation. Here, we tested the effects of AAS on resting-state functional brain connectivity in the largest sample of AAS-users to date. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 151 males engaged in heavy resistance strength training. 50 users tested positive for AAS based on the testosterone to epitestosterone (T/E ratio and doping substances in urine. 16 previous users and 59 controls tested negative. We estimated brain network nodes and their time-series using ICA and dual regression and defined connectivity matrices as the between-node partial correlations. In line with the emotional and behavioral consequences of AAS, current users exhibited reduced functional connectivity between key nodes involved in emotional and cognitive regulation, in particular reduced connectivity between the amygdala and default-mode network (DMN and between the dorsal attention network (DAN and a frontal node encompassing the superior and inferior frontal gyri (SFG/IFG and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, with further reductions as a function of dependency, lifetime exposure, and cycle state (on/off.

  9. Cardiotoxic effects of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids in the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welder, A A; Melchert, R B

    1993-04-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse have become major drug problems in the United States. Cocaine has been designated as "the drug of greatest national health concern" while as many as 1 million Americans have used or are currently using anabolic-androgenic steroids to promote athletic performance and/or improve physical appearance. Unfavorable cardiovascular events have been linked to both cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse in healthy, physically active individuals. Deaths of several United States athletes in 1986 focused attention on the life-threatening cardiovascular consequences of cocaine abuse. Reports of myocardial injury with anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse are anecdotal. Nevertheless, case reports have illustrated the alarming cardiotoxic potential of these steroids in athletes. Anabolic-androgenic steroids were correlated to myocardial infarction in weight lifters and cardiomyopathy in a former professional football player. From the total emergency room episodes where cocaine was mentioned in 1990, approximately 66% of these episodes occurred in young individuals 18-29 years of age. Over 500,000 of the individuals currently taking anabolic-androgenic steroids for nonmedical purposes are high-school children. Because cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are used improperly, more focus needs to be paid to the toxic mechanisms of their adverse effects. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss mechanisms whereby exercise and/or exercise training may alter the cardiovascular responses to these drugs. Furthermore, we would like to illustrate that contrary to the popular belief, acute and chronic abuse of cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids have a negative impact on exercise performance.

  10. Screening hybridomas for anabolic androgenic steroids by steroid analog antigen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongwu; Chen, Guangyu; Bian, Yongzhong; Xing, Cenzan; Ding, Xue; Zhu, Mengliang; Xun, Yiping; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Yabin; Li, Shaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, dozens of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are forbidden in the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, however, despite extensive investigation, there are still lots of AAS without corresponding monoclonal antibodies. A steroid analog antigen microarray made up of ten AAS was fabricated to screen the hybridoma and it was found an original unsuccessful clone turned out to be a candidate anti-boldenone antibody, without any cross-reactions with endogenous AAS or 44 different AAS standard reference materials tested. Our findings suggested that steroid analog antigen microarray could be a promising tool to screen and characterize new applications of antibodies for structure analogs, and this also exhibits the potential to fast identify effective epitopes of hybridomas in a single assay.

  11. Near‐fatal spontaneous hepatic rupture associated with anabolic androgenic steroid use: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, J J; O'Donohoe, B; Loyden, C F; Shanahan, D

    2007-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are commonly used at high doses by bodybuilders and athletes to enhance physique and improve performance levels. We report a case of spontaneous hepatic rupture with life‐threatening haemorrhage associated with a past history of anabolic steroid use.

  12. Psychological and physical impact of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Lu, Debbie H; Barnett, Mitchell J; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Vo, Justin C; Perry, Paul J

    2012-10-01

    To contrast the characteristics of two groups of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users-those with versus those without AAS dependence. Subanalysis of data from the Anabolic 500, a cross-sectional survey. One hundred twelve male AAS-dependent users and 367 AAS-nondependent users who completed an online survey between February 19 and June 30, 2009. Respondents were recruited from the Internet discussion boards of 38 fitness, bodybuilding, weightlifting, and steroid Web sites. The respondents provided online informed consent and completed the Anabolic 500, a 99-item Web-based survey. Self-reported data included demographics, exercise patterns, use of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents, adverse effects of AAS use, behavior consistent with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for AAS dependence, history of illicit drug and alcohol use, history of sexual or physical abuse, and psychiatric conditions diagnosed according to the DSM-IV-TR. Behavior consistent with AAS dependence was identified in 23.4% of the survey participants. These AAS-dependent users were more excessive in their AAS use (e.g., higher doses, higher quantity of agents, longer duration of use), more likely to report a history of illicit heroin use in the last 12 months (5.4% vs 1.9%, p=0.049), and more likely to report a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder (16.1 vs 8.4%, p=0.020) or major depressive disorder (15.2% vs 7.4%, p=0.012) than AAS-nondependent users. Data from the Anabolic 500 survey showed that almost one quarter of AAS users were dependent on these drugs. These AAS-dependent users had a higher rate of heroin use as well as anxiety and major depressive disorders compared with AAS-nondependent users. These findings can help clinicians and researchers better understand and address the potential illicit drug use and psychiatric comorbidities that may be present among AAS-dependent users. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy

  13. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in doping control using mammalian reporter gene bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Sterk, Saskia S; van de Heijning, Monique P M; Brouwer, Abraham; Stephany, Rainer W; van der Burg, Bart; Sonneveld, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are a class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone testosterone. They are frequently detected as drugs in sport doping control. Being similar to or derived from natural male hormones, AAS share the activation of the androgen receptor (AR) as common mechanism of action. The mammalian androgen responsive reporter gene assay (AR CALUX bioassay), measuring compounds interacting with the AR can be used for the analysis of AAS without the necessity of knowing their chemical structure beforehand, whereas current chemical-analytical approaches may have difficulty in detecting compounds with unknown structures, such as designer steroids. This study demonstrated that AAS prohibited in sports and potential designer AAS can be detected with this AR reporter gene assay, but that also additional steroid activities of AAS could be found using additional mammalian bioassays for other types of steroid hormones. Mixtures of AAS were found to behave additively in the AR reporter gene assay showing that it is possible to use this method for complex mixtures as are found in doping control samples, including mixtures that are a result of multi drug use. To test if mammalian reporter gene assays could be used for the detection of AAS in urine samples, background steroidal activities were measured. AAS-spiked urine samples, mimicking doping positive samples, showed significantly higher androgenic activities than unspiked samples. GC-MS analysis of endogenous androgens and AR reporter gene assay analysis of urine samples showed how a combined chemical-analytical and bioassay approach can be used to identify samples containing AAS. The results indicate that the AR reporter gene assay, in addition to chemical-analytical methods, can be a valuable tool for the analysis of AAS for doping control purposes.

  14. Anabolic androgenic steroids: a survey of 500 users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Andrew B; Evans, Nick A

    2006-04-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) to increase muscle size and strength is widespread. Information regarding self-administered AAS used nonmedically to enhance athletic performance or improve physical appearance is sparse and poorly documented. The purpose of this study is to identify current trends in the drug-taking habits of AAS users. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was posted on the message boards of Internet Web sites popular among AAS users. Of the 500 AAS users who participated in the survey, 78.4% (392/500) were noncompetitive bodybuilders and nonathletes; 59.6% (298/500) of the respondents reported using at least 1000 mg of testosterone or its equivalent per week. The majority (99.2%) of AAS users (496/500) self-administer injectable AAS formulations, and up to 13% (65/500) report unsafe injection practices such as reusing needles, sharing needles, and sharing multidose vials. In addition to using AAS, 25% of users admitted to the adjuvant use of growth hormone and insulin for anabolic effect, and 99.2% (496/500) of users reported subjective side effects from AAS use. This survey reveals several trends in the nonmedical use of AAS. Nearly four out of five AAS users are nonathletes who take these drugs for cosmetic reasons. AAS users in this sample are taking larger doses than previously recorded, with more than half of the respondents using a weekly AAS dose in excess of 1000 mg. The majority of steroid users self-administer AAS by intramuscular injection, and approximately 1 in 10 users report hazardous injection techniques. Polypharmacy is practiced by more than 95% of AAS users, with one in four users taking growth hormone and insulin. Nearly 100% of AAS users reported subjective side effects.

  15. Androgenic anabolic steroid abuse and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanberg, Paul; Atar, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been linked to a variety of different cardiovascular side effects. In case reports, acute myocardial infarction is the most common event presented, but other adverse cardiovascular effects such as left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced left ventricular function, arterial thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and several cases of sudden cardiac death have also been reported. However, to date there are no prospective, randomized, interventional studies on the long-term cardiovascular effects of abuse of AAS. In this review we have studied the relevant literature regarding several risk factors for cardiovascular disease where the effects of AAS have been scrutinized:(1) Echocardiographic studies show that supraphysiologic doses of AAS lead to both morphologic and functional changes of the heart. These include a tendency to produce myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 3), a possible increase of heart chamber diameters, unequivocal alterations of diastolic function and ventricular relaxation, and most likely a subclinically compromised left ventricular contractile function. (2) AAS induce a mild, but transient increase of blood pressure. However, the clinical significance of this effect remains modest. (3) Furthermore, AAS confer an enhanced pro-thrombotic state, most prominently through an activation of platelet aggregability. The concomitant effects on the humoral coagulation cascade are more complex and include activation of both pro-coagulatory and fibrinolytic pathways. (4) Users of AAS often demonstrate unfavorable measurements of vascular reactivity involving endothelial-dependent or endothelial-independent vasodilatation. A degree of reversibility seems to be consistent, though. (5) There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that AAS induce various alterations of lipid metabolism. The most prominent changes are concomitant elevations of LDL and decreases of HDL, effects that increase the risk of coronary artery disease

  16. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2017-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  17. Sudden or unnatural deaths involving anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Torok, Michelle; Duflou, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are frequently misused. To determine causes of death, characteristics, toxicology, and pathology of AAS positive cases, all cases (n = 24) presenting to the New South Wales Department of Forensic Medicine (1995-2012) were retrieved. All were male, and the mean age was 31.7 years. Deaths were mainly due to accidental drug toxicity (62.5%), then suicide (16.7%) and homicide (12.5%). Abnormal testosterone/epitestosterone ratios were reported in 62.5%, followed by metabolites of nandrolone (58.3%), stanozolol (33.3%), and methandienone (20.8%). In 23 of 24 cases, substances other than steroids were detected, most commonly psychostimulants (66.7%). In nearly half, testicular atrophy was noted, as was testicular fibrosis and arrested spermatogenesis. Left ventricular hypertrophy was noted in 30.4%, and moderate to severe narrowing of the coronary arteries in 26.1%. To summarize, the typical case was a male polydrug user aged in their thirties, with death due to drug toxicity. Extensive cardiovascular disease was particularly notable. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chylomicron metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Aleksandra T; Maranhão, Raul C; Alves, Maria-Janieire N N; Negrão, Carlos E; da Silva, Jeferson L; Vinagre, Carmen G C

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on chylomicron metabolism. An artificial lipid emulsion labeled with radioactive cholesteryl ester (CE) and triglycerides (TG) mimicking chylomicrons was intravenously injected into individuals who regularly weight trained and made regular use of AAS (WT+AAS group), normolipidemic sedentary individuals (SDT group) and individuals who also regularly weight trained but did not use AAS (WT group). Fractional clearance rates (FCR) were determined by compartmental analysis for emulsion plasma decay curves. FCR-CE for the WT+AAS group was reduced (0.0073 ± 0.0079 min(-1), 0.0155 ± 0.0100 min(-1), 0.0149 ± 0.0160 min(-1), respectively; p<0.05), FCR-TG was similar for both the WT and SDT groups. HDL-C plasma concentrations were lower in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (22 ± 13; 41 ± 7; 38 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively; p<0.001). Hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was greater in the WT+AAS group when compared to the WT and SDT groups (7243 ± 1822; 3898 ± 1232; 2058 ± 749, respectively; p<0.001). However, no difference was observed for lipoprotein lipase activity. Data strongly suggest that AAS may reduce the removal from the plasma of chylomicron remnants, which are known atherogenic factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic androgenic steroids doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Franchini, M; Banfi, G

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AASs) are chemical and pharmacological derivatives of the male hormone testosterone which are widely used for increasing burst and sprinting activities in sports. Although AASs are thought to be transversal to the plurality of sports disciplines, they are principally misused by bodybuilders, weightlifters, shot, hammer, discus or javelin throwers, rugby and American football players as well as by swimmers and runners. AAS exert a kaleidoscope of effects on human biology, principally through the 5-α-reductase-mediated conversion into dihydrotestosterone, the aromatase-mediated conversion into female sex hormones, a competitive antagonism to the glucocorticoid receptors, the potential stimulation of erythropoietin secretion as well as psychoactive effects on the brain. The influence of AASs on physical performance is still undefined, since the large number of studies published so far have described discordant and often contradictory outcomes. Nevertheless, animal and human investigations support the hypothesis that the administration of AASs might increase lean body mass, muscle mass, and maximal voluntary strength especially in men, so that they would represent an appealing form of doping for increasing power capacity, sustaining intensive training periods and, last but not least, as a cosmetic muscle makeover. The aim of this article is to review the biochemistry, physiology and the ergogenic effects of AASs.

  20. [Case of androgenic anabolic steroid abuse caused hypogonadotropic hypogonadism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Akio; Kobayashi, Ko; Hashimoto, Kohei; Kato, Ryuichi; Masumori, Naoya; Itoh, Naoki; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2008-11-01

    A 32-year-old man complained about a reduction of testicular volume and loss of libido. He had been abusing androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) for 7 years. Genital examination revealed that both testicular volumes were reduced to 13 ml. Endocrinological investigations showed luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and total testosterone (Total T) levels to be low. The level of free testosterone (Free T) was documented to be high. Later, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBAT) levels were found to be low. Based on these features, we diagnosed his condition as hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism caused by AAS abuse. We first forbade him to use AAS, but the symptoms and endocrinological features were not improved. Then treatment with injections of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was started. About one month after treatment with hCG started, his symptoms and endocrinological features were not improved. It is well known that AAS abuse induces hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. It is also reported that normal hormonal function usually recovers after AAS are discontinued, but sometimes the condition is not reversible. In such cases, we should carefully observe the endocrinological features of the patient, and whether the early treatment with hCG injection leads to early recovery of testicular function. It was useful to examine cBAT in this case to understand his endocrinological condition. There are many severe side effects of abusing AAS and thus education about the severe side effects of AAS abuse is necessary.

  1. Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; Hartgens, Fred

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone. Illegally, these drugs are regularly self-administered by body builders and power lifters to enhance their sportive performance. Adverse side effects of AAS include sexual dysfunction, alterations of the cardiovascular system, psyche and behavior, and liver toxicity. However, severe side effects appear only following prolonged use of AAS at high dose and their occurrence is limited. Occasionally, AAS abuse may be linked to certain social and psychological traits of the user, like low self-esteem, low self-confidence, suffered hostility, childhood conduct disorder, and tendency to high-risk behavior. The overwhelming stereotype about AAS is that these compounds cause aggressive behavior in males. However, the underlying personality traits of a specific subgroup of the AAS abusers, who show aggression and hostility, may be relevant, as well. Use of AAS in combination with alcohol largely increases the risk of violence and aggression. The dependence liability of AAS is very low, and withdrawal effects are relatively mild. Based on the scores for acute and chronic adverse health effects, the prevalence of use, social harm and criminality, AAS were ranked among 19 illicit drugs as a group of drugs with a relatively low harm. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse on gingival tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Onur; Haytac, M Cenk; Seydaoglu, Gulsah

    2006-07-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) is the familiar name for synthetic derivatives of the male sex hormone, testosterone. A large number of young adults abuse AAS to enhance performance and physical appearance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of AAS abuse on the gingival tissues in a group of bodybuilders and weight lifters. The test group was composed of 24 athletes aged between 17 and 29 years who had been using AAS for >1 year. All subjects were clinically examined for plaque levels (plaque index), gingival inflammation (gingival index), and gingival enlargement. The results were compared to a control group of 20 bodybuilders who had never used AAS drugs and who matched for age, educational level, and oral habits according to the data obtained from the test group. Although there were no statistical differences between the plaque index (P>0.05) and gingival index (P>0.05) scores of the study group and the control group, the AAS abusers had statistically higher scores of gingival thickness, extent of gingival encroachment, and total gingival enlargement scores (Psports seem to increase despite legislation, dentists and periodontists should be familiar with the adverse effects of these synthetic derivatives of testosterone on the gingival tissues.

  3. Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2010-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use increased dramatically among adolescent males. This review focuses on studies using animal models of AAS exposure during adolescence which is a hormonally sensitive developmental period. AAS exposure during this critical period has wide-ranging consequences, including increased dendritic spine density, altered brain serotonin levels and escalated aggression in response to physical provocation. Human data suggest that AAS induces indiscriminate and unprovoked aggression often described as "'roid rage". However, animal studies indicate that the behavioral impact of AAS is modulated by experiential and social contingencies, a perceived provocation, and the chemical composition of the AAS. The AAS, testosterone increases aggression in juvenile and adult male rats when physically provoked. In contrast, stanzolol, inhibits aggression in both juvenile and adult male rats, even when physically provoked. Nandrolone has minimal effects on aggression, unless preceded by attack training. Exposure to AAS during adolescence may have a host of unintended bio-behavioral consequences. Yet, the perception of harmlessness surrounds AAS use. The perception of harmlessness is promoted by the availability of AAS especially through internet pharmacies. The perception of acceptability is reflected in current cultural ethics that no longer condemn cheating to obtain personal achievement or success. A prevailing conviction is that although AAS are illegal they are not really bad. Reduction of the availability of AAS to adolescents requires ardent legislative and legal intervention. The problem of acceptability can be addressed by educating adolescents about the short-term and long-term effects of AAS on brain and behavior, to increase awareness of the potential consequences of AAS use that apply directly to them. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Characteristics and outcome of patients with heart failure due to anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Eva Bjerre; Thune, Jens Jakob; Gustafsson, Finn

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the outcome of patients with advanced heart failure due to abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted or referred for advanced heart failure, due to anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse, in the period 2009-2013 was performed. In 6 of 9 patients (median age: 31, all males) referred in the study period, some potential for recovery of left ventricular (LV) function was seen (P Anabolic-androgenic steroid-induced advanced heart failure is generally not a reversible condition. If diagnosed in the early stages some recovery of ventricular function is possible, but the long-term prognosis is uncertain. Likely, a substantial proportion of patients will eventually require LVADs or cardiac transplantation.

  5. Interactions between opioids and anabolic androgenic steroids: implications for the development of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Fred; Hallberg, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decades, research on doping agents, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), has revealed that these compounds are often used in combination with other drugs of abuse. It seems that misuse of AAS probably involves more than a desire to enhance appearance or sports performance and studies have revealed that steroids are commonly connected with alcohol, opioids, tobacco, and psychotropic drugs. We have observed that AAS may interact with the endogenous opioids, excitatory amino acids, and dopaminergic pathways involved in the brain reward system. Furthermore, our studies provide evidence that AAS may induce an imbalance in these signal systems leading to an increased sensitivity toward opioid narcotics and central stimulants. In fact, studies performed in various clinics have shown that individuals taking AAS are likely to get addicted to opioids like heroin. This chapter reviews current knowledge on interactions between AAS and endogenous as well as exogenous opioids based not only on research in our laboratory but also on research carried out by several other clinical and preclinical investigators. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of anabolic androgenic steroid use by elite athletes and by members of the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D

    2017-09-21

    Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions. The creation of a longitudinal monitoring program known as the biological passport is a recent, important development in the efforts to prevent and detect the use of banned performance-enhancing drugs and methods. The biological passport program consists of the measurement of urinary and blood markers of anabolic androgenic steroid use (and other banned drugs or methods) at baseline and at random times. A panel of experts reviews the longitudinal data and interprets the likelihood of the use of banned drugs and methods. These advances in anti-doping appear to be highly effective, but some athletes persist in their efforts to cheat the detection process. In addition, some members of the general public use anabolic androgenic steroids for a variety of reasons including to improve physical appearance or to enhance performance in athletics. Clinicians must depend on clinical acumen and the measurement of serum testosterone and gonadotropins to guide them in making a tentative diagnosis of anabolic androgenic steroid use. Definitive diagnosis requires that the patient disclose the use of the drugs. Because anabolic androgenic steroids are effective for improving certain aspects of physical performance, some elite athletes (and members of the general public) will continue to use these drugs. Effective efforts to curtail the use of these drugs will require decreasing the ease of access to them, continued advancements in

  7. Bigger, Faster, Stronger! An Overview of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and their Use and Impact on the Sport Industry

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hagan, A; Walton, H

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in sport is no longer confined to the power disciplines and has become a wide-spread issue throughout the general population. AAS are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and display both anabolic and androgenic properties. It is the anabolic properties that are responsible for the muscle binding characteristics and are the main attraction for users. The primary purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the use of AAS in ...

  8. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Chatzistergos, Panayiotis E; Panayiotis, Chatzistergos E; Mitousoudis, Athanasios S; Athanasios, Mitousoudis S; Kourkoulis, Stavros K; Stavros, Kourkoulis K; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Ioannis, Vlachos S; Agrogiannis, George; George, Agrogiannis; Fasseas, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Fasseas; Perrea, Despina N; Despina, Perrea N; Zoubos, Aristides B; Aristides, Zoubos B

    2014-06-01

    The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons' biomechanical properties were tested with the use of a modified clamping configuration. Histological examination with light and electron microscopy were also performed. In the group of anabolic steroids and exercise the lowest fracture stress values were observed, while in the exercise group the highest ones. Histological examination by light and electron microscopy revealed areas of collagen dysplasia and an increased epitendon in the groups receiving anabolic steroids and exercise. These findings suggest that anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise, thus resulting in inferior maximal stress values. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Bailey

    Full Text Available Testosterone (T and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR, cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as 'T-equivalent' concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22. All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact.

  10. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete’s urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as ‘T-equivalent’ concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact. PMID:26998755

  11. Advantages and Limitations of Androgen Receptor-Based Methods for Detecting Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse as Performance Enhancing Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kathy; Yazdi, Tahmineh; Masharani, Umesh; Tyrrell, Blake; Butch, Anthony; Schaufele, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and related androgens are performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) abused by some athletes to gain competitive advantage. To monitor unauthorized androgen abuse, doping control programs use mass spectrometry (MS) to detect androgens, synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) and their metabolites in an athlete's urine. AASs of unknown composition will not be detected by these procedures. Since AASs achieve their anabolic effects by activating the Androgen Receptor (AR), cell-based bioassays that measure the effect of a urine sample on AR activity are under investigation as complementary, pan-androgen detection methods. We evaluated an AR BioAssay as a monitor for androgen activity in urine pre-treated with glucuronidase, which releases T from the inactive T-glucuronide that predominates in urine. AR BioAssay activity levels were expressed as 'T-equivalent' concentrations by comparison to a T dose response curve. The T-equivalent concentrations of androgens in the urine of hypogonadal participants supplemented with T (in whom all androgenic activity should arise from T) were quantitatively identical to the T measurements conducted by MS at the UCLA Olympic Analytical Laboratory (0.96 ± 0.22). All 17 AASs studied were active in the AR BioAssay; other steroids were inactive. 12 metabolites of 10 commonly abused AASs, which are used for MS monitoring of AAS doping because of their prolonged presence in urine, had reduced or no AR BioAssay activity. Thus, the AR BioAssay can accurately and inexpensively monitor T, but its ability to monitor urinary AASs will be limited to a period immediately following doping in which the active AASs remain intact.

  12. Determinants of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Risk Perceptions in Youth Populations: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Grounded conceptually in social cognitive theory, this research examines how personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with risk perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Ordinal logistic regression and logit log-linear models applied to data gathered from high-school seniors (N = 2,160) in the 2005 Monitoring the Future…

  13. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use in Teens: Prevalence, Demographics, and Perception of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa; Callahan, Bryan; Cummins, Kevin M.; Achar, Suraj; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risks are associated with early use of anabolic androgenic steroids, yet public understanding is limited and teen use not uncommon. The present study surveyed 4,231 high school students to understand prevalence of use, association with athletics and other substance use and expectations of drug effects. While overall rates of steroid use…

  14. Increased blood pressure and aortic stiffness among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon J; Schou, Morten; Madsen, Per L

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among recreational athletes and adverse effects on blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness could be substantial. Testosterone decreases natriuretic peptides which are key components in BP-regulation and may impair BP...

  15. Therapeutic effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chronic diseases associated with muscle wasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdeman, J.T.; de Ronde, W.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A variety of clinical conditions are complicated by loss of weight and skeletal muscle which may contribute to morbidity and mortality. Anabolic androgenic steroids have been demonstrated to increase fat-free mass, muscle mass and strength in healthy men and women without major adverse

  16. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Knowledge about, Attitude toward, and Extent of Use by High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, R. J.; And Others

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AS) are pharmacologic derivatives of the hormone testosterone. They have therapeutic merit when used under a physician's prescription to treat certain hormonal imbalances and some forms of anemia; however, when taken in high doses they have a number of virilizing, feminizing, toxic, and psychological effects. This…

  17. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  18. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among 1,010 College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G., Jr.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two percent of 1,010 male college students responding to a questionnaire about anabolic-androgenic steroid use reported using steroids; most of the users were competitive athletes, although some used steroids to improve their physical appearance. Users were not distinguished from non-users in terms of academic achievement or use of other illicit…

  19. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Use and Perceived Use in Nonathlete College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M.; Adams, Kent J.; Debeliso, Mark; Stamford, Bryant A.; Newman, Ian M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the use and perceived use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among nonathlete college students. Participants: The authors surveyed a sample of 485 nonathlete college students at a major metropolitan university. Methods: They administered a survey on use and perceived use of AAS to the students. Results:…

  20. Commentary: Synthetic Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: A Plea for Controlled Substance Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William N.

    1987-01-01

    The widespread abuse of synthetic anabolic-androgenic steriods, their habit-forming properties, and their other adverse effects are good reasons for reclassification of steriods as controlled substances under federal law, a step which may combat their abuse. (Author/CB)

  1. Androgenic anabolic steroid use and severe hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breda, E.; Keizer, H.A.; Kuipers, H.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    The data of the present case demonstrate that the abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) may lead to serious health effects. Although most clinical attention is usually directed towards peripheral side effects, the most serious central side effect, hypothalamic-pituitary-dysfunction, is often

  2. Qualitative description of the prevalence and use of anabolic androgenic steroids by United States powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, L A; Wagman, D F

    1999-02-01

    Powerlifters have been suspected to be a population wherein use of anabolic androgenic steroids is prevalent (Yesalis, Herrick, & Buckley, 1988). To access commentary from these athletes on issues related to these drugs and the effectiveness of doping controls, a survey was developed. From 28 U.S. Powerlifting Team members who competed internationally since 1988, 26 were contacted by mail, and 15 questionnaires were returned. The questionnaire solicited yes/no responses and qualitative descriptions about current and previous use of anabolic androgenic steroids in powerlifting. Analysis indicated that ten U.S. Powerlifting Team members admitted to using these drugs, and five athletes admitted to beating the International Olympic Committee's doping control procedures. Reported use of anabolic androgenic steroids by these athletes was consistent with data presented by Yesalis, et al. and illustrated continued discrepancy between admitted use of these drugs prior to or during national and international events and the lack of reported positive test data. Discussion focused on the value of this study to elicit in an athlete's own words commentary specific to the use of anabolic androgenic steroids and the need for more effective doping controls.

  3. Liver pathology associated with the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C

    1992-01-01

    This review examines the liver-damaging side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly prov...

  4. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroids: Aggression and anxiety during exposure predict behavioral responding during withdrawal in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A; Morrison, Thomas R; Melloni, Richard H

    2013-11-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within-subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety-eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. © 2013.

  5. Adolescent Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids: Aggression and Anxiety During Exposure Predict Behavioral Responding During Withdrawal in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lesley A.; Morrison, Thomas R.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. and worldwide anabolic/androgenic steroid use remains high in the adolescent population. This is concerning given that anabolic/androgenic steroid use is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior during exposure and anxiety during withdrawal. This study uses pubertal Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to investigate the hypothesis that an inverse behavioral relationship exists between anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced aggression and anxiety across adolescent exposure and withdrawal. In the first experiment, we examined aggression and anxiety during adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal. Adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid administration produced significant increases in aggression and decreases in anxiety during the exposure period followed by significant decreases in aggression and increases in anxiety during anabolic/androgenic steroid withdrawal. In a second experiment, anabolic/androgenic steroid exposed animals were separated into groups based on their aggressive response during the exposure period and then tested for anxiety during exposure and then for both aggression and anxiety during withdrawal. Data were analyzed using a within subjects repeated measures predictive analysis. Linear regression analysis revealed that the difference in aggressive responding between the anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure and withdrawal periods was a significant predictor of differences in anxiety for both days of testing. Moreover, the combined data suggest that the decrease in aggressive behavior from exposure to withdrawal predicts an increase in anxiety-like responding within these same animals during this time span. Together these findings indicate that early anabolic/androgenic steroid exposure has potent aggression- and anxiety- eliciting effects and that these behavioral changes occur alongside a predictive relationship that exists between these two behaviors over time. PMID:24126136

  6. Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids and related substances in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S; Yesalis, Charles E

    2004-12-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, which is the primary male sex hormone. Anabolic androgenic steroids are used to enhance athletic performance and appearance. Adverse effects include those on the liver, serum lipids, psyche/behavior and reproductive system. Androstenedione is an anabolic androgenic steroid used to increase blood testosterone levels for the purposes of increasing strength, lean body mass and sexual performance. However, there is no research indicating that androstenedione, or its related compounds, significantly increases strength and/or lean body mass in humans by increasing testosterone levels. The long-term health effects of prolonged androstenedione supplementation are unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a weak androgen also used to elevate testosterone levels, and is advertised as an anti-obesity and anti-aging supplement capable of improving libido, vitality and immunity levels. However, research demonstrates that DHEA supplementation does not increase serum testosterone concentrations or increase strength in men, and may acutely increase testosterone levels in women, thus producing a virilizing effect.

  7. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Vitomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. Objective. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS-using strength athletes (SA from drug-free endurance athletes (EA, by comparing 25 formulas for QT interval correction. Methods. We recruited 22 elite male athletes involved in long-term strength or endurance training and 20 sedentary controls. All elite

  8. The relationship between anabolic androgenic steroids and muscle dysmorphia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Lebur

    2009-01-01

    This review explores the condition of muscle dysmorphia (MD) and its relationship with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Particular emphasis is placed upon whether anabolic steroids are a predisposing, precipitating or perpetuating factor of MD. Furthermore, psychiatric complications of AAS abuse are examined. The current evidence from the literature suggests that AAS (ab)use is possibly a perpetuating factor in the evolution of MD. Psychiatric complications of AAS include mood and behavior changes, perceptual abnormalities, and withdrawal symptoms. In addition, there appears to be a credible dependence theory to AAS in fruition.

  9. Endogenous androgens and carotid intimal-medial thickness in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, G P; Sgro', M; Moretti, A; Argenio, G F; Barlascini, C O; Cristofani, R; Salvetti, A

    1999-06-01

    The influence of endogenous androgens on atherosclerotic disease in women is unknown. In this study involving 101 pre- and post-menopausal females, we evaluated the relationship between serum androgen levels and both carotid artery intimal-medial thickness (IMT) and major cardiovascular risk factors. In addition to evaluation of blood pressure, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio, serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), androstenedione (A), total testosterone (TTS), free testosterone (FTS), insulin, cholesterol (total and high density lipoproteins), triglycerides, and glucose were measured. All women underwent carotid ultrasonography. Spearman correlation coefficients showed that serum DHEA-S and A levels were negatively related (P body mass index (P < 0.02). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that A and FTS showed an inverse association with IMT measures (P < 0.05-0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that in women serum DHEA-S and androgens decline with age and that normal hormonal levels are not associated with major cardiovascular risk factors. They also show that higher DHEA-S and androgen concentrations are related to lower carotid wall thickness; for A this association is independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Our results suggest that, in the physiological range, DHEA-S and androgens in women are correlated with lower risk of carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  10. The Buzz About Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Electrophysiological Effects in Excitable Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Joseph G.; Penatti, Carlos A. A.; Porter, Donna M.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2012-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) comprise a large and growing class of synthetic androgens used clinically to promote tissue-building in individuals suffering from genetic disorders, injuries and diseases. Despite these beneficial therapeutic applications, the predominant use of AAS is illicit: these steroids are self-administered to promote athletic performance and body image. Hand in hand with the desired anabolic actions of the AAS are untoward effects on the brain and behavior. While the signaling routes by which the AAS impose both beneficial and harmful actions may be quite diverse, key endpoints are likely to include ligand-gated and voltage-dependent ion channels that govern the activity of electrically excitable tissues. Here we review the known effects of AAS on molecular targets that play critical roles in controlling electrical activity, with a specific focus on the effects of AAS on neurotransmission mediated by GABAA receptors in the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:22576754

  11. Therapeutic effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on chronic diseases associated with muscle wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woerdeman, Jorn; de Ronde, Willem

    2011-01-01

    A variety of clinical conditions are complicated by loss of weight and skeletal muscle which may contribute to morbidity and mortality. Anabolic androgenic steroids have been demonstrated to increase fat-free mass, muscle mass and strength in healthy men and women without major adverse events and therefore could be beneficial in these conditions. This review provides an overview of clinical trials with anabolic androgenic steroids in the treatment of chronic diseases including HIV-wasting, chronic renal failure, chronic obstructive lung disease, muscular disease, alcoholic liver disease, burn injuries and post operative recovery. Relevant studies were identified in PubMed (years 1950 - 2010), bibliographies of the identified studies and the Cochrane database. Although the beneficial effects of AAS in chronic disorders are promising, clinically relevant endpoints such as quality of life, improved physical functioning and survival were mainly missing or not significant, except for burn injuries. Therefore, more studies are needed to confirm their long term safety and efficacy.

  12. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. METHODS: This st......AIMS: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. METHODS...... training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. RESULTS: Former AAS abusers...

  13. New analytical methodologies for doping control – detection of anabolic androgenic steroids in human urine

    OpenAIRE

    Galésio, Marco André Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Dissertation submitted to Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia - Universidade Nova de Lisboa in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Biochemistry - Biotechnology) The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and other banned substances to enhance athletic performance has important health and social implications. The AAS are a major group included in the prohibited list of the world anti-doping agency (WADA) as well as of major sports authorities. This class...

  14. Gynecomastia in two young men with histories of prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandi, M A; Venegoni, E; Pagani, C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this report is to highlight the risk of anabolic androgenic steroid-induced gynecomastia in young men involved in nonagonistic sports and the role of ultrasonography in its diagnosis. The authors describe two cases of gynecomastia in nonprofessional weight lifters with histories of AAS use. In both cases, the diagnosis was based on patient history and clinical findings, but the sonographic examination confirmed the clinical suspicion and excluded the presence of other types of dise...

  15. Novel Uses for the Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Nandrolone and Oxandrolone in the Management of Male Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christopher; Kovac, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    There has recently been renewed interest in novel clinical applications of the anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) testosterone and its synthetic derivatives, particularly given with the rising popularity of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) for the treatment of male hypogonadism. In this manuscript, we provide a brief review of the history of AAS and discuss clinical applications of two of the more well-known AAS: nandrolone and oxandrolone. Both agents exhibit favorable myotrophic/androgenic ratios and have been investigated for effectiveness in numerous disease states. We also provide a brief synopsis of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) and postulate how these orally active, non-aromatizing, tissue-selective agents might be used in contemporary andrology. Currently, the applications of testosterone alternatives in hypogonadism are limited. However, it is tempting to speculate that these agents may one day become accepted as alternatives, or adjuncts, to the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  16. Influence of endogenous androgens on carotid wall in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernini, G P; Moretti, A; Sgró, M; Argenio, G F; Barlascini, C O; Cristofani, R; Salvetti, A

    2001-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of a direct association between normal androgen levels and reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women. After menopause the influence of estrogens declines, whereas that of androgens increases. Therefore, we investigated the effects of androgens on atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women, by using carotid artery intimal-medial thickness as a marker of vascular damage. Blood pressure, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, estrone, insulin, lipid profile, and glucose were evaluated in 44 women in stable physiological menopause. All subjects underwent carotid ultrasound (Biosound 2000 II s.a. high-resolution unit). Spearman correlation coefficients indicated that serum androstenedione and free testosterone were negatively associated with several carotid intimal-medial thickness measures with correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.477 to 0.397 (p < 0.01-0.04). Moreover, age-adjusted androstenedione and free testosterone highest tertiles showed intimal-medial thickness values significantly (p < 0.03-0.05) lower than the other tertiles. There was a favorable association between hormones and the most important cardiovascular risk factors. This association, however, did not reach statistical significance. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the inverse relationships between the hormones (androstenedione and free testosterone) and several intimal-medial thickness measures were maintained (F: 4.15-6.07, p < 0.05-0.02) after adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors. Our data demonstrate that in postmenopausal women endogenous steroid precursors and androgens are inversely related to carotid intimal-medial thickness, an established marker of atherosclerosis. In addition, these hormones show favorable associations with cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, our study suggests that, after menopause, normal androgen levels may

  17. Endothelial function in male body builders taking anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Hashemi

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse cardiovascular events have been reported in body builders taking anabolic steroids. Adverse effects of AAS on endothelial function can initiate atherosclerosis. This study evaluates endothelial function in body builders using AAS, compared with non-steroids using athletes as controls. Methods: We recruited 30 nonsmoking male body builders taking AAS, 14 in build up phase, 8 in work out phase, and 8 in post steroid phase, and 30 nonsmoking male athletes who denied ever using steroids. Serum lipids and fasting plasma glucose were measured to exclude dyslipidemia and diabetes. Brachial artery diameter was measured by ultrasound at rest, after cuff inflation, and after sublingual glyceriltrinitrate (GTN to determine flow mediated dilation (FMD, nitro mediated dilation (NMD and ratio of FMD to NMD (index of endothelial function. Result: Use of AAS was associated with higher body mass index (BMI and low density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C. Mean ratio of flow mediated dilatation after cuff deflation to post GTN dilatation of brachial artery (index of endothelial function in body builders taking AAS was significantly lower than control group (0.96(0.05 versus 1(0.08; p=0.03. After adjusting BMI, age and weight, no significant difference was seen in index of endothelial function between two groups (p=0 .21. Conclusion: Our study indicates that taking AAS in body builders doesn’t have direct effect on endothelial function. Future study with bigger sample size and measurement of AAS metabolites is recommended. Key words: endothelium, lipids, anabolic steroids, body builders

  18. CHAMP Symposium on Androgens, Anabolic Steroids, and Related Substances: What We Know and What We Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Melissa L; Deuster, Patricia A; Kupchak, Brian R

    2016-07-01

    The Consortium of Health and Military Performance hosted a symposium in April 2015 entitled "Androgens, Anabolic Steroids, and Related Substances: What We Know and What We Need to Know" in response to concerns from the field regarding Anabolic Androgenic Steroids use by U.S. service members. The symposium was attended by military and civilian subject-matter experts in sports medicine and anabolic steroids and was held at the United Service Organizations (Naval Support Activity Bethesda) in Bethesda, Maryland. The expert panel was charged to define the way ahead in terms of androgen use, education, research, relevant policies and guidelines, and other concerns with particular relevancy to Special Operations Forces. The conference concluded with the following recommendations on these several key issues (1) connecting with users, (2) education and intervention, (3) knowledge and research gaps, and (4) establishing an information clearinghouse and clinical repository. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  19. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys

    OpenAIRE

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgeni...

  20. A qualitative exploration of the motivations underlying anabolic-androgenic steroid use from adolescence into adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ashley Harris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background This study explored the direct experience of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS use by young men, with an emphasis on how motivations progressed from adolescent initiation to more entrenched usage. Participants and procedure Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals ranging in experience of AAS use, from novice to experienced users. Results The results indicated that the young adult men progressed through a clear transition whereby their motives for using these substances changed from a mere desire to compete with other men to more internalised body image problems. Conclusions The findings presented suggest a more complex relationship between AAS use and body image pathology than previously suggested.

  1. Anabolic Androgen-induced Intrahepatic Cholestasis Presented With Normal AND#947;-Glutamyl-Transpeptidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvoula Savvidou

    2014-04-01

    A case report of a young male with remarkable jaundice due to acute anabolic androgen-induced cholestasis is presented. Interestingly, and #947;-glutamyl transpeptidase remained normal throughout the patient's diagnostic workup. Histopathology was indicative of pure, and ldquo;bland and rdquo; intrahepatic cholestasis with minimal inflammation but significant fibrosis. The patient was successfully treated with ursodeoxycholic acid and glucocorticosteroids. The significance of normal and #947;-glutamyl transpeptidase along with the histopathological findings and the possible pathophysiological mechanisms are finally discussed. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(2.000: 98-103

  2. Multidetection Of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Using Immunoarrays and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, D.; Salvador, J. P.; Tort, N.; Centi, F.; Marco, M. P.; Marco, S.

    2009-05-01

    A first step towards the multidetection of anabolic androgenic steroids by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) has been performed in this study. This proposal combines an array of classical ELISA assays with different selectivities and multivariate data analysis techniques. Data has been analyzed by principal component analysis in conjunction with a k-nearest line classifier has been used. This proposal allows to detect simultaneously four different compounds in the range of concentration from 10-1.5 to 103 mM with a total rate of 90.6% of correct detection.

  3. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Among 1,010 College Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, H G; Katz, D L; Champoux, R

    1988-07-01

    In brief: Little is known about the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. To obtain some initial information, the authors sent questionnaires to male students at three US colleges. Of the 1,010 respondents, 17 (2%) reported using steroids. Most were competitive athletes, but four used steroids primarily to improve personal appearance. Steroid users were not distinguishable from nonusers based on academic achievement or the use of other illicit drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol. The authors point out that the study is exploratory and that the results probably underestimate the true prevalence of steroid use in the United States.

  4. Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) related deaths: autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco P; Cipolloni, Luigi; Dominicis, Enrico De; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA. Skeletal muscle can be considered as the main target tissue for the anabolic effects of AAS, which are mediated by ARs which after exposure to AASs are up-regulated and their number increases with body building. Therefore, AASs determine an increase in muscle size as a consequence of a dose-dependent hypertrophy resulting in an increase of the cross-sectional areas of both type I and type II muscle fibers and myonuclear domains. Moreover, it has been reported that AASs can increase tolerance to exercise by making the muscles more capable to overload therefore shielding them from muscle fiber damage and improving the level of protein synthesis during recovery. Despite some therapeutic use of AASs, there is also wide abuse among athletes especially bodybuilders in order to improve their performances and to increase muscle growth and lean body mass, taking into account the significant anabolic effects of these drugs. The prolonged misuse and abuse of AASs can determine several adverse effects, some of which may be even fatal especially on the cardiovascular system because they may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), myocardial infarction, altered serum lipoproteins, and cardiac hypertrophy. The aim of this review is to focus on deaths related to AAS abuse, trying to evaluate the autoptic, histopathological and toxicological findings in order to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism that underlines this type of death, which

  5. Hidden Danger of Irrational Abusing Illegal Androgenic-anabolic Steroids in Recreational Athletes Age Under 35 in Bosnia & Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solakovic, Sid; Totic, Dragan; Vukas, Haris; Djedovic, Muhamed

    2015-06-01

    Androgenic-anabolic steroids are rarely used by sportsmen who want to improve physical performance in competition sport. Despite that they are well aware of the side effects of anabolic steroids, many young athletes in Bosnia and Herzegovina without competition motivation come in temptation, trying to achieve better muscle proportion and physical performance unknowing consequence of side effects and what is hiding behind. Risk factors such as increasing of lipid levels and arterial hypertension are major factors which have important role in the Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are responsible for occurrence of cardiovascular disease even causing a sudden death in young athletes. The aim of the study was to estimate the frequency of misusing of androgenic anabolic steroid drugs in young recreational sportsmen without competition motivation. This study will try to estimate vascular and lipid status, analyzing the side effects of steroids in young recreational athletes under the age of 35, in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The study included 70 individuals in period of 2010 till 2015 on recreational exercising program; 35 individuals misusing androgenic anabolic steroids during the period of 5 years were compared with 35 individuals which do not use androgenic anabolic steroids. Non-invasive methods were used in all individual (clinical examination and vascular ultrasound examination of vein system). The routine of training units in both groups was approximately two hours 4-6 times per week. Final analysis has reveal that in androgenic anabolic steroids group in 18 individuals or 55.7% arterial hypertension with hyperlipidemia was more represented, compared with the group without using anabolic steroids, represented by 2 individuals or 5.7% and it was statistically considered significant by using p value less than 0.05. (panabolic steroids drugs are males (100%) or 35 individuals; we did not find females using anabolic steroids and that is why our research was limited to

  6. Selling androgenic anabolic steroids by the pound: identification and analysis of popular websites on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, F G; Lombardo, S; Cosentino, M

    2011-12-01

    Internet websites offering androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) were identified and available products were examined. Keywords for the website search were: "anabolic steroids," "anabolic steroids buy," "anabolic steroid purchase." The first 10 websites offering AAS in the first 10 pages of results were considered. At least two AAS-containing products per website were selected. Thirty AAS-selling websites were identified, mainly located in the United States (46.7%) and Europe (30%). Most websites sold other anabolic/ergogenic products (clenbuterol, 76.7%; GH/IGF, 60.0%; thyroid hormones, 46.7%; erythropoietin, 30.0%; insulin, 20.0%) or products for AAS-related adverse effects (mainly: estrogen antagonists, 63.3%; products for erectile dysfunction, 56.7%; 5α-reductase inhibitors, 33.3%; anti-acne products, 33.3%). AAS were sold as medicines (69.6%) or as dietary supplements (30.4%). AAS in medicines were mainly: nandronole (20.4%), methandrostenolone (18.4%), and testosterone (12.2%). Dietary supplements contained mainly DHEA and included several fake compounds. Manufacturers were declared for 97.9% of medicines and 66.7% of dietary supplements; however, several manufacturers were not found on the Internet. Described benefits were usually few adverse effects and no estrogenicity. Toxicity was seldom reported and presented as mild. Recommended doses were two-fourfold higher than current medical recommendations. In conclusion, misleading information and deceiving practices were common findings on AAS-selling websites, indicating their deleterious potential for public health. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Supraphysiological doses of performance enhancing anabolic-androgenic steroids exert direct toxic effects on neuron-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, John R.; Binmadi, Nada O.; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Paoli, Antonio; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few...

  8. Computational Assessment of Pharmacokinetics and Biological Effects of Some Anabolic and Androgen Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Marin; Roman, Diana Larisa; Ostafe, Vasile; Ciorsac, Alecu; Isvoran, Adriana

    2018-02-05

    The aim of this study is to use computational approaches to predict the ADME-Tox profiles, pharmacokinetics, molecular targets, biological activity spectra and side/toxic effects of 31 anabolic and androgen steroids in humans. The following computational tools are used: (i) FAFDrugs4, SwissADME and admetSARfor obtaining the ADME-Tox profiles and for predicting pharmacokinetics;(ii) SwissTargetPrediction and PASS online for predicting the molecular targets and biological activities; (iii) PASS online, Toxtree, admetSAR and Endocrine Disruptomefor envisaging the specific toxicities; (iv) SwissDock to assess the interactions of investigated steroids with cytochromes involved in drugs metabolism. Investigated steroids usually reveal a high gastrointestinal absorption and a good oral bioavailability, may inhibit someof the human cytochromes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (CYP2C9 being the most affected) and reflect a good capacity for skin penetration. There are predicted numerous side effects of investigated steroids in humans: genotoxic carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity, cardiovascular, hematotoxic and genitourinary effects, dermal irritations, endocrine disruption and reproductive dysfunction. These results are important to be known as an occupational exposure to anabolic and androgenic steroids at workplaces may occur and because there also is a deliberate human exposure to steroids for their performance enhancement and anti-aging properties.

  9. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Andreas; Thieme, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Side effects of anabolic steroids with relevance in forensic medicine are mainly due to life-threatening health risks with potential fatal outcome and cases of uncertain limitations of criminal liability after steroid administration. Both problems are typically associated with long-term abuse and excessive overdose of anabolic steroids. Side effects may be due to direct genomic or nongenomic activities (myotrophic, hepatotoxic), can result from down-regulation of endogenous biosynthesis (antiandrogenic) or be indirect consequence of steroid biotransformation (estrogenic).Logically, there are no systematic clinical studies available and the number of causally determined fatalities is fairly limited. The following compilation reviews typical abundant observations in cases where nonnatural deaths (mostly liver failure and sudden cardiac death) were concurrent with steroid abuse. Moreover, frequent associations between structural characteristics and typical side effects are summarized.

  10. Outline of a typology of men’s use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness and strength training environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Liokaftos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    Recent research into the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in fitness and strength training environments have revealed great variance in users’ approach to AAS use and more specifically their approach to health risks and desired objectives. However, there have only been few attempts...

  11. Adolescent Self-Perceptions and Attitudes toward School as Determinants of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Risk Estimates and Normative Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E.

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in symbolic interactionism and drawing on data gathered in the 2007 Monitoring the Future Study (n = 2,201), this research examines how self-esteem and perceived intelligence, as well as attitudes and behaviors related to school environments, associate with perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids. With perceived risk and…

  12. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Intracellular Calcium Signaling: A Mini Review on Mechanisms and Physiological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio, J.M.; Estrada, M.; Galvis, D.; Bravo, R.; Contreras, A.E.; Rotter, D.; Szabadkai, G.; Hill, J.A.; Rothermel, B.A.; Jaimovich, E.; Lavandero, S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that nongenomic effects of testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) operate concertedly with genomic effects. Classically, these responses have been viewed as separate and independent processes, primarily because nongenomic responses are faster and appear to be mediated by membrane androgen receptors, whereas long-term genomic effects are mediated through cytosolic androgen receptors regulating transcriptional activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated increases in intracellular Ca2+ in response to AAS. These Ca2+ mediated responses have been seen in a diversity of cell types, including osteoblasts, platelets, skeletal muscle cells, cardiac myocytes and neurons. The versatility of Ca2+ as a second messenger provides these responses with a vast number of pathophysiological implications. In cardiac cells, testosterone elicits voltage-dependent Ca2+ oscillations and IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from internal stores, leading to activation of MAPK and mTOR signaling that promotes cardiac hypertrophy. In neurons, depending upon concentration, testosterone can provoke either physiological Ca2+ oscillations, essential for synaptic plasticity, or sustained, pathological Ca2+ transients that lead to neuronal apoptosis. We propose therefore, that Ca2+ acts as an important point of crosstalk between nongenomic and genomic AAS signaling, representing a central regulator that bridges these previously thought to be divergent responses. PMID:21443511

  13. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  14. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent behavior in a nationally representative sample of young adult males in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M; Vaughn, Michael G; Delisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul

    2008-12-01

    We examined the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid use on serious violent behavior. Multivariate models based on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6823) were used to examine the association between lifetime and past-year self-reported anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent acts. Compared with individuals who did not use steroids, young adult males who used anabolic-androgenic steroids reported greater involvement in violent behaviors after we controlled for the effects of key demographic variables, previous violent behavior, and polydrug use.

