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Sample records for endocrine tumors parathryoid

  1. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  2. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  3. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  4. The application of PET in endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhibin

    2003-01-01

    There are wide application of PET in endocrine tumors, including thyroid cancer, parathyroid adenoma, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Many papers concluded that in diagnosing endocrine tumors, PET does not show apparent advantages comparing with traditional radionuclide imaging methods. But as a useful complementary method, its clinical value has been recognized

  5. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  6. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagusnerve

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from ...

  7. Ductuloinsular tumors of the pancreas - Endocrine tumors with entrapped nonneoplastic ductules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeden, Susanne; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Morsink, Folkert H.; Weterman, Marian A. J.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Klöppel, Günter; Klimstra, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Rare pancreatic neoplasms have been reported that show both endocrine and exocrine differentiation in the neoplastic components. In addition, pancreatic endocrine tumors may contain small, cytologically bland ductules intimately admixed with the endocrine component. It was recently suggested that

  8. Endocrine and gonadial tumors among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    A review of 4,136 consecutive autopsies between 1961 and 1977 and surgical cases from A-bomb survivors seen in Hiroshima University School of Medicine was made in terms of pituitary tumors, parathyroid tumors, thyroid cancer, carcinoid, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, and multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT). The occurrence of thyroid cancer, parathyroid tumors, and MEGT may be correlated with atomic radiation. Mortality from endocrine and gonadial tumors tended to be higher with increasing T65 doses. As for MEGT, the combination of thyroid cancer and ovarian tumors occurred frequently among A-bomb survivors. The combination of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and pheochromacytoma of the adrenal gland was unlikely to be related to atomic radiation. Further study may be needed in elucidating possible effects of atomic radiation on endocrine hormones. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Cystic degeneration of neuro endocrine tumor of pancreas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) or islet cell tumors are rare lesions, the incidence of which is estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 person-years in the general population . PETs can be divided into functional (exhibit a distinct clinical syndrome due to hormone hypersecretion) and non-functional tumors. The majority ...

  10. Somatostatin-receptor imaging in the localization of endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, S.W.; Bakker, W.H.; Reubi, J.C.; Krenning, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    A number of different tumors have receptors for somatostatin. We evaluated the efficacy of scanning with 123 I-labeled Tyr3-octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, for tumor localization in 42 patients with carcinoid tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or paragangliomas. We then evaluated the response to octreotide therapy in some of these patients. Primary tumors or metastases, often previously unrecognized, were visualized in 12 of 13 patients with carcinoid tumors and in 7 of 9 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors. The endocrine symptoms of these patients responded well to therapy with octreotide. Among 20 patients with paragangliomas, 8 of whom had more than one tumor, 10 temporal (tympanic or jugular), 9 carotid, and 10 vagal tumors could be visualized. One small tympanic tumor and one small carotid tumor were not seen on the scan. The 123 I-labeled Tyr3-octreotide scanning technique is a rapid and safe procedure for the visualization of some tumors with somatostatin receptors. A positive scan may predict the ability of octreotide therapy to control symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion

  11. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwedziak, K.; Olejniczak, W.; Brichkovkiy, V.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  12. Tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, R A; Nesland, J M

    1994-01-01

    For the sake of discussion, the markedly diversified tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system are classified as those originating in classic epithelial endocrine organs (eg, adrenal cortical adenomas), from the diffuse endocrine cells (eg, jejunal carcinoid tumors), or from clusters of these cells (eg, islet cell tumors); and those arising from neurosecretory neurons (eg, neuroblastoma) or paraganglia (eg, carotid body tumor). Although traditional transmission electron microscopy is useful for identifying neurosecretory or endosecretory granules as such, with few exceptions (eg, insulin-containing granules with a complex paracrystalline core) it is not possible to ascribe a granule type (size, shape, or ultrastructure) to a distinct nosologic entity or secretory product because of their overlapping fine structures in different cell types. Immunoelectron microscopy methods utilizing colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies can be used to localize virtually any antigen (peptide or neuroamine) to a specific neurosecretory or endosecretory granule or other cell structure. General endocrine/neuroendocrine cell markers such as neuron-specific enolase, the chromogranins, and synaptophysin are useful in identifying neuroendocrine differentiation in a neoplasm using routine immunohistochemical procedures. The current relevance of the APUD concept of Pearse as well as the biologic importance of endocrine/neuroendocrine secretory products such as bombesin and insulinlike growth factors also are discussed.

  13. CT and MR imaging findings of endocrine tumor of the pancreas according to WHO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rha, Sung Eun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Kang Hoon; Ku, Young Mi; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Jae Mun

    2007-01-01

    The pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas originating from totipotential stem cells or differentiated mature endocrine cells within the exocrine gland. Endocrine tumors are usually classified into functioning and non-functioning tumors and presents with a range of benignity or malignancy. In this article, we present the various CT and MR imaging findings of endocrine tumors of pancreas according to recent WHO classification

  14. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonelli, Francesco; Giudici, Francesco; Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present

  15. Gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors; Gastroenteropankreatische endokrine Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid-Tannwald, C.; Schmid-Tannwald, C.M.; Reiser, M.F.; Berger, F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) are a rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Only 2 % of gastrointestinal tumors belong to the group of neuroendocrine neoplasms. A wide spectrum of diagnostic imaging modalities is available: apart from ultrasound not only computed tomography (CT) but also magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) play an important role in detection and staging of GEP-NETs. The PET-CT technique with somatostatin analogues is used for staging as well as for evaluation and monitoring of treatment with peptide radionuclide radiation therapy. According to the literature NETs of the small bowel with a size over 3 cm can be detected with a sensitivity of 84.7 % and a specificity of 96.6 % using CT enteroclysis and MR enteroclysis provides the detection of NETs of the small bowel in 93.3 % of cases. 'The sensitivity of MRI in detection of pancreatic NETs is between 74 % and 100 % and is, therefore, higher than CT. Detection of small primary tumors is carried out using PET-CT and seems to be the most sensitive imaging modality to identify the exact location. On the other hand MRI has to be regarded as the best imaging modality for detection of liver metastases compared to CT and PET-CT. The role of diagnostic imaging is to identify the exact location of the primary tumor and possible metastases, to define an appropriate therapy and to monitor treatment effects; however, the choice of the most appropriate diagnostic imaging modality varies depending on the location and type of the primary tumor. The GEP-NETs are predominantly well-vascularized; therefore, dual-phase CT/MR imaging with the arterial and venous phases after contrast media injection is mandatory for detection and localization of primary tumors and metastases. For whole body staging CT and PET-CT should be performed. (orig.) [German] Gastroenteropankreatische endokrine Tumoren bilden eine heterogene, seltene Tumorgruppe, die ca. 2

  16. Contribution of the ultrasonography for pancreatic endocrine tumors diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vezozzo, D.C.P.; Cerri, G.G.; Siqueira, S.S.C.; Cauledori, I.; Alves, V.A.F.; Magalhaes, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a review of 12 cases of endocrine pancreatic tumors. All patients were submitted to preoperative sonography and five of these to intra-operative sonography as well. Correlation with pathological findings was obtained in all patients. Correct localization of the lesions was obtained in seven of 12 patients by pre- and intra-operative sonography studies. False-positive results were observed in two patients and a technically inadequate sonographic examination with false-negative results were seen in the remaining three cases. Intra-operative sonography contributed in 100% of cases in order to localize at least one of the lesions detected pathologically, thus been very usefull to surgical management. Intra-operative sonography should be used as a routine procedure in the evaluation of endocrine pancreatic tumors. (author)

  17. Low accuracy of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Weijmans, Maaike; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The assessment of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients is advised in the current guidelines but has never been validated for this purpose. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the

  18. Low Accuracy of Tumor Markers for Diagnosing Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Laat, Joanne M.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; Weijmans, Maaike; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The assessment of tumor markers for diagnosing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients is advised in the current guidelines but has never been validated for this purpose. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the

  19. MR imaging of non-functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiroyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Kuroiwa, Toshiro

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the MR imaging characteristics of patients with non-functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Fourteen patients with these tumors underwent MR imaging. The signal characteristics of the tumor on T 1 -, T 2 -, and contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted images were evaluated. The enhancement pattern of the tumor on dynamic study was also examined. The degree of stromal fibrosis was evaluated on the pathologic specimen, and was then classified as mild, moderate, or marked fibrosis. On T 1 -weighted images, the tumors were hypointense in 12 of 14 cases. The signals of the tumors on T 2 -weighted images were varied. The tumors were hypointense in 1 case, isointense in 2 cases, hyperintense in 6 cases, and very hyperintense in the other 5 cases. On contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted images, the tumors were hyperintense in 8 cases and very hyperintense in 5 cases. On T 2 - and contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted images, 4 of 5 malignant tumors were very hyperintense. Dynamic study revealed prolonged enhancement in 10 of 11 cases. Pathologic analysis revealed moderate or marked fibrosis in 10 of 14 cases, and prolonged enhancement was considered to be related stromal fibrosis. In conclusion, MR imaging findings of non-functioning endocrine tumors of the pancreas vary in relation to pathological variety. Prolonged enhancement of the tumor on dynamic study is considered to be one of the characteristic MR imaging findings that corresponds to stromal fibrosis of the tumor. (author)

  20. Endocrine Tumors Causing Arterial Hypertension: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonacera, Agata; Stancanelli, Benedetta; Malatino, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Some tumors are a relatively rare and amendable cause of hypertension, often associated with a higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as compared with that of both general population and patients with essential hypertension. This worse prognosis is not entirely related to blood pressure increase, because the release of substances from the tumor can directly influence blood pressure behavior. Diagnostic approach is challenging and needs a deep knowledge of the different neuro-hormonal and genetic mechanisms determining blood pressure increase. Surgical tumor removal can, but not always, cause blood pressure normalization, depending on how early was tumor detection, since a long-standing history of hypertension is often associated with a much weaker effect on blood pressure. Moreover, target organ damage can be affected by the substances themselves released by the tumors as well as by tumor removal. In this review we consider the phenotype and genetic features of patients with tumor-induced hypertension and focus on their diagnostic work-up.

  1. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Borel Rinkes, Inne H. M.; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore, blood

  2. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, S.; Leeuwaarde, R.S. van; Pieterman, C.R.; Laat, J.M. de; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Herder, W.W. de; Horst-Schrivers, A.N. van der; Drent, M.L.; Bisschop, P.H.; Havekes, B.; Rinkes, I.H.; Vriens, M.R.; Valk, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  3. No Association of Blood Type O With Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell, Sjoerd; Van Leeuwaarde, Rachel S.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Laat, Joanne M.; Hermus, Ad R.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Herder, Wouter W.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Drent, Madeleine L.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Rinkes, Inne H. M. Borel; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: An association between ABO blood type and the development of cancer, in particular, pancreatic cancer, has been reported in the literature. An association between blood type O and neuroendocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients was recently suggested. Therefore,

  4. Visual outcome, endocrine function and tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy of craniopharyngiomas in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine visual outcome, endocrine function and tumor control in a prospective cohort of craniopharyngioma patients, treated with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen adult patients with craniopharyngiomas were...... eligible for analysis. They were treated with linear accelerator-based FSRT during 1999-2015. In all cases, diagnosis was confirmed by histological analysis. The prescription dose to the tumor was 54 Gy (median, range 48-54) in 1.8 or 2.0 Gy per fraction, and the maximum radiation dose to the optic nerves.......7-13.1) for visual outcome, endocrine function, and tumor control, respectively. RESULTS: Visual acuity impairment was present in 10 patients (62.5%) and visual field defects were present in 12 patients (75%) before FSRT. One patient developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy at seven years after FSRT. Thirteen...

  5. Tumor estrogen content and clinico-morphological and endocrine features of endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, L M; Tchernobrovkina, A E; Gamajunova, V B; Kovalevskij, A J; Vasilyev, D A; Chepik, O F; Turkevitch, E A; Tsyrlina, E V; Maximov, S J; Ashrafian, L A; Thijssen, J H H

    2003-04-01

    To compare estrogen concentrations in endometrial cancer tissue with those in macroscopically normal endometrium and with certain morphological characteristics of the tumor and endocrine parameters in patients. The estradiol content was evaluated by radioimmunoassay after homogenization and extraction in 78 adenocarcinomas (61 from postmenopausal patients). Higher concentrations of estradiol in tumor tissue samples than in macroscopically normal endometrium were found in patients of both reproductive and postmenopausal age. This difference was the same in patients with either endometrial carcinoma type I or type II. No association between tumor steroid receptor levels, estradiol concentrations in blood serum, and timing of menopause with intratumoral estradiol contents was discovered. Estradiol concentrations in tumor tissues correlated positively with the clinical stage of disease and rate of tumor invasion (in patients with peripheric/lower type of fat topography), and negatively with tumor differentiation stage (in patients with central/upper type of fat topography) and the percentage of intact double-stranded DNA in normal endometrium. Tumor estrogen content in endometrial cancer has clinical significance that is modified in the presence of certain endocrine characteristics related to insulin resistance. The role of local estrogen production (aromatase activity) in this setting deserves special study.

  6. Pancreatic endocrine tumors or apudomas Tumores endocrinos o apudomas pancreáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Varas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET are difficult to diagnose. Their accurate localization using imaging techniques is intended to provide a definite cure. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a PET series from a private institution. Patients and methods: the medical records of 19 patients with PETs were reviewed, including 4 cases of MEN-1, for a period of 17 years (1994-2010. A database was set up with ten parameters: age, sex, symptoms, imaging techniques, size and location in the pancreas, metastasis, surgery, complications, adjuvant therapies, definite diagnosis, and survival or death. Results: a total of 19 cases were analyzed. Mean age at presentation was 51 years (range: 26-67 y (14 males, 5 females, and tumor size was 5 to 80 mm (X: 20 mm. Metastatic disease was present in 37% (7/19. Most underwent the following imaging techniques: ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Fine needle aspiration punction (FNA was performed for the primary tumor in 4 cases. Non-functioning: 7 cases (37%, insulinoma: 2 cases [1 with possible multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN], Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES from gastrinoma: 5 (3 with MEN-1, glucagonoma: 2 cases, 2 somatostatinomas; carcinoid: 1 case with carcinoide-like syndrome. Most patients were operated upon: 14/19 (73%. Four (4/14: 28% has postoperative complications following pancreatectomy: pancreatitis, pseudocyst, and abdominal collections. Some patients received chemotherapy (4, somatostatin (3 and interferon (2 before or after surgery. Median follow-up was 48 months. Actuarial survival during the study was 73.6% (14/19. Conclusions: age was similar to that described in the literature. Males were predominant. Most cases were non-functioning (37%. Most patients underwent surgery (73% with little morbidity (28% and an actuarial survival of 73.6% at the time of the study.Introducción y objetivo: los tumores endocrinos pancre

  7. [Synergistic effect of cell kinetics-directed chemo-endocrine therapy on experimental mammary tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, H

    1987-11-01

    We tried to demonstrate that the cell kinetics-directed chemoendocrine therapy is more effective on hormone dependent breast cancer than empirical combination of the endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. Cell kinetics of each tumor was measured by flow cytometric analysis. Estrogen dependent human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used in vitro. In vivo, androgen dependent SC-115 carcinoma was transplanted to DDS mice. In vitro, tamoxifen was administered as the endocrine therapy. In vivo, we carried out testectomy on DDS mice. Effect of the endocrine therapy on the cell kinetics of the tumor was thought to be G1-S depression. High density 5FU was administered as the chemotherapeutic agents, whose content was 1 microgram/ml in vitro and 40 mg/kg in vivo. 5FU brought temporary decrease of cells in S phase. Only anteceding 5FU administration had synergistic effect in combination of 5FU and the endocrine therapy. 5FU was convinced to act more effectively on cells in S phase, so it was shown that cell kinetics-directed schedule was superior to the empirical treatment schedule in chemoendocrine therapy.

  8. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Bombesin-stimulated serum immunoreactive trypsin in the different diagnosis between endocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, G.; De Giorgio, R.; Toni, R.; Fanti, M.P.; Cariani, G.; Vezzadini, P.

    1987-01-01

    Bombesin administration was recently found to induce a marked increase in circulating immunoreactive trypsin (IRT), whose magnitude seems to reflect the functional capacity of pancreatic acinar cell mass. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of bombesin infusion on serum IRT concentration in patients with endocrine or exocrine tumors of the pancreas. Fifteen patients with pancreatic endocrine tumor, 17 patients with pancreatic exocrine carcinoma and 15 healty subjects were investigated. Serum IRT was measured by radioimmunoassay before and for 120 minutes after the start of bombesin infusion (9 ng/kg/min over 30 min). The integrated serum IRT response to bombesin administration in patients with endocrine tumor of the pancreas did not differ significantly from controls, but were significantly higher than in patients with exocrine carcinoma. In the latter the integrated IRT responses to bombesin infusion in patients with endocrine tumor can probably be explained by small tumor size and/or little invasion of the glandular parenchyma, resulting in an undetectable impairment of exocrine pancreatic function. The very low IRT responses in patients with exocrine carcinoma could reflect the presence of severe pancreatic damage. The results suggest that this newly proposed bombesin test may be useful in the preoperative differential diagnosis between endocrine and exocrine tumors of the pancreas

  10. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami; Ripoche, Doriane; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Rehfeld, Jens F; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Pattou, François; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Bertolino, Philippe; Zhang, Chang Xian

    2015-10-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have migrated from the duodenum. In the current study, we further characterized previously described transient pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells using cell lineage tracing in a pan-pancreatic progenitor and a pancreatic endocrine progenitor model. We provide evidence showing that pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells, found from embryonic day 12.5 until postnatal day 7, are derived from pancreatic Ptf1a(+) and neurogenin 3-expressing (Ngn3(+)) progenitors. Importantly, the majority of them coexpress glucagon, with 4% coexpressing insulin, indicating that they are a temporary subpopulation of both alpha and beta cells. Interestingly, Men1 disruption in both Ngn3 progenitors and beta and alpha cells resulted in the development of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors, suggesting that the latter developed from islet cells. Finally, we detected gastrin expression using three human cohorts with pancreatic endocrine tumors (pNETs) that have not been diagnosed as gastrinomas (in 9/34 pNETs from 6/14 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in 5/35 sporadic nonfunctioning pNETs, and in 2/20 sporadic insulinomas), consistent with observations made in mouse models. Our work provides insight into the histogenesis of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. A review of endocrine late effects in children after brain tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, M.; Langer, T.; Beck, J.D.; Doerr, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Advances in the therapy of malignant brain tumors in children have led to a significant improvement in survival rates over the last few decades. As a result, the recognition and treatment of late effects have become more important. In addition to secondary tumors and deficiencies in cognitive and intellectual skills, the resulting endocrine disturbances play an important role. Method: Own data and literature review. Results: Deviations from the normal growth hormone secretion are usually recognized first and are most common, and have already been observed after conventional whole brain irradiation with 18 G. With some delay, other hypothalamopituitary deficiencies may occur, including panhypopituitarism. Puberty may come too early or too late or may not appear at all. Girls in particular, frequently experience an early and rapid pubertal development after brain tumor therapy, which may lead to further reduction in height due to an accelerated bone maturation. Functional disturbances of the thyroid and adrenal glands due to hypothalamic or pituitary deficiency are less common, and usually seen only after a radiation dose of over 40 Gy. Conclusion: Survivors of childhood brain tumors must be considered as long-term survivors, in whom the first therapy-induced long-term side effects appear almost immediately after the end of therapy. Maximum quality of life for the individual patient can only be achieved by long-term care and close cooperation of specialists in the different medical disciplines involved. (orig.) [de

  12. Long-term effects of treatment on endocrine function in children with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Panahon, A.; Brecher, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen children with brain tumors received endocrine evaluations at least one year following completion of cranial irradiation. Treatment consisted of operation (13 patients), craniospinal irradiation (6), whole brain irradiation (5), posterior fossa irradiation (3), and chemotherapy (10). Endocrine evaluation included bone age roentgenography and measurement of growth hormone (using sequential arginine and insulin stimulation), thyroxine, thyroid-stimulating hormone, plasma cortisol, testosterone, prolactin, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Ten of 12 children (83%) had abnormal responses to both tests of growth hormone stimulation. All growth hormone-deficient patients treated prior to puberty and tested at least 2 years following completion of cranial irradiation had decelerated linear growth. Results of thyroid function tests were abnormal in 4 patients: 2 patients had evidence of primary hypothyroidism, and 2 showed secondary or tertiary hypothyroidism. Two patients had inadequate cortisol responses to insulin hypoglycemia. Urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, serum prolactin, and serum testosterone levels were appropriate for age in all patients

  13. Pancreatic endocrine tumor with neoplastic venous thrombus and bilobar liver metastasis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, L; Turrini, O; Sarran, A; Delpero, J-R

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic 56-year-old woman with a metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumor, fortuitously discovered by abdominal imaging. A CT-scan showed a large mass in the pancreatic tail invading the spleen and stomach; in addition, there was neoplastic thrombus within the spleno-mesentericoportal venous confluence and bilobar liver metastases. Surgical resection was performed in two stages. The first procedure was an extended left pancreatectomy with venous thrombectomy and "clearance" of the left hepatic lobe. During the interval, embolization of the right portal vein was carried out. Right hepatectomy and radiofrequency destruction of residual metastases was then performed. On the basis of completeness of the resection and the histopathological data, the patient did not undergo any adjuvant therapy, in accordance with French guidelines. At 1 year of follow-up, there was no evidence of recurrence. (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization as first-line treatment for hepatic metastases from endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Alain; Girish, Baragur V.; de Baere, Thierry; Baudin, Eric; Schlumberger, Martin; Boige, Valerie; Ducreux, Michel; Elias, Dominique; Lasser, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to report the outcome in patients with liver metastasis from endocrine tumors who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as first-line non-surgical treatment. From January 1990 to December 2000, 14 patients with progressive unresectable liver metastases from digestive neuroendocrine tumor were treated with TACE (mean of 3.6 sessions) before any non-surgical treatment (somatostatin analogue, chemotherapy or interferon). Liver involvement was less than 50% in 11 patients. Size of the largest lesion ranged from 1.5 to 10 cm. Ten patients presented with carcinoid symptoms. The TACE was performed with Doxorubicin emulsified in Lipiodol and gelatin sponge particles. Symptomatic response upon flushes and/or diarrhea was complete in 7 of 10 cases and partial in 2 of 10 cases. An objective morphologic response was noted in 12 of 14 cases. The 5- and 10-year survival rate from diagnosis was 83 and 56%, respectively. Six patients were alive at the end of the study after 27-100 months from first TACE and 38-142 months from diagnosis. Three of them were successfully palliated for 55, 69, and 100 months with only TACE as treatment. Long-term palliation is possible in unresectable liver metastases from digestive neuroendocrine tumors with a few sessions of TACE as first-line and eventually exclusive treatment. (orig.)

  15. Endocrine function following high dose proton therapy for tumors of the upper clivus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, J.D.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Munzenrider, J.; Birnbaum, S.; Carroll, R.; Klibanski, A.; Riskind, P.; Urie, M.; Verhey, L.; Goitein, M.

    1988-09-01

    The endocrine status of patients receiving proton radiation for tumors of the upper clivus was reviewed to evaluate the effect of high dose treatment on the pituitary gland. The fourteen patients had chordomas or low grade chondrosarcomas and were all treated by the same techniques. The median tumor dose was 69.7 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) with a range from 66.6 to 74.4 CGE. (CGE is used because modulated protons have an RBE of 1.1 compared to 60Co). The daily fraction size was 1.8-2.1 CGE. The median follow-up time is 48 months, ranging from 30 to 68 months. All treatments were planned using a computerized multi-dimensional system with the position of the pituitary outlined on the planning CT scan. Review of the dose distribution indicated that the dose to the pituitary ranged from 60.5 to 72.3 CGE, with a median of 67.6 CGE. One female patient had decreased thyroid and gonadotropin function at the time of diagnosis and has been on hormone replacement since that time. The other three females were all pre-menopausal at the time of radiotherapy. At this time four patients (3 males and 1 female) have developed endocrine abnormalities 14 to 45 months after irradiation. All four had evidence of hypothyroidism and two have also developed corticotropin deficiency. The three males had decreased testosterone levels; the female patient developed amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. All four are asymptomatic with ongoing hormone replacement.

  16. Endocrine function following high dose proton therapy for tumors of the upper clivus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, J.D.; Austin-Seymour, M.; Munzenrider, J.

    1988-01-01

    The endocrine status of patients receiving proton radiation for tumors of the upper clivus was reviewed to evaluate the effect of high dose treatment on the pituitary gland. The fourteen patients had chordomas or low grade chondrosarcomas and were all treated by the same techniques. The median tumor dose was 69.7 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) with a range from 66.6 to 74.4 CGE. (CGE is used because modulated protons have an RBE of 1.1 compared to 60Co). The daily fraction size was 1.8-2.1 CGE. The median follow-up time is 48 months, ranging from 30 to 68 months. All treatments were planned using a computerized multi-dimensional system with the position of the pituitary outlined on the planning CT scan. Review of the dose distribution indicated that the dose to the pituitary ranged from 60.5 to 72.3 CGE, with a median of 67.6 CGE. One female patient had decreased thyroid and gonadotropin function at the time of diagnosis and has been on hormone replacement since that time. The other three females were all pre-menopausal at the time of radiotherapy. At this time four patients (3 males and 1 female) have developed endocrine abnormalities 14 to 45 months after irradiation. All four had evidence of hypothyroidism and two have also developed corticotropin deficiency. The three males had decreased testosterone levels; the female patient developed amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. All four are asymptomatic with ongoing hormone replacement

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors : A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Boot, Annemieke M; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K; Janssens, Geert O; Michiels, Erna M; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vandertop, W Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Kremer, Leontien C M; Caron, Hubert N; van Santen, Hanneke M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L.; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K.; Janssens, Geert O.; Michiels, Erna M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vandertop, W. Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Caron, Hubert N.; van Santen, Hanneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A.Y.; Boot, A.M.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Granzen, B.; Han, K.; Janssens, G.O.; Michiels, E.M.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Vandertop, W.P.; Vuurden, D.G. van; Kremer, L.C.; Caron, H.N.; Santen, H.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived >/= 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies with [18F]fluorocholine on digestive tumoral cell lines and in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejjari, Mimoun; Kryza, David; Poncet, Gilles; Roche, Colette; Perek, Nathalie; Chayvialle, Jean-Alain; Le Bars, Didier; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Janier, Marc; Borson-Chazot, Francoise

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate (a) in vitro the relationship between [ 18 F]fluorocholine ([ 18 F]FCH) uptake and cell growth in endocrine cell lines and (b) in vivo the uptake of [ 18 F]FCH by tumoral sites in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor. Methods: In vitro studies were conducted on three endocrine and two nonendocrine digestive tumoral cell lines. The proliferative ratio was estimated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The uptake of [ 18 F]FCH and that of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) were measured before and after cytotoxic therapy. [ 18 F]FCH biodistribution was studied in nude mice and in an endocrine xenografted mice model. Results: The [ 18 F]FCH uptake in tumoral cell lines was related to their proliferative capacities as measured by the MTT assay in basal conditions. After cytotoxic therapy, the IC 50 values calculated with the [ 18 F]FCH incorporation test were very close to those determined with the MTT assay. Biodistribution studies showed that [ 18 F]FCH was predominantly concentrated in the liver and kidney of nude mice. In the STC-1 xenografted animal model, the uptake of [ 18 F]FCH in the primary tumor was only 1.1%. On autoradiography and micro-positron emission tomography, there was no uptake of [ 18 F]FCH in liver metastases but there was a significant uptake of [ 18 F]FDG. Conclusions: In vitro studies suggested that the incorporation of [ 18 F]FCH in endocrine tumor cell lines was related to their growth capacities; however, in vivo studies conducted in an endocrine xenografted animal model showed an uptake of [ 18 F]FCH in hepatic metastases lower than that in normal liver cells. An influence of the microenvironment or a competition phenomenon for [ 18 F]FCH uptake between normal liver and endocrine tumor cells cannot be excluded

  1. Impact of the scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors upon the therapeutic strategy in patients bearing digestive endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebtahi, R.; Cadiot, G.; Genin, R.; Delahaye, N.; Faraggi, M.; Daou, D.; Peker, C.; Migon, M.; Le Guludec, D.

    1997-01-01

    The scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors (SSR) is a sensible method for detecting the gastroenteric-pancreatic endocrine tumors and their metastases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical impact of the results of SSR in taking patients in therapeutic charge. A hundred and sixty patients bearing biologically and/or histologically proved digestive endocrine tumors were prospectively studied. The patients were classified in 3 groups: group I - 90 patients with no known metastases; group II - 59 patients with liver metastases and group III - 11 patients with known extra-hepatic metastases. The results of the scintigraphy were compared with those of conventional imaging. The following results were obtained: in group 1 (90 patients) the conventional imaging has allowed detecting 53 primitive tumors in 44 patients. The SSR visualized 68% of these sites and has detected 26 supplementary primitive sites in 20 patients and 29 metastatic sites in 25 patients. In group II the scintigraphy has detected 95% of hepatic metastases and revealed 23 new metastasis sites and 18/59 patients. In group III the scintigraphy has detected 11 new sites in 7 patients. The results of scintigraphy modified the patient's classification in 38 cases (24%). The therapeutic strategy was modified for 40 patients (25%). In conclusion, the scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors is able to detect a significant number of digestive endocrine tumors what has important implications for therapeutical planning of the treatment of patients. It must be carried out during pre-therapeutic extension examination of these tumors

  2. Endocrine and visual function after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of perioptic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, M.; Semrau, R.; Mueller, R.P. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Treuer, H.; Hoevels, M.; Sturm, V. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To find out whether the use of stereotactic techniques for fractionated radiotherapy reduces toxicity to the endocrine and visual system in patients with benign perioptic tumors. Patients and methods: From 1993 to 2009, 29 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The most frequent tumor types were grade I meningioma (n = 11) and pituitary adenoma (n = 10, 7 nonfunctioning, 3 growth hormone-producing). Patients were immobilized with the GTC frame (Radionics, USA) and the planning target volume (PTV; median 24.7, 4.6-58.6 ml) was irradiated with a total dose of 52.2 Gy (range, 45.0-55.8 Gy) in 1.8-Gy fractions using a linear accelerator (6 MeV photons) equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator. Maximum doses to the optic system and pituitary gland were 53.4 Gy (range, 11.5-57.6 Gy) and 53.6 Gy (range, 12.0-57.9 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 45 months (range, 10-105 months). Local control was achieved in all but 1 patient (actuarial rate 92% at 5 years and 10 years). In 9 of 29 patients (31%), partial remission was observed (actuarial response rate 40% at 5 years and 10 years). In 4 of 26 patients (15%) with at least partial pituitary function, new hormonal deficits developed (actuarial rate 21% at 5 years and 10 years). This rate was significantly higher in patients treated for a larger PTV ( 25 ml: 0% vs. 42% at 5 years and 10 years, p = 0.028). Visual function improved in 4 of 15 patients (27%) who had prior impairment. None of the patients developed treatment-related optic neuropathy, but 2 patients experienced new disease-related visual deficits. Conclusion: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for benign tumors of the perioptic and sellar region results in satisfactory response and local control rates and does not affect the visual system. The assumption that patients can be spared hypophyseal insufficiency only holds for small tumors. (orig.)

  3. Endocrine and visual function after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of perioptic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, M.; Semrau, R.; Mueller, R.P.; Treuer, H.; Hoevels, M.; Sturm, V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To find out whether the use of stereotactic techniques for fractionated radiotherapy reduces toxicity to the endocrine and visual system in patients with benign perioptic tumors. Patients and methods: From 1993 to 2009, 29 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The most frequent tumor types were grade I meningioma (n = 11) and pituitary adenoma (n = 10, 7 nonfunctioning, 3 growth hormone-producing). Patients were immobilized with the GTC frame (Radionics, USA) and the planning target volume (PTV; median 24.7, 4.6-58.6 ml) was irradiated with a total dose of 52.2 Gy (range, 45.0-55.8 Gy) in 1.8-Gy fractions using a linear accelerator (6 MeV photons) equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator. Maximum doses to the optic system and pituitary gland were 53.4 Gy (range, 11.5-57.6 Gy) and 53.6 Gy (range, 12.0-57.9 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 45 months (range, 10-105 months). Local control was achieved in all but 1 patient (actuarial rate 92% at 5 years and 10 years). In 9 of 29 patients (31%), partial remission was observed (actuarial response rate 40% at 5 years and 10 years). In 4 of 26 patients (15%) with at least partial pituitary function, new hormonal deficits developed (actuarial rate 21% at 5 years and 10 years). This rate was significantly higher in patients treated for a larger PTV ( 25 ml: 0% vs. 42% at 5 years and 10 years, p = 0.028). Visual function improved in 4 of 15 patients (27%) who had prior impairment. None of the patients developed treatment-related optic neuropathy, but 2 patients experienced new disease-related visual deficits. Conclusion: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for benign tumors of the perioptic and sellar region results in satisfactory response and local control rates and does not affect the visual system. The assumption that patients can be spared hypophyseal insufficiency only holds for small tumors. (orig.)

  4. Endocrine dysfunction in Taiwanese children with human chorionic gonadotropin-secreting germ cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Lin

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Taiwanese children with HCG-secreting GCTs often have clinical manifestations related to endocrine dysfunction. High index of suspicion is important to avoid delayed diagnosis in these children.

  5. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation on endocrine function in children with brain tumors. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffner, P.K.; Cohen, M.E.; Voorhess, M.L.; MacGillivray, M.H.; Brecher, M.L.; Panahon, A.; Gilani, B.B.

    1985-01-01

    This study prospectively evaluated the endocrine function of 11 children treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) for brain tumors. All tumors were remote from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Children were studied before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months after the completion of CRT. T4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, plasma cortisol, and urinary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone values were normal before and after treatment in all patients. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency was identified in 0 of 7 patients before treatment, in 2 of 7 patients 3 months post-CRT, in 9 of 11 patients 6 months post-CRT, and in 7 of 8 patients 12 months post-CRT. Growth deceleration was identified in five of seven prepubertal patients. GH deficiency is an extremely common sequelae of CRT, beginning as early as 3 months after the completion of CRT. The deficit is progressive over time

  6. Ependymoma and Carcinoid Tumor Associated with Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma in a Patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Spaulding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian teratomas rarely undergo new neoplastic transformation and account for a small percentage of malignant ovarian germ cell neoplasms. Here we report a case of a 51-year-old woman with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I who was found to have an ependymoma and neuroendocrine tumor (trabecular carcinoid associated with mature cystic teratoma of her left ovary. The ependymoma component displayed cells with round nuclei and occasional small nucleoli which were focally arranged in perivascular pseudorosettes and true rosettes. Rare mitoses were identified. No necrosis was present. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for S-100 and GFAP. The Ki67 proliferation index was very low (2-3%. In contrast, the endocrine tumor component was composed of small uniform cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei, and speckled chromatin. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin and focally positive for chromogranin. This rare case illustrates that MEN I may have an influence on the pathogenesis of ovarian teratomas as they undergo malignant transformation.

  7. Changes of serum endocrine hormone levels in patients with cancerrelated fatigue and their correlation with anti-tumor immune response and tumor load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the changes of serum endocrine hormone levels in patients with cancerrelated fatigue (CRF and their correlation with anti-tumor immune response and tumor load. Methods: A total of 137 patients who were diagnosed with primary lung cancer in West China Hospital, Sichuan University between June 2014 and November 2016 were selected and then divided into CRF group and control group according to their self-reported symptoms, serum was collected to determine the levels of endocrine hormones and tumor markers, and peripheral blood was collected to detect the levels of immune cells. Results: Serum ACTH and TSH levels of CRF group were significantly higher than those of control group while Cor, FT3 and FT4 levels were significantly lower than those of control group; peripheral blood CD11b+ CD15 - CD33+ CD14+ M-MDSC, CD11b+ CD15-CD33+ CD14- G-MDSC, CD4+ CD25+ CD127lowTreg and CD19+ CD5+ CD1d+ Breg levels as well as serum CEA, Cyfra21-1, SCC-Ag, HE4, GDF- 15 and PCNA levels of CRF group were significantly higher than those of control group, positively correlated with serum ACTH and TSH levels, and negatively correlated with Cor, FT3 and FT4 levels. Conclusion: The changes of thyroid hormone and adrenal cortical hormone levels in patients with cancer-related fatigue are closely related to the inhibited antitumor immune response and increased tumor load.

  8. A possible new syndrome with double endocrine tumors in association with an unprecedented type of familial heart-hand syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamagishi Masakazu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The combination of a pituitary prolactinoma and an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, double endocrine tumors in association with heart-hand syndrome have not previously been reported. Case presentation A 21-year-old Japanese woman presented with galactorrhea and decreased visual acuity. A large pituitary adenoma with an increased level of serum prolactin was apparent by computed tomography. She additionally showed mild hypertension (136/90 mmHg accompanied by hypokalemia. The plasma aldosterone concentration was increased. Computed tomography showed a mass in the right adrenal gland. No other tumors were found despite extensive imaging studies. Physical and radiographic examinations showed skeletal malformations of the hands and feet, including hypoplasia of the first digit in all four limbs. An atrial septal defect was demonstrated by echocardiography. Similar digital and cardiac abnormalities were detected in our patient's father, and a clinical diagnosis of hereditary heart-hand syndrome was made. Conclusion No established heart-hand syndrome was wholly compatible with the family's phenotype. Her father had no obvious endocrine tumors, implying that the parent of transmission determined variable phenotypic expression of the disease: heart-hand syndrome with multiple endocrine tumors from the paternal transmission or no endocrine tumor from the maternal transmission. This suggests that the gene or genes responsible for the disease may be under tissue-specific imprinting control.

  9. Diagnostic impact of SPECT-CT in the assessment of endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Badaoui, A.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Valli, N.; Caignon, J.M.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Barat, J.L.; Ducassou, D.; Clermont, H. de; Allard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Image fusion using single photon emission computed tomography - computed tomography (SPECT - CT) associates functional and morphological images. This study evaluates the added value of SPECT- CT, obtained with a hybrid SPECT- CT gamma camera, on anatomic localization and diagnostic impact in assessment of endocrine tumours and pheochromocytomas. Method: Six months prospective study was undertaken including 33 consecutive exams encompassing 20 Somatostatin Receptor Scintigraphies (S.R.S.) and 13 123 I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (Mibg) scans. Two experienced nuclear medicine physicians independently analysed independently planar and SPECT images in a first time, then, SPECT- CT fused images in a second time. They evaluated two parameters: SPECT- CT impact on anatomic localization (L.A.) and its diagnostic impact (I.D.). Each parameter was scored according three levels of evaluation. Results: An added value of SPECT- CT images was evidenced in 55% of cases on the anatomic localization and in 41% of the patients on the diagnostic impact. Therefore, a more important benefit was noted when SPECT was positive (L.A.: 90%; I.D.: 70%) than when it was negative (L.A.: 15%; I.D.: 8%). Furthermore, the added value proved higher for the S;R.S. compared to Mibg scans. Conclusion: SPECT- CT fusion images obtained by a hybrid system is more relevant to determine anatomic localization and more accurate than SPECT alone, particularly in the assessment of endocrine tumours. The added value of SPECT- CT seems to be lower for Mibg scans in the assessment of pheochromocytomas. (authors)

  10. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashima, Hirosato, E-mail: hmashima1-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Ohno, Hideki [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors.

  11. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashima, Hirosato; Ohno, Hideki; Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors

  12. A review of endocrine late effects in children after brain tumor therapy; Endokrinologische Funktionsstoerungen nach Hirntumortherapie im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, M.; Langer, T.; Beck, J.D.; Doerr, H.G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Kinderklinik mit Poliklinik

    1999-07-01

    Background: Advances in the therapy of malignant brain tumors in children have led to a significant improvement in survival rates over the last few decades. As a result, the recognition and treatment of late effects have become more important. In addition to secondary tumors and deficiencies in cognitive and intellectual skills, the resulting endocrine disturbances play an important role. Method: Own data and literature review. Results: Deviations from the normal growth hormone secretion are usually recognized first and are most common, and have already been observed after conventional whole brain irradiation with 18 G. With some delay, other hypothalamopituitary deficiencies may occur, including panhypopituitarism. Puberty may come too early or too late or may not appear at all. Girls in particular, frequently experience an early and rapid pubertal development after brain tumor therapy, which may lead to further reduction in height due to an accelerated bone maturation. Functional disturbances of the thyroid and adrenal glands due to hypothalamic or pituitary deficiency are less common, and usually seen only after a radiation dose of over 40 Gy. Conclusion: Survivors of childhood brain tumors must be considered as long-term survivors, in whom the first therapy-induced long-term side effects appear almost immediately after the end of therapy. Maximum quality of life for the individual patient can only be achieved by long-term care and close cooperation of specialists in the different medical disciplines involved. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Fortschritte in der Therapie maligner Hirntumoren im Kindesalter haben in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu einer deutlichen Verbesserung der Ueberlebensraten gefuehrt. Daher kommt dem Erkennen therapiebedingter Spaetfolgen zunehmend eine Bedeutung zu. Neben Zweittumoren, kognitiven und intellektuellen Einbussen spielen hormonelle Folgestoerungen eine bedeutende Rolle. Methode: Eigene Erfahrungen und Literaturrecherche. Ergebnisse

  13. Role of Endocrine Gland-Derived Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (EG-VEGF) and Its Receptors in Adrenocortical Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Dorothee; Wortmann, Sebastian; Kraus, Luitgard; Ronchi, Cristina L; Sinnott, Richard O; Fassnacht, Martin; Sbiera, Silviu

    2015-12-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an angiogenic factor predominantly expressed in steroidogenic organs like the adrenal gland, ovary, testes, and placenta. EG-VEGF has antiapoptotic, mitogenic, and chemoattractive properties mediated via the two G protein-coupled receptors prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and prokineticin receptor 2 (PKR2). We investigated the expression of EG-VEGF and its receptors in a large number of normal adrenal glands (NAG), adrenocortical adenomas (ACA), and carcinomas (ACC) using real-time PCR (NAG, n = 12; ACA, n = 24; and ACC, n = 30) and immunohistochemistry (NAG, n = 9; ACA, n = 23; and ACC, n = 163) and evaluated its impact on patients' survival. EG-VEGF, PKR1, and PKR2 mRNA and protein are expressed in NAG and the vast majority of ACA and ACC samples. The mean EG-VEGF mRNA expression was significantly lower in ACC (606.5 ± 77.1 copies) compared to NAG (4,043 ± 1,111) and cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) (4,433 ± 2,378) (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively). However, cytoplasmic and nuclear EG-VEGF protein expression was either significantly higher or similar in ACC (H score 2.4 ± 0.05, p < 0.05 and 1.7 ± 0.08, n.s., respectively) compared to NAG (1.8 ± 0.14 and 1.7 ± 0.2). Nuclear protein expression of either EG-VEGF or PKR1 or both is predictive for a higher mortality compared to patients without nuclear expression (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-21.36, n = 100, p = 0.02 independent of age, sex, and tumor stage). These findings suggest that EG-VEGF and its receptor PKR1 might play a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors and could serve as prognostic markers for this rare malignant disease.

  14. Causes of death and prognostic factors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: a prospective study: comparison of 106 MEN1/Zollinger-Ellison syndrome patients with 1613 literature MEN1 patients with or without pancreatic endocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J; Jensen, Robert T

    2013-05-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking.To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%-14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled literature

  15. Middle-preserving pancreatectomy for advanced transverse colon cancer invading the duodenun and non-functioning endocrine tumor in the pancreatic tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hiroshi; Kato, Takaharu; Kamiyama, Hidenori; Toyama, Nobuyuki; Konishi, Fumio

    2011-02-01

    A 73-year-old female was referred to our hospital with a diagnosis of advanced transverse colon cancer with severe anemia and body weight loss. Preoperative evaluations, including colonoscopy, gastroduodenoscopy, and computed tomography, revealed not only a transverse colon cancer massively invading the duodenum, but also a non-functioning endocrine tumor in the pancreatic tail. We performed middle-preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) with right hemicolectomy for these tumors with a curative intent. After the resection, about 6 cm of the body of the pancreas was preserved, and signs of diabetes mellitus have not appeared. The postoperative course was complicated by a grade B pancreatic fistula, but this was successfully treated with conservative management. After a 33-day hospital stay, the patient returned to daily life without signs of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. Although the long-term follow-up of the patient is indispensable, in this case, MPP might be able to lead to the curative resection of transverse colon cancer massively invading the duodenum and non-functioning endocrine tumor in the pancreatic tail with preservation of pancreatic function.

  16. Long-term follow-up of endocrine function among young children with newly diagnosed malignant central nervous system tumors treated with irradiation-avoiding regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Anne M; Cheung, Clement; Rangan, Kasey; Freyer, David; Nahata, Leena; Dhall, Girish; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2017-11-01

    The adverse effects of irradiation on endocrine function among patients with pediatric brain tumor are well documented. Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by marrow-ablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) without central nervous system (CNS) irradiation has demonstrated efficacy in a proportion of very young children with some malignant CNS tumors. This study assessed the long-term endocrine function of young children following chemotherapy-only treatment regimens. A retrospective chart review was performed on 99 patients under 6 years of age with malignant brain tumors newly diagnosed between May 1991 and October 2010 treated with irradiation-avoiding strategies. Thirty patients survived post-AuHCR without cranial irradiation for a mean of 8.1 years (range 3.0-22.25 years). The patient cohort included 18 males and 12 females (mean age at AuHCR of 2.5 years, range 0.8-5.1 years). All 30 surviving patients had documented normal age-related thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3), prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol levels. Insulin-like growth factor 1 age-related levels were abnormal in one child with normal height. Ninety-seven percent of patients had normal cortisol levels, while follicle-stimulating hormone and LH levels among females were normal in 83% and 92%, respectively, and in 100% of males. Growth charts demonstrated age-associated growth within 2 standard deviations of the mean in 67% of patients. Of 10 patients (33%) with short stature, 6 had proportional diminutions in both height and weight. These findings demonstrate that the use of relatively brief, intensive chemotherapy regimens including marrow-ablative chemotherapy with AuHCR results in fewer endocrine sequelae than treatment schemes utilizing CNS irradiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Androgen receptor expression in Circulating Tumor Cells from castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with novel endocrine agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crespo, M.; van Dalum, Guus; Ferraldeschi, R.; Zafeiriou, Z.; Sideris, S.; Lorente, D.; Bianchini, D.; Rodrigues, D.N.; Rijsnaes, R.; Miranda, S.; Figueiredo, I.; Flohr, P.; Nowakowska, K.; de Bono, J.S.; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie; Attard, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Abiraterone and enzalutamide are novel endocrine treatments that abrogate androgen receptor (AR) signalling in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Here, we developed a circulating tumour cells (CTCs)-based assay to evaluate AR expression in real-time in CRPC and investigated

  18. Bilateral granulosa cell tumors: a novel malignant manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 syndrome found in a patient with a rare menin in-frame deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall MJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Hall,1 Julie Innocent,2 Christina Rybak,1 Colleen Veloski,3 Walter J Scott,4 Hong Wu,5 John A Ridge,4 John P Hoffman,4 Hossein Borghaei,2 Aruna Turaka,6 Mary B Daly1 1Department of Clinical Genetics, 2Department of Medical Oncology, 3Department of Internal Medicine, 4Department of Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Pathology, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1 is a cancer syndrome resulting from mutations of the MEN1 gene. The syndrome is characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid and pituitary glands, and malignant tumors of the endocrine pancreas. Other manifestations include benign lipomas, angiofibromas, and carcinoid tumors commonly originating in the colon, thymus, and lung. This is the first report of MEN1 syndrome manifesting as bilateral granulosa cell ovarian tumors, and which is associated with a rare intronic mutation of the MEN1 gene. Case report: A 41-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain, increasing abdominal girth, and dysmenorrhea. Ultrasound demonstrated enlarged ovaries and uterine fibroids. After an exploratory laparotomy, she subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo–oophorectomy with hysterectomy where the pathology revealed bilateral cystic granulosa cell tumors of the ovaries. Additional workup including computed tomography imaging discovered a thymic mass, which the pathology showed was malignant, along with a pancreatic mass suspicious for a neuroendocrine tumor. Hyperparathyroidism was also discovered and was found to be secondary to a parathyroid adenoma. Genetic testing revealed an exceedingly rare mutation in the MEN1 gene (c.654 + 1 G>A. Discussion: Mutations of the menin gene leading to MEN1 syndrome are classically nonsense or missense mutations producing a dysfunctional protein product. Recently, researchers described a novel mutation of MEN1 (c.654 + 1 G>A in a male proband meeting the criteria

  19. In situ aromatase expression in primary tumor is associated with estrogen receptor expression but is not predictive of response to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Henriksen, Katrine L; Rasmussen, Birgitte B; Sasano, Hironobu; Evans, Dean B; Møller, Susanne; Ejlertsen, Bent; Mouridsen, Henning T

    2009-01-01

    New, third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have proven comparable or superior to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) positive breast cancer. AIs suppress total body and intratumoral estrogen levels. It is unclear whether in situ carcinoma cell aromatization is the primary source of estrogen production for tumor growth and whether the aromatase expression is predictive of response to endocrine therapy. Due to methodological difficulties in the determination of the aromatase protein, COX-2, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of aromatase, has been suggested as a surrogate marker for aromatase expression. Primary tumor material was retrospectively collected from 88 patients who participated in a randomized clinical trial comparing the AI letrozole to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for first-line treatment of advanced breast cancer. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was performed for ER, PR, COX-2 and aromatase using Tissue Microarrays (TMAs). Aromatase was also analyzed using whole sections (WS). Kappa analysis was applied to compare association of protein expression levels. Univariate Wilcoxon analysis and the Cox-analysis were performed to evaluate time to progression (TTP) in relation to marker expression. Aromatase expression was associated with ER, but not with PR or COX-2 expression in carcinoma cells. Measurements of aromatase in WS were not comparable to results from TMAs. Expression of COX-2 and aromatase did not predict response to endocrine therapy. Aromatase in combination with high PR expression may select letrozole treated patients with a longer TTP. TMAs are not suitable for IHC analysis of in situ aromatase expression and we did not find COX-2 expression in carcinoma cells to be a surrogate marker for aromatase. In situ aromatase expression in tumor cells is associated with ER expression and may thus point towards good prognosis. Aromatase expression in cancer

  20. Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component.

  1. In situ aromatase expression in primary tumor is associated with estrogen receptor expression but is not predictive of response to endocrine therapy in advanced breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Henriksen, Katrine L; Rasmussen, Birgitte B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New, third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have proven comparable or superior to the anti-estrogen tamoxifen for treatment of estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) positive breast cancer. AIs suppress total body and intratumoral estrogen levels. It is unclear...... whether in situ carcinoma cell aromatization is the primary source of estrogen production for tumor growth and whether the aromatase expression is predictive of response to endocrine therapy. Due to methodological difficulties in the determination of the aromatase protein, COX-2, an enzyme involved...... of advanced breast cancer. Semi-quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was performed for ER, PR, COX-2 and aromatase using Tissue Microarrays (TMAs). Aromatase was also analyzed using whole sections (WS). Kappa analysis was applied to compare association of protein expression levels. Univariate...

  2. Early versus delayed endocrine treatment of pN1-3 M0 prostate cancer without local treatment of the primary tumor: results of European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer 30846--a phase III study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Fritz H.; Kurth, Karl Heinz; Fosså, Sophie D.; Hoekstra, Wytze; Karthaus, Peter P. M.; Debois, Muriel; Collette, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    The timing of endocrine treatment for prostate cancer remains controversial. The issue is addressed in protocol 30846 of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer for patients with lymph node positive cancer without local treatment of the primary tumor. A total of 302 patients

  3. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE for Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Occurring in Association with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 and Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Chinna; Basu, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) occurring in association with other endocrine syndromes forms a distinct entity. The aim was to assess the therapy response profile of the routine peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in this relatively uncommon but clinically challenging subgroup of patients. A retrospective analysis was undertaken from the case records from those who were treated with 177 Lu-DOTATATE for metastatic NET. In addition to assessing the therapeutic efficacy, emphasis was also given to study lesional sites and scan pattern. A total of 5 cases were found: In this series of five cases, four belonged to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome; in these four MEN1 syndrome patients, the primary site of NET was thymic region ( n = 1), duodenum ( n = 1), and pancreas ( n = 2). The fifth case was of Cushing's syndrome with the primary site of NET in the thymus. A good symptomatic response was observed in all MEN1 syndrome cases (100%) and progression of symptoms in the patient with Cushing's syndrome. The biochemical response (assessed by measurement of tumor marker serum chromogranin A) demonstrated very good partial response (defined by more than 75% reduction of tumor marker) in 2 MEN1 cases and Cushing's syndrome, good partial response (25-75% reduction of tumor marker) in the remaining 2 MEN1 cases. Scan wise (assessed by technetium [ 99m Tc]-hydrazinonicotinamide [HYNIC]-tektrotyd [TOC]/ 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC/TATE positron emission tomography-computed tomography [PET-CT] and fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] PET-CT) partial response was observed in 3 MEN1 cases, stable disease was noted in one MEN1 case and disease progression was noted in the patient with Cushing's syndrome. The change in FDG uptake was found to be an important sensitive scan parameter in the treatment evaluation of NETs compared to somatostatin receptor-based imaging in the cases with low MiB1 index. In our series, good palliative response to 177 Lu-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) PRRT was

  4. Specific targeting for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors; Ciblage specifique pour le traitement des tumeurs neuro-endocrines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute 1066 CX Amsterdam, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2003-09-01

    For the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors three ways of specific targeting of radionuclides prevail: by {sup 131}I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG), which is taken up by an active uptake-1 mechanism and stored in neurosecretory granules of neural crest tumor cells, by radiolabeled peptides, in particular the somatostatin analogs octreotide and lanreotide, targeting the peptide receptors, and by radiolabeled antibodies, which target tumor cell surface antigens. The choice depends on the indication, the results of diagnostic imaging using tracer amounts of these agents, the availability and feasibility of radionuclide therapy and of other treatment modalities. The applications, clinical results and developments for the major indications are reviewed. {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy has a cumulative response rate of 50%, associated with little toxicity, in metastatic pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and neuroblastoma, whereas its role is primarily palliative in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and carcinoid tumors. Treatment using {sup 90}Y- or {sup 177}Lu-labeled octreotide/lanreotide is mostly used in neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumors and paraganglioma, attaining stabilization of disease anti-palliation in the majority of patients. As this treatment is specific for the receptor rather than for the tumor type, it may also be applicable to other, non-neuroendocrine tumors. Radioimmunotherapy is applied in medullary thyroid carcinoma, in which a phase I/II study using bi-specific anti-DTPA/anti-CEA immuno-conjugates followed by {sup 131}I-hapten has proven some degree of success, and may be used in neuroblastoma more effectively than before, once chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies become available for therapy. Integration of these specific and noninvasive therapies at an optimal moment into the treatment protocols of these diseases may enhance their effectiveness and acceptance. (author)

  5. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  6. Broncho-biliary fistula secondary to biliary obstruction and lung abscess in a patient with pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Panda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case report of broncho-biliary fistula that developed due to the blockage of biliary stent placed during the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET; diagnosed on high clinical suspicion, percutaneous cholangiogram and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT; and successfully treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD.

  7. Broncho-biliary fistula secondary to biliary obstruction and lung abscess in a patient with pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, D.; Aggarwal, M.; Kumar, S.; Mukund, A.; Baghmar, S.; Yadav, V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case report of broncho-biliary fistula that developed due to the blockage of biliary stent placed during the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET); diagnosed on high clinical suspicion, percutaneous cholangiogram and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT); and successfully treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD)

  8. Pediatric endocrine surgery development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Dedov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Department of pediatric surgery at the Endocrinology Research Centre has been around for nearly two years. During operation, surgical treatment has received more than 500 patients with various endocrine disorders. The article discusses modern diagnostic approaches and surgical options for diseases included in the new direction of pediatric surgery – endocrine surgery in children. There are discussions about options for radical treatment of Graves disease in children, positive and negative aspects of surgical and radioactive iodine treatment. Is own stats of postoperative hyperparathyroidism. Is proposed to optimize the algorithm of actions in identifying thyroid nodules in children. In primary hyperparathyroidism, the emphasis is on the complexity of the postoperative management of patients related to the feature of children’s age in determining the severity of the reactions on the water-electrolyte disorders. Separately reviewed the literature of the adrenal glands diseases in children, demonstrating their own clinical cases which required surgical intervention. The authors describe the possibilities of modern neurosurgical equipment in the Endocrinology Research Centre in operations on the pituitary gland in children. Patients of different age groups performed transnasal transsphenoidal removal of tumors of the chiasm-sellar region using endoscopic assistance. The article also cited research data of pancreas diseases and their surgical treatment. Much attention is paid to the gender section of endocrine surgery in children. Discusses the tactics in disorders of sex development, gonadal tumors in children, diseases of the breast. In conclusion outlines the prospects for the development of endocrine surgery in children.