  15. A validated UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify low levels of anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnes; Bonnaire, Yves; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method. Low limits of detection (0.2 ng/mL), good reproducibility (percentage of standard deviation (%RSD)  0.99 and lack-of-fit analysis) were obtained for all included AASs. With this method, urine samples of 105 guaranteed untreated horses (47 geldings, 53 mares, and 5 stallions serving as a control) were screened for β-boldenone and five related natural steroids: androstadienedione (ADD), androstenedione (AED), alpha-testosterone (αT), beta-testosterone (βT), and progesterone (P). Progesterone, β-testosterone, and α-testosterone were detected in more than half of the horses at low concentrations (anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses (mares and geldings).

  16. Micronucleus as biomarkers of cancer risk in anabolic androgenic steroids users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, L da Cunha Menezes; da Cruz, L A; Cerqueira, E de Moraes Marcílio; Meireles, Jrc

    2017-03-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown among practitioners of recreational bodybuilding, with significant contributions of designer steroids, aiming muscle hypertrophy in healthy subjects. The abusive use of AAS in general is associated with adverse effects; one of the most worrisome is cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) test in human lymphocytes in identifying risk groups for cancer development in users of AAS. Blood was collected from 15 AAS users bodybuilders (G1), 20 non-users bodybuilders (G2) and 20 non-users sedentary (G3). MN analysis was performed on a minimum of 1000 binucleated lymphocytes. The occurrence of MN was significantly higher ( p < 0.05) in individuals of G1 compared to G2 and G3. The results indicate the sensitivity of CBMN in human lymphocytes in the identification of chromosomal damage in consequence of AAS.

  17. Hepatotoxicity associated with illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids in doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, R; Rotolo, M C; Mastrobattista, L; Mortali, C; Minutillo, A; Pichini, S; Pacifici, R; Palmi, I

    2017-03-01

    Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS) abuse and misuse is nowadays a harmful habit involving both professional or recreational athletes, as well as general population. AAS are also frequently present in over-the-counter dietary supplements without being declared in the list of ingredients, leaving consumers unaware of the risks of adverse effects. Indeed, health risks of AAS consumption in pharmaceutical preparations or dietary complements seem still underestimated and under-reported. The variety of complications due to AAS misuse involves cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems of both males and females; psychiatric and behavioral effects, damages to metabolic system, skin and mainly liver. For instance, relevant concern has been raised by the AAS hepatotoxicity including adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholestasis, and peliosis hepatis. The present review reports the information available on the hepatotoxic effects of AAS use in professional and amateur athletes.

  18. The Use of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Polypharmacy: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Hoagland, Margaux F.

    2011-01-01

    Background A review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between the use of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and the use of other drugs. Methods Studies published between the years of 1995–2010 were included in the review. Results The use of AAS is positively associated with use of alcohol, illicit drugs and legal performance enhancing substances. In contrast, the relationship between AAS and the use of tobacco and cannabis are mixed. Conclusion Results of the review indicate that the relationship between AAS use and other substance use depends on the type of substance studied. Implications for treatment and prevention are discussed. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:21232881

  19. Liver Toxicity of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Use in an Adolescent with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awai, Hannah I; Yu, Elizabeth L; Ellis, Linda S; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and related morbidities such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is high among adolescents. Current treatment recommendations for NAFLD focus on lifestyle optimization via nutrition and exercise. After encouraging exercise, many adolescents choose to participate in organized sports, which may lead to use of illicit substances such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) to boost athletic performance. Approximately 3,000,000 individuals use non-therapeutic AAS at supra-physiologic doses in the United States.1 In 2012, 5.9% of adolescent boys reported steroid use in the previous year.2 We anticipate adolescents with pre-existing liver disease are at increased risk for AAS induced hepatotoxicity. We present such a case with IRB approval and written individual patient consent. PMID:23568051

  20. Association between narcotic use and anabolic-androgenic steroid use among American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Bryan E

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the data gathered in the 2006 Monitoring the Future study of American youth, the present research examines associations between use of narcotics and use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) among high-school seniors (n = 2,489). With independent measures and controls including sex, race, media exposure, socializing with friends, participation in recreational and school-sponsored sports, perceptions of drug use among professional athletes, and perceptions of steroid use among close friends, binary logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between AAS use and the use of alcohol, crack cocaine, Vicodin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Ketamine, and Rohypnol. While use of both AASs and the narcotic drugs generally did not eclipse 5% of the sample, the numbers extend to many thousands in larger populations. Implications for health practitioners and recommendations for future research are offered. The study's limitations are noted.

  1. Androgenic Anabolic Steroid, Cocaine and Amphetamine Abuse and Adverse Cardiovascular Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Quintana, Efren; Saiz-Udaeta, Beatriz; Marrero-Negrin, Natalia; Lopez-Mérida, Xavier; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Fayna; Nieto-Lago, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), a synthetic derivate of testosterone, have become a popular drug among athletes and bodybuilders to enhance muscle mass and improve the athletic performance. Many pathological effects such as hepatic and endocrine dysfunction, behavioural changes and cardiovascular complications have been reported. Case Report: Within these ast ones, we find an increase in left ventricular muscle mass, concentric myocardial hypertrophy, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, arterial hypertension, prothrombotic effects, changes in the concentration of cholesterol levels, particularly a reduction in HDL cholesterol concentration, myocardial infarctions in relation to endothelial dysfunction, vasospasms or thrombosis and sudden cardiac death. Discussion: We report the case of a 32-year-old patient with a history of arterial hypertension, depressive syndrome and consumption of cocaine, amphetamines and AAS who developed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction and myocardial hypertrophy with signs of heart failure and peripheral arterial embolism. PMID:24719633

  2. Iatrogenic dependence of anabolic-androgenic steroid in an Indian non-athletic woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Adarsh; Tekkalaki, Bheemsain; Saxena, Shashwat; Dandu, Himanshu

    2014-02-06

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are increasingly being used by athletes and youngsters to become masculine and to loose body fat. Long-term consumption of AAS causes multiple physical and psychological morbidities. Research has also concluded that AAS have addictive potential and AAS abuse is commonly found with other substance abuse. Abuse of AAS is rare in eastern countries. Abuse among women is even rarer. Here is a case report of an Indian woman, who was prescribed nandrolone decanoate injections by an unqualified medical practitioner to treat multiple non-specific somatic pains and reported weakness, leading to dependence for nandrolonedecanoate. This case report supports the research finding of abuse potential of AAS, raises concern about the need for spreading the awareness about AAS abuse among medical professionals, regulating medical practice by unqualified practitioners, and strict legal check against AAS availability in developing countries.

  3. Anti-Social Behaviors Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use among Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats; Pope, Harrison G; Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Lundin, Andreas; Källmén, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) have been linked to a range of problematic behaviors, but AAS use is still sometimes portrayed as more benign than other forms of classical drug abuse. To address this issue, we compared the prevalence of anti-social behaviors among adolescent AAS users, non-AAS illicit drug users, and drug non-users. We examined 3 waves (2004, 2008, and 2012) of self-reported cross-sectional data from a secondary school survey conducted in Stockholm, Sweden (total n = 19,773; response percentage, 79.6%). Across all survey years, the risk ratios for virtually all measured anti-social behaviors were significantly higher among AAS users compared to non-AAS illicit drug users and to drug non-users. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo; Jansen, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan

    2007-02-01

    Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) by members of fitness centers and others in Germany has reached alarming dimensions. The health care system provides the illegal AAS to 48.1 % of abusers. Physicians are involved in illegal prescription of AAS and monitoring of 32.1 % of AAS abusers. Besides health-threatening cardiovascular, hepatotoxic and psychiatric long-term side effects of AAS, acne occurs in about 50 % of AAS abusers and is an important clinical indicator of AAS abuse, especially in young men 18-26 years of age. Both acne conglobata and acne fulminans can be induced by AAS abuse. The dermatologist should recognize bodybuilding acne, address the AAS abuse, and warn the patient about other potential hazards.

  5. Self-Reported Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by Elite Power Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis, C E; Herrick, R T; Buckley, W E; Friedl, K E; Brannon, D; Wright, J E

    1988-12-01

    In brief: Sixty-one athletes competed in the 1987 National Championship of the US Powerlifting Federation; all were surveyed to obtain information on anabolic-androgenic steroids regarding attitudes, patterns of use, and health effects. Of the 45 who responded to the survey, 15 admitted having used steroids. In a follow-up telephone interview of 20 of the competitors, 11 reported previous steroid use. The reason given most often for using steroids was improved athletic performance; the most common side effects reported were heightened libido, acne, and increased body hair. The small number of admitted users suggests that underreporting took place; this level of use probably represents the lower bound of steroid use among power lifters.

  6. Treatment of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Dependence: Emerging Evidence and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Brower, Kirk J.; Wood, Ruth I.; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, few users of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) seek substance-abuse treatment. But this picture may soon change substantially, because illicit AAS use did not become widespread until the 1980s, and consequently the older members of this AAS-using population—those who initiated AAS as youths in the 1980s—are only now reaching middle age. Members of this group, especially those who have developed AAS dependence, may therefore be entering the age of risk for cardiac and psychoneuroendocrine complications sufficient to motivate them for substance-abuse treatment. We suggest that this treatment should address at least three etiologic mechanisms by which AAS dependence might develop. First, individuals with body-image disorders such as “muscle dysmorphia” may become dependent on AAS for their anabolic effects; these body-image disorders may respond to psychological therapies or pharmacologic treatments. Second, AAS suppress the male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via their androgenic effects, potentially causing hypogonadism during AAS withdrawal. Men experiencing prolonged dysphoric effects or frank major depression from hypogonadism may desire to resume AAS, thus contributing to AAS dependence. AAS-induced hypogonadism may require treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin or clomiphene to reactivate neuroendocrine function, and may necessitate antidepressant treatments in cases of depression inadequately responsive to endocrine therapies alone. Third, human and animal evidence indicates that AAS also possess hedonic effects, which likely promote dependence via mechanisms shared with classical addictive drugs, especially opioids. Indeed, the opioid antagonist naltrexone blocks AAS dependence in animals. By inference, pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for human opioid dependence might also benefit AAS-dependent individuals. PMID:20188494

  7. Development of anabolic-androgenic steroids purity certified reference materials for anti-doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Can; Su, Fuhai; Wang, Haifeng; Li, Hongmei

    2011-12-20

    The need for certified reference materials (CRM) of anabolic-androgenic steroids reference materials was emphasized by the Beijing 2008 Olympic game as a tool to improve comparability, ensuring accuracy and traceability of analytical results for competing athletes. The China National Institute of Metrology (NIM) responded to the state request by providing seven anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) reference materials for Beijing Olympic anti-doping, GBW (E) 100086-GBW (E) 100092. This work describes the production of the series of AAS CRMs, according to ISO Guides 34 and 35 [1,2], which comprises the material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment, CRMs' characterization including moisture content, trace metal content. The AASs' purity values were assigned with collaborative study involved eight laboratories applying high resolution liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Homogeneity of the AAS CRMs were determined by an in-house validated liquid chromatographic methodology. Potential degradation during storage was also investigated and a shelf-life based on this value was established. The certified values of CRMs were 99.76±0.079%, 99.76±0.25%, 99.63±0.09%, 99.67±0.11%, 98.82±0.56%, 96.30±0.39% and 99.71±0.49% (purity±expanded uncertainty with confidence level of 95%) for methyltestosterone, testosterone propionate, nandrolone, nandrolone 17-propionate, boldenone, trenbolone acetate and testosterone respectively. The certified values for all the studied AAS reference materials are traceable to the international system of units (SI). The CRMs developed were applied by 32 laboratory including sports organizations and analytical laboratories during the 2008 Olympic game for anti-doping control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael Arêas; Oliveira, Leonardo Pires; Frankenfeld, Stephan; Souza, Diogo Benchimol de; Costa, Waldemar Silva; Favorito, Luciano Alves; Sampaio, Francisco José Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a) control rats, with 105 days of age (C105) (n = 7); (b) control rats with 65 days of age (C65) (n = 9), injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil); (c) treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105) (n = 10) and (d) treated rats with 65 days of age (T65) (n = 13). The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105) and 121 days of age (C65 and T65) and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated) and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p anabolic androgenic steroids in rats promotes structural changes in the prostate. We observed structural changes in the weight, volume and epithelium height of the prostate ventral lobe and a predominance of collagen fibers.

  9. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in bodybuilders using supraphysiological doses of anabolic-androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chrostowski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 40 bodybuilders voluntarily taking supraphysiological doses of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. Echocardiographic examination of the heart and blood analysis were performed, and concentration of AAS in urine was examined. The presence, or absence, of AAS in urine had no influence on the echocardiographic parameters of the heart, body mass, body mass index (BMI and aldosterone level in blood plasma. It seems, therefore, that the presence of AAS in urine may confirm heart hypertrophy and overuse of AAS, while the absence of AAS in urine does not exclude the cardiological changes occurring as a result of taking the drugs. Metabolites detected in urine showed that the intake of 17α-alkyl testosterone derivatives caused higher values of left ventricular mass and BMI. However, the level of HDL cholesterol was lower in bodybuilders using only 19-nor-testosterone. Elevated level of plasma aldosterone did not differ between the two groups. As could be expected, the highest level of AAS in urine was detected in bodybuilders currently self-administering the anabolic-androgenic steroids (on cycle. The level of AAS in the urine decreased after stopping taking the drugs (off cycle. Refraining from AAS abuse for a period of 1-2 years was associated with a significant decrease in aldosterone level in the plasma. The positive correlations found between the blood plasma aldosterone, left ventricular mass and BMI lead to the conclusion that large doses of AAS taken by bodybuilders would cause extra activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

  10. Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Brower, Kirk J; Wood, Ruth I; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2010-06-01

    Currently, few users of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) seek substance abuse treatment. But this picture may soon change substantially, because illicit AAS use did not become widespread until the 1980s, and consequently the older members of this AAS-using population - those who initiated AAS as youths in the 1980s - are only now reaching middle age. Members of this group, especially those who have developed AAS dependence, may therefore be entering the age of risk for cardiac and psychoneuroendocrine complications sufficient to motivate them for substance abuse treatment. We suggest that this treatment should address at least three etiologic mechanisms by which AAS dependence might develop. First, individuals with body image disorders such as "muscle dysmorphia" may become dependent on AAS for their anabolic effects; these body image disorders may respond to psychological therapies or pharmacological treatments. Second, AAS suppress the male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via their androgenic effects, potentially causing hypogonadism during AAS withdrawal. Men experiencing prolonged dysphoric effects or frank major depression from hypogonadism may desire to resume AAS, thus contributing to AAS dependence. AAS-induced hypogonadism may require treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin or clomiphene to reactivate neuroendocrine function, and may necessitate antidepressant treatments in cases of depression inadequately responsive to endocrine therapies alone. Third, human and animal evidence indicates that AAS also possess hedonic effects, which likely promote dependence via mechanisms shared with classical addictive drugs, especially opioids. Indeed, the opioid antagonist naltrexone blocks AAS dependence in animals. By inference, pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for human opioid dependence might also benefit AAS-dependent individuals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic anabolic androgenic steroid usage associated with acute coronary syndrome in bodybuilder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan Sonmez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been argued in current studies that anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are misused by a great number of bodybuilders and athletes. However, there is diverse and often conflicting scientific data on the cardiac and metabolic complications caused by the misuse of AAS. There may be various reasons for myocardial infarction (MI with normal coronary arteries. However, for the majority of patients, the exact cause is still unknown. Case report: A 32 year-old male who was complaining about severe chest pain was admitted to our emergency department. He had been taking methenolone acetate 200 mg weekly for a period of three years for body building. His cardiac markers were significantly elevated and electrocardiogram (ECG showed peaked T waves in all derivations, which did not show ST elevation or depression. Both right and left coronary artery systems were found to be completely normal as a result of the angiogram. Conclusion: The purpose of this study is to show that AAS induced MI can be encountered with normal coronary arteries during acute coronary syndrome. Keywords: Bodybuilder, Anabolic steroids, Methenolone acetate, Acute coronary syndrome

  12. The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönbladh, Alfhild; Nylander, Erik; Hallberg, Mathias

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated. According to recent studies, the prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users has been estimated to be approximately 30%, and polysubstance use, of both pharmaceutical drugs and narcotics, within this group is common. The present review primarily discusses AAS in the context of addiction and dependence, and further addresses the issue of using multiple substances, i.e. stimulants and opiates in combination with AAS. In addition, aspects of the treatment of AAS dependence, the connection between AAS abuse and cognition, and AAS-induced neurotoxicity are presented. Currently, performance enhancing drugs are frequently used in combination with AAS. Therefore, a large section on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor is also included. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse among Jordanian collegiate students and athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtamouni, Lubna H; Mustafa, Noor H; Alfaouri, Almuthana A; Hassan, Iman M; Abdalla, Maher Y; Yasin, Salem R

    2008-12-01

    The study was conducted to measure the extent of androgenic steroids abuse among two targeted groups in Jordan, college students and athletes, and the risk factors associated with this abuse. Five hundred and three Jordanian collegiate students and 154 bodybuilding athletes completed a three section questionnaire that investigated demographic information, prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and attitude towards steroids abuse. Of the investigated collegiate students, 4.2% were current users, while the percentage rose to 26% among the athletes; the mean age of users in the two groups was 19.9 and 28.1 years, respectively. Almost one-third of the students started abusing AAS before the age of 15 years while more than half of the athletes started between the ages of 15 and 18 years. Knowing where and how to get the drugs has not been a problem for either the students or the athletes as their friends and coaches were the major sources. The main reasons for using AAS have been found to help improving athletic performance and physical appearances. Abusing AAS is starting to become a public health concern that implies the need to implement educational programmes, which will educate and warn adolescents and mentors about the negative side effects of AAS abuse on the health of users.

  14. Short QT interval is unreliable marker of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjević, Vitomir; Stanković, Ivan; Stipac, Alja Vlahović; Putniković, Biljana; Nesković, Aleksandar N

    2012-01-01

    Previous animal and human studies provided the evidence that testosterone may affect ventricular repolarization by shortening of the QT interval. Synthetic derivatives of testosterone, modified to enhance its anabolic properties, are occasionally abused by some competitive athletes. We assessed whether the QT interval duration could discriminate androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS)-using strength athletes (SA) from drug-free endurance athletes (EA), by comparing 25 formulas for QT interval correction. We recruited 22 elite male athletes involved in long-term strength or endurance training and 20 sedentary controls. All elite SA reported AAS abuse, whereas EA and controls were AAS-free. AAS-using SA had markedly shorter QT-interval than AAS-free EA (348 +/- 42.3 vs. 400 +/- 34.2 ms; p < 0.001). Also, drug-free EA had a significantly longer QT-interval than sedentary persons (400 +/- 34.2 vs. 358 +/- 18.9 ms; p < 0.01). In contrast, no significant difference in the QT-interval duration was observed between AAS users and control group (348 +/- 42.3 vs. 358 +/- 18.9 ms; p = 0.394). After the QT interval was adjusted for heart rate (HR) according to 25 different formulas, only the Ashman equation yielded considerable differences among the groups that were in line with those observed before correction. Inconsistent results obtained by different correction formulas along with inability to discriminate QT (QTc) interval duration between AAS-misusing athletes and control group do not support the use of QT (QTc) interval for anti-doping purposes.

  15. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Medical consequences of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids: effects on reproductive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are appearance and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs) used in competitive athletics, in recreational sports, and by body-builders. The global lifetime prevalence of AASs abuse is 6.4% for males and 1.6% for women. Many AASs, often obtained from the internet and dubious sources, have not undergone proper testing and are consumed at extremely high doses and in irrational combinations, also along with other drugs. Controlled clinical trials investigating undesired side effects are lacking because ethical restrictions prevent exposing volunteers to potentially toxic regimens, obscuring a causal relationship between AASs abuse and possible sequelae. Because of the negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, in men AASs cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis, testicular atrophy, infertility, and erectile dysfunction (anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism). Should spermatogenesis not recover after AASs abuse, a pre-existing fertility disorder may have resurfaced. AASs frequently cause gynecomastia and acne. In women, AASs may disrupt ovarian function. Chronic strenuous physical activity leads to menstrual irregularities and, in severe cases, to the female athlete triad (low energy intake, menstrual disorders and low bone mass), making it difficult to disentangle the effects of sports and AASs. Acne, hirsutism and (irreversible) deepening of the voice are further consequences of AASs misuse. There is no evidence that AASs cause breast carcinoma. Detecting AASs misuse through the control network of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) not only aims to guarantee fair conditions for athletes, but also to protect them from medical sequelae of AASs abuse. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  16. Homocysteine induced cardiovascular events: a consequence of long term anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M R; Grace, F M; Boobier, W; Hullin, D; Kicman, A; Cowan, D; Davies, B; Baker, J S

    2006-07-01

    The long term effects (>20 years) of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use on plasma concentrations of homocysteine (HCY), folate, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index, urea, creatinine, haematocrit (HCT), vitamin B12, and urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, were examined in a cohort of self-prescribing bodybuilders. Subjects (n = 40) were divided into four distinct groups: (1) AAS users still using AAS (SU; n = 10); (2) AAS users abstinent from AAS administration for 3 months (SA; n = 10); (3) non-drug using bodybuilding controls (BC; n = 10); and (4) sedentary male controls (SC; n = 10). HCY levels were significantly higher in SU compared with BC and SC (p<0.01), and with SA (p<0.05). Fat free mass was significantly higher in both groups of AAS users (p<0.01). Daily energy intake (kJ) and daily protein intake (g/day) were significantly higher in SU and SA (p<0.05) compared with BC and SC, but were unlikely to be responsible for the observed HCY increases. HCT concentrations were significantly higher in the SU group (p<0.01). A significant linear inverse relationship was observed in the SU group between SHBG and HCY (r = -0.828, p<0.01), indicating a possible influence of the sex hormones in determining HCY levels. With mounting evidence linking AAS to adverse effects on some clotting factors, the significantly higher levels of HCY and HCT observed in the SU group suggest long term AAS users have increased risk of future thromboembolic events.

  17. Simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids in human urine using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So-Hee; Cha, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kang Mi; Kim, Ho Jun; Kwon, Oh-Seung; Lee, Jaeick

    2014-01-01

    Metal ion coordination ionspray (M(+) CIS) ionization is a powerful technique to enhance ionization efficiency and sensitivity. In this study, we developed and validated an analytical method for simultaneous ionization and analysis of 84 anabolic androgenic steroids (65 exogenous and 19 endogenous) using liquid chromatography-silver ion coordination ionspray/triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-Ag(+) CIS/MS/MS). The concentrations of silver ions and organic solvents have been optimized to increase the amount of silver ion coordinated complexes. A combination of 25 μM of silver ions and methanol showed the best sensitivity. The validation results showed the intra- (0.8-9.2%) and inter-day (2.5-14.9%) precisions, limits of detection (0.0005-5.0 ng/mL), and matrix effect (71.8-100.3%) for the screening analysis. No significant ion suppression was observed. In addition, this method was successfully applied to analysis of positive samples from suspected abusers and useful for the detection of the trace levels of anabolic steroids in human urine samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Evidence of altered cardiac electrophysiology following prolonged androgenic anabolic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal; Jones, Peter; Davies, Bruce

    2010-12-01

    The non-therapeutic use of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) is associated with sudden cardiac death. Despite this, there is no proposed mechanism by which this may occur. Signal-averaged ECG (SAECG) allows the assessment of cardiac electrical stability, reductions of which are a known risk factor for cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to examine cardiac electrical stability using SAECG in a group (n = 15) of long-term AAS users (AAS use 21.3 ± 3.1 years) compared with a group (n = 15) of age-matched weight lifters (WL) and age-matched sedentary controls [C (n = 15)]. AS, WL and C underwent SAECG analysis at rest and following an acute bout of exercise to volitional exhaustion. SAECGs were analyzed using a 40 Hz filter and were averaged over 200 beats. Results indicate a non-significant trend for increased incidence of abnormal SAECG measures at rest in AS (P = 0.55). However, AS demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of abnormalities of SAECG following exercise than C or WL (P abnormal SAECG measurements immediately post-exercise in the AAS group places them at a greater risk of sudden death. The present study provides a strong contraindication to the use of AAS.

  19. Recovery of spermatogenesis following testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic-androgenic steroid use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Abram McBride

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT for hypogonadism continues to rise, particularly in younger men who may wish to remain fertile. Concurrently, awareness of a more pervasive use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS within the general population has been appreciated. Both TRT and AAS can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis resulting in diminution of spermatogenesis. Therefore, it is important that clinicians recognize previous TRT or AAS use in patients presenting for infertility treatment. Cessation of TRT or AAS use may result in spontaneous recovery of normal spermatogenesis in a reasonable number of patients if allowed sufficient time for recovery. However, some patients may not recover normal spermatogenesis or tolerate waiting for spontaneous recovery. In such cases, clinicians must be aware of the pathophysiologic derangements of the HPG axis related to TRT or AAS use and the pharmacologic agents available to reverse them. The available agents include injectable gonadotropins, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and aromatase inhibitors, but their off-label use is poorly described in the literature, potentially creating a knowledge gap for the clinician. Reviewing their use clinically for the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and other HPG axis abnormalities can familiarize the clinician with the manner in which they can be used to recover spermatogenesis after TRT or AAS use.

  20. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids and Condom Use: Potential Mechanisms in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Gordon, Janna R.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has revealed a significant bivariate relationship between anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use and reduced condom use among adolescent boys. However, to date, no known studies have explored the psychological mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Thus, the current study sought to examine two possible mediators in the association between AAS and condom use—depressive symptoms and substance use. Data were extracted from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents. Participants were 3,780 U.S. high school boys who responded to self-report items assessing a number of health behaviors, including symptoms of depression, substance use, AAS use, and use of condoms during their most recent act of intercourse. Both depression and substance use were significant mediators in the relationship between AAS and condom use. However, when these effects were contrasted, the indirect effect of substance use was significantly stronger in magnitude than the effect of depression. Although AAS use is associated with sexual risk behaviors among adolescent boys, significant variance in this relationship is accounted for by elevated levels of depression and substance use, with substance use demonstrating a particularly salient pathway. PMID:23718635

  1. Androgenic anabolic steroid exposure during adolescence: Ramifications for brain development and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L.; Lumia, Augustus R.; McGinnis, Marilyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for brain maturation that is highly dependent on gonadal sex hormones. Modifications in the gonadal steroid environment, via the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), have been shown to affect brain development and behavior. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that AAS exposure during adolescence alters normal brain remodeling, including structural changes and neurotransmitter function. The most commonly reported behavioral effect is an increase in aggression. Evidence has been presented to identify factors that influence the effect of AAS on the expression of aggression. The chemical composition of the AAS plays a major role in determining whether aggression is displayed, with testosterone being the most effective. The hormonal context, the environmental context, physical provocation and the perceived threat during the social encounter have all been found to influence the expression of aggression and sexual behavior. All of these factors point toward an altered behavioral state that includes an increased readiness to respond to a social encounter with heightened vigilance, and enhanced motivation. This AAS-induced state may be defined as emboldenment. The evidence suggests that the use of AAS during this critical period of development may increase the risk for maladaptive behaviors along with neurological disorders. PMID:23274699

  2. Anabolic-androgenic Steroid use and Psychopathology in Athletes. A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; del Casale, Antonio; Aromatario, Maria Rosaria; Pomara, Cristoforo; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders are typical of athletes, like muscle dysmorphia. This raises the issue of whether AAS use causes these disorders in athletes, by determining neuroadaptive changes in the reward neural circuit or by exacerbating stress vulnerability, or rather these are athletes with premorbid abnormal personalities or a history of psychiatric disorders who are attracted to AAS use, prompted by the desire to improve their appearance and control their weights. This may predispose to eating disorders, but AASs also show mood destabilizing effects, with longterm use inducing depression and short-term hypomania; withdrawal/discontinuation may be accompanied by depression. The effects of AASs on anxiety behavior are unclear and studies are inconsistent. AASs are also linked to psychotic behavior. The psychological characteristics that could prompt athletes to use AASs have not been elucidated. PMID:26074746

  3. Anabolic-androgenic steroid exposure during adolescence and aggressive behavior in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, R H; Connor, D F; Hang, P T; Harrison, R J; Ferris, C F

    1997-03-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse by adolescents represents a significant health care risk due to the potential for long-term negative physical and psychological sequelae, including increased aggressive behavior. The current experiments examined the effects of AAS use in young male adolescent hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and their consequences on aggressive behavior. It was hypothesized that AAS administration during adolescence predisposes hamsters to heightened levels of aggressive behavior (i.e., offensive aggression). To test this hypothesis adolescent male hamsters were administered high doses of synthetic AAS to mimic a 'heavy use' self-administration regimen used by athletes. Immediately following the exposure to AAS hamsters were tested for aggressive behavior using a resident-intruder model. Animals treated with high doses of AAS during their adolescent development showed heightened measures of offensive aggression i.e., decreased latency to bite and increased total number of attacks and bites) during the test period, while measures of total activity (total contact time) between the animals remained unchanged. AAS-treated males did not differ in body weight from controls, suggesting that the increased aggression was not due to increased body mass. The results of this study show that exposure to AAS during adolescence facilitates aggressive response patterns, but does not alter body weight.

  4. Androgenic anabolic steroid exposure during adolescence: ramifications for brain development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Rebecca L; Lumia, Augustus R; McGinnis, Marilyn Y

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is a critical period for brain maturation that is highly dependent on gonadal sex hormones. Modifications in the gonadal steroid environment, via the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), have been shown to affect brain development and behavior. Studies in both humans and animal models indicate that AAS exposure during adolescence alters normal brain remodeling, including structural changes and neurotransmitter function. The most commonly reported behavioral effect is an increase in aggression. Evidence has been presented to identify factors that influence the effect of AAS on the expression of aggression. The chemical composition of the AAS plays a major role in determining whether aggression is displayed, with testosterone being the most effective. The hormonal context, the environmental context, physical provocation and the perceived threat during the social encounter have all been found to influence the expression of aggression and sexual behavior. All of these factors point toward an altered behavioral state that includes an increased readiness to respond to a social encounter with heightened vigilance and enhanced motivation. This AAS-induced state may be defined as emboldenment. The evidence suggests that the use of AAS during this critical period of development may increase the risk for maladaptive behaviors along with neurological disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Finnish adolescents in 1991-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Ville M; Parkkari, Jari; Laakso, Lauri; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Rimpelä, Arja

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence, trends and associated factors of dietary supplements (DS) and anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) use among Finnish adolescents. The sample comprised 30 511 adolescents aged 12-18 years, of which 22 519 (74%) answered a questionnaire. We also studied associations between 14 socioeconomic, health and health behavioural variables and DS and AAS use by logistic regression. The proportion of respondents using DS was 45% during the past year and it increased linearly by age. Vitamins (37%) and herbal products (13%) were the most common DSs. In 1991, 9% of the boys aged 16-18 years reported protein use, while the frequency in 2005 was 17% (P sports clubs (OR 1.9; 95% CI: 1.6-2.2), and in sports clubs (OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.5-1.9). Recurrent drunkenness (OR 5.8; 95% CI: 1.5-21.6) and peer drug use in boys (OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.2-3.7) were the risk factors for AAS use, whereas physical exercise outside sports clubs (OR 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-0.5) was a protecting factor. Although the overall use of DS remained at the same level during the study period, there was a slight trend towards increasing use of vitamin and protein supplements. DS use is associated with frequent sports participation and poorer than average health, while AAS use is associated with health-compromising behaviours.

  6. Attitudes towards use of anabolic-androgenic steroids among Ghanaian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Molde, Helge; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-02-01

    This study is a pioneering exploration of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among Ghanaian high school students. Of 2683 students contacted, 2597 (1412 females) participated in a survey (response rate=96.8%). Participants (age range=11-35 years, M=17.2, SD=1.4) provided information on demographics, sports participation, and nonmedical AAS use. The overall lifetime prevalence of use was 3.8% (males=4.9%, females=3.1%). Moreover, 18.5% reported having an acquaintance that has used AAS while 6.0% of the sample had previously been offered AAS. However, none of the AAS users provided a valid name of the AAS they had used. Use and intent to use AAS was also significantly higher among males, teenagers (versus over 19-year-olds), athletes (versus recreational sportspeople, and nonathletes), and participants in ball games (versus other sports). Female gender, parental absence, religiosity, and participation in jogging had significant positive association with AAS use attitudes whereas participation in martial arts, and swimming had significant negative association with AAS use attitudes. The high prevalence of use and intent to use AAS among Ghanaian high school students should be of concern to authorities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracking internet interest in anabolic-androgenic steroids using Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay Wee Teck, Joseph; McCann, Mark

    2017-11-30

    There is a perception that the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is increasing in the UK, with consequent individual and public health risks. Nevertheless, there is a lack of real-time surveillance data to support the development of effective policy. This paper explores the potential of Google Trends to complement existing surveillance methods by analysing user generated search term data. The Google Trends web tool was used to identify patterns of UK online interest in 15 AAS from January 2011 to December 2015, with 10 ultimately suitable for further analysis. Time series analysis was applied to the data. 10 steroids were ranked from most to least popular. All compounds had peaks in interest between April to July, potentially indicating a consumer driven desire to attain a desired physique in time for summer. Oral steroids were among the most searched for drugs which may have relevance for current service provision to steroid users. Alternative data sources such Google Trends may provide useful additional information to supplement existing surveillance data. The limitations of this method however makes cautious interpretation and triangulation with other data sources essential. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multisubstance use as a feature of addiction to anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarberg, Kurt; Nyberg, Fred; Engstrom, Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe total drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users and the reasons given for the use of these drugs. The study was based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires involving 32 patients who were attending an addiction centre in Orebro, Sweden, for AAS use. The results indicated that a history of polysubstance use among the patients was frequent. Over half were using drugs of abuse and also taking various other pharmaceuticals. Almost half of the patients took human growth hormones, and almost half of the interviewed persons were drinking alcohol to a hazardous or harmful extent. The most common reason given for taking AAS and other hormones was to increase muscle mass and strength, but some participants also used insulin as a means of losing fat. Cannabis was used to improve sleep, heroin to decrease pain and amphetamine to increase endurance and burn fat. Our data suggest that most of the current AAS users who have been admitted to a treatment programme are multiple drug users with polysubstance dependence. The study stresses the importance of carefully examining total drug use as part of the assessment regimen for this group. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm3 , Pfat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Aggression Is Associated With Increased Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use Contemplation Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Mentzoni, Rune A; Hanss, Daniel; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-09-18

    We investigated the relationship between aggression and anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use intent among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of Norwegian 18-year-olds (N = 1,334, females = 58.7%) took part in a survey in 2013 (response rate = 64.9%). Participants completed the physical and verbal subscales of the Short-Form Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Intent to use AAS Scale, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. They also provided demographic information and answered questions about AAS use, gambling participation, as well as cigarette and snus use. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Lifetime and past year prevalence of AAS use was 0.1%. Between 0.4% and 1.7% of participants disclosed intent to use while between 1.1% and 2.5% expressed neutral intent to initiate AAS use. Compared to persons low on aggression, individuals high on aggression were more likely to report intent and curiosity towards initiating AAS use. Our findings indicate that aggression is a risk factor for AAS use contemplation among adolescents.

  11. Fitness supplements as a gateway substance for anabolic-androgenic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Harty, Seth; Langenbucher, James W

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 3.0% of young Americans have used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). A traditional model of adolescent substance use, the gateway hypothesis, suggests that drug use follows a chronological, causal sequence, whereby initial use of a specific drug leads to an increased likelihood of future drug use. Therefore, the use of illicit appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APED), such as AASs, also follows an analogous progression, whereby legal APEDs, (e.g., nutritional supplements) precedes illicit APED use. We examined the relationship between nutritional supplement use, beliefs about APEDs, and APED use in 201 male (n = 100) and female (n = 101) undergraduates. Participants completed measures of muscle dysmorphia (MDDI), body checking (BCQ, MBCQ), eating disorder symptoms (EDE-Q), perfectionism (FMPS), positive beliefs about the efficacy-safety of AAS use and APED use patterns. A series of covariance structure models (CSM) showed body image disturbance, compulsive exercise, illicit drug use, and perfectionism, independent of gender, were significant predictors of positive beliefs about AAS. Those who used both fat burning and muscle building supplements reported the strongest beliefs in AAS efficacy-safety, which was associated with higher likelihood of current illicit APED use. There was evidence of significant indirect relationships between supplement use and illicit APED use through contact with other AAS users and beliefs about AAS. The potential role for nutritional supplement use in the initiation of illegal APED use is discussed. Future prevention efforts may benefit from targeting legal APED users in youth. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Troubled social background of male anabolic-androgenic steroid abusers in treatment

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    Skarberg Kurt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the social background and current social situation of male abusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS. Methods We compared thirty-four AAS-abusing patients from an Addiction Centre (AC with two groups, 18 users and 259 non-users of AAS from a public gym in Orebro, Sweden. The study is based on semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Results Histories of a troubled childhood as well as current social disadvantage were both more frequent among the AAS users. Users also reported poor relationships with their parents and almost half of them had experienced physical or mental abuse. The AC group's experiences from school were mostly negative, and included concentration problems, boredom and learning difficulties. Their current circumstance included abuse of other drugs, battering of spouses and other criminality such as assault, illegal possession of weapons and theft. Conclusion In conclusion, this study shows that abusers of AAS often have a troubled social background. This underlines the importance of making a thorough social assessment as a part of the treatment programme. The results of the study may help in directing appropriate questions relevant to the abuse of AAS.

  13. Ruptured Tendons in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; DeLuca, James; Meehan, William P; Hudson, James I; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Micheli, Lyle; Pope, Harrison G

    2015-11-01

    Accumulating case reports have described tendon rupture in men who use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However, no controlled study has assessed the history of tendon rupture in a large cohort of AAS users and comparison nonusers. Men reporting long-term AAS abuse would report an elevated lifetime incidence of tendon rupture compared with non-AAS-using bodybuilders. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Medical histories were obtained from 142 experienced male bodybuilders aged 35 to 55 years recruited in the course of 2 studies. Of these men, 88 reported at least 2 years of cumulative lifetime AAS use, and 54 reported no history of AAS use. In men reporting a history of tendon rupture, the circumstances of the injury, prodromal symptoms, concomitant drug or alcohol use, and details of current and lifetime AAS use (if applicable) were recorded. Surgical records were obtained for most participants. Nineteen (22%) of the AAS users, but only 3 (6%) of the nonusers, reported at least 1 lifetime tendon rupture. The hazard ratio for a first ruptured tendon in AAS users versus nonusers was 9.0 (95% CI, 2.5-32.3; P abusers, compared with otherwise similar bodybuilders, showed a markedly increased risk of tendon ruptures, particularly upper-body tendon rupture. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Anabolic-androgenic steroid use and psychopathology in athletes. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Daria; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Del Casale, Antonio; Aromatario, Maria Rosaria; Pomara, Cristoforo; Girardi, Paolo; Sani, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) by professional and recreational athletes is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly performance enhancement and body image improvement. AAS abuse and dependence, which are specifically classified and coded by the DSM-5, are not uncommon. AAS-using athletes are frequently present with psychiatric symptoms and disorders, mainly somatoform and eating, but also mood, and schizophrenia-related disorders. Some psychiatric disorders are typical of athletes, like muscle dysmorphia. This raises the issue of whether AAS use causes these disorders in athletes, by determining neuroadaptive changes in the reward neural circuit or by exacerbating stress vulnerability, or rather these are athletes with premorbid abnormal personalities or a history of psychiatric disorders who are attracted to AAS use, prompted by the desire to improve their appearance and control their weights. This may predispose to eating disorders, but AASs also show mood destabilizing effects, with longterm use inducing depression and short-term hypomania; withdrawal/discontinuation may be accompanied by depression. The effects of AASs on anxiety behavior are unclear and studies are inconsistent. AASs are also linked to psychotic behavior. The psychological characteristics that could prompt athletes to use AASs have not been elucidated.

  15. Past anabolic-androgenic steroid use among men admitted for substance abuse treatment: an underrecognized problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Cohane, Geoffrey H; Weiss, Roger D; Pope, Harrison G

    2003-02-01

    Recent reports suggest that anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) may cause mood disorders or dependence syndromes and may help to introduce some individuals to opioid abuse. At present, however, little is known about prior AAS use among men entering inpatient substance abuse treatment. We assessed lifetime AAS use in 223 male substance abusers admitted to a substance abuse treatment unit primarily for treatment of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid dependence. Subjects reporting definite or possible AAS use were then asked to participate in a detailed semistructured interview that covered demographics, drug use history, and symptoms experienced during AAS use and withdrawal, and whether AAS use had helped introduce the subject to other classes of drugs. Twenty-nine men (13%) reported prior AAS use, but this history was documented on physicians' admission evaluations in only 4 cases. Among 88 men listing opioids as their drug of choice, 22 (25%) acknowledged AAS use, versus only 7 (5%) of the other 135 men (p abuse treatment, especially those with opioid dependence. AAS use may serve as a "gateway" to opioid abuse in some cases and may also cause morbidity in its own right.

  16. Bile acid nephropathy in a bodybuilder abusing an anabolic androgenic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Randy L; Castano, Ekaterina; Moeckel, Gilbert; Perazella, Mark A

    2014-09-01

    Bile acid nephropathy, also known as cholemic nephrosis or nephropathy, is an entity that can be seen in patients with severe cholestatic liver disease. It typically is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) with various forms of hepatic disease. Most often, patients with severe obstructive jaundice develop this lesion, which is thought to occur due to direct bile acid injury to tubular cells, as well as obstructing bile acid casts. Patients with end-stage liver disease also can develop AKI, in which case a more heterogeneous lesion occurs that includes hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular injury/necrosis. In this circumstance, acute tubular injury develops from a combination of hemodynamic changes with some contribution from direct bile acid-related tubular toxicity and obstructive bile casts. We present a case of AKI due to bile acid nephropathy in a bodybuilder who developed severe cholestatic liver disease in the setting of anabolic androgenic steroid use. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adverse effects of doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in competitive athletics, recreational sports and bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorona, Elena; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2018-02-19

    Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke. Long-term AAS abusers have a higher incidence of arrhythmias, atherosclerosis, concentric left-ventricular myocardial hypertrophy with impaired diastolic function and also sudden cardiac death. Changes of liver function and structure, up to hepatocellular carcinoma, have been described, mainly in cases of chronic misuse of 17α-alkylated AAS. Sleeplessness, increased irritability, depressive mood status are often observed in AAS abuse. In former AAS abusers depression, anxiety and melancholy may persist for many years. Due to negative feedback in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis AAS can cause reversible suppression of spermatogenesis up to azoospermia. In women the changes most often caused by AAS abuse are hirsutism, irreversible deepening of voice, dysmenorrhoea, secondary amenorrhoea with anovulation and infertility. AAS abuse notwithstanding, under clinical conditions testosterone remains the most important hormone for substitution therapy of male hypogonadism.

  18. Fitness Supplements as a Gateway Substance for Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Harty, Seth; Langenbucher, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 3.0% of young Americans have used anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). A traditional model of adolescent substance use, the gateway hypothesis, suggests that drug use follows a chronological, causal sequence, whereby initial use of a specific drug leads to an increased likelihood of future drug use. Therefore, the use of illicit appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APED), such as AASs, also follows an analogous progression, whereby legal APEDs, (e.g., nutritional supplements) precedes illicit APED use. We examined the relationship between nutritional supplement use, beliefs about APEDs, and APED use in 201 male (n = 100) and female (n = 101) undergraduates. Participants completed measures of muscle dysmorphia (MDDI), body checking (BCQ, MBCQ), eating disorder symptoms (EDE–Q), perfectionism (FMPS), positive beliefs about the efficacy–safety of AAS use and APED use patterns. A series of covariance structure models (CSM) showed body image disturbance, compulsive exercise, illicit drug use, and perfectionism, independent of gender, were significant predictors of positive beliefs about AAS. Those who used both fat burning and muscle building supplements reported the strongest beliefs in AAS efficacy–safety, which was associated with higher likelihood of current illicit APED use. There was evidence of significant indirect relationships between supplement use and illicit APED use through contact with other AAS users and beliefs about AAS. The potential role for nutritional supplement use in the initiation of illegal APED use is discussed. Future prevention efforts may benefit from targeting legal APED users in youth. PMID:22486333

  19. Current status and bioanalytical challenges in the detection of unknown anabolic androgenic steroids in doping control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Oscar J; De Brabanter, Nik; Fabregat, Andreu; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2013-11-01

    Androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) are prohibited in sports due to their anabolic effects. Doping control laboratories usually face the screening of AAS misuse by target methods based on MS detection. Although these methods allow for the sensitive and specific detection of targeted compounds and metabolites, the rest remain undetectable. This fact opens a door for cheaters, since different AAS can be synthesized in order to evade doping control tests. This situation was evidenced in 2003 with the discovery of the designer steroid tetrahydrogestrinone. One decade after this discovery, the detection of unknown AAS still remains one of the main analytical challenges in the doping control field. In this manuscript, the current situation in the detection of unknown AAS is reviewed. Although important steps have been made in order to minimize this analytical problem and different analytical strategies have been proposed, there are still some drawbacks related to each approach.

  20. The prostate after administration of anabolic androgenic steroids: a morphometrical study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Areas Vargas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Many adverse effects have been associated with abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS, including disorders of the urogenital tract. The objective of this study is to analyze the morphological modifications in the prostate ventral lobe of pubertal and adult rats chronically treated with AAS, using morphometric methods. Materials and Methods: We studied 39 male Wistar rats weighing between 400 g and 550 g. The rats were divided into four groups: (a control rats, with 105 days of age (C105 (n = 7; (b control rats with 65 days of age (C65 (n = 9, injected only with the vehicle (peanut oil; (c treated rats, with 105 days of age (T105 (n = 10 and (d treated rats with 65 days of age (T65 (n = 13. The treated rats were injected with nandrolone decanoate at a dose of 10 mg.Kg-1 body weight. The steroid hormone and the vehicle were administered by intramuscular injection once a week for eight weeks. The rats were killed at 161 days of age (C105 and T105 and 121 days of age (C65 and T65 and the ventral prostate lobe was dissected and processed for histology. The height of the acinar epithelium, the surface densities of the lumen, epithelium and stroma were observed with X400 magnification using an Olympus light microscope coupled to a Sony CCD video camera, and the images transferred to a Sony monitor KX14-CP1. The selected histological areas were then quantified using the M42 test-grid system on the digitized fields. The data were analyzed with the Graphpad software. To compare the quantitative data in both groups (controls and treated and the outcomes, Student's t-test was used (p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The weight (p < 0.001 and volume (p = 0.004 of the prostate ventral lobe showed differences between C65 and T65 groups and between C105 and T105 groups. The epithelium height showed no difference between groups C65 and T65 (p = 0.8509, but the T105 group showed an increase of 32% compared to C105 (p = 0.0089. Concerning

  1. Effects of Long Term Supplementation of Anabolic Androgen Steroids on Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Guo; Bonnerud, Patrik; Eriksson, Anders; Stål, Per S.; Tegner, Yelverton; Malm, Christer

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term (over several years) anabolic androgen steroids (AAS) administration on human skeletal muscle are still unclear. In this study, seventeen strength training athletes were recruited and individually interviewed regarding self-administration of banned substances. Ten subjects admitted having taken AAS or AAS derivatives for the past 5 to 15 years (Doped) and the dosage and type of banned substances were recorded. The remaining seven subjects testified to having never used any banned substances (Clean). For all subjects, maximal muscle strength and body composition were tested, and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained. Using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry (IHC), muscle biopsies were evaluated for morphology including fiber type composition, fiber size, capillary variables and myonuclei. Compared with the Clean athletes, the Doped athletes had significantly higher lean leg mass, capillary per fibre and myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the Doped athletes had significantly lower absolute value in maximal squat force and relative values in maximal squat force (relative to lean body mass, to lean leg mass and to muscle fiber area). Using multivariate statistics, an orthogonal projection of latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) model was established, in which the maximal squat force relative to muscle mass and the maximal squat force relative to fiber area, together with capillary density and nuclei density were the most important variables for separating Doped from the Clean athletes (regression  =  0.93 and prediction  =  0.92, p<0.0001). In Doped athletes, AAS dose-dependent increases were observed in lean body mass, muscle fiber area, capillary density and myonuclei density. In conclusion, long term AAS supplementation led to increases in lean leg mass, muscle fiber size and a parallel improvement in muscle strength, and all were dose-dependent. Administration of AAS may induce sustained

  2. The development of multiple drug use among anabolic-androgenic steroid users: six subjective case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Fred

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inappropriate use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS was originally a problem among athletes but AAS are now often used in nonsport situations and by patients attending regular addiction clinics. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the development of multiple drug use in patients seeking treatment at an addiction clinic for AAS-related problems. Methods We interviewed six patients (four men and two women with experience of AAS use who were attending an addiction clinic for what they believed were AAS-related problems. The patients were interviewed in-depth about their life stories, with special emphasis on social background, substance use, the development of total drug use and subjective experienced psychological and physical side effects. Results There was significant variation in the development of drug use in relation to social background, onset of drug use, relationship to AAS use and experience of AAS effects. All patients had initially experienced positive effects from AAS but, over time, the negative experiences had outweighed the positive effects. All patients were dedicated to excess training and took AAS in combination with gym training, indicating that the use of these drugs is closely related to this form of training. Use of multiple drugs was common either in parallel with AAS use or serially. Conclusion The study shows the importance of understanding how AAS use can develop either with or without the concomitant use of other drugs of abuse. The use of AAS can, however, progress to the use of other drugs. The study also indicates the importance of obtaining accurate, comprehensive information about the development of AAS use in designing treatment programmes and prevention strategies in this area.