  9. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome (PCOS) Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma Thyroid Tests Turner Syndrome Contact Us The National ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  10. Broncho-biliary fistula secondary to biliary obstruction and lung abscess in a patient with pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Dipanjan; Aggarwal, Mayank; Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Sachin; Mukund, Amar; Baghmar, Saphalta

    2016-06-01

    We present a case report of broncho-biliary fistula that developed due to the blockage of biliary stent placed during the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET); diagnosed on high clinical suspicion, percutaneous cholangiogram and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT); and successfully treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Copyright © 2016 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylation-associated down-regulation of RASSF1A and up-regulation of RASSF1C in pancreatic endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malpeli, Giorgio; Amato, Eliana; Dandrea, Mario; Fumagalli, Caterina; Debattisti, Valentina; Boninsegna, Letizia; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Falconi, Massimo; Scarpa, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    RASSF1A gene silencing by DNA methylation has been suggested as a major event in pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) but RASSF1A expression has never been studied. The RASSF1 locus contains two CpG islands (A and C) and generates seven transcripts (RASSF1A-RASSF1G) by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. We studied 20 primary PETs, their matched normal pancreas and three PET cell lines for the (i) methylation status of the RASSF1 CpG islands using methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing and (ii) expression of RASSF1 isoforms by quantitative RT-PCR in 13 cases. CpG island A methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and by quantitative methylation-specific PCR (qMSP); pyrosequencing was applied to quantify the methylation of 51 CpGs also encompassing those explored by MSP and qMSP approaches. MSP detected methylation in 16/20 (80%) PETs and 13/20 (65%) normal pancreas. At qMSP, 11/20 PETs (55%) and 9/20 (45%) normals were methylated in at least 20% of RASSF1A alleles. Pyrosequencing showed variable distribution and levels of methylation within and among samples, with PETs having average methylation higher than normals in 15/20 (75%) cases (P = 0.01). The evaluation of mRNA expression of RASSF1 variants showed that: i) RASSF1A was always expressed in PET and normal tissues, but it was, on average, expressed 6.8 times less in PET (P = 0.003); ii) RASSF1A methylation inversely correlated with its expression; iii) RASSF1 isoforms were rarely found, except for RASSF1B that was always expressed and RASSF1C whose expression was 11.4 times higher in PET than in normal tissue (P = 0.001). A correlation between RASSF1A expression and gene methylation was found in two of the three PET cell lines, which also showed a significant increase in RASSF1A expression upon demethylating treatment. RASSF1A gene methylation in PET is higher than normal pancreas in no more than 75% of cases and as such it cannot be considered a marker for this neoplasm

  12. In vitro profiling of toxic effects of prominent environmental lower-chlorinated PCB congeners linked with endocrine disruption and tumor promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Svržková, Lucie; Strapáčová, Simona; Neča, Jiří; Bartoňková, Iveta; Dvořák, Zdeněk; Hýžďalová, Martina; Pivnička, Jakub; Pálková, Lenka; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Li, Xueshu; Vondráček, Jan; Machala, Miroslav

    2018-06-01

    The mechanisms contributing to toxic effects of airborne lower-chlorinated PCB congeners (LC-PCBs) remain poorly characterized. We evaluated in vitro toxicities of environmental LC-PCBs found in both indoor and outdoor air (PCB 4, 8, 11, 18, 28 and 31), and selected hydroxylated metabolites of PCB 8, 11 and 18, using reporter gene assays, as well as other functional cellular bioassays. We focused on processes linked with endocrine disruption, tumor promotion and/or regulation of transcription factors controlling metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The tested LC-PCBs were found to be mostly efficient anti-androgenic (within nanomolar - micromolar range) and estrogenic (at micromolar concentrations) compounds, as well as inhibitors of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) at micromolar concentrations. PCB 8, 28 and 31 were found to partially inhibit the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity. The tested LC-PCBs were also partial constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonists, with PCB 4, 8 and 18 being the most active compounds. They were inactive towards other nuclear receptors, such as vitamin D receptor, thyroid receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. We found that only PCB 8 contributed to generation of oxidative stress, while all tested LC-PCBs induced arachidonic acid release (albeit without further modulations of arachidonic acid metabolism) in human lung epithelial cells. Importantly, estrogenic effects of hydroxylated (OH-PCB) metabolites of LC-PCBs (4-OH-PCB 8, 4-OH-PCB 11 and 4'-OH-PCB 18) were higher than those of the parent PCBs, while their other toxic effects were only slightly altered or suppressed. This suggested that metabolism may alter toxicity profiles of LC-PCBs in a receptor-specific manner. In summary, anti-androgenic and estrogenic activities, acute inhibition of GJIC and suppression of the AhR-mediated activity were

  13. Neurocutaneous spectrum of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or Wermer syndrome is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic endocrine tumor, and a pituitary pathology. A 35-year-old male presented with visual field defects, hyperprolactinemia, and hypogonadism. He also had multiple infraumbilical skin-colored nodules. A syndromal association of Wermer syndrome was derived using the dermal, pituitary, parathyroid, and gastrointestinal hormonal manifestations of the tumor. The radiological and histological findings of lesion which underwent biopsy are discussed. The presence of collagenomas, lipomas, and hypopigmented macules in a patient with neuroendocrine symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  14. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  15. Radiological imaging of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)

  16. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. SECONDARY (ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION: LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Yukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a  very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  18. VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through

  19. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Recurrence or new tumors after complete resection of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Laurence; Lussey-Lepoutre, Charlotte; Lenders, Jacques W M; Djadi-Prat, Juliette; Plouin, Pierre-Francois; Steichen, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    To systematically review the incidence and factors associated with recurrences or new tumors after apparent complete resection of pheochromocytoma or thoraco-abdomino-pelvic paraganglioma. A systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature was performed. Pubmed and Embase from 1980 to 2012 were searched for studies published in English on patients with non-metastatic pheochromocytoma or thoraco-abdomino-pelvic paraganglioma, complete tumor resection, postoperative follow-up exceeding 1 month, and recurrence or new tumor documented by pathology, hormonal dosages, or imaging tests. Incidence rates of new events after curative surgery were calculated for each study that had sufficient information and pooled using random-effect meta-analysis. In total, 38 studies were selected from 3518 references, of which 36 reported retrospective cohorts from the USA, Europe, and Asia. Patient follow-up was neither standardized nor exhaustive in the included studies. A clear description of patient retrieval methods was available for nine studies and the follow-up protocol and patient flow for four studies. Only two studies used multivariable methods to assess potential predictors of postoperative events.The overall rate of recurrent disease from 34 studies was 0.98 events/100 person-years (95% confidence interval 0.71, 1.25). Syndromic diseases and paragangliomas were consistently associated with a higher risk of a new event in individual studies and in meta-regression analysis. The risk of recurrent disease after complete resection of pheochromocytoma may be lower than that previously estimated, corresponding to five events for 100 patients followed up for 5 years after complete resection. Risk stratification is required to tailor the follow-up protocol after complete resection of a pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma. Large multicenter studies are needed to this end. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  1. Pituitary tumors in patients with MEN1 syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis V. Syro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the characteristics of pituitary tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder most commonly characterized by tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid, endocrine-gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas. A MEDLINE search for all available publications regarding multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and pituitary adenomas was undertaken. The prevalence of pituitary tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may vary from 10% to 60% depending on the studied series, and such tumors may occur as the first clinical manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in 25% of sporadic and 10% of familial cases. Patients were younger and the time between initial and subsequent multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 endocrine lesions was significantly longer when pituitary disease was the initial manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Tumors were larger and more invasive and clinical manifestations related to the size of the pituitary adenoma were significantly more frequent in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in subjects with non-multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Normalization of pituitary hypersecretion was much less frequent in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in subjects with non-multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Pituitary tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome tend to be larger, invasive and more symptomatic, and they tend to occur in younger patients when they are the initial presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

  2. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide for staging and follow-up of patients with endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, M.; Muehllechner, P.; Decristoforo, C.; Guggenberg, E. von; Kendler, D.; Moncayo, R.; Virgolini, I.; Prommegger, R.; Profanter, C.

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the use of 99m Tc-EDDA-hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3 - octreotide (Tc-TOC) for staging and follow-up of neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumors with special focus on the acquisition protocol including single photon emission computed tomography (SPECf). Methods: Eighty-eight patients (37 female, 51 male; age range: 16 to 81 years; mean age: 56.3 years) were studied: 42 patients for staging after initial histological confirmation and 46 patients during post-therapy follow-up. An average activity of 400 MBq of the radiopharmaceutical was injected. All tumors originated from neuroendocrine tissue of the gastroenteropancreatic tract. Whole body seintigrams at 4 h postinjection and SPECT of the abdomen were obtained in alI patients. Additional planar images of the abdomen were acquired at 2 h after injection in 68 patients. Results: The Tc-TOC scan result was true-positive in 56 patients, true-negative in 17, false-negative in 14, and false-positive in 1 patient. The false-positive finding was caused by a colonie adenoma. Overall, a scan sensitivity of 80% (56/70 patients), specificity of 94.4% (17/18 patients) and accuracy of 82.9% (73/88 patients) were calculated on patient basis. In total, Tc-TOC detected 357 foci in 69 patients. In 7 patients equivocaI findings were observed in the bowel at 4 h postinjection without corresponding tracer uptake in the scan 2 h earlier, meaning that these abnormal findings were correctly classified as non-malignant. In addition to planar views, SPECT revealed further 62 lesions

  3. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  5. Update in endocrine autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders.

  6. Radiologic features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents imaging features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms. Microcystic adenoma which is composed of small cysts ( 2 cm) are accounted for mucinous cystic neoplasms, its variant along pancreatic duct is ductectatic mucinous cystic neoplasm. Endocrine tumors of pancreas are hypervascular and can be depicted on early dynamic enhanced crosssectional imaging modalities or on angiography when they are <1 cm. Pancreatic metastases and lymphomas are rare neoplasms which should also be included in differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses

  7. Genetic basis of endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was analysis of literature data relating to the molecular genetic basis and diagnosis of endocrine pathology. We searched for published and unpublished researches using Pubmed as the search engine by the keywords: ‘genes’, ‘endocrine diseases’, ‘molecular diagnostics’, ‘prohormones’, ‘nuclear receptors and transcription factors’, taking into consideration studies conducted over the last 10 years, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, conference abstracts, personal files, and contact with expert informants. The criterion for the selection of articles for the study was based on their close relevance to the topic, thus out of 144 analyzed articles, the findings of the researchers covered in 32 articles were crucial. The described nosologies presented various heredi­tary forms of hypopituitarism, disturbances of steroid hormone biosynthesis, abnormal gender formation, monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, endocrine tumors, etc. Pathology is identified that is associated with a mutation of genes encoding protein prohormones, receptors, steroid biosynthesis enzymes, intracellular signaling molecules, transport proteins, ion channels, and transcription factors. Among the endocrine diseases associated with defects in genes encoding protein prohormones, the defects of the GH1 gene are most common, the defects in the gene CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase are among diseases associated with defects in genes encoding enzymes. More often mutations of genes encoding proteins belong to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. Most of the mutations associated with MEN-2A are concentrated in the rich cysteine region of the Ret receptor. More than 70 monogenic syndromes are known, in which there is a marked tolerance to glucose and some form of diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, diabetes mellitus caused by mutation of the mitochondrial gene (mutation tRNALeu, UUR is also detected. Of all the monogenic forms of

  8. Management of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahaly, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine orbitopathy is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Basedow's disease and is characterized by a lymphocyte infiltration of the peribulbar space. Infiltrating and activated T cells react with orbital target cells and secrete cytokines, leading to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, interstitial edema, and enlargement of the extra ocular muscels. Interdisciplinary management is recommended for rapid diagnosis and effective therapy of patients with endocrine orbitopathy. Immunosuppressive treatment is often used initially, and by suppressing inflammatory changes, it can result in subjective and objective improvement of thyroid eye disease. (orig.) [de

  9. What Is Men's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search form Search What is Men's Endocrine Health? Men's endocrine health incorporates physical activity and sound nutrition to maintain a strong body; however, a major emphasis includes male sexuality ...

  10. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging of endocrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the role of nuclear medicine in the study of morphology and pathophysiology of various endocrine organs has greatly expanded. Newly developed radiopharmaceuticals, new instrumentation, innovative study designs and dual isotope techniques have contributed significantly to the evaluation of parathyroid and adrenal diseases. In selected cases, patients with metabolic bone disorders and infertility have greatly been benefited. (author)

  12. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems With the Endocrine System Print en español Sistema endócrino Although we rarely think about them, the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  13. The Endocrine Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  14. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Articles should be restricted to clinical or basic studies, particularly translational research, which add new information to the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of endocrine disorders that have not been published previously. These manuscripts should be restricted to 3,500 words, no more than 40 references, and no ...

  15. Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts original contributions related to the practice and science of clinical endocrinology, articles updating the clinical endocrinologist on current areas of interest in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, articles discussing dilemma facing endocrinologists in the clinical, social, and ethical arena of ...

  16. Endocrine diseases in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, N.J.; van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Endocrine diseases are among the most commonly seen conditions in ferrets. Tumours of the islet cells in the pancreas, referred to as insulinomas, and tumours of the adrenal glands, referred to as hyperadrenocorticism, are more commonly described in this species than in any other species.

  17. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  18. Somatotrophic and corticotrophic function outcome after transesphenoidal surgery in patients with sellar tumors and pre-operative endocrine deficits Evolução das funções somatotrófica e corticotrófica após cirurgia transesfenoidal em pacientes com tumores selares e deficits endócrinos pré-operatórios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R. Pimentel-Filho

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen patients with sellar tumors that were treated surgically and who had pre-operative somatotrophic and corticotrophic function deficits were submitted to pre- and early post-operative insulin tolerance tests (ITTs. Seven patients had non-functioning adenomas, 5 had prolactinomas, 3 had craniopharyngioma and 1 had cordoma of the clivus. All patients had macro-tumors and none received radiotherapy within the studied period. Seven patients had GH, 4 had Cortisol and 5 had both GH/cortisol function pre-operative deficit. Five patients with isolated GH, 4 with isolated Cortisol and 3 with both GH/cortisol deficiencies showed a postoperative functional recovery. New Cortisol secretion deficits were observed in 2 patients postoperatively and both required long-term steroid replacement. These data suggest that preoperative endocrine deficits may be reversible after surgical decompression of the sellar region and that new endocrine deficits are rarely seen after surgery. All such patients should be tested postoperatively from an endocrinological point of view to reevaluate the need for replacement therapies.Dezesseis pacientes com tumores da região selar que foram tratados cirurgicamente e que possuíam deficits funcionais dos eixos somatotrófico ou corticotrófico foram submetidos a teste de tolerância à insulina pré- e pós-operatoriamente. Sete pacientes possuíam adenomas não-funcionantes, 5 possuíam prolactinomas, 3 craniofaringiomas e 1 possuía cordoma de clivus. Todos os pacientes possuíam macrotumores e nenhum deles foi submetido a radioterapia durante o período do estudo. Sete pacientes possuíam deficiência isolada do setor somatotrófico, 4 isolada do setor corticotrófico e 5 possuíam deficiência de ambos os setores. Cinco pacientes com deficiência isolada do setor somatotrófico, 4 com deficit isolado do setor corticotrófico e 3 com deficiência nos dois setores obtiveram melhora funcional pós-operatoriamente. Novos

  19. Radiologic diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunderquist, A.

    1989-01-01

    The radiologic work-up of a patient with a pancreatic endocrine tumor should follow a strict course. Ultrasonography as the first procedure should be followed by angiography, if possible. Negative ultrasonography should be followed by computed tomography (CT), which, whether positive or negative, is supplemented by angiography. Negative CT and angiography is followed by transhepatic venous sampling. In patients with suspected liver metastases from intestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors, angiography may reveal more metastases than CT and ultrasonography. (orig.)

  20. Diabetic and endocrine emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, T; Dang, C

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine emergencies constitute only a small percentage of the emergency workload of general doctors, comprising about 1.5% of all hospital admission in England in 2004–5. Most of these are diabetes related with the remaining conditions totalling a few hundred cases at most. Hence any individual doctor might not have sufficient exposure to be confident in their management. This review discusses the management of diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, hypoglycaemia, hyperca...

  1. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  2. Radiotherapy of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weischedel, U.; Wieland, C.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of the history and a discussion of recent theories about pathogenesis of endocrine ophthalmopathy the authros give a report on their radiotherapeutical treatment results with cobalt-60-γ-rays in 50 patients. Amelioration was achieved in 50% of the cases, in the other 50% no progression was seen. Radiotherapy is of antiphlogistic and functional effectivity and should be integrated in the treatment regime in early stages. (orig.) [de

  3. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiological imaging in endocrine hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan J Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While different generations of assays have played important role in elucidating causes of different endocrine disorders, radiological techniques are instrumental in localizing the pathology. This statement cannot be truer in any disease entity other than endocrine hypertension. This review makes an effort to highlight the role of different radiological modalities, especially ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the evaluation of different causes of endocrine hypertension.

  5. MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)]. E-mail: ytanaka@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Saida, Tsukasa Sasaki [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tsukuba University Hospital (Japan); Minami, Rie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yagi, Takako [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tsukuba University Hospital (Japan); Tsunoda, Hajime [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kanto Medical Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Minami, Manabu [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity. However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations. Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically latent excess of estrogen. In this article, we demonstrate typical imaging findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity. We also shortly explain the mechanism of the virilization and hyperestrogenism caused by ovarian tumors and tumor-like conditions.

  6. MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Saida, Tsukasa Sasaki; Minami, Rie; Yagi, Takako; Tsunoda, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Minami, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity. However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations. Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically latent excess of estrogen. In this article, we demonstrate typical imaging findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity. We also shortly explain the mechanism of the virilization and hyperestrogenism caused by ovarian tumors and tumor-like conditions

  7. The Current Role of Venous Sampling in the Localization of Endocrine Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Jeshen H. G.; Drake, William; Matson, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine venous sampling plays a specific role in the diagnosis of endocrine disorders. In this article, we cover inferior petrosal sinus sampling, selective parathyroid venous sampling, hepatic venous sampling with arterial stimulation, adrenal venous sampling, and ovarian venous sampling. We review their indications and the scientific evidence justifying these indications in the diagnosis and management of Cushing's syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic endocrine tumors, Conn's syndrome, primary hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytomas, and androgen-secreting ovarian tumors. For each sampling technique, we compare its diagnostic accuracy with that of other imaging techniques and, where possible, look at how it impacts patient management. Finally, we incorporate venous sampling into diagnostic algorithms used at our institution

  8. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2009-04-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  9. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  10. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  11. No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raitila, A; Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A

    2007-01-01

    . Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing. No somatic mutations were identified. However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X...... as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age. Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1...... (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC). Genes underlying MEN1 and CNC are rarely mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas, but more often in other lesions contributing to these two syndromes. Thus far, the occurrence of somatic AIP mutations has not been studied in endocrine tumors other than pituitary adenomas...

  12. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  13. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids / Your Endocrine System Print en español Tu sistema endocrino You might say endocrine (say: EN-doh- ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  14. Mitochondrial disease and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jasmine; Rahman, Joyeeta; Achermann, John C; Dattani, Mehul T; Rahman, Shamima

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria are critical organelles for endocrine health; steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in these organelles and they provide energy in the form of ATP for hormone production and trafficking. Mitochondrial diseases are multisystem disorders that feature defective oxidative phosphorylation, and are characterized by enormous clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mitochondrial diseases have been found to result from >250 monogenic defects encoded across two genomes: the nuclear genome and the ancient circular mitochondrial genome located within mitochondria themselves. Endocrine dysfunction is often observed in genetic mitochondrial diseases and reflects decreased intracellular production or extracellular secretion of hormones. Diabetes mellitus is the most frequently described endocrine disturbance in patients with inherited mitochondrial diseases, but other endocrine manifestations in these patients can include growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid disease. Although mitochondrial endocrine dysfunction frequently occurs in the context of multisystem disease, some mitochondrial disorders are characterized by isolated endocrine involvement. Furthermore, additional monogenic mitochondrial endocrine diseases are anticipated to be revealed by the application of genome-wide next-generation sequencing approaches in the future. Understanding the mitochondrial basis of endocrine disturbance is key to developing innovative therapies for patients with mitochondrial diseases.

  15. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  16. Endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andrew M; Walker, Mark; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W

    2013-10-15

    Endocrine dysfunction in mitochondrial disease is commonplace, but predominantly restricted to disease of the endocrine pancreas resulting in diabetes mellitus. Other endocrine manifestations occur, but are relatively rare by comparison. In mitochondrial disease, neuromuscular symptoms often dominate the clinical phenotype, but it is of paramount importance to appreciate the multi-system nature of the disease, of which endocrine dysfunction may be a part. The numerous phenotypes attributable to pathogenic mutations in both the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA creates a complex and heterogeneous catalogue of disease which can be difficult to navigate for novices and experts alike. In this article we provide an overview of the endocrine disorders associated with mitochondrial disease, the way in which the underlying mitochondrial disorder influences the clinical presentation, and how these factors influence subsequent management. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Endocrine system: acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linfoot, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Acromegaly and gigantism represent multisystem diseases resulting from either a primary pituitary tumor or an ill-defined hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction causing somatotropic cell hyperplasia and tumor formation. Clinical manifestations of the disease result from three major processes: (1) excessive growth hormone (HGH) secretion, (2) deficiencies of other pituitary tropic hormones, and (3) local invasion of parasellar neural and vascular structures. The treatment of this disease, and side effects, are discussed

  18. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    of alkylphenols, these are disseminated in the environment with sewage sludge, and domestic animals and humans are likely to be exposed via the food chain. Using the pig as an in vivo model, we studied the effect of intrauterine exposure to tertiary octylphenol (OP) on essential reproductive parameters over 3......With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...

  19. Endocrine Actions of Osteocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Patti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Once transcribed, this protein undergoes posttranslational modifications within osteoblastic cells before its secretion, including the carboxylation of three glutamic residues in glutamic acid, which is essential for hydroxyapatite binding and deposition in the extracellular matrix of bone. Recent provocative data from experimental observations in mice showed that the circulating undercarboxylated fraction of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion and sensitivity, lowers blood glucose, and decreases visceral fat in both genders, while it enhances testosterone production by the testes in males. Moreover, both total and undercarboxylated osteocalcins increase following physical activity with potential positive effects on glucose tolerance. Despite that these evidences have been only in part confirmed in humans, further prospective investigations are needed to definitively establish the endocrine role of osteocalcin both in the general population and cohorts of patients with diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

  20. Next-generation sequencing for endocrine cancers: Recent advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Padmanaban S; Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Tsutsumi, Rie; Shetty, Abhishek

    2017-05-01

    Contemporary molecular biology research tools have enriched numerous areas of biomedical research that address challenging diseases, including endocrine cancers (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, testicular, ovarian, and neuroendocrine cancers). These tools have placed several intriguing clues before the scientific community. Endocrine cancers pose a major challenge in health care and research despite considerable attempts by researchers to understand their etiology. Microarray analyses have provided gene signatures from many cells, tissues, and organs that can differentiate healthy states from diseased ones, and even show patterns that correlate with stages of a disease. Microarray data can also elucidate the responses of endocrine tumors to therapeutic treatments. The rapid progress in next-generation sequencing methods has overcome many of the initial challenges of these technologies, and their advantages over microarray techniques have enabled them to emerge as valuable aids for clinical research applications (prognosis, identification of drug targets, etc.). A comprehensive review describing the recent advances in next-generation sequencing methods and their application in the evaluation of endocrine and endocrine-related cancers is lacking. The main purpose of this review is to illustrate the concepts that collectively constitute our current view of the possibilities offered by next-generation sequencing technological platforms, challenges to relevant applications, and perspectives on the future of clinical genetic testing of patients with endocrine tumors. We focus on recent discoveries in the use of next-generation sequencing methods for clinical diagnosis of endocrine tumors in patients and conclude with a discussion on persisting challenges and future objectives.

  1. [Outstanding problems of normal and pathological morphology of the diffuse endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse endocrine system (DES)--a mosaic-cellular endoepithelial gland--is the biggest part of the human endocrine system. Scientists used to consider cells of DES as neuroectodermal. According to modem data cells of DES are different cytogenetic types because they develop from the different embryonic blastophyllum. So that any hormone-active tumors originated from DES of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system shouldn't be considered as neuroendocrinal tumors. The basic problems of DES morphology and pathology are the creation of scientifically substantiated histogenetic classification of DES tumors.

  2. What Is Women's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harness the power to prevent endocrine disorders, the Power of Prevention. Childhood Childhood is a time of rapid growth and development to learn healthy living habits and priorities. It can, however, be a great ...

  3. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  4. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  5. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  6. Skin Manifestations of Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases may result in changes in cutaneous function and morphology, which cause various skin manifestations, including nonspecific or pathognomonic signs. Some of these manifestations are already known dermatologic diseases with only increased frequency in this patient group. As a result the skin may the play role of a screen displaying endocrine disorders, either due to hormone excess or deficiency. Awareness of the skin manifestations may permit prompt and adequate approach to the patients, and therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of the endocrine disease and even be life saving. Some of these manifestations may be recognized clinically, but sometimes they need to be confirmed histopathologically. In this article, many endocrine diseases and their associated skin lesions will be reviewed briefly.

  7. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  9. Endocrine myopathy: Case-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babul Reddy Hanmayyagari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine myopathy means muscle weakness in the presence of an abnormal endocrine state. Most of the endocrine disorders are associated with myopathy and it is usually reversible with correction of the underlying disturbance, though, there is an increasing knowledge of the metabolic effects of hormones, endocrine myopathy is a less recognized and often overlooked entity in clinical practice. Here, we describe this association in three of our patients, then, we discuss systematically about endocrine myopathy.

  10. Relative potencies of the somatostatin analogs octreotide, BIM-23014, and RC-160 on the inhibition of hormone release by cultured human endocrine tumor cells and normal rat anterior pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); M. Waaijers (Marlijn); J. Zuyderwijk; S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study we investigated the effects of the somatostatin (SS) analogs octreotide, RC-160, and BIM-23014 on GH release by cultured cells of human GH-secreting pituitary tumors, in normal rat anterior pituitary cells, and on gastrin release by

  11. Endocrine therapy and urogenital outcomes among women with a breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Kemi M.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Hendrix, Laura; Anders, Carey K.; Wu, Jennifer M.; Nichols, Hazel B.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Endocrine therapy for breast cancer can exacerbate menopausal symptoms. The association between endocrine therapy and common pelvic floor disorders including urinary incontinence has rarely been evaluated. We examined urogenital and sexual side effects among women with a breast cancer diagnosis, comparing endocrine therapy users to nonusers. Methods Urogenital and sexual symptoms were self-reported during the enrollment interview within the University of North Carolina Cancer Survivorship Cohort. Tumor characteristics and endocrine therapy use were collected from medical and prescription records. We calculated multivariable prevalence ratios (PR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association of endocrine therapy (versus no endocrine therapy) and urinary incontinence, overall and by therapy type (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors). PROMIS Sexual Function and Satisfaction domain scores were compared across endocrine therapy groups. Results Among the 548 women with a breast cancer diagnosis, 49 % received endocrine therapy. Overall, 18 % of women reported urinary incontinence symptoms. We observed no association between urinary incontinence and endocrine therapy use overall (PR = 0.97; 95 % CI 0.67, 1.43), tamoxifen (PR = 1.20; 95 % CI 0.74, 1.96), or aromatase inhibitors (PR = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.55, 1.42), compared to no use. Approximately 55 % of women were sexually active. Sexual function scores did not vary according to endocrine therapy use, although urinary incontinence was associated with lower satisfaction scores (p = 0.05). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a high prevalence of urinary incontinence after breast cancer diagnosis similar to the overall prevalence in older U.S. women, and this did not vary strongly according to use of endocrine therapy. PMID:27680018

  12. Celiac disease and endocrine autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Schuppan, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a small-intestinal inflammatory disease that is triggered by the ingestion of the storage proteins (gluten) of wheat, barley and rye. Endocrine autoimmunity is prevalent in patients with CD and their relatives. The genes that predispose to endocrine autoimmune diseases, e.g. type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid diseases, and Addison's disease, i.e. DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8, are also the major genetic determinants of CD, which is the best understood HLA-linked disease. Thus, up to 30% of first-degree relatives both of patients with CD and/or endocrine autoimmunity are affected by the other disease. In CD, certain gluten proteins bind with high affinity to HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 in the small-intestinal mucosa, to activate gluten-specific T cells which are instrumental in the destruction of the resorptive villi. Here, the autoantigen tissue transglutaminase increases the T cell response by generating deamidated gluten peptides that bind more strongly to DQ2 or DQ8. Classical symptoms such as diarrhea and consequences of malabsorption like anemia and osteoporosis are often absent in patients with (screening-detected) CD, but this absence does not significantly affect these patients' incidence of endocrine autoimmunity. Moreover, once autoimmunity is established, a gluten-free diet is not able to induce remission. However, ongoing studies attempt to address how far a gluten-free diet may prevent or retard the development of CD and endocrine autoimmunity in children at risk. The close relationship between CD and endocrine autoimmunity warrants a broader immune genetic and endocrine screening of CD patients and their relatives. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Endocrine carcinoma of the pancreatic tail exhibiting gastric variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas is uncommon. Without excess hormone secretion, it is clinically silent until the enlarging or metastatic tumor causes compressive symptoms. Epigastric pain, dyspepsia, jaundice, and abdominal mass are the usual symptoms, whereas upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is rare. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old man with the chief complaint of hematemesis. Upper GI panendoscopy revealed isolated gastric varices at the fundus and upper body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a tumor mass at the pancreatic tail causing a splenic vein obstruction, engorged vessels near the fundus of the stomach, and splenomegaly. After distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, the bleeding did not recur. The final pathologic diagnosis was endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. Gastric variceal bleeding is a possible manifestation of nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas if the splenic vein is affected by a tumor. In non-cirrhotic patients with isolated gastric variceal bleeding, the differential diagnosis should include pancreatic disorders.

  14. Imaging of pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  15. Scintigraphic imaging of endocrine organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear medicine approach to the portrayal of endocrine organs is unique; the scintigraphic images provide not only anatomic and localization information, but in many instances allow a quantitative assessment of organ function. The ability to image endocrine glands is based upon the design of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals with characteristics to take advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and metabolic functions of these tissues. The recent introduction of new radiopharmaceutical and tracers has provided the consulting endocrinologist with imaging procedures that allow localization and functional characterization not available by other single, noninvasive diagnostic modalities. This review will serve as an update of the available techniques to image and quantitate the function of the endocrine glands using the nuclear medicine approach

  16. Psychosocial approach to endocrine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Tomba, Elena; Fava, Giovanni A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the psychosocial aspects of endocrine disease, such as the role of life stress in the pathogenesis of some conditions, their association with affective disorders, and the presence of residual symptoms after adequate treatment. In clinical endocrinology, exploration of psychosocial antecedents may elucidate the temporal relationships between life events and symptom onset, as it has been shown to be relevant for pituitary (Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia) or thyroid (Graves' disease) conditions, as well as the role of allostatic load, linked to chronic stress, in uncovering a person's vulnerability. After endocrine abnormalities are established, they are frequently associated with a wide range of psychological symptoms: at times, such symptoms reach the level of psychiatric illness (mainly mood and anxiety disorders); at other times, however, they can only be identified by the subclinical forms of assessment provided by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Indeed, in a population study, the majority of patients suffered from at least one of the three DCPR syndromes considered: irritable mood, demoralization, persistent somatization. In particular, irritable mood was found to occur in 46% of 146 patients successfully treated for endocrine conditions, a rate similar to that found in cardiology and higher than in oncology and gastroenterology. Long-standing endocrine disorders may imply a degree of irreversibility of the pathological process and induce highly individualized affective responses. In patients who showed persistence or even worsening of psychological distress upon proper endocrine treatment, the value of appropriate psychiatric interventions was underscored. As it happened in other fields of clinical medicine, a conceptual shift from a merely biomedical care to a psychosomatic consideration of the person and his/her quality of life appears to be necessary for improving

  17. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F. Anders

    2006-01-01

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented

  19. Embryonic transcription factor SOX9 drives breast cancer endocrine resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeselsohn, Rinath; Cornwell, MacIntosh; Pun, Matthew; Buchwalter, Gilles; Nguyen, Mai; Bango, Clyde; Huang, Ying; Kuang, Yanan; Paweletz, Cloud; Fu, Xiaoyong; Nardone, Agostina; De Angelis, Carmine; Detre, Simone; Dodson, Andrew; Mohammed, Hisham; Carroll, Jason S; Bowden, Michaela; Rao, Prakash; Long, Henry W; Li, Fugen; Dowsett, Mitchell; Schiff, Rachel; Brown, Myles

    2017-05-30

    The estrogen receptor (ER) drives the growth of most luminal breast cancers and is the primary target of endocrine therapy. Although ER blockade with drugs such as tamoxifen is very effective, a major clinical limitation is the development of endocrine resistance especially in the setting of metastatic disease. Preclinical and clinical observations suggest that even following the development of endocrine resistance, ER signaling continues to exert a pivotal role in tumor progression in the majority of cases. Through the analysis of the ER cistrome in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells, we have uncovered a role for an RUNX2-ER complex that stimulates the transcription of a set of genes, including most notably the stem cell factor SOX9, that promote proliferation and a metastatic phenotype. We show that up-regulation of SOX9 is sufficient to cause relative endocrine resistance. The gain of SOX9 as an ER-regulated gene associated with tamoxifen resistance was validated in a unique set of clinical samples supporting the need for the development of improved ER antagonists.

  20. Arterial and venous thrombosis in endocrine diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, Bregje; Stuijver, Danka J. F.; Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine diseases have been associated with cardiovascular events. Both altered coagulation and fibrinolysis markers and thrombotic disorders have been described in several endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the evidence on the influence of thyroid diseases, cortisol excess and deficiency,

  1. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J. L.; Taat, C. W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W. H.; Becker, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were

  3. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia (Men) consisting of an unusual combination of an insulin-producing islet cell tumour and an adrenal adenoma is reported. CT clearly demonstrated the adrenal mass whereas the pancreatic lesion remained questionable. Conversely angiography located the pancreatic tumour but the adrenal findings were subtle. (orig.)

  4. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  5. Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50 % and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90 %. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in > 30 % and symptom control in almost 80 % of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. (orig.) [de

  6. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  7. Endocrine resistance in breast cancer – an overview and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert; Tyson, John J.; Dixon, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tumors that express detectable levels of the product of the ESR1 gene (estrogen receptor-α; ERα) represent the single largest molecular subtype of breast cancer. More women eventually die from ERα+ breast cancer than from either HER2+ disease (almost half of which also express ERα) and/or from triple negative breast cancer (ERα-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative). Antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors are largely indistinguishable from each other in their abilities to improve overall survival and almost 50% of ERα+ breast cancers will eventually fail one or more of these endocrine interventions. The precise reasons why these therapies fail in ERα+ breast cancer remain largely unknown. Pharmacogenetic explanations for Tamoxifen resistance are controversial. The role of ERα mutations in endocrine resistance remains unclear. Targeting the growth factors and oncogenes most strongly correlated with endocrine resistance has proven mostly disappointing in their abilities to improve overall survival substantially, particularly in the metastatic setting. Nonetheless, there are new concepts in endocrine resistance that integrate molecular signaling, cellular metabolism, and stress responses including endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) that provide novel insights and suggest innovative therapeutic targets. Encouraging evidence that drug combinations with CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors can extend recurrence free survival may yet translate to improvements in overall survival. Whether the improvements seen with immunotherapy in other cancers can be achieved in breast cancer remains to be determined, particularly for ERα+ breast cancers. This review explores the basic mechanisms of resistance to endocrine therapies, concluding with some new insights from systems biology approaches further implicating autophagy and the UPR in detail, and a brief discussion of exciting new avenues and future prospects. PMID:26455641

  8. Specifying pancreatic endocrine cell fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collombat, Patrick; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob; Serup, Palle; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2006-07-01

    Cell replacement therapy could represent an attractive alternative to insulin injections for the treatment of diabetes. However, this approach requires a thorough understanding of the molecular switches controlling the specification of the different pancreatic cell-types in vivo. These are derived from an apparently identical pool of cells originating from the early gut endoderm, which are successively specified towards the pancreatic, endocrine, and hormone-expressing cell lineages. Numerous studies have outlined the crucial roles exerted by transcription factors in promoting the cell destiny, defining the cell identity and maintaining a particular cell fate. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of the pancreas with particular emphasis on recent findings concerning the transcription factor hierarchy orchestrating endocrine cell fate allocation.

  9. Afferent Endocrine Control of Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...

  10. Endocrine manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Philip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease can have extra gastrointestinal tract (GIT presentations, most of which are endocrine. The aim of this study was to present patients diagnosed to have celiac disease from an endocrine department and to study the prevalence of endocrinopathies in celiac disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients from the endocrinology department (LLRM Medical College, Meerut between January 2011 and July 2012 and who were diagnosed to have celiac disease were included in the study. Results: Short stature was the commonest presentation (25%, other presentations included short stature and delayed puberty (20%, delayed puberty (11%, screening for celiac disease in type-1 DM patients (17%, rickets (6%, anemia not responding to oral therapy (6%, type-1 DM with recurrent hypoglycaemia (6%, and osteomalacia (3%. The endocrine manifestations include (after complete evaluation short stature (58%, delayed puberty (31%, elevated alkaline phospahatase (67%, low calcium (22%, X-rays suggestive of osteomalacia or rickets (8%, capopedal spasm (6%, and night blindness (6%. Anti-TPO antibody positivity was found in 53%, hypothyroidism in 28%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 17%, and type-1 DM in 25% of the patients. A total of 14% patients had no GI symptoms. Conclusion: Celiac disease is an endocrine disrupter as well as the great masquerader having varied presentations including short stature, delayed puberty, and rickets. Some patients who have celiac disease may not have any GI symptoms, making the diagnosis all the more difficult. Also, there is significant incidence of celiac disease with hypothyroidism and type-1 DM, making screening for it important in these diseases.

  11. Pituitary autoantibodies in endocrine disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bensing, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune endocrine disorders are characterised by the development of autoantibodies to specific autoantigens in the target organs. Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH) is a disease characterised by inflammation of the pituitary gland, often resulting in hypopituitarism. The aetiology of LyH is considered to be autoimmune. However, only a few pituitary autoantigens have so far been identified. Reliable autoantibody markers are requested in the diagnostic procedure of LyH to avoid...

  12. A case report of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas treated with S-1 chemotherapy: Does it work or induce endocrine differentiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokode, Masataka; Itai, Ryosuke; Yamashita, Yukimasa; Zen, Yoh

    2017-11-01

    Acinar cell carcinomas (ACCs) and mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas (MAECs) of the pancreas are rare, accounting for only 1% of pancreatic tumors. Although both typically present at an advanced stage, chemotherapeutic regimes have not yet been standardized. A 65-year-old man presented with a large mass in the pancreatic tail with multiple liver metastases. He was initially treated with gemcitabine for suspected ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, but no response was observed. S-1, administered as second-line chemotherapy, showed an approximately 38% reduction in the size of the primary tumor and metastatic deposits with therapeutic effects being maintained for 12 months. When the tumor progressed again, he underwent a percutaneous liver biopsy, which led to the diagnosis of MAEC. Combination therapy with cisplatin and etoposide targeting the endocrine component was administered, and this was based on the endocrine component potentially being less sensitive to S-1 than the ACC element. However, therapy was stopped due to the development of neutropenia, and the patient is currently receiving best supportive care. Given the previous studies suggested that S-1 is more effective for ACCs than gemcitabine, MAECs may also respond to S-1 chemotherapy, similar to ACCs. Another potential interpretation is that S-1 was effective when the condition was ACC, and eventually showed decreased effectiveness when the condition shifted to MAEC. Future studies are needed to conclude whether S-1 chemotherapy truly works against MAECs or induces endocrine differentiation in ACCs as a part of the drug-resistance process.

  13. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  14. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-10-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.

  15. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Sarfo-Kantanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0 with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64 years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.

  16. Thymoma (World Health Organization type B3) with neuroendocrine differentiation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita, Masaki; Ichiki, Nobuhiko; Ayabe, Takanori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Kunihide

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Thymic epithelial tumors occur in 1?5% of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Majority of these thymic epithelial tumors are thymic carcinoids and patients with thymoma in MEN 1 is rare. Furthermore, thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation was also rarely reported. Herein, we report a 68-year-old man having type B3 thymoma with neuroendocrine differentiation in MEN 1 and to the best of our knowledge this is the first such case ever reported.

  17. Use of radioimmunoassay to diagnose some forms of endocrine sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabolkin, M.I.; Gerasimov, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility is considered of using a metoclopramide test combined with radioimmunoassay for determing prolactin in the blood to diagnose some forms of endocrine sterility Of 17 women examined 5 are practically healthy, sterility of 6 women is caused by tumor of hypophysis verified by X-rayograms, 6 women suffered from disorderded prolactin secretion and sterility without roentgenologic signs of disordered sella turcica. Metoclopramide has been injected intravenously in the 10 mm dose. A series of advantages is noted of the metoclopramide sample characteristic of high availability of the preparation and practically complete absence of side-effects

  18. [Arterial hypertension secondary to endocrine disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Anna; Zulewski, Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Endocrine hypertension offers a potentially curative therapy if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. In contrast to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension especially in the elderly, the classical endocrine causes remain a rare entity. Among patients with arterial hypertension the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma is less than 1%. Primary hyperaldosteronism is more frequent with a reported prevalence of up to 9%. In order to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially harmful evaluations and therapies due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of the critical endocrine tests it is mandatory to limit the exploration for endocrine causes to preselected patients with high pretest probability for an endocrine disorder. Younger age at manifestation of arterial hypertension or drug resistant hypertension together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  19. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  20. Radiotherapy for unresectable endocrine pancreatic carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennvall, J.; Ljungberg, O.; Ahren, B.; Gustavsson, A.; Nillson, L.O.

    1992-01-01

    Surgery, when possible, is the treatment of choice for the uncommon endocrine tumours of pancreas. Unresectable cases are usually treated with cytostatic drugs or α-interferon. We describe a patient with unresectable, locally advanced endocrine pancreatic carcinoma (measuring 5 x 5 x 6 cm) that was totally cured by external radiation therapy only (40 Gy). This case together with four cases in the literature indicate that external radiation therapy should be considered in locally unresectable endocrine pancreatic carcinomas. (author)

  1. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  2. Endocrine therapy for recurrence after definitive radiotherapy in patients with prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Yuzo; Akakura, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Igarashi, Tatsuo; Ito, Haruo; Tanaka, Masashi; Murakami, Shino

    2001-01-01

    Long-term results were analyzed to evaluate the role of endocrine therapy in the management of local and distant recurrence of prostate cancer following external radiation therapy. Between 1976 and 1994, 92 patients with untreated prostate cancer underwent external beam radiation therapy alone. Endocrine therapy had been started when relapse was evident. Failure was seen in 35 of 92 patients: 10 local, 19 distant and six biochemical failures. Endocrine treatment was performed in 28 patients with nine local and 19 distant failures. The cancer-specific survival rate from the endocrine treatment was 54.5% at 5 years. Prostate-specific antigen level in 20 of 20 patients (100%) decreased to below the normal limit 3 months after the start of endocrine therapy. In univariate analysis, T classification was the most significant variable for cancer-specific survival from the initial treatment. A favorable outcome was achieved by endocrine therapy in patients who had relapsed after external beam radiation monotherapy. Even the recurrent tumor had a sensitivity to androgen. Patients with locally advanced disease (T2b and T3) had poorer prognosis than those with minimally extended disease (T1b and T2a). (author)

  3. Endocrine aspects of cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Boscaro, Marco; Palù, Giorgio

    2004-02-01

    The field of cancer gene therapy is in continuous expansion, and technology is quickly moving ahead as far as gene targeting and regulation of gene expression are concerned. This review focuses on the endocrine aspects of gene therapy, including the possibility to exploit hormone and hormone receptor functions for regulating therapeutic gene expression, the use of endocrine-specific genes as new therapeutic tools, the effects of viral vector delivery and transgene expression on the endocrine system, and the endocrine response to viral vector delivery. Present ethical concerns of gene therapy and the risk of germ cell transduction are also discussed, along with potential lines of innovation to improve cell and gene targeting.

  4. ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY: ETIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikonova L. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.

  5. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  6. Physiology of the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelking, L R

    1997-11-01

    The endocrine pancreas is composed of nests of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which comprise only about 20% of pancreatic cell mass and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin is anabolic, increasing storage of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, while glucagon namely stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Somatostatin acts as a paracrine agent to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release, and, therefore, to modulate their output. This article explores factors controlling release of these hormones, as well as the way in which they affect fuel metabolism in the whole animal.

  7. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Vitamin D and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Natielen Jacques; Garcia, Vivian Cristina; Martini, Ligia Araújo

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been worldwide reported in all age groups in recent years. It has been considered a Public Health matter since decreased levels of vitamin D has been related to several chronic diseases, as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and hypertension. Glucose intolerance and insulin secretion has been observed during vitamin D deficiency, both in animals and humans resulting in T2DM. The supposed mechanism underlying these findings is presence of vitamin D receptor in several tissues and cells, including pancreatic beta-cells, adipocyte and muscle cells. In obese individuals, the impaired vitamin D endocrine system, characterized by high levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could induce a negative feedback for the hepatic synthesis of 25(OH)D and also contribute to a higher intracellular calcium, which in turn secrete less insulin and deteriorate insulin sensitivity. In hypertension, vitamin D could act on renin-angiotensin system and also in vascular function. Administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could decreases renin gene expression and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, prospective and intervention human studies that clearly demonstrates the benefits of vitamin D status adequacy in the prevention and treatment of endocrine metabolic diseases are lacking. Further research still necessary to assure the maximum benefit of vitamin D in such situations.

  9. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  10. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  11. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands

  12. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  13. Endocrine pathology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2018-01-01

    Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals. Indeed, the production of hormones is the hallmark of the endocrine system, and some aspects of gynecological/testicular, bone and liver pathology also fall into the realm of this specialty. Many of the lesions that are the focus of this discipline are increasing in incidence and their pathology is becoming more complex with increased understanding of molecular pathology and a high incidence of familial disease. The future of endocrine pathology will demand a depth of understanding of structure, function, prognosis and prediction as pathologists play a key role in the multidisciplinary care team of patients with endocrine diseases. It is anticipated that new technologies will allow increased subspecialisation in pathology and growth of this important area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Intrinsic imperfections of endocrine replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W. A.; Lamberts, S. W. J.

    2003-01-01

    Hormonal substitution therapy has been extremely successful, with respect to morbidity and mortality, in the treatment of the major syndromes of endocrine insufficiency. However, many patients treated for endocrine insufficiencies still suffer from more or less vague complaints and a decreased

  15. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  16. Recent advances in nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luster, Markus; Pfestroff, Andreas; Verburg, Frederik A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose is to review recent advances concerning the role of nuclear medicine in endocrine oncology. For I therapy of thyroid cancer a thyrotropin (TSH) more than 30 mU/l has for many years been deemed a condition sine qua non. However, new data show that patients with lower TSH levels at the time of ablation have the same rate of successful ablation as those with TSH more than 30 mU/l.I-124 combined integrated positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography was shown to be highly accurate in predicting findings on posttherapy radioiodine scanning and was shown to have a high prognostic power.In neuroendocrine tumors, long-term complication rates of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy were reported. Furthermore first preclinical and clinical results of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with somatostatin receptor antagonists were published.In nuclear medicine, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radionuclide imaging and therapy is of interest. PSMA was shown to also be expressed in neoplasms of the thyroid, the adrenal glands and neuroendocrine tumors. Further individualization of thyroid cancer patient care by means of I-124-positron emission tomography and computed X-ray tomography-based selection of the therapeutic strategy is possible. I therapy might not require as intensive TSH stimulation as thought previously. For endocrine-related malignancies PSMA targeting deserves further investigation.

  17. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  18. High prevalence of early hypothalamic-pituitary damage in childhood brain tumor survivors: need for standardized follow-up programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C.; Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N. Schouten-van; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Caron, Huib N.; van Santen, Hanneke M.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) are at increased risk to develop endocrine disorders. Alerted by two cases who experienced delay in diagnosis of endocrine deficiencies within the first 5 years after brain tumor diagnosis, our aim was to investigate the current screening strategy and the

  19. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664

  20. Endocrinology and hormone therapy in breast cancer: Endocrine therapy in premenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine therapy remains important in premenopausal women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Ovarian ablation, used alone, is effective in delaying recurrence and increasing survival in such women. When added to chemotherapy, it is less clear that it is effective perhaps because of the endocrine ablative effect of chemotherapy. Trials comparing ovarian ablation with or without tamoxifen to CMF-type chemotherapy suggest that the endocrine therapy is equivalent to or better than this chemotherapy in women whose tumors have estrogen and/or progesterone receptor. Tamoxifen is also effective in preventing recurrence and prolonging survival in the adjuvant setting in premenopausal women. While most of the available data deals with tamoxifen given alone, it appears to have a similar beneficial effect when added to chemotherapy in the premenopausal adjuvant setting. Adjuvant aromatase inhibitors should not be used in premenopausal women

  1. Screening for secondary endocrine hypertension in young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifanescu, Raluca; Carsote, Mara; Caragheorgheopol, Andra; Hortopan, Dan; Dumitrascu, Anda; Dobrescu, Mariana; Poiana, Catalina

    2013-06-01

    Secondary endocrine hypertension accounts for 5-12% of hypertension's causes. In selected patients (type 2 diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome with resistant hypertension, sudden deterioration in hypertension control), prevalence could be higher. To present etiology of endocrine secondary hypertension in a series of patients younger than 40 years at hypertension's onset. Medical records of 80 patients (39M/41F), aged 30.1 ± 8.2 years (range: 12-40 years), with maximum systolic blood pressure=190.4 ± 29.2 mm Hg, range: 145-300 mm Hg, maximum diastolic blood pressure=107.7 ± 16.9 mm Hg, range: 80-170 mm Hg) referred by cardiologists for endocrine hypertension screening were retrospectively reviewed. Cardiac and renal causes of secondary hypertension were previously excluded. In all patients, plasma catecholamines were measured by ELISA and plasma cortisol by immunochemiluminescence. Orthostatic aldosterone (ELISA) and direct renin (chemiluminescence) were measured in 48 patients. Secondary endocrine hypertension was confirmed in 16 out of 80 patients (20%). Primary hyperaldosteronism was diagnosed in 7 (4M/3F) out of 48 screened patients (14.6%). i.e. 8.75% from whole group: 5 patients with adrenal tumors (3 left/2 right), 2 patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia; all patients were hypokalemic at diagnostic (average nadir K+ levels = 2.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L); four patients were hypokalaemic on diuretic therapy (indapamidum); other 3 patients were hypokalaemic in the absence of diuretic therapy. Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed in 6 patients (7.5%): subclinical Cushing due to 4 cm right adrenal tumour - n = 1, overt ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to: macronodular adrenal hyperplasia associated with primary hyperparathyroidism - n = 1; due to adrenal carcinoma - n = 1; due to adrenal adenomas - n = 2; Cushing's disease - n = 1). Pheochromocytomas were diagnosed in 3 patients (3.75%). Primary hyperaldosteronism was the most frequent cause of secondary

  2. Increased STAT1 signaling in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the estrogen/tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7 cell line and its partially sensitive (MCF-7/LCC1 and fully resistant (MCF-7/LCC9 variants was performed to identify modifiers of endocrine sensitivity in breast cancer. Analysis of the expression of 120 paired phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated epitopes in key oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways revealed that STAT1 and several phosphorylated epitopes (phospho-STAT1(Tyr701 and phospho-STAT3(Ser727 were differentially expressed between endocrine resistant and parental controls, confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. The STAT1 inhibitor EGCG was a more effective inhibitor of the endocrine resistant MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC9 lines than parental MCF-7 cells, while STAT3 inhibitors Stattic and WP1066 were equally effective in endocrine-resistant and parental lines. The effects of the STAT inhibitors were additive, rather than synergistic, when tested in combination with tamoxifen in vitro. Expression of STAT1 and STAT3 were measured by quantitative immunofluorescence in invasive breast cancers and matched lymph nodes. When lymph node expression was compared to its paired primary breast cancer expression, there was greater expression of cytoplasmic STAT1 (∼3.1 fold, phospho-STAT3(Ser727 (∼1.8 fold, and STAT5 (∼1.5 fold and nuclear phospho-STAT3(Ser727 (∼1.5 fold in the nodes. Expression levels of STAT1 and STAT3 transcript were analysed in 550 breast cancers from publicly available gene expression datasets (GSE2990, GSE12093, GSE6532. When treatment with tamoxifen was considered, STAT1 gene expression was nearly predictive of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, log-rank p = 0.067, while STAT3 gene expression was predictive of DMFS (log-rank p<0.0001. Analysis of STAT1 and STAT3 protein expression in a series of 546 breast cancers also indicated that high expression of STAT3 protein was associated with improved survival (DMFS, p = 0.006. These results suggest

  3. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid-pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: Frantz's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruno Righi Rodrigues de; Moreira, Reni Cecilia Lopes; Campos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves

    2010-01-01

    The pseudo papillary solid tumor of the pancreas, also known as Frantz's tumor, is a rare disease, taking place in approximately 0.17% to 2.7% of non-endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Recently, the increase of its incidence has been noted with more than two-thirds of the total cases described in the last 10 years. A possible explanation is a greater knowledge of the disease and a greater uniformity of conceptualization in the last years. Generally, it affects young adult females. In most of the series, the tumor principally attacks the body and tail of the pancreas. The objective of the present report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic option used in this rare pancreatic tumor of low-grade malignancy. (author)

  5. Single photon emission computed tomography procedure improves accuracy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebtahi, R.; Genin, R.; Rouzet, F.; Bleicner-Perez, S.; Lievre, A.; Scigliano, S.; Vialle, C.; Le Guludec, D.; Cadiot, G.; Sobhani, I.; Mignon, M.

    2005-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors scintigraphy (SRS) is a sensitive method for the detection of endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of anterior and posterior planar associated to single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) compared to anterior and posterior planar associated to additional lateral and oblique views in the detection of abdominal endocrine tumors. One hundred and sixty four patients with endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors were included in this study. Scintigraphic images were performed after injection of 189 ± 23 MBq of 111 In-Pentetreotide. Abdominal planar images were performed 4 h and 24 hours after injection. Abdominal SPECT was performed at 24 hours. The combination of anterior and posterior abdominal planar images with SPECT using iterative reconstruction detected significantly more tumoral sites compared to multiple planar images (298 versus 280 for the liver, p = 0.01 and 90 versus 88 for coeliac area). In particular liver lesions were better delineated on tomographic slices. The combination of 111 In-Pentetreotide SPECT with anterior and posterior planar images is more sensitive than multiple planar images to detect abdominal endocrine tumors. (author)

  6. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  7. Virilizing tumor of the ovary. Presentation of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovies Carballo, Gisel; Yanes Quesada, Marelys; Cruz Hernandez, Jeddu

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian tumors are divided into functioning and non-functioning. Those presenting endocrine activity and producing androgenization, such as the tumors of Sertoli cells are within the latter group. A case of a 50-year-old female patient that clinically showed signs of progressive virilization was presented. A tumor on the right ovary was found by ultrasound and CAT. After performing surgery, the existence of a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor was confirmed

  8. Metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer associations: biochemical and pathophysiological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Palo, Rossella; Lamantia, Elvira; Castaldo, Luigi; Nocerino, Flavia; Ametrano, Gianluca; Cappuccio, Francesca; Malzone, Gabriella; Montanari, Micaela; Vanacore, Daniela; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; De Falco, Francesco; Maiolino, Piera; Caraglia, Michele; Montella, Maurizio; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the main pathophysiological basis of the relationship between metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptor exposure and prostate cancer that is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and hormonal factors having a central role in the initiation and recurrence of many western chronic diseases including hormonal-related cancers and it is considered as the worlds leading health problem in the coming years. Many biological factors correlate metabolic syndrome to prostate cancer and this review is aimed to focus, principally, on growth factors, cytokines, adipokines, central obesity, endocrine abnormalities and exposure to specific endocrine disruptors, a cluster of chemicals, to which we are daily exposed, with a hormone-like structure influencing oncogenes, tumor suppressors and proteins with a key role in metabolism, cell survival and chemo-resistance of prostate cancer cells. Finally, this review will analyze, from a molecular point of view, how specific foods could reduce the relative risk of incidence and recurrence of prostate cancer or inhibit the biological effects of endocrine disruptors on prostate cancer cells. On the basis of these considerations, prostate cancer remains a great health problem in terms of incidence and prevalence and interventional studies based on the treatment of metabolic syndrome in cancer patients, minimizing exposure to endocrine disruptors, could be a key point in the overall management of this disease. PMID:28389628

  9. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... issues. This paper aims at discussing the relevance of the endocrine perspective with regard to EDC effects on pubertal timing. Puberty involves particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Reports about the advancing onset of puberty in several countries have led to the hypothesis...