  3. The prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid use amongst athletes in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Mosleh; Al-shehri, Hassan; Al-faris, Abdullah; Al-sayed, Mohammed; Algaeed, Fahd; Al-sobaie, Nasser; Al-saleh, Fawaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among athletes and examine the extent of their knowledge on the effects of AAS in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at gyms in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during 2015. In total 600 athletes from three gyms participated in the study. The study included Saudi and non-Saudi athletes chosen by the simple random sampling method. A self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was designed to study the prevalence and assess the knowledge of athletes regarding AAS use. Frequency and percentage distributions were used to describe the data. Comparison between the subgroups was made with a chi-square test. Results The percentage of AAS users was 30.5%. The age of AAS users ranged from 15 to 49 years with the majority (52.5%) belonging to age group of 25–29 years. Approximately 20% of the users admitted using AAS due to body dysmorphia as their best motivational factor; in addition, they also believed that there are no side effects of the use. Among the nonusers, 40% had appropriate knowledge, while all the AAS-users had inadequate knowledge about the adverse effects of AAS. Moreover, 77% of the users would recommend AAS to their friends but none from the nonusers. A significant difference in age distribution (df = 5, pathletes were ignorant of the harmful side effects of the drug but still continued to use and promote it to other athletes. These athletes should intensify their knowledge and awareness regarding the use of AAS and its effects on the body. PMID:28163846

  4. Ruptured Tendons in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; DeLuca, James; Meehan, William P.; Hudson, James I.; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Micheli, Lyle; Pope, Harrison G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating case reports have described tendon rupture in men using anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However no controlled study, to our knowledge, has assessed history of tendon rupture in a large cohort of AAS users and comparison nonusers. Hypothesis We hypothesized that men reporting long-term AAS abuse would report an elevated lifetime incidence of tendon rupture as compared to non-AAS-using bodybuilders. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods We obtained medical histories from 142 experienced male bodybuilders age 35–55, recruited in the course of two studies. Of these men, 88 reported at least two years of cumulative lifetime AAS use and 54 reported no history of AAS use. In men reporting a history of tendon rupture, we recorded circumstances of the injury, prodromal symptoms, concomitant drug or alcohol use, and details of current and lifetime AAS use if applicable. We also obtained surgical records for most participants. Results Nineteen (22%) of the AAS users, but only 3 (6%) of the nonusers reported at least one lifetime tendon rupture. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for a first ruptured tendon in AAS users versus nonusers was 9.0 (2.5, 32.3); P sports activities. Eight (26%) ruptures followed prodromal symptoms of nonspecific pain in the region. Virtually all ruptures were treated surgically with complete or near-complete ultimate restoration of function. Conclusions AAS abusers, as compared to otherwise similar bodybuilders, showed a markedly increased risk of tendon ruptures, particularly upper body tendon rupture. Clinical relevance Tendon rupture represents a major adverse consequence of AAS abuse and a substantial public health problem. PMID:26362436

  5. Combined effects of androgen anabolic steroids and physical activity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengevoss, Jonas; Piechotta, Marion; Müller, Dennis; Hanft, Fabian; Parr, Maria Kristina; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Diel, Patrick

    2015-06-01

    Analysing effects of pharmaceutical substances and training on feedback mechanisms of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis may be helpful to quantify the benefit of strategies preventing loss of muscle mass, and in the fight against doping. In this study we analysed combined effects of anabolic steroids and training on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore intact male Wistar rats were dose-dependently treated with metandienone, estradienedione and the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) S-1. In serum cortisol, testosterone, 17β-estradiol (E2), prolactin, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and thyroxine (T4) concentrations were determined. Six human volunteers were single treated with 1-androstenedione. In addition abusing and clean body builders were analysed. Serum concentrations of inhibin B, IGF-1, cortisol, prolactin, T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone and LH were determined. In rats, administration of metandienone, estradienedione and S-1 resulted in an increase of muscle fiber diameter. Metandienone and estradienedione but not S-1 administration significantly decreases LH and inhibin B serum concentration. Administration of estradienedione resulted in an increase of E2 and S-1 in an increase of cortisol. Single administration of 1-androstenedione in humans decreased cortisol and inhibin B serum concentrations. LH was not affected. In abusing body builders a significantly decrease of LH, TSH and inhibin B and an increase of prolactin, IGF-1 and T4 was detected. In clean body builders only T4 and TSH were affected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase by anabolic-androgenic steroid in skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Karina; Rocha, Thalita; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2012-11-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and exercise share comparable effects on myogenic differentiation, force development, fiber growth and skeletal muscle plasticity. The participation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on these effects was only demonstrated in response to exercise. Using immunohistochemistry and western blotting we examined the effect of AAS on the expression of NOS I and III isoforms in three muscles, distinct metabolically and physiologically: soleus (SOL), tibialis anterioris (TA) and gastrocnemius (GAS). Mice with a lipid profile akin to humans were used. Sedentary mice (Sed-C) or exercised, submitted to six-weeks of aerobic treadmill running (one hour/day, 5 days/week) were administered mesterolone (Sed-M and Ex-M, respectively) or gum arabic (vehicle, Ex-C) during the last three weeks, three alternate days per week. Consistently, The TA showed the strongest labeling and the SOL the weakest with NOS III predominating over NOS I. Mesterolone administered to sedentary mice (Sed-C x Sed-M) significantly upregulated NOS I in TA and SOL and NOS III in all three muscles. Mesterolone administered to exercised mice (Ex-C x Ex-M) upregulated NOS I in all three muscles and NOS III in TA and SOL. The exercise to mesterolone-treated mice (Sed-M x Ex-M) produced a strong increase in NOS I expression in GAS; in contrast it antagonized the mesterolone-induced upregulation of NOS I in TA muscle and NOS III in SOL and GAS. The data show nitric oxide (NO) as a potential signaling mediator of AAS effects in skeletal muscle and that NOS I and NOS III upregulations were muscle phenotype-specific. These may be regarded as an indication of the complex NOS/NO signaling mechanism related with AAS effects vs. metabolic/physiological muscle characteristics.

  7. Anabolic/androgenic steroid administration during adolescence and adulthood differentially modulates aggression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-03-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in a manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day×30days) during adolescence (P27-56) or young adulthood (P65-P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Psychiatric and Medical Consequences of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2008-01-01

    Background The problem of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse has recently generated widespread public and media attention. Most AAS abusers, however, are not elite athletes like those portrayed in the media, and many are not competitive athletes at all. This larger but less visible population of ordinary AAS users began to emerge in about 1980. The senior members of this population are now entering middle age; they represent the leading wave of a new type of aging former substance abusers, with specific medical and psychiatric risks. Methods We reviewed the evolving literature on long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of AAS abuse. Results Long-term use of supraphysiologic doses of AAS may cause irreversible cardiovascular toxicity, especially atherosclerotic effects and cardiomyopathy. In other organ systems, evidence of persistent toxicity is more modest, and interestingly, there is little evidence for an increased risk of prostate cancer. High concentrations of AAS, comparable to those likely sustained by many AAS abusers, produce apoptotic effects on various cell types, including neuronal cells - raising the specter of possibly irreversible neuropsychiatric toxicity. Finally, AAS abuse appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood syndromes, and progression to other forms of substance abuse. However, the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood. Conclusions As the first large wave of former AAS users now moves into middle age, it will be important to obtain more systematic data on the long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of this form of substance abuse. PMID:18599224

  9. Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: winning, looking good or being bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, L; Pedersen, W

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among Norwegian adolescents and to contrast three perspectives on AAS use: performance enhancement in sports competition, body image and eating concerns, and AAS-use as belonging to a cluster of problem behaviors. A nationally representative sample of 8,877 (53.8% female) Norwegian youths (15-22 years of age) were surveyed (response rate 78%). Sports participation included measures of participation in strength sports, participation in competitive sports, strength training and perceived athletic competence. Body image and eating concerns included measures of disordered eating, perceived physical appearance and satisfaction with body parts. Problem behavior was measured by three dimensions of conduct problems (overt destruction, overt nondestruction and covert destruction), illicit drug use and sexual involvement. Information about AAS was obtained from 8,508 subjects. Lifetime AAS use was 0.8% (1.2% male and 0.6% female), 12-month prevalence was 0.3% and 5.1% had been offered AAS. AAS use did not vary according to sports involvement and demographics. Logistic regression analyses showed that AAS use was associated with such problem behavior as marijuana (cannabis) involvement and overt nondestruction (e.g., aggressive-type conduct problems) and, to some extent, with involvement in power sports and disordered eating. AAS users differed little from those who had been offered but refrained from using AAS, except that they were more likely to be current marijuana users. Adolescent AAS use seems primarily to be another type of problem behavior and only secondarily is it associated with strength-sport participation and disordered eating.

  10. Treadmill exercise training prevents myocardial mechanical dysfunction induced by androgenic-anabolic steroid treatment in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo S Bocalini

    Full Text Available Elevated concentrations of testosterone and its synthetic analogs may induce changes in cardiovascular function. However, the effects of the combination of anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS treatment and exercise training on systolic and diastolic cardiac function are poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of low-dose steroid treatment (stanozolol on cardiac contractile parameters when this steroid treatment was combined with exercise training in rats and the effects of chronic steroid treatment on the Frank-Starling (length-tension curves relationship. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: U (untrained, US (untrained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week, T (trained, 16 m/min/1 h and TS (trained and treated with stanozolol 5 mg/kg/week. Continuous exercise training was conducted 5 days/week for 8 consecutive weeks. The speed of the treadmill was gradually increased to a final setting of 16 m/min/1 h. Experiments were divided into two independent series: 1 central hemodynamic analysis for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and cardiac output (CO measurements and 2 isolated papillary muscle preparation in Krebs solution. Stanozolol treatment significantly increased the MAP and the heart size in untrained and trained rats (U 113±2; T 106±2; US 138±8 and TS 130±7 mmHg. Furthermore, stanozolol significantly decreased developed tension and dT/dt (maximal and minimal in U rats. However, the developed tension was completely restored by training. The Frank/Starling relationship was impaired in rats treated with stanozolol; however, again, training completely restored diastolic function. Taken together, the present data suggest that AAS treatment is able to decrease cardiac performance (systolic and diastolic functions. The combination of stanozolol and physical training improved cardiac performance, including diastolic and systolic functions, independent of changes in central

  11. Mouldy feed: A possible explanation for the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2016-05-01

    To ensure fair competition and to protect the horse's welfare, horses have to compete on their own merits, without any unfair advantage that might follow the use of drugs. Therefore, regulatory authorities list all substances that are not allowed in competition, including most anabolic-androgenic steroids. As zero-tolerance is retained, the question arose whether the consumption of mouldy feed could lead to the excretion of steroids, due to the biotransformation of plant phytosterols to steroids. A rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analytical method, previously validated according to AORC (Association of Official Racing Chemists) and EC (European Commission) guidelines, was used to measure steroids in different sample types. Multiple mouldy feed samples were tested for the presence of steroids. The effect of digestion was tested by in vitro simulation of the horse's hindgut in batch incubations. In most feed samples no steroids were detected, even when the products were mouldy. Mouldy corn however showed to contain up to 3.0 ± 0.4 µg/kg AED (4-androstenedione), the main testosterone precursor. This concentration increased when mouldy corn (with added phytosterols) was digested in vitro. An herbal phytosupplement also showed to contain α-testosterone. These results demonstrate that it is important to caution against the consumption of any feed or (herbal) supplement of which the detailed ingredients and quantitative analysis are unknown. The consumption of mouldy corn should especially be avoided, not only from a horse health and welfare point of view, but also to avoid possible inadvertent positive doping results. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine by full-capillary sample injection combined with a sweeping CE stacking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Cheng, Hui-Ling; Chen, Yen-Ling

    2013-02-01

    This study describes an on-line stacking CE approach by sweeping with whole capillary sample filling for analyzing five anabolic androgenic steroids in urine samples. The five anabolic steroids for detection were androstenedione, testosterone, epitestosterone, boldenone, and clostebol. Anabolic androgenic steroids are abused in sport doping because they can promote muscle growth. Therefore, a sensitive detection method is imperatively required for monitoring the urine samples of athletes. In this research, an interesting and reliable stacking capillary electrophoresis method was established for analysis of anabolic steroids in urine. After liquid-liquid extraction by n-hexane, the supernatant was dried and reconstituted with 30 mM phosphate buffer (pH 5.00) and loaded into the capillary by hydrodynamic injection (10 psi, 99.9 s). The stacking and separation were simultaneously accomplished at -20 kV in phosphate buffer (30 mM, pH 5.0) containing 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 40 % methanol. During the method validation, calibration curves were linear (r≥0.990) over a range of 50-1,000 ng/mL for the five analytes. In the evaluation of precision and accuracy for this method, the absolute values of the RSD and the RE in the intra-day (n=3) and inter-day (n=5) analyses were all less than 6.6 %. The limit of detection for the five analytes was 30 ng/mL (S/N=5, sampling 99.9 s at 10 psi). Compared with simple MECK, this stacking method possessed a 108- to 175-fold increase in sensitivity. This simple and sensitive stacking method could be used as a powerful tool for monitoring the illegal use of doping.

  13. Anabolic and androgenic activity of 19-norandrostenedione after oral and subcutaneous administration--analysis of side effects and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, M K; Laudenbach-Leschowsky, U; Höfer, Nicola; Schänzer, W; Diel, P

    2009-07-24

    One of the most frequently misused steroid precursors (prohormones) is 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, NOR). Recently we have show that NOR stimulates skeletal muscle growth after s.c. administration in a highly selective manner but exhibits only weak androgenic activity in rats. Because most abusers take NOR orally, the aim of this study was to compare the anabolic and androgenic potency of NOR between s.c. and oral application. Orchiectomised rats were treated with NOR either s.c. (1 mg/kg BW/day) or orally (0.1, 1 and 10 mg/kg BW/day). The tissue weights of the levator ani, the seminal vesicle and the prostate were analysed to determine the anabolic and androgenic activity. Heart and liver wet weights were examined to identify side effects. Serum concentrations of NOR and its metabolite nandrolone (NT) were determined. GCMC analysis revealed that free and glucuronidated NOR and NT were detectable in the serum after oral and s.c. administration and that NOR was converted to NT in comparable amounts independent of the route of administration. In agreement to our previous study s.c. application of NOR stimulates skeletal muscle growth but has only weak androgenic effects. In contrast, after oral administration of NOR neither stimulation of the prostate nor the levator ani could be observed in the doses administered in this study. Interestingly, and in contrast to s.c. treatment, oral administration of NOR resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of body weight. In summary, oral administration of NOR, at least in the rat, seems to be a very ineffective strategy for stimulating skeletal muscle mass increases but may be associated with side effects.

  14. Structural changes and immunohistochemical localisation of epidermal growth factor receptor in the true vocal fold of female albino rats administered anabolic, androgenic steroids, and effects of anti-androgen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, H E; Asker, S A; Mazroa, S A

    2011-08-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse by women is associated with a number of adverse effects, including laryngeal changes. The epidermal growth factor receptor is related to regulation of the cell life cycle. This study aimed to investigate the structural changes and immunohistochemical localisation of epidermal growth factor receptor in rat vocal folds following anabolic steroid administration, and also to assess the effect of anti-androgens. Thirty-two adult female albino rats were divided into: group I (controls), group II (receiving anabolic steroids for two months) or group III (receiving anabolic steroids plus anti-androgen for two months). Group II rat true vocal folds showed thicker epithelial layers with many mitotic figures, thicker lamina propria and thicker muscle fibres; epithelial cells were also immunohistochemically positive for epidermal growth factor receptor. Group III rats showed similar changes, but thin muscle fibres and extravasated red blood cells within the lamina propria. Anabolic steroids caused structural and immunohistochemical changes within the female rat true vocal fold. Co-administration of anti-androgens did not prevent these changes, suggesting that anti-androgens have a limited role in the management of such changes in humans.

  15. Tissue selectivity and potential clinical applications of trenbolone (17beta-hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one): A potent anabolic steroid with reduced androgenic and estrogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Joshua F; McCoy, Sean C; Borst, Stephen E

    2010-06-01

    Recently, the development of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) has been suggested as a means of combating the deleterious catabolic effects of hypogonadism, especially in skeletal muscle and bone, without inducing the undesirable androgenic effects (e.g., prostate enlargement and polycythemia) associated with testosterone administration. 17beta-Hydroxyestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one (trenbolone; 17beta-TBOH), a synthetic analog of testosterone, may be capable of inducing SARM-like effects as it binds to androgen receptors (ARs) with approximately three times the affinity of testosterone and has been shown to augment skeletal muscle mass and bone growth and reduce adiposity in a variety of mammalian species. In addition to its direct actions through ARs, 17beta-TBOH may also exert anabolic effects by altering the action of endogenous growth factors or inhibiting the action of glucocorticoids. Compared to testosterone, 17beta-TBOH appears to induce less growth in androgen-sensitive organs which highly express the 5alpha reductase enzyme (e.g., prostate tissue and accessory sex organs). The reduced androgenic effects result from the fact that 17beta-TBOH is metabolized to less potent androgens in vivo; while testosterone undergoes tissue-specific biotransformation to more potent steroids, dihydrotestosterone and 17beta-estradiol, via the 5alpha-reductase and aromatase enzymes, respectively. Thus the metabolism of 17beta-TBOH provides a basis for future research evaluating its safety and efficacy as a means of combating muscle and bone wasting conditions, obesity, and/or androgen insensitivity syndromes in humans, similar to that of other SARMs which are currently in development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Anabolic-androgenic steroids impair set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Kathryn G; Wood, Ruth I

    2015-04-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse is prevalent not only among elite athletes, but is increasingly common in high school and collegiate sports. AAS are implicated in maladaptive behaviors such as increased aggression and risk taking, which may result from impaired cognition. Because they affect dopamine function in prefrontal cortical (PFC)-striatal circuitry, AAS may disrupt PFC-dependent processes such as behavioral flexibility. This was the focus of the present study. Adolescent male Long-Evans rats were treated chronically with high-dose testosterone (7.5mg/kg in water with 13% cyclodextrin) or vehicle sc, and tested for set-shifting and reversal-learning. For set-shifting, rats were trained on a visual cue task (VCT), then were shifted to a direction cue task (DCT), or vice-versa. For reversal learning, rats were first trained on VCT and were then required to press the opposite lever. 2-cue set-shifting introduced a novel paradigm in which rats shifted from a 1-Light Visual Task (1LVT) to a tone cue task (TCT). Testosterone-treated rats were significantly impaired on the set-shift from DCT to VCT compared to vehicle-treated controls (trials to criterion: vehicle 240.9±29.9, testosterone 388.3±59.3, p<0.05). However, on the set-shift from VCT to DCT, testosterone did not affect performance. During reversal-learning, testosterone significantly increased trials to criterion (vehicle: 495.9±91.8 trials, testosterone: 793.7±96.7 trials, p<0.05). In 2-cue set-shifting, testosterone diminished performance and the difference showed borderline significance (vehicle: 443.2±84.4 trials, testosterone: 800.4±178.2 trials, p=0.09). Our results show that testosterone impairs behavioral flexibility and have implications for understanding cognitive and behavioral changes in human AAS users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. The Anabolic 500 survey: characteristics of male users versus nonusers of anabolic-androgenic steroids for strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Perry, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    To contrast the characteristics of two groups of men who participated in strength-training exercise-those who reported anabolicandrogenic steroid (AAS) use versus those who reported no AAS use. Analysis of data from the Anabolic 500, a cross-sectional survey. Five hundred six male self-reported AAS users (mean age 29.3 yrs) and 771 male self-reported nonusers of AAS (mean age 25.2 yrs) who completed an online survey between February 19 and June 30, 2009. Respondents were recruited from Internet discussion boards of 38 fitness, bodybuilding, weightlifting, and steroid Web sites. The respondents provided online informed consent and completed the Anabolic 500, a 99-item Web-based survey. Data were collected on demographics, use of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents, alcohol and illicit drug use, substance dependence disorder, other Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses, and history of sexual and/or physical abuse. Most (70.4%) of the AAS users were recreational exercisers who reported using an average of 11.1 performance-enhancing agents in their routine. Compared with nonusers, the AAS users were more likely to meet criteria for substance dependence disorder (23.4% vs 11.2%, pabuse (6.1% vs 2.7%, p=0.005). Most of the AAS users in this study were recreational exercisers who practiced polypharmacy. The AAS users were more likely than nonusers to meet criteria for substance dependence disorder, report a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, report recent cocaine use, and have a history of sexual abuse. The information uncovered in this study may help clinicians and researchers develop appropriate intervention strategies for AAS abuse.

  18. 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one (1-testosterone) is a potent androgen with anabolic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, A; Geyer, H; Kamber, M; Laudenbach-Leschowsky, U; Schänzer, W; Thevis, M; Vollmer, G; Zierau, O; Diel, P

    2006-08-20

    Since the begining of the year 2005, the use of steroid precursors (prohormones) is illegal in the United States; nevertheless, there is still an enormous abuse of such substances. One of the most frequently misused steroids, often declared to be a prohormone, is 1-testosterone (17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one, 1-Testo). In this study, we have characterised molecular mechanisms of its action, determined its tissue specific androgenic and anabolic potency and investigated potential adverse effects. 1-Testo binds highly selective to the androgen receptor (AR) and has a high potency to stimulate AR dependent transactivation. In vivo an equimolar dose of 1-Testo has the same potency to stimulate the growth of the prostate, the seminal vesicles and the androgen sensitive levator ani muscle as the reference compound testosterone propionate (TP). Administration of 1-Testo, in contrast to TP, results in a significant increase of liver weight. Our results demonstrate that 1-Testo, even without being metabolised, is a very potent androgen. It binds selectively to the AR and transactivates AR dependent reporter genes. In vivo it has a high androgenic and anabolic potency and increases liver weight. In summary 1-Testo can be characterised as a typical anabolic steroid. It has to be assumed that consumption of this substance is associated with adverse side effects typical for this class of compounds. Therefore, a strict control of its ban is essential.

  19. Acute myocardial infarction in a young bodybuilder taking anabolic androgenic steroids: A case report and critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Georgios A; Christou, Konstantinos A; Nikas, Dimitrios N; Goudevenos, John A

    2016-11-01

    We describe a case report of a 30-year-old bodybuilder suffering acute myocardial infarction (AMI). He had been taking stanozolol and testosterone for two months. The coronary angiogram showed high thrombotic burden in the left anterior descending artery without underlying atherosclerosis. Few case reports of AMI in athletes taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have been reported so far. AAS-related AMI is possibly underreported in the medical literature due to the desire of the affected individuals to hide AAS use. Physicians should always consider the possibility of AAS abuse in the context of a young athlete suffering AMI. AASs can predispose to AMI through the acceleration of coronary atherosclerosis. Additionally, thrombosis without underlying atherosclerosis or vasospasm is highly possible to cause AMI in AAS users. Complications after AMI may be more frequent in AAS users. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  20. The impact of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and type of training on left ventricular remodeling and function in competitive athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivan; Djordjević, Vitomir; Stanković, Ivan; Vlahović-Stipac, Alja; Putniković, Biljana; Babić, Rade; Nesković, Aleksandar N

    2014-04-01

    Long-term intensive training is associated with distinctive cardiac adaptations which are known as athlete's heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) could affect echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) morphology and function in elite strength and endurance athletes. A total of 20 elite strength athletes (10 AAS users and 10 non-users) were compared to 12 steroid-free endurance athletes. All the subjects underwent comprehensive standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. After being indexed for body surface area, both left atrium (LA) and LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were significantly higher in the endurance than strength athletes, regardless of AAS use (p steroid-free endurance athletes, showing that 75% of LA size variability depends on variability of LVEDD (p steroid-free athletes, regardless of training type (p abuse.

  1. Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abuse in a Young Bodybuilder: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Hardt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many different etiological factors are involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. We report the case of HCC in a 37-year-old male professional bodybuilder with extensive anabolic androgenic (AAS steroid abuse. Case Presentation. Because of increasing epigastric and abdominal pain, abdominal ultrasound was performed in a 37-year-old male professional bodybuilder. A hyperechoic lesion in the liver was detected in segment VI. The magnetic resonance imaging showed hepatomegaly and confirmed the lesion, which showed features of a hepatocellular adenoma (HCA. Laboratory values were inconspicuous. After laparoscopic segmentectomy the histological examination revealed HCC. Conclusion. While the development of HCA in the liver by chronic intake of AAS is well known, little is known about the association with HCC. The presented case may indicate aetiological association of chronic intake of AAS and the development of HCC.

  2. Gas chromatographic quantitative structure-retention relationships of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids by multiple linear regression and partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-11-20

    A quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) study has been performed to correlate relative retention times (RRTs) of trimethylsilylated (TMS) anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) with their molecular characteristics, encoded by the respective descriptors, for the prediction of RRTs of novel molecules, using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). The elucidation of similarities and dissimilarities among the data structures was carried out using principal component analysis (PCA). Successful models were established using multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares (PLS) techniques as a function of topological, three-dimensional (3D) and physicochemical descriptors. The models are useful for the estimation of RRTs of designer steroids for which no analytical data is available.

  3. Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and performance-enhancing drugs among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, M S; Yesalis, C E; Brower, K J

    1998-10-01

    Adolescents use a wide variety of drugs and supplements, including anabolic steroids, to improve their sports performance and physical appearance. Prevalence rates for steroid use generally range between 4% and 12% among male adolescents and between 0.5% and 2% for female adolescents. Although the short-term health effects of anabolic steroids such as effects on the liver, serum lipids, reproductive and cardiovascular systems, and moods and behavior have been increasingly studied, the long-term health effects are not well known. Steroid users are more likely to be boys, participate in strength-related sports, and use other illicit drugs. The effects of many other potential risk factors have not been fully elucidated, however. Assessment of anabolic steroid abuse includes physical and mental status and laboratory examinations. Steroid cessation, supportive therapy, and adjunctive pharmacotherapies are all employed in treating steroid abuse and dependence.

  4. Anabolic androgenic steroids and violent offending: confounding by polysubstance abuse among 10,365 general population men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Lena; Frisell, Thomas; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use is associated with aggressive and violent behaviour, but it remains uncertain if this relationship is causal in humans. We examined the link between AAS use and violent crime while controlling for polysubstance abuse and additional suggested risk factors for violence. Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample. In 2005, all Swedish-born male twins aged 20-47 years were invited to participate in the Swedish Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) survey of the Swedish Twin Register (response rate = 60%). A total of 10,365 male survey participants with information on AAS use. Data on self-reported use of AAS, alcohol and other substances, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and personality disorder symptoms were linked to nation-wide, longitudinal register information on criminal convictions, IQ, psychological functioning and childhood socio-economic status (SES) covariates. Any life-time use of AAS was associated strongly with conviction for a violent crime [2.7 versus 0.6% in convicted and non-convicted men, respectively; odds ratio (OR) = 5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7-9.3]. However, this link was substantially reduced and no longer significant when controlling for other substance abuse (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.8-3.3). Controlling for IQ, psychological functioning, ADHD, personality disorder symptoms and childhood SES did not reduce the risk further. In the general population, co-occurring polysubstance abuse, but not IQ, other neuropsychological risks or socio-economic status, explains most of the relatively strong association between any anabolic androgenic steroid use and conviction for a violent crime. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Statistical analysis of fragmentation patterns of electron ionization mass spectra of enolized-trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A. G.; Angelis, Y. S.; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A.; Koupparis, M.; Georgakopoulos, C.

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are included in the List of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as substances abused to enhance athletic performance. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role in doping control analyses identifying AAS as their enolized-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-derivatives using the electron ionization (EI) mode. This paper explores the suitability of complementary GC-MS mass spectra and statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA and partial least squares-discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) to differentiate AAS as a function of their structural and conformational features expressed by their fragment ions. The results obtained showed that the application of PCA yielded a classification among the AAS molecules which became more apparent after applying PLS-DA to the dataset. The application of PLS-DA yielded a clear separation among the AAS molecules which were, thus, classified as: 1-ene-3-keto, 3-hydroxyl with saturated A-ring, 1-ene-3-hydroxyl, 4-ene-3-keto, 1,4-diene-3-keto and 3-keto with saturated A-ring anabolic steroids. The study of this paper also presents structurally diagnostic fragment ions and dissociation routes providing evidence for the presence of unknown AAS or chemically modified molecules known as designer steroids.

  6. Supraphysiological Doses of Performance Enhancing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Exert Direct Toxic Effects on Neuron-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Basile

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  7. Supraphysiological doses of performance enhancing anabolic-androgenic steroids exert direct toxic effects on neuron-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, John R; Binmadi, Nada O; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Paoli, Antonio; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  8. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 exerts anti-androgenic activity in the prostate cancer xenograft R-3327G and anabolic activity on skeletal muscle mass & function in castrated mice.

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    Chisamore, Michael J; Gentile, Michael A; Dillon, Gregory Michael; Baran, Matthew; Gambone, Carlo; Riley, Sean; Schmidt, Azriel; Flores, Osvaldo; Wilkinson, Hilary; Alves, Stephen E

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor super family of transcription factors. Androgens play an essential role in the development, growth, and maintenance of male sex organs, as well as the musculoskeletal and central nervous systems. Yet with advancing age, androgens can drive the onset of prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in males within the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by pharmacologic and/or surgical castration induces apoptosis of prostate cells and subsequent shrinkage of the prostate and prostate tumors. However, ADT is associated with significant musculoskeletal and behavioral adverse effects. The unique pharmacological activity of selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 recently has been reported as an AR antagonist with 5α-reductase inhibitor function. The molecule inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in AR positive, androgen dependent prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MK-4541 inhibited androgen-dependent prostate growth in male rats yet maintained lean body mass and bone formation following ovariectomy in female rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SARM MK-4541 in the androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-G prostate carcinoma xenograft mouse model as well as on skeletal muscle mass and function, and AR-regulated behavior in mice. MK-4541 significantly inhibited the growth of R3327-G prostate tumors, exhibited anti-androgen effects on the seminal vesicles, reduced plasma testosterone concentrations in intact males, and inhibited Ki67 expression. MK-4541 treated xenografts appeared similar to xenografts in castrated mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that MK-4541 exhibited anabolic activity in androgen deficient conditions, increasing lean body mass and muscle function in adult castrated mice. Moreover, MK-4541 treatment restored general activity levels in castrated mice. Thus, MK-4541 exhibits an optimum profile as an adjuvant therapy to ADT

  9. Testosterone-receptor positive hepatocellular carcinoma in a 29-year old bodybuilder with a history of anabolic androgenic steroid abuse: a case report.

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    Solbach, Philipp; Potthoff, Andrej; Raatschen, Hans-Jürgen; Soudah, Bisharah; Lehmann, Ulrich; Schneider, Andrea; Gebel, Michael J; Manns, Michael P; Vogel, Arndt

    2015-05-20

    Continuous use of anabolic androgenic steroid in high-doses is associated with substantial health risks, including hepatocellular adenoma. Malignant transformation from hepatocellular adenoma to hepatocellular carcinoma after anabolic androgenic steroid abuse has been rarely reported. The morphological distinction of adenoma from well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma is challenging and requires elaborated imaging techniques and histology. We report about a 29-year old male professional bodybuilder who presented with mid-epigastric pain at the emergency unit. Ultrasound showed a severe hepatomegaly with multiple lesions. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound revealed a heterogeneous pattern with signs of hepatocellular carcinoma. CT scan of the abdomen confirmed multiple hypervascular lesions and central areas of necrosis without contrast enhancement. Subsequent diagnostics included fine needle aspiration (FNA) of suspicious lesions and mini-laparoscopy to establish the diagnosis of a β-catenin and testosterone-receptor positive hepatocellular carcinoma embedded in multiple adenomas. The patient was subsequently treated by liver transplantation and remains tumor-free 27 month after surgery. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurring in association with anabolic androgenic steroid abuse should sensitize physicians and especially professional bodybuilders for the harmful use of high doses of steroids.

  10. Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the screening of urinary exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raro, M; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Sancho, J V; Hernández, F; Garrostas, L; Marcos, J; Ventura, R; Segura, J; Pozo, O J

    2016-02-04

    The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) in urine. The sample treatment is based on the strategy currently applied in doping control laboratories i.e. enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization to form the trimethylsilyl ether-trimethylsilyl enol ether (TMS) derivatives. These TMS derivatives are then analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument (GC-QqQ MS/MS) under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The APCI promotes soft ionization with very little fragmentation resulting, in most cases, in abundant [M + H](+) or [M + H-2TMSOH](+) ions, which can be chosen as precursor ions for the SRM transitions, improving in this way the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Specificity of the transitions is also of great relevance, as the presence of endogenous compounds can affect the measurements when using the most abundant ions. The method has been qualitatively validated by spiking six different urine samples at two concentration levels each. Precision was generally satisfactory with RSD values below 25 and 15% at the low and high concentration level, respectively. Most the limits of detection (LOD) were below 0.5 ng mL(-1). Validation results were compared with the commonly used method based on the electron ionization (EI) source. EI analysis was found to be slightly more repeatable whereas lower LODs were found for APCI. In addition, the applicability of the developed method has been tested in samples collected after the administration of 4-chloromethandienone. The highest sensitivity of the APCI method for this compound, allowed to increase the period in which its administration can be detected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Isotopic fractionation of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids and its relationship to doping control in sports.

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    Cawley, Adam T; Kazlauskas, Rymantas; Trout, Graham J; Rogerson, Jill H; George, Adrian V

    2005-01-01

    The use of gas chromatography (GC)-combustion (C)-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) demonstrates that a single oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 100 mg) to a male subject significantly lowers the 13C content of etiocholanolone (Et) and androsterone (A) in the subject's urine. The difference in carbon isotope ratio (d13C per thousand) values between Et and A increases from 1.6 per thousand at the time of administration to 5.1 per thousand at 26 h post-administration, indicating preferential metabolism of administered DHEA to form Et in relation to A. Multiple oral administrations of DHEA to a male subject reveals lower d13C values during the excretion period of Et (-31.7 per thousand to -34.6 per thousand) and A (-31.4 per thousand to -33.0 per thousand) to that of the d13C value of the administered DHEA (-31.3 per thousand). Reference distributions of d13C Et and d13C A constructed from normal athlete populations within Australia and New Zealand show a small natural discrimination against 13C in the formation of Et relative to A (mean=0.3 per thousand, n=167, p=0.007). Amplified differences between d13C Et and d13C A, and in vivo 13C depletion measured by GC-C-IRMS are shown to be potentially useful for doping control.

  12. Analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids as sulfate conjugates using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeppa, S; Heinrich, G; Hemmersbach, P

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in doping analysis can be effected by speeding up analysis time and extending the detection time. Therefore, direct detection of phase II conjugates of doping agents, especially anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), is proposed. Besides direct detection of conjugates with glucuronic acid, the analysis of sulfate conjugates, which are usually not part of the routine doping control analysis, can be of high interest. Sulfate conjugates of methandienone and methyltestosterone metabolites have already been identified as long-term metabolites. This study presents the synthesis of sulfate conjugates of six commonly used AAS and their metabolites: trenbolone, nandrolone, boldenone, methenolone, mesterolone, and drostanolone. In the following these sulfate conjugates were used for development of a fast and easy analysis method based on sample preparation using solid phase extraction with a mixed-mode sorbent and detection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Validation demonstrated the suitability of the method with regard to the criteria given by the technical documents of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). In addition, suitability has been proven by successful detection of the synthesized sulfate conjugates in excretion urines and routine doping control samples. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The global epidemiology of anabolic-androgenic steroid use: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic; Molde, Helge; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-05-01

    To estimate the global lifetime prevalence rate of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and investigate moderators of the prevalence rate. A meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis was performed using studies gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar among others. Included were 187 studies that provided original data on 271 lifetime prevalence rates. Studies were coded for publication year, region, sample type, age range, sample size, assessment method, and sampling method. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I(2) index and the Q-statistic. Random effect-size modeling was used. Subgroup comparisons were conducted using Bonferroni correction. The global lifetime prevalence rate obtained was 3.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-3.8; I(2) = 99.7, P athletes), assessment method (interviews only and interviews and questionnaires), sampling method, and male sample percentage were significant predictors of AAS use prevalence. There was no indication of publication bias. Nonmedical AAS use is a serious widespread public health problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of resistance exercise and the use of anabolic androgenic steroids on hemodynamic characteristics and muscle damage markers in bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Nadimi, Amir; Nikookheslat, Saeed D

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic compounds of testosterone commonly used as sport performance enhancers, could cause cardiovascular dysfunction and cell damage. Even though the side effects of AAS intake have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance exercise can alter these side effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of one session resistance exercise and the use of AAS on hemodynamic characteristics and muscle damage markers in professional bodybuilders. Sixteen bodybuilders were divided into two groups: bodybuilders using AAS for at least 5 years (users; N.=8) and AAS-free bodybuilders (non-users; N.=8). The exercise protocol was a circuit strength training session involved three sets of 8-9 repetitions at 80-85% of 1-RM. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and concentrations of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured at three different time points, immediately before and after the exercise session and 24 hours following the exercise session. The users group showed greater basal levels of hemodynamic characteristics (i.e. HR and BP) and cell damage markers (i.e. CK and LDH) compared to those in the non-users group (all P0.05). These findings indicate that the use of AAS could be potentially harmful as it enhances the levels of the hemodynamic characteristics and the muscle enzymes. These harmful effects of AAS intake could be more evident in response to resistance exercise.

  15. Long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse: a looming public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I; Pope, Harrison G

    2008-11-01

    The problem of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse has recently generated widespread public and media attention. Most AAS abusers, however, are not elite athletes like those portrayed in the media, and many are not competitive athletes at all. This larger but less visible population of ordinary AAS users began to emerge in about 1980. The senior members of this population are now entering middle age; they represent the leading wave of a new type of aging former substance abusers, with specific medical and psychiatric risks. We reviewed the evolving literature on long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of AAS abuse. Long-term use of supraphysiologic doses of AAS may cause irreversible cardiovascular toxicity, especially atherosclerotic effects and cardiomyopathy. In other organ systems, evidence of persistent toxicity is more modest, and interestingly, there is little evidence for an increased risk of prostate cancer. High concentrations of AAS, comparable to those likely sustained by many AAS abusers, produce apoptotic effects on various cell types, including neuronal cells--raising the specter of possibly irreversible neuropsychiatric toxicity. Finally, AAS abuse appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood syndromes, and progression to other forms of substance abuse. However, the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood. As the first large wave of former AAS users now moves into middle age, it will be important to obtain more systematic data on the long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of this form of substance abuse.

  16. The anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone decanoate disrupts redox homeostasis in liver, heart and kidney of male Wistar rats.

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    Stephan P Frankenfeld

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS may cause side effects in several tissues. Oxidative stress is linked to the pathophysiology of most of these alterations, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, tumorigenesis, amongst others. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the impact of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone decanoate (DECA on the redox balance of liver, heart and kidney. Wistar male rats were treated with intramuscular injections of vehicle or DECA (1 mg.100 g(-1 body weight once a week for 8 weeks. The activity and mRNA levels of NADPH Oxidase (NOX, and the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and total superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as the reduced thiol and carbonyl residue proteins, were measured in liver, heart and kidney. DECA treatment increased NOX activity in heart and liver, but NOX2 mRNA levels were only increased in heart. Liver catalase and SOD activities were decreased in the DECA-treated group, but only catalase activity was decreased in the kidney. No differences were detected in GPx activity. Thiol residues were decreased in the liver and kidney of treated animals in comparison to the control group, while carbonyl residues were increased in the kidney after the treatment. Taken together, our results show that chronically administered DECA is able to disrupt the cellular redox balance, leading to an oxidative stress state.

  17. Exercise reinforcement, stress, and β-endorphins: an initial examination of exercise in anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Shope, Sydney; Varangis, Eleanna; Klein, Diane; Pfaff, Donald W; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-06-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are abused primarily in the context of intense exercise and for the purposes of increasing muscle mass as opposed to drug-induced euphoria. AASs also modulate the HPA axis and may increase the reinforcing value of exercise through changes to stress hormone and endorphin release. To test this hypothesis, 26 adult males drawn from a larger study on AAS use completed a progressive ratio task designed to examine the reinforcing value of exercise relative to financial reinforcer. Sixteen experienced and current users (8 on-cycle, 8 off-cycle) and 10 controls matched on quantity×frequency of exercise, age, and education abstained from exercise for 24 h prior to testing and provided 24-h cortisol, plasma cortisol, ACTH, β-endorphin samples, and measures of mood, compulsive exercise, and body image. Between group differences indicated that on-cycle AAS users had the highest β-endorphin levels, lowest cortisol levels, higher ACTH levels than controls. Conversely, off-cycle AAS users had the highest cortisol and ACTH levels, but the lowest β-endorphin levels. Exercise value was positively correlated with β-endorphin and symptoms of AAS dependence. The HPA response to AASs may explain why AASs are reinforcing in humans and exercise may play a key role in the development of AAS dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors for illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid use in male weightlifters: a cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G; Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I

    2012-02-01

    Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse, though an important public health problem, remains inadequately studied. Almost all AAS abusers are male and lift weights, but the risk factors for AAS use among male weightlifters remain poorly understood. We recruited 233 experienced male weightlifters, of whom 102 (44%) reported lifetime AAS use, and assessed their childhood and adolescent attributes retrospectively, using structured clinical interviews and computerized questionnaires. This cross-sectional cohort approach-a design that we have formally presented in the recent methodological literature-utilizes a study cohort, not selected for outcomes of interest, and assesses exposures and outcomes retrospectively. We hypothesized that conduct disorder and body-image concerns would be major risk factors for subsequent AAS use among male weightlifters. Within our study population, many attributes showed little association with AAS use, but conduct disorder and body-image concerns showed strong associations. For individuals with prior conduct disorder versus those without, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for subsequent AAS use was 2.2 (1.5, 3.4). For individuals in the middle versus lowest tertile of scores on a retrospective adolescent muscle-dysmorphia scale, the hazard ratio was 1.5 (.84, 2.6); for the highest versus lowest tertile, the hazard ratio was 3.3 (2.0, 5.3); and for the linear trend of hazard ratios, p abuse. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males--similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Tabita; Skårberg, Kurt; Engström, Ingemar

    2013-08-19

    Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed.

  20. High amounts of 17-methylated anabolic-androgenic steroids in effervescent tablets on the dietary supplement market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria K; Geyer, Hans; Hoffmann, Bernhard; Köhler, Karsten; Mareck, Ute; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-02-01

    In numerous studies it has been demonstrated that several nutritional supplements contain prohormones not declared on the label. In the current study two products (effervescent tablets) containing high amounts of the 17-methylated anabolic androgenic steroids metandienone (product 1: 16.8 mg/tablet) and stanozolol (product 2: 14.5 mg/tablet) were identified. Additionally in both products norandrostenedione was detected, in product 2 with minor amounts of several other steroids. The substances identified can cause enormous health risks. In addition, the use of the analyzed tablets can lead to positive doping results for metabolites of the respective steroids in sports. This study again shows the insufficient surveillance of the production and trade of dietary supplements. Consumers should be aware of the enormous health and doping risks connected with the use of such products. For GC-MS identification of the analytes the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the steroids and the mixed N-t-butyldimethylsilyl,O-trimethylsilyl derivatives were used. The quantitation of metandienone, norandrostenedione, and stanozolol was performed using HPLC-DAD. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Renal heat shock proteins over-expression due to anabolic androgenic steroids abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, S; Di Battista, B; Di Paolo, M; Fiore, C; Pomara, C

    2011-05-01

    Chronic use of anabolic adrogenic steroids (AAS) has been known to cause serious adverse effects. While the effects of AASs on cardiovascular system are well known, toxicity on other organs has received less attention. A doserelated nephrotoxic effect has been proposed and a wide variety of morpho-functional damages have been observed, but the exact pathophysiological mechanism of action is still not well known. In the present minireview, we highlight the remaining issues through an analysis of the pertinent literature. As with HSPs toxic agents their overexpression could be considered a protective reaction against AAS abuse however, comprehensive studies concerning the whole range of Hsps/chaperones expressions in all organs after long term use of AAS are needed.

  2. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

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    Yuankui Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105 and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107. Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI 0.05.The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Serum T levels do not correlate directly with body fat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  3. Acute aortic dissection in a young healthy athlete with androgenic anabolic steroid use: A case report

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    Barman M, Djamel B, Mathews J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute aortic dissection can occur at the time of intense physical exertion in strength-trained athletes like weight lifters, bodybuilders, throwers, and wrestlers. Rapid rise in blood pressure and history of hypertension are the most common causes of aortic dissection in athletes. It is a very tragic event because of its high mortality rate of about 32% in young patients. We report a case of aortic dissection in a young weightlifter with a history of anabolic steroid usage with an extensive intimal tear of the aorta at Sino tubular junction and arch. All athletes must be assessed for predisposing factors for aortic dissection, and all patients should be encouraged to undergo appropriate diagnostic studies, like echocardiography and blood pressure monitoring while weightlifting to recognize possible predisposing factors for aortic dissection. Athletes who do have a problem should be encouraged to avoid or limit their exercise or activity by their cardiologist. It is vital that this disastrous event be prevented in young people. In conclusion, although a rare occurrence, AD should be considered in symptomatic patients with any family history of early cardiac deaths, a history suggestive of a connective tissue disorder (that is, multiple joint surgeries or who practice weightlifting.

  4. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids produces greater oxidative stress responses to resistance exercise in strength-trained men

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    Hamid Arazi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS use on oxidative stress responses to a single session of resistance exercise in strength-trained men. Twenty-three strength trained men, with 11 self-reporting regular AAS use and 12 self-reporting never taking AAS (NAAS volunteered to participate in this study. Blood draws were obtained pre and post resistance exercise in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress biomarkers levels (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], malondialdehyde [MDA], and nitric oxide [NO], antioxidant defense systems (i.e., glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase [CAT], and glucose (GLU levels. The AAS users had higher level of 8-OHdG (77.3 ± 17 vs. 57.7 ± 18.2 ng/mg, MDA (85.6 ± 17.8 vs. 52.3 ± 15.1 ng/mL, and GPx (9.1 ± 2.3 vs. 7.1 ± 1.3 mu/mL compared to NAAS at pre exercise (p < 0.05. Both the experimental groups showed increases in 8-OHdG (p = 0.001, MDA (p = 0.001, GPx (p = 0.001, NO (p = 0.04, CAT (p = 0.02 and GLU (p = 0.001 concentrations after resistance exercise, and the AAS group indicated significant differences in 8-OHdG (p = 0.02 and MDA (p = 0.05 concentrations compared with NAAS users at post exercise. In conclusion, use of AAS is associated with alterations in immune function resulting in oxidative stress, and cell damage; however, high-intensity resistance exercise could increase greater oxidative stress biomarkers in strength-trained men. Keywords: ROS, Strength exercise, Anabolic

  5. Differential protein expression profile in the hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line after exposure to anabolic androgenic steroids.

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    Freddyson J Martínez-Rivera

    Full Text Available The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been considered a major public health problem during decades. Supraphysiological doses of AAS may lead to a variety of neuroendocrine problems. Precisely, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis is one of the body systems that is mainly influenced by steroidal hormones. Fluctuations of the hormonal milieu result in alterations of reproductive function, which are made through changes in hypothalamic neurons expressing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. In fact, previous studies have shown that AAS modulate the activity of these neurons through steroid-sensitive afferents. To increase knowledge about the cellular mechanisms induced by AAS in GnRH neurons, we performed proteomic analyses of the murine hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line after exposure to 17α-methyltestosterone (17α-meT; 1 μM. These cells represent a good model for studying regulatory processes because they exhibit the typical characteristics of GnRH neurons, and respond to compounds that modulate GnRH in vivo. Two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry analyses identified a total of 17 different proteins that were significantly affected by supraphysiological levels of AAS. Furthermore, pathway analyses showed that modulated proteins were mainly associated to glucose metabolism, drug detoxification, stress response and cell cycle. Validation of many of these proteins, such as GSTM1, ERH, GAPDH, PEBP1 and PDIA6, were confirmed by western blotting. We further demonstrated that AAS exposure decreased expression of estrogen receptors and GnRH, while two important signaling pathway proteins p-ERK, and p-p38, were modulated. Our results suggest that steroids have the capacity to directly affect the neuroendocrine system by modulating key cellular processes for the control of reproductive function.

  6. Effect of androgenic-anabolic steroids and heavy strength training on patellar tendon morphological and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seynnes, Olivier R; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Kairaitis, Ramutis; Helland, Christian; Campbell, Emma-Louise; Brazaitis, Marius; Skurvydas, Albertas; Narici, Marco V

    2013-07-01

    Combined androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS) and overloading affects tendon collagen metabolism and ultrastructure and is often associated with a higher risk of injury. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate whether such effects would be reflected in the patellar tendon properties of individuals with a history of long-term resistance training and AAS abuse (RTS group), compared with trained (RT) and untrained (CTRL) nonsteroids users. Tendon cross-sectional area (CSA), stiffness, Young's modulus, and toe limit strain were measured in vivo, from synchronized ultrasonography and dynamometry data. The patellar tendon of RT and RTS subjects was much stiffer and larger than in the CTRL group. However, stiffness and modulus were higher in the RTS group (26%, P < 0.05 and 30%, P < 0.01, respectively) than in the RT group. Conversely, tendon CSA was 15% (P < 0.05) larger in the RT group than in RTS, although differences disappeared when this variable was normalized to quadriceps maximal isometric torque. Yet maximal tendon stress was higher in RTS than in RT (15%, P < 0.05), without any statistical difference in maximal strain and toe limit strain between groups. The present lack of difference in toe limit strain does not substantiate the hypothesis of changes in collagen crimp pattern associated with AAS abuse. However, these findings indicate that tendon adaptations from years of heavy resistance training are different in AAS users, suggesting differences in collagen remodeling. Some of these adaptations (e.g., higher stress) could be linked to a higher risk of tendon injury.

  7. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

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    Namjoshi, Dhananjay R; Cheng, Wai Hang; Carr, Michael; Martens, Kris M; Zareyan, Shahab; Wilkinson, Anna; McInnes, Kurt A; Cripton, Peter A; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS). How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration) platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone) from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI) behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  8. Chronic Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Exposure Alters Corticotropin Releasing Factor Expression and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Female Mouse

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    Costine, Beth A; Oberlander, Joseph G; Davis, Matthew C; Penatti, Carlos A A; Porter, Donna M; Leaton, Robert N; Henderson, Leslie P

    2010-01-01

    Summary In the past several decades, the therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been overshadowed by illicit use of these drugs by elite athletes and a growing number of adolescents to enhance performance and body image. As with adults, AAS use by adolescents is associated with a range of behavioral effects, including increased anxiety and altered responses to stress. It has been suggested that adolescents, especially adolescent females, may be particularly susceptible to the effects of these steroids, but few experiments in animal models have been performed to test this assertion. Here we show that chronic exposure of adolescent female mice to a mixture of three commonly abused AAS (testosterone cypionate, nandrolone decanoate and methandrostenolone; 7.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days) significantly enhanced anxiety-like behavior as assessed by the acoustic startle response (ASR), but did not augment the fear-potentiated startle response (FPS) or alter sensorimotor gating as assessed by prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI). AAS treatment also significantly increased the levels of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and somal-associated CRF immunoreactivity in the central amygdala (CeA), as well as neuropil-associated immunoreactivity in the dorsal aspect of the anterolateral division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBnST). AAS treatment did not alter CRF receptor 1 or 2 mRNA in either the CeA or the dBnST; CRF immunoreactivity in the ventral BNST, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) or the median eminence (ME); or peripheral levels of corticosterone. These results suggest that chronic AAS treatment of adolescent female mice may enhance generalized anxiety, but not sensorimotor gating or learned fear, via a mechanism that involves increased CRF-mediated signaling from CeA neurons projecting to the dBnST. PMID:20537804

  9. Chronic Exposure to Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids Exacerbates Axonal Injury and Microgliosis in the CHIMERA Mouse Model of Repetitive Concussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay R Namjoshi

    Full Text Available Concussion is a serious health concern. Concussion in athletes is of particular interest with respect to the relationship of concussion exposure to risk of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE, a neurodegenerative condition associated with altered cognitive and psychiatric functions and profound tauopathy. However, much remains to be learned about factors other than cumulative exposure that could influence concussion pathogenesis. Approximately 20% of CTE cases report a history of substance use including androgenic-anabolic steroids (AAS. How acute, chronic, or historical AAS use may affect the vulnerability of the brain to concussion is unknown. We therefore tested whether antecedent AAS exposure in young, male C57Bl/6 mice affects acute behavioral and neuropathological responses to mild traumatic brain injury (TBI induced with the CHIMERA (Closed Head Impact Model of Engineered Rotational Acceleration platform. Male C57Bl/6 mice received either vehicle or a cocktail of three AAS (testosterone, nandrolone and 17α-methyltestosterone from 8-16 weeks of age. At the end of the 7th week of treatment, mice underwent two closed-head TBI or sham procedures spaced 24 h apart using CHIMERA. Post-repetitive TBI (rTBI behavior was assessed for 7 d followed by tissue collection. AAS treatment induced the expected physiological changes including increased body weight, testicular atrophy, aggression and downregulation of brain 5-HT1B receptor expression. rTBI induced behavioral deficits, widespread axonal injury and white matter microgliosis. While AAS treatment did not worsen post-rTBI behavioral changes, AAS-treated mice exhibited significantly exacerbated axonal injury and microgliosis, indicating that AAS exposure can alter neuronal and innate immune responses to concussive TBI.