  10. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2018-02-01

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  12. Phosphodiesterases in endocrine physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzosi, Delphine; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    The cAMP-protein kinase A pathway plays a central role in the development and physiology of endocrine tissues. cAMP mediates the intracellular effects of numerous peptide hormones. Various cellular and molecular alterations of the cAMP-signaling pathway have been observed in endocrine diseases. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP levels. Indeed, PDEs are the only known mechanism for inactivation of cAMP by catalysis to 5'-AMP. It has been suggested that disruption of PDEs could also have a role in the pathogenesis of many endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the most recent advances concerning the role of the PDEs in the physiopathology of endocrine diseases. The potential significance of this knowledge can be easily envisaged by the development of drugs targeting specific PDEs.

  13. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... suggest a hitherto unknown mode of action by EDCs through inhibition of the PG pathway and suggest new avenues to investigate effects of EDCs on reproductive and immunological disorders that have become increasingly common in recent decades....

  14. Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders eRehfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPolyadenylation is the process in which the pre-mRNA is cleaved at the poly(A site and a poly(A tail is added - a process necessary for normal mRNA formation. Genes with multiple poly(A sites can undergo alternative polyadenylation, producing distinct mRNA isoforms with different 3’ untranslated regions (3’ UTRs and in some cases different coding regions. Two thirds of all human genes undergo alternative polyadenylation. The efficiency of the polyadenylation process regulates gene expression and alternative polyadenylation plays an important part in post-transcriptional regulation, as the 3’ UTR contains various cis-elements associated with post-transcriptional regulation, such as target sites for microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins.Implications of alterations in polyadenylation for endocrine diseaseAlterations in polyadenylation have been found to be causative of neonatal diabetes and IPEX (immune dysfunction, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked and to be associated with type I and II diabetes, pre-eclampsia, fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency, ectopic Cushing syndrome and many cancer diseases, including several types of endocrine tumor diseases.PerspectivesRecent developments in high-throughput sequencing have made it possible to characterize polyadenylation genome-wide. Antisense elements inhibiting or enhancing specific poly(A site usage can induce desired alterations in polyadenylation, and thus hold the promise of new therapeutic approaches. SummaryThis review gives a detailed description of alterations in polyadenylation in endocrine disease, an overview of the current literature on polyadenylation and summarizes the clinical implications of the current state of research in this field.

  15. Endocrine manifestations of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison

    2018-02-01

    To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.

  16. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  17. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  18. Pesticides Provoke Endocrine Disruption A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing numbers of environmental chemicals,including pesticides, have the ability to produce endocrine disruption by various mechanisms. such substances may affect hormone secretion from an endocrine gland and may alter the rate of hormone elimination from the body. environmental chemicals may also disrupt regulatory feedback mechanisms that exist between two endocrine organs; or may interact with a hormone receptor either by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of the natural hormone. these chemicals are referred to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC's). EDC's act to alter the blood hormone levels or the subsequent action of hormones . the use of radioimmunoassay(RIA) constitutes a superior and unrivalled tool for the determination and quantification of hormones.the endocrine system participates in virtually all important functions of an organism, such as sexual differentiation before birth, sexual maturation during puberty, reproduction in adulthood, growth, metabolism, digestion, cardiovascular function and excretion. hormones are also implicated in the etiology of certain cancers of hormone- dependent tissues, such as those of the breast, uterus, and prostate gland. therefore, endocrine disruption can potentially produce widespread effects. scientists should not stick to the past belief which presumes that pesticides have limited effect on some hormones. A paradigm shift in which a wider vision of understanding of the wholesome complex effects of pesticides on the whole body rather than a narrow limited understanding should take place

  19. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ...... metabolising system using liver S9 mixtures or hepatic rat microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, to be able to detect effects and predict mixture effects. In addition, a new hypothesis have emerge concerning a potential role of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and the development of obesity and obesity related diseases. AIM: This PhD project aimed to gain more information regarding...

  20. Endocrine Disrupting Contaminants—Beyond the Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of endocrine disruption have largely been associated with wildlife and driven by observations documenting estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions. These actions, in response to exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of various environmental contaminants, have now been established in numerous vertebrate species. However, many potential mechanisms and endocrine actions have not been studied. For example, the DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] metabolite, p,p′-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] is known to disrupt prostaglandin synthesis in the uterus of birds, providing part of the explanation for DDT-induced egg shell thinning. Few studies have examined prostaglandin synthesis as a target for endocrine disruption, yet these hormones are active in reproduction, immune responses, and cardiovascular physiology. Future studies must broaden the basic science approach to endocrine disruption, thereby expanding the mechanisms and endocrine end points examined. This goal should be accomplished even if the primary influence and funding continue to emphasize a narrower approach based on regulatory needs. Without this broader approach, research into endocrine disruption will become dominated by a narrow dogma, focusing on a few end points and mechanisms. PMID:16818240

  1. Some aspects of the endocrine tumours of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sassolas, G.

    1996-01-01

    Endocrine tumours of digestive tract (GEP) synthesize many hormonal products which are responsible for clinical expression in relation with their nature, amount and biological activity, some of these tumours being non-functioning or silent. Moreover these tumours have some characteristics related to neuroendocrine differentiation, which provide tumour markers in addition to hormonal markers, such as chromogranin. A which is of special interest in non-functioning tumours. Pancreatic tumours are the most frequently recognized tumours in systematic screening procedures performed in MEN 1 patients. They are multi-secreting and multifocal, and they exhibit a loss of heterozygosity in the 11q13 locus. Growth factors such as IGF-1 and PDGF and their specific receptors are expressed in GEP tumours but their role in tumour growth remains to be determined. Somatostatin receptors are present on most endocrine digestive tumours, conditioning the therapeutic effects of somatostatin analogues that reduce hormonal tumoral production and alleviate the related symptoms. In addition, in vivo visualization of somatostatin receptor positive tumours by scintigraphy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues is of clinical interest. (author)

  2. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Lynnette K.; Biller, Beverly M. K.; Findling, James W.; Murad, M. Hassan; Newell-Price, John; Savage, Martin O.; Tabarin, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to formulate clinical practice guidelines for treating Cushing's syndrome. Participants: Participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The European Society for Endocrinology co-sponsored the guideline. Evidence: The Task Force used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The Task Force commissioned three systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. Consensus Process: The Task Force achieved consensus through one group meeting, several conference calls, and numerous e-mail communications. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Conclusions: Treatment of Cushing's syndrome is essential to reduce mortality and associated comorbidities. Effective treatment includes the normalization of cortisol levels or action. It also includes the normalization of comorbidities via directly treating the cause of Cushing's syndrome and by adjunctive treatments (eg, antihypertensives). Surgical resection of the causal lesion(s) is generally the first-line approach. The choice of second-line treatments, including medication, bilateral adrenalectomy, and radiation therapy (for corticotrope tumors), must be individualized to each patient. PMID:26222757

  4. Endocrine Disruptor Vinclozolin Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Adult-Onset Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anway, Matthew D.; Leathers, Charles; Skinner, Michael K.

    2018-01-01

    The fetal basis of adult disease is poorly understood on a molecular level and cannot be solely attributed to genetic mutations or a single etiology. Embryonic exposure to environmental compounds has been shown to promote various disease states or lesions in the first generation (F1). The current study used the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin (antiandrogenic compound) in a transient embryonic exposure at the time of gonadal sex determination in rats. Adult animals from the F1 generation and all subsequent generations examined (F1–F4) developed a number of disease states or tissue abnormalities including prostate disease, kidney disease, immune system abnormalities, testis abnormalities, and tumor development (e.g. breast). In addition, a number of blood abnormalities developed including hypercholesterolemia. The incidence or prevalence of these transgenerational disease states was high and consistent across all generations (F1–F4) and, based on data from a previous study, appears to be due in part to epigenetic alterations in the male germ line. The observations demonstrate that an environmental compound, endocrine disruptor, can induce transgenerational disease states or abnormalities, and this suggests a potential epigenetic etiology and molecular basis of adult onset disease. PMID:16973726

  5. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  6. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  7. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause

  8. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  10. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  11. Endocrine pancreatic function changes after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Deqing; Xu, Yaping; Zeng, Yue; Wang, Xingpeng

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impairment of pancreatic endocrine function and the associated risk factors after acute pancreatitis (AP). Fifty-nine patients were subjected to tests of pancreatic function after an attack of pancreatitis. The mean time after the event was 3.5 years. Pancreatic endocrine function was evaluated by fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate insulin resistance and islet β-cell function. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by fecal elastase 1. Factors that could influence endocrine function were also investigated. Nineteen patients (32%) were found to have elevated FBG, whereas 5 (8%) had abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The levels of FBG, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide were higher in patients than in controls (P endocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic exocrine functional impairment was found at the same time. Endocrine functional impairment with insulin resistance was found in patients after AP. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms increased the likelihood of developing functional impairment after AP.

  12. Welcoming the new WHO classification of pituitary tumors 2017: revolution in TTF-1-positive posterior pituitary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    The fourth edition of the World Health Organization classification of endocrine tumors (EN-WHO2017) was released in 2017. In this new edition, changes in the classification of non-neuroendocrine tumors are proposed particularly in tumors arising in the posterior pituitary. These tumors are a distinct group of low-grade neoplasms of the sellar region that express thyroid transcription factor-1, and include pituicytoma, granular cell tumor of the sellar region, spindle cell oncocytoma, and sellar ependymoma. This short review focuses on the classification of posterior pituitary tumors newly proposed in EN-WHO2017, and controversies in their pathological differential diagnosis are discussed based on recent cases.

  13. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  14. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiologic techniques in evaluation endocrine disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, C.R.; Schultz, C.L.; Butler, H.E.; Haaga, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses evaluation of normal and diseased endocrine organs that has been facilitated by the development of new radiologic-imaging techniques including nuclear medicine, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. With improvement in resolution and tissue contrast, abnormalities as small as 5 mm can now be imaged with these modalities. Endocrinologists and clinicians involved in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients with endocrine diseases can be substantially aided by a proper radiologic workup. The authors describe and illustrate various radiologic techniques that are useful for evaluating thyroid and parathyroid derangements

  16. Radiation pathomorphology of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakov, V.V.; Yakovleva, N.D.; Kvetnoj, I.M.; Ulitina, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results of histochemical, electronmicroscopic and radioautographic analysis of the effects of a total single gamma irradiation on the functional morphology of cells of the diffuse endocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. Irradiation in dosses from 5 to 20 Gy results in reduction of the detectability of argyrophilic and argentaffine cells. Changes in these cells counts are related to the irradiation dose. The reaction observed early after the irradiation is related to changes in the endocrine and endoplasmatic reticulum

  17. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...

  18. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  20. Chromogranins - new sensitive markers for neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, B.; Arnberg, H.; Oeberg, K.; Hellman, U.; Lundqvist, G.; Wernstedt, C.; Wilander, E.; Uppsala Hospital; Uppsala Hospital

    1989-01-01

    Chromogranins A, B and C, proteins that are costored and coreleased with peptides and amines, have been identified in a variety of endocrine and nervous tissues, both normal and neoplastic. We examined the secretion of chromogranin A and chromogranin A+B by hormone-producing tumors in patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPT), carcinoid tumors, pheochromocytomas and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the plasma/serum concentrations of chromogranin A+B showed a greater sensitivity than RIA of chromogranin A alone. All patients with EPT, carcinoids and pheochromocytomas had increased levels of chromogranin A+B, whereas a small number of the patients (5/18 with EPT and 1/3 with pheochromocytomas) had normal levels of chromogranin A. Also in immunocytochemical stainings, our polyclonal antiserum detecting both chromogranin A and B showed a greater sensitivity than other available antisera against chromogranin A, B and C. (orig.)

  1. Veliparib, Capecitabine, and Temozolomide in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, and Recurrent Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Malignant Somatostatinoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B; Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thymic Carcinoid Tumor; VIP-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Well Differentiated Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

  2. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...

  3. Schedule for Rating Disabilities; the Endocrine System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) by revising the portion of the Schedule that addresses endocrine conditions and disorders of the endocrine system. The effect of this action is to ensure that the VASRD uses current medical terminology and to provide detailed and updated criteria for evaluation of endocrine disorders.

  4. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  5. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  6. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  7. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  8. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T.; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products– including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption. PMID:21899826

  9. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  10. Endocrine causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Laura; Jornayvaz, François R

    2015-10-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, becoming a substantial public health burden. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of disorders, from simple conditions such as steatosis to severe manifestations such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. The relationship of NAFLD with metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes is well described and related to insulin resistance, with NAFLD being recognized as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD may also coincide with endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency or hypercortisolism. It is therefore essential to remember, when discovering altered liver enzymes or hepatic steatosis on radiological exams, that endocrine diseases can cause NAFLD. Indeed, the overall prognosis of NAFLD may be modified by treatment of the underlying endocrine pathology. In this review, we will discuss endocrine diseases that can cause NALFD. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms will be presented and specific treatments will be reviewed.

  11. Appetite-Controlling Endocrine Systems in Teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Gomes, Ana S.; Murashita, Koji; Angotzi, Rita; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Volkoff, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian studies have shaped our understanding of the endocrine control of appetite and body weight in vertebrates and provided the basic vertebrate model that involves central (brain) and peripheral signaling pathways as well as environmental cues. The hypothalamus has a crucial function in the control of food intake, but other parts of the brain are also involved. The description of a range of key neuropeptides and hormones as well as more details of their specific roles in appetite control continues to be in progress. Endocrine signals are based on hormones that can be divided into two groups: those that induce (orexigenic), and those that inhibit (anorexigenic) appetite and food consumption. Peripheral signals originate in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, adipose tissue, and other tissues and reach the hypothalamus through both endocrine and neuroendocrine actions. While many mammalian-like endocrine appetite-controlling networks and mechanisms have been described for some key model teleosts, mainly zebrafish and goldfish, very little knowledge exists on these systems in fishes as a group. Fishes represent over 30,000 species, and there is a large variability in their ecological niches and habitats as well as life history adaptations, transitions between life stages and feeding behaviors. In the context of food intake and appetite control, common adaptations to extended periods of starvation or periods of abundant food availability are of particular interest. This review summarizes the recent findings on endocrine appetite-controlling systems in fish, highlights their impact on growth and survival, and discusses the perspectives in this research field to shed light on the intriguing adaptations that exist in fish and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:28458653

  12. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  13. Gigantism in sibling unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, A; Teramoto, A; Yamada, S; Kitanaka, S; Tanaka, T; Sanno, N; Osamura, R Y; Kirino, T

    1994-11-01

    The cases of gigantism sisters with somatotroph adenomas unrelated to multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) Type 1 are reported. The sisters grew rapidly since they were 5 or 6 years old and were diagnosed to have gigantism with pituitary adenoma by computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging. A serum endocrinological examination showed the elevated growth hormone values. After thyroxine-releasing hormone stimulation, growth hormone values exhibited a paradoxical rise. They were supposed to be unrelated to MEN Type 1, because analysis of the 11th chromosomes and the other endocrine functions were normal. They were operated on by the transphenoidal method. Immunohistochemical staining of both tumor specimens confirmed somatotroph adenomas. Pituitary adenoma associated with MEN Type 1 is a well-recognized entity. However, the sporadic occurrence of pituitary adenoma unrelated to MEN Type 1, especially in siblings, is extremely rare. Fifteen cases of pituitary adenomas in siblings were described in the literature. As for gigantism, only two brothers were reported. Our case of gigantism sisters is the second sporadic case. In our review of the isolated cases of pituitary adenoma in siblings described in the literature, 12 (70%) of 17 cases including ours are acromegaly or gigantism. This incidence is much higher than that of MEN Type 1 patients with pituitary adenomas. The cause of the familial occurrence of pituitary adenomas is still unclear, although autosomal recessive inheritance has been suggested. It has been stated that point mutations in codon 201 or 227 of the Gs alpha gene located in chromosome 20 were found in about 35 to 40% of somatotroph adenomas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Aju; Davidson, Nancy E

    2015-11-01

    Multiple strategies for endocrine treatment of premenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer have been assessed and results have been presented over the last two years. These include tamoxifen for 5-10 years (ATLAS and aTTom), tamoxifen for 5 years followed by aromatase inhibitor (AI) for 5 years for women who have become postmenopausal (MA-17); ovarian ablation (OA) by surgery (EBCTCG overview); ovarian function suppression (OFS) by LHRH agonist (LHRH agonist meta-analysis); or combinations of approaches including OFS plus tamoxifen or AI (SOFT, TEXT, ABCSG 12 and E3193). Many of these trials have taken place in the backdrop of (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy which can confound interpretation because such therapy can suppress ovarian function either transiently or permanently. Nonetheless these trials suggest in aggregate that 10 years of tamoxifen are better than 5 years and that a program of extended adjuvant therapy of tamoxifen for 5 years followed by aromatase inhibitor for 5 years is effective for suitable candidates. The SOFT and E3193 trials do not show a major advantage for use of OFS + tamoxifen compared to tamoxifen alone. The joint SOFT/TEXT analysis and ABCGS12 trials both suggest that outcomes can be excellent with the use of combined endocrine therapy alone in properly selected patients but give conflicting results with regard to potential benefits for OFS + AI compared with OFS + tamoxifen. Further work will be needed to ascertain long-term outcomes, identify factors that predict who will benefit from extended adjuvant endocrine therapy, and assess role of OFS by medical or surgical means. It is clear, however, that endocrine therapy is a critical part of the adjuvant regimen for most premenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer, and a subset of these women with luminal A-type tumors can be safely treated with endocrine therapy alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endocrine outcomes with proton and photon radiotherapy for standard risk medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Bree R; Esiashvili, Natia; Kim, Sungjin; Patterson, Briana; Weyman, Elizabeth A; Thornton, Lauren T; Mazewski, Claire; MacDonald, Tobey J; Ebb, David; MacDonald, Shannon M; Tarbell, Nancy J; Yock, Torunn I

    2016-06-01

    Endocrine dysfunction is a common sequela of craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Dosimetric data suggest that proton radiotherapy (PRT) may reduce radiation-associated endocrine dysfunction but clinical data are limited. Seventy-seven children were treated with chemotherapy and proton (n = 40) or photon (n = 37) radiation between 2000 and 2009 with ≥3 years of endocrine screening. The incidence of multiple endocrinopathies among the proton and photon cohorts is compared. Multivariable analysis and propensity score adjusted analysis are performed to estimate the effect of radiotherapy type while adjusting for other variables. The median age at diagnosis was 6.2 and 8.3 years for the proton and photon cohorts, respectively (P = .010). Cohorts were similar with respect to gender, histology, CSI dose, and total radiotherapy dose and whether the radiotherapy boost was delivered to the posterior fossa or tumor bed. The median follow-up time was 5.8 years for proton patients and 7.0 years for photon patients (P = .010). PRT was associated with a reduced risk of hypothyroidism (23% vs 69%, P < .001), sex hormone deficiency (3% vs 19%, P = .025), requirement for any endocrine replacement therapy (55% vs 78%, P = .030), and a greater height standard deviation score (mean (± SD) -1.19 (± 1.22) vs -2 (± 1.35), P = .020) on both univariate and multivariate and propensity score adjusted analysis. There was no significant difference in the incidence of growth hormone deficiency (53% vs 57%), adrenal insufficiency (5% vs 8%), or precocious puberty (18% vs 16%). Proton radiotherapy may reduce the risk of some, but not all, radiation-associated late endocrine abnormalities. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Associations between tumor types in irradiated BALB/c female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storer, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Associations between pairs of 12 different tumor types were estimated for a population of over 3800 irradiated BALB/c female mice. The associations were adjusted for age and radiation dose. Of the 66 pairs of tumor types, 21 showed significant positive or negative associations. Of these, 8 were considered to be spurious, principally because one or both of the tumors was rapidly lethal, leading to an apparent negative association. Six of the remaining 13 significant associations involed tumors of endocrine organs or tumors known to be endocrine related. Six others involved associations between lung, vascular tissue, or reticular tissue tumors, and tumors of endocrine organs. The remaining and highly negative association was between reticulum cell sarcomas and other lymphomas and leukemias. It was concluded that in irradiated female mice of this strain, at least, tumors are not independent and that alterations in host factors (principally endocrine) lead to animals developing both tumors (positive associations) or to one tumor but not the other (negative associations)

  17. ENDOCRINE PANCREATIC FUNCTION IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Novokhatny

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study the endocrine function of pancreas in acute pancreatitis. To define the role of endocrine pancreatic function in the etiology and pathogenesis of the acute pancreatitis. To assess the prospects of the use of pancreatic hormones in the treatment and predicting the outcomes of acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods of the research Survey of publications in specialized periodical medical journals, PubMed sources developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Search in PubMed was carried out in the following databases: MEDLINE, Pre MEDLINE. Results of the research. In a significant proportion of patients who recovered from acute pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine functional impairments were found. This finding was not detected only in patients after severe acute pancreatitis. Routine evaluation of pancreatic function after acute pancreatitis should be considered. The comparative analysis of the synthetic analogues (somatostatin, calcitonin, leu-enkefalin-dalargin influence on the glucose metabolism of rats in acute pancreatitis of was made. Physiological reaction of beta-cells is preserved in infusion of somatostatin. However, infusion of calcitonin results in the distortion of counterregulatory action of insulin and glucagon. It was detected that pancreatic renin-angiotensin system is markedly activated in the experimental rat models of chronic hypoxia and acute pancreatitis. The activation of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system by

  18. Endocrine cells in the denervated intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gilda C; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2000-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of myenteric denervation of the proximal jejunum on endocrine cell population of the crypt-villus unit, 5 months after treatment with benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Male Wistar albino rats weighing on average 100 g were allocated to two groups: the BAC group − the proximal jejunal serosa was treated with 2 mm BAC for 30 min, and the control group − treated with saline solution (0,9% NaCl). There was a significant reduction in neurone number in the jejunal myenteric plexus of the BAC group and the endocrine cell population (serotoninergic and argyrophilic cells) was significantly increased in this intestine segment. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence that the myenteric denervation induced by BAC may lead to the development of a local imbalance of the neurotransmitters, with a consequent induction of enteroendocrine cell (argyrophilic and serotoninergic cells) hyperplasia in the crypt and villus. PMID:10971748

  19. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood obesity and endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Taek Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity around the world has increased sharply. Strong evidence has emerged over the last decades that human exposure to numerous endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is the cause of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Many EDCs are manmade chemicals that are released into the environment. EDCs are exogenous compounds that interfere with hormonal regulation and normal endocrine systems, thereby affecting the health of animals and humans. The number of chemicals belonging to EDCs is increasing and some of them are very stable; they persist in the environment (persistent organic pollutants. Although they are banned, their concentrations have been continuously increasing over time. This review gives a brief introduction to common EDCs, and evidence of harmful effects of EDCs on obesity-related diseases; we focus in particular on EDCs’ role in causing mitochondrial dysfunction.

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  3. Endocrine consequences of irradiation and cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of endocrine dysfunction as a long-term effect of radiotherapy and cancer chemotherapy, with particular reference to children, and to Hodgkin's disease. The hypothalamus and pituitary, growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid and parathyroid, and gonads are discussed. Suggestions are made for long-term measures to be taken, such as measuring growth rates, L-thyroxine replacement, sperm storage, etc. (U.K.)

  4. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...... is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  5. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  6. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.

  7. ENDOCRINE PANCREATIC FUNCTION IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Novokhatny

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study...

  8. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health.

  9. Hedgehog signaling: endocrine gland development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-01-01

    The role of hedgehog signaling is analyzed in relation to the developing endocrine glands: pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, pancreas, prostate, and epiphyseal growth. Experimental and pathological correlates of these organs are also discussed. The second section addresses a number of topics. First, the pituitary gland, no matter how hypoplastic, is present in most cases of human holoprosencephaly, unlike animals in which it is always said to be absent. The difference appears to be that animal mutations and teratogenic models involve both copies of the gene in question, whereas in humans the condition is most commonly heterozygous. Second, tests of endocrine function are not reported with great frequency, and an early demise in severe cases of holoprosencephaly accounts for this trend. Reported tests of endocrine function are reviewed. Third, diabetes insipidus has been recorded in a number of cases of holoprosencephaly. Its frequency is unknown because it could be masked by adrenal insufficiency in some cases and may not be recognized in others. Because of the abnormal hypothalamic-infundibular region in holoprosencephaly, diabetes insipidus could be caused by a defect in the supra-optic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei or in release of ADH via the infundibulum and posterior pituitary.

  10. Endocrine autoimmune diseases and female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Aritro; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that immune-mediated processes affect female reproductive success at multiple levels. Crosstalk between endocrine and immune systems regulates a large number of biological processes that affect target tissues, and this crosstalk involves gene expression, cytokine and/or lymphokine release and hormone action. In addition, endocrine-immune interactions have a major role in the implantation process of the fetal (paternally derived) semi-allograft, which requires a reprogramming process of the maternal immune system from rejection to temporary tolerance for the length of gestation. Usually, the female immune system is supportive of all of these processes and, therefore, facilitates reproductive success. Abnormalities of the female immune system, including autoimmunity, potentially interfere at multiple levels. The relevance of the immune system to female infertility is increasingly recognized by investigators, but clinically is often not adequately considered and is, therefore, underestimated. This Review summarizes the effect of individual autoimmune endocrine diseases on female fertility, and points towards selected developments expected in the near future.

  11. Neurobehavioral endocrine regulation of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus

  12. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia with gigantism and huge pelvic tumor: a rare case of McCune-Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakayama, Kenshi; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kidani, Teruki; Fujibuchi, Taketsugu; Kito, Katsumi; Tanji, Nozomu; Nakamura, Atsushi

    2011-06-01

    We report a rare case of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on endocrine hyperfunction with elevated human growth hormone and normal serum level of prolactin. There were some differential points of gender, gigantism, endocrine function, and GNAS gene from McCune-Albright syndrome. Malignant transformation was suspected in the pelvic tumor from imaging because rapid growth of the tumor by imaging was observed; however, no malignant change occurred in this case.

  13. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.M.R. de; Prais, M.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment. Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized. (author) [pt

  14. Prognostic value of Bcl-2 in two independent populations of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mathilde S; Bjerre, Karsten; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen receptor (ER) status is not an optimal marker for response to adjuvant endocrine therapy since approximately 30% of patients with ER-positive tumors eventually relapse. Bcl-2 is regulated by ER and may thus be considered as an indicator of ER activity and a candidate supplementary marker...

  15. Genetic Analysis of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 ( Leads to Misdiagnosis of an Extremely Rare Presentation of Intrasellar Cavernous Hemangioma as MEN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Min Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMultiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare inherited disorder characterized by the simultaneous occurrence of endocrine tumors in target tissues (mainly the pituitary, endocrine pancreas, and parathyroid glands. MEN1 is caused by mutations in the MEN1 gene, which functions as a tumor suppressor and consists of one untranslated exon and nine exons encoding the menin protein. This condition is usually suspected when we encounter patients diagnosed with tumors in multiple endocrine organs, as mentioned above.MethodsA 65-year-old woman who underwent surgery for a pancreatic tumor (serous cystadenoma 5 years previously was referred to our hospital due to neurologic symptoms of diplopia and left ptosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 3.4-cm lesion originating from the cavernous sinus wall and extending into the sellar region. It was thought to be a nonfunctioning tumor from the results of the combined pituitary function test. Incidentally, we found that she also had a pancreatic tumor, indicating the necessity of genetic analysis for MEN1.ResultsGenomic analysis using peripheral leukocytes revealed a heterozygous c.1621G>A mutation in the MEN1 gene that was previously reported to be either a pathogenic mutation or a simple polymorphism. We pursued a stereotactic approach to the pituitary lesion, and microscopic findings of the tumor revealed it to be an intrasellar cavernous hemangioma, a rare finding in the sellar region and even rarer in relation to oculomotor palsy. The patient recovered well from surgery, but refused further evaluation for the pancreatic lesion.ConclusionThere is great emphasis placed on genetic testing in the diagnosis of MEN1, but herein we report a case where it did not assist in diagnosis, hence, further discussion on the role of genetic testing in this disease is needed. Also, in cases of pituitary tumor with cranial nerve palsy, despite its low prevalence, intrasellar cavernous hemangioma

  16. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  17. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  18. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  19. Detection of chromogranins A and B in endocrine tissues with radioactive and biotinylated oligonucleotide probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.V.; Jin, L.; Fields, K.