  10. The impact of anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and type of training on left ventricular remodeling and function in competitive athletes

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    Ilić Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Long-term intensive training is associated with distinctive cardiac adaptations which are known as athlete’s heart. The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS could affect echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV morphology and function in elite strength and endurance athletes. Methods. A total of 20 elite strength athletes (10 AAS users and 10 non-users were compared to 12 steroid-free endurance athletes. All the subjects underwent comprehensive standard echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging. Results. After being indexed for body surface area, both left atrium (LA and LV end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD were significantly higher in the endurance than strength athletes, regardless of AAS use (p < 0.05, for both. A significant correlation was found between LA diameter and LVEDD in the steroid-free endurance athletes, showing that 75% of LA size variability depends on variability of LVEDD (p < 0.001. No significant differences in ejection fraction and cardiac output were observed among the groups, although mildly reduced LV ejection fraction was seen only in the AAS users. The AAS-using strength athletes had higher A-peak velocity when compared to steroidfree athletes, regardless of training type (p < 0.05 for both. Both AAS-using and AAS-free strength athletes had lower e’ peak velocity and higher E/e’ ratio than endurance athletes (p < 0.05, for all. Conclusions. There is no evidence that LV ejection fraction in elite athletes is altered by either type of training or AAS misuse. Long-term endurance training is associated with preferable effects on LV diastolic function compared to strength training, particularly when the latter is combined with AAS abuse.

  11. Risk Factors for Illicit Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use in Male Weightlifters: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

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    Pope, Harrison G.; Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse, though an important public health problem, remains inadequately studied. Almost all AAS abusers are male and lift weights, but the risk factors for AAS use among male weightlifters remain poorly understood. Methods We recruited 233 experienced male weightlifters, of whom 102 (44%) reported lifetime AAS use, and assessed their childhood and adolescent attributes retrospectively using structured clinical interviews and computerized questionnaires. This “cross-sectional cohort” approach—a design that we have formally presented in the recent methodological literature—utilizes a study cohort, not selected for outcomes of interest, and assesses exposures and outcomes retrospectively. We hypothesized that conduct disorder and body-image concerns would be major risk factors for subsequent AAS use among male weightlifters. Results Within our study population, many attributes showed little association with AAS use, but conduct disorder and body-image concerns showed strong associations. For individuals with prior conduct disorder vs. those without, the hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for subsequent AAS use was 2.2 [1.5, 3.4]. For individuals in the middle vs. lowest tertile of scores on a retrospective adolescent “muscle-dysmorphia” scale, the hazard ratio was 1.5 [0.84, 2.6]; for the highest vs. lowest tertile, the hazard ratio was 3.3 [2.0, 5.3]; and for the linear trend of hazard ratios, P < 0.001. Conclusions Conduct disorder and body-image concerns represent important risk factors for AAS use among male weightlifters. Thus, assessment of these attributes may help to identify individuals most likely to require interventions to discourage this form of substance abuse. PMID:21839424

  12. The risk environment of anabolic-androgenic steroid users in the UK: Examining motivations, practices and accounts of use.

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    Hanley Santos, Gisella; Coomber, Ross

    2017-02-01

    The numbers using illicit anabolic-androgenic steroids are a cause of concern for those seeking to reduce health harms. Using the 'risk environment' as a conceptual framework to better comprehend how steroid users' practices and perspectives impact on health risks, this paper examines steroid user motivations, patterns of use, and the ways in which these practices are accounted for. As part of a wider mixed-method study into performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) use and supply in one mid-sized city in South West England, qualitative interviews were undertaken with 22 steroid users. Participants were recruited from a local safer injecting service, rather than bodybuilding gyms, in order to access a wider cross-section of steroid users. A limitation of this approach is potential sample bias towards those showing more health optimising behaviours. The research findings highlight that patterns of steroid use varied according to motivation for use, experience and knowledge gained. Most reported having had little or no knowledge on steroids prior to use, with first use being based on information gained from fellow users or suppliers-sometimes inaccurate or incomplete. In accounting for their practices, many users differentiated themselves from other groups of steroid users-for example, older users expressed concern over patterns of use of younger and (what they saw as) inexperienced steroid users. Implicit in these accounts were intimations that the 'other' group engaged in riskier behaviour than they did. Examining social contexts of use and user beliefs and motivations is vital to understanding how 'risk' behaviours are experienced so that this, in turn, informs harm reduction strategies. This paper examines the ways in which use of steroids is socially situated and the implications of this for policy and practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. Methods This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. Results The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. Conclusions The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed. PMID:23958408

  14. Features of Men with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Dependence: A Comparison With Nondependent AAS Users and With AAS Nonusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) dependence has been a recognized syndrome for some 20 years, but remains poorly understood. Methods We evaluated three groups of experienced male weightlifters: 1) men reporting no history of AAS use (N = 72); 2) nondependent AAS users reporting no history of AAS dependence (N = 42); and 3) men meeting adapted DSM-IV criteria for current or past AAS dependence (N = 20). We assessed demographic indices, lifetime history of psychiatric disorders by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, variables related to AAS use, and results from drug tests of urine and hair. Results Nondependent AAS users showed no significant differences from AAS nonusers on any variable assessed. Dependent AAS users, however, differed substantially from both other groups on many measures. Notably, they reported a more frequent history of conduct disorder than nondependent AAS users (odds ratio [95% CI]: 8.0 [1.7, 38.0]) or AAS nonusers (13.1 [2.8, 60.4]) and a much higher lifetime prevalence of opioid abuse and dependence than either comparison group (odds ratios 6.3 [1.2, 34.5] and 18.6 [3.0, 116.8], respectively). Conclusions Men with AAS dependence, unlike nondependent AAS users or AAS nonusers, showed a distinctive pattern of comorbid psychopathology, overlapping with that of individuals with other forms of substance dependence. AAS dependence showed a particularly strong association with opioid dependence – an observation that recalls recent animal data suggesting similarities in AAS and opioid brain reward mechanisms. Individuals with AAS dependence and individuals with “classical” substance dependence may possibly harbor similar underlying biological and neuropsychological vulnerabilities. PMID:19339124

  15. Frequency of use, awareness, and attitudes toward side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids consumption among male medical students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Abdollahian, Ebrahim; Samadi, Roya; Dolatabadi, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequency of anabolic-androgenic steroids consumption in male students studying at the university and their awareness, attitude, and role of sports activities; the present descriptive study was conducted on 271 volunteers in 2008. The data collected by self-report questionnaires was analyzed by descriptive inferential statistics. The prevalence of consumption was 3.3%, and it was significantly higher in those with a history of bodybuilding or athletic performance. The overall awareness rate was low, and the attitude was too optimistic. It seems that unawareness, incorrect attitude, and history of athletic performance increases the risk of consumption.

  16. EXTENDED THEORY OF PLANNED BEHAVIOR AS MODEL OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROID USE BY INDONESIAN BODYBUILDERS

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    Shine Pintor Siolemba Patiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This correlational study explored the psychological antecedents of Indonesian bodybuilders’ intentions to use anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. The purpose of this research was to identify factors that influence an Indonesian bodybuilder’s intention to use AAS and offer a better understanding of AAS use behavior based on the extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB. The three predictor variables of (1 attitude, (2 subjective norms, and (3 perceived behavioral control accounted for the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to reuse the AAS. Likewise, (1 attitude and (2 intention accounted for of the variation in the outcome measure of the reuse of AAS. This research combined two methods which are qualitative and quantitative. The respondents who were used in this research are professional bodybuilders located in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, and Yogyakarta. The result of this research shows that the attitude of bodybuilders in using AAS tends to have values that are adopted by themselves. The result of this research differs from Bagozzi et al (1989 who stated that attitude influenced behavior directly as a nonpurposeful reaction or indirectly through intention as an aimed response. The result of this research clearly shows that attitude can influence behavior directly as a purposeful reaction, because the bodybuilders consume AAS to achieve a particular purpose and it is strengthened by achievement value in themselves. This research suggests also that attitude and subjective norms are not causally independent. They appear to reflect similar beliefs and to influence each other. These results differ from Titah and Barki (2009, as suggested by Chang (1998 and Aarts et al. (1998, who stated that a person whose positive subjective norms move them toward overt behavior, it will lead to a positive attitude toward the behavior. Future research directions are suggested regarding several areas

  17. Potential of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source in gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the screening of urinary exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raro, M.; Portolés, T.; Pitarch, E.; Sancho, J.V.; Hernández, F. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Garrostas, L. [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Marcos, J.; Ventura, R.; Segura, J. [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Experimental and Health Sciencies, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Pozo, O.J., E-mail: opozo@imim.es [Bioanalysis Research Group, IMIM, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Doctor Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-02-04

    The atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) in urine. The sample treatment is based on the strategy currently applied in doping control laboratories i.e. enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) and derivatization to form the trimethylsilyl ether-trimethylsilyl enol ether (TMS) derivatives. These TMS derivatives are then analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument (GC-QqQ MS/MS) under selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The APCI promotes soft ionization with very little fragmentation resulting, in most cases, in abundant [M + H]{sup +} or [M + H-2TMSOH]{sup +} ions, which can be chosen as precursor ions for the SRM transitions, improving in this way the selectivity and sensitivity of the method. Specificity of the transitions is also of great relevance, as the presence of endogenous compounds can affect the measurements when using the most abundant ions. The method has been qualitatively validated by spiking six different urine samples at two concentration levels each. Precision was generally satisfactory with RSD values below 25 and 15% at the low and high concentration level, respectively. Most the limits of detection (LOD) were below 0.5 ng mL{sup −1}. Validation results were compared with the commonly used method based on the electron ionization (EI) source. EI analysis was found to be slightly more repeatable whereas lower LODs were found for APCI. In addition, the applicability of the developed method has been tested in samples collected after the administration of 4-chloromethandienone. The highest sensitivity of the APCI method for this compound, allowed to increase the period in which its administration can be detected. - Highlights: • APCI source has been evaluated for the screening of 16 exogenous AAS in urine. • Suitable

  18. Detection of anabolic and androgenic steroids and/or their esters in horse hair using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Karen Y; Choi, Timmy L S; Kwok, Wai Him; Wong, Jenny K Y; Wan, Terence S M

    2017-04-14

    Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are a class of prohibited substances banned in horseracing at all times. The common approach for controlling the misuse of AASs in equine sports is by detecting the presence of AASs and/or their metabolites in urine and blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This approach, however, often falls short as the duration of effect for many AASs are longer than their detection time in both urine and blood. As a result, there is a high risk that such AASs could escape detection in their official race-day samples although they may have been used during the long period of training. Hair analysis, on the other hand, can afford significantly longer detection windows. In addition, the identification of synthetic ester derivatives of AASs in hair, particularly for the endogenous ones, can provide unequivocal proof of their exogenous origin. This paper describes the development of a sensitive method (at sub to low parts-per-billion or ppb levels) for detecting 48 AASs and/or their esters in horse hair using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Decontaminated horse hair was pulverised and subjected to in-situ liquid-liquid extraction in a mixture of hexane - ethyl acetate (7:3, v/v) and phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 9.5), followed by additional clean-up using mixed-mode solid-phase extraction. The final extract was analysed using UHPLC-HRMS in the positive electrospray ionisation (ESI) mode with both full scan and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). This method was validated for qualitative identification purposes. Validation data, including method specificity, method sensitivity, extraction recovery, method precision and matrix effect are presented. Method applicability was demonstrated by the successful detection and confirmation of testosterone propionate in a referee hair sample. To our knowledge, this was

  19. Endogenous estrogen and androgen levels are not independent predictors of lipid levels in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Roisin; Robinson, Penelope J; Bell, Robin J; Moufarege, Alain; Davis, Susan R

    2013-06-01

    The relationships between endogenous sex hormone levels and cardiovascular disease risk in women are contentious. Our aim was to systematically investigate the relationships between sex steroids and lipid levels in postmenopausal women, taking into account other potential risk factors. This is a cross-sectional study of 624 naturally and surgically postmenopausal women not using any systemic hormones or lipid-lowering therapy, with a mean (SD) age of 53.9 (5.8) years, who were recruited in the United States, Canada, Australia, UK, and Sweden between July 2004 and February 2005. The relationships between total testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and each lipid variable were explored using multivariable linear regression. None of the sex steroids measured made an independent contribution to the multivariable models for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides (TG). The best model for total cholesterol included race and age, and that for LDL cholesterol included race and blood pressure, with each model only explaining 4.8% and 3.3% of the variation in each lipid, respectively. About 7.7% of the variation in non-HDL cholesterol was explained by HOMA-IR, race, and SHBG. HOMA-IR, SHBG, age, and surgical menopause explained 22.8% of the variation in HDL cholesterol, whereas HOMA-IR, SHBG, race, and surgical menopause explained 25.4% of the variation in TG. Endogenous estrogen and androgen levels are not independent predictors of lipid levels in postmenopausal women. HOMA-IR and SHBG each make independent contributions to HDL cholesterol and TG. These factors make little contribution to total and LDL cholesterol.

  20. Identification of an AR mutation-negative class of androgen insensitivity by determining endogenous AR activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornig, N.C.; Ukat, M.; H.U. Schweikert (H.); O. Hiort (Olaf); Werner, R.; S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); M.L. Cools (Martine); I.A. Hughes (Ieuan A.); L. Audí (Laura); S.F. Ahmed (Faisal); Demiri, J.; Rodens, P.; Worch, L.; Wehner, G.; Kulle, A.E.; Dunstheimer, D.; Müller-Roßberg, E.; T. Reinehr (Thomas); Hadidi, A.T.; Eckstein, A.K.; Van Der Horst, C.; Seif, C.; R. Siebert (Reiner); O. Ammerpohl (Ole); P-M. Holterhus (Paul-Martin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractContext: Only approximately 85%of patients with a clinical diagnosis complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and less than 30%with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome can be explained by inactivating mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Objective: The objective of the study

  1. Comparison of multiple linear regression, partial least squares and artificial neural networks for prediction of gas chromatographic relative retention times of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkaki, A G; Farmaki, E; Thomaidis, N; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A; Angelis, Y S; Koupparis, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2012-09-21

    The comparison among different modelling techniques, such as multiple linear regression, partial least squares and artificial neural networks, has been performed in order to construct and evaluate models for prediction of gas chromatographic relative retention times of trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids. The performance of the quantitative structure-retention relationship study, using the multiple linear regression and partial least squares techniques, has been previously conducted. In the present study, artificial neural networks models were constructed and used for the prediction of relative retention times of anabolic androgenic steroids, while their efficiency is compared with that of the models derived from the multiple linear regression and partial least squares techniques. For overall ranking of the models, a novel procedure [Trends Anal. Chem. 29 (2010) 101-109] based on sum of ranking differences was applied, which permits the best model to be selected. The suggested models are considered useful for the estimation of relative retention times of designer steroids for which no analytical data are available. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance training associated with the administration of anabolic-androgenic steroids improves insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats

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    Urtado CB

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christiano Bertoldo Urtado1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira3, Marilia Bertoldo Urtado4, Érica Blascovi de Carvalho2, Gerson dos Santos Leite1, Felipe Fedrizzi Donatto1, Claudio de Oliveira Assumpção1, Richard Diego Leite3, Carlos Alberto da Silva1, Marcelo Magalhães de Sales5, Ramires Alsamir Tibana5, Silvia Cristina Crepaldi Alves1, Jonato Prestes51Health Sciences, Methodist University of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, SP, 2Center for Investigation in Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 3Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 4Laboratory of Orofacial Pain, Division of Oral Physiology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Campinas, SP, 5Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids and resistance training (RT on insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into ten experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group: (1 sedentary (Sed-Intact; (2 sedentary ovariectomized (Sed-Ovx; (3 sedentary nandrolone (Sed-Intact-ND; (4 sedentary ovariectomized plus nandrolone (Sed-Ovx-ND; (5 trained (TR-Intact; (6 trained nandrolone (TR-Intact-ND; (7 trained ovariectomized (TR-Ovx; (8 trained ovariectomized plus nandrolone; (9 trained sham; and (10 trained ovariectomized plus sham. Four sessions of RT were used, during which the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. The sessions were performed once every 3 days, with between four and nine climbs and with eight to twelve dynamic movements per climb. To test the sensitivity of insulin in the pancreas, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. For insulin sensitivity, there was a statistically significant interaction for the TR-Ovx group, which presented higher sensitivity

  3. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halldorsson Vidar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspective suggests that factors outside sport, which have been shown to correlate with the use of other substances, predict the use of AAS. Method We use logistic regression and predicted probabilities to analyze data from a national representative survey of 11031 Icelandic high school students. Results Our results indicated that the use of AAS is not significantly related to participation in formally organized sports. However, it positively relates to fitness and physical training in informal contexts. We found a relatively strong relationship between the use of AAS and the use of illicit substances and a moderate relationship between AAS use and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We also found a significant negative relationship between AAS use and school integration and school achievement, and a significant positive relationship between AAS use and school anomie. The relation between AAS use and family-related variables was weaker. Finally, we found that the relationship between sport participation, physical exercise, and AAS use varies across levels of anomie and integration. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the use of AAS and especially illegal substances should be considered more as a social and a health problem rather than a sport specific issue. We found that high school students participating in fitness and informal training outside of formally organized sport clubs are the main risk group and should be the target of prevention efforts. However, this

  4. Sport, and use of anabolic androgenic steroids among Icelandic high school students: a critical test of three perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Halldorsson, Vidar

    2010-12-20

    This study investigates the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among a national representative sample of high school students in Iceland. We test several hypotheses drawn from three perspectives. The first perspective focuses on the use of AAS as an individual phenomenon motivated by the desire to succeed in sport. The second perspective views the use of AAS as shaped by norms and values embedded in social relationships of formally organized sport. The third perspective suggests that factors outside sport, which have been shown to correlate with the use of other substances, predict the use of AAS. We use logistic regression and predicted probabilities to analyze data from a national representative survey of 11,031 Icelandic high school students. Our results indicated that the use of AAS is not significantly related to participation in formally organized sports. However, it positively relates to fitness and physical training in informal contexts. We found a relatively strong relationship between the use of AAS and the use of illicit substances and a moderate relationship between AAS use and alcohol and tobacco consumption. We also found a significant negative relationship between AAS use and school integration and school achievement, and a significant positive relationship between AAS use and school anomie. The relation between AAS use and family-related variables was weaker. Finally, we found that the relationship between sport participation, physical exercise, and AAS use varies across levels of anomie and integration. Our findings suggest that the use of AAS and especially illegal substances should be considered more as a social and a health problem rather than a sport specific issue. We found that high school students participating in fitness and informal training outside of formally organized sport clubs are the main risk group and should be the target of prevention efforts. However, this should not be done at the expense of general risk factors that

  5. Effects of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids on the Reproductive System of Athletes and Recreational Users: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Maria A; Christou, Panagiota A; Markozannes, Georgios; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles; Mastorakos, George; Tigas, Stelios

    2017-03-04

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are testosterone derivatives used by athletes and recreational users to improve athletic performance and/or enhance appearance. Anabolic androgenic steroids use may have serious and potentially irreversible adverse effects on different organs and systems, including the reproductive system. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically assess the impact of AAS use on the reproductive system of athletes and recreational users. An electronic literature search was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and Google Scholar. Studies were included when the following criteria were fulfilled: participants were athletes or recreational users of any age, sex, level or type of sport; AAS use of any type, dose, form or duration; AAS effects on the reproductive system were assessed as stated by medical history, clinical examination, hormone and/or semen analysis. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed to assess the weighted mean difference (WMD) of serum gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone) and testosterone levels compared with baseline, during the period of AAS use, as well as following AAS discontinuation. Thirty-three studies (three randomized clinical trials, 11 cohort, 18 cross-sectional, and one non-randomized parallel clinical trial) were included in the systematic review (3879 participants; 1766 AAS users and 2113 non-AAS users). The majority of the participants were men; only six studies provided data for female athletes. A meta-analysis (11 studies) was conducted of studies evaluating serum gonadotropin and testosterone levels in male subjects: (1) prior to, and during AAS use (six studies, n = 65 AAS users; seven studies, n = 59, evaluating gonadotropin and testosterone levels respectively); (2) during AAS use and following AAS discontinuation (four studies, n = 35; six studies, n = 39, respectively); as well as (3) prior to AAS use and following AAS discontinuation

  6. GC-MS quantitative analysis of black market pharmaceutical products containing anabolic androgenic steroids seized by the Brazilian Federal Police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Diana Brito da Justa; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2017-06-01

    The use of counterfeit or substandard medicines can have an important health impact, resulting in therapeutic failure, be toxic or even cause death. Anabolic steroids are a frequent target for counterfeiters worldwide, being the second most frequent counterfeited class in Brazil. The aims of this work were to optimize and validate a GC-MS method for the quantitative determination of anabolic steroids in tablet, aqueous suspension and oil solution forms, and to analyze pharmaceutical products sent to Brazilian Federal Police (BFP) for forensic analysis. Sample preparation included extraction with methanol in ultrasonic bath followed by centrifugation. The method was successfully validated and 345 samples of pharmaceutical products were analyzed (328 medicines and 17 dietary supplements). About 42% of the medicines were counterfeits, 28.7% of tablets, 12.0% of suspensions and 65.2% of oil solutions; 11% were considered substandards. Five dietary supplements contained undeclared anabolic steroids, including two containing methandrostenolone at 5.4 and 5.8mg/capsule, equivalent to levels found in medicines. The proposed method is suitable for implementation in routine analysis for identification of counterfeits and substandard products. The analytical results show the need to raise awareness of consumers over the risks from the consumption of anabolic steroids from the clandestine market and for more incisive actions from government agencies aiming at decreasing the availability of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of anabolic combinations of an androgen plus an estrogen on biochemical pathways in bovine uterine endometrium and ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, C.; Riedmaier, I.; Reiter, M.; Tichopad, A.; Groot, M.J.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Pfaffl, M.W.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Meyer, H.H.D.

    2011-01-01

    The application of anabolic steroids in food producing animals is forbidden in the EU since 1988, but the abuse of such drugs is a potential problem. The existing test systems are based on known compounds and can be eluded by newly emerging substances. The examination of physiological effects of

  8. Potentially harmful advantage to athletes: a putative connection between UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism and renal disorders with prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker James

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective With prolonged use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS, occasional incidents of renal disorders have been observed. Independently, it has also been established that there are considerable inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences, in particular with reference to the uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 2B17 (UGT2B17 gene, in metabolising these compounds. This report postulates the association of deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene with the occurrence of renal disorders on chronic exposure to AAS. Presentation of the hypothesis The major deactivation and elimination pathway of AASs is through glucuronide conjugation, chiefly catalyzed by the UGT2B17 enzyme, followed by excretion in urine. Excretion of steroids is affected in individuals with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene. We hypothesize that UGT2B17 deficient individuals are more vulnerable to developing renal disorders with prolonged use of AAS owing to increases in body mass index and possible direct toxic effects of steroids on the kidneys. Elevated serum levels of biologically active steroids due to inadequate elimination can lead to prolonged muscle build up. An increase in body mass index may cause renal injuries due to sustained elevated glomerular pressure and flow rate. Testing the hypothesis In the absence of controlled clinical trials in humans, observational studies can be carried out. Real time PCR with allelic discrimination should be employed to examine the prevalence of different UGT2B17 genotypes in patients with impaired renal function and AAS abuse. In individuals with the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism, blood tests, biofluid analyses, urinalysis, and hair analyses following the administration of an anabolic steroid can be used to determine the fate of the substance once in the body. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis is upheld, anabolic steroid users with a deletion mutation in the UGT2B17 gene may be

  9. Anabolic agents: recent strategies for their detection and protection from inadvertent doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, anabolic agents consist of exogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), endogenous AAS and other anabolic agents such as clenbuterol and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Currently employed strategies for their improved detection include the prolongation of the detection windows for exogenous AAS, non-targeted and indirect analytical approaches for the detection of modified steroids (designer steroids), the athlete’s biological passport and isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the detection of the misuse of endogenous AAS, as well as preventive doping research for the detection of SARMs. The recent use of these strategies led to 4–80-fold increases of adverse analytical findings for exogenous AAS, to the detection of the misuse of new designer steroids, to adverse analytical findings of different endogenous AAS and to the first adverse analytical findings of SARMs. The strategies of the antidoping research are not only focused on the development of methods to catch the cheating athlete but also to protect the clean athlete from inadvertent doping. Within the past few years several sources of inadvertent doping with anabolic agents have been identified. Among these are nutritional supplements adulterated with AAS, meat products contaminated with clenbuterol, mycotoxin (zearalenone) contamination leading to zeranol findings, and natural products containing endogenous AAS. The protection strategy consists of further investigations in case of reasonable suspicion of inadvertent doping, publication of the results, education of athletes and development of methods to differentiate between intentional and unintentional doping. PMID:24632537

  10. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.stranorossi@rm.unicatt.it [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy); Bermejo, Ana [Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av S. Francisco s/n, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pascali, Vincenzo L. [Institute of Legal Medicine, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, L.go F. Vito, 1, 00168 Rome (Italy)

    2013-09-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •LC–HRMS screening method for the detection of a variety of anabolics in hair. •Detection of unmetabolized anabolic steroids and their esters in hair matrix by simple keratin pretreatment. •Identification of target compounds by retention time, accurate mass and isotopic cluster. •Quantitative determination of detected compounds. •Possibility to a retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte is to be screened. -- Abstract: A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography–high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg{sup −1}, and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg{sup −1} for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg{sup −1}, giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened.

  11. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoorani, Hooman; Halabchi, Farzin

    2015-12-01

    The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively), and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires. Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD): 25.7 (7.1), ranging 14-56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%). Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse. Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse.

  12. Anabolic-androgenic steroid does not enhance compensatory muscle hypertrophy but significantly diminish muscle damages in the rat surgical ablation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Okada, Yoshinori; Tono, Kayoko; Nitta, Masahiro; Hoshi, Akio; Akatsuka, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Cellular responses in the compensatory hypertrophied (plantaris) muscle induced by surgical ablation of synergistic muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) were determined during 10-week anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment. Adult Wistar male rats were divided randomly into the Control and Steroid groups, and contralateral surgery was performed. Nandrolone decanoate was administered to the Steroid group. [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine labeling were used to determine the serial changes in cellular mitotic activity and amino acid uptake. Myogenic cells and cellular responses in blood vessels and nerve fibers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Significantly lower cellular mitotic activity associated with lower volume of muscle fiber necrosis was observed in the Steroid group during the first week. However, amino acid uptake and final muscle wet weight gain did not differ between the groups. Marked activation/proliferation of muscular, vascular, and peripheral nerve-related cells was seen with the inflammatory responses in both groups. However, this activation was dependent on the volume of muscle fiber damage and was not preferentially accelerated by AAS loading. These results indicated that AAS loading significantly diminished muscle fiber damages, but they did not accelerate final muscle wet weight gain and activation of myogenic, vascular, and peripheral nerve related cells in the compensatory enlarged muscles.

  13. Repeated anabolic androgenic steroid treatment causes antidepressant-reversible alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, BDNF levels and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrisciano, Francesco; Modafferi, Antonella M E; Togna, Giuseppina I; Barone, Ylenia; Pinna, Graziano; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Scaccianoce, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) is frequently associated with changes in mood, including depression. However, the nature of this association is still largely unexplored. As a model of AAS abuse, we used male adult rats injected for 4 weeks with either nandrolone or stanozolol at daily doses (5 mg/kg, s.c.) that are considered equivalent to those abused by humans on a milligram per kilogram of body weight basis. AAS treatment reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, reduced the expression of low-affinity glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus, and increased morning trough basal plasma corticosterone levels. All these changes have been related to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Accordingly, rats treated with nandrolone or stanozolol showed an increased immobility time in the forced swim test, which is widely used for the screening of antidepressant drugs. All effects produced by AASs were prevented by co-administration with the classical antidepressant, chlorimipramine. The evidence that supraphysiological doses of AASs induce changes indicative of a depressive state in normal rats, raises the concern that AAS abuse in humans may cause depression regardless of exposure to stress or other risk factors. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anabolic Steroid Use in the Adolescent Athlete

    OpenAIRE

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A.; Stilger, Vincent G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent surveys indicate that the use of androgenic-anabolic steroids (anabolic steroids) is prevalent among adolescent athletes, particularly those in high school. The cost of clinical drug testing makes it impractical to use random testing to identify users of these ergogenic aids. The athletic trainer is often in a position to identify anabolic steroid users if he/she knows the clinical signs and symptoms. In this article, we briefly discuss the history of anabolic steroid use, how they wor...

  15. Screening for exogenous androgen anabolic steroids in human hair by liquid chromatography/orbitrap-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Castrignanò, Erika; Anzillotti, Luca; Odoardi, Sara; De-Giorgio, Fabio; Bermejo, Ana; Pascali, Vincenzo L

    2013-09-02

    A method for the screening of various anabolic steroids and their esters in human hair, based on liquid-chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry using an Exactive benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer, has been set up and validated. This method involved methanolic incubation of 30 mg of hair and analysis of the relevant extract in HPLC using a C18 column. The mass detector, with nominal resolving power of 100,000, operated in full scan mode in APCI under positive ionization mode. Analytes were identified by exact mass, correspondence of isotopic cluster and retention times. The limits of detection obtained varied from 10 to 50 pg mg(-1), and limits of quantitation were 0.5 ng mg(-1) for all compounds. The method was linear for all analytes in the ranges from the LOQ to 6 ng mg(-1), giving correlation coefficients >0.99 for all analytes. Also accuracy (intended as %E) and repeatability (%CV) were always lower than 15%. Specificity was assessed by analysing ten blank samples and fifteen samples from polidrug abusers. This method was applied to a real-life case, resulting in the identification of testosterone undecanoate in the hair of a suspect. The analyte identity was confirmed by the analysis of its in-source fragmentation and comparison to a certified standard. Thanks to the scan acquisition, this method also enables retrospective re-analysis of the acquired datafile in case a further analyte needs to be screened. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex and Exercise Interact to Alter the Expression of Anabolic Androgenic Steroid-Induced Anxiety-Like Behaviors in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakomaiya, Marie M.; Porter, Donna M.; Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are taken by both sexes to enhance athletic performance and body image, nearly always in conjunction with an exercise regime. Although taken to improve physical attributes, chronic AAS use can promote negative behavior, including anxiety. Few studies have directly compared the impact of AAS use in males versus females or assessed the interaction of exercise and AAS. We show that AAS increase anxiety-like behaviors in female but not male mice and that voluntary exercise accentuates these sex-specific differences. We also show that levels of the anxiogenic peptide corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) are significantly greater in males, but that AAS selectively increase CRF levels in females, thus abrogating this sex-specific difference. Exercise did not ameliorate AAS-induced anxiety or alter CRF levels in females. Exercise was anxiolytic in males, but this behavioral outcome did not correlate with CRF levels. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has also been implicated in the expression of anxiety. As with CRF, levels of hippocampal BDNF mRNA were significantly greater in males than females. AAS and exercise were without effect on BDNF mRNA in females. In males, anxiolytic effects of exercise correlated with increased BDNF mRNA, however AAS-induced changes in BDNF mRNA and anxiety did not. In sum, we find that AAS elicit sex-specific differences in anxiety and that voluntary exercise accentuates these differences. In addition, our data suggest that these behavioral outcomes may reflect convergent actions of AAS and exercise on a sexually differentiated CRF signaling system within the extended amygdala. PMID:24768711

  17. Mad men, women and steroid cocktails: a review of the impact of sex and other factors on anabolic androgenic steroids effects on affective behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onakomaiya, Marie M; Henderson, Leslie P

    2016-02-01

    For several decades, elite athletes and a growing number of recreational consumers have used anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as performance enhancing drugs. Despite mounting evidence that illicit use of these synthetic steroids has detrimental effects on affective states, information available on sex-specific actions of these drugs is lacking. The focus of this review is to assess information to date on the importance of sex and its interaction with other environmental factors on affective behaviors, with an emphasis on data derived from non-human studies. The PubMed database was searched for relevant studies in both sexes. Studies examining AAS use in females are limited, reflecting the lower prevalence of use in this sex. Data, however, indicate significant sex-specific differences in AAS effects on anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors, interactions with other drugs of abuse, and the interplay of AAS with other environmental factors such as diet and exercise. Current methods for assessing AAS use have limitations that suggest biases of both under- and over-reporting, which may be amplified for females who are poorly represented in self-report studies of human subjects and are rarely used in animal studies. Data from animal literature suggest that there are significant sex-specific differences in the impact of AAS on aggression, anxiety, and concomitant use of other abused substances. These results have relevance for human females who take these drugs as performance-enhancing substances and for transgender XX individuals who may illicitly self-administer AAS as they transition to a male gender identity.

  18. High-throughput UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection, quantification and identification of fifty-five anabolic and androgenic steroids in equine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Liu, Ying; Li, Xiaoqing

    2010-11-01

    Anabolic and androgenic steroids (AASs) are synthetic substances related to the primary male sex hormone, testosterone. AASs can be abused in both human and equine sports and, thus, are banned by the International Olympic Committee and the Association of Racing Commissioners International (ARCI). Enforcement of the ban on the use of AASs in racehorses during competition requires a defensible and robust method of analysis. To address this requirement, a high-throughput ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS) method was developed for the detection, quantification and confirmation of 55 AASs in equine plasma. AASs were recovered from equine plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Analytes were chromatographically separated on a sub-2 µm particle size C(18) column with a mobile phase gradient elution and detected by selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. AASs with isobaric precursor ions were either chromatographically resolved or mass spectrometrically differentiated by unique precursor-to-product ion transitions. A few of them that could not be resolved by both approaches were differentiated by intensity ratios of three major product ions. All the epimer pairs, testosterone and epitestosterone, boldenone and epiboldenone, nandrolone and epinandrolone, were chromatographically base-line separated. The limit of detection and that of quantification was 50 pg/ml for most of the AASs, and the limit of confirmation was 100-500 pg/ml. Full product ion spectra of AASs at concentrations as low as 100-500 pg/ml in equine plasma were obtained using the triple quadrupole instrument, to provide complementary evidentiary data for confirmation. The method is sensitive and selective for the detection, quantification and confirmation of multiple AASs in a single analysis and will be useful in the fight against doping of racehorses with AASs. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley

  19. Effective separation and simultaneous analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS in their pharmaceutical formulations by a validated TLC-densitometry method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musharraf Syed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are widely misused for the enhancement of performance in sports. Several drugs are available that contain different combinations or individual steroids in different dosage form. This paper describes a TLC densitometric method for simultaneous determination of four AAS of testosterone derivatives including testosterone propionate (TP, testosterone phenyl propionate (TPP, testosterone isocaproate (TI and testosterone deaconate (TD in their pharmaceutical products. Results Separation was carried out on Al based TLC plates, pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 using hexane and ethyl acetate (8.5:1.5, v/v. Spots at Rf 0.31 ± 0.01, 0.34 ± 0.01, 0.40 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.02 were recognized as TPP, TP, TI and TD, respectively. Quantitative analysis was done by densitometric measurements at λmax 251 nm for all derivatives. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Method was found linear over the concentration range of 200–1200 ng/spot with the correlation coefficient of 0.995, 0.993, 0.995 and 0.996 for TP, TPP, TI, TD, respectively. Limit of detection for all derivatives were in the range of 16.7-22.3 ng/spot while limit of quantitation were found to be in the range of 55.7-70.9 ng/spot. Conclusions The developed TLC method can be applied for the simultaneous routine analysis of testosterone derivatives in their individual and combined pharmaceutical formulations.

  20. The anabolic/androgenic steroid nandrolone exacerbates gene expression modifications induced by mutant SOD1 in muscles of mice models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbiati, Mariarita; Onesto, Elisa; Zito, Arianna; Crippa, Valeria; Rusmini, Paola; Mariotti, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bendotti, Caterina; Poletti, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs that enhance muscle mass, and are often illegally utilized in athletes to improve their performances. Recent data suggest that the increased risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in male soccer and football players could be linked to AAS abuse. ALS is a motor neuron disease mainly occurring in sporadic (sALS) forms, but some familial forms (fALS) exist and have been linked to mutations in different genes. Some of these, in their wild type (wt) form, have been proposed as risk factors for sALS, i.e. superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, whose mutations are causative of about 20% of fALS. Notably, SOD1 toxicity might occur both in motor neurons and in muscle cells. Using gastrocnemius muscles of mice overexpressing human mutant SOD1 (mutSOD1) at different disease stages, we found that the expression of a selected set of genes associated to muscle atrophy, MyoD, myogenin, atrogin-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)β1, is up-regulated already at the presymptomatic stage. Atrogin-1 gene expression was increased also in mice overexpressing human wtSOD1. Similar alterations were found in axotomized mouse muscles and in cultured ALS myoblast models. In these ALS models, we then evaluated the pharmacological effects of the synthetic AAS nandrolone on the expression of the genes modified in ALS muscle. Nandrolone administration had no effects on MyoD, myogenin, and atrogin-1 expression, but it significantly increased TGFβ1 expression at disease onset. Altogether, these data suggest that, in fALS, muscle gene expression is altered at early stages, and AAS may exacerbate some of the alterations induced by SOD1 possibly acting as a contributing factor also in sALS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Revealing the influence of glucocorticoid treatment on the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses through in vitro digestive simulations and an in vivo case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Damen, Sander; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-12-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are strictly forbidden in equine sports because of their stimulating effect on muscle growth and performance. Nevertheless, low levels of AAS have been found in some horses, untreated with AAS. Glucocorticoids (GC), used as an anti-inflammatory therapy and structurally related to AAS, might play a role in this phenomenon. In order to unravel this possible correlation the influence of glucocorticoid treatment on the excretion of AAS was studied both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo effects were investigated by analysing urine samples collected from a gelding treated with betamethasone. Additionally, multiple in vitro digestion simulations were set up, according to a previously validated protocol, to study the possibility of a direct biotransformation of glucocorticoids to AAS, by the microbiota of the equine hindgut. Urine and in vitro digestion samples were extracted and analysed with UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPLC-Orbitrap-HRMS analytical methods. A significant influence on the urinary excretion of α-testosterone (αT), β-testosterone (βT) and androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) was seen. αT-concentrations up to 20ng/mL were detected. ADD was not found before treatment but could be detected post-treatment. Cortisone and cortisol also peaked (>30ng/mL) between day 37 and 48 post-treatment. The in vitro digestion results however revealed no direct biotransformation of glucocorticoids to AAS by the microbiota of the equine hindgut. This study shows that a glucocorticoid treatment can disrupt the synthesis and excretion of AAS, not by direct biotransformation upon gastrointestinal digestion, but more likely by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroids on hemodynamics, glycogen content, angiogenesis and apoptosis of cardiac muscle in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Asmaa F; Kamal, Manal M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on hemodynamics, glycogen content, angiogenesis, apoptosis and histology of cardiac muscle. Forty rats were divided into 4 groups; control, steroid, exercise-trained and exercise-trained plus steroid groups. The exercise-trained and trained plus steroid groups, after one week of water adaptation, were exercised by jumping into water for 5 weeks. The steroid and trained plus steroid groups received nandrolone decanoate, for 5 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were monitored weekly. Heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW ratio) were determined. Serum testosterone, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cardiac caspase-3 activity and glycogen content were measured. Compared with control, the steroid group had significantly higher blood pressure, HR, sympathetic nerve activity, testosterone level, HW/BW and cardiac caspase-3 activity. Histological examination revealed apoptotic changes and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In exercise-trained group, cardiac glycogen, VEGF and testosterone levels were significantly higher while HR was significantly lower than control. HW/BW was more than control confirmed by hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes with angiogenesis on histological examination. Trained plus steroid group, had no change in HR, with higher blood pressure and HW/BW than control, cardiac glycogen and serum VEGF were higher than control but lower than exercise-trained group. Histological examination showed hypertrophy of cardiomyoctes with mild angiogenesis rather than apoptosis. When exercise is augmented with AAS, exercise-associated cardiac benefits may not be fully gained with potential cardiac risk from AAS if used alone or combined with exercise.

  3. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18-50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation. Current AAS abusers exhibited severely decreased AMH and inhibin B indicative of impaired spermatogenesis.

  4. Usage and perceptions of anabolic-androgenic steroids among male fitness centre attendees in Kuwait--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaeed, Ibrahim; Alabkal, Jarrah R

    2015-08-22

    Considering the recent popularity of bodybuilding and the apparent spread of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use amongst bodybuilding enthusiasts in Kuwait, there is a relative lack of scientific investigation into the use, knowledge and attitudes towards AAS amongst the population at risk of abusing it. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the frequency, knowledge, attitudes and practice of AAS use amongst male fitness centre attendees in Kuwait. A cross sectional survey utilizing a self-administered questionnaire was used. Information on demographics as well as knowledge and attitude about and towards the use of AAS was included in the questionnaire. Ten fitness centres in Kuwait were randomly selected and questionnaires were distributed to all individuals leaving each centre on randomly selected days and periods of time for each centre. Overall n = 400 questionnaires were distributed. A total of n = 194 questionnaires were returned completed (~49%). Of the responders, 22.7% used AAS. The 19-25 age group had the highest occurrence (46.8%) of first-time AAS use. In contrast with non-users, most (70.5%) of AAS users believed that having an optimally muscular body can only be achieved by using AAS, and a small minority (6.8%) believed that AAS usage would have significant harms to health. Only 18.2% of AAS users had appropriate knowledge regarding the side effects of AAS. Non-users were as much uninformed as AAS users regarding the side effects of AAS. The usage of AAS is high amongst male gym users in Kuwait and is likely to present an additional burden to the health service. An effective initiative to minimize the burden of AAS abuse should focus on changing the attitudes towards AAS rather than spreading awareness of their side effects.

  5. The Misuse of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among Iranian Recreational Male Body-Builders and Their Related Psycho-Socio-Demographic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANGOORANI, Hooman; HALABCHI, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence and potential side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse by athletes has made it a major public health concern. Epidemiological studies on the abuse of such drugs are mandatory for developing effective preventive drug control programs in sports community. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of AAS abuse and their association with some psycho-socio-demographic factors in Iranian male recreational body-builders. Methods: Between March and October 2011; 906 recreational male body-builders from 103 randomly selected bodybuilding clubs in Tehran, Iran were participated in this study. Some psycho-socio- demographic factors including age, job, average family income, family size, sport experience (months), weekly duration of the sporting activity (h), purpose of participation in sporting activity, mental health as well as body image (via General Health Questionnaire and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, respectively), and history of AAS use were obtained by interviews using questionnaires. Results: Participants were all recreational male body-builders [mean age (SD): 25.7 (7.1), ranging 14–56 yr]. Self-report of AAS abuse was registered in 150 body-builders (16.6%). Among different psycho-socio-demographic factors, only family income and sport experience were inversely associated with AAS abuse. Conclusion: Lifetime prevalence of AAS abuse is relatively high among recreational body-builders based on their self-report. Some psycho-socio-demographic factors including family income and sport experience may influence the prevalence of AAS abuse. PMID:26811817

  6. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  7. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    .... Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern...

  8. In vitro simulation of the equine hindgut as a tool to study the influence of phytosterol consumption on the excretion of anabolic-androgenic steroids in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, A I; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Vanden Bussche, J; Garcia, P; Popot, M-A; Bonnaire, Y; Vanhaecke, L

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, steroids other than testosterone are considered to be synthetic, anabolic steroids. Nevertheless, in stallions, it has been shown that β-Bol can originate from naturally present testosterone. Other precursors, including phytosterols from feed, have been put forward to explain the prevalence of low levels of steroids (including β-Bol and ADD) in urine of mares and geldings. However, the possible biotransformation and identification of the precursors has thus far not been investigated in horses. To study the possible endogenous digestive transformation, in vitro simulations of the horse hindgut were set up, using fecal inocula obtained from eight different horses. The functionality of the in vitro model was confirmed by monitoring the formation of short-chain fatty acids and the consumption of amino acids and carbohydrates throughout the digestion process. In vitro digestion samples were analyzed with a validated UHPLC-MS/MS method. The addition of β-Bol gave rise to the formation of ADD (androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) or αT. Upon addition of ADD to the in vitro digestions, the transformation of ADD to β-Bol was observed and this for all eight horses' inocula, in line with previously obtained in vivo results, again confirming the functionality of the in vitro model. The transformation ratio proved to be inoculum and thus horse dependent. The addition of pure phytosterols (50% β-sitosterol) or phytosterol-rich herbal supplements on the other hand, did not induce the detection of β-Bol, only low concentrations of AED, a testosterone precursor, could be found (0.1 ng/mL). As such, the digestive transformation of ADD could be linked to the detection of β-Bol, and the consumption of phytosterols to low concentrations of AED, but there is no direct link between phytosterols and β-Bol. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Jarløv Rasmussen

    Full Text Available Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers.This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7 years and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18-50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction were recorded systematically.Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7 nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0 nmol/l (P < 0.01. Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5 of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01. Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01. The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2% (11.1; 42.2, erectile dysfunction ((27.3% (13.3; 45.6 and decreased libido ((40.1% (23.2; 57.0 than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05.Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation. Current AAS abusers exhibited severely decreased AMH

  10. Adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids and the neurobiology of offensive aggression: a hypothalamic neural model based on findings in pubertal Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Richard H; Ricci, Lesley A

    2010-06-01

    Considerable public attention has been focused on the issue of youth violence, particularly that associated with drug use. It is documented that anabolic steroid use by teenagers is associated with a higher incidence of aggressive behavior and serious violence, yet little is known about how these drugs produce the aggressive phenotype. Here we discuss work from our laboratory on the relationship between the development and activity of select neurotransmitter systems in the anterior hypothalamus and anabolic steroid-induced offensive aggression using pubertal male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as an adolescent animal model, with the express goal of synthesizing these data into an cogent neural model of the developmental adaptations that may underlie anabolic steroid-induced aggressive behavior. Notably, alterations in each of the neural systems identified as important components of the anabolic steroid-induced aggressive response occurred in a sub-division of the anterior hypothalamic brain region we identified as the hamster equivalent of the latero-anterior hypothalamus, indicating that this sub-region of the hypothalamus is an important site of convergence for anabolic steroid-induced neural adaptations that precipitate offensive aggression. Based on these findings we present in this review a neural model to explain the neurochemical regulation of anabolic steroid-induced offensive aggression showing the hypothetical interaction between the arginine vasopressin, serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamate neural systems in the anterior hypothalamic brain region. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The anabolic steroid methandienone targets the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and myostatin signaling in a rat training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, Stephanie; Pankratz, Carlos; Seyfried, Alexis; Piechotta, Marion; Diel, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the biological activity of myostatin (MSTN), a negative regulator of muscle growth, is affected by training but also anabolic steroids. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the frequently abused anabolic steroid methandienone (Md) on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and androgen-sensitive tissues in intact rats performing a treadmill training to simulate the situation of abusing athletes. The anabolic effects were correlated with the expression of members of the MSTN signaling cascade. Md treatment resulted in a significant stimulation of anabolic activity of the levator ani muscle, which was further increased by training, while prostate and seminal vesicle weights decreased in conformance with hormone concentrations of LH and testosterone. In gastrocnemius muscle, mRNA expression of genes of the MSTN signaling cascade (MSTN, Smad7 and MyoD) was reduced by training but not after Md treatment, in soleus muscle MSTN and its inhibitors, follistatin (FLST) and Smad-7 were only affected after training in combination with Md treatment. In summary, our data demonstrate that Md treatment of intact rats results in anabolic effects which are enhanced in combination with physical activity. Interestingly, the anabolic activity on the levator ani was increased in combination with training, although the levator ani muscle was not specifically stimulated by our training protocol. In the m. gastrocnemius and soleus, the anabolic effects correlate with changes in the expression patterns of genes involved in MSTN signaling. Our data provide evidence that the decrease in the weight of androgen-sensitive sexual glands, observed after Md treatment, is caused by a suppression of endogenous testosterone synthesis. These observations provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between anabolic steroids, training and MSTN signaling during skeletal muscle adaptation.

  12. Esteróides anabólicos androgênicos e sua relação com a prática desportiva Anabolic androgenic steroids and the relation to the sportive practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Sousa Cunha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA são um grupo de compostos naturais e sintéticos formados a partir da testosterona ou um de seus derivados, cuja indicação terapêutica clássica está associada a situações de hipogonadismo e quadros de deficiência do metabolismo protéico. Atuando sobre os receptores androgênicos, modulam de forma indissociável tanto os efeitos androgênicos como os anabólicos. Tais substâncias variam na relação entre a atividade anabólica: androgênica, mas nenhum fármaco atualmente disponível é capaz de desencadear somente efeitos anabólicos. O primeiro relato da utilização dos EAA com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho atlético ocorreu em 1954, na Áustria, e, desde então, esta prática tornou-se amplamente difundida. Obviamente, o uso de EAA está fora dos limites competitivos e foi declarado ilegal pelos setores governamentais desportivos nacionais e internacionais. Entretanto, segundo estatísticas do Comitê Olímpico Internacional, realizadas em 2000, os EAA são o grupo de substâncias ergogênicas mais comumente utilizadas no processo de doping. Estudos mostram que altas doses de EAA podem acarretar vários efeitos adversos como atrofia do tecido testicular, tumores hepáticos e de próstata, alterações hepatocelulares, no metabolismo lipídico, de humor e de comportamento. O objetivo do presente trabalho será compilar os dados a respeito dos EAA, envolvendo as perspectivas históricas acerca do tema, a fisiologia e os tipos de EAA atualmente existentes, suas indicações terapêuticas e efeitos adversos resultantes do uso indiscriminado bem como a relação entre o uso de EAA e melhora da performance atlética.Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are a group of natural and synthetic agents formed from testosterone or one of its derivatives, whose classical therapeutic indications are associated to hipogonadism and deficiency of proteic metabolism. Acting on androgenic receptors

  13. Sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation attributed to anabolic steroid use in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenfeld, Jana; Deal, Barbara J; Crawford, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that promote the growth of skeletal muscles and have many recognised cardiovascular effects. We report the clinical presentation and pathological findings of an adolescent male whose sudden cardiac arrest following ventricular fibrillation was attributed to anabolic androgenic steroid use. The age of our patient reflects the usage of anabolic androgenic steroids among younger athletes and highlights the need for increased awareness among practitioners.

  14. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations : application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments,

  15. Detection of hormonal anabolic compounds in calf urine and unverified growth-promoting preparations: application of the AR-LUX bioassay for screening and determination of androgenic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankvoort, B.M.G.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Schilt, R.; Geerdink, P.; Spenkelink, A.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Despite a ban by the European Union, the use of anabolic steroids and repartitioning agents in cattle is still occasionally observed. Due to continuing improvements in analytical techniques, very low detection limits for individual compounds have been achieved. In response to these developments,

  16. Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and athletes often use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. Using them this way is not legal or safe. Abuse of anabolic steroids has been linked with many health problems. They include Acne Breast growth and shrinking of testicles in men Voice deepening ...

  17. Morbidade hospitalar por ingestão de esteroides anabólico-androgênicos (EAA no Brasil Hospital morbidity due to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS consumption in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2013-04-01

    ária de 15-29 anos possuíram as maiores taxas no período estudado.INTRODUCTION: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are male sex hormones, developers and maintainers of sexual characteristics associated with masculinity and the anabolic status of somatic tissues. The physical and mental effects of AAS abuse are rare and it is almost impossible to say with certainty what adverse effects may become evident after their self-administration; however, they constitute risk of death for the individuals. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of morbidity by AAS ingestion in Brazil in the 2000/2010 period. METHODS: Information on hospitalizations was obtained from computerized databases of the Ministry of Health. In the analysis of AAS consumption as primary or secondary diagnosis for hospital admission, the E28.1 (androgen excess, E34.5 (androgen insensitivity syndrome, T38.7 (adverse effect of and underdosing of androgens and anabolic congeners and Y42.7 (adverse effects in the therapeutic use of androgens and anabolic congeners codes of the ICD-10 were used. RESULTS: Hospitalizations by AAS were responsible for 0.001% of total admissions in the country. 1,319 admissions (mean = 119.9, SD = 99.01 were accounted. The Androgen insensitivity syndrome was the primary cause, corresponding to 55.8% of total admissions. Of of all hospitalizations, 1% of patients died and the maximum stay was of 47 days (mean = 3.8, SD = 4.7. Minas Gerais, Maranhão and Espírito Santo presented the highest rates of hospital admissions per 1,000,000 inhabitants from 2002 to 2007. Women and people aged 15-29 presented the highest hospitalization rate 82.5% and 37.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the hospitalization rate was relatively low for AAS intake; women and individuals aged 15-29 years possessed the highest rates in the period studied.

  18. Ischemic stroke related to anabolic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, Rodrigo Daniel; Besocke, Ana Gabriela; Romano, Lucas Martin; Ioli, Pablo Leonardo; Gonorazky, Sergio Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse increased in recent years, and it is associated with numerous adverse effects. Few reports on ischemic stroke related to anabolic steroid abuse have been published. We report a case of a 26-year-old male amateur athlete who suffered a posterior territory ischemic stroke. No abnormalities were found in angiography and echocardiography studies, neither in hemostatic profile. His only significant risk factor was nonmedical use of stanozolol, an anabolic steroid. Anabolic steroids are capable of increasing vascular tone, arterial tension, and platelet aggregation; therefore, they are prone to produce atherothrombotic phenomena. Because of young people's widespread use of anabolic steroids, physicians should be aware of this kind of complication.

  19. Automated and sensitive determination of four anabolic androgenic steroids in urine by online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a novel approach for clinical monitoring and doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Shao, Jing; Liu, Qian; Shi, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2014-07-01

    A novel method for automated and sensitive analysis of testosterone, androstenedione, methyltestosterone and methenolone in urine samples by online turbulent flow solid-phase extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The optimization and validation of the method were discussed in detail. The Turboflow C18-P SPE column showed the best extraction efficiency for all the analytes. Nanogram per liter (ng/L) level of AAS could be determined directly and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 ng/mL, which were much lower than normally concerned concentrations for these typical anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (0.1 ng/mL). The linearity range was from the LOQ to 100 ng/mL for each compound, with the coefficients of determination (r(2)) ranging from 0.9990 to 0.9999. The intraday and interday relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.1% to 14.5% (n=5). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of urine samples collected from 24 male athletes and 15 patients of prostate cancer. The proposed method provides an alternative practical way to rapidly determine AAS in urine samples, especially for clinical monitoring and doping control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A retrospective 30-year follow-up study of former Swedish-elite male athletes in power sports with a past anabolic androgenic steroids use: a focus on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, A S; Moberg, T; Eriksson, B O; Ehrnborg, C; Rosén, T; Fahlke, C

    2013-10-01

    The knowledge concerning the long-term effect of former anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS)-use on mental health is sparse. This study aims to investigate whether previous AAS-use affects mental health, present sociodemographic data, sport activity and substance abuse in a retrospective 30-year follow-up study of former elite athletes. Swedish male-elite power sport athletes (n=683) on the top 10 national ranking lists during any of the years 1960-1979 in wrestling, Olympic lifting, powerlifting and the throwing events in track and field answered a questionnaire. At least 20% of the former athletes admitted previous AAS-use. They had more often sought professional expertise for mental problems and had used illicit drugs compared to those not having used AAS. The AAS-users also differed in former sport activity pattern compared to non AAS-users. It is clear that a relationship exists between use of AAS and mental-health problems. Further studies need to be done in order to clarify this relationship.

  1. A Ten-year Assessment of Anabolic Steroid Misuse among Competitive Athletes in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, P; Jorge, JC; Cruz-Sánchez, A; Amy, E; Barreto-Estrada, JL

    2012-01-01

    Objective Little is known about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in the Caribbean region in spite of increased popularity among athletes and adolescents. The present study examines the usage of AAS among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico. Methods Doping test results of competitive athletes obtained by random sampling out of competition during the 2000–2009 period were analysed. Doping tests were executed by the Centre for Sports, Health and Exercise Sciences (Albergue Olímpico, Salinas, Puerto Rico). A total of 550 athletes were monitored during 2000–2009. Information was collected with regard to competitive sport, gender and AAS compounds whenever a positive test result was encountered. Results From the total sample of monitored cases during the past decade, 5.4% showed adverse analytical findings. Anabolic androgenic steroids misuse was detected among male (62%) and female (38%) athletes. Weightlifting showed the greatest percentage of positive AAS doping test results (70% of total cases) and stanozolol was the most commonly misused exogenous androgen (60% of abused AAS whether alone or as part of a cocktail). Testosterone was the most common endogenous misused steroid (10% of misused compounds). Conclusion In Puerto Rico, AAS misuse was detected across competitive sports for both genders. Although AAS misuse among Puerto Rican athletes shares some features that are consistent with the international sports community, it is imperative to address AAS misuse in the Caribbean region. PMID:22519228

  2. A ten-year assessment of anabolic steroid misuse among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, P; Jorge, J C; Cruz-Sánchez, A; Amy, E; Barreto-Estrada, J L

    2011-10-01

    Little is known about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) misuse in the Caribbean region in spite of increased popularity among athletes and adolescents. The present study examines the usage of AAS among competitive athletes in Puerto Rico. Doping test results of competitive athletes obtained by random sampling out of competition during the 2000-2009 period were analysed. Doping tests were executed by the Centre for Sports, Health and Exercise Sciences (Albergue Olímpico, Salinas, Puerto Rico). A total of 550 athletes were monitored during 2000-2009. Information was collected with regard to competitive sport, gender and AAS compounds whenever a positive test result was encountered. From the total sample of monitored cases during the past decade, 5.4% showed adverse analytical findings. Anabolic androgenic steroids misuse was detected among male (62%) and female (38%) athletes. Weightlifting showed the greatest percentage of positive AAS doping test results (70% of total cases) and stanozolol was the most commonly misused exogenous androgen (60% of abused AAS whether alone or as part of a cocktail). Testosterone was the most common endogenous misused steroid (10% of misused compounds). In Puerto Rico, AAS misuse was detected across competitive sports for both genders. Although AAS misuse among Puerto Rican athletes shares some features that are consistent with the international sports community, it is imperative to address AAS misuse in the Caribbean region.

  3. Examining a pathway for hormone mediated maternal effects - Yolk testosterone affects androgen receptor expression and endogenous testosterone production in young chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfannkuche, K. A.; Gahr, M.; Weites, I. M.; Riedstra, B.; Wolf, C.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2011-01-01

    In vertebrates maternal androgens can substantially influence developing offspring, inducing both short and long term changes in physiology and behavior, including androgen sensitive traits. However, how the effects of maternal hormones are mediated remains unknown. Two possible pathways are that

  4. Vasopressin differentially modulates aggression and anxiety in adolescent hamsters administered anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) treated with anabolic/androgenic steroids display increased offensive aggression and decreased anxiety correlated with an increase in vasopressin afferent development, synthesis, and neural signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Upon withdrawal from anabolic/androgenic steroids, this neurobehavioral relationship shifts as hamsters display decreased offensive aggression and increased anxiety correlated with a decrease in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin. This study investigated the hypothesis that alterations in anterior hypothalamic vasopressin neural signaling modulate behavioral shifting between adolescent anabolic/androgenic steroid-induced offensive aggression and anxiety. To test this, adolescent male hamsters were administered anabolic/androgenic steroids and tested for offensive aggression or anxiety following direct pharmacological manipulation of vasopressin V1A receptor signaling within the anterior hypothalamus. Blockade of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling suppressed offensive aggression and enhanced general and social anxiety in hamsters administered anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence, effectively reversing the pattern of behavioral response pattern normally observed during the adolescent exposure period. Conversely, activation of anterior hypothalamic vasopressin V1A receptor signaling enhanced offensive aggression in hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids during adolescence. Together, these findings suggest that the state of vasopressin neural development and signaling in the anterior hypothalamus plays an important role in behavioral shifting between aggression and anxiety following adolescent exposure to anabolic/androgenic steroids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Serum androgen profile and physical performance in women Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Emma; Berglund, Bo; Labrie, Fernand; Carlström, Kjell; Ekström, Lena; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2017-09-01

    The role of endogenous androgens for body composition and physical performance in women athletes is still not elucidated. To examine the serum androgen profile in relation to body composition and physical performance in women Olympic athletes and to compare endocrine variables and body composition to controls. Cross-sectional study, conducted between 2011 and 2015 at the Women's Health Research Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm. Swedish women Olympic athletes (n=106) and age-matched and body mass index-matched sedentary controls (n=117) were included in the study. Blood sampling was performed in a rested, fasting state for the measurement of serum androgens and their metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (controls n=100, athletes n=65). The athletes performed standardised performance tests (n=59) (squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ). The athletes demonstrated significantly higher levels of the precursor androgens dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 5-androstene-3β, 17β-diol (5-DIOL) and the metabolite etiocholanolone glucuronide (Etio-G), significantly lower levels of estrone (pathletes. DHEA and lean mass legs explained 66% of the variance in SJ, whereas lean mass explained 52% of the variance in CMJ. The present data suggest that endogenous androgens are associated with a more anabolic body composition and enhanced performance in women athletes. These results are of importance for the current discussion regarding hyperandrogenism in women athletes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Hedgehog/Gli supports androgen signaling in androgen deprived and androgen independent prostate cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtutman Michael

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC develops as a consequence of hormone therapies used to deplete androgens in advanced prostate cancer patients. CRPC cells are able to grow in a low androgen environment and this is associated with anomalous activity of their endogenous androgen receptor (AR despite the low systemic androgen levels in the patients. Therefore, the reactivated tumor cell androgen signaling pathway is thought to provide a target for control of CRPC. Previously, we reported that Hedgehog (Hh signaling was conditionally activated by androgen deprivation in androgen sensitive prostate cancer cells and here we studied the potential for cross-talk between Hh and androgen signaling activities in androgen deprived and androgen independent (AI prostate cancer cells. Results Treatment of a variety of androgen-deprived or AI prostate cancer cells with the Hh inhibitor, cyclopamine, resulted in dose-dependent modulation of the expression of genes that are regulated by androgen. The effect of cyclopamine on endogenous androgen-regulated gene expression in androgen deprived and AI prostate cancer cells was consistent with the suppressive effects of cyclopamine on the expression of a reporter gene (luciferase from two different androgen-dependent promoters. Similarly, reduction of smoothened (Smo expression with siRNA co-suppressed expression of androgen-inducible KLK2 and KLK3 in androgen deprived cells without affecting the expression of androgen receptor (AR mRNA or protein. Cyclopamine also prevented the outgrowth of AI cells from androgen growth-dependent parental LNCaP cells and suppressed the growth of an overt AI-LNCaP variant whereas supplemental androgen (R1881 restored growth to the AI cells in the presence of cyclopamine. Conversely, overexpression of Gli1 or Gli2 in LNCaP cells enhanced AR-specific gene expression in the absence of androgen. Overexpressed Gli1/Gli2 also enabled parental LNCaP cells to

  7. A 6-kb promoter fragment mimics in transgenic mice the prostate-specific and androgen-regulated expression of the endogenous prostate-specific antigen gene in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.J.M. Cleutjens (Kitty); H.A.G.M. van der Korput (Hetty); C.C.E.M. Ehren-van Eekelen (Conny); R.A. Sikes; C. Fasciana (Claudia); L.W. Chung; J. Trapman (Jan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractProstate-specific antigen (PSA) is a kallikrein-like serine protease, which is almost exclusively synthesized in the luminal epithelial cells of the human prostate. PSA expression is androgen regulated. Previously, we characterized in vitro the proximal

  8. Endogenous control of sexual size dimorphism: Gonadal androgens have neither direct nor indirect effect on male growth in a Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubička, Lukáš; Starostová, Zuzana; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2015-12-01

    Changes in the effect of gonadal androgens on male growth are considered as a possible mechanism allowing shifts in magnitude and even direction of sexual size dimorphism in vertebrates, particularly squamate reptiles. Positive effects of gonadal androgens on male growth were found in several male-larger species of lizards. Contrastingly, we document that in the male-larger Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura picta) gonadal androgens do not affect male growth under constant thermal conditions. However, the absence of a thermal gradient might prevent the potential indirect effect of gonadal androgens on growth via the influence of circulating hormones on an individual's thermoregulation and hence metabolic rate. In order to study this, we monitored the growth and body temperature of socially isolated sham-operated and castrated males of the same species in a thermal gradient. We also compared the oxygen consumption and activity between the treatment groups in the open field to test the effect of gonadal hormones on these traits potentially affecting growth. Even under a thermal gradient we found no effect of gonadal androgens on growth rate or final body dimensions. Castration also did not significantly affect oxygen consumption or activity in the open field test. Together with our previous findings, we can exclude both the direct effect of male gonadal androgens on the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism via the influence on the growth axis, and the indirect influence of gonadal androgens acting on the ontogeny of SSD through the effect on thermoregulation, metabolic rate and activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective androgen receptor modulators in preclinical and clinical development

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Mohler, Michael L.; Bohl, Casey E.; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2008-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the function of several organs including primary and accessory sexual organs, skeletal muscle, and bone, making it a desirable therapeutic target. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) bind to the AR and demonstrate osteo- and myo-anabolic activity; however, unlike testosterone and other anabolic steroids, these nonsteroidal agents produce less of a growth effect on prostate and other secondary sexual organs. SARMs provide therapeutic o...

  10. Detection of anabolic steroid abuse using a yeast transactivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierau, Oliver; Lehmann, Sylvi; Vollmer, Günter; Schänzer, Willhelm; Diel, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    The classical analytical method for detection of anabolic steroid abuse is gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometry (GC/MS). However, even molecules with a chemical structure typical for this class of substances, are sometimes not identified in routine screening by GC/MS when their precise chemical structure is still unknown. A supplementary approach to identify anabolic steroid abuse could be a structure-independent identification of anabolic steroids based on their biological activity. To test the suitability of such a system, we have analyzed the yeast androgen receptor (AR) reporter gene system to identify anabolic steroids in human urine samples. Analysis of different anabolic steroids dissolved in buffer demonstrated that the yeast reporter gene system is able to detect a variety of different anabolic steroids and their metabolites with high specificity, including the so-called 'designer steroid' tetrahydrogestrinone. In contrast, other non-androgenic steroids, like glucocordicoids, progestins, mineralocordicoids and estrogens had a low potency to stimulate transactivation. To test whether the system would also allow the detection of androgens in urine, experiments with spiked urine samples were performed. The androgen reporter gene in yeast responds very sensitive to 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), even at high urine concentrations. To examine whether the test system would also be able to detect anabolic steroids in the urine of anabolic steroid abusers, anonymous urine samples previously characterized by GCMS were analyzed with the reporter gene assay. Even when the concentration of the anabolic metabolites was comparatively low in some positive samples it was possible to identify the majority of positive samples by their biological activity. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the yeast reporter gene system detects anabolic steroids and corresponding metabolites with high sensitivity even in urine of anabolic steroid abusing athletes

  11. Examining a pathway for hormone mediated maternal effects--yolk testosterone affects androgen receptor expression and endogenous testosterone production in young chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, K A; Gahr, M; Weites, I M; Riedstra, B; Wolf, C; Groothuis, T G G

    2011-07-01

    In vertebrates maternal androgens can substantially influence developing offspring, inducing both short and long term changes in physiology and behavior, including androgen sensitive traits. However, how the effects of maternal hormones are mediated remains unknown. Two possible pathways are that maternal androgens affect parts of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) or the sensitivity to androgens by affecting androgen receptor (AR) densities within the brain. To investigate both pathways, testosterone within the physiological range or vehicle only was injected into the egg yolk of unincubated chicken eggs and AR mRNA expression in different brain nuclei as well as plasma testosterone levels were measured in two week old male and female chicks that had hatched from these eggs. Our results showed a significant sex difference in plasma testosterone levels with males showing higher levels than females. Furthermore, AR mRNA expression as well as plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in chicks hatched from testosterone treated eggs. These results suggest a compensatory mechanism for avoiding potential detrimental effects of high testosterone levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolism of anabolic steroids and their relevance to drug detection in horseracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teale, Philip; Houghton, Edward

    2010-06-01

    The fight against doping in sport using analytical chemistry is a mature area with a history of approximately 100 years in horseracing. In common with human sport, anabolic/androgenic steroids (AASs) are an important group of potential doping agents. Particular issues with their detection are extensive metabolism including both phase I and phase II. A number of the common AASs are also endogenous to the equine. A further issue is the large number of synthetic steroids produced as pharmaceutical products or as 'designer' drugs intended to avoid detection or for the human supplement market. An understanding of the metabolism of AASs is vital to the development of effective detection methods for equine sport. The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge of the metabolism of appropriate steroids, the current approaches to their detection in equine sport and future trends that may affect equine dope testing.

  13. Anabolic Steroids: A Threat to Body and Mind. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report, based on findings of recent studies on the use of anabolic steroids in the United States, was written to educate the public about these drugs and the dangers of misusing them. It notes that the nonmedical use of anabolic/androgenic steroids among adolescents and young adults is of growing concern, with possibly as many as half a…

  14. Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction of Anabolic Androgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    trenbolone,. 19-nortestosterone, testosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and testosterone benzoate. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency during SLM enrichment, such as donor pH were studied. The detection limits (DL) were 0.08 µg L–1 ...

  15. Supported Liquid Membrane Extraction of Anabolic Androgenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trenbolone, 19-nortestosterone, testosterone, 4-androstene-3,17-dione and testosterone benzoate. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency during SLM enrichment, such as donor pH were studied. The detection limits (DL) were 0.08 μg L–1 ...

  16. 76 FR 72355 - Classification of Two Steroids, Prostanozol and Methasterone, as Schedule III Anabolic Steroids...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... and complications of chronic use. Internal and Emergency Medicine, 4: 289-296. Ringold, H.J., Batres... veterinary use. Approved medical uses for anabolic steroids include treatment of androgen deficiency in...-androgenic steroids. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 32(2): 534-542. Fragkaki, A.G., Angelis, Y.S...

  17. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids : pathophysiology imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Tio, Rene A.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    Eur J Clin Invest 2012; 42 (7): 795803 Abstract Background Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance. Materials and methods In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important

  18. Leverpatologi associeret med anaboliske-androgene steroider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Katrine; Søe, Martin Jensen; Gluud, C N

    1994-01-01

    This review regards the liver damaging side-effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). It seems that AAS can cause development of peliosis hepatis, subcellular changes of hepatocytes, hepatocellular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas. On the other hand, it has not been convincingly proved...

  19. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage.

  20. Myocardial Scar Detected by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in a Competitive Bodybuilder With Longstanding Abuse of Anabolic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Stefan; Jabbour, Claude; Huseynov, Aydin; Borggrefe, Martin; Haghi, Dariusch; Papavassiliu, Theano

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The self-administration intake of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is a widespread practice in competitive bodybuilders. Structural changes within the myocardium following AAS abuse including hypertrophy, restricted diastolic function as well as systolic dysfunction and impaired ventricular inflow have been reported. Case Presentation: We present the case of a 39-year-old bodybuilder with a more than 20-year history of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse presenting with i...

  1. The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, Dicky; Fadda, Paola; Zara, Tamara; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CBI

  2. Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Term(s): Teachers / NIDA Teaching Guide / Mind Over Matter Teaching Guide and Series / Anabolic Steroids Mind Over Matter: Anabolic Steroids Print Order Free Publication in: English Spanish Download PDF 830.69 KB Anabolic steroids ...

  3. Anabolic effect of plant brassinosteroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Debora; Komarnytsky, Slavko; Shapses, Sue; Raskin, Ilya

    2011-10-01

    Brassinosteroids are plant-derived polyhydroxylated derivatives of 5a-cholestane, structurally similar to cholesterol-derived animal steroid hormones and insect ecdysteroids, with no known function in mammals. 28-Homobrassinolide (HB), a steroidal lactone with potent plant growth-promoting property, stimulated protein synthesis and inhibited protein degradation in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells (EC(50) 4 μM) mediated in part by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Oral administration of HB (20 or 60 mg/kg/d for 24 d) to healthy rats fed normal diet (protein content 23.9%) increased food intake, body weight gain, lean body mass, and gastrocnemius muscle mass as compared with vehicle-treated controls. The effect of HB administration increased slightly in animals fed a high-protein diet (protein content 39.4%). Both oral (up to 60 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (up to 4 mg/kg) administration of HB showed low androgenic activity when tested in the Hershberger assay. Moreover, HB showed no direct binding to the androgen receptor in vitro. HB treatment was also associated with an improved physical fitness of untrained healthy rats, as evident from a 6.7% increase in lower extremity strength, measured by grip test. In the gastrocnemius muscle of castrated animals, HB treatment significantly increased the number of type IIa and IIb fibers and the cross-sectional area of type I and type IIa fibers. These findings suggest that oral application of HB triggers selective anabolic response with minimal or no androgenic side-effects and begin to elucidate the putative cellular targets for plant brassinosteroids in mammals.

  4. Adolescent ischemic stroke associated with anabolic steroid and cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Scheich, Tarik; Weber, Artur-Aron; Klee, Dirk; Schweiger, Daniel; Mayatepek, Ertan; Karenfort, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 16-year-old body builder who suffered from an acute ischemic stroke. In the urine, cannabis metabolites as well as metabolites of the oral androgenic-anabolic steroid methandrostenolone were detected, both known to be associated with stroke events. This report highlights the role of cannabis and steroid abuse that induce strokes in the absence of arteriopathy, cardioembolism or thrombophilia. Owing to new upcoming socio-behavioral aspects of late childhood and early adolescent life, this formally rare abuse of cannabis and/or anabolic steroids as well as their associations with strokes becomes more current than ever.

  5. Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids: hypertrophy, ischemia and electrical remodelling as potential triggers of sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, J H M; Medei, E

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives developed to maximise anabolic activity and minimise androgenic activity. AAS abuse is widespread among both athletes and non-athletes at fitness centres and is becoming a public health issue. In addition to their atherogenic, thrombogenic and spastic effects, AAS have direct cardiotoxic effects by causing hypertrophy, electrical and structural remodelling, and contractile dysfunction and by increasing the susceptibility to ischemic injuries. All of these factors contribute to an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

  6. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal with Naloxone (Narcan, Evzio) Pain Prevention Recovery Substance ... Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male sex hormone testosterone. The proper term for these compounds ...

  7. A chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous profiling of ten endogenous steroids, including progesterone, adrenal precursors, androgens and estrogens, using low serum volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Patrick; Turcotte, Véronique; Guillemette, Chantal

    2015-12-01

    Measurement of a large set of sex steroids in clinical epidemiology and laboratory research with reliable methods providing low quantification limits and using a limited volume of blood sample represents a significant challenge. We report a new validated gas chromatography selected reaction monitoring - tandem mass spectrometry assay (GC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous quantification of ten endogenous steroids including progesterone (PROG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenediol (5-diol), androstenedione (4-dione), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (ADT), 5alpha-androstan-3beta-17beta-diol (3β-diol), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). After addition of stable isotope internal standards, the approach involved the combination of liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and solid-phase extraction for injection into the GC system and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The method presents high reproducibility for all analytical parameters in 250 μl serum samples. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were of 100 pg/ml for DHEA, 50 pg/ml for PROG, 5-diol, 4-dione and ADT, 30 pg/ml for T, 10 pg/ml for 3β-diol and DHT, 5 pg/ml for E1, and 1 pg/ml for E2. The applicability of the validated method to determine the concentrations of these 10 steroids was successfully tested on serum from men (n=15), premenopausal (n=10) and postmenopausal women (n=20), and is currently used for larger cancer-related epidemiology studies. One of the most considerable advantages over existing methods is the simultaneous determination of ten steroids in a limited volume of serum that will help conserve important clinical samples from existing biobanks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. MEDICAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH ANABOLIC STEROID USE: ARE THEY EXAGGERATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes

  9. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Kicman, A T

    2008-01-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and ...

  10. Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R.; Ratamess, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    For the past 50 years anabolic steroids have been at the forefront of the controversy surrounding performance enhancing drugs. For almost half of this time no attempt was made by sports governing bodies to control its use, and only recently have all of the major sports governing bodies in North America agreed to ban from competition and punish athletes who test positive for anabolic steroids. These punitive measures were developed with the primary concern for promotion of fair play and eliminating potential health risks associated with androgenic-anabolic steroids. Yet, controversy exists whether these testing programs deter anabolic steroid use. Although the scope of this paper does not focus on the effectiveness of testing, or the issue of fair play, it is of interest to understand why many athletes underestimate the health risks associated from these drugs. What creates further curiosity is the seemingly well-publicized health hazards that the medical community has depicted concerning anabolic steroidabuse. Is there something that the athletes know, or are they simply naïve regarding the dangers? The focus of this review is to provide a brief history of anabolic steroid use in North America, the prevalence of its use in both athletic and recreational populations and its efficacy. Primary discussion will focus on health issues associated with anabolic steroid use with an examination of the contrasting views held between the medical community and the athletes that are using these ergogenic drugs. Existing data suggest that in certain circumstances the medical risk associated with anabolic steroid use may have been somewhat exaggerated, possibly to dissuade use in athletes. Key Points For many years the scientific and medical communities depicted a lack of efficacy and serious adverse effects from anabolic steroid use. Clinical case studies continue to link anabolic steroid administration with myocardial infarct, suicide, and cancer, evidence to support a cause

  11. Efeitos dos esteroides anabólicos androgênicos sobre o útero e parâmetros reprodutivos de ratas adultas Effects of androgenic anabolic steroids on the uterus and reproductive parameters of adult female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cherici Camargo

    2009-09-01

    normal male rats for reproductive parameters evaluation, composing the groups treated during the pre-gestational period. Another group of 20 female rats were treated during the gestational period (7th-14th days. For data analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric variance analysis was used, followed by the test of Dunn or of Student-Newman-Keus (5% significance level. RESULTS: there was a significant body weight increase in the androgenized females (ND: 305±50; T: 280±35; ND+T: 275±30 versus C: 255±22 g; p<0.05. Uterine weight was not affected by the steroidal treatment (ND: 0.6±0.2; T: 0.4±0.04; ND+T: 0.7±0.1 versus C: 0.4±0.09 g. All the androgenized females presented estral acyclicity and endometrium characterized by papilliferous luminal lining, oedematous stroma with hemorrhagic areas and secretory activity. There were changes in the morphometrical thickness parameters of the luminal epithelium, myometrium and perimetrium in the androgenized groups. None of the female rats got pregnant when treated with steroids in the pre-gestational period and the treatment during organogenesis affected negatively the reproductive parameters. CONCLUSIONS: steroidal agents alter the uterine structure and impair fertility and gestational outcome in female rats.

  12. Uso de esteróides anabólicos androgênicos por praticantes de musculação de grandes academias da cidade de São Paulo Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids among body builders in major gym centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Silvia Maria Franco Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estimar o consumo e traçar o perfil dos usuários de esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA entre praticantes de musculação em três grandes academias de ginástica na cidade de São Paulo. Foi utilizado um questionário estruturado para ser respondido voluntária e anonimamente, com garantia explícita de confidencialidade para os mesmos. Os questionários ficaram disponíveis em três academias por uma semana, após ter sido feita ampla divulgação dos objetivos e importância do projeto. Responderam o questionário 209 praticantes de musculação (cerca de 3% do total. A incidência de uso de EAA foi de 19%, sendo que, destes, 8% declararam que fazem uso atualmente e 11%, que já haviam feito uso anteriormente; considerando apenas o sexo masculino, a incidência do uso foi de 24%. Os compostos mais utilizados foram estanozolol e decanoato de nandrolona. O perfil dos usuários pôde ser delineado: idade média de 27 anos (de 25 a 29 anos, predominantemente homens, motivação pela melhora na estética corporal e treinamento muscular intenso. Os EAA foram adquiridos, em sua maioria, em farmácias, sem receita médica e foram feitos uso de suplemento alimentar e outros fármacos em associação. Acreditam que os efeitos tóxicos/adversos podem ser controlados e/ou evitados com o uso de outros medicamentos e/ou acompanhamento médico. O presente trabalho mostra a necessidade de investigações mais abrangentes e aprofundadas, bem como a adoção de ações preventivas e educativas junto à população exposta aos EAA.To estimate the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS among body builders of three - professionally equipped private gym in São Paulo, Brazil, body builders answered voluntary and anonimously a structured multiple itens questionnaire which was available for a week in these gym centers. The participants were informed in advance of the aim of the study. Of the 209 body builders attending (3% of

  13. MEN REGRET ANABOLIC STEROID USE DUE TO A LACK OF COMPREHENSION REGARDING THE CONSEQUENCES ON FUTURE FERTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Kovac, J.R.; Scovell, J.; Ramasamy, R.; Rajanahally, S.; Coward, RM.; Smith, R.P.; Lipshultz, L.I.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether men with anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism (ASIH) seeking testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) regretted their decision to use anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) and what their reasons were for this regret. An anonymous, prospective survey was distributed to 382 men seeking follow-up treatment for hypogonadism. Prior AAS use was confirmed by self-report and men were categorised based upon whether they regretted (R) or did not regret (NR) their use of AAS. The ave...

  14. Aqueous extract of Carpolobia lutea root ameliorates paroxetine-induced anti-androgenic activity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The reversibility and/or enhanced synthesis of testosterone and androgen dependent parameters by the C. lutea root which confers anabolic and androgenic activities on the plant may explain the rationale for its use in the management of sexual dysfunction and fertility in animals.

  15. Incidence of anabolic steroid counterfeiting in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Justa Neves, Diana Brito; Marcheti, Ravane Gracy Ament; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-05-10

    This retrospective study reports data obtained from the National Institute of Criminalistics of the Brazilian Federal Police Department (DPF) on 3676 anabolic products seized between 2006 and 2011. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) were declared on the labels of 96.2% of the products. About one third of the products declared to be from Paraguay, and 14.3% from Brazil. Stanozolol, testosterone and nandrolone were the substances most declared on the labels. Package and qualitative chemical analyses (performed on 2818 products) found that 31.7% of the seized products were counterfeit, with an increase in the counterfeit detection rate during the period. Almost half of the fake products did not contain the declared substances, and 28.3% had only non-declared substances. Testosterone and its esters were responsible for 45% of the 582 cases of non-declared drug detection. Package analysis alone was responsible for the identification of 4.6% of all counterfeit products. These results indicate the need for a continuous effort by the government aimed at decreasing the availability of these products in the country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of an online heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography clean-up step for isotopic ratio mass spectrometry and simultaneous quadrupole mass spectrometry measurements of endogenous anabolic steroid in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilli, Alessandro; Piper, Thomas; de Oliveira, Fábio Azamor; Padilha, Monica Costa; Pereira, Henrique Marcelo; Thevis, Mario; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2016-11-01

    Measuring carbon isotope ratios (CIRs) of urinary analytes represents a cornerstone of doping control analysis and has been particularly optimized for the detection of the misuse of endogenous steroids. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) of appropriate quality, however, necessitates adequate purities of the investigated steroids, which requires extensive pre-analytical sample clean-up steps due to both the natural presence of the target analytes and the high complexity of the matrix. In order to accelerate the sample preparation and increase the automation of the process, the use of multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC) prior to IRMS experiments, was investigated. A well-established instrumental configuration based on two independent GC ovens and one heart-cutting device was optimized. The first dimension (1D) separation was obtained by a non-polar column which assured high efficiency and good loading capacity, while the second dimension (2D), based on a mid-polar stationary phase, provided good selectivity. A flame ionization detector monitored the 1D, and the 2D was simultaneously recorded by isotope ratio and quadrupole mass spectrometry. The assembled MDGC set-up was applied for measuring testosterone, 5α- and 5β-androstanediol, androsterone, and etiocholanolone as target compounds and pregnanediol as endogenous reference compound. The urine sample were pretreated by conventional sample preparation steps comprising solid-phase extraction, hydrolysis, and liquid-liquid extraction. The extract obtained was acetylated and different aliquots were injected into the MDGC system. Two high performance liquid chromatography steps, conventionally adopted prior to CIR measurements, were replaced by the MDGC approach. The obtained values were consistent with the conventional ones. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Payne, J R; Kotwinski, P J; Montgomery, H E

    2004-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance...

  18. Anabolic steroids and head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Bailes, Julian E; Turner, Ryan C; Dodson, Sean C; Sakai, Jun; Maroon, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    The suggestion has been made that neurological changes seen in the syndrome of chronic traumatic encephalopathy may be due to exogenous anabolic steroid use rather than traumatic brain injury. To determine whether administration of anabolic steroids alters the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury. Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and a linear acceleration model of traumatic brain injury were used. Experimental groups were (1) preinjury anabolic steroids, (2) preinjury placebo carrier, (3) anabolic steroids without injury, (4) no steroids and no injury, (5) postinjury placebo carrier, and (6) postinjury anabolic steroids. Following a 30-day recovery, rats were euthanized, and brainstem white matter tracts underwent fluorescent immunohistochemical processing and labeling of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of axonal injury. Digital imaging and statistical analyses were used to determine whether anabolic steroid administration resulted in a significant change in the number of injured axons. There was no statistically significant difference in number of APP-positive axons by immunohistochemical analysis between respective anabolic steroid and placebo groups. Using a standard acceleration-deceleration model of mild traumatic brain injury, we have shown successful visualization of traumatically injured axons with antibody staining of APP. Our results indicate no statistically significant effect of anabolic steroids on the number of APP-positive axons. With the use of this model, and within its limitations, we see no adverse effect or causative role of anabolic steroid administration on the brain following mild traumatic brain injury using APP counts as a marker for anatomic injury.

  19. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and abuse of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocca, Serena; Viviano, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. In our paper, we describe a case in which use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) was associated with SJS. The patient participated in competitive body-building and regularly took variable doses of AAS. Initial symptoms (headache, weakness, pharyngodynia, and fever) were ignored. After a week he presented to the Emergency Department with a burning sensation on the mouth, lips, and eyes. Painful, erythematous, maculopapular, and vesicular lesions appeared all over the body, including on the genitals. During hospitalization, he also developed a cardiac complication. The patient had not taken any drugs except AAS.

  20. Androgen Restored Contraception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, X.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) reduce androgen levels, especially testosterone (T), by inhibiting ovarian and adrenal androgen synthesis and by increasing levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Possible consequences of this androgen loss are diminished sexual function and mood

  1. Adverse cardiovascular effects of anabolic steroids: pathophysiology imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestani, Reza; Slart, Riemer H J A; Dullaart, Robin P F; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Zeebregts, Clark J; Boersma, Hendrikus H; Tio, René A; Dierckx, Rudi A J O

    2012-07-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are widely abused for enhancing muscle mass, strength, growth and improving athletic performance.   In recent years, many observational and interventional studies have shown important adverse cardiovascular effects of AAS abuse.   This review discusses established and future perspectives of novel molecular imaging techniques that may serve as potential tools for early detection of AAS-associated cardiovascular disorders. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  2. Synthetic androgens as designer supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed.

  3. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed. PMID:26074745

  4. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of glucuronide-conjugated anabolic steroid metabolites: method validation and interlaboratory comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintikka, L.; Kuuranne, T.; Leinonen, A.; Thevis, M.; Schanzer, W.; Halket, J.; Cowan, D.; Grosse, J.; Hemmersbach, P.; Nielen, M.W.F.; Kostiainen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for simultaneous and direct detection of 12 glucuronide-conjugated anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) metabolites in human urine is described. The compounds selected were the main metabolites detected in

  5. Anabolic Steroids...What's the Hype?...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Gregory L.; Wagner, Lauris L.

    This pamphlet uses a question-and-answer format to examine the use and abuse of anabolic steroids. It begins by explaining that all steroids are not anabolic steroids and that anabolic steroids are those used specifically to build muscles quickly. Medical uses of anabolic steroids are reviewed; how people get steroids, how they take them, and…

  6. Perturbation of the Hematopoietic Profile by Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Erkander Mullen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the hematopoietic profile in AAS abusers, during or short after their last abuse and approximately six months later. Moreover, we studied if supraphysiological doses of testosterone influence the concentration of hemoglobin and erythropoietin in healthy volunteers. Design and Methods. Subjects (N=31 were recruited through an antidoping hotline. The hematological profile was measured when the subjects entered the study and approximately 6 months later. Testosterone enanthate (500 mg was administered to healthy volunteers (N=24. Gene expression was studied in human hek293 cells exposed to 1 μM testosterone. Results. Decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocyte volume fraction, and erythrocyte counts were observed after 6 months without the use of AAS. Results in volunteers show that hemoglobin increased 3% four and 15 days after testosterone administration, whereas EPO was significantly increased by 38% four days after dose. Agreeingly, in vitro study shows that testosterone induces the mRNA level of EPO with 65% after 24-hour exposure. Conclusion. These results indicate that supraphysiological doses of testosterone may cause a perturbation in the hematopoietic profile. This is of interest in relation to the adverse cardiovascular effects observed in AAS abusers.

  7. Anabolic androgenic steroids and the relation to the sportive practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Sousa Cunha; Nádia Sousa Cunha; Maria José Costa Sampaio Moura; Fernanda Klein Marcondes

    2004-01-01

    Os esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA) são um grupo de compostos naturais e sintéticos formados a partir da testosterona ou um de seus derivados, cuja indicação terapêutica clássica está associada a situações de hipogonadismo e quadros de deficiência do metabolismo protéico. Atuando sobre os receptores androgênicos, modulam de forma indissociável tanto os efeitos androgênicos como os anabólicos. Tais substâncias variam na relação entre a atividade anabólica: androgênica, mas nenhum fárma...

  8. [Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa

    2013-09-01

    Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, which includes familial hypertriglyceridemia and idiopathic hypertriglyceridemia, is characterized by the increased level of VLDL-triglycerides in the blood. Increased production of VLDL from the liver and the decreased catabolism of VLDL-TG in the vessel, which are also the main metabolic features of insulin resistance, have been proposed to be the causes of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. Genetic factors responsible for endogenous hypertriglyceridemia have been elucidated in several studies, however, these factors have so far not been clearly identified yet; thus the causes of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia would be polygenic. Recent advances in the genetic analytical methods like genome-wide association study would hopefully unveil the whole pictures of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia.

  9. Prevalência do uso e conhecimento de esteroides anabolizantes androgênicos por estudantes e professores de educação física que atuam em academias de ginástica Prevalence of the use of anabolic androgenic steroids by physical education students and teachers who work in health clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Salim Costa Abrahin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os esteroides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA são substâncias, quimicamente semelhantes à testosterona, utilizadas para o tratamento/controle de diversas doenças. Contudo, tais substâncias estão sendo empregadas de forma não terapêutica e indiscriminada com finalidades de melhora da performance esportiva e principalmente estética. OBJETIVO: analisar a prevalência do uso e o conhecimento de EAA por estudantes e professores de educação física que atuam em academias de ginástica de Belém, PA. Utilizou-se para a coleta de dados um questionário fechado e anônimo, aplicado a 117 pesquisados. A comparação da prevalência do uso e o grau de conhecimento dos pesquisados sobre EAA foi realizada através de estatística não paramétrica, prova de X² (Qui-quadrado, considerando o intervalo de confiança de 95% e p Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS are chemically similar to testosterone, used for the treatment/control of various diseases. However, these substances are being used in non-therapeutic and indiscriminate purposes to improve sports performance and mainly esthetics. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of AAS use and information of undergraduates and physical education teachers working in fitness centers in Belém-PA. A closed anonymous questionnaire was applied to 117 volunteers as an instrument. Comparison of the prevalence of use and degree of information of the respondents about AAS was performed using statistical non-parametric test X² (chi-square, considering the range of 95%, significant when p<0.05. The average age of the participants was 28.0 ± 6.3 years and the prevalence of AAS use was of 31.6%. The highest prevalence found was among specialist professionals (39.3%, the main motivation for the use of AAS was 75.6% to esthetics. Regarding the information, it was found that the drugs were classified as AAS: Durateston, Deca-Durabolin, Oxandrolona/Winstrol. However, these professionals took other

  10. Body image, disordered eating, and anabolic steroids in male bodybuilders: current versus former users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Woodside, D Blake

    2009-04-01

    To examine body image, disordered eating, and psychological characteristics typically observed in people with eating disorders in current, former, and nonsteroid-using male bodybuilders. Fifty bodybuilders recruited from local gymnasia completed anonymous questionnaires designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, and general psychological characteristics. Ten subjects were classified as currently using anabolic-androgenic steroids, 12 were former users, and 28 had never used steroids. Compared with former users and non-users, current steroid users reported higher scores on weight and shape preoccupation, body dissatisfaction, drive for increased muscle tone, depression, ineffectiveness, perfectionism, and interpersonal distrust. No differences emerged between former users and non-users. Current but not previous anabolic-androgenic steroids use is associated with considerable body image disturbance, eating-related psychopathology, and poorer psychological adjustment. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Cardiac effects of anabolic steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, J R; Kotwinski, P J; Montgomery, H E

    2004-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse in athletes has been associated with a wide range of adverse conditions, including hypogonadism, testicular atrophy, impaired spermatogenesis, gynaecomastia, and psychiatric disturbance. But what effect does steroid abuse have on the cardiovascular system?

  12. Prohibited anabolic substances, dangerous to human consumers, in accordance of E.U. regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia A. Hanganu,; Voicu, V.,; Cristina, T. Romeo

    2009-01-01

    Substances with anabolic effects are used to enhance feed conversion, growth rate or muscle tissue deposition in stock farming for several decades. The majority of these compounds have biochemical effects similar to sex steroids (androgens, estrogens, gestagens). However, in the E.U., the use of hormones for growth – promotion or fattening is prohibited. Monitoring of residues of hormonal growth-promotion in meat or milk, is essential for implementing such bans and to protect public health ag...

  13. Doping in sport and exercise: anabolic, ergogenic, health and clinical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Stephen R; Goebel, Catrin; Burke, Louise M; Greaves, Ronda F

    2016-03-01

    The use of doping agents is evident within competitive sport in senior and junior age groups, where they are taken by non-elite as well as elite participants. They are also taken in non-sporting contexts by individuals seeking to 'improve' their physique through an increase in muscle and/or decrease in fat mass. While attaining accurate data on the prevalence of their use has limitations, studies suggest the illicit use of doping agents by athletes and non-athletes may be 1-5% in the population and greater than 50% in some groups; with the prevalence being higher in males. There is conclusive evidence that some doping agents are anabolic and ergogenic. There is also evidence that the use of doping agents such as anabolic androgenic steroids, growth hormone and other anabolic agents, erythropoietin and stimulants conveys considerable health risks that include, but are not limited to: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, mental health issues, virilisation in females and the suppression of naturally produced androgens in males. This review will outline the anabolic, ergogenic and health impacts of selected doping agents and methods that may be used in both the sporting and physique development contexts. It also provides a brief tabulated overview of the history of doping and how doping agents may impact upon the analyses of clinical samples. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. [Ingestion of anabolic steroids and ischaemic stroke. A clinical case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esperón, Carlos; Hervás-García, José Vicente; Jiménez-González, Marta; Pérez de la Ossa-Herrero, Natalia; Gomis-Cortina, Meritxell; Dorado-Bouix, Laura; López-Cancio Martinez, Elena; Castaño-Duque, Carlos H; Millán-Torné, Mónica; Dávalos, Antonio

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic substances derived from testosterone that are employed for their trophic effect on muscle tissue, among other uses. Their consumption can give trigger a series of adverse side effects on the body, including the suppression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis as well as liver, psychiatric and cardiovascular disorders. The most common effects are altered fat profiles and blood pressure values, cardiac remodelling, arrhythmias or myocardial infarcts. CASE REPORT. We report the case of a young male, with a background of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, who visited because of an acute neurological focus in the right hemisphere related with an ischaemic stroke. The aetiological study, including cardiac monitoring, echocardiograph and imaging studies (magnetic resonance and arteriography) and lab findings (thrombophilia, serology, autoimmunity, tumour markers) showed no alterations. CONCLUSIONS. The association between consumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids and cardiovascular pathologies is known, but its relation with cerebrovascular disease has not received so much attention from researchers.

  15. Anaboliske-androgene steroiders effekt på muskelstyrke, kropsvaegt og fedtfri legemsmasse hos styrketraenende maend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Jensen, K L; Gluud, C

    1989-01-01

    A review of the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) on muscle strength, body weight and lean body mass in body-building men is presented. In about half of the placebo-controlled studies, a significant effect on the above mentioned response variables is found. In all cases where an effect...

  16. SOCS2 mediates the cross talk between androgen and growth hormone signaling in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin Choy; Wikström, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic signals such as androgens and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis play an essential role in the normal development of the prostate but also in its malignant transformation. In this study, we investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) a...

  17. Phytosterol consumption and the anabolic steroid boldenone in humans: a hypothesis piloted.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, M.M.; Sterk, S.S.; Verhagen, H.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Jong, N. de

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the anabolic steroid boldenone in animals has become a research topic as its occurrence is proposed to be a marker for illegal hormone administration. However, boldenone can also be formed from beta-sitosterol, a phytosterol present in animal feed, as well as from endogenous sources.

  18. Presence and metabolism of the anabolic steroid boldenone in various animal species: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brabander, H.F. de; Poelmans, S.; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Bizec, B. le; Draisci, R.; Sterk, S.S.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Courtheyn, D.; Hoof, N. van; Macrì, A.; Wasch, K. de

    2004-01-01

    The review summarizes current knowledge on the possible illegal use of the anabolic steroid boldenone. The presence of boldenone and metabolites in different animal species and the possibility of the occurrence of endogenous boldenone and metabolites is assessed, as are the methods of analysis used

  19. Metabolomics Approach to Anabolic Steroid Urine Profiling of Bovines Treated with Prohormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.; Lommen, A.; Essers, M.L.; Groot, M.J.; Hende, van J.; Doeswijk, T.G.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    In livestock production, illegal use of natural steroids is hard to prove because metabolites are either unknown or not significantly above highly fluctuating endogenous levels. In this work we outlined for the first time a metabolomics based strategy for anabolic steroid urine profiling. Urine

  20. TAp73 promotes anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelio, Ivano; Antonov, Alexey A; Catani, Maria Valeria; Massoud, Renato; Bernassola, Francesca; Knight, Richard A; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2014-12-30

    Metabolic adaptation has emerged as a hallmark of cancer and a promising therapeutic target, as rapidly proliferating cancer cells adapt their metabolism increasing nutrient uptake and reorganizing metabolic fluxes to support biosynthesis. The transcription factor p73 belongs to the p53-family and regulates tumorigenesis via its two N-terminal isoforms, with (TAp73) or without (ΔNp73) a transactivation domain. TAp73 acts as tumor suppressor, at least partially through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and through regulation of genomic stability. Here, we sought to investigate whether TAp73 also affects metabolic profiling of cancer cells. Using high throughput metabolomics, we unveil a thorough and unexpected role for TAp73 in promoting Warburg effect and cellular metabolism. TAp73-expressing cells show increased rate of glycolysis, higher amino acid uptake and increased levels and biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA. Moreover, we report an extensive TAp73-mediated upregulation of several anabolic pathways including polyamine and synthesis of membrane phospholipids. TAp73 expression also increases cellular methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), possibly influencing methylation and epigenetics, and promotes arginine metabolism, suggestive of a role in extracellular matrix (ECM) modeling. In summary, our data indicate that TAp73 regulates multiple metabolic pathways that impinge on numerous cellular functions, but that, overall, converge to sustain cell growth and proliferation.