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of chromogranins A and B in normal and neoplastic endocrine tissues with secretory granules using 35 S-labeled and biotin-labeled oligonucleotide probes by in situ hybridization (ISH). Both radioactive and nonradioactive probes detected messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in frozen and paraffin tissue sections. Endocrine tissues with variable immunoreactivities for chromogranin A protein, such as small-cell lung carcinomas, neuroblastomas, insulinomas, and parathyroid adenomas, expressed the mRNA for chromogranins A and B in most cells. Some technical problems with the biotinylated probes included nonspecific nuclear staining and endogenous alkaline phosphatase, which was not completely abolished by levamisole pretreatment. A differential distribution of chromogranins A and B was seen in pituitary prolactinomas, which expressed abundant chromogranin B but not chromogranin A mRNAs, and in parathyroid adenomas, which expressed abundant chromogranin A but only small amounts of chromogranin B mRNAs. These results indicate that ISH can be used to detect chromogranins A and B in endocrine tissues with radioactive and biotinylated oligonucleotide probes and that the mRNAs for chromogranin A and B are demonstrable in some tumors even when the chromogranin proteins cannot be detected by immunohistochemistry

  20. Detection of chromogranins A and B in endocrine tissues with radioactive and biotinylated oligonucleotide probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, R.V.; Jin, L.; Fields, K. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of chromogranins A and B in normal and neoplastic endocrine tissues with secretory granules using {sup 35}S-labeled and biotin-labeled oligonucleotide probes by in situ hybridization (ISH). Both radioactive and nonradioactive probes detected messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in frozen and paraffin tissue sections. Endocrine tissues with variable immunoreactivities for chromogranin A protein, such as small-cell lung carcinomas, neuroblastomas, insulinomas, and parathyroid adenomas, expressed the mRNA for chromogranins A and B in most cells. Some technical problems with the biotinylated probes included nonspecific nuclear staining and endogenous alkaline phosphatase, which was not completely abolished by levamisole pretreatment. A differential distribution of chromogranins A and B was seen in pituitary prolactinomas, which expressed abundant chromogranin B but not chromogranin A mRNAs, and in parathyroid adenomas, which expressed abundant chromogranin A but only small amounts of chromogranin B mRNAs. These results indicate that ISH can be used to detect chromogranins A and B in endocrine tissues with radioactive and biotinylated oligonucleotide probes and that the mRNAs for chromogranin A and B are demonstrable in some tumors even when the chromogranin proteins cannot be detected by immunohistochemistry.

  1. Pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In dogs, hypercortisolism is one of the most frequently observed endocrine disorders, with an estimated incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1000 dogs per year. Approximately 15% of these cases is due to a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumor (AT). Cortisol-secreting ATs are characterized by

  2. Molecular profiles of progesterone receptor loss in human breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creighton, Chad J.; Kent Osborne, C.; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Foekens, John A.; Klijn, Jan G.; Horlings, Hugo M.; Nuyten, Dimitry; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Yi; Chamness, Gary C.; Hilsenbeck, Susan G.; Lee, Adrian V.; Schiff, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient prognosis and response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer correlate with protein expression of both estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), with poorer outcome in patients with ER+/PR- compared to ER+/PR+ tumors. Methods To better understand the underlying

  3. [Adrenal tumors. Principles of diagnostics and operative treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, A; Pfeiffer, H; Führer, D; Liatsikos, E; Schwalenberg, T; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2010-05-01

    Adrenal masses are very heterogeneous and comprise benign or malignant tumors, unilateral or bilateral masses and variable endocrine activity. Because of these attributes adrenal gland masses are a clinical challenge. This article gives a summary of diagnostic steps and indications for adrenal surgery including perioperative management.

  4. [Chronic heart failure and cachexia: role of endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Cas, A; Muoio, A; Zavaroni, I

    2011-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major health problem that carries a devastating prognosis. The prognosis worsens considerably once cardiac cachexia has been diagnosed. Neurohormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic and immunological alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of cardiac cachexia. Cachexia is characterized by a hypothalamic inappropriate response to the mechanisms controlling energy homeostasis. Levels of the anorexigenic hormone leptin are decreased whereas the orexigenic gherlin hormone levels are normal or elevated. Nevertheless, energy intake is not increased as expected due to a persistent activation of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) system (anorexigenic) paralleled by a decreased activity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY, orexigenic) neurons. Cachexia is also characterized by an imbalance in anabolic (impairment in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis, insulin resistance) and catabolic (increased levels of catecholamines, increased cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio and activation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleuchin-6, interleuchin-1') at the basis of the wasting process. This review discusses the complex role of the endocrine system in modulating energy balance, appetite and metabolism in patients with chronic heart failure. A joint multidisciplinary effort of the cardiologists, immunologists and endocrinologists might be useful to identify the precise mechanisms involved in the neuroendocrine alteration and to develop therapeutic strategies able to improve the prognosis of CHF patients.

  5. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  6. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  7. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Tailored imaging of islet cell tumors of the pancreas amidst increasing options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; van Asselt, Sophie J.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; van Dullemen, Hendrik M.; Pijl, Milan E. J.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Links, Thera P.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.

    Pancreatic islet cell tumors are neuroendocrine tumors, which can produce hormones and can arise as part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or von-Hippel-Lindau-disease, two genetically well-defined hereditary cancer syndromes. Currently, technical innovation improves conventional and specific

  9. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  10. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  11. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  12. Comprehensive profiling of DNA repair defects in breast cancer identifies a novel class of endocrine therapy resistance drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurag, Meenakshi; Punturi, Nindo; Hoog, Jeremy; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Ellis, Matthew J; Haricharan, Svasti

    2018-05-23

    This study was undertaken to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the role of DNA damage repair (DDR) defects in poor outcome ER+ disease. Expression and mutational status of DDR genes in ER+ breast tumors were correlated with proliferative response in neoadjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy trials (discovery data set), with outcomes in METABRIC, TCGA and Loi data sets (validation data sets), and in patient derived xenografts. A causal relationship between candidate DDR genes and endocrine treatment response, and the underlying mechanism, was then tested in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. Correlations between loss of expression of three genes: CETN2 (p<0.001) and ERCC1 (p=0.01) from the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and NEIL2 (p=0.04) from the base excision repair (BER) pathways were associated with endocrine treatment resistance in discovery data sets, and subsequently validated in independent patient cohorts. Complementary mutation analysis supported associations between mutations in NER and BER pathways and reduced endocrine treatment response. A causal role for CETN2, NEIL2 and ERCC1 loss in intrinsic endocrine resistance was experimentally validated in ER+ breast cancer cell lines, and in ER+ patient-derived xenograft models. Loss of CETN2, NEIL2 or ERCC1 induced endocrine treatment response by dysregulating G1/S transition, and therefore, increased sensitivity to CDK4/6 inhibitors. A combined DDR signature score was developed that predicted poor outcome in multiple patient cohorts. This report identifies DDR defects as a new class of endocrine treatment resistance drivers and indicates new avenues for predicting efficacy of CDK4/6 inhibition in the adjuvant treatment setting. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  14. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  15. Endocrine alterations in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To study the frequency of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal dysfunction in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients and to correlate them at different levels of CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: Forty-three HIV-positive cases were included in the study group. Cases were divided into three groups on the basis of CD4 cell count. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, Cortisol, FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol were estimated by the radioimmunoassay method. Hormone levels between cases were compared and their correlation with CD4 count was analyzed. Results: Prevalence of gonadal dysfunction (88.3% was the most common endocrine dysfunction followed by thyroid (60.4% and adrenal dysfunction (27.9%. Secondary hypogonadism (68.4% was more common than primary (31.6%. Low T3 syndrome, that is, isolated low free T3, was the most common (25.6% thyroid dysfunction followed by secondary hypothyroidism (16.2% and subclinical hypothyroidism (11.6%. Adrenal excess (16.3% was more common than adrenal insufficiency (11.6%. The difference in hormonal dysfunction between male and female was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05. 27.9% of patients had multiple hormone deficiency. There was negligible or no correlation between CD4 count and serum hormone level. Conclusion: In our study, endocrine dysfunction was quite common among HIV-infected patients but there was no correlation between hormone levels and CD4 count. Endocrine dysfunctions and role of hormone replacement therapy in HIV-infected patient needs to be substantiated by large longitudinal study, so that it will help to reduce morbidity, improve quality of life.

  16. Prolactin-secreting adenoma as part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia--type I (MEN-I) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J H; Sagel, J; Rosebrock, G; Gonzalez, J J; Nair, R; Rawe, S; Powers, J M

    1979-06-01

    Two patients presented with the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome. One patient had previously had parathyroid hyperplasia and the other an insulinoma. Preoperative evaluation of each patient revealed hyperprolactinemia and radiological evidence of an abnormal sella turcica. Pituitary adenomas were identified and removed at surgery. Immunostaining techniques confirmed the presence of prolactin-containing cells in both tumors. We propose that prolactin-secreting tumors be considered as part of the MEN-I syndrome, and that patients presenting with the galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome be screened and followed sequentially for evidence of other endocrine neoplasia.

  17. Practice of the integrated endocrine system course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-han MEI; Rong CAI

    2015-01-01

    The integrated curriculum is an important direction of the medical medical education reform under new situation and challenges of medical development.Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine has implemented the integrated curriculum reform in recent years.The endocrine system course is one of important intergrated courses and integrates relevant contents of multiple disciplines of basic medicine,diagnostics and medical imaging.Various teaching methods are adopted,such as classroom lecture,discussion,problembased learning,experimental lesson and clinical clerkship,etc.The teaching practice is carried on in several aspects:course arrangement,teaching methods,course website construction,teaching team construction and so on.

  18. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  19. Residual Prostate Cancer in Patients Treated With Endocrine Therapy With or Without Radical Radiotherapy: A Side Study of the SPCG-7 Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solberg, Arne; Haugen, Olav A.; Viset, Trond; Bergh, Anders; Tasdemir, Ilker; Ahlgren, Goeran; Widmark, Anders; Angelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7 randomized trial demonstrated a survival benefit of combined endocrine therapy and external-beam radiotherapy over endocrine therapy alone in patients with high-risk prostate cancer. In a subset of the study population, the incidence and clinical implications of residual prostate cancer in posttreatment prostate biopsy specimens was evaluated. Methods and Materials: Biopsy specimens were obtained from 120 of 875 men in the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group-7 study. Results: Biopsies were performed at median of 45 months follow-up. In 63 patients receiving endocrine treatment only and 57 patients receiving combined treatment, residual cancer was found in 66% (n = 41) and 22% (n = 12), respectively (p < 0.0001). The vast majority of residual tumors were poorly differentiated (Gleason score ≥8). Endocrine therapy alone was predictive of residual prostate cancer: odds ratio 7.49 (3.18-17.7), p < 0.0001. In patients with positive vs. negative biopsy the incidences of clinical events were as follows: biochemical recurrence 74% vs. 27% (p < 0.0001), local progression 26% vs. 4.7% (p = 0.002), distant recurrence 17% vs. 9.4% (p = 0.27), clinical recurrence 36% vs. 13% (p = 0.006), cancer-specific death 19% vs. 9.7% (p = 0.025). In multivariable analysis, biochemical recurrence was significantly associated with residual cancer: hazard ratio 2.69 (1.45-4.99), p = 0.002, and endocrine therapy alone hazard ratio 3.45 (1.80-6.62), p < 0.0001. Conclusions: Radiotherapy combined with hormones improved local tumor control in comparison with endocrine therapy alone. Residual prostate cancer was significantly associated with serum prostate-specific antigen recurrence, local tumor progression, clinical recurrence, and cancer-specific death in univariable analysis. Residual cancer was predictive of prostate-specific antigen recurrence in multivariable analysis.

  20. Solid-pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: Frantz's tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Bruno Righi Rodrigues de; Moreira, Reni Cecilia Lopes; Campos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves [Instituto Mario Penna, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: brunorighi@yahoo.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The pseudo papillary solid tumor of the pancreas, also known as Frantz's tumor, is a rare disease, taking place in approximately 0.17% to 2.7% of non-endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Recently, the increase of its incidence has been noted with more than two-thirds of the total cases described in the last 10 years. A possible explanation is a greater knowledge of the disease and a greater uniformity of conceptualization in the last years. Generally, it affects young adult females. In most of the series, the tumor principally attacks the body and tail of the pancreas. The objective of the present report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic option used in this rare pancreatic tumor of low-grade malignancy. (author)

  1. Clinical evaluation of radiotherapy for endocrine ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Mieda, Chieko

    1990-01-01

    Ten patients with severe endocrine ophthalmopathy were treated by radiotherapy at Hyogo Medical Center for Adults from May 1984 to February 1988. All but one of the patients had poorly responded to previous systemic or topical corticosteroid therapy. The target of the radiotherapy was both retrobulbar tissues. The radiation field used was about 4 x 4 cm, excluding the pituitary gland and the brain, and was angled 5deg posteriorly to avoid the contralateral lens. A total of 2000 cGy was given to each patient over a 2 week-period. Eight of the ten patients showed some response, with 5 of them (50%) having a good to excellent response. Treatment was more effective for soft tissue changes, proptosis and keratopathy, while myopathy was less responsive. As for the duration of the eye signs and symptoms, those of a shorter duration (less than 12 months) responded better. It was also noted that the degree of the eye muscle enlargement on the pre-treatment orbital CT scan was directly correlated to the results of the treatment. Although three of the patients experienced transient headache, there were no serious acute reactions or long term complications. In conclusion, retrobulbar radiotherapy is a well-tolerated, safe and effective treatment for sever endocrine ophthalmopathy. (author)

  2. Hematologic and pancreatic endocrine abnormalities after ionisingirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.

    1986-01-01

    Besides the use of ionizing irradiation in the treatment of malignant tumours of the abdominal cavity, irradiation has also been documented to suppress the classical organ allograft rejection response in man and experimental models. Recently, fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and subtotal bone-marrow irradiation has been proved successfull in suppressing rejection of liver and kidney allografts in primates resulting in permanent tolerance. This study evaluates the detrimental side-effects of fractionated irradiation on peripheral blood, bone-marrow, pancreatic morphology and function in our primate model. Twenty primates received fractionated irradiation in doses of 800 (8 Gy) and 1000 (10 Gy) rads respectively administered at 100 rad (1 Gy) biweekly over a 4 to 5 week period. During the last weeks of irradiation 300 millilitres (ml) of donor specific blood was transfused in 50 ml aliquotes to combat the myelosuppressive effects of irradiation. Within 1 week of irradiation marked bonemarrow suppression was characterized by pancytopaenia and hypoplasia Pancreatic endocrine disturbances include hypoin-sulinaemia associated with mild glucose intolerance and reduced K-values. Significant pathological changes of the pancreas included nuclear and cytocavitary network changes affecting both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic elements. Although irradiation has proved to be a powerful immunosuppressive modality, significant haematological and organ damage occurred despite fractionation over a 4 to 5 week period

  3. Sarcopenia and Age-Related Endocrine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.

  4. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Peppa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  5. Endocrinal investigations on Sudanese malnourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Mohammed, F. S.; Bushra, M. M.; Babiker, A. H.; Hisham, M.

    2004-01-01

    Malnutrition showed a high incidence among Sudanese children under five years of age. It affects directly the endocrine system of such children. In this the thyroid gland selected as a very important endocrine organ to be studied in 49 malnourished children under five years. Other 20 well- nourished children were selected to act as a control subjects . Both study and control groups were match for age and sex. The patients were seen and assessed for the disease in different hospital in Khartoum by consultant pediatrician. Thyroid function (thyroxineT4 and Triiodothyronine) was tested with a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. Some other biochemical parameters (hemoglobin Hb % total protein) were also investigated for the two groups (Patients and control) to confirm malnutrition. The means of the investigated parameters of the patients were compared with those of control group. The results showed 20 % of the malnourished children was complained of sever hypothyroidism (T4<25μmol/I) and (T3<0.3μmol/I) considering the normal range (55-142μmol/I) and (0.8-3μmol/I) respectively. The difference was highly significant together. The patients group showed low level in the two parameters, which indicate malnutrition. The the thyroid function in the malnourished children was severely affected by malnutrition, and such a test is strongly recommended to be a routine investigation for malnourished children. ( Author)

  6. Clinical evaluation of radiotherapy for endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Mieda, Chieko (Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Hyogo (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-06-01

    Ten patients with severe endocrine ophthalmopathy were treated by radiotherapy at Hyogo Medical Center for Adults from May 1984 to February 1988. All but one of the patients had poorly responded to previous systemic or topical corticosteroid therapy. The target of the radiotherapy was both retrobulbar tissues. The radiation field used was about 4 x 4 cm, excluding the pituitary gland and the brain, and was angled 5deg posteriorly to avoid the contralateral lens. A total of 2000 cGy was given to each patient over a 2 week-period. Eight of the ten patients showed some response, with 5 of them (50%) having a good to excellent response. Treatment was more effective for soft tissue changes, proptosis and keratopathy, while myopathy was less responsive. As for the duration of the eye signs and symptoms, those of a shorter duration (less than 12 months) responded better. It was also noted that the degree of the eye muscle enlargement on the pre-treatment orbital CT scan was directly correlated to the results of the treatment. Although three of the patients experienced transient headache, there were no serious acute reactions or long term complications. In conclusion, retrobulbar radiotherapy is a well-tolerated, safe and effective treatment for sever endocrine ophthalmopathy. (author).

  7. Rapid development of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma despite transcervical thymectomy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhalapathy Sadacharan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic neuroendocrine (NE tumors are a rare manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1. They are malignant and aggressive tumors and form a major cause of mortality in MEN-1. Transcervical thymectomy (TCT at the time of parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT in MEN-1 usually prevents thymic NE tumors. We report a 56-year-old nonsmoker male with sporadic MEN-1 who presented with thymic NE carcinoma developing rapidly within a span of 8 months after subtotal parathyroidectomy and TCT for PHPT. We present a brief review of literature on this rare NE malignancy, focusing on its occurrence despite TCT. This case highlights the fact that thymic NE carcinoma may develop even after TCT in MEN-1. Regular surveillance for these aggressive thymic NE tumors is mandatory even after TCT in MEN-1 setting.

  8. Scintigraphic Evaluation of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 ( MEN Type 2 )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Whang, Kee Suk; Kim, Bo Wan; Lee, In Kyu

    1991-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN type 2, Sipple's syndrome) is a rare disorder characterized by the association of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, parathyroid hyperplasia and can be diagnosed in early stage of the disease by meticulous screening tests of the family. This case report describes the location and categorization of tumors using 99m Tc-pertechnetate, I -NaI, 99m Tc-pentavalent(V) DMSA, 131 I -MIBG scans in two cases of MEN type 2 occurred in a 32 year old women and her 29-year old brother. In MEN type 2, we think, combined use of 99m Tc-(V)-DMSA, 99m Tc-pertechnetate and 1 '3 1 I -MIBG may be useful for the categorization of tumor mass lesions and planning appropriate therapy.

  9. A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which was significantly reduced in size by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakami, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kouji; Tanikawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization classified gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) into three types: NET grade (G) 1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). NECs are associated with a very poor prognosis. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was initially diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscope with type 3 advanced gastric cancer with stenosis of the gastric cardia. Her overall status and performance status did not allow for operations or intensive chemotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy was performed and resulted in a significant reduction in the size of the tumor as well as the improvement of the obstructive symptoms. She died 9 months after radiotherapy. An autopsy provided a definitive diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was pathologically-confirmed. Palliative radiotherapy may be a useful treatment option for providing symptom relief, especially for old patients with unresectable advanced gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma. (author)

  10. Mechanisms of Resistance to Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer: Focus on Signaling Pathways, miRNAs and Genetically Based Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Becerra, Rocío; Santos, Nancy; Díaz, Lorenza; Camacho, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy diagnosed in women. Approximately 70% of breast tumors express the estrogen receptor (ER). Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the most common and effective therapies for patients with ERα-positive breast cancer. Alone or combined with chemotherapy, tamoxifen significantly reduces disease progression and is associated with more favorable impact on survival in patients. Unfortunately, endocrine resistance occurs, either de novo or acquired during the course of the treatment. The mechanisms that contribute to hormonal resistance include loss or modification in the ERα expression, regulation of signal transduction pathways, altered expression of specific microRNAs, balance of co-regulatory proteins, and genetic polymorphisms involved in tamoxifen metabolic activity. Because of the clinical consequences of endocrine resistance, new treatment strategies are arising to make the cells sensitive to tamoxifen. Here, we will review the current knowledge on mechanisms of endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, we will discuss novel therapeutic strategies to overcome such resistance. Undoubtedly, circumventing endocrine resistance should help to improve therapy for the benefit of breast cancer patients. PMID:23344024

  11. Myopathies of endocrine disorders: A prospective clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Major categories of endocrine myopathy include those associated with: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing′s disease or steroid myopathy; thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy; vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies. Materials and Methods: Myopathy was evaluated by the standard clinical procedures: Detailed clinical history, manual muscle strength testing, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Endocrine disorders were diagnosed as per clinical features and biochemical parameters. The treatment was given to patients as per underlying endocrine disease. Myopathy was assessed before and after treatment. Results: Out of the 37 patients who were diagnosed with endocrine myopathies, thyroid dysfunction was the most common cause (17 cases, followed by vitamin D deficiency in nine, adrenal dysfunction in six, parathyroid dysfunction in three, and pituitary dysfunction in two. Some patients had atypical presentation (repeated falls in one, tongue fasciculations in one, neck weakness in five, one with ptosis and facial weakness, asymmetrical onset in one, and calf hypertrophy in one. The serum creatine kinase (CK concentration did not correlate with muscle weakness. Following the treatment regimen which was specific for a given myopathy, 26 patients recovered fully. Conclusion: We found varied clinical presentations of endocrine myopathies. All the patients with neuromuscular complaints should be investigated for endocrine causes because significant number of them recovers fully with specific treatment.

  12. Endocrine dysfunction among adult patients with tuberculosis: An African experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Kibirige

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A broad spectrum of endocrine conditions has been reported among adult patients with tuberculosis in Africa. This review aims to describe the magnitude and pathogenesis of the following endocrinopathies among patients with tuberculosis in Africa: adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of calcium and vitamin D metabolism, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism. PubMed database and Google scholar were used to search for the relevant published English language studies and case reports relating to endocrine abnormalities and tuberculosis in Africa up to July 2013. The search terms used were endocrine dysfunction, endocrine abnormalities, adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hypogonadism, disorders of calcium and vitamin D metabolism, tuberculosis, Africa. Reference lists of the identified articles were further used to identify other studies. Adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and calcium-vitamin D abnormalities were the most prevalent and frequently reported endocrine disorders among adult patients with tuberculosis in Africa. A meticulous endocrine evaluation among tuberculosis patients with suspected endocrine abnormalities should be encouraged in Africa and other high TB endemic regions. Treatment of these endocrine disorders has generally been shown to improve quality of life and reduce mortality.

  13. Multiple endocrine diseases in dogs: 35 cases (1996-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G

    2011-06-15

    To characterize a population of dogs from a tertiary care center with 2 or more endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Retrospective case series. 35 dogs with 2 or more endocrine disorders. Medical records were reviewed, and the following was recorded: clinical signs, physical examination findings, and the results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples, endocrine testing, diagnostic imaging, and necropsy. 35 dogs with more than 1 endocrine disorder were identified. Seventy-seven percent (27/35) of the dogs were male, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first endocrinopathy was 7.9 years. Miniature Schnauzer was the most common breed. Twenty-eight of 35 (80%) dogs had 2 disorders; 7 (20%) had 3 disorders. The most common combinations of disorders included diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism in 57.1 % (20/35) of dogs; hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism in 22.9% (8/35) of dogs; and diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in 28.6% (10/35) of dogs. A mean of 14.5 months elapsed between diagnosis of the first and second endocrine disorders, whereas there was a mean of 31.1 months between diagnosis of the first and third endocrine disorders. Results suggested that the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders was uncommon in dogs. The most common combinations of endocrine disorders in this population of dogs were diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, followed by hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism.

  14. Paediatric Endocrine Disorders at the University College Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Until recently, most published research focus more on infectious diseases and malnutrition giving the impression that endocrine disorders are uncommon. Reports on endocrine disorders in children in developing countries are few compared to developed countries reflecting the different level of prevalence in ...

  15. The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the

  16. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  17. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.

  18. Endocrine gland derived-VEGF is down-regulated in human pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raica, Marius; Coculescu, Mihail; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Ribatti, Domenico

    2010-10-01

    Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) is an angiogenic molecule restricted to endocrine glands and, particularly, to steroid-secreting cells. The expression of EG-VEGF and its significance in human adenohypophysis in physiological and pathological conditions is still unknown. In this study, we investigated by immunohistochemistry the expression of EG-VEGF in 2 samples of normal adenohypophysis and 43 bioptic samples of pituitary adenoma. Moreover, the expression of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and adrenocorticoprophic hormone (ACTH) were also estimated. The results of this study for the first time demonstrate a down-regulation of EG-VEGF expression in human pituitary adenoma as compared to normal adenohypophysis, suggesting an impaired function of the neoplastic cells in terms of hormone release in the blood stream, as a consequence of impaired tumor angiogenesis in the tumor. On the basis of our data showing a marked decrease in the expression of EG-VEGF in pituitary adenoma, with the exception of LH-secreting adenomas, we suggest that LH might be involved in the induction of EG-VEGF secretion.

  19. Role of endocrine-genotoxic switchings in cancer and other human diseases: basic triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berstein, Lev M

    2008-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of human death and belongs to the group of main chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD). Certain specific features ofNCD have raised the concept of 'normal' and 'successful' aging. The apparent paradox of simultaneous increase with aging of the diseases connected with estrogen deficiency as well as with estrogenic excess can be explained by the existence of the phenomenon of the switching of estrogen effects. An isolated or combined with the weakening of hormonal effect increase in genotoxic action of estrogens can modify the course ofage-associated pathology. In particular, such changes in estrogen effect may alter the biology of tumors to make them less favorable/more aggressive. Two other endocrine-genotoxic switchings (EGS) involving phenomena ofJanus (dual) function of glucose and adipogenotoxicosis may produce similar influences on tumor and other NCD biology. These three phenomena form a'basic triad' and can act independently of each other or in concert. EGS and their inductors may serve as targets for prevention and, probably, treatment of main noncommunicable diseases. The measures to correct components of the 'triad' can be divided into several groups aimed to optimally orchestrate the balance between endocrine and DNA-damagingeffects of estrogens, glucose and adipose tissue-related factors.

  20. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  1. Tributyltin: Advancing the science on assessing endocrine disruption with an unconventional endocrine-disrupting compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Biever, Ronald C.; Guiney, Patrick; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schwarz, Tamar; Meador, James P.

    2018-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated—interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA. One of the most important lessons learned from years of research on TBT concerns apparent species sensitivity. Several aspects such as the rates of uptake and elimination, chemical potency, and metabolic capacity are all important for identifying the most sensitive species for a given chemical, including EDCs. For TBT, much of this was discovered by trial and error, hence important relationships and important sensitive taxa were not identified until several decades after its introduction to the environment. As recognized for many years, TBT-induced responses are known to occur at very low concentrations for molluscs, a fact that has more recently also been observed in fish species. This review explores the MeOA and effects of TBT in different species (aquatic molluscs and other invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals) according to the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disruptor Testing and Assessment (CFEDTA). The information gathered on biological effects that are relevant for populations of aquatic animals was used to construct Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) based on No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) and Lowest Observed Effect Concentrations (LOECs). Fish appear at the lower end of these distributions

  2. Tributyltin: Advancing the Science on Assessing Endocrine Disruption with an Unconventional Endocrine-Disrupting Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Biever, Ron; Guiney, Patrick D; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schwarz, Tamar; Meador, James P

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA. One of the most important lessons learned from years of research on TBT concerns apparent species sensitivity. Several aspects such as the rates of uptake and elimination, chemical potency, and metabolic capacity are all important for identifying the most sensitive species for a given chemical, including EDCs. For TBT, much of this was discovered by trial and error, hence important relationships and important sensitive taxa were not identified until several decades after its introduction to the environment. As recognized for many years, TBT-induced responses are known to occur at very low concentrations for molluscs, a fact that has more recently also been observed in fish species. This review explores the MeOA and effects of TBT in different species (aquatic molluscs and other invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals) according to the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disruptor Testing and Assessment (CFEDTA). The information gathered on biological effects that are relevant for populations of aquatic animals was used to construct Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) based on No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) and Lowest Observed Effect Concentrations (LOECs). Fish appear at the lower end of these distributions

  3. Loss of MutL Disrupts CHK2-Dependent Cell-Cycle Control through CDK4/6 to Promote Intrinsic Endocrine Therapy Resistance in Primary Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Svasti; Punturi, Nindo; Singh, Purba; Holloway, Kimberly R; Anurag, Meenakshi; Schmelz, Jacob; Schmidt, Cheryl; Lei, Jonathan T; Suman, Vera; Hunt, Kelly; Olson, John A; Hoog, Jeremy; Li, Shunqiang; Huang, Shixia; Edwards, Dean P; Kavuri, Shyam M; Bainbridge, Matthew N; Ma, Cynthia X; Ellis, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Significant endocrine therapy-resistant tumor proliferation is present in ≥20% of estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) primary breast cancers and is associated with disease recurrence and death. Here, we uncover a link between intrinsic endocrine therapy resistance and dysregulation of the MutL mismatch repair (MMR) complex ( MLH1/3 , PMS1/2 ), and demonstrate a direct role for MutL complex loss in resistance to all classes of endocrine therapy. We find that MutL deficiency in ER + breast cancer abrogates CHK2-mediated inhibition of CDK4, a prerequisite for endocrine therapy responsiveness. Consequently, CDK4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) remain effective in MutL-defective ER + breast cancer cells. These observations are supported by data from a clinical trial where a CDK4/6i was found to strongly inhibit aromatase inhibitor-resistant proliferation of MutL-defective tumors. These data suggest that diagnostic markers of MutL deficiency could be used to direct adjuvant CDK4/6i to a population of patients with breast cancer who exhibit marked resistance to the current standard of care. Significance: MutL deficiency in a subset of ER + primary tumors explains why CDK4/6 inhibition is effective against some de novo endocrine therapy-resistant tumors. Therefore, markers of MutL dysregulation could guide CDK4/6 inhibitor use in the adjuvant setting, where the risk benefit ratio for untargeted therapeutic intervention is narrow. Cancer Discov; 7(10); 1168-83. ©2017 AACR. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1047 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Feline primary hyperaldosteronism: an emerging endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diola Bento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The primary hyperaldosteronism, an endocrine disease increasingly identified in cats, is characterized by adrenal gland dysfunction that interferes with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, triggering the hypersecretion of aldosterone. Pathophysiological consequences of excessive aldosterone secretion are related to increased sodium and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium, which induce hypertension and severe hypokalemia, respectively. The most common clinical findings in cats include: polydipsia, nocturia, polyuria, generalized weakness, neck ventroflexion, syncope, anorexia, weight loss, pendulous abdomen and blindness. Diagnosis is based on the evidence of hormonal hypersecretion with suppression of renin release, imaging and histopathological evaluation of adrenal glands. Treatment may be curative with adrenalectomy, in cases of unilateral disease, or conservative, through administration of aldosterone antagonists, potassium supplementation and antihypertensives. Prognosis varies from fair to good with the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the main aspects of primary aldosteronism in cats, providing the clinician with important information for the diagnosis of this disease.

  5. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and growth of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Jérémie; Kadawathagedara, Manik; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2017-06-01

    According to the "environmental obesogen hypothesis", early-life (including in utero) exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may disturb the mechanisms involved in adipogenesis or energy storage, and thus may increase the susceptibility to overweight and obesity. Animal models have shown that exposure to several of these chemicals could induce adipogenesis and mechanisms have been described. Epidemiological studies are crucial to know whether this effect could also be observed in humans. We aimed at summarizing the literature in epidemiology on the relationship between EDCs exposure and child's growth. Overall, epidemiological studies suggest that pre- and/or early postnatal exposure to some EDCs may increase the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood. In that review, we present some limitations of these studies, mainly in exposure assessment, that currently prevent to conclude about causality. Recent advances in epidemiology should bring further knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Endocrine Disruptors and Leydig Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Svechnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.

  8. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  9. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  10. Duodenal endocrine cells in adult coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, K; Alumets, J; Berg, N O; Håkanson, R; Sundler, F

    1979-01-01

    Using immunohistochemical techniques we studied duodenal biopsies from 18 patients with coeliac disease and 24 patients with normal duodenal morphology. We had access to antisera against the following gastrointestinal peptides: cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), gastrin-17, glucagon-enteroglucagon, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic peptide (PP), secretin, somatostatin, substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The somatostatin, GIP, CCK, and glucagon cells were increased in number in coeliac disease. The number of motilin cells was slightly increased, while secretin cells were reduced. Cells storing gastrin-17, substance P, or neurotensin were rare in all patients regardless of diagnosis. No PP immunoreactive cells were found and VIP was localised to neurons only. In biopsies from patients having a mucosa with ridging of villi the number of the various endocrine cell types did not differ from that in the control group. Images Fig. 2 PMID:385455

  11. Pulmonary complications of endocrine and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Carlos E; Zirbes, Jacquelyn

    2012-03-01

    There are many important respiratory manifestations of endocrine and metabolic diseases in children. Acute and chronic pulmonary infections are the most common respiratory abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus, although cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema are also possible. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 may be indistinguishable from cystic fibrosis (CF) unless serum aldosterone, plasma renin activity, and urinary electrolytes are measured and mutation analysis rules out CF. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism may alter lung function and affect the central respiratory drive. The thyroid hormone plays an essential role in lung development, surfactant synthesis, and lung defence. Complications of hypoparathyroidism are largely due to hypocalcaemia. Laryngospasm can lead to stridor and airway obstruction. Ovarian tumours, benign or malignant, may present with unilateral or bilateral pleural effusions. Metabolic storage disorders, primarily as a consequence of lysosomal dysfunction from enzymatic deficiencies, constitute a diverse group of rare conditions that can have profound effects on the respiratory system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L....... stagnalis embryos to rotate in the eggs is serotonin/dopamine regulated. We have developed a system to quantify embryo rotation and present results of exposure to serotonin, dopamine and different anti-depressive pharmaceuticals (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI´s) using the L. stagnalis...

  13. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  14. Endocrine autoimmune disease: genetics become complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebolt, Janneke; Koeleman, Bobby P C; van Haeften, Timon W

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system is a frequent target in pathogenic autoimmune responses. Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease are the prevailing examples. When several diseases cluster together in one individual, the phenomenon is called autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Progress has been made in understanding the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked and primary immune deficiencies helped uncover the role of key regulators in the preservation of immune tolerance. Alleles of the major histocompatibility complex have been known to contribute to the susceptibility to most forms of autoimmunity for more than 3 decades. Furthermore, sequencing studies revealed three non-major histocompatibility complex loci and some disease specific loci, which control T lymphocyte activation or signalling. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled acceleration in the identification of novel (non-HLA) loci and hence other relevant immune response pathways. Interestingly, several loci are shared between autoimmune diseases, and surprisingly some work in opposite direction. This means that the same allele which predisposes to a certain autoimmune disease can be protective in another. Well powered GWAS in type 1 diabetes has led to the uncovering of a significant number of risk variants with modest effect. These studies showed that the innate immune system may also play a role in addition to the adaptive immune system. It is anticipated that next generation sequencing techniques will uncover other (rare) variants. For other autoimmune disease (such as autoimmune thyroid disease) GWAS are clearly needed. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  15. Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (cPNETs: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hurtado-Pardo

    Full Text Available Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors represent 13% of all neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of this study is to analyze the phenotype and biologic behavior of resected cystic neuroendocrine tumors. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted until September 2016 using a search in Medline, Scopus, and EMBASE with the terms "cystic pancreatic endocrine neoplasm", "cystic islets tumors" and "cystic islets neoplasms". From the 795 citations recovered 80 studies reporting on 431 patients were selected. 87.1% (n = 387 were sporadic tumors and 10.3% (n = 40 corresponded to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Were diagnosed incidentally 44.6% (n = 135. Cytology was found to have a sensitivity of 78.5%. Were non-functional tumors 85% (n = 338, and among the functional tumors, insulinoma was the most frequent. According to the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society staging, 87.8% were limited to the pancreas (I-IIb, and 12.2% were advanced (III-IV. Disease-free survival at 5 years in stages (I-IIIa and (IIIb-IV was 91.5% and 54.2%, respectively; and was significantly lower (p = 0.0001 in functional tumors. In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia there was a higher incidence of functional (62.5% and multifocal (28.1% tumors. Disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 60%. Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors exhibit phenotypical characteristics which are different to those of solid neuroendocrine tumors.

  16. Origin of induced pancreatic islet tumors: a radioautographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michels, J.E.; Bauer, G.E.; Dixit, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    Endocrine tumors of the pancreas are induced in a high percentage of young rats by injections of streptozotocin and nicotinamide (SZ/NA). Benign tumors first appear 20 to 36 weeks after drug injections. To determine the possible site of their origin, the incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into islets, ducts, acini, microtumors, and gross tumors was examined by radioautography of histologic sections at 1 to 36 weeks after drug injection. Drug treatment led to early (1- to 6-week) increases in nuclear 3 H labeling of exocrine pancreatic structures (ductal and acinar cells), which may involve DNA repair processes. A secondary increase in labeling of duct cells during the period of tumor emergence supports the assumption that SZ/NA-induced tumors are of ductal origin. Microtumors and gross tumors also exhibited markedly elevated rates of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation compared to control islets. Nontumorous islet tissue, which exhibited a gradual decrease in volume due to B-cell destruction by the drug injection, showed about 10-fold higher 3 H labeling than islets of controls at all time points. The results suggest that in addition to ductal precursors, islets that survive SZ/NA-induced injury may also provide sites of focal endocrine cell differentiation to tumor tissue. Once established, both microtumors and gross tumors continue to grow by accelerated cell division

  17. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  18. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  19. Occurrence of Endocrine and Thyroid Cancers Among Alaska Native People, 1969-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Lanier, Anne P; Southworth, Molly B

    2018-04-01

    Nationwide, the incidence of thyroid cancer is lower among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people than among U.S. whites (USW). However, little is known about the incidence of thyroid or other endocrine cancers specifically among Alaska Native (AN) people. Data were examined from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Alaska Native Tumor Registry on endocrine cancers diagnosed among AN people from 1969-2013, with a specific focus on thyroid cancers. Frequencies of endocrine cancers by site and also of thyroid cancers by histology, size, and stage at diagnosis were evaluated. Distributions were compared to USW (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registries) using the chi-square test. Five-year average annual age-adjusted incidence rates of thyroid cancers were calculated, stratified by histology, age, and five-year period of diagnosis, and compared to those observed among USW. Five-year cause-specific survival was evaluated using cause of death data from the National Death Index Plus from the National Center for Health Statistics. During the 45-year period (1969-2013), 224 endocrine cancers were diagnosed among AN people, of which 210 (94%) were thyroid cancers. Compared to USW, AN people were diagnosed at a slightly younger age, had a higher proportion of thyroid cancers diagnosed with a size of 20-40 mm, and a larger proportion of patients with regional metastases. More than 85% of AN thyroid cancers were of papillary histology. The incidence of thyroid cancers was similar between AN people and USW, and appeared to increase among AN people over the period of surveillance. Finally, five-year cause-specific survival rate was 100% for papillary carcinoma patients and 86.3% [confidence interval 54.7-96.5] for follicular thyroid cancer patients. This study is the first report of endocrine cancers and the first detailed examination of thyroid cancer among AN people. The incidence of thyroid cancer was similar among

  20. Activated HER-receptors in predicting outcome of ER-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mathilde Skaarup; Bjerre, Karsten; Lykkesfeldt, Anne Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    ) in endocrine treated breast cancer in terms of co-expression and association with disease-free survival (DFS) in 1062 patients with ER-positive tumors. Furthermore, HER2 amplification was evaluated. We found positive associations between the phosphorylated receptors. pHER1 and pHER3 were co-expressed with one......The four human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER1-4) are involved in growth stimulation and may play a role in endocrine resistance. The receptors form dimers, leading to activation by mutual phosphorylation. Our purpose was to explore the role of the activated receptors (pHER1, pHER2, pHER3...

  1. Theory and applications of artificial endocrine system-an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei; QIANG Sheng; GAO X Z

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by the biological endocrine system, the Artificial Endocrine System (AES) has been proposed and investigated during the past decade. As a novel branch of computational intelligence methods, it has its unique and distinguishing features. This paper intends to give an overview of the current research work in the AES. The preliminary theory of the AES, which is based on the simplified mathematic models of natural endocrine system, is first introduced here. Some typical AES algorithms and their applications are also briefly discussed. Finally, a few remarks and conclusions are made.

  2. Neurological, psychiatric, ophthalmological, and endocrine complications in giant male prolactinomas: An observational study in Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolactinomas are less frequent, but more invasive in males. Giant ones (≥4 cm are extremely rare in literature. Their neurological, psychiatric and endocrine complications are life threatening. Our aim was to report the largest mono center series in order to analyze their frequency, their characteristics, and their complications. Subjects and Methods: All patients had clinical examination, hormonal, ophthalmological, and radiological assessment based on computed tomography scan and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Positive diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, high prolactin ± immunohistochemy study. Mixed adenomas were excluded by hormonal exploration and immunohistochemy. For those who received medical treatment only, a reduction in tumor size was considered a supplementary positive point for the diagnosis. Results: Among 154 male prolactinomas seen between 1987 and 2013, we observed 44 giant tumors (28.5%. Median age = 36 years, and 38.3% were under 30. Median tumor height = 53.95 mm (40-130 and median prolactin = 15,715 ng/ml (n < 20. Solid and cystic aspect ± calcifications was observed in 25%. 42 had cavernous sinuses invasion. Other invasions were: Posterior= 65.9%, anterior= 63.6%, temporal= 15.9% and frontal = 9%. For endocrine complications: Hypogonadism = 98.4%, thyrotroph and corticotroph deficits were seen in respectively 34%, and 32%. Posterior pituitary insufficiency was observed in one case. For ophthalmological complications: Optic atrophy = 46%, Ptosis = 6.8%, diplopia/strabismus = 4.5%. Neurological complications were: Memory loss and/or unconsciousness = 18.2%, epilepsy = 15.9%, frontal syndrome = 9% and obstructive hydrocephalus = 6.8%. Conclusion: Giant prolactinomas account for 28% in our population. Severe neurological complications are frequent. But, obstructive hydrocephalus is rare, which argues for a slow progression.

  3. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... the endocrine system. This draft guidance also discusses factors to consider in determining the need... interfere with some aspect of the endocrine system of an organism or its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although the systems most commonly affected...

  4. Neuro-endocrine carcinoma of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo P, Luis Fernando; Restrepo Uribe, Santiago

    1996-01-01

    Review of a case of pathologically proven neuroendocrine tumour of the lung, with clinical and radiological correlation. The case of a young patient is presented that in the first month, it presents two episodes of pneumonitis of the superior lobe from the left lung to the one who after the imagenologic studies and pathological practiced, it was made the diagnose definitive of tumor carcinoid of the lung. Due to the drop incidence in the presentation of this type of tumors in the lung, a revision of the general aspects so much is made clinical as pathological, as well as of the discoveries but important from the imagenologic point of view

  5. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  6. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  7. Embolization as an Alternative Treatment of Insulinoma in a Patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peppa, Melpomeni; Brountzos, Elias; Economopoulos, Nicolaos; Boutati, Eleni; Pikounis, Vasilios; Patapis, Paul; Economopoulos, Theofanis; Raptis, Sotirios A.; Hadjidakis, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Insulinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor, most commonly originating from the pancreas, which is either sporadic or familial as a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1). It is characterized by increased insulin secretion leading to hypoglycemia. Surgical removal is considered the treatment of choice, with limited side effects and relatively low morbidity and mortality, both being improved by the laparoscopic procedure. We present the case of a 30-year-old patient with MEN1 and recurrent insulinoma with severe hypoglycemic episodes who could not be surgically treated due to the adherence of the tumor to large blood vessels and to prior multiple surgical operations. He was treated by repeated embolization using spherical polyvinyl alcohol particles, resulting in shrinkage of the tumor, improvement of the frequency and severity of the hypoglycemic episodes, and better quality of life.

  8. Cloning of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, JG

    2004-01-01

    Aim: In order to clarify the pathogenesis of endocrine exophthalmos, and lay foundations for finding the new functions of its relative genes, the cloning of its relative genes was carried out. Methods: The thyroid tissues of 10 hyperthyroidism patients, 5 of them with endocrine exophthalmos and 5 without that, were obtained. Their mRNA were collected respectively by using Quick Prep Micro mRNA purification kit. Then the same amount of the mRNA from 5 patients with endocrine exophthalmos was added into an eppendorf tube to form a mRNA pool. And that of the 5 patients without endocrine exophthalmos was also prepared as the other pool. As a model, the pool was used to synthesize the single and double chains of cDNA through SMART Tm PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit. The double chains cDNA from the endocrine exophthalmos patients, being used as tester, and that from the patients without endocrine exophthalmos, being used as driver, were digested by restriction endonucleases Hae III to get the fragments which was less than 500 bases. The tester cDNA was ligated with adapt or 1 or 2 respectively. Then the subtractive suppressive hybridization was performed between tester and driver cDNA. And the efficacies of subtraction were measured. The differential genes between the thyroid tissues of endocrine exophthalmos and the thyroid tissues without endocrine exophthalmos were obtained through two cycles of subtractive hybridization and two cycles PCR. The differential genes were cloned into the vector of pT-Adv, and then transformed into E.coliDH5a. 48 white clonies were selected to build the subtractive suppressive library of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos. The primer 2 was applied for the colony PCR of the relative genes. The amplified genes were obtained and purified by using Quaqwich Spine PCR Purification Kit. According to the principle of random primer, the double chains cDNA from the thyroid tissues with or without endocrine exophthalmos were digested by Hae III

  9. Parabens and their effects on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Karolina; Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Górska, Maria; Jabłońska, Ewa

    2018-03-27

    Preservatives (ingredients which inhibit growth of microorganisms) are used to prolong shelf life of various foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Parabens are one of the most popular preservatives used in the aforementioned products and is currently being used worldwide. Parabens are easily absorbed by the human body. Thus, it is important to discuss about their safety with respect to human physiology. In view of the current literature, which classifies parabens as a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), it seems that the precise assessment of their influence on the human endocrine system is particularly important. Disruption of the endocrine homoeostasis might lead to multidirectional implications causing disruption of fitness and functions of the body. Therefore, in this review article, we aimed to summarize the current literature on properties, occurrence, and metabolism of parabens as well as to present recent progress in knowledge about their influence on the human endocrine system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  12. Affective disorders and endocrine disease. New insights from psychosomatic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, G A

    1994-01-01

    This is a review of psychosomatic interactions between affective disorders (depressive and anxiety disturbances, irritable mood) and endocrine disease. Particular reference is made to stressful life events in the pathogenesis of endocrine disease, psychopathology of hormonal disturbances, and pathophysiology of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in depression and Cushing's disease. These psychosomatic interactions may lead to appraisal of common etiological mechanisms in endocrine and psychiatric disorders, of the value of retaining the category of organic affective syndromes in psychiatric classification, and of the need for research on quality-of-life measures in endocrine disease. The establishment of "psychoendocrine units," where both endocrinologists and psychiatrists should work, is advocated. Such psychoendocrine units may serve and benefit clinical populations who currently defy traditional medical subdivisions.

  13. REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR CHEMICALS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A group of chemicals, known as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) have been identified as having the potential to cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Among this group DDT, PCBs, endosulfan, methoxychlor, diethylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, and bisphenol A ...

  14. Multiple endocrine diseases in cats: 15 cases (1997-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica L; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first disorder was 10.3 years. The most common combination of disorders was diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Two cats had concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, one cat had concurrent central diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. A mean of 25.7 months elapsed between diagnoses of the first and second endocrine disorder, but this was variable. This study suggests the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders is uncommon in cats. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.

  16. Surgery of resectable nonfunctioning neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dralle, Henning; Krohn, Sabine L; Karges, Wolfram; Boehm, Bernhard O; Brauckhoff, Michael; Gimm, Oliver

    2004-12-01

    Nonfunctioning neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors (NFNEPTs) comprise about one-third of pancreatic endocrine tumors. Based on immunohistochemistry, nonfunctioning tumors are difficult to distinguish from functioning ones; therefore the final diagnosis is basically the result of a synopsis of pathology and clinical data. Owing to their incapacity to produce hormone-dependent symptoms, NFNEPTs are detected incidentally or because of uncharacteristic symptoms resulting from local or distant growth. About two-thirds of NFNEPTs are located in the pancreatic head, so jaundice may be a late symptom of this tumor. Modern diagnostic procedures are best applied by a stepwise approach: first endoscopic ultrasonography and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging followed by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy or positron emission tomography (or both). Due to significant false-positive and false-negative findings, for decision-making the latter should be confirmed by a second imaging modality. Regarding indications for surgery and the surgical approach to the pancreas, three pancreatic manifestations of NFNEPTs can be distinguished: (1) solitary benign non-multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (non-MEN-1); (2) multiple benign MEN-1; and (3) malignant NFNEPTs. Reviewing the literature and including our experience with 18 NFNEPTs (8 benign, 10 malignant) reported here, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) Solitary benign non-MEN-1 NFNEPTs can be removed by enucleation or by pancreas-, spleen-, and duodenum-preserving techniques in most cases. The choice of surgical technique depends on the location and site of the tumor and its anatomic relation to the pancreatic duct. (2) With multiple benign MEN-1 NFNEPTs, because of the characteristics of the underlying disease a preferred, more conservative concept (removal of only macrolesions) competes with a more radical procedure (left pancreatic resection with enucleation of head macrolesions). Further studies are necessary to

  17. Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.

  18. Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on human fetal development and adult health have promoted research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Gene targeting technology has allowed insight into the genetic pathways governing reproductive tract development and how exposure to EDCs during a critical developmental window can alter reproductive tract development, potentially forming the basis for adult diseases. This review prima...

  19. X-Ray semiotics of cranial involvement in endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.I.; Kramnoj, I.E.; Belaya, L.M.; Tyazhelova, O.V.; Litvinenko, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence and type of X-ray semeiotics of the skull involvement were studied in 703 patients with endocrine diseases. Craniorgam analysis involved study of the thickness and structure of the vault bones, shape and size of the skull, status of the sutures, internal plate relief, changes of the base of the skull, of the sella turcica first of all, and facial bone. The characteristic X-ray symprom complexes of the involvement of the skull in some endocrine diseases were distinguished

  20. Endocrine Dysfunctions in Patients with Inherited Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Şahin; Sağlam, Halil

    2016-09-01

    Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) can affect many organ systems, including the endocrine system. There are limited data regarding endocrine dysfunctions related to IMDs in adults, however, no data exist in pediatric patients with IMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate endocrine dysfunctions in patients with IMDs by assessing their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Data were obtained retrospectively from the medical reports of patients with IMDs who were followed by the division of pediatric metabolism and nutrition between June 2011 and November 2013. In total, 260 patients [139 males (53%) and 121 females (47%)] with an IMD diagnosis were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 5.94 (range; 0.08 to 49) years and 95.8% (249 of 260 patients) were in the pediatric age group. Growth status was evaluated in 258 patients and of them, 27 (10.5%) had growth failure, all cases of which were attributed to non-endocrine reasons. There was a significant correlation between growth failure and serum albumin levels below 3.5 g/dL (p=0.002). Only three of 260 (1.1%) patients had endocrine dysfunction. Of these, one with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and another with Kearns-Sayre syndrome had diabetes, and one with glycerol kinase deficiency had glucocorticoid deficiency. Endocrine dysfunction in patients with IMDs is relatively rare. For this reason, there is no need to conduct routine endocrine evaluations in most patients with IMDs unless a careful and detailed history and a physical examination point to an endocrine dysfunction.

  1. Rare endocrine cancers have novel genetic alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A molecular characterization of adrenocortical carcinoma, a rare cancer of the adrenal cortex, analyzed 91 cases for alterations in the tumor genomes and identified several novel genetic mutations as likely mechanisms driving the disease as well as whole genome doubling as a probable driver of the disease.

  2. Transgenerational effects of the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on the prostate transcriptome and adult onset disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2008-04-01

    The ability of an endocrine disruptor exposure during gonadal sex determination to promote a transgenerational prostate disease phenotype was investigated in the current study. Exposure of an F0 gestating female rat to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin during F1 embryo gonadal sex determination promoted a transgenerational adult onset prostate disease phenotype. The prostate disease phenotype and physiological parameters were determined for males from F1 to F4 generations and the prostate transcriptome was assessed in the F3 generation. Although the prostate in prepubertal animals develops normally, abnormalities involving epithelial cell atrophy, glandular dysgenesis, prostatitis, and hyperplasia of the ventral prostate develop in older animals. The ventral prostate phenotype was transmitted for four generations (F1-F4). Analysis of the ventral prostate transcriptome demonstrated 954 genes had significantly altered expression between control and vinclozolin F3 generation animals. Analysis of isolated ventral prostate epithelial cells identified 259 genes with significantly altered expression between control and vinclozolin F3 generation animals. Characterization of regulated genes demonstrated several cellular pathways were influenced, including calcium and WNT. A number of genes identified have been shown to be associated with prostate disease and cancer, including beta-microseminoprotein (Msp) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 6 (Fadd). The ability of an endocrine disruptor to promote transgenerational prostate abnormalities appears to involve an epigenetic transgenerational alteration in the prostate transcriptome and male germ-line. Potential epigenetic transgenerational alteration of prostate gene expression by environmental compounds may be important to consider in the etiology of adult onset prostate disease.

  3. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Hass, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    This study examined late-life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalates, pesticides, u.v.-filters, bisphenol A, parabens, and the drug paracetamol. The groups received vehicle (control), a mixture of all 13 chemicals at 150-times (TotalMix150) or 450-times (TotalMix450) high-end human exposure, or 450-times a mixture of nine predominantly anti-androgenic chemicals (AAMix450). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age were assessed. Few female offspring showed significantly regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared with controls. In 19-month-old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than controls, and in ventral prostate an overrepresentation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared with controls, particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450 group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence of pituitary tumors. These delayed effects highlight the need for further studies on the role of endocrine disrupters in hormone-related disorders in aging humans.

  4. Endocrine surgery as a model for value-based health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Amer G; Ituarte, Philip H G; Wiggins, Randi; Teisberg, Elizabeth O; Harari, Avital; Yeh, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Experts advocate restructuring health care in the United States into a value-based system that maximizes positive health outcomes achieved per dollar spent. We describe how a value-based system implemented by the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Section of Endocrine Surgery (SES) has optimized both quality and costs while increasing patient volume. Two SES clinical pathways were studied, one allocating patients to the most appropriate surgical care setting based on clinical complexity, and another standardizing initial management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The mean cost per endocrine case performed from 2005 to 2010 was determined at each of three care settings: A tertiary care inpatient facility, a community inpatient facility, and an ambulatory facility. Blood tumor marker levels (thyroglobulin, Tg) and reoperation rates were compared between PTC patients who underwent routine central neck dissection (CND) and those who did not. Surgical patient volume and regional market share were analyzed over time. The cost of care was substantially lower in both the community inpatient facility (14% cost savings) and the ambulatory facility (58% cost savings) in comparison with the tertiary care inpatient facility. Patients who underwent CND had lower Tg levels (6.6 vs 15.0 ng/mL; P = 0.024) and a reduced need for re-operation (1.5 vs 6.1%; P = 0.004) compared with those who did not undergo CND. UCLA maintained its position as the market leader in endocrine procedures while expanding its market share by 151% from 4.9% in 2003 to 7.4% in 2010. A value-driven health care delivery system can deliver improved clinical outcomes while reducing costs within a subspecialty surgical service. Broader application of these principles may contribute to resolving current dilemmas in the provision of care nationally.

  5. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla

    health and the environment. A number of issues relevant for the development of criteria for EDs were considered such as definition, potency, lead effects, specificity and relevance for humans and the environment. The proposed criteria divide substances into three categories dependent on the available...... and the main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with focus on information needed for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The aim of the report was to propose scientific criteria for the identification of ED substances of concern for human...

  6. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans—especially during development—may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the

  7. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Rai, Gopal K; Akhtar, Javed; Phillip, Rajeev; Gutch, Manish; Arya, T V S

    2013-10-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner's syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  8. New opportunities in endocrine ophthalmopathy diagnostics (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta S. Taskina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP is a progressive autoimmune disease that affects soft retrobulbar tissues in thyroid gland diseases. The statistical data on this disease are presented. The review presents both generally accepted and alternative approaches to the diagnosis of EOP different stages. Detailed clinical symptoms, main severity and activity score classifications of EOP, the required list of physical and instrumental examinations are given. We described the diagnostic value of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, optical coherence tomography, Heidelberg Retina Tomography, radioisotope studies, triplex scanning of the major vessels of the eye, the Doppler mapping method, indocyanine-green angiography, as well as the histological examination of soft retrobulbar tissues biopsy in EOP. Generally accepted diagnostic methods of EOP have their disadvantages. Therefore, nowadays the promising direction is immunological, biochemical and genetic studies of EOP activity markers. The peculiarity of these methods in EOP diagnosis is an accuracy, possibility of multiple measurements, few side effects and a relatively low cost. Further studies of key mechanisms of the development of edema, leukocyte infiltration with subsequent formation of fibrosis of extraocular muscles and retrobulbar fiber in EOP is of significance, which may improve diagnostics of clinical complicated cases and initial stages of the disease.