  1. Androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ieuan A; Davies, John D; Bunch, Trevor I; Pasterski, Vickie; Mastroyannopoulou, Kiki; MacDougall, Jane

    2012-10-20

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome in its complete form is a disorder of hormone resistance characterised by a female phenotype in an individual with an XY karyotype and testes producing age-appropriate normal concentrations of androgens. Pathogenesis is the result of mutations in the X-linked androgen receptor gene, which encodes for the ligand-activated androgen receptor--a transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. This Seminar describes the clinical manifestations of androgen insensitivity syndrome from infancy to adulthood, reviews the mechanism of androgen action, and shows examples of how mutations of the androgen receptor gene cause the syndrome. Management of androgen insensitivity syndrome should be undertaken by a multidisciplinary team and include gonadectomy to avoid gonad tumours in later life, appropriate sex-hormone replacement at puberty and beyond, and an emphasis on openness in disclosure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anabolic steroid abuse: physiological and anaesthetic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, P C A; Yarrow, M

    2005-07-01

    This review summarises the physiological and pharmacological effects of the anabolic steroids used to enhance performance in sports. The anabolic steroids promote muscle growth and protein synthesis. Side-effects of anabolic steroids include cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, hypercoagulopathy, hepatic dysfunction, and psychiatric and behavioural disturbances. It is therefore appropriate that the anaesthetist be familiar with the abuse of anabolic steroids, their potential adverse effects, and the peri-operative risk associated with the use of these drugs.

  3. IGF-I mRNA levels in bovine satellite cell cultures: effects of fusion and anabolic steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanga-Sollo, E; Pampusch, M S; Xi, G; White, M E; Hathaway, M R; Dayton, W R

    2004-11-01

    Androgenic and estrogenic steroids enhance muscle growth in a number of species; however, the mechanism by which anabolic steroids enhance muscle growth is not known. Castrated male cattle (steers) provide a particularly good model system in which to study the effects of anabolic steroids on muscle growth because they respond dramatically to treatment with both estrogens and androgens. The goal of this study was to determine if treatment of bovine satellite cell (BSC) cultures with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) or trenbolone (a synthetic androgen) directly affects proliferation rate or level of mRNA for estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha, androgen receptor, and growth factors that have been shown to affect muscle growth (insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and myostatin). BSC cultures were established from the semimembranosus muscles of steers and then treated for 48 h with various concentrations of E(2) or trenbolone ranging from 0.001 to 10 nM. IGF-I mRNA levels in proliferating BSC cultures were significantly increased at 0.01 (1.9-times control values, P steroids. Although, levels of IGF-I mRNA were 10-times greater (P steroids have direct anabolic effects on cells present in the BSC culture. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Modulation of follistatin and myostatin propeptide by anabolic steroids and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, S; Geisler, S; Hengevoss, J; Schiffer, T; Piechotta, M; Adler, M; Diel, P

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the impact of training, anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones on myostatin-interacting proteins in order to identify manipulations of myostatin signalling. To identify whether analysis of the myostatin interacting proteins follistatin and myostatin propeptide is suitable to detect the abuse of anabolic steroids, their serum concentrations were monitored in untrained males, bodybuilders using anabolic steroids and natural bodybuilders. In addition, we analysed follistatin and myostatin propeptide serum proteins in females during menstrual cycle. Our results showed increased follistatin concentrations in response to anabolic steroids. Furthermore, variations of sex steroid levels during the menstrual cycle had no impact on the expression of follistatin and myostatin propetide. In addition, we identified gender differences in the basal expression of the investigated proteins. In general, follistatin and myostatin propeptide concentrations were relatively stable within the same individual both in males and females. In conclusion, the current findings provide an insight into gender differences in myostatin-interacting proteins and their regulation in response to anabolic steroids and endogenous hormones. Therefore our data provide new aspects for the development of doping prevention strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Androgen therapy in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Wiebke

    2006-01-01

    Androgens in women either derive from direct ovarian production or from peripheral conversion of the adrenal sex steroid precursor, dehydroepiandrosterone, towards active androgens. Therefore, loss of adrenal or ovarian function, caused by Addison's disease or consequent to bilateral oophorectomy, results in severe androgen deficiency, clinically often associated with a loss of libido and energy. Importantly, physiological menopause does not necessarily lead to androgen deficiency, as androgen synthesis in the ovaries may persist despite the decline in estrogen production. However, the definition of female androgen deficiency, as recently provided by the Princeton consensus statement, is not precise enough and may lead to over-diagnosis due to the high prevalence of its diagnostic criteria: androgen levels below or within the lower quartile of the normal range and concurrent sexual dysfunction. Importantly, physiological menopause is not necessarily associated with androgen deficiency and therefore does not routinely require androgen therapy. Current replacement options include transdermal testosterone administration or dehydroepiandrosterone treatment, both of which have been shown to result in significant improvements, in particular in libido and mood, while effects on body composition and muscular function are not well documented. It is important to keep in mind that the number of randomized controlled trials is still limited and that currently none of the available preparations is officially approved for use in women. Currently, androgen replacement should be reserved for women with severe androgen deficiency due to an established cause and matching clinical signs and symptoms.

  6. Dissociating behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine effects of androgen steroids in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohtz, Amy S; Frye, Cheryl A

    2012-01-01

    Developments in behavioral assessment, autonomic and/or baseline reactivity, psychopharmacology, and genetics, have contributed significantly to the assessment of performance-enhancing drugs in animal models. Particular classes of steroid hormones: androgenic steroids are of interest. Anecdotally, the performance enhancing effects of androgens are attributed to anabolic events. However, there is a discrepancy between anecdotal evidence and investigative data. While some androgen steroids may promote muscle growth (myogenesis), effects of androgens on performance enhancement are not always seen. Indeed, some effects of androgens on performance may be attributable to their psychological and cardiovascular effects. As such, we consider androgen effects in terms of their behavioral, autonomic, and neuroendocrine components. Techniques are discussed in this chapter, some of which are well established, while others have been more recently developed to study androgen action. Androgens may be considered for their positive impact, negative consequence, or psychotropic properties. Thus, this review aims to elucidate some of the effects and/or mechanisms of androgens on behavioral, autonomic, and/or neuroendocrine assessment that may underlie their controversial performance enhancing effects.

  7. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satwant; Baynes, Alice; Lockyer, Anne E; Routledge, Edwin J; Jones, Catherine S; Noble, Leslie R; Jobling, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT), under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  8. Steroid Androgen Exposure during Development Has No Effect on Reproductive Physiology of Biomphalaria glabrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satwant Kaur

    Full Text Available Gastropod mollusks have been proposed as alternative models for male reproductive toxicity testing, due to similarities in their reproductive anatomy compared to mammals, together with evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals can cause effects in some mollusks analogous to those seen in mammals. To test this hypothesis, we used the freshwater pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, for which various genetic tools and a draft genome have recently become available, to investigate the effects of two steroid androgens on the development of mollusk secondary sexual organs. Here we present the results of exposures to two potent androgens, the vertebrate steroid; 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT and the pharmaceutical anabolic steroid; 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, under continuous flow-through conditions throughout embryonic development and up to sexual maturity. Secondary sexual gland morphology, histopathology and differential gene expression analysis were used to determine whether steroid androgens stimulated or inhibited organ development. No significant differences between tissues from control and exposed snails were identified, suggesting that these androgens elicited no biologically detectable response normally associated with exposure to androgens in vertebrate model systems. Identifying no effect of androgens in this mollusk is significant, not only in the context of the suitability of mollusks as alternative model organisms for testing vertebrate androgen receptor agonists but also, if applicable to other similar mollusks, in terms of the likely impacts of androgens and anti-androgenic pollutants present in the aquatic environment.

  9. The Different Effects Of Endogenous And Exogenous Sex Hormones On Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shafiee Sabet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sexual dimorphism is seen in ischemic stroke. Women have lower stroke incidence than men until an advanced age, when the epidemiology of ischemic stroke shifts and incidence rises dramatically in women. This could indicate the role of sex hormones in pathogenesis of cerebrovascular diseases. This Review summarizes the sex differences related to stroke, and the effects of endogenous and exogenAous hormones on the cerebrovasculature of the male and female brain. Methods: We conducted a vast review to analyze possible associations between exposure to endogenous and exogenous female and male steroid hormones and the risks of cerebrovascular diseases. This association is discussed in the context of the effects of sex hormone levels on the progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular tone, and various risk factors including patient's lipid profile, arterial blood pressure and diabetes. Their therapeutic potentials is also reviewed. Results: There is a debate on the role of androgens. A large array of data testifies in favor of a variety of neuroprotective androgen effects in men mostly, but in many cases in women as well. Testosterone supplementation in low to normal levels in hypogonadal men has mostly been shown to benefit the subjects receiving it, but administration in supraphysiological doses however, along with anabolic steroid abuse, seems to adversely affect both the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in men. Its effects in women have yet to be researched in depth. Due to the lower stroke incidence observed in pre-menopausal women and robust preclinical evidence of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of estrogen, researchers have focused on the potential benefits of hormones to reduce ischemic brain injury. However, hormone therapy to postmenopausal females increases the risk and severity of ischemic stroke. Moreover, while estrogen treatment is neuroprotective in younger females, estrogen paradoxically increases

  10. Selection for rapid embryo development correlates with embryo exposure to maternal androgens among passerine birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, H.; Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Greater offspring predation favors evolution of faster development among species. We hypothesized that greater offspring predation exerts selection on mothers to increase levels of anabolic androgens in egg yolks to achieve faster development. Here, we tested whether (1) concentrations of yolk androgens in passerine species were associated with offspring predation and (2) embryo and nestling development rates were associated with yolk androgen concentrations. We examined three androgens that increase in potency along the synthesis pathway: androstenedione (A4) to testosterone (T) to 5??- dihydrotestosterone (5??-DHT). Concentrations of none of these steroids were related to clutch size; only A4 was allometrically related to egg volume. Species that experience greater predation showed higher yolk concentrations of T and 5??-DHT. Higher concentrations of T and particularly 5??-DHT were strongly correlated with faster development during the embryo period and less so during the nestling period. Development rates were most strongly correlated with 5??-DHT, suggesting that potency increases along the androgen synthesis pathway and that effects are mediated by the androgen receptor pathway. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection for faster development by time-dependent offspring mortality may be achieved epigenetically by varying embryo exposure to maternal anabolic steroids. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  11. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Kirk J

    2009-12-01

    The nonmedical use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) appeals to athletes across several sports, particularly those whose activity makes muscle size and strength advantageous, and in individuals (usually men) with body dysmorphic disorder. Patterns of nonmedical use, including supratherapeutic doses of illicitly obtained drugs, increase the risk for adverse psychiatric and other medical consequences. Although AAS users may be more likely to consult physicians for nonpsychiatric medical consequences than changes in their mental status, it is argued that the motivation for persistent use despite adverse consequences is sustained in large part by psychological variables. Therefore, all physicians who treat nonmedical AAS users will benefit from an understanding of these psychological variables, including the potential for AAS to cause dependence. This article aims to aid such understanding, and guidelines are suggested for assessment and treatment of nonmedical AAS users.

  12. Characteristics and Behaviors of Older Male Anabolic Steroid Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Trinh, Karen; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Pal, Jai; Lindfelt, Tristan A; Perry, Paul J

    2015-10-01

    To compare and contrast the characteristics of 2 groups of men ≥40 years old: reported anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users and nonusers. Cross-sectional survey. Thirty-eight online fitness, weight lifting, bodybuilding, and steroid Web sites. A total of 67 male AAS users and 76 male nonusers ≥40 years old. Demographics, utilization of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents (PEAs), exercise patterns, history of illicit drugs and alcohol use, and psychiatric traits/diagnoses. The majority of AAS users ≥40 years old were caucasian (92.5%), heterosexual (97.0%), and classified themselves as recreational exercisers (79.1%). AAS users took more PEAs (11.5 ± 5.6 vs 4.6 ± 2.7; P abuse among older men. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  14. Identification of novel genes that regulate androgen receptor signaling and growth of androgen-deprived prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Elina; Ji, Hao; Chen, Mengqiang; Baig, Mirza; Oliver, David; Ohouo, Patrice; Lim, Chang-uk; Schools, Garry; Carmack, Steven; Ding, Ye; Broude, Eugenia V; Roninson, Igor B; Buttyan, Ralph; Shtutman, Michael

    2015-05-30

    Prostate cancer progression to castration refractory disease is associated with anomalous transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in an androgen-depleted milieu. To identify novel gene products whose downregulation transactivates AR in prostate cancer cells, we performed a screen of enzymatically-generated shRNA lenti-libraries selecting for transduced LNCaP cells with elevated expression of a fluorescent reporter gene under the control of an AR-responsive promoter. The shRNAs present in selected populations were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing to identify target genes. Highly enriched gene targets were then validated with siRNAs against selected genes, testing first for increased expression of luciferase from an AR-responsive promoter and then for altered expression of endogenous androgen-regulated genes in LNCaP cells. We identified 20 human genes whose silencing affected the expression of exogenous and endogenous androgen-responsive genes in prostate cancer cells grown in androgen-depleted medium. Knockdown of four of these genes upregulated the expression of endogenous AR targets and siRNAs targeting two of these genes (IGSF8 and RTN1) enabled androgen-independent proliferation of androgen-dependent cells. The effects of IGSF8 appear to be mediated through its interaction with a tetraspanin protein, CD9, previously implicated in prostate cancer progression. Remarkably, homozygous deletions of IGSF8 are found almost exclusively in prostate cancers but not in other cancer types. Our study shows that androgen independence can be achieved through the inhibition of specific genes and reveals a novel set of genes that regulate AR signaling in prostate cancers.

  15. [Insulin as an anabolic: hypoglycemia in the bodybuilding world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, C; Schüpfer, G; Wietlisbach, M; Gerber, H

    1998-07-01

    Excessive body building may be dangerous. To promote athletic performance and to improve physical appearance many of the body builders abuse anabolic-androgenic steroids and other drugs. The abuse of insulin as an anabolic medication in this athletic community was followed by a case of severe hypoglycaemia in a body builder. A 30-year old male presented with cerebral symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Directly before an international competition he tried to stimulate muscle growth by using the hypoglycaemic stimulus to the growth hormone. To achieve this he injected 70 IE of a short-acting insulin subcutaneously, resulting in severe hypoglycaemia. After the initial administration of intravenous glucose by the paramedics, he lost consciousness and showed signs of convulsions. After orotracheal intubation by an emergency physician, despite of ongoing infusion of glucose the blood glucose concentration remained low as measured in the out-of-hospital setting. Finally administration of additional glucose and glucagon in the intensive care unit was able to stabilize the metabolic system. In any case of severe hypoglycaemia, repetitive measurements of blood glucose even in the prehospital setting should be performed to detect the hypoglycaemia especially if athletes are concerned.

  16. Dilated cardiomyopathy and acute liver injury associated with combined use of ephedra, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, and anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brychan M; Schofield, Richard S

    2005-05-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that some athletes have used to enhance muscle mass and improve their athletic performance. Ephedrine is a potent sympathomimetic agent that can lead to cardiomyopathy similar to that seen with catecholamine excess. Adverse cardiovascular events attributed to anabolic steroid and ephedra use, such as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and sudden death, are rarely reported. Bodybuilders have used gamma-hydroxybutyrate, a potent secretagogue of growth hormone, to promote muscle development. Although dilated cardiomyopathy is a known complication of excess growth hormone levels, it has not been associated with use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. A healthy 40-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for new-onset congestive heart failure and severe acute hepatitis that developed several months after he began using anabolic-androgenic steroids, ephedra, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate supplements. Analysis with an objective causality assessment scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction between the patient's use of anabolic steroids, ephedra, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate and the development of his cardiomyopathy and acute liver injury.

  17. Multi-organ damage induced by anabolic steroid supplements: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaha Ali A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of anabolic supplements and other related drugs for body building and to enhance athletic performance is nowadays widespread and acutely pervasive all around the world. This alarming increase in the use of anabolic and amino acid supplements has been linked to a diverse array of pathologies. As previously reported, the abuse of androgenic steroids is not without severe physiological, psychiatric and physical costs. The case we report here describes multi-organ damage resulting from the abuse and uncontrolled use of anabolic steroid supplements, mainly testosterone. Case presentation A 24-year-old white man presented with abdominal pain concomitant with nausea and vomiting. Laboratory analysis revealed hypercalcemia, elevated liver enzymes and high levels of amylase, lipase and creatine protein kinase. Conclusion Amino acid as well as anabolic supplements may lead to abnormal functioning of many organs, which could be fatal in some instances. This mandates worldwide and concerted efforts to educate the public, especially the youth, about the dangers of these increasingly abused drugs.

  18. Anabolic steroids impair the exercise-induced growth of the cardiac capillary bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagarakis, C V; Bloch, W; Hartmann, G; Hollmann, W; Addicks, K

    2000-08-01

    Concomitant application of anabolic-androgenic steroids and physical exercise can induce cardiac hypertrophy. These experiments investigate the still unknown response of the cardiac myocytes and capillaries to the combined influence of various anabolic steroids and muscular exercise. Female SPF-NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: a) sedentary control, b) exercise (treadmill running); c) sedentary receiving Dianabol; d) exercise + Dianabol; e) exercise + Oral-Turinabol. After 3 and 6 weeks the left ventricular papillary muscles were studied morphometrically. Evaluated variables: minimal myocyte diameter, number of capillaries around a single myocyte, capillary density and intercapillary distance. Only the anabolic steroids + exercise groups showed a mild myocyte hypertrophy. In contrast, only exercise alone caused a significant increase of the capillary density after both experimental periods; e.g. capillary density after 6 weeks (capillaries/mm2, mean values +/- standard deviation, p Anabolic steroids combined with exercise: 1) induce mild hypertrophy of the cardiac myocytes, 2) impair the cardiac microvascular adaptation to physical conditioning. The microvascular impairment may cause a detrimental alteration of the myocardial oxygen supply, especially during muscular exercise.

  19. Anabolic Steroid Reversal of Denervation Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    anabolic steroid treatment could have a more obvious effect when given during analogous states of muscle healing or growth . Indeed, quicker and more...potentiate muscle growth and strengthening. Elashoff et al. in a meta-analysis of human anabolic steroid use studies concluded that there was no...certainly “denervation atrophy” plays a significant role. Anabolic steroids , which have been shown to cause hypertrophy of muscle fibers, increase net

  20. Androgen receptor abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); G.G.J.M. Kuiper (George); C. Ris-Stalpers (Carolyn); H.C.J. van Rooij (Henri); G. Romalo (G.); G. Trifiro (Gianluca); E. Mulder (Eppo); L. Pinsky (L.); H.U. Schweikert (H.); J. Trapman (Jan)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human androgen receptor is a member of the superfamily of steroid hormone receptors. Proper functioning of this protein is a prerequisite for normal male sexual differentiation and development. The cloning of the human androgen receptor cDNA and the elucidation of

  1. Cortical venous thrombosis following exogenous androgen use for bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsson, Olafur; Herrman, Lars

    2013-02-05

    There are only a few reports of patients developing cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) after androgen therapy. We present a young man who developed cortical venous thrombosis after using androgens to increase muscle mass. He was hospitalised for parasthesia and dyspraxia in the left hand followed by a generalised tonic-clonic seizure. At admission, he was drowsy, not fully orientated, had sensory inattention, pronation drift and a positive extensor response, all on the left side. The patient had been using anabolic steroids (dainabol 20 mg/day) for the last month for bodybuilding. CT angiography showed a right cortical venous thrombosis. Anticoagulation therapy was started with intravenous heparin for 11 days and oral anticoagulation (warfarin) thereafter. A control CT angiography 4 months later showed resolution of the thrombosis. He recovered fully.

  2. Prohibited anabolic substances, dangerous to human consumers, in accordance of E.U. regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia A. Hanganu,

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substances with anabolic effects are used to enhance feed conversion, growth rate or muscle tissue deposition in stock farming for several decades. The majority of these compounds have biochemical effects similar to sex steroids (androgens, estrogens, gestagens. However, in the E.U., the use of hormones for growth – promotion or fattening is prohibited. Monitoring of residues of hormonal growth-promotion in meat or milk, is essential for implementing such bans and to protect public health against the harmful effects of these substances, which incidentally is found in products of animal origin.

  3. ["No" for stacked young bodybuilders, "yes" for manthers: the biomedical discourse on anabolic steroids and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Danielle Ribeiro de; Castiel, Luis David; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Pereira da Gama Alves

    2015-06-01

    The article addresses the use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic drugs whose abuse has been characterized as a public health problem, operated in the opposition between "medical" and "non-medical" uses. A qualitative approach was used to analyze the text in 76 biomedical articles published from 2002 to 2012. The discourse shows a persistent ban on non-medically regulated use of AAS by young people, while the limits on clinically qualified use appear to expand among older people, even given the contradictions straining the argument on the prevention of health risks. Moralizing biopolitical stances appear, based on gender distinctions or under the aegis of criminalizing drug use.

  4. Anabolic Steroids May Tax the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165824.html Anabolic Steroids May Tax the Heart Weight-lifters using the ... HealthDay News) -- Long-term use of muscle-building anabolic steroids may take a toll on the heart, researchers ...

  5. Androgen effects on skeletal muscle: implications for the development and management of frailty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew DL O'Connell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have potent anabolic effects on skeletal muscle and decline with age in parallel to losses in muscle mass and strength. This loss of muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia, is the central event in development of frailty, the vulnerable health status that presages adverse outcomes and rapid functional decline in older adults. The potential role of falling androgen levels in the development of frailty and their utility as function promoting therapies in older men has therefore attracted considerable attention. This review summarizes current concepts and definitions in muscle ageing, sarcopenia and frailty, and evaluates recent developments in the study of androgens and frailty. Current evidence from observational and interventional studies strongly supports an effect of androgens on muscle mass in ageing men, but effects on muscle strength and particularly physical function have been less clear. Androgen treatment has been generally well-tolerated in studies of older men, but concerns remain over higher dose treatments and use in populations with high cardiovascular risk. The first trials of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs suggest similar effects on muscle mass and function to traditional androgen therapies in older adults. Important future directions include the use of these agents in combination with exercise training to promote functional ability across different populations of older adults, as well as more focus on the relationships between concurrent changes in hormone levels, body composition and physical function in observational studies.

  6. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesha Rana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (ARΔZF2 versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57 Kip2, Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all but p57 Kip2 was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  7. 21 CFR 1308.34 - Exempt anabolic steroid products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt anabolic steroid products. 1308.34 Section... SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.34 Exempt anabolic steroid products. The list of compounds, mixtures, or preparations that contain an anabolic steroid that have been exempted by the Administrator...

  8. Sarcopenia and androgens: A link between pathology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eBasualto-Alarcón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is becoming more prevalent as the lifespan continues to increase in most populations. As sarcopenia is highly disabling, being associated with increased risk of dependence, falls, fractures, weakness, disability, and death, development of approaches to its prevention and treatment are required. Androgens are the main physiologic anabolic steroid hormones and normal testosterone levels are necessary for a range of developmental and biological processes, including maintenance of muscle mass. Testosterone concentrations decline as age increase, suggesting that low plasma testosterone levels can cause or accelerate muscle- and age-related diseases, as sarcopenia. Currently, there is increasing interest on the anabolic properties of testosterone for therapeutic use in muscle diseases including sarcopenia. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this muscle syndrome and its relationship with plasma level of androgens are not completely understood. This review discusses the recent findings regarding sarcopenia, the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of this disease and the treatment approaches that have been developed based on testosterone deficiency and their implications.

  9. Anabolic Steroid Abuse among Teenage Girls: An Illusory Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayama, Gen; Boynes, Matthew; Hudson, James I.; Field, Alison E.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent media reports have portrayed an alarming increase in apparent anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use among American teenage girls; Congress even held hearings on the subject in June 2005. We questioned whether AAS use among teenage girls was as widespread as claimed. Methods We reviewed four large national surveys and many smaller surveys examining the prevalence of AAS use among teenage girls. Virtually all of these surveys used anonymous questionnaires. We asked particularly whether the language of survey questions might generate false-positive responses among girls who misinterpreted the term “steroid.” We also reviewed data from other countries, together with results from the only recent study (to our knowledge) in which investigators personally interviewed female AAS users. Results The surveys produced remarkably disparate findings, with the lifetime prevalence of AAS use estimated as high as 7.3% among ninth-grade girls in one study, but only 0.1% among teenage girls in several others. Upon examining the surveys reporting an elevated prevalence, it appeared that most used questions that failed to distinguish between anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, and over-the-counter supplements that respondents might confuse with “steroids.” Other features in the phrasing of certain questions also seemed likely to further bias results in favor of false-positive responses. Conclusions Many anonymous surveys, using imprecise questions, appear to have greatly overestimated the lifetime prevalence of AAS use among teenage girls; the true lifetime prevalence may well be as low as 0.1%. Future studies can test this impression by using a carefully phrased question regarding AAS use. PMID:17127018

  10. Glycogen synthesis correlates with androgen-dependent growth arrest in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorin Frederic A

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen withdrawal in normal prostate or androgen-dependent prostate cancer is associated with the downregulation of several glycolytic enzymes and with reduced glucose uptake. Although glycogen metabolism is known to regulate the intracellular glucose level its involvement in androgen response has not been studied. Methods We investigated the effects of androgen on glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogen synthase (GS and on glycogen accumulation in the androgen-receptor (AR reconstituted PC3 cell line containing either an empty vector (PC3-AR-V or vector with HPV-E7 (PC3-AR-E7 and the LNCaP cell line. Results Androgen addition in PC3 cells expressing the AR mimics androgen ablation in androgen-dependent prostate cells. Incubation of PC3-AR-V or PC3-AR-E7 cells with the androgen R1881 induced G1 cell cycle arrest within 24 hours and resulted in a gradual cell number reduction over 5 days thereafter, which was accompanied by a 2 to 5 fold increase in glycogen content. 24 hours after androgen-treatment the level of Glucose-6-P (G-6-P had increased threefold and after 48 hours the GS and GP activities increased twofold. Under this condition inhibition of glycogenolysis with the selective GP inhibitor CP-91149 enhanced the increase in glycogen content and further reduced the cell number. The androgen-dependent LNCaP cells that endogenously express AR responded to androgen withdrawal with growth arrest and increased glycogen content. CP-91149 further increased glycogen content and caused a reduction of cell number. Conclusion Increased glycogenesis is part of the androgen receptor-mediated cellular response and blockage of glycogenolysis by the GP inhibitor CP-91149 further increased glycogenesis. The combined use of a GP inhibitor with hormone therapy may increase the efficacy of hormone treatment by decreasing the survival of prostate cancer cells and thereby reducing the chance of cancer recurrence.

  11. Integration of ligand and structure-based virtual screening for identification of leading anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ginarte, Yoanna María; Montero-Cabrera, Luis Alberto; García-de la Vega, José Manuel; Bencomo-Martínez, Alberto; Pupo, Amaury; Agramonte-Delgado, Alina; Marrero-Ponce, Yovani; Ruiz-García, José Alberto; Mikosch, Hans

    2013-11-01

    Parallel ligand- and structure-based virtual screenings of 269 steroids with anabolic activity evaluated in vivo were performed. The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model expressed by selected descriptors as the octanol-water partition coefficient, the molar volume and the quantum mechanical calculated charge values on atoms C1, C2, C5, C9, C10, C14 and C17 of the steroid skeleton, expresses structural features of anabolic steroids (AS) contributing to the transport and steroid-receptor interaction. On the other hand, computational simulations of a candidate ligand binding to a receptor study (a "docking" procedure) predict the association of these AS with the human androgen receptor (AR). Fourteen compounds were identified as lead; the most potent was the 7α-methylestr-4-en-3, 17-dione. It was concluded that a good anabolic activity requires hydrogen bonding interactions between both Arg752 and Gln711 residues in the cycles A with O3 atom of the steroid and either Asn705 and Thr877 residues in the cycles D of steroid with O17 atom. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Severe laryngitis following chronic anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S; Masood, A; Pickles, J; Moumoulidis, I

    2008-03-01

    The effects of anabolic steroids on the quality of voice have been well documented; however, no study has established significant structural changes in the larynx as a direct result of anabolic steroid use. We report a unique case of a 47-year-old male smoker and professional body builder who presented with progressive stridor and hoarseness following abuse of anabolic steroids over a period of two years. Conservative management failed to resolve his symptoms and a planned tracheostomy was performed to secure his airway. Subsequently he was treated with multiple laser resections and eventually decannulated. No case of severe laryngitis in association with anabolic steroid usage has been reported previously in the literature.

  13. Muscle protein anabolism in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassil, Maya S; Gougeon, Réjeanne

    2013-01-01

    Protein anabolism is abnormal in human type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We review studies of anabolic stimuli that identify potential causes. If uncorrected, and combined with aging effects, they will compromise muscle function and mass. Knowing causes can guide studies of preventive and treatment measures. T2DM accelerates age-related decreases in muscle mass. This could be related to insulin resistance of whole-body protein anabolism demonstrated in hyperglycemic obese men. In contrast, their protein anabolic response to hyperaminoacidemia suggested that ample amino acid administration, especially branched chain amino acids might overcome such insulin resistance. One study of chronic leucine supplementation in elderly T2DM patients did not increase muscle mass. However, they lacked sarcopenia and had adequate dietary protein intake, so may be atypical. Exercise induced similar increases in muscle protein synthesis, mass and strength in healthy and T2DM patients suggesting that physical activity might also overcome insulin resistance of protein anabolism. Muscle protein anabolism in T2DM is resistant to the action of insulin but perhaps not to amino acid supply or exercise. Whether leucine supplementation improves muscle mass and function in persons with T2DM (especially elderly) with reduced protein intake or muscle mass needs to be determined.

  14. Improved androgen specificity of AR-EcoScreen by CRISPR based glucocorticoid receptor knockout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Nick; Andringa, Dave; de Leeuw, Willem-Jan; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Iida, Mitsuru; Houtman, Corine J; de Boer, Jacob; Kool, Jeroen; Lamoree, Marja H; Hamers, Timo

    2017-12-01

    The AR-EcoScreen is a widely used reporter assay for the detection of androgens and anti-androgens. Endogenous expression of glucocorticoid receptors and their affinity for the androgen responsive element that drives reporter expression, however, makes the reporter cells sensitive to interference by glucocorticoids and less specific for (anti-)androgens. To create a glucocorticoid insensitive derivative of the AR-EcoScreen, CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing was used to develop glucocorticoid receptor knockout mutants by targeting various sites in the glucocorticoid gene. Two mutant cell lines were further characterized and validated against the unmodified AR-EcoScreen with a set of 19 environmentally relevant chemicals and a series of environmental passive sampler extracts with (anti-)androgenic activity. Sequencing of the targeted sites revealed premature stop codons following frame-shift mutations, leading to an absence of functional glucocorticoid receptor expression. The introduced mutations rendered cell lines insensitive to glucocorticoid activation and caused no significant difference in the responsiveness towards (anti-)androgens, compared to the unmodified AR-EcoScreen cells, allowing the selective, GR-independent, determination of (anti-)androgenicity in environmental passive sampler extracts. The increase in selectivity for (anti-)androgens improves reliability of the AR-EcoScreen and will provide higher accuracy in determining (anti-)androgenic potential when applied in toxicity screening and environmental monitoring of both single compounds and mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Position stand on androgen and human growth hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Storer, Thomas; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Haff, G Gregory; Willoughby, Darryn S; Rogol, Alan D

    2009-08-01

    Hoffman, JR, Kraemer, WJ, Bhasin, S, Storer, T, Ratamess, NA, Haff, GG, Willoughby, DS, and Rogol, AD. Position stand on Androgen and human growth hormone use. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S1-S59, 2009-Perceived yet often misunderstood demands of a sport, overt benefits of anabolic drugs, and the inability to be offered any effective alternatives has fueled anabolic drug abuse despite any consequences. Motivational interactions with many situational demands including the desire for improved body image, sport performance, physical function, and body size influence and fuel such negative decisions. Positive countermeasures to deter the abuse of anabolic drugs are complex and yet unclear. Furthermore, anabolic drugs work and the optimized training and nutritional programs needed to cut into the magnitude of improvement mediated by drug abuse require more work, dedication, and preparation on the part of both athletes and coaches alike. Few shortcuts are available to the athlete who desires to train naturally. Historically, the NSCA has placed an emphasis on education to help athletes, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals become more knowledgeable, highly skilled, and technically trained in their approach to exercise program design and implementation. Optimizing nutritional strategies are a vital interface to help cope with exercise and sport demands (). In addition, research-based supplements will also have to be acknowledged as a strategic set of tools (e.g., protein supplements before and after resistance exercise workout) that can be used in conjunction with optimized nutrition to allow more effective adaptation and recovery from exercise. Resistance exercise is the most effective anabolic form of exercise, and over the past 20 years, the research base for resistance exercise has just started to develop to a significant volume of work to help in the decision-making process in program design (). The interface with nutritional strategies has been less

  16. Bone vs. fat: embryonic origin of progenitors determines response to androgen in adipocytes and osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiren, Kristine M; Hashimoto, Joel G; Semirale, Anthony A; Zhang, Xiao-Wei

    2011-10-01

    Although androgen is considered an anabolic hormone, the consequences of androgen receptor (AR) overexpression in skeletally-targeted AR-transgenic lines highlight the detrimental effect of enhanced androgen sensitivity on cortical bone quality. A compartment-specific anabolic response is observed only in male and not in female AR3.6-transgenic (tg) mice, with increased periosteal bone formation and calvarial thickening. To identify anabolic signaling cascades that have the potential to increase bone formation, qPCR array analysis was employed to define expression differences between AR3.6-tg and wild-type (WT) periosteal tissue. Notably, categories that were significantly different between the two genotypes included axonal guidance, CNS development and negative regulation of Wnt signaling with a node centered on stem cell pathways. Further, fine mapping of AR3.6-tg calvaria revealed that anabolic thickening in vivo is not uniform across the calvaria, occurring only in frontal and in not parietal bones. Multipotent fraction 1 progenitor populations from both genotypes were cultured separately as frontal bone neural crest stem-like cells (fNCSC) and parietal bone mesenchymal stem-like cells (pMSC). Both osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation in these progenitor populations was influenced by embryonic lineage and by genotype. Adipogenesis was enhanced in WT fNCSC compared to pMSC, but transgenic cultures showed strong suppression of lipid accumulation only in fNCSC cells. Osteoblastogenesis was significantly increased in transgenic fNCSC cultures compared to WT, with elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and induction of mineralization and nodule formation assessed by alizarin red and von Kossa staining. Osteocalcin (OC) and ALP mRNA levels were also increased in fNCSC cultures from AR3.6-tg vs. WT, but in pMSC cultures ALP mRNA levels, mineralization and nodule formation were decreased in AR3.6-tg cells. Expression differences identified by array in long

  17. Examination of illegal, non declared injection preparations on anabolic hormones and development of a radioimmunoassay for 19-nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, M.; Meyer, H.H.D.

    Procedures are described for the identification and quantification of anabolic hormones in preparations for injection. To perform radioreceptorassays for the most important groups of anabolics, estrogens and androgens, hydrolysis of esters is absolutely necessary in order to release the active substances from depot preparations. After moderate hydrolysis (30 min; 45/sup 0/C) it was possible to identify 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. as active substance in three various illegal solutions for injection and one of them contained in addition estradiol-17..beta... After more drastic hydrolysis (2 h; 70/sup 0/C) there was a strong disintegration of 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. and new more polar compounds were found, e.g. in small amounts 6-ketoestradiol, with estrogenic activity. Among the anabolic steroids only trenbolone-17..beta.. behaved in similar manner, and the disintegration during drastic hydrolytic conditions gave an indication for the existence of 19-norsteroids. Specific radioimmunoassays and GC/MS were used for final identification of the anabolic agents. Quantitation was carried out with HPLC/UV and radioimmunoassays after moderate hydrolysis. Since 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.. was identified a specific radioimmunoassay for this hormone was developed. Antibodies were raised against 19-nortestosterone-17..beta..-HS-BSA in order to be able to measure 19-nortestosterone-17..cap alpha.., 19-nortestosterone-17..beta.., and 19-norandrostenedione which were expected as the main bovine metabolites.

  18. Women and anabolic steroids: an analysis of a dozen users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J; Tenerowicz, Michael J; Kim, Jennifer A; Wei, Hong; Perry, Paul J

    2010-11-01

    To provide an in-depth analysis of 12 female self-reported anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) users. Web-based survey. A Web-based survey was posted on 38 discussion boards of various fitness, bodybuilding, weightlifting, and steroid Web sites between February and June 2009. Participants completed a survey regarding demographics and use of AAS and other performance-enhancing agents (PEAs). A cohort of 1519 strength-trained subjects fully completed and submitted a valid survey. Five hundred eighteen subjects were self-reported AAS users consisting of 12 women and 506 men. One thousand one subjects were non-AAS users consisting of 230 women and 771 men. Demographic data and use of AAS and other PEAs. The female AAS users reported using an average of 8.8 PEAs in their routine. Compared with male AAS users and female non-AAS users, respectively, female AAS users were more likely to have met criteria for substance-dependence disorder (58.3% vs 23.4%; P = 0.01; 58.3% vs 9.1%; P abuse (41.7% vs 6.1%; P abuse than both male AAS users and female non-AAS users.

  19. Endogenous sex steroids and cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease in the postmenopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappa, Theodora; Alevizaki, Maria

    2012-08-01

    Cardio- and cerebro-vascular diseases are two leading causes of death and long-term disability in postmenopausal women. The acute fall of estrogen in menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The relative contribution of androgen to this risk is also being recognized. The use of more sensitive assays for estradiol measurement and the study of receptor and carrier protein gene polymorphisms have provided some new information on the clinical relevance of endogenous sex steroids. We provide an update on the role of endogenous sex steroids on cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease in the postmenopausal period. We performed a PubMed search using the terms 'endogenous estrogen', 'androgen', 'cardiovascular disease', 'cerebro-vascular disease', 'stroke', 'carotid artery disease', and 'subclinical atherosclerosis'. The majority of studies show a beneficial effect of endogenous estrogen on the vasculature; however, there are a few studies reporting the contrary. A significant body of literature has reported associations of endogenous estrogen and androgen with early markers of atherosclerosis and metabolic parameters. Data on the relevance of endogenous sex steroids in heart disease and stroke are inconclusive. Most studies support a beneficial role of endogenous estrogens and, probably, an adverse effect of androgens in the vasculature in postmenopausal women. However, the described associations may not always be considered as causal. It is possible that circulating estrogen might represent a marker of general health status or alternatively reflect the sum of endogenous androgens aromatized in the periphery. Elucidating the role of sex steroids in cardio- and cerebro-vascular disease remains an interesting field of future research.

  20. Ecdysteroids: A novel class of anabolic agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Parr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as “natural anabolic agents”. Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol, estradienedione (trenbolox, and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days. In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 μM induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 μM and IGF 1 (1.3 nM. Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class “S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents” of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency.

  1. Determinação de esteróides androgênicos anabólicos em urina por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas Detection of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS in urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rossi de Campos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Esteróides androgênicos anabólicos (EAA são substâncias naturais, sintéticas ou semi-sintéticas derivadas da testosterona, utilizadas em atividades esportivas com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho físico pelo aumento de massa e força muscular. Apesar de causarem efeitos tóxicos graves, principalmente sobre os sistemas cardiovascular, hepático e neuro-endócrino, os EAA têm sido amplamente utilizados no âmbito esportivo. Desta forma, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo a validação de um método para a determinação de esteróides e/ou seus produtos de biotransformação em amostras de urina por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG-EM. O método baseou-se na hidrólise enzimática de esteróides conjugados, no emprego da extração líquido-líquido e na derivação do extrato para posterior análise por CG-EM, no modo de monitoramento seletivo de íons (SIM. O método validado cumpriu com os princípios de confiança necessários para a determinação de EAA em amostras de urina com a finalidade de controle de dopagem no esporte. Os limites de detecção dos esteróides analizados variaram de 0,5 a 15 ng/mL. Bons valores de precisão (intra e interensaio também foram obtidos (CVAndrogenic anabolic steroids (AAS are defined as natural, synthetic or semi-synthetic drugs chemically derived from testosterone, used with the aim to improve physical performance by increasing both muscle strength and mass. Despite their reported toxicological effects on the cardiovascular, hepatic and neuro-endocrine systems, the AAS have been extensively used in sports activities. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method for the detection of AAS and/or their metabolites in urine samples. The method was based on enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and further analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS operated in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM. The

  2. Uxoricide and dismemberment in a case of illicit anabolic steroid use: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Seppänen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite abounding evidence for the harmful effects of synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroids, they are commonly misused for competitive and body-image reasons. Steroids are often used in the context of poly-drug misuse, which may mask their specific effects on behaviour, such as increasing aggression. We present our case report as a concrete example of current steroid-related substance-misuse trends. A 25-year old Finnish male with various psychiatric and drug-related symptomology, but almost no previous history of aggressive behaviour, battered his wife to death and mutilated her body after a five-week steroid regimen.

  3. Vulnerability and the intention to anabolic steroids use among Iranian gym users: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdipour, Hamid; Jalilian, Farzad; Shaghaghi, Abdolreza

    2012-02-01

    This correlational study explored the psychological antecedents of 253 Iranian gym users' intentions to use the anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The three predictor variables of (1) attitude, (2) subjective norms, and (3) perceived behavioral control accounted for 63% of the variation in the outcome measure of the intention to use the AAS. There is some support to use the TPB to design and implement interventions to modify and/or improve individuals' beliefs that athletic goals are achievable without the use of the AAS.

  4. Oral low-dose testosterone administration induces whole-body protein anabolism in postmenopausal women: a novel liver-targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzniece, Vita; Umpleby, Margot A; Poljak, Anne; Handelsman, David J; Ho, Ken K Y

    2013-09-01

    In hypopituitary men, oral delivery of unesterified testosterone in doses that result in a solely hepatic androgen effect enhances protein anabolism during GH treatment. In this study, we aimed to determine whether liver-targeted androgen supplementation induces protein anabolism in GH-replete normal women. Eight healthy postmenopausal women received 2-week treatment with oral testosterone at a dose of 40 mg/day (crystalline testosterone USP). This dose increases portal concentrations of testosterone, exerting androgenic effects on the liver without a spillover into the systemic circulation. The outcome measures were whole-body leucine turnover, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa, an index of protein breakdown) and leucine oxidation (Lox, a measure of irreversible protein loss) were estimated, energy expenditure and substrate utilization. We measured the concentration of liver transaminases as well as of testosterone, SHBG and IGF1. Testosterone treatment significantly reduced LRa by 7.1 ± 2.5% and Lox by 14.6 ± 4.5% (Panabolism by reducing protein breakdown and oxidation without inducing systemic androgen excess in women. We conclude that a small oral dose of unesterified testosterone holds promise as a simple novel treatment of protein catabolism and muscle wasting.

  5. Efecto morfológico y funcional vascular de los andrógenos endógenos en un modelo experimental en conejos ateroscleróticos Vascular morphologic and functional effect of endogenous androgens in an experimental atherosclerotic rabbits' model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Echeverri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: estudios clínicos y experimentales previos, sugieren que los andrógenos podrían tener un efecto adverso, neutral o benéfico, sobre la aterosclerosis y sus manifestaciones clínicas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio experimental aleatorizado y controlado en 40 conejos de raza Nueva Zelanda. 20 animales se sometieron a orquidectomía y 20 se alimentaron con dieta aterogénica durante 20 semanas. Se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos: 1: no castrados sometidos a dieta normal; 2: castrados sometidos a dieta normal; 3: no castrados sometidos a dieta aterogénica y 4: castrados sometidos a dieta aterogénica. Se hicieron mediciones de colesterol total y testosterona libre. Después de la eutanasia, se cuantificó en aorta la relajación arterial independiente de endotelio y dependiente de endotelio in-vitro, y se hicieron análisis histomorfométricos de la aorta torácica para cuantificar la formación de placa aterosclerótica. Resultados: los animales sometidos a dieta normal (n=20 tuvieron colesterol total de 51,1 ± 8,5 mg/dL y los sometidos a dieta aterogénica de 429,2 ± 262,0 mg/dL (p Summary: previous clinical and experimental studies suggest that androgens could have an adverse, neutral or beneficial effect on atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Methods: an experimental, randomized controlled study in 40 New Zealand white male rabbits was realized. 20 rabbits underwent orchiectomy and 20 were fed with an atherogenic diet for 20 weeks. These were distributed in four groups: 1. non-castrated under normal diet, 2. castrated under normal diet, 3. non-castrated under atherogenic diet, and 4. castrated under atherogenic diet. Total cholesterol and free testosterone were measured. After euthanasia, arterial relaxation independent of endothelium was quantified in aorta, as well as the one depending on endothelium, in vitro, and histomorphometric analysis of thoracic aorta were made in order to quantify the atherosclerotic

  6. Glycolytic reliance promotes anabolism in photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchore, Yashodhan; Begaj, Tedi; Wu, David; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Cepko, Constance L

    2017-06-09

    Vertebrate photoreceptors are among the most metabolically active cells, exhibiting a high rate of ATP consumption. This is coupled with a high anabolic demand, necessitated by the diurnal turnover of a specialized membrane-rich organelle, the outer segment, which is the primary site of phototransduction. How photoreceptors balance their catabolic and anabolic demands is poorly understood. Here, we show that rod photoreceptors in mice rely on glycolysis for their outer segment biogenesis. Genetic perturbations targeting allostery or key regulatory nodes in the glycolytic pathway impacted the size of the outer segments. Fibroblast growth factor signaling was found to regulate glycolysis, with antagonism of this pathway resulting in anabolic deficits. These data demonstrate the cell autonomous role of the glycolytic pathway in outer segment maintenance and provide evidence that aerobic glycolysis is part of a metabolic program that supports the biosynthetic needs of a normal neuronal cell type.

  7. Plasma androgens in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, S; Anderson, G M; McBride, P A; Hertzig, M E; Snow, M E; Hall, L M; Ferrari, P; Cohen, D J

    1995-06-01

    Plasma levels of testosterone and the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in male autistic subjects (31 prepubertal, 8 postpubertal), mentally retarded/cognitively impaired subjects (MR, 12 prepubertal), and normal control subjects (NC, 10 prepubertal, 11 postpubertal). Mean levels of plasma testosterone were similar in the postpubertal autistic (4.54 +/- 1.12 ng/ml) and postpubertal NC (5.02 +/- 1.87 ng/ml) groups. Plasma DHEA-S levels in postpubertal autistic (2170 +/- 1020 ng/ml) and postpubertal NC (1850 +/- 777 ng/ml) groups also were not significantly different. Similarly, no significant group differences were seen for testosterone or DHEA-S in the prepubertal autistic, MR, or NC individuals, although prepubertal MR individuals with cerebral palsy did have increased plasma DHEA-S levels compared to age-matched MR or NC individuals. Significant negative correlations were found between testosterone and whole blood serotonin (5-HT) levels in the combined (all subjects, all ages) groups and in the autistic group, suggesting that the effect of puberty on whole blood 5-HT may deserve further study. Data indicate that altered secretion of the androgens is not a common feature of autism. However, abnormalities of adrenal androgen secretion may be present in individuals with cerebral palsy.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in androgenic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Hima; Upadya, Gatha M

    2016-01-01

    Androgenic alopecia has been associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in various studies. The relationship between androgenic alopecia and metabolic syndrome, a known risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is still poorly understood. To study the association between metabolic syndrome and early-onset androgenic alopecia. A hospital-based analytical cross-sectional study was done on men in the age group of 18-55 years. Eighty five clinically diagnosed cases with early-onset (alopecia of Norwood grade III or above, and 85 controls without androgenic alopecia were included. Data collected included anthropometric measurements, arterial blood pressure and history of chronic diseases. Fasting blood and lipid profile were determined. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed as per the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.00. Metabolic syndrome was seen in 19 (22.4%) patients with androgenic alopecia and 8 (9.4%) controls (P = 0.021). Abdominal obesity, hypertension and lowered high-density lipoprotein were significantly higher in patients with androgenic alopecia versus their respective controls. The limitations of our study include small sample size in subgroups and the lack of evidence of a temporal relationship between metabolic syndrome and androgenic alopecia. A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome is seen in men with early-onset androgenic alopecia. Early screening for metabolic syndrome and its components is beneficial in patients with early-onset androgenic alopecia.

  9. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  10. The Sturm und Drang of anabolic steroid use: angst, anxiety, and aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Joseph G.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are illicitly administered to enhance athletic performance and body image. Although conferring positive actions on performance, steroid abuse is associated with changes in anxiety and aggression. AAS users are often keenly invested in understanding the biological actions of these drugs. Thus, mechanistic information on AAS actions is important not only for the biomedical community, but also for steroid users. Here we review findings from animal studies on the impact of AAS exposure on neural systems that are crucial for the production of anxiety and aggression, and compare the effects of the different classes of AAS and their potential signaling mechanisms, as well as context-, age- and sex-dependent aspects of their actions. PMID:22516619

  11. Anabolic steroids abuse-induced cardiomyopathy and ischaemic stroke in a young male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Reham Mohammed; Aborayah, Ahmed Fathy; Hashad, Assem; Abd-Allah, Foad

    2014-02-26

    We report a case of a 37-year-old man presented with acute stroke and hepatorenal impairment which were associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse over 2 years. Despite the absence of apparent symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at presentation, an AAS-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with multiple thrombi in the left ventricle was attributed to be the underlying cause of his condition. Awareness of the complications of AAS led to the prompt treatment of the initially unrecognised dilated cardiomyopathy, and improved the liver and kidney functions. However, the patient was exposed to a second severe ischaemic event, which led to his death. This unique and complex presentation of AAS complications opens for better recognition and treatment of their potentially fatal effects.

  12. Effects of anabolic steroid treatment associated with physical training in adipose tissue of male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Paiva Foletto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic androgenic-steroids (AAS include a broad class of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, being nandrolone decanoate the most widely used in sports environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of nandrolone decanoate in sedentary and trained adult male rats. We established four experimental groups: sedentary control, sedentary treated, trained control and trained treated. The training had consisted of running on a treadmill for nine weeks. Treated animals received intramuscular injections of nandrolone decanoate (0.5 mg kg-1 during the last four weeks of physical training. The training time as the drug used were not sufficient to significantly reduce body weight gain, but caused a significative decrease on diameter of adipocytes and in the amount of adipose tissue stored, as well as decreased the plasma levels of glucose and total cholesterol.

  13. Designer steroids - over-the-counter supplements and their androgenic component: review of an increasing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnema, C D; Crosnoe, L E; Kim, E D

    2015-03-01

    Colloquially referred to by various misleading monikers ('pro-hormones', 'natural steroids', 'testosterone boosters', etc.) designer anabolic steroids have been popular now for over a decade as a way to achieve classic anabolic steroid-like results from products sold in the legal marketplace. Recent evidence suggests that anabolic steroid use may be the most common cause of hypogonadism in men of reproductive age. Despite recent regulatory efforts that have banned specific compounds, many anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) remain available in over-the-counter dietary supplements that are legally sold in the United States. Severe side effects including hepatotoxicity, cholestasis, renal failure, hypogonadism, gynecomastia, and infertility have been reported secondary to the use of these products. While some of these side effects may be reversible, more aggressive use may result in more permanent end-organ damage as has been previously described for the case of aggressive AAS users (Rahnema et al., Fertil Steril, 2014). Designer AAS remain easily available for purchase in over-the-counter bodybuilding supplements and these products appear to be increasingly popular, despite the known health risks associated with their use. We conducted a systematic search to identify the designer steroids that are most commonly sold in dietary supplements as of April 2014 and review what is known regarding their potency and toxicity. We propose that the impact of AAS use on the reproductive and hormonal health of men is underestimated in the literature owing to previous studies' failure to account for designer steroid use. Lastly, we make clinical recommendations to help physicians steer patients away from potentially harmful supplements, and summarize key regulatory obstacles that have allowed potent androgens to remain unregulated in the legal marketplace. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Anabolic steroid use: patterns of use and detection of doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael R; Davies, Bruce; Grace, Fergal M; Kicman, Andrew; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) were the first identified doping agents that have ergogenic effects and are being used to increase muscle mass and strength in adult males. Consequently, athletes are still using them to increase physical performance and bodybuilders are using them to improve size and cosmetic appearance. The prevalence of AAS use has risen dramatically over the last two decades and filtered into all aspects of society. Support for AAS users has increased, but not by the medical profession, who will not accept that AAS use dependency is a psychiatric condition. The adverse effects and potential dangers of AAS use have been well documented. AAS are used in sport by individuals who have acquired knowledge of the half-lives of specific drugs and the dosages and cycles required to avoid detection. Conversely, they are used by bodybuilders in extreme dosages with the intention of gaining muscle mass and size, with little or no regard for the consequences. Polypharmacy by self-prescription is prevalent in this sector. Most recently, AAS use has filtered through to 'recreational street drug' users and is the largest growth of drugs in this subdivision. They are taken to counteract the anorexic and cachectic effects of the illegal psychotropic street drugs. Screening procedures for AAS in World Anti-Doping Agency accredited laboratories are comprehensive and sensitive and are based mainly on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, although liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is becoming increasingly more valuable. The use of carbon isotope mass spectrometry is also of increasing importance in the detection of natural androgen administration, particularly to detect testosterone administration. There is a degree of contentiousness in the scenario of AAS drug use, both within and outside sport. AAS and associated doping agents are not illegal per se. Possession is not an offence, despite contravening sporting regulations and moral codes. Until AAS are

  15. Anabolic agents for improving muscle regeneration and function after injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gordon S; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Ryall, James G

    2008-07-01

    1. In the present review, we describe how muscles can be injured by external factors, internal factors or during the performance of some actions during sports. In addition, we describe the injury to a muscle that occurs when its blood supply is interrupted, an occurrence common in clinical settings. An overview of muscle regeneration is presented, as well as a discussion of some of the potential complications that can compromise successful muscle repair and lead to impaired function and permanent disability. 2. Improving muscle regeneration is important for hastening muscle repair and restoring muscle function and the present review describes ways in which this can be achieved. We describe recent advances in tissue engineering that offer considerable promise for treating muscle damage, but highlight the fact that these techniques require rigorous evaluation before they can become mainstream clinical treatments. 3. Growth-promoting agents are purported to increase the size of existing and newly regenerating muscle fibres and, therefore, could be used to improve muscle function if administered at appropriate times during the repair process. The present review provides an update on the efficacy of some growth-promoting agents, including anabolic steroids, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, to improve muscle function after injury. Although these approaches have clinical merit, a better understanding of the androgenic, IGF-I and b-adrenoceptor signalling pathways in skeletal muscle is important if we are to devise safe and effective therapies to enhance muscle regeneration and function after injury.

  16. Effectiveness of Anabolic Steroid Preventative Intervention among Gym Users: Applying Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Moghimbeigi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS has been associated with adversephysical and psychiatric effects and it is known as rising problem among youth people. Thisstudy was conducted to evaluate anabolic steroids preventative intervention efficiency amonggym users in Iran and theory of planned behaviour was applied as theoretical framework.Methods: Overall, 120 male gym users participated in this study as intervention and controlgroup. This was a longitudinal randomized pretest - posttest series control group design panelstudy to implement a behaviour modification based intervention to prevent AAS use. Cross -tabulation and t-test by using SPSS statistical package, version 13 was used for the statisticalanalysis.Results: It was found significant improvements in average response for knowledge about sideeffects of AAS (P<0.001, attitude toward, and intention not to use AAS. Additionally afterintervention, the rate of AAS and supplements use was decreased among intervention group.Conclusion: Comprehensive implementation against AAS abuse among gym users and adolescenceswould be effective to improve adolescents’ healthy behaviors and intend them notto use AAS.

  17. Male pubertal development and the role of androgen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erick J; Rogol, Alan D

    2007-04-01

    In boys, the hormonal changes that accompany normal puberty are well defined, as are the physical signs of pubertal development and the kinetics of the growth spurt. Most androgens are derived from the testes, although adrenal androgens may also contribute; testosterone can also be aromatized to estrogen to exert important effects during puberty. Androgens, but especially their conversion to estrogens by aromatase, have a major role in the dramatic changes in linear growth, secondary sexual characteristics, and changes to bone, muscle and fat distribution that occur during puberty. Androgen therapy for delayed puberty should permit full normal pubertal development and thereby also address some of the associated psychosocial problems. Adolescent boys with conditions of permanent hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic or hypergonadotropic) or transient hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (constitutional delay of growth and puberty) can benefit from testosterone therapy. Long-term testosterone therapy should be given for hypothalamic or pituitary gonadotropin deficiency, or for primary hypogonadism such as for adolescents with Klinefelter syndrome, if endogenous testosterone levels drop or levels of luteinizing hormone rise. Intramuscular administration every few weeks is effective, but newer cutaneous forms, for example, gels or patches, also show promise in permitting adolescent males to reach adult body composition.

  18. The anabolic steroid nandrolone alters cannabinoid self-administration and brain CB1 receptor density and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Dicky; Fadda, Paola; Zara, Tamara; Zamberletti, Erica; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Fratta, Walter; Fattore, Liana

    2017-01-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical observations indicate that anabolic-androgenic steroids can induce neurobiological changes that alter the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In this study, we investigated the effect of the anabolic steroid nandrolone on the rewarding properties of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) in rats. Lister Hooded male rats were treated intramuscularly with nandrolone (15mg/kg) or vehicle for 14 consecutive days, and then allowed to self-administer WIN (12.5μg/kg/infusion) intravenously. After reaching stable drug intake, self-administration behavior was extinguished to examine drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Other behavioral parameters presumed to influence drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors were examined to gain more insight into the behavioral specificity of nandrolone treatment. Finally, animals were sacrificed for analysis of CB1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We found that nandrolone-treated rats self-administered up to 2 times more cannabinoid than vehicle-treated rats, but behaved similarly to control rats when tested for drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of cannabinoid-seeking behavior. Enhanced cannabinoid intake by nandrolone-treated rats was not accompanied by changes in locomotor activity, sensorimotor gating, or memory function. However, our molecular data show that after chronic WIN self-administration nandrolone-treated rats display altered CB1 receptor density and function in selected brain areas. We hypothesize that increased cannabinoid self-administration in nandrolone-treated rats results from a nandrolone-induced decrease in reward function, which rats seem to compensate by voluntarily increasing their cannabinoid intake. Altogether, our findings corroborate the hypothesis that chronic exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids induces dysfunction of the reward pathway in rats and might represent a potential risk factor for abuse of

  19. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello

    2010-09-01

    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  20. Mechanisms of bone anabolism regulated by statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Feng; Zheng, Qiang; Wang, Jinfu

    2012-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease in the elderly population. The progress of this disease results in the reduction of bone mass and can increase the incidence of fractures. Drugs presently used clinically can block the aggravation of this disease. However, these drugs cannot increase the bone mass and may result in certain side effects. Statins, also known as HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA) reductase inhibitors, have been widely prescribed for CVD (cardiovascular disease) for decades. Nonetheless, several studies have demonstrated that statins exert bone anabolic effect and may be helpful for the treatment of osteoporosis. Several experiments have analysed the mechanisms of bone anabolism regulated by statins. In the present paper, we review the mechanisms of promoting osteogenesis, suppressing osteoblast apoptosis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  1. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Tat'yana V. Voskoboinikova

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be ef...

  2. Pulmonary hemorrhage following anabolic agent abuse: Two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hvid-Jensen, Helene S.; Rasmussen, Finn; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Numerous adverse effects follow anabolic agent abuse. Pulmonary hemorrhage is not considered one of them. We present two cases of young male bodybuilders who developed diffuse alveolar bleeding as a result of anabolic steroid abuse. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with anabolic agent abuse has not been described previously in the literature. Both patients developed acute dyspnea and hemoptysis with consistent radiological findings. In both cases symptoms promptly resolved with cessatio...

  3. Endogenous price leadership

    OpenAIRE

    van Damme, E.E.C.; Hurkens, S.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a linear price setting duopoly game with differentiated products and determine endogenously which of the players will lead and which will follow. While the follower role is most attractive for each firm, we show that waiting is more risky for the low cost firm so that, consequently, risk dominance considerations, as in Harsanyi and Selten (1988), allow the conclusion that only the high cost firm will choose to wait. Hence, the low cost firm will emerge as the endogenous price leader.

  4. Anabolic agent use in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Heather D; Barry, Peter J; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    The use of non-prescribed anabolic agents amongst non-athletes is increasing with young, adult males with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the highest risk demographic. There is evidence that anabolic agents increase weight and muscle mass in adults with a variety of catabolic conditions but there is no evidence for their use in hormone sufficient adults with CF. We report a case of anabolic agent use in a male adult with CF and review the clinical features of anabolic agent use with a focus on adults with CF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Persistent primary hypogonadism associated with anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, Kusuma; Joels, Lisa; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Price, David E

    2011-07-01

    To report a case of primary gonadal failure due to the chronic abuse of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Case report. Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, Wales, United Kingdom. A 40-year-old man. None. Clinical symptoms, levels of serum T, FSH, and LH. Primary gonadal failure resulting from anabolic steroid use. We describe a case of initially secondary gonadal failure resulting from anabolic steroid use with subsequent primary gonadal failure and infertility. This case adds to the current literature and illustrates that the side effects of anabolic steroids can be prolonged and irreversible. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigations into the feasibility of routine ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of equine hair samples for detecting the misuse of anabolic steroids, anabolic steroid esters and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Bobby P; Viljanto, Marjaana; Bright, Jane; Pearce, Clive; Maynard, Steve

    2013-07-17

    The detection of the abuse of anabolic steroids in equine sport is complicated by the endogenous nature of some of the abused steroids, such as testosterone and nandrolone. These steroids are commonly administered as intramuscular injections of esterified forms of the steroid, which prolongs their effects and improves bioavailability over oral dosing. The successful detection of an intact anabolic steroid ester therefore provides unequivocal proof of an illegal administration, as esterified forms are not found endogenously. Detection of intact anabolic steroid esters is possible in plasma samples but not, to date, in the traditional doping control matrix of urine. The analysis of equine mane hair for the detection of anabolic steroid esters has the potential to greatly extend the time period over which detection of abuse can be monitored. Equine mane hair samples were incubated in 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) before anabolic steroids (testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone, trenbolone and stanozolol), anabolic steroid esters (esters of testosterone, nandrolone, boldenone and trenbolone) and associated compounds (fluticasone propionate and esters of hydroxyprogesterone) were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with a mix of hexane and ethyl acetate (7:3, v:v). Further sample clean up by solid phase extraction was followed by derivatisation with methoxylamine HCL and analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS. Initial method development was performed on a representative suite of four testosterone esters (propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate) and the method was later extended to include a further 18 compounds. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of mane hair samples collected following the intramuscular administration of 500 mg of Durateston(®) (mixed testosterone esters) to a Thoroughbred mare (560 kg). The method was subsequently used to successfully detect boldenone undecylenate and stanozolol in hair samples collected following

  7. Differential effects of androgens on coronary blood flow regulation and arteriolar diameter in intact and castrated swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connor Erin K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low endogenous testosterone levels have been shown to be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular benefits associated with testosterone replacement therapy are being advocated; however, the effects of endogenous testosterone levels on acute coronary vasomotor responses to androgen administration are not clear. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of acute androgen administration on in vivo coronary conductance and in vitro coronary microvascular diameter in intact and castrated male swine. Methods Pigs received intracoronary infusions of physiologic levels (1–100 nM of testosterone, the metabolite 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and the epimer epitestosterone while left anterior descending coronary blood flow and mean arterial pressure were continuously monitored. Following sacrifice, coronary arterioles were isolated, cannulated, and exposed to physiologic concentrations (1–100 nM of testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, and epitestosterone. To evaluate effects of the androgen receptor on acute androgen dilation responses, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry for androgen receptor were performed on conduit and resistance coronary vessels. Results In vivo, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone produced greater increases in coronary conductance in the intact compared to the castrated males. In vitro, percent maximal dilation of microvessels was similar between intact and castrated males for testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. In both studies epitestosterone produced significant increases in conductance and microvessel diameter from baseline in the intact males. Androgen receptor mRNA expression and immunohistochemical staining were similar in intact and castrated males. Conclusions Acute coronary vascular responses to exogenous androgen administration are increased by endogenous testosterone, an effect unrelated to changes in androgen receptor expression.

  8. ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN POSTMENOPAUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2008-12-01

    Scientific studies and clinical experiences have not provided until now the answers to thequestion: »Whom to treat, when, why and for how long should androgens be used for HRTin postmenopausal women?«

  9. Body Image and Attitudes Toward Male Roles in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudson, James I; Kanayama, Gen; Pope, Harrison G; Barry, Steven

    2006-01-01

    ...: The authors assessed 89 heterosexual men who lifted weights regularly-48 AAS users and 41 nonusers-on measures of self-esteem, attitudes toward male roles, body image, eating-related attitudes...

  10. Cardiomyopathy and Cerebrovascular Accident Associated with Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Ronald M.; Richter, Kenneth J.

    1988-01-01

    A case report is presented of a 32 year-old male bodybuilder who sustained an ischemic cerebrovascular accident and showed signs of cardiomyopathy. Although no cause was found, the man had been taking steroids for 16 years. Harmful effects of steroid use are discussed. (IAH)

  11. Self-Reported Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids by Elite Power Lifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis III, Charles E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-three percent of a sample of 45 power lifters surveyed by questionnaire admitted to using steroids, while 55 percent of 20 lifters surveyed by phone admitted steroid use. The researchers suggest that there was significant underreporting by these athletes, who consider steroids primarily as a means to improve athletic performance. (IAH)

  12. Blood, sweat and tears: androgenic-anabolic steroid misuse and recurrent primary post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fox, Richard; Varadharajan, Kiran; Patel, Bhavesh; Beegun, Issa

    2014-01-01

    .... Thorough coagulation screen was normal. Recurrent primary haemorrhage occurred 3 h post-operatively requiring immediate surgical intervention, removal of the inferior poles, precautionary throat packs, intubation and observation...

  13. Effects of anabolic/androgenic steroids on regenerating skeletal muscles in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, A; Noirez, P; Page, C L; Salah, I B; Daegelen, D; Rieu, M

    1999-06-01

    We have examined the effect of male sexual hormones on the regeneration of skeletal muscles. Degeneration/regeneration of the left soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles (EDL) of Wistar male rats was induced by an injection of snake venom (2 microg, Notechis scutatus scutatus). During the muscle regeneration (25 days), rats were treated with either oil (CON), nandrolone (NAN), NAN combined with exercise (NAN + EXE) or were castrated (CAS). Muscle growth and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform content of regenerating muscles were studied. Castration altered the concentrations of MyHC in venom-treated EDL (P 0.05). In conclusion, it is possible that male sexual hormones play a role in the growth (synthesis of contractile proteins) of regenerating muscles in rat. In addition, contrary to NAN + EXE, NAN could be beneficial to soleus regeneration.

  14. Cosmetic doping--when anabolic-androgenic steroids are not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Vandré Casagrande; Silva, Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da

    2014-07-01

    Doping is considered to be a major sports problem. This article describes a new threat and challenge to the sport of bodybuilding; the nonmedical use of a chemical in order to mimic muscle hypertrophy. Although muscle fillers are not new, being used for cosmetic purposes in medicine for a long time, the illegal use of muscle fillers has been increasing during the last few years and decades. The history of cosmetic doping, with particular attention to the Brazilian case, is discussed. Limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested.

  15. Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, Ida Heimly; Johannessen, Kim Berg

    2015-01-01

    AAS users and contemplators were investigated for differences in aggression and body image concern. Prevalence rates were sought as a secondary aim. 396 male adolescents at Norwegian high schools completed a questionnaire battery during school hours. Prevalence of AAS use showed 4.0%; AAS contemplation showed 5.1%. No significant differences between the AAS users and contemplators were found on levels of aggression and body image concern. AAS users and contemplators reported significantly higher levels of aggression and body image concern compared nonusing controls. AAS contemplators enhance understanding of AAS use by representing psychosocial factors contributing to increased aggression, and AAS use or risk thereof indicative of an aggressive personality profile. Body image concerns for AAS users and contemplators may indicate that AAS use does not diminish body image concern, and that body image concern is a risk factor for AAS use. This is supportive of previous research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relação entre a administração de esteróide anabólico androgênico, treinamento físico aeróbio e supercompensação do glicogênio Relación entre la administración de un esteroide anabólico androgénico, el tratamiento físico aeróbico y la supercompensación del glucógeno Relation between anabolic androgenic steroid administration, aerobic physical training and glycogen supercompensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S Cunha

    2005-06-01

    : 0,21 ± 0,02mg/100mg]. La glucemia y las reservas de glucógeno del sóleo permanecieron inalteradas. El uso de dosis superfisiológicas de nandrona no potencializaron ninguno de los efectos obtenidos en respuesta al entrenamiento aeróbico.Glycogen supercompensation is one of the adaptations induced by physical training. To potentiate this phenomenon, many athletes use supraphysiological doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nandrolone and aerobic physical exercise in rats, on body weight, plasmatic triglycerides levels, blood glucose and glycogen content. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sedentary + vehicle (SV, Trained + vehicle (TV, Sedentary + AAS (SAAS and Trained + AAS (TAAS (n = 7-14/group. They received i.m. injections of nandrolone or vehicle for 9 weeks, and during the same period trained rats were submitted to aerobic exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p (SV: 0,2 ± 0,02 = SAAS: 0,21 ± 0,02 mg/100 mg]. Blood glucose and soleus glycogen reserves remained unaltered. The use of supraphysiological doses of nandrolone did not potentiate any of the effects obtained in response to aerobic physical training.

  17. Longitudinal monitoring of endogenous steroids in human serum by UHPLC-MS/MS as a tool to detect testosterone abuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetto, Federico; Mehl, Florence; Boccard, Julien; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial; Nicoli, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The detection of testosterone abuse in sports is routinely achieved through the 'steroidal module' of the Athlete Biological Passport by GC-MS(/MS) quantification of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) from athletes' urines. To overcome some limitations of the "urinary steroid profile" such as the presence of confounding factors (ethnicity, enzyme polymorphism, bacterial contamination, and ethanol), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) measurements of blood concentrations of testosterone, its major metabolites, and precursors could represent an interesting and complementary strategy. In this work, two UHPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the quantification of testosterone and related compounds in human serum, including major progestogens, corticoids, and estrogens. The validated methods were then used for the analyses of serum samples collected from 19 healthy male volunteers after oral and transdermal testosterone administration. Results from unsupervised multiway analysis allowed variations of target analytes to be assessed simultaneously over a 96-h time period. Except for alteration of concentration values due to the circadian rhythm, which concerns mainly corticosteroids, DHEA, and progesterone, significant variations linked to the oral and transdermal testosterone administration were observed for testosterone, DHT, and androstenedione. As a second step of analysis, the longitudinal monitoring of these biomarkers using intra-individual thresholds showed, in comparison to urine, significant improvements in the detection of testosterone administration, especially for volunteers with del/del genotype for phase II UGT2B17 enzyme, not sensitive to the main urinary marker, T/E ratio. A substantial extension of the detection window after transdermal testosterone administration was also observed in serum matrix. The longitudinal follow-up proposed in this study represents a first example of 'blood steroid profile' in doping control

  18. [Estimated consumption of anabolic steroids among athletes in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauner, M; Kisling, A; Nielsen, S L

    1995-01-01

    In an attempt to ascertain the types and quantities of anabolic steroids used by athletes in Denmark, a questionnaire was distributed at nine weight-training centres during the winter of 1986-1987. By comparing the results of the non-representative questionnaire study with the overall consumption of anabolic steroids in the country as a whole, the annual consumption was estimated to be the equivalent of at least 6,500 10-week courses of anabolic steroids at daily dosages eight times the recommended therapeutic level. In addition, the not inconsiderable illegal use of anabolic steroids seems to increase. The annual consumption of anabolic steroids by athletes in Denmark is estimated to be 2 million daily doses.

  19. Androgen therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvat, Jacques

    2003-11-01

    The physiological role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS) is poorly understood. It depends in a large part on their transformation into testosterone and estradiol. The capacity of DHEA as a neurosteroid, the recent discovery of putative specific DHEA receptors on endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, the steady decrease of DHEA production from the 40s on, together with certain human epidemiologic data as well as various beneficial effects of DHA supplementation in rodents have suggested the possibility that this steroid is involved in cognitive and memory, metabolic and vascular, immune and sexual functions and in their aging. However, epidemiologic studies are conflicting, and no well-designed clinical trials have definitely substantiated the role of DHEA in these functions in humans, or the utility and safety of DHEA supplementation. However, beneficial effects seem plausible in women with several conditions according to the results of double-blind placebo-controlled trials: the dose of 30 to 50 mg seems beneficial to the mood, sense of well being and sexual desire and activity of women with adrenal insufficiency. The only long-term trial of supplementation devoted to women over 60 reported significant increases in bone mineral density and, in the 70-79-year-old subgroup, in sexual desire, arousal, activity and satisfaction. The dose of 200 mg also proved to decrease disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lastly, high DHEA doses have improved mood in various groups of patients of any age and gender with depressive symptoms. The use of DHEA therapy may also be discussed in women of any age when a trial of androgen supplementation seems justified because of the existence of an inhibited sexual desire or a sexual arousal disorder associated with documented androgen deficiency. The rather weak conversion of DHEA into testosterone protects from the risk of overdosing associated with testosterone preparations. However, it must

  20. Molecular basis of androgen insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, A O

    2001-06-20

    Androgens are important steroid hormones for expression of the male phenotype. They have characteristic roles during male sexual differentiation, during development and maintenance of secondary male characteristics, and during the initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. The two most important androgens in this respect are testosterone and 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone. Each androgen has its own specific role during male sexual differentiation, testosterone is involved in the development and differentiation of Wolffian duct derived structures, whereas 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, a metabolite of testosterone, is the active ligand in the urogenital sinus and tubercle and their derived structures. The actions of androgens are mediated by the androgen receptor. This ligand dependent transcription factor belongs to the superfamily of nuclear receptors, including those for the other steroid hormones. The androgen receptor gene is located on the X-chromosome at Xq11--12 and codes for a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 110 kDa. Only one androgen receptor cDNA has been identified sofar, despite two different ligands. It is generally accepted that defects in the androgen receptor gene prevent the normal development of both internal and external male structures in 46, XY individuals. The end-organ resistance to androgens has been designated as androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) and is distinct from other forms of male pseudohermaphroditism like 17 beta-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase type 3 deficiency, leydig cell hypoplasia due to inactivating LH receptor mutations or 5 alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency. Furthermore, two additional pathological situations are associated with abnormal androgen receptor structure and function -- spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, or Kennedy's disease) and prostate cancer. In the AR gene, four different types of mutations have been detected in DNA from individuals with AIS -- (i) single point mutations resulting in

  1. Pornography use in sexual minority males: Associations with body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Scott; Mitchison, Deborah; Murray, Stuart B; Mond, Jonathan M

    2017-09-01

    We examined two hypotheses regarding the potential association of pornography use with body image-related and eating disorder-related psychopathology among sexual minority males (i.e. non-heterosexual males). Our primary hypothesis was that pornography use would be associated with males' body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life impairment; our secondary hypothesis was that the type of pornography, namely, professional versus amateur pornography, which contains idealised and non-idealised (i.e. regular) bodies, respectively, would moderate these associations. A sample of 2733 sexual minority males living in Australia and New Zealand completed an online survey that contained measures of pornography use, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms, thoughts about using anabolic steroids and quality of life. Almost all (98.2%) participants reported pornography use with a median use of 5.33 hours per month. Multivariate analyses revealed that increased pornography use was associated with greater dissatisfaction with muscularity, body fat and height; greater eating disorder symptoms; more frequent thoughts about using anabolic steroids; and lower quality of life. Effect sizes for these associations were uniformly small. Neither relationship status nor genital dissatisfaction was associated with pornography use. The association between pornography use and thoughts about using anabolic steroids was stronger for viewers of professional pornography than viewers of amateur pornography. The findings suggest that the use of pornography is weakly associated with body dissatisfaction and related variables and that the type of pornography (amateur vs professional) viewed may be a moderating factor in some cases. Within the limits of a cross-sectional study design, these findings may have implications for clinicians who treat individuals with eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, anabolic-androgenic steroid

  2. Evolution of endogenous analgesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, Marieke

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous pain modulation is a complex phenomenon involved in the perception of pain. It consists of top-down inhibitory and facilitatory pathways that originate at higher sites within the central nervous system and converge at dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord, to modulate incoming afferent

  3. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  4. The Endogenous Feedback Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustenborg, Claudia Carrara

    2010-01-01

    proposals, it will first be considered the extents of their reciprocal compatibility, tentatively shaping an integrated, theoretical profile of consciousness. A new theory, the Endogenous Feedback Network (EFN) will consequently be introduced which, beside being able to accommodate the main tenets...

  5. Endogenous leadership in teams

    OpenAIRE

    Huck, S; Rey Biel, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the mechanics of ``leading by example'' in teams. Leadership is beneficial for the entire team when agents are conformists, i.e., dislike effort differentials. We also show how leadership can arise endogenously and discuss what type of leader benefits a team most.

  6. Absence of post-prandial gut anabolism after intake of a low quality protein meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Have, Gabriella A M; Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Soeters, Peter B; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2012-04-01

    Gut health relates to a diet with a high digestibility and quality. Limited data are available on the acute effects of low quality foods on gut metabolism and the consequences for liver metabolism. A meal with the low quality protein gelatin (tryptophan deficient and low amount of essential amino acids) was compared to a meal with the high quality protein Whey and a tryptophan supplemented gelatin meal (Gel + TRP) in healthy pigs with chronic implanted catheters. In a conscious state, amino acid, ammonia, urea, glucose and lactate fluxes across the portal drained viscera (PDV) and liver were studied for 6 h after administration of the protein meal. The average net portal appearance of amino acids was 99.8 ± 14.6% of the intake in the Gel group as compared to 61.4 ± 9.0% (p = 0.022) in the Whey group. In addition, a net portal appearance of tryptophan was observed in the Gel group (p = 0.005) of about 42% of tryptophan released in the Whey group. Intestinal energy metabolism and citrulline production was not affected. Adding tryptophan to the Gel meal diminished net portal AA appearance to 41.6 ± 24.0% of the intake (p = 0.012), but did not reduce the stimulated liver urea production. In the post-prandial phase after intake of a low protein quality meal, net anabolism in the healthy intestine is absent. It is likely that the intestine responds with a net breakdown of endogenous (labile) proteins to secure amino acid availability for the body. Addition of the first limiting essential amino acid to this meal improved protein anabolism in the intestine. Protein quality of a meal is related to the anabolic response of the intestine during the meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. Anabolic steroids affect human periodontal health and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María Isabel; Verdugo, Fernando; Amighini, Celeste; Albaina, Olatz; Moragues, María D

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate periodontal microbiological differences between systemically healthy nonsmoker males taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) and non-AAS users and to find associations between disease severity and AAS use. Ninety-two men practicing bodybuilding were included in the study. They were divided into AAS users and a matched control nonuser group and subgrouped based on their most severe periodontal condition. Pooled subgingival samples from each individual were cultured to evaluate specific periodontopathogen infection. AAS users had significantly higher prevalence of severe periodontitis. AAS users had greater gingival inflammation and clinical attachment loss of ≥ 3 mm than nonusers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; p = 0.09; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-6.4). AAS users were 4.9 times more likely to be infected with Prevotella intermedia than AAS nonusers (OR = 4.9; p = 0.003; 95 % CI 1.6-14.7). The OR of presenting subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was 8.2 times higher in AAS users (OR = 8.2; p = 0.03; 95 % CI 0.9-70.8). AAS users were 5.6 times more likely to present subgingival Candida spp. than nonusers (OR = 5.6; p = 0.02; 95 % CI 1.1-27.1). AAS users were 14.8 times more likely to present subgingival Candida parapsilosis than nonusers (OR = 14.8; p < 0.0001; 95 % CI 3.1-69.2). The likelihood of AAS users presenting subgingival Candida tropicalis was 4.3 times higher than nonusers (OR = 4.3; p = 0.03; 95 % CI 1.1-16.9). A. actinomycetemcomitans was mostly isolated in individuals with severe periodontitis and was associated with subgingival Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, and Candida spp. AAS use may increase the risk for severe periodontitis and may cause a subgingival selection of certain Candida species. Specific periodontopathogens, such as Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans, seem to be negatively affected by AAS use. The higher risk for disease progression in AAS users may be explained by the

  8. Anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Whittaker, Maxine A

    2017-06-20

    Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers. Anabolic steroids are considered because of their ability to stimulate protein synthesis and build muscle mass. Comprehensive evidence is required to facilitate decision making, regarding the benefits and harms of using anabolic steroids. To assess the effects of anabolic steroids for treating pressure ulcers. In March 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE (including In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations); Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched clinical trials registries for ongoing and unpublished studies, and scanned reference lists of relevant included studies as well as reviews, meta-analyses and health technology reports to identify additional studies. There were no restrictions with respect to language, date of publication or study setting. Published or unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the effects of anabolic steroids with alternative treatments or different types of anabolic steroids in the treatment of pressure ulcers. Two review authors independently carried out study selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. The review contains only one trial with a total of 212 participants, all with spinal cord injury and open pressure ulcers classed as stage III and IV. The participants were

  9. Echocardiographic Finding in Anabolic Steroids Abuser Athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Haji Moradi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Abuse of anabolic steroids in body builders and competitive sports (doping is common and prevalent in our country. Due to disagreement about cardiovascular side effects of these drugs and existing controversy in published articles, this study was designed to evaluate the echocardiographic finding in athletics who are current user of these drugs. Materials & Methods: Body builders with continues sport for preceding year and at least twice weekly selected and divided into steroid abuser and not abuser and compared with age and BMI matched non athletic healthy volunteers .Results: There was not significant difference in age, body mass index, ejection fraction, ventricular compliance and valve function between three groups. But diastolic size of septum and free wall is significantly thicker in both of athletics in comparison with non athletic volunteer but observed differences were only significant (Pvalue = 0.05 between first and third group. The difference between the above mentioned index was not significant between two groups of athleticConclusion: Observed differences in diastolic size of septum and free wall between first and third group and also absence of difference between two athletic groups is in favor of that long term abuse of anabolic steroid (more than one year results in augmentation of physiologic hypertrophy due to isometric exercise. Furthermore long term abuse and supra pharmacologic dose does not have significant effect in size and left ventricular function.

  10. 21 CFR 1308.33 - Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain anabolic steroid products... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Anabolic Steroid Products § 1308.33 Exemption of certain anabolic... compound, mixture, or preparation containing an anabolic steroid as defined in part 1300 of this chapter...

  11. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 12(4):373-87. Review. Citation on PubMed Gottlieb B, Pinsky L, Beitel LK, Trifiro M. Androgen ... 89(4):210-7. Review. Citation on PubMed Gottlieb B, Trifiro MA. Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome. 1999 Mar ...

  13. Dihydrotestostenone increase the gene expression of androgen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The actions of androgens are mediated through an androgen receptor (AR), and AR activity is modulated by coregulators. The aim of this study was to assess the action of androgens in the expression of AR and the coregulators FHL-2 and SHP-1 in human non-transformed epithelial prostatic cells (HNTEP) treated with ...

  14. [Research progresses of anabolic steroids analysis in doping control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuanyuan; Wang, Dingzhong; Li, Ke'an; Liu, Feng

    2008-07-01

    Anabolic steroids, a kind of physiological active substance, are widely abused to improve athletic performance in human sports. They have been forbidden in sports by the International Olympic Committee since 1983. Since then, many researchers have been focusing their attentions on the establishment of reliable detection methods. In this paper, we review the research progresses of different analytical methods for anabolic steroids since 2002, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, immunoassay, electrochemistry analysis and mass spectrometry. The developing prospect of anabolic steroids analysis is also discussed.

  15. TAp73 promotes anti-senescence-anabolism not proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Massimiliano; Niklison-Chirou, Maria Victoria; Catani, Maria Valeria; Knight, Richard A; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    TAp73, a member of the p53 family, has been traditionally considered a tumor suppressor gene, but a recent report has claimed that it can promote cellular proliferation. This assumption is based on biochemical evidence of activation of anabolic metabolism, with enhanced pentose phosphate shunt (PPP) and nucleotide biosynthesis. Here, while we confirm that TAp73 expression enhances anabolism, we also substantiate its role in inhibiting proliferation and promoting cell death. Hence, we would like to propose an alternative interpretation of the accumulating data linking p73 to cellular metabolism: we suggest that TAp73 promotes anabolism to counteract cellular senescence rather than to support proliferation.

  16. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  17. Endogenous growth and the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, C.A.A.M.; Vellinga, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between environmental policy and growth, from the perspective of endogenous growth theory. In particular three standard endogenous growth models are supplemented with environmental issues, such as pollution and exhaustibility of natural resources. It is found

  18. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Escape Mechanism from Androgen Ablation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    except that no salmon sperm DNA was used as blocking reagent. The immunoprecipitated DNA and un- enriched input DNA were treated with RNase A and purified...A, Wang Y, Suzuki K, Mirosevich J, et al. (2005) Foxa1 and Foxa2 interact with the androgen receptor to regulate prostate and epididymal genes

  19. Myosin heavy chain expression pattern as a marker for anabolic potency: desoxymethyltestosterone (madol), norandrostenedione and testosterone repress MHC-IIb expression and stimulate MHC-IId/x expression in orchiectomized rat gastrocnemius muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, S; Velders, M; Schleipen, B; Schänzer, W; Bloch, W; Diel, P

    2011-06-01

    Both 19-norandrostenedione (estr-4-ene-3,17-dione, NOR) and desoxymethyltestosterone (17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androst-2-en-17beta-ol, DMT or "madol") are 'designer steroids' misused for doping purposes in the bodybuilding scene. We have previously characterized the pharmacological profile of madol and identified potential adverse side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anabolic potency of NOR, madol and the reference substance testosterone propionate (TP). Besides wet weight of the M.levator ani (LA), we examined the effects on muscle fiber type composition and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression in the M.gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle as additional markers for anabolic potency. A Hershberger assay was performed, where orchiectomized (orchi) male Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with NOR, madol, TP or vehicle control (all 1 mg/kg BW/day) for 12 days. Wet weights of the Gas, LA, prostate and seminal vesicle were examined to determine anabolic and androgenic effects. Fiber type composition of the Gas muscle was analyzed using ATPase staining, and MHC protein profiles were determined by silver stain and Western blot analysis. NOR and madol exhibited strong anabolic and weak androgenic potency by stimulating growth of the LA but not the prostate and seminal vesicle. Skeletal muscle fiber type composition characterized by ATPase staining was not significantly altered between the treatment groups, although there was a tendency toward lower levels of type IIB and increased type IIA fibers in all treatment groups relative to orchi. MHC protein expression determined by Western blot and silver stain analysis revealed that MHC IId/x was significantly up-regulated, while MHC IIb was significantly down-regulated in NOR, madol and TP groups relative to orchi. There were no significant differences for MHC IIa and MHC I expression between groups. Results suggest that the observed MHC expression shift could serve as a molecular marker to determine anabolic

  20. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examine...... disrupters relevant for human exposure was found to elicit persistent effects on the rat prostate following perinatal exposure, suggesting that human perinatal exposure to environmental chemicals may increase the risk of prostate cancer later in life. Prostate....

  1. Targeted Over-expression of Dkk1 in Osteoblasts Reduces Bone Mass But Does Not Impair the Anabolic Response to Intermittent PTH Treatment in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang-Qing; Wu, Jian-Jun; Troiano, Nancy; Insogna, Karl.

    2012-01-01

    PTH is a potent anabolic agent but the cellular mechanisms by which it increases bone mass are not fully understood. Dkk1 is an endogenous inhibitor of Wnt signaling and suppresses bone formation in vivo. We sought to determine if Dkk1 and anabolic PTH treatment interact in regulating bone mass. PTH treatment of primary murine osteoblasts for 24 hours reduced Dkk1 expression by 90% as quantified by real-time PCR, while PTH treatment in vivo reduced Dkk1 expression by 30% when give as a single daily subcutaneous dose. To directly determine whether Dkk1 modulates PTH’s anabolic response in vivo, we engineered transgenic (TG) mice expressing murine Dkk1 under the control of the 2.3-kb rat collagen alpha-1 promoter. TG mice had significantly reduced bone mass, which was accompanied by reduced histomorphometric parameters of bone formation (reduced OV/TV, ObS/OS and NOb/TAR). Treatment of TG and wild-type (WT) littermates with 95 ng/g body-weight of human (1–34) PTH daily for 34 days resulted in comparable increases in bone mass at all skeletal sites. Histomorphometric analyses indicated that PTH treatment increased numbers of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts in WT mice but only increased numbers of osteoblasts in TG mice. We conclude that overexpression of Dkk1 does not attenuate the anabolic response to PTH in vivo. PMID:20602130

  2. Are the cardiac effects of anabolic steroid abuse in strength athletes reversible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urhausen, A; Albers, T; Kindermann, W

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reversibility of adverse cardiovascular effects after chronic abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in athletes. Methods: Doppler echocardiography and cycle ergometry including measurements of blood pressure at rest and during exercise were undertaken in 32 bodybuilders or powerlifters, including 15 athletes who had not been taking AAS for at least 12 months (ex-users) and 17 currently abusing AAS (users), as well as in 15 anabolic-free weightlifters. Results: Systolic blood pressure was higher in users (mean (SD) 140 (10) mm Hg) than in ex-users (130 (5) mm Hg) (p < 0.05) or weightlifters (125 (10) mm Hg; p < 0.001). Left ventricular muscle mass related to fat-free body mass and the ratio of mean left ventricular wall thickness to internal diameter were not significantly higher in users (3.32 (0.48) g/kg and 42.1 (4.4)%) than in ex-users (3.16 (0.53) g/kg and 40.3 (3.8)%), but were lower in weightlifters (2.43 (0.26) g/kg and 36.5 (4.0)%; p < 0.001). Left ventricular wall thickness related to fat-free body mass was also lower in weightlifters, but did not differ between users and ex-users. Left ventricular wall thickness was correlated with a point score estimating AAS abuse in users (r  =  0.49, p < 0.05). In all groups, systolic left ventricular function was within the normal range. The maximum late transmitral Doppler flow velocity (Amax) was higher in users (61 (12) cm/s) and ex-users (60 (12) cm/s) than in weightlifters (50 (9) cm/s; p < 0.05 and p  =  0.054). Conclusions: Several years after discontinuation of anabolic steroid abuse, strength athletes still show a slight concentric left ventricular hypertrophy in comparison with AAS-free strength athletes. PMID:15084541

  3. Urinary detection of conjugated and unconjugated anabolic steroids by dilute-and-shoot liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Eva; Deventer, Koen; Geldof, Lore; Van Eenoo, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are an important class of doping agents. The metabolism of these substances is generally very extensive and includes phase-I and phase-II pathways. In this work, a comprehensive detection of these metabolites is described using a 2-fold dilution of urine and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The method was applied to study 32 different metabolites, excreted free or conjugated (glucuronide or sulfate), which permit the detection of misuse of at least 21 anabolic steroids. The method has been fully validated for 21 target compounds (8 glucuronide, 1 sulfate and 12 free steroids) and 18 out of 21 compounds had detection limits in the range of 1-10 ng mL(-1) in urine. For the conjugated compounds, for which no reference standards are available, metabolites were synthesized in vitro or excretion studies were investigated. The detection limits for these compounds ranged between 0.5 and 18 ng mL(-1) in urine. The simple and straightforward methodology complements the traditional methods based on hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication About Anabolic Steroids on Adolescent Athletes' Willingness to Try Performance-Enhancing Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Clarke, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Performance-enhancing substances are used by adolescent athletes to help improve performance. Anabolic steroids (AS) are performance-enhancing substances that pose significant health problems when used by adolescents. Objectives were to: (1) examine the extent to which parents and adolescents discuss AS and (2) test whether parent-adolescent communication about AS can generalize to, and influence, decisions to use other types of performance-enhancing substances. Adolescent athletes (n = 244) completed an anonymous questionnaire that assessed the extent to which the adolescents discussed with their parents the performance outcomes and protective factors associated with AS, their intentions to use AS, and their willingness to try a newly developed, potentially illegal performance-enhancing substance. Data were collected during 2009-2010. Adolescents reported relatively low levels of communication with their parents about anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Communication with parents about the performance outcomes associated with AS was a positive predictor of willingness to try a newly developed performance-enhancing substance (b = 0.31, p use AS (b = 0.54, p .77). Conclusions/Importance: Parents should highlight the protective factors and avoid emphasizing the performance outcomes associated with AS in discussions with their adolescents. Discussions about AS may influence adolescents' decisions to use other types of performance-enhancing substances.

  5. Gas chromatography/chemical ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry analysis of anabolic steroids: ionization and collision-induced dissociation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, Michael; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Van Eenoo, Peter; Deventer, Koen

    2016-02-28

    The detection of new anabolic steroid metabolites and new designer steroids is a challenging task in doping analysis. Switching from electron ionization gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS/MS) to chemical ionization (CI) has proven to be an efficient way to increase the sensitivity of GC/MS/MS analyses and facilitate the detection of anabolic steroids. CI also extends the possibilities of GC/MS/MS analyses as the molecular ion is retained in its protonated form due to the softer ionization. In EI it can be difficult to find previously unknown but expected metabolites due to the low abundance or absence of the molecular ion and the extensive (and to a large extent unpredictable) fragmentation. The main aim of this work was to study the CI and collision-induced dissociation (CID) behavior of a large number of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) as their trimethylsilyl derivatives in order to determine correlations between structures and CID fragmentation. Clarification of these correlations is needed for the elucidation of structures of unknown steroids and new metabolites. The ionization and CID behavior of 65 AAS have been studied using GC/CI-MS/MS with ammonia as the reagent gas. Glucuronidated AAS reference standards were first hydrolyzed to obtain their free forms. Afterwards, all the standards were derivatized to their trimethylsilyl forms. Full scan and product ion scan analyses were used to examine the ionization and CID behavior. Full scan and product ion scan analyses revealed clear correlations between AAS structure and the obtained mass spectra. These correlations were confirmed by analysis of multiple hydroxylated, methylated, chlorinated and deuterated analogs. AAS have been divided into three groups according to their ionization behavior and into seven groups according to their CID behavior. Correlations between fragmentation and structure were revealed and fragmentation pathways were postulated. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley

  6. Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ovariectomy and anabolic steroid implantation on the somatotrophic axis in feedlot heifers. CR Bailey, GC Duff, SR Sanders, SP Cuneo, CP McMurphy, SW Limesand, JA Marchello, DW Schafer, ML Rhoads, DM Hallford ...

  7. Anabolic Action Of Bovine Parathyroid Hormone In Male Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thus favoring gluconeogenesis) and serum markers of bone formation in male albino rats. The changes described above in response to bPTH are dose and time dependant. These findings give insight into possible mechanisms of anabolic ...

  8. The Response of Muscle Protein Anabolism to Combined Hyperaminoacidemia and Glucose-Induced Hyperinsulinemia Is Impaired in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    VOLPI, ELENA; MITTENDORFER, BETTINA; RASMUSSEN, BLAKE B.; WOLFE, ROBERT R.

    2011-01-01

    Muscle mass declines with aging. Amino acids alone stimulate muscle protein synthesis in the elderly. However, mixed nutritional supplementation failed to improve muscle mass. We hypothesized that the failure of nutritional supplements is due to altered responsiveness of muscle protein anabolism to increased amino acid availability associated with endogenous hyperinsulinemia. We measured muscle protein synthesis and breakdown, and amino acid transport in healthy young (30 ± 3 yr) and elderly (72 ± 1 yr) volunteers in the basal postabsorptive state and during the administration of an amino acid-glucose mixture, using l-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine infusion, femoral artery and vein catheterization, and muscle biopsies. Basal muscle amino acid turnover was similar in young and elderly subjects. The mixture increased phenylalanine leg delivery and transport into the muscle in both groups. Phenylalanine net balance increased in both groups (young, −27 ± 8 to 64 ± 17; elderly, −16 ± 4 to 29 ± 7 nmol/(min·100 mL); P anabolism to hyperaminoacidemia with endogenous hyperinsulinemia is impaired in healthy elderly due to the unresponsiveness of protein synthesis. PMID:11134097

  9. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent...

  10. Dying to be big: a review of anabolic steroid use.

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, H M; Wright, D; Littlepage, B N

    1992-01-01

    Anabolic steroids use is commonly perceived to be the domain of the higher echelons of competitive athletes. However, a great deal of anabolic steroid use occurs in private gymnasia (non-local authority) among non-competitive recreational athletes. Our study has attempted to give an insight into the prevalence of the use of these drugs, the hazards associated with it, and the public health responses which we have adopted.

  11. TAp73 promotes anti-senescence-anabolism not proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Massimiliano; Niklison-Chirou, Maria Victoria; Catani, Maria Valeria; Knight, Richard A.; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    TAp73, a member of the p53 family, has been traditionally considered a tumor suppressor gene, but a recent report has claimed that it can promote cellular proliferation. This assumption is based on biochemical evidence of activation of anabolic metabolism, with enhanced pentose phosphate shunt (PPP) and nucleotide biosynthesis. Here, while we confirm that TAp73 expression enhances anabolism, we also substantiate its role in inhibiting proliferation and promoting cell death. Hence, we would li...

  12. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism treated with human chorionic gonadotropin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.

    1998-01-01

    A case is presented of a young competitive body-builder who abused anabolic steroid drugs and developed profound symptomatic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. With the help of prescribed testosterone (Sustanon) he stopped taking anabolic drugs, and later stopped Sustanon also. Hypogonadism returned, but was successfully treated with weekly injections of human chorionic gonadotropin for three months. Testicular function remained normal thereafter on no treatment. The use of human chorionic gonad...

  13. Toxicological aspects of anabolics in food of animal origin

    OpenAIRE

    B. Antolović; B. Šimić; Ivana Kmetić; Jelka Pleadin; Nina Perši

    2011-01-01

    Because of the profitability of the meat production in the livestock industry there were many cases of abuse of different substances with anabolic effect - stilbenes, stilbene derivatives, their salts and esters, antithyroid agents, natural and synthetic hormones sterodini, lactones of resorcylic acid and beta-agonists. Mode of action of substances with anabolic effect in the body differs in these groups of substances, and results in increased nitrogen retention, protein synthesis and breakdo...

  14. Up-Regulation of Hepatic Alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein Transcription by Testosterone via Androgen Receptor Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Voelkl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetuin-A (alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, AHSG, a liver borne plasma protein, contributes to the prevention of soft tissue calcification, modulates inflammation, reduces insulin sensitivity and fosters weight gain following high fat diet or ageing. In polycystic ovary syndrome, fetuin-A levels correlate with free androgen levels, an observation pointing to androgen sensitivity of fetuin-A expression. The present study thus explored whether the expression of hepatic fetuin-A is modified by testosterone. Methods: HepG2 cells were treated with testosterone and androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, and were silenced with androgen receptor siRNA. To test the in vivo relevance, male mice were subjected to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for 7 weeks. AHSG mRNA levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and fetuin-A protein abundance by Western blotting. Results: In HepG2 cells, AHSG mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein abundance were both up-regulated following testosterone treatment. The human alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein gene harbors putative androgen receptor response elements in the proximal 5 kb promoter sequence relative to TSS. The effect of testosterone on AHSG mRNA levels was abrogated by silencing of the androgen receptor in HepG2 cells. Moreover, treatment of HepG2 cells with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide in presence of endogenous ligands in the medium significantly down-regulated AHSG mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein abundance. In addition, ADT of male mice was followed by a significant decrease of hepatic Ahsg mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein levels. Conclusions: Testosterone participates in the regulation of hepatic fetuin-A expression, an effect mediated, at least partially, by androgen receptor activation.

  15. Up-regulation of hepatic alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein transcription by testosterone via androgen receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkl, Jakob; Pakladok, Tatsiana; Lin, Yun; Viereck, Robert; Lebedeva, Aleksandra; Kukuk, Damaris; Pichler, Bernd J; Alesutan, Ioana; Lang, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Fetuin-A (alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, AHSG), a liver borne plasma protein, contributes to the prevention of soft tissue calcification, modulates inflammation, reduces insulin sensitivity and fosters weight gain following high fat diet or ageing. In polycystic ovary syndrome, fetuin-A levels correlate with free androgen levels, an observation pointing to androgen sensitivity of fetuin-A expression. The present study thus explored whether the expression of hepatic fetuin-A is modified by testosterone. HepG2 cells were treated with testosterone and androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, and were silenced with androgen receptor siRNA. To test the in vivo relevance, male mice were subjected to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for 7 weeks. AHSG mRNA levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and fetuin-A protein abundance by Western blotting. In HepG2 cells, AHSG mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein abundance were both up-regulated following testosterone treatment. The human alpha- 2-HS-glycoprotein gene harbors putative androgen receptor response elements in the proximal 5 kb promoter sequence relative to TSS. The effect of testosterone on AHSG mRNA levels was abrogated by silencing of the androgen receptor in HepG2 cells. Moreover, treatment of HepG2 cells with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide in presence of endogenous ligands in the medium significantly down-regulated AHSG mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein abundance. In addition, ADT of male mice was followed by a significant decrease of hepatic Ahsg mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein levels. Testosterone participates in the regulation of hepatic fetuin-A expression, an effect mediated, at least partially, by androgen receptor activation.

  16. Toxicological aspects of anabolics in food of animal origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Antolović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the profitability of the meat production in the livestock industry there were many cases of abuse of different substances with anabolic effect - stilbenes, stilbene derivatives, their salts and esters, antithyroid agents, natural and synthetic hormones sterodini, lactones of resorcylic acid and beta-agonists. Mode of action of substances with anabolic effect in the body differs in these groups of substances, and results in increased nitrogen retention, protein synthesis and breakdown of fat. Although the mechanisms of action are different and can be direct or indirect, use of anabolic steroids results in the same final effect, i.e. higher growth in animal breeding and better organoleptic properties of meat. Toxicological studies showed that the use of anabolic steroids on animals has resulted in numerous toxic effects on human health, considering it to be accumulated in animal tissue, which is further used in human nutrition. More cases of abuse of anabolic steroids in the world has led to significant adverse consequences for the health of consumers. Therefore, the use of substances with anabolic effect of livestock production is prohibited and must be monitored under the prescribed legislation and systematic monitoring and application of specific and selective analytical methods to determine very low concentrations of residues of such substances in various matrices.

  17. Endogenous cannabinoids and appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, T C; Williams, C M

    2001-06-01

    Since pre-history, Cannabis sativa has been exploited for its potent and manifold pharmacological actions. Amongst the most renowned of these actions is a tendency to provoke ravenous eating. The characterization of the psychoactive principals in cannabis (exogenous cannabinoids) and, more recently, the discovery of specific brain cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) has stimulated research into the physiological roles of endocannabinoid systems. In this review, we critically discuss evidence from the literature that describe studies on animals and human subjects to support endocannabinoid involvement in the control of appetite. We describe the hyperphagic actions of the exogenous cannabinoid, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and the endogenous CB1 ligands, anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol, and present evidence to support a specific role of endocannabinoid systems in appetitive processes related to the incentive and reward properties of food. A case is made for more comprehensive and systematic analyses of cannabinoid actions on eating, in the anticipation of improved therapies for disorders of appetite and body weight, and a better understanding of the biopsychological processes underlying hunger.

  18. Media exposure, mediated social comparison to idealized images of muscularity, and anabolic steroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melki, Jad P; Hitti, Eveline A; Oghia, Michael J; Mufarrij, Afif A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and dominant sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure to idealized images of male muscularity, and mediated social comparison trends among a sample of young Arab adults. The study found evidence that participants more exposed to content that promotes muscularity and those who idealize images of muscularity and perceive them as motivators for achieving muscularity are more likely to be AAS users. It also found that a significant percentage of participants used at least one kind of dietary supplement and that the level of AAS use among health club participants indicates it is a significant public health problem in Lebanon. The study suggests that dealing with this problem requires a unique approach, beyond the typical awareness of risks strategy, since some users were well aware of the risks yet continue to use AAS, and their motivations pertain more to body image and sexuality. A stronger approach that utilizes critical media literacy teaching that ingrains these issues into school and university curricula will have a more lasting impact.

  19. Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk: A national population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiblin, Ingemar; Garmo, Hans; Garle, Mats; Holmberg, Lars; Byberg, Liisa; Michaëlsson, Karl; Gedeborg, Rolf

    2015-07-01

    Non-therapeutic use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has been associated with various adverse effects; one of the most serious being direct cardiovascular effects with unknown long-term consequences. Therefore, large studies of the association between AAS and cardiovascular outcomes are warranted. We investigated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in individuals who tested positive for AAS. Between 2002 and 2009, a total of 2013 men were enrolled in a cohort on the date of their first AAS test. Mortality and morbidity after cohort entry was retrieved from national registries. Of the 2013 individuals, 409 (20%) tested positive for AAS. These men had twice the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rate as those with negative tests (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-3.3). Compared to the Swedish population, all tested men had an increased risk of premature death from all causes (standardized mortality ratio for AAS-positive: 19.3, 95% CI 12.4-30.0; for AAS-negative: 8.3, 95% CI 6.1-11.0). Non-therapeutic exposure to AAS appears to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and premature death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of doping agents, particularly anabolic steroids, in sports and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, Folke; Garle, Mats; Rane, Anders

    2008-05-31

    The use of doping agents, particularly anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), has changed from being a problem restricted to sports to one of public-health concern. We review the prevalence of misuse, the evidence that some drugs improve performance in sport, their side-effects, and the long-term consequences of AAS misuse for society at large. There is substantial under-reporting of the side-effects of AAS to health authorities. We describe neuropsychiatric side-effects of AAS and their possible neurobiological correlates, with particular emphasis on violent behaviour. Analytical methods and laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency can detect the misuse of all doping agents; although the analysis of testosterone requires special techniques, and recently discovered interethnic differences in testosterone excretion should be taken into account. The prevention of misuse of doping agents should include random doping analyses, medical follow-ups, pedagogic interventions, tougher legislation against possession of AAS, and longer disqualifications of athletes who use AAS.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of myotrophic actions by testosterone and trenbolone on androgen-responsive muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fan; McCoy, Sean C; Ross, Heather H; Bernardo, Joseph A; Beharry, Adam W; Senf, Sarah M; Judge, Andrew R; Beck, Darren T; Conover, Christine F; Cannady, Darryl F; Smith, Barbara K; Yarrow, Joshua F; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Androgens regulate body composition and skeletal muscle mass in males, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that trenbolone (a potent synthetic testosterone analogue that is not a substrate for 5-alpha reductase or for aromatase) induces myotrophic effects in skeletal muscle without causing prostate enlargement, which is in contrast to the known prostate enlarging effects of testosterone. These previous results suggest that the 5α-reduction of testosterone is not required for myotrophic action. We now report differential gene expression in response to testosterone versus trenbolone in the highly androgen-sensitive levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle complex of the adult rat after 6weeks of orchiectomy (ORX), using real time PCR. The ORX-induced expression of atrogenes (Muscle RING-finger protein-1 [MuRF1] and atrogin-1) was suppressed by both androgens, with trenbolone producing a greater suppression of atrogin-1 mRNA compared to testosterone. Both androgens elevated expression of anabolic genes (insulin-like growth factor-1 and mechano-growth factor) after ORX. ORX-induced increases in expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA were suppressed by trenbolone treatment, but not testosterone. In ORX animals, testosterone promoted WNT1-inducible-signaling pathway protein 2 (WISP-2) gene expression while trenbolone did not. Testosterone and trenbolone equally enhanced muscle regeneration as shown by increases in LABC mass and in protein expression of embryonic myosin by western blotting. In addition, testosterone increased WISP-2 protein levels. Together, these findings identify specific mechanisms by which testosterone and trenbolone may regulate skeletal muscle maintenance and growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men...... 'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...... not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...

  3. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...... not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial...... in some elderly males with low-normal testosterone levels. However, at this point in time, widespread use of testosterone in an elderly male population outside controlled clinical trials seems inappropriate....

  4. TBT-induced imposex in marine neogastropods is mediated by an increasing androgen level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, C.; Oehlmann, J.; Stroben, E.

    1996-09-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) exposure at different concentrations (5, 60, and 100 ng TBT as Sn/l) induces a concentration- and time-dependent imposex (=pseudohermaphroditism) development in female Nucella lapillus and Hinia reticulata. In both species the average imposex stage, termed as vas deferens sequence (VDS) index, and the average female penis length increases with increasing TBT concentration and duration of TBT exposure. Testosterone added at a concentration of 500 ng/l induces a faster and more intensive imposex development compared to that induced by the TBT concentrations used in the present experiments. Radioimmunological determination of endogenous steroid content reveals increasing testosterone titres in female gastropods exposed to TBT which correlate with the TBT concentration used and the duration of the experiment. The most marked and highest increase of the endogenous testosterone level is exhibited by females, of both species exposed to testosterone. Simulataneous exposure to TBT and to the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate which suppresses imposex development completely in N. lapillus and reduces imposex development strongly in H. reticulata proves that the imposex-inducing effects of TBT are mediated by an increasing androgen level and are not caused directly by the organotin compound itself. Further-more, TBT-induced imposex development can be suppressed in both snails by adding estrogens to the aqueous medium. These observations suggest that TBT causes an inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase system which catalyses the aromatization of androgens to estrogens. The increase of the androgen content or the shift of the androgen-estrogen balance in favour of androgens induces the development of pseudohermaphroditism in marine prosobranchs. Artificial inhibition of the cytochrome P-450 dependent aromatase system using SH 489 (1-methyl-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione) as a steroidal aromatase inhibitor and flavone as a nonsteroidal aromatase

  5. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  6. Reptides and Proteins Interacting with the Androgen Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. van de Wijngaart (Dennis)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAndrogens are important sex steroid hormones. The androgens testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are essential for normal male sexual differentiation and for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues, including the prostate. Androgens mediate their effects by

  7. Differential Mechanisms of Androgen Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    two infertile Finnish men. Fertility and Sterility , 79, Supple3, 2003. Miyake H, Hara I, Eto H.2005 Clinical outcome of maximum androgen blockade...identified in two infertile men (Lund et al 2003). It can be postulated that Q58L could change the conformation of the polyglutamide tract thereby...and PC3- LNCAP AR (C) tumour xenografts. 3 million cells in sterile PBS (1:1 ratio with Matrigel) were implanted s.c. into the flank of SCID mice

  8. The energetics of anabolism in natural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Douglas E; Amend, Jan P

    2016-06-01

    The environmental conditions that describe an ecosystem define the amount of energy available to the resident organisms and the amount of energy required to build biomass. Here, we quantify the amount of energy required to make biomass as a function of temperature, pressure, redox state, the sources of C, N and S, cell mass and the time that an organism requires to double or replace its biomass. Specifically, these energetics are calculated from 0 to 125 °C, 0.1 to 500 MPa and -0.38 to +0.86 V using CO2, acetate or CH4 for C, NO3(-) or NH4(+) for N and SO4(2-) or HS(-) for S. The amounts of energy associated with synthesizing the biomolecules that make up a cell, which varies over 39 kJ (g cell)(-1), are then used to compute energy-based yield coefficients for a vast range of environmental conditions. Taken together, environmental variables and the range of cell sizes leads to a ~4 orders of magnitude difference between the number of microbial cells that can be made from a Joule of Gibbs energy under the most (5.06 × 10(11) cells J(-1)) and least (5.21 × 10(7) cells J(-1)) ideal conditions. When doubling/replacement time is taken into account, the range of anabolism energies can expand even further.

  9. Tissue selectivity of the anabolic steroid, 19-nor-4-androstenediol-3beta,17beta-diol in male Sprague Dawley rats: selective stimulation of muscle mass and bone mineral density relative to prostate mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T; Marck, Brett T; Tolliver, James M; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2008-04-01

    Stimulation of prostate growth is a major concern with testosterone therapy in older hypogonadal men. As a result, nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators with anabolic activity but less prostate stimulation are being developed. Anabolic steroids might exhibit similar tissue selectivity. We hypothesized the anabolic steroid 19-nor-4-androstenediol-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta,19-NA) would increase muscle, lean body mass (LBM), and bone mineral density (BMD) with little stimulation of prostate growth. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with SILASTIC brand (Dow Corning, Midland, MI) capsules containing 3beta,19-NA (4, 8, or 16 cm), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (8 cm), 19-nortestosterone (16 cm), or four empty capsules after undergoing either a sham operation (intact) or orchidectomy (ORX). Serum gonadotropins, measured after 4, 8, or 24 wk of treatment, were significantly lower in 3beta,19-NA-treated vs. untreated, intact, and ORX rats (P muscle and prostate weights. Compared with ORX rats, 3beta,19-NA-treated rats had dose-dependent higher levator ani muscle weights, LBM, and BMD, which were similar to intact and DHT-treated rats at the highest 3beta,19-NA dose. In contrast, prostate weights in all 3beta,19-NA-treated groups were similar to ORX rats and lower than intact and DHT- and 19-nortestosterone-treated rats even at the highest 3beta,19-NA dose. In summary, 3beta,19-NA increases muscle and bone mass without significant stimulation of prostate growth, suggesting it may have some properties of a steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator. Anabolic steroids such as 3beta,19-NA should be studied further to determine their mechanisms of tissue selectivity and effects in men.

  10. Endogenous Fertility and Development Traps with Endogenous Lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fanti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the literature on endogenous lifetime and economic growth by Chakraborty (2004 and Bunzel and Qiao (2005 to endogenous fertility. We show that development traps due to underinvestments in health cannot appear when fertility is an economic decision variable and the costs of children are represented by a constant fraction of the parents' income used for their upbringing.

  11. Muscle wasting and resistance of muscle anabolism: the "anabolic threshold concept" for adapted nutritional strategies during sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardevet, Dominique; Rémond, Didier; Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Papet, Isabelle; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Mosoni, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle loss is observed in several physiopathological situations. Strategies to prevent, slow down, or increase recovery of muscle have already been tested. Besides exercise, nutrition, and more particularly protein nutrition based on increased amino acid, leucine or the quality of protein intake has generated positive acute postprandial effect on muscle protein anabolism. However, on the long term, these nutritional strategies have often failed in improving muscle mass even if given for long periods of time in both humans and rodent models. Muscle mass loss situations have been often correlated to a resistance of muscle protein anabolism to food intake which may be explained by an increase of the anabolic threshold toward the stimulatory effect of amino acids. In this paper, we will emphasize how this anabolic resistance may affect the intensity and the duration of the muscle anabolic response at the postprandial state and how it may explain the negative results obtained on the long term in the prevention of muscle mass. Sarcopenia, the muscle mass loss observed during aging, has been chosen to illustrate this concept but it may be kept in mind that it could be extended to any other catabolic states or recovery situations.

  12. Relative importance of prenatal and postnatal androgen action in determining growth of the penis and anogenital distance in the rat before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driesche, S; Scott, H M; MacLeod, D J; Fisken, M; Walker, M; Sharpe, R M

    2011-12-01

    Experimental animal studies show that measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and/or penis length may provide lifelong 'read-outs' of foetal androgen exposure during the masculinization programming window (MPW). However, variation in postnatal androgen exposure may complicate interpretation of such measurements. This is important to clarify if such measurements are to be applied to humans. The present aim was to evaluate effects of prenatal and/or postnatal manipulation of androgen production/action on growth of AGD and the penis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated daily before (e13.5-e21.5) and after birth (postnatal days 1-15) with either vehicle, 500 mg/kg di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) or 100 mg/kg flutamide (postnatal only) in prenatal + postnatal treatment combinations (N = 6 treatment combinations); DBP impairs androgen production whereas flutamide impairs androgen action. Male offspring were killed on postnatal day 8 (prepuberty), 25 (early puberty) or 90 (adulthood) when AGD was measured, the penis dissected out and its weight and length measured; plasma testosterone and ventral prostate weight were measured at day 90 to assess endogenous androgen exposure. In controls, penis length, girth and AGD increased 2.2-, 5.3-and 5.9-fold respectively from day 8 to day 90. Significant inhibition of penis growth and final length and girth was induced by treatments that inhibited postnatal androgen action. Conversely, growth and ultimate (adult) AGD was inhibited by prenatal inhibition of androgen production whereas postnatal androgen inhibition had negligible effect. Nevertheless, AGD and penis length were highly correlated at every age (R(2) > 0.33; p penis size reflects both prenatal + postnatal androgen exposure. At the group treatment level, prepubertal measurement of either AGD or penis size accurately predicts their size in adulthood. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Knowledge about Anabolic Steroids of Rhode Island Adolescents: Implications for Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    Although anabolic steroids are associated with short term behavior and long term health problems, few schools address this issue. Adolescents were surveyed to determine their general knowledge of anabolic steroids, attitudes related to fair play, and interest in limiting anabolic steroid use. Data from 322 boys and 331 girls in grades 7-12 were…

  14. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person seeking...

  15. The Effect of Anabolic Steroid Education on Knowledge and Attitudes of At-Risk Preadolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenhaile, Jay; Choi, Hee-Sook; Proctor, Theron B.; Work, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of anabolic steroid education on preadolescents' knowledge of and attitudes toward anabolic steroids with 35 male athletes. Information on psychological and physiological aspects of anabolic steroid use, weight training techniques, nutrition, social decision making, and self-esteem training were provided. Participants…

  16. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Escape Mechanisms from Androgen Ablation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    p. 132-138. 7. Han , G., et al., Mutation of the androgen receptor causes oncogenic transformation of the prostate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005. 102...the confor- (1997) 306-360. mational state of the AR may recruit specific TPR- [9] K. Richter, J. Buchner , Hsp90: chaperoning signal transduc-tion...Biol. 42 connection, Trends Biochem. Sci. 22 (1997) 87-92. (1992) 803-812.[19] 2) D.F. 812. S[34] U. Jakob, J. Buchner , Assisting spontaneity: the role

  17. Effect of Eight Weeks of Resistance Exercise on Adaptive Responses of Cortisol and Androgens in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Decreased anabolic to catabolic ratio during menopause, can lead to a reduction in muscle size and strength. Hence, the current study amed to investigate the effect of eight weeks of resistance exercise on adaptive responses of cortisol and androgens in postmenopausal women. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 16 healthy postmenopausal women with the age range of 48 to 62 years and a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 were selected (via paposeful and convenience sampling who participated in an eight-week program of circular shape resistance training (8 stations, 3 sets with 12 repeatation with intensity of 65-40% of one repetition maximum. Serum levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and cortisol were measured 48 hours before and after the intervention. The study data were analyzed by paired student’s t-test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The study results following resistance training, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels (58%, P=0.000, testosterone (71%, P=0.017, testosterone to cortisol ratio (125%, P=0.016 and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to cortisol ratio (61%, P=0.002 significantly increased. Although the amount of post-test cortisol levels was decreased, this change was not held to be significant (P=0.459. Conclusion: Eight weeks of resistance training leads to a significant increase in levels of androgens as well as androgens to cortisol ratio. Therefore, resistance training by increasing the ratio of anabolic to catabolic hormones can prevente muscle size and strength, and aid to wellbeing and health of postmenopausal women.

  18. On the free energy that drove primordial anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Michael

    2009-04-22

    A key problem in understanding the origin of life is to explain the mechanism(s) that led to the spontaneous assembly of molecular building blocks that ultimately resulted in the appearance of macromolecular structures as they are known in modern biochemistry today. An indispensable thermodynamic prerequisite for such a primordial anabolism is the mechanistic coupling to processes that supplied the free energy required. Here I review different sources of free energy and discuss the potential of each form having been involved in the very first anabolic reactions that were fundamental to increase molecular complexity and thus were essential for life.

  19. On the Free Energy That Drove Primordial Anabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kaufmann

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A key problem in understanding the origin of life is to explain the mechanism(s that led to the spontaneous assembly of molecular building blocks that ultimately resulted in the appearance of macromolecular structures as they are known in modern biochemistry today. An indispensable thermodynamic prerequisite for such a primordial anabolism is the mechanistic coupling to processes that supplied the free energy required. Here I review different sources of free energy and discuss the potential of each form having been involved in the very first anabolic reactions that were fundamental to increase molecular complexity and thus were essential for life.

  20. SMILE upregulated by metformin inhibits the function of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yon; Song, Chin-Hee; Xie, Yuan-Bin; Jung, Chaeyong; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Lee, Keesook

    2014-11-28

    Metformin, a diabetes drug, has been reported to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect and action mechanism of metformin on the function of androgen receptor (AR), a key molecule in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. Metformin was found to reduce androgen-dependent cell growth and the expression of AR target genes by inhibiting AR function in prostate cancer cells such as LNCaP and C4-2 cells. Interestingly, metformin upregulated the protein level of small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper (SMILE), a coregulator of nuclear receptors, and knockdown of SMILE expression with shRNA abolished the inhibitory effect of metformin on AR function. Further studies revealed that SMILE protein itself suppressed the transactivation of AR, and its ectopic expression resulted in the repressed expression of endogenous AR target genes, PSA and NKX3.1, in LNCaP cells. In addition, SMILE protein physically interacted with AR and competed with the AR coactivator SRC-1 to modulate AR transactivation. As expected, SMILE repressed androgen-dependent growth of LNCaP and C4-2 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that SMILE, which is induced by metformin, functions as a novel AR corepressor and may mediate the inhibitory effect of metformin on androgen-dependent growth of prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Androgens and the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    'andropause' has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do...... with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term...

  2. In Vitro Androgen Bioassays as a Detection Method for Designer Androgens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K. Heather

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports supplement market has grown rapidly throughout the past decade. Many of these supplements contain androgens, designer androgens or proandrogens. Many designer or proandrogens cannot be detected by the standard highly-sensitive screening methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry because their chemical structure is unknown. However, in vitro androgen bioassays can detect designer and proandrogens as these assays are not reliant on knowing the chemical structure but instead are based on androgen receptor activation. For these reasons, it may be advantageous to use routine androgen bioassay screening of nutraceutical samples to help curb the increasing problem of androgen doping.

  3. In vitro androgen bioassays as a detection method for designer androgens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Elliot R; McGrath, Kristine C Y; Heather, Alison K

    2013-02-06

    Androgens are the class of sex steroids responsible for male sexual characteristics, including increased muscle mass and decreased fat mass. Illicit use of androgen doping can be an attractive option for those looking to enhance sporting performance and/or physical appearance. The use of in vitro bioassays to detect androgens, especially designer or proandrogens, is becoming increasingly important in combating androgen doping associated with nutritional supplements. The nutritional sports supplement market has grown rapidly throughout the past decade. Many of these supplements contain androgens, designer androgens or proandrogens. Many designer or proandrogens cannot be detected by the standard highly-sensitive screening methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry because their chemical structure is unknown. However, in vitro androgen bioassays can detect designer and proandrogens as these assays are not reliant on knowing the chemical structure but instead are based on androgen receptor activation. For these reasons, it may be advantageous to use routine androgen bioassay screening of nutraceutical samples to help curb the increasing problem of androgen doping.

  4. Adipose Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Targeting of Residual Androgens in African Americans with Bone-Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    by: (a) investigate if “intracrine” production of testosterone by osteotropic ASCAA modulates growth and metastatic potential of CaP cells under ADT...18–20 months, with median survival of 1–2 years. Importantly, large body of evidence indicate that in the setting of ‘castrate’ serum testosterone ...androgen- metabolizing genes within castration-resistant metastatic tumors [29] strongly suggests that up-regulated activity of endogenous steroidogenic

  5. Androgen therapy in women: a reappraisal: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierman, Margaret E; Arlt, Wiebke; Basson, Rosemary; Davis, Susan R; Miller, Karen K; Murad, Mohammad H; Rosner, William; Santoro, Nanette

    2014-10-01

    safety of high physiological doses of T treatment of postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction due to hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Importantly, endogenous T levels did not predict response to therapy. At present, physiological T preparations for use in women are not available in many countries including the United States, and long-term safety data are lacking. We recommend that any woman receiving T therapy be monitored for signs and symptoms of androgen excess. We outline areas for future research. Ongoing improvement in androgen assays will allow a redefinition of normal ranges across the lifespan; this may help to clarify the impact of varying concentrations of plasma androgens on the biology, physiology, and psychology in women and lead to indications for therapeutic interventions.

  6. A case study of virilizing adrenal tumor in an adolescent female elite tennis player--insight into the use of anabolic steroids in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Cale-Benzoor, Mia; Klinger-Cantor, Beatrice; Freud, Enrique; Nemet, Dan; Feigin, Elad; Weintrob, Neomi

    2011-01-01

    A 14-year-old Caucasian girl was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of voice deepening, facial hirsutism, and acne starting 2 years previously. She had been a competitive tennis player since age 7 years, practicing for 4-6 hours daily. On physical examination she was noticed to have a masculine appearance with mild facial acne and moderate hirsutism. Tanner stage was 1 for breast tissue and 5 for pubic hair. Her androgen levels (testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) were extremely elevated. Adrenal ultrasonography revealed a round left 4.6 × 5.3-cm adrenal mass. Laparoscopic left adrenalectomy was performed. The histologic findings were compatible with a benign adrenocortical tumor. Postoperatively, androgen levels dropped to within the normal range. Breast development proceeded normally, menarche occurred 2 months after tumor resection, and menses has been regular since then. Muscle strength of the dominant and nondominant upper and lower extremities was measured 1 month before surgery and 1 year later, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Systems II, Biodex, Shirley, NY, USA). There was no significant decrease in overall muscle strength after removal of the virilizing tumor and the marked drop in circulating androgens. In addition, the patient maintained her age category, number 1, national tennis ranking. The results suggest that even extremely high levels of tumor-related circulating androgens had no evident effect on muscle strength and competitive performance in a female adolescent tennis player. The lack of beneficial effect on performance in adolescents, combined with the potentially hazardous side effects of anabolic steroids, suggests that teenage athletes should avoid their use.

  7. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 484: Performance enhancing anabolic steroid abuse in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Anabolic steroids are composed of testosterone and other substances related to testosterone that promote growth of skeletal muscle, increase hemoglobin concentration, and mediate secondary sexual characteristics. These substances have been in use since the 1930s to promote muscle growth, improve athletic performance, and enhance cosmetic appearance. Although anabolic steroids are controlled substances, only to be prescribed by a physician, it is currently possible to obtain anabolic steroids illegally without a prescription. There are significant negative physical and psychologic effects of anabolic steroid use, which in women can cause significant cosmetic and reproductive changes. Anabolic steroid use can be addictive and, therefore, difficult to stop. Treatment for anabolic steroid abuse generally involves education, counseling, and management of withdrawal symptoms. Health care providers are encouraged to address the use of these substances, encourage cessation, and refer patients to substance abuse treatment centers to prevent the long-term irreversible consequences of anabolic steroid use.

  8. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...

  9. Project Right Way: An Anabolic Steroid Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, June

    There is increasing concern by medical experts in this country about the use of anabolic steroids by teenagers. Over one million Americans are believed to be currently using or have used the synthetic hormones in the past. While drug testing and a reduction in the supply of the drugs appear to be reducing the number of adult users, use by…

  10. Anabolic Steroid Use: Indications of Habituation among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesalis, Charles E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Identified characteristics of adolescent male anabolic steroid (AS) user and addictive potential. Found AS user population different from nonuser in self-perceptions of health and strength, interest in controlling AS use, and perception of peer AS use. Found subgroups with significantly different attitudes and/or behaviors. Suggests prevention…

  11. The Incidence of Anabolic Steroid Use among Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricker, Ray; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated incidence of anabolic steroid use among 380 competitive male and female bodybuilders in Kansas and Missouri. Results indicated more than half (54 percent) of the male bodybuilders were using steroids on a regular basis compared to 10 percent of the female competitors. Found main reason for use of steroids was desire to win. (Author/TE)

  12. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  13. Illicit anabolic steroid use in athletes. A case series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, P J; Andersen, K H; Yates, W R

    1990-01-01

    Because of recent anabolic steroid abuse scandals at all levels of athletic competition ranging from high school sports to the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, Korea, the investigators closely examined the anabolic steroid use histories of 20 competitive and noncompetitive weight lifters. Steroid efficacy studies only examine the anabolic effects of individual drugs. However, these 20 steroid users consistently practiced polypharmacy. During steroid use cycles lasting between 7 and 14 weeks, athletes commonly used two or three oral agents and two long-acting injectable products. Dosages of oral preparations tended to be similar to those used in efficacy studies, whereas dosages of the long-acting injectable agents were approximately three to eight times greater than those used in controlled studies. Subjects reported significant increases in body weight and strength. In addition, mental status changes were reported that included symptoms of depression, hostility, aggression, and paranoia. Based on the pattern of anabolic steroid use currently being practiced in the United States, it is apparent that past efficacy and toxicology studies are of limited value in delineating the benefits and hazards of these drugs.

  14. Androgen receptor expression in human ovarian and uterine tissue of long term androgen-treated transsexual women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Chadha; T.D. Pache; F.J. Huikeshoven (Frans); A.O. Brinkmann (Albert); Th.H. van der Kwast (Theo)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAndrogen receptor (AR) modulation in human uteri and ovaries of long term androgen-treated transsexual female patients was investigated. Androgen receptor expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in the ovaries of 11 and the endometria and myometria of six androgen-treated

  15. Selective androgen receptor modulator RAD140 is neuroprotective in cultured neurons and kainate-lesioned male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Christensen, Amy; Moser, V Alexandra; Vest, Rebekah S; Miller, Chris P; Hattersley, Gary; Pike, Christian J

    2014-04-01

    The decline in testosterone levels in men during normal aging increases risks of dysfunction and disease in androgen-responsive tissues, including brain. The use of testosterone therapy has the potential to increase the risks for developing prostate cancer and or accelerating its progression. To overcome this limitation, novel compounds termed "selective androgen receptor modulators" (SARMs) have been developed that lack significant androgen action in prostate but exert agonist effects in select androgen-responsive tissues. The efficacy of SARMs in brain is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the SARM RAD140 in cultured rat neurons and male rat brain for its ability to provide neuroprotection, an important neural action of endogenous androgens that is relevant to neural health and resilience to neurodegenerative diseases. In cultured hippocampal neurons, RAD140 was as effective as testosterone in reducing cell death induced by apoptotic insults. Mechanistically, RAD140 neuroprotection was dependent upon MAPK signaling, as evidenced by elevation of ERK phosphorylation and inhibition of protection by the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126. Importantly, RAD140 was also neuroprotective in vivo using the rat kainate lesion model. In experiments with gonadectomized, adult male rats, RAD140 was shown to exhibit peripheral tissue-specific androgen action that largely spared prostate, neural efficacy as demonstrated by activation of androgenic gene regulation effects, and neuroprotection of hippocampal neurons against cell death caused by systemic administration of the excitotoxin kainate. These novel findings demonstrate initial preclinical efficacy of a SARM in neuroprotective actions relevant to Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the neonate - trends in steroid anabolism and catabolism during the first weeks of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakoudi, Sofia; Cowan, David A; Christakudis, Georgios; Taylor, Norman F

    2013-11-01

    Deficiency of 21-hydroxylase provides an in vivo model of intrauterine induction of enzymes participating in steroid anabolism and catabolism. Quantitative data for 93 steroid metabolites in urine from 111 patients and 7 controls (25 samples) were compared over the first six weeks of life. Net flux through the key anabolic enzymes was examined by comparison of the totals of steroids derived from the intermediates prior to and following each enzymatic step. Metabolic relationships were established on structural grounds and by Pearson correlation. The relative importance of each catabolic route was evaluated after summing metabolites classified according to their structure as fetal, neonatal, and classical (adult) type. Hierarchical cluster analysis identified the structure at C3-C5 as a key distinguishing feature of the major catabolic streams and demonstrated a split point in metabolic pattern in patients at 7 days. Changes with time in steroid metabolism, larger in patients than in controls, could be interpreted as reflecting increased cortisol demand post partum, the clinical onset of salt-wasting and a transition in catabolism from fetal to postnatal life. Faster involution of the fetal zone and pronounced enhancement of steroid production in zona fasciculata and zona glomerulosa were indicated in patients. Predominant at birth were 'planar' fetal-type 5α-reduced metabolites, adapted to placental excretion, which gave way to additionally hydroxylated neonatal-type metabolites, facilitating renal excretion. Classical metabolism made gains over the study period. Overproduction of steroids in utero in 21-hydroxylase deficiency would have induced fetal catabolic pathways dependent on 5α-reduction. A progressive increase of steroids likely to arise from 5α-reductase type 2 activity, again more distinct in disease, was observed. We demonstrate that the key intermediates in the hypothetical 'backdoor' pathway of androgen synthesis are part of a broader catabolic

  17. Development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after anabolic steroid abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, Leal C; Markowitz, Glen S; Farris, Alton B; Schwimmer, Joshua A; Stokes, Michael B; Kunis, Cheryl; Colvin, Robert B; D'Agati, Vivette D

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse adversely affects the endocrine system, blood lipids, and the liver, but renal injury has not been described. We identified an association of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and proteinuria in a cohort of 10 bodybuilders (six white and four Hispanic; mean body mass index 34.7) after long-term abuse of anabolic steroids. The clinical presentation included proteinuria (mean 10.1 g/d; range 1.3 to 26.3 g/d) and renal insufficiency (mean serum creatinine 3.0 mg/dl; range 1.3 to 7.8 mg/dl); three (30%) patients presented with nephrotic syndrome. Renal biopsy revealed FSGS in nine patients, four of whom also had glomerulomegaly, and glomerulomegaly alone in one patient. Three biopsies revealed collapsing lesions of FSGS, four had perihilar lesions, and seven showed > or =40% tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Among eight patients with mean follow-up of 2.2 yr, one progressed to ESRD, the other seven received renin-angiotensin system blockade, and one also received corticosteroids. All seven patients discontinued anabolic steroids, leading to weight loss, stabilization or improvement in serum creatinine, and a reduction in proteinuria. One patient resumed anabolic steroid abuse and suffered relapse of proteinuria and renal insufficiency. We hypothesize that secondary FSGS results from a combination of postadaptive glomerular changes driven by increased lean body mass and potential direct nephrotoxic effects of anabolic steroids. Because of the expected rise in serum creatinine as a result of increased muscle mass in bodybuilders, this complication is likely underrecognized.

  18. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Zhou

    2003-01-01

    .... Intermittent androgen ablation therapy may slow down the development of androgen refractory tumors because intermittent recovery of androgens can induce differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells...

  19. Androgen interacts with exercise through the mTOR pathway to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Zeng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous androgen and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signalling during the process. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham operation and dihydrotestosterone (DHT implantation groups with subgroups subjected to sedentary conditions or resistance exercise (SHAM+SED, SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX. The experimental procedure lasted for 10 days. The mRNA expression of androgen receptor (AR and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC, as well as the phosphorylation statuses of AR, mTOR, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1 were determined in the white gastrocnemius muscle. The cross sectional area and wet mass of the muscle were also measured. The cross sectional area and MHC expression were significantly higher in SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX than in SHAM+SED. There was no significant difference among groups in muscle mass. The mRNA expression of AR and IGF-I and the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70S6K, and 4EBP1 were significantly increased in DHT+SED and SHAM+EX and were significantly enhanced in DHT+EX compared with either DHT or exercise alone. These data show that DHT causes hypertrophy in skeletal muscle and that exercise has a synergistic effect on DHT-induced hypertrophy. Exercise enhances androgen-induced rapid anabolic action, which involves activation of the mTOR pathway.

  20. Androgen effects on women's gendered behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J R; Morris, N M; Kovenock, J

    1995-07-01

    Test of the applicability of the hormonal theory of sex-dimorphic behaviour to adult women is achieved in this study by assembling measures of prenatal and adult androgen exposure, and a broad measure of gendered behaviour on a sample of white women aged 27-30. Androgen exposure in the second (and no other) trimester of fetal life, combined with and in interaction with adult androgens, masculineses women's behaviour and explains a substantial proportion of the within-sex variance in women's adult gendered behaviour.

  1. Androgens in pregnancy: roles in parturition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makieva, Sofia; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Norman, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Understanding the physiology of pregnancy enables effective management of pregnancy complications that could otherwise be life threatening for both mother and fetus. A functional uterus (i) retains the fetus in utero during pregnancy without initiating stretch-induced contractions and (ii) is able to dilate the cervix and contract the myometrium at term to deliver the fetus. The onset of labour is associated with successful cervical remodelling and contraction of myometrium, arising from concomitant activation of uterine immune and endocrine systems. A large body of evidence suggests that actions of local steroid hormones may drive changes occurring in the uterine microenvironment at term. Although there have been a number of studies considering the potential role(s) played by progesterone and estrogen at the time of parturition, the bio-availability and effects of androgens during pregnancy have received less scrutiny. The aim of this review is to highlight potential roles of androgens in the biology of pregnancy and parturition. METHODS A review of published literature was performed to address (i) androgen concentrations, including biosynthesis and clearance, in maternal and fetal compartments throughout gestation, (ii) associations of androgen concentrations with adverse pregnancy outcomes, (iii) the role of androgens in the physiology of cervical remodelling and finally (iv) the role of androgens in the physiology of myometrial function including any impact on contractility. RESULTS Some, but not all, androgens increase throughout gestation in maternal circulation. The effects of this increase are not fully understood; however, evidence suggests that increased androgens might regulate key processes during pregnancy and parturition. For example, androgens are believed to be critical for cervical remodelling at term, in particular cervical ripening, via regulation of cervical collagen fibril organization. Additionally, a number of studies highlight

  2. Androgen responsiveness to competition in humans: the role of cognitive variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira GA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gonçalo A Oliveira,1 Rui F Oliveira1,2 1Unidade de Investigação em Eco-Etologia, ISPA – Instituto Universitário, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Champalimaud Neuroscience Program, Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal Abstract: Although androgens are commonly seen as male sex hormones, it has been established over the years that in both sexes, androgens also respond to social challenges. To explain the socially driven changes in androgens, two theoretical models have been proposed: the biosocial model and the challenge hypothesis. These models are typically seen as partly overlapping; however, they generate different predictions that are clarified here. In humans, sports competition and nonmetabolic competitive tasks have been used in the laboratory setting, as a proxy for agonistic interactions in animals. The results reviewed here show that the testosterone (T response to competition in humans is highly variable – the studies present postcompetition T levels and changes in T that depend on the contest outcome and that cannot be predicted by the current theoretical models. These conflicting results bring to the foreground the importance of considering cognitive factors that could moderate the androgen response to competition. Among these variables, we elect cognitive appraisal and its components as a key candidate modulating factor. It is known that T also modulates the cognitive processes that are relevant to performance in competition. In this article, we reviewed the evidence arising from studies investigating the effect of administering exogenous T and compare those results with the findings from studies that measured endogenous T levels. Finally, we summarized the importance of also considering the interaction between androgens and other hormones, such as cortisol, when investigating the social modulation of T, as proposed by the dual-hormone hypothesis. Keywords: testosterone, challenge hypothesis, biosocial model, cognitive

  3. Anabolic steroids alter the physiological activity of aggression circuits in the lateral anterior hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, T R; Sikes, R W; Melloni, R H

    2016-02-19

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS-treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP-responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ANABOLIC STEROIDS HAVE LONG-LASTING EFFECTS ON MALE SOCIAL BEHAVIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Ramirez, Kaliris Y.; Montalto, Pamela R.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) use by adolescents is steadily increasing. Adolescence involves remodeling of steroid-sensitive neural circuits that mediate social behaviors, and previous studies using animal models document effects of AAS on male social behaviors. The present experiments tested whether AAS have persistent and more pronounced behavioral consequences when drug exposure occurs during adolescence as compared to exposure in adulthood. Male Syrian hamsters were injected daily for 14 days with either vehicle or an AAS cocktail containing testosterone cypionate (2 mg/kg), nandrolone decanoate (2 mg/kg), and boldenone undecylenate (1 mg/kg), either during adolescence (27-41 days of age) or adulthood (63-77 days of age). As adults, subjects were tested two or four weeks after the last injection for either sexual behavior with a receptive female or male-male agonistic behavior in a resident-intruder test. Compared with vehicle-treated males, AAS-treated males, regardless of age of treatment, displayed fewer long intromissions and a significant increase in latency to the first long intromission, indicative of reduced potential to reach sexual satiety. Increased aggression was observed in males exposed to AAS compared with males treated with vehicle, independently of age of AAS treatment. However, unlike hamsters exposed to AAS in adulthood, hamsters exposed to AAS during adolescence did not display any submissive or risk-assessment behaviors up to 4 weeks after discontinuation of AAS treatment. Thus, AAS have long-lasting effects on male sexual and agonistic behaviors, with AAS exposure during adolescence resulting in a more pronounced reduction in submissive behavior compared to AAS exposure in adulthood. PMID:20036695

  5. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Vaqas; Berg, Maayken E L van den; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (10 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013), EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36), trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013.Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture.Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria), extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living) and adverse events, including mortality. We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high risk of bias, imprecise results and likelihood of publication bias

  6. Anabolic steroids for rehabilitation after hip fracture in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Vaqas; van den Berg, Maayken E L; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria

    2014-10-06

    Hip fracture occurs predominantly in older people, many of whom are frail and undernourished. After hip fracture surgery and rehabilitation, most patients experience a decline in mobility and function. Anabolic steroids, the synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone, have been used in combination with exercise to improve muscle mass and strength in athletes. They may have similar effects in older people who are recovering from hip fracture. To examine the effects (primarily in terms of functional outcome and adverse events) of anabolic steroids after surgical treatment of hip fracture in older people. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (10 September 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2013 Issue 8), MEDLINE (1946 to August Week 4 2013), EMBASE (1974 to 2013 Week 36), trial registers, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. The search was run in September 2013. Randomised controlled trials of anabolic steroids given after hip fracture surgery, in inpatient or outpatient settings, to improve physical functioning in older patients with hip fracture. Two review authors independently selected trials (based on predefined inclusion criteria), extracted data and assessed each study's risk of bias. A third review author moderated disagreements. Only very limited pooling of data was possible. The primary outcomes were function (for example, independence in mobility and activities of daily living) and adverse events, including mortality. We screened 1290 records and found only three trials involving 154 female participants, all of whom were aged above 65 years and had had hip fracture surgery. All studies had methodological shortcomings that placed them at high or unclear risk of bias. Because of this high risk of bias, imprecise results and likelihood of publication bias, we judged the quality of the evidence for all primary outcomes to

  7. Analysis of anabolic steroids in urine by gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry with chlorobenzene as dopant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintikka, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Kuuranne, Tiia; Leinonen, Antti; Kostiainen, Risto

    2013-10-18

    A gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-μAPPI-MS/MS) method was developed for the analysis of anabolic androgenic steroids in urine as their trimethylsilyl derivatives. The method utilizes a heated nebulizer microchip in atmospheric pressure photoionization mode (μAPPI) with chlorobenzene as dopant, which provides high ionization efficiency by producing abundant radical cations with minimal fragmentation. The performance of GC-μAPPI-MS/MS was evaluated with respect to repeatability, linearity, linear range, and limit of detection (LOD). The results confirmed the potential of the method for doping control analysis of anabolic steroids. Repeatability (RSD<10%), linearity (R(2)≥0.996) and sensitivity (LODs 0.05-0.1ng/mL) were acceptable. Quantitative performance of the method was tested and compared with that of conventional GC-electron ionization-MS, and the results were in good agreement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in high-throughput confirmation and quantification of 34 anabolic steroids in bovine muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Wille, Klaas; Bekaert, Karen; De Brabander, Hubert F

    2011-08-26

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry multi-residue method for the determination of 34 anabolic steroids (10 estrogens including stilbenes, 14 androgens and 10 gestagens) in meat of bovine origin is reported. The extraction and clean-up procedure involved homogenization with methanol, defatting with hexane, liquid/liquid extraction with diethylether and finally SPE clean-up with coupled Si and NH(2) cartridges. The analytes were separated on a 1.9 μm Hypersil Gold column (100×2.1 mm) and quantified on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TSQ Vantage) operating simultaneously in both positive and negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) modes. This analytical procedure was subsequently validated according to EU criteria (CD 2002/657/EC), resulting in decision limits and detection capabilities ranging between 0.04 and 0.88 μg kg(-1) and 0.12 and 1.9 μg kg(-1), respectively. The method obtained for all, natural and synthetic steroids, adequate precisions and intra-laboratory reproducibilities (relative standard deviation below 20%), and the linearity ranged between 0.991 and 0.999. The performance characteristics fulfill the recommended concentrations fixed by the Community Reference Laboratories. The developed analysis is sensitive, and robust and therefore useful for confirmation and quantification of anabolic steroids for research purposes and residue control programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain masculinization requires androgen receptor function

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kawano, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Yoshikatsu; Sekine, Keisuke; Fukuda, Toru; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Krust, Andrée; Yamada, Takashi; NAKAMICHI, YUKO; Yamamoto, Yoko; Nakamura, Takashi; Yoshimura, Kimihiro; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya

    2004-01-01

    Testicular testosterone produced during a critical perinatal period is thought to masculinize and defeminize the male brain from the inherent feminization program and induce male-typical behaviors in the adult. These actions of testosterone appear to be exerted not through its androgenic activity, but rather through its conversion by brain aromatase into estrogen, with the consequent activation of estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated signaling. Thus, the role of androgen receptor (AR) in perinatal...

  10. The antiandrogenic effect of finasteride against a mutant androgen receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Zhang, Haitao; Ip, Clement

    2011-01-01

    Finasteride is known to inhibit Type 2 5α-reductase and thus block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The structural similarity of finasteride to DHT raises the possibility that finasteride may also interfere with the function of the androgen receptor (AR). Experiments were carried out to evaluate the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride in LNCaP, C4-2 and VCaP human prostate cancer cells. Finasteride decreased DHT binding to AR, and DHT-stimulated AR activity and cell growth in LNCaP and C4-2 cells, but not in VCaP cells. LNCaP and C4-2 (derived from castration-resistant LNCaP) cells express the T877A mutant AR, while VCaP cells express the wild-type AR. When PC-3 cells, which are AR-null, were transfected with either the wild-type or the T877A mutant AR, only the mutant AR-expressing cells were sensitive to finasteride inhibition of DHT binding. Peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx1) is a novel endogenous facilitator of AR binding to DHT. In Prx1-rich LNCaP cells, the combination of Prx1 knockdown and finasteride was found to produce a greater inhibitory effect on AR activity and cell growth than either treatment alone. The observation suggests that cells with a low expression of Prx1 are likely to be more responsive to the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride. Additional studies showed that the efficacy of finasteride was comparable to that of bicalutamide (a widely used non-steroidal antiandrogen). The implication of the above findings is discussed in the context of developing strategies to improve the outcome of androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:21386657

  11. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Dayyeh, Barham K Abu; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks. PMID:18680242

  12. Anabolic steroid abuse causing recurrent hepatic adenomas and hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole M; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chung, Raymond T

    2008-07-28

    Anabolic steroid abuse is common among athletes and is associated with a number of medical complications. We describe a case of a 27-year-old male bodybuilder with multiple hepatic adenomas induced by anabolic steroids. He initially presented with tumor hemorrhage and was treated with left lateral hepatic segmentectomy. Regression of the remaining tumors was observed with cessation of steroid use. However, 3 years and a half after his initial hepatic segmentectomy, he presented with recurrent tumor enlargement and intraperitoneal hemorrhage in the setting of steroid abuse relapse. Given his limited hepatic reserve, he was conservatively managed with embolization of the right accessory hepatic artery. This is the first reported case of hepatic adenoma re-growth with recidivistic steroid abuse, complicated by life-threatening hemorrhage. While athletes and bodybuilders are often aware of the legal and social ramifications of steroid abuse, they should continue to be counseled about its serious medical risks.

  13. Androgen-like activities in blood cleared for endogenous steroid hormones across European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Goralczyk, Katarzyna

    Human exposure to environmental contaminants is ubiquitous and can affect individuals living close to as well as remote from the sources of contaminants. All individuals carry a burden of the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in their body. POPs includes polychlorin...

  14. Nutrition, Anabolism, and the Wound Healing Process: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demling, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop a clear, concise, and up-to-date treatise on the role of anabolism from nutrition in wound healing. Special emphasis was to be placed on the effect of the stress response to wounding and its effect. Methods: A compilation of both the most important and most recent reports in the literature was used to also develop the review. The review was divided into sections to emphasize specific nutrition concepts of importance. Results: General and specific concepts were developed from this material. Topics included body composition and lean body mass, principles of macronutritional utilization, the stress response to wounding, nutritional assessment, nutritional support, and use of anabolic agents. Conclusions: We found that nutrition is a critical component in all the wound healing processes. The stress response to injury and any preexistent protein-energy malnutrition will alter this response, impeding healing and leading to potential severe morbidity. A decrease in lean body mass is of particular concern as this component is responsible for all protein synthesis necessary for healing. Nutritional assessment and support needs to be well orchestrated and precise. The use of anabolic agents can significantly increase overall lean mass synthesis and directly or indirectly improves healing by increasing protein synthesis. PMID:19274069

  15. Gene expression in distinct regions of rat tendons in response to jump training combined with anabolic androgenic steroid administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marqueti, Rita Cássia; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of key genes responsible for tendon remodeling of the proximal and distal regions of calcaneal tendon (CT), intermediate and distal region of superficial flexor tendon (SFT) and proximal, intermediate and distal region of deep flexor tendon (DF...

  16. Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids among body builders in major gym centers in São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Silvia Maria Franco Silva; Regina Lúcia de Moraes Moreau

    2003-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estimar o consumo e traçar o perfil dos usuários de esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA) entre praticantes de musculação em três grandes academias de ginástica na cidade de São Paulo. Foi utilizado um questionário estruturado para ser respondido voluntária e anonimamente, com garantia explícita de confidencialidade para os mesmos. Os questionários ficaram disponíveis em três academias por uma semana, após ter sido feita ampla divulgação dos objetivos e import...

  17. Outline of a typology of men’s use of anabolic androgenic steroids in fitness and strength training environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ask Vest; Vinther, Anders Schmidt; Liokaftos, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    to develop theoretical frameworks directed at conceptualising the variance in AAS use. In this paper, we propose a unified framework in the form of a typology, which concerns men’s general approach to AAS use. The typology is based on sociologist Max Weber’s method on the ideal typology. The work comes out...

  18. A note on endogenous transfers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn a competitive and Walrasian stable world with two goods transfer paradoxes are very robust to endogenization (relating the size of the transfer to either the donor's or the recipient's GNP). Donor enrichment and/or recipient impoverishment occur in very general formulations of

  19. Monopoly Insurance and Endogenous Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We study a monopoly insurance model with endogenous information acquisi- tion. Through a continuous effort choice, consumers can determine the precision of a privately observed signal that is informative about their accident risk. The equilibrium effort is, depending on parameter values, either...

  20. Proteome-wide muscle protein fractional synthesis rates predict muscle mass gain in response to a selective androgen receptor modulator in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Mahalakshmi; Shearer, Todd W; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; King, Chelsea; Wong, Po-Yin Anne; Shen, Ying; Turnbull, Philip S; Kramer, Fritz; Clifton, Lisa; Russell, Alan; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2016-03-15

    Biomarkers of muscle protein synthesis rate could provide early data demonstrating anabolic efficacy for treating muscle-wasting conditions. Androgenic therapies have been shown to increase muscle mass primarily by increasing the rate of muscle protein synthesis. We hypothesized that the synthesis rate of large numbers of individual muscle proteins could serve as early response biomarkers and potentially treatment-specific signaling for predicting the effect of anabolic treatments on muscle mass. Utilizing selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) treatment in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat, we applied an unbiased, dynamic proteomics approach to measure the fractional synthesis rates (FSR) of 167-201 individual skeletal muscle proteins in triceps, EDL, and soleus. OVX rats treated with a SARM molecule (GSK212A at 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg) for 10 or 28 days showed significant, dose-related increases in body weight, lean body mass, and individual triceps but not EDL or soleus weights. Thirty-four out of the 94 proteins measured from the triceps of all rats exhibited a significant, dose-related increase in FSR after 10 days of SARM treatment. For several cytoplasmic proteins, including carbonic anhydrase 3, creatine kinase M-type (CK-M), pyruvate kinase, and aldolase-A, a change in 10-day FSR was strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.90-0.99) to the 28-day change in lean body mass and triceps weight gains, suggesting a noninvasive measurement of SARM effects. In summary, FSR of multiple muscle proteins measured by dynamics of moderate- to high-abundance proteins provides early biomarkers of the anabolic response of skeletal muscle to SARM. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.