  9. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner′s syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  10. [Endocrine complications of cystic fibrosis in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanet, M; Wieliczko, M-C

    2012-05-01

    Since the 20 last years, the median age of survival has dramatically improved in children suffering from cystic fibrosis and complications such as growth retardation, pubertal delay and low bone mineral density are now more often than not observed in affected adolescents. The severity of the disease and the poor nutritional status due to pancreatic insufficiency and malabsorption are commonly implicated but recent data suggest that the disease could also play a role though the alteration of the chlore chanel (CFTR). Furthermore an increase prevalence of glucose intolerance and diabetes due to the progressive β cells destruction is observed in these children that make the life sometimes difficult for these adolescents already affected by an heavy chronic disease. The monitoring of the children should thus now become pluridisciplinary and include regular clinical evaluation of height and pubertal status, mineral bone density by DEXA and OGTT every two years since 10 years of age. Therefore, in addition to the standard treatment of cystic fibrosis is now added the vitamin D supplementation, the subcutaneous insulin therapy and may be the growth hormone that could be a new therapeutic demonstrating beneficial effects in these chronic disease. However further studies need to be performed to improve the management of these new endocrine complications more and more frequent in children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sarcopenic Obesity and Endocrinal Adaptation with Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity.

  12. The endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Patrick; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Marbaix, Etienne

    2012-07-25

    During the reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes cycles of substantial remodeling including, at menstruation, a massive but delimited tissue breakdown immediately followed by scarless repair. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation in the light of recent observations that undermine obsolete dogmas. Menstruation can be globally considered as a response to falling progesterone concentration. However, tissue breakdown is heterogeneous and tightly controlled in space and time by a complex network of regulators and effectors, including cytokines, chemokines, proteases and various components of an inflammatory response. Moreover, menstruation must be regarded as part of a complex and integrated mechanism of tissue remodeling including features that precede and follow tissue lysis, i.e. decidualization and immediate post-menstrual regeneration. The understanding of the regulation of menstruation is of major basic and clinical interest. Indeed, these mechanisms largely overlap with those controlling other histopathological occurrences of tissue remodeling, such as development and cancer, and inappropriate control of menstrual features is a major potential cause of two frequent endometrial pathologies (i.e. abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. QSAR Methods to Screen Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on in silico methods addressing toxicological studies about EDCs with a special focus on the application of QSAR models for screening purpose. Since Estrogen-like (ER activity has been extensively studied, the majority of the available models are based on ER-related endpoints. Some of these models are here reviewed and described. As example for their application, we screen an assembled dataset of candidate substitutes for some known EDCs belonging to the chemical classes of phthalates, bisphenols and parabens, selected considering their toxicological relevance and broad application, with the general aim of preliminary assessing their ED potential. The goal of the substitution processes is to advance inherently safer chemicals and products, consistent with the principles of green chemistry. Results suggest that the integration of a family of different models accounting for different endpoints can be a convenient way to describe ED as properly as possible and allow also both to increase the confidence of the predictions and to maximize the probability that most active compounds are correctly found.

  14. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  15. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: associated disorders and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Sam; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  16. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  17. Highlighting Indication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in endocrine emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Anne; Wang, Chih-Hsien; You, Hao-Chun; Chou, Nai-Kwoun; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, I-Hui; Tseng, Li-Jung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2015-08-24

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been repeatedly used to rescue patients with cardiopulmonary arrest. However, its clinical utility in endocrine emergencies remains unclear. Herein, we describe a case series of 12 patients presenting with refractory shock secondary to endocrine emergencies who were rescued by ECMO support. Patients were identified between 2005 and 2012 from our ECMO registry. The diagnostic distribution was as follows: pheochromocytoma crisis (n = 4), thyroid storm (n = 5), and diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 3). The initial presentation of pheochromocytoma crisis was indistinguishable from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and frequently accompanied by paroxysmal hypertension and limb ischemia. Thyroid storm was characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and severe gastrointestinal bleeding, whereas neurological symptoms were common in diabetic ketoacidosis. The clinical outcomes of patients with endocrine emergencies were compared with those of 80 cases with AMI who received ECMO because of cardiogenic shock. The cardiac function and the general conditions showed a significantly faster recovery in patients with endocrine emergencies than in those with AMI. We conclude that ECMO support can be clinically useful in endocrine emergencies. The screening of endocrine diseases should be considered during the resuscitation of patients with refractory circulatory shock.

  18. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  19. Endocrine potency of wastewater: Contents of endocrine disrupting chemicals and effects measured by in vivo and in vitro assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Krüger, Tanja; Long, Manhai

    2011-01-01

    chemical analysis and a battery of bioassays. Influent samples, collected at the first STP grate, and effluent samples, collected after the sewage treatment, were extracted using solid phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed for the content of a range of industrial chemicals with endocrine disrupting...... properties: phthalate metabolites, parabens, industrial phenols, ultraviolet screens, and natural and synthetic steroid estrogens. The endocrine disrupting bioactivity and toxicity of the extracts were analyzed in cell culture assay for the potency to affect the function of the estrogen, androgen, aryl......Industrial and municipal effluents are important sources of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) discharged into the aquatic environment. This study investigated the endocrine potency of wastewater and the cleaning efficiency of two typical urban Danish sewage treatment plants (STPs), using...

  20. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  1. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Aline Dt; Alves, Vanessa R; Rocha, Andressa R; Martinhago, Ana C; Martinhago, Ciro; Donadio, Nilka; Dzik, Artur; Cavagna, Mario; Gebrim, Luiz H

    2018-03-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was carried out for embryonic analysis in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). This is a rare autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome and the patients with MEN1 are characterized by the occurrence of tumors in multiple endocrine tissues, associated with germline and somatic inactivating mutations in the MEN1 gene. This case report documents a successful preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) involving a couple at-risk for MEN1 syndrome, with a birth of a healthy infant. The couple underwent a cycle of controlled ovarian stimulation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Embryos were biopsied at the blastocyst stage and cryopreserved; we used PCR-based DNA analysis for PGD testing. Only one of the five embryos analyzed for MEN1 syndrome was unaffected. This embryo was thawed and transferred following endometrial preparation. After positive βHCG test; clinical pregnancy was confirmed by ultrasound, and a healthy infant was born. PGD for single gene disorders has been an emerging therapeutic tool for couples who are at risk of passing a genetic disease on to their offspring.

  2. Assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by nuclear medicine techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, M.; Theissen, P.; Dietlein, M.; Schicha, H.; Jackenhoevel, F.; Krone, W.

    2002-01-01

    The following article reviews nuclear medicine techniques which can be used for assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. For planar and SPECT imaging somatostatin-receptor- and dopamine-D2-receptor-scintigraphy are the most widely distributed techniques. These nuclear medicine techniques may be indicated in selected cases to answer differential diagnostic problems. They can be helpful to search for presence and localization of receptor positive tissue. Furthermore they can detect metastasis in the rare cases of a pituitary carcinoma. Scintigraphy with Gallium-67 is suitable for further diagnostic evaluation in suspected hypophysitis. Other SPECT radiopharmaca do not have relevant clinical significance. F-18-FDG as PET radiopharmacon is not ideal because obvious pituitary adenomas could not be visualized. Other PET radiopharmaca including C-11-methionine, C-11-tyrosine, F-18-fluoroethylspiperone, C-11-methylspiperone, and C-11-raclopride are available in specialized centers only. Overall indications for nuclear medicine in studies for the assessment of endocrine disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis are rare. Original studies often report only about a small number of patients. According to the authors' opinion the relevance of nuclear medicine in studies of clinically important endocrinologic fields, e. g. localization of small ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas, tumor localization in ectopic ACTH syndrome, localization of recurrent pituitary tissue, assessment of small incidentalomas, can not be definitely given yet. (orig.) [de

  3. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  4. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  5. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  6. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  7. Efeito do treinamento físico como modulador positivo nas alterações no eixo neuroimunoendócrino em indivíduos com insuficiência cardíaca crônica: possível atuação do fator de necrose tumoral-alfa Efecto del entrenamiento físico como modulador positivo en las alteraciones en el eje neuroinmunoendócrino en indivíduos con insuficiência cardíaca crônica: posible actuación como factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa Effect of physical training as positive modulator on the alterations in the neuro-immune-endocrine axis in patients with chronic heart failure: possible role of the tumoral necrosis factor-alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Bicudo Pereira Costa Rosa

    2005-08-01

    responsble por la progresión en el deterioro clínico en la ICC. En este cuadro, la principal citoquina envuelta en el cuadro fisiopatológico de la ICC es el factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa (TNF-alfa. Así, el TF puede actuar en el cuadro de ICC de dos maneras, mejorando el desempeño durante el ejercicio físico, bien como atenuando el cuadro de deterioro de elevada concentración de citoquinas pro-inflamatórias en el sistema cardiovascular, pudiendo representar una importante opción inmunomodulatoria, y de esta forma, permitir una mejora significativa en el cuadro clínico del paciente.Chronic physical exercise or physical training (PT has been widely used in the last years with therapeutic and preventive purposes in a series of pathophysiological conditions, including cardiovascular disease. Besides the cardiovascular benefits, PT seems capable to modulate in pathological conditions, at the presence of an abnormal inflammatory response, including over expression of proinflammatory cytokines through a neuro-immune-endocrine interaction. Nowadays chronic heart failure (CHF is reviewed as the consequence of an interplay of hemodynamic, neurohormonal, immunological and endocrine mechanisms. This abnormal inflammatory response, including the over expression of proinflammatory cytokines may be proposed as responsible for the progression and clinical deterioration in CHF. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha is the main proinflammatory cytokines involved in the inflammatory cascade implicated in the pathophysiological of CHF. PT may improve exercise performance by modifying the inflammatory status, as well as by allowing reversing the inflammation-induced harmful effects on the cardiovascular system, and that PT may represent an important immunomodulatory option that may be possible to intervene in the progression of the disease.

  8. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  9. Sexual orientation modulates endocrine stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J; Pruessner, Jens C

    2015-04-01

    Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their "coming out"). Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published

  10. Obesity Pathogenesis: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael W; Seeley, Randy J; Zeltser, Lori M; Drewnowski, Adam; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is among the most common and costly chronic disorders worldwide. Estimates suggest that in the United States obesity affects one-third of adults, accounts for up to one-third of total mortality, is concentrated among lower income groups, and increasingly affects children as well as adults. A lack of effective options for long-term weight reduction magnifies the enormity of this problem; individuals who successfully complete behavioral and dietary weight-loss programs eventually regain most of the lost weight. We included evidence from basic science, clinical, and epidemiological literature to assess current knowledge regarding mechanisms underlying excess body-fat accumulation, the biological defense of excess fat mass, and the tendency for lost weight to be regained. A major area of emphasis is the science of energy homeostasis, the biological process that maintains weight stability by actively matching energy intake to energy expenditure over time. Growing evidence suggests that obesity is a disorder of the energy homeostasis system, rather than simply arising from the passive accumulation of excess weight. We need to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this "upward setting" or "resetting" of the defended level of body-fat mass, whether inherited or acquired. The ongoing study of how genetic, developmental, and environmental forces affect the energy homeostasis system will help us better understand these mechanisms and are therefore a major focus of this statement. The scientific goal is to elucidate obesity pathogenesis so as to better inform treatment, public policy, advocacy, and awareness of obesity in ways that ultimately diminish its public health and economic consequences. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić-Macut Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l, or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l hypothyrodism. We analyzed 50 patients (35 with clinical hypothyroidism and 15 with subclinical form. In all patients anthropometric data (age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate, and clinical signs of hypothyroidism (skin changes, menstrual disorders were determined. Blood was drawn in fasting state for measurement of FT4, sTSH, glucose, lipids, ionized calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, gonadotropins, estradiol in women of reproductive age, and testosterone in men. Skin lesions were rarely present. Oligomenorrhea was more frequent in subclinical hypothyroidism, and menopause in clinical hypothyroidism. Blood pressure was normal in all subjects. Patients with clinical hypothyroidism compared to those with subclinical form had higher TSH values (19.5 ± 5.7 vs. 5.9 ± 0.3 mIU/l, and higher doses of L-thyroxine (81.2 ± 4.6 vs. 21.4 ± 3.5 μg/day. Disturbance of glycemic control was present in 18% of patients. Total cholesterol and LDL were insignificantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in subclinical form of the disease. FT4, calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, gonadotropins, estradiol and testosterone did not differ between groups. The proatherogenic relation of estradiol with triglycerides was established in women with clinical form of hypothyroidism.

  12. Mouse Models Recapitulating Human Adrenocortical Tumors: What is lacking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Leccia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal cortex tumors are divided into benign forms such as primary hyperplasias and adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs, and malignant forms or adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs. Primary hyperplasias are rare causes of ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. ACAs are the most common type of adrenal gland tumors and they are rarely functional, i.e producing steroids. When functional, adenomas result in endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s syndrome (hypercortisolism or Conn’s syndrome (hyperaldosteronism. In contrast, ACCs are extremely rare but highly aggressive tumors that may also lead to hypersecreting syndromes. Genetic analyses of patients with sporadic or familial forms of adrenocortical tumors led to the identification of potentially causative genes, most of them being involved in PKA, Wnt/β-catenin and P53 signaling pathways. Development of mouse models is a crucial step to firmly establish the functional significance of candidate genes, to dissect mechanisms leading to tumors and endocrine disorders and in fine to provide in vivo tools for therapeutic screens. In this article we will provide an overview on the existing mouse models (xenografted and genetically engineered of adrenocortical tumors by focusing on the role of PKA and Wnt/β-catenin pathways in this context. We will discuss the advantages and limitations of models that have been developed heretofore and we will point out necessary improvements in the development of next generation mouse models of adrenal diseases.

  13. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis with Cushing's disease and the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome responsive to proton beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veseley, D.L.; Fass, F.H.

    1981-09-01

    Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary.

  14. Endocrine-Therapy-Resistant ESR1 Variants Revealed by Genomic Characterization of Breast-Cancer-Derived Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunqiang Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To characterize patient-derived xenografts (PDXs for functional studies, we made whole-genome comparisons with originating breast cancers representative of the major intrinsic subtypes. Structural and copy number aberrations were found to be retained with high fidelity. However, at the single-nucleotide level, variable numbers of PDX-specific somatic events were documented, although they were only rarely functionally significant. Variant allele frequencies were often preserved in the PDXs, demonstrating that clonal representation can be transplantable. Estrogen-receptor-positive PDXs were associated with ESR1 ligand-binding-domain mutations, gene amplification, or an ESR1/YAP1 translocation. These events produced different endocrine-therapy-response phenotypes in human, cell line, and PDX endocrine-response studies. Hence, deeply sequenced PDX models are an important resource for the search for genome-forward treatment options and capture endocrine-drug-resistance etiologies that are not observed in standard cell lines. The originating tumor genome provides a benchmark for assessing genetic drift and clonal representation after transplantation.

  15. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis with Cushing's disease and the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome responsive to proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veseley, D.L.; Fass, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) or neoplasia is a hereditary disorder consisting of tumors of hyperplasia of several endocrine glands. In MEA-1 the pituitary, parathyroids, and pancreatic islets are most frequently involved, while in MEA-2 the thyroid (medullary carcinoma of the thyroid), parathyroids,and adrenals (pheochromocytomas) are the endocrine glands most likely to be involved. Cushings's syndrome may occur in MEA-1 and has also been found in patients with MEA-2, where the cause of Cushing's syndrome is usually ectopic ACTH production from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Recently, there have been reports of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome in patients with MEA-1, and confirmation that hyperprolactinemia is associated with this syndrom has been found in patients with MEA-1. The present report details a patient who has been followed up for 20 years since she first presented with amenorrhea and galactorrhea. Ten years after first being seen she was noted to have Cushing's syndrom and hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid hyperplasia. Both the amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome and Cushing's sydrome disappeared with proton beam irradiation to the pituitary

  16. The immunohistochemical expression of endocrine gland-derived-VEGF (EG-VEGF) as a prognostic marker in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălu, Sevilla; Pirtea, L; Gaje, Puşa; Cîmpean, Anca Maria; Raica, M

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer-related angiogenesis is a complex process orchestrated by many positive and negative regulators. Many growth factors are involved in the development of the tumor-associated vasculature, and from these, endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF) seems to play a crucial role. EG-VEGF is the first organ-specific angiogenic factor and its effects are restricted to the endothelial cells of the endocrine glands. Although EG-VEGF was detected in both normal and neoplastic ovaries, its clinical significance remains controversial. In the present study, we analyzed 30 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, and the immunohistochemical expression of EG-VEGF was compared with the conventional clinico-pathological parameters of prognosis. Neoplastic cells of the ovarian carcinoma expressed EG-VEGF in 73.33% of the cases, as a cytoplasmic granular product of reaction. We found a strong correlation between the expression of EG-VEGF at protein level and tumor stage, grade, and microscopic type. The expression of EG-VEGF was found in patients with stage III and IV, but not in stage II. The majority of serous adenocarcinoma, half of the cases with clear cell carcinoma and two cases with endometrioid carcinoma showed definite expression in tumor cells. No positive reaction was found in the cases with mucinous carcinoma. Our results showed that EG-VEGF expression is an indicator not only of the advanced stage, but also of ovarian cancer progression. Based on these data, we concluded that EG-VEGF expression in tumor cells of the epithelial ovarian cancer is a good marker of unfavorable prognosis and could be an attractive therapeutic target in patients with advanced-stage tumors, refractory conventional chemotherapy.

  17. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  18. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child's general health and to detect any adverse side effects (such as low red or white blood cell ... medicine needed, which helps reduce long-term side effects. The most common ... can be completely removed by surgery. About 41% of all Wilms tumors are stage ...

  19. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  20. Glycemic screening and recurrent carbohydrate metabolism disorders with endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.А. Lutsenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of glycated hemoglobin for diabetes mellitus (DM diagnosis is recommended by World Health Organization as of 2011. The level of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c ≥ 6.5 % is a diagnostic criterion for DM but HbA1c level of 6.0–6.4 % does not exclude diabetes mellitus diagnosis with hyperglycemia. Moreover, when diagnosing, evaluation of this criterion is a must, since decision about the nature and the scope of sugar-reducing therapy is based on the level of HbA1c. Counterregulatory hormones are glucagon, adre­nalin, somatotropin, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones. Pathogenic mechanism of carbohydrate metabolism disorders with hypersecretion of counterregulatory hormones is caused by peripheral insulin resistance, decrease in insulin secretion, increase in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis in liver and increase in the absorption of intestinal glucose with insulin being the only hormone decreasing the blood glucose. So, the endocrine diseases (hypercorticism, acromegalia, pheochromocytoma, hyperparathyroidism and hyperthyroidism with excessive secretion of counterregulatory hormones suggest the necessity of secondary diabetes diagnosis. Screening tests with quite high sensitivity and specificity have been developed for early diagnosis of endocrynopathies. Screening tests for hypercorticism diagnosis are dexamethasone (1 mg suppression test, daily urinary cortisol excretion and nighttime salivary cortisol. Optimal test for screening acromegalia is considered to be insulin-like growth factor 1 which shows the secretion of somatotropic hormone during previous day and is not subject to significant fluctuations. One-time detection of increased insulin-like growth factor 1 level compared to referential values for specific sex and age is enough for confirmation of hypersomatotropinemia. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is recommended as a screening test for thyrotoxicosis diagnosis. When choosing this test, doctor should consider the parameter of

  1. Designing Endocrine Disruption Out of the Next Generation of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, T T; Abagyan, R; Blumberg, B; Collins, T J; Crews, D; DeFur, P L; Dickerson, S M; Edwards, T M; Gore, A C; Guillette, L J; Hayes, T; Heindel, J J; Moores, A; Patisaul, H B; Tal, T L; Thayer, K A; Vandenberg, L N; Warner, J; Watson, C S; Saal, F S Vom; Zoeller, R T; O'Brien, K P; Myers, J P

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of green chemistry is to avoid hazard in the design of new chemicals. This objective is best achieved when information about a chemical's potential hazardous effects is obtained as early in the design process as feasible. Endocrine disruption is a type of hazard that to date has been inadequately addressed by both industrial and regulatory science. To aid chemists in avoiding this hazard, we propose an endocrine disruption testing protocol for use by chemists in the design of new chemicals. The Tiered Protocol for Endocrine Disruption (TiPED) has been created under the oversight of a scientific advisory committee composed of leading representatives from both green chemistry and the environmental health sciences. TiPED is conceived as a tool for new chemical design, thus it starts with a chemist theoretically at "the drawing board." It consists of five testing tiers ranging from broad in silico evaluation up through specific cell- and whole organism-based assays. To be effective at detecting endocrine disruption, a testing protocol must be able to measure potential hormone-like or hormone-inhibiting effects of chemicals, as well as the many possible interactions and signaling sequellae such chemicals may have with cell-based receptors. Accordingly, we have designed this protocol to broadly interrogate the endocrine system. The proposed protocol will not detect all possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption, because scientific understanding of these phenomena is advancing rapidly. To ensure that the protocol remains current, we have established a plan for incorporating new assays into the protocol as the science advances. In this paper we present the principles that should guide the science of testing new chemicals for endocrine disruption, as well as principles by which to evaluate individual assays for applicability, and laboratories for reliability. In a 'proof-of-principle' test, we ran 6 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that act via

  2. Immunohistochemical study on gastrointestinal endocrine cells of four reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Gen; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS), glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted. RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates. Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS, SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus; while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells, which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found

  3. Endocrine actions of vitamin D in skin: Relevance for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-09-15

    The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent findings convincingly support the concept of a new function of the VDR as a tumor suppressor in skin, with key components of the vitamin D endocrine system, including VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 being strongly expressed in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). It has now been shown that anti-tumor effects of VDR, that include some of its ligand-induced growth-regulatory effects, are at least in part mediated by interacting in a highly coordinated manner with the p53 family (p53/p63/p73) in response to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis, including UV-induced DNA damage, a hallmark for skin photocarcinogenesis. Considering the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system for carcinogenesis of skin cancer, it is not surprising that low 25(OH)D serum concentrations and genetic variants (SNPs) of the vitamin D endocrine system have been identified as potential risk factors for occurrence and prognosis of skin malignancies. In conclusion, an increasing body of evidence now convincingly supports the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system is of relevance for photocarcinogenesis and progression of NMSC and that its pharmacologic modulation by vitamin D, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3, and analogs represents a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of these malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A critical review of histopathological findings associated with endocrine and non-endocrine hepatic toxicity in fish models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jeffrey C; Wheeler, James R

    2018-04-01

    Although frequently examined as a target organ for non-endocrine toxicity, histopathological evaluation of the liver is becoming a routine component of endocrine disruption studies that utilize various fish species as test subjects. However, the interpretation of microscopic liver findings can be challenging, especially when attempting to distinguish adverse changes associated with endocrine disrupting substances from those caused by systemic or direct hepatic toxicity. The purpose of this project was to conduct a critical assessment of the available peer-reviewed and grey literature concerning the histopathologic effects of reproductive endocrine active substances (EAS) and non-endocrine acting substances in the livers of fish models, and to determine if liver histopathology can be used to reliably distinguish endocrine from non-endocrine etiologies. The results of this review suggest that few compound-specific histopathologic liver effects have been identified, among which are estrogen agonist-induced increases in hepatocyte basophilia and proteinaceous intravascular fluid in adult male teleosts, and potentially, decreased hepatocyte basophilia in female fish exposed to substances that possess androgenic, anti-estrogenic, or aromatase inhibitory activity. This review also used published standardized methodology to assess the credibility of the histopathology data in each of the 117 articles that reported liver effects of treatment, and consequently it was determined that in only 37% of those papers were the data considered either highly credible or credible. The outcome of this work highlights the value of histopathologic liver evaluation as an investigative tool for EAS studies, and provides information that may have implications for EAS hazard assessment. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and male reproductive health: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Balabanič

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced functioning of the endocrine system is essential for preservation of human species by providing normal growth and development, reproduction, and normal functioning of all other organ systems. In the last decades, emerging area of interest is the impact of environmental exposures to human health. Important environmental pollutants are endocrine-disrupting che- micals (EDCs, which can have adverse e ects on the living organism due to their interference with the endocrine system. The group of known EDCs embraces ubiquitous synthetic substan- ces used as industrial lubricants and solvents, with their by-products, incomplete combustion remains, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, pesticides and plasticizers. Natural com- pounds such as genistein, a phytoestrogen, and heavy metals can also have endocrine e ects. Endocrine disruption is a serious public health problem. EDCs among other health problems ge- nerate reproductive disorders in males, such as decreases in sperm count and quality, increases in testicular germ cell numbers, prostate and breast cancers, cryptorchidism and hypospadias, impaired fertility, and infertility. This paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impa- ct of EDCs on reproductive disorders in human males.

  6. Nanotoxicity: a growing need for study in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefei; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiangjun; Lobie, Peter E; Chen, Chunying; Zhu, Tao

    2013-05-27

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are engineered for commercial purposes such as semiconductors, building materials, cosmetics, and drug carriers, while natural nanoparticles (NPs) already exist in the environment. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, they may interact actively with biological systems. Some of these interactions might be detrimental to human health, and therefore studies on the potential 'nanotoxicity' of these materials in different organ systems are warranted. The purpose of developing the concept of nanotoxicity is to recognize and evaluate the hazards and risks of NMs and evaluate safety. This review will summarize and discuss recent reports derived from cell lines or animal models concerning the effects of NMs on, and their application in, the endocrine system of mammalian and other species. It will present an update on current studies of the effects of some typical NMs-such as metal-based NMs, carbon-based NMs, and dendrimers-on endocrine functions, in which some effects are adverse or unwanted and others are favorable or intended. Disruption of endocrine function is associated with adverse health outcomes including reproductive failure, metabolic syndrome, and some types of cancer. Further investigations are therefore required to obtain a thorough understanding of any potential risk of pathological endocrine disruption from products containing NMs. This review aims to provide impetus for further studies on the interactions of NMs with endocrine functions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine M; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Berga, Sarah L; Kaplan, Jay R; Mastorakos, George; Misra, Madhusmita; Murad, M Hassan; Santoro, Nanette F; Warren, Michelle P

    2017-05-01

    The American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. This guideline was funded by the Endocrine Society. To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of eight experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The task force commissioned two systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Endocrine Society committees and members and cosponsoring organizations reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of this guideline. FHA is a form of chronic anovulation, not due to identifiable organic causes, but often associated with stress, weight loss, excessive exercise, or a combination thereof. Investigations should include assessment of systemic and endocrinologic etiologies, as FHA is a diagnosis of exclusion. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is necessary, including medical, dietary, and mental health support. Medical complications include, among others, bone loss and infertility, and appropriate therapies are under debate and investigation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  8. (CT, MRI, USG) radiological diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwikla, J.; Furmanek, M.; Walecki, J.; Sankowski, A.; Pawlowska-Detko, A.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) consists of a heterogeneneous group of neoplasma, that are able to express cell membrane neuroamine uptake mechanisms and/or specific receptors, which can be used in the localization and treatment of these tumours. Conventionally NETs may present with a wide variety of functional or nonfuctional endocrinesyndromes and may be familial and have other associated tumors, also they have different histology and prognosis. They originate from endocrine glands such as the pituitary, the parathyroids, and the neuroendocrine) adrenal, as well as endocrine islets within glandular tissue (thyroid or pancreatic) and cells dispersed between exocrine cells, such as endocrine cells of the digestive system (gastroenteropancreatic GEP-NET0 and respiratory tracts. GEp-NET are the the most common including more 70% of all NETs. Imaging modalities and assessment of specific tumors markers offers high sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis and can also have pronostic significance. One of most important single imaging techniques in terms of initial identification and staging o GET-NET are CT and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). Other investigation like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic (EUS) are used for the precise localization of GEP-NET. Another techniques including functional approach 123 I MIBG (meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy) and FDG PET.Important using of imaging approach is monitoring of response on treatment. (author)

  9. An unusual mixed tumor of the pancreas: sonographic and MDCT features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelé, Koenraad J; Peters, Hope E; Odze, Robert D; Glickman, Jonathan N; Jajoo, Kunal; Banks, Peter A

    2009-03-09

    Mixed tumors of the pancreas are exceedingly rare. We herein report on a 54-year-old female who presented with an enlarging cystic lesion in the head of the pancreas. Right upper quadrant ultrasound and multidetector-row CT scan showed a well-defined unilocular cystic tumor located in the head of the pancreas and surrounded, in part, by a hypervascular solid mass. Although mixed exocrine/endocrine pancreatic tumors have been described previously, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a pancreatic mixed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm/endocrine tumor with illustration of its ultrasound and CT features. Moreover, the importance of preoperative analysis of imaging features in the assessment of pancreatic neoplasms is discussed.

  10. Clinical activity of fulvestrant in metastatic breast cancer previously treated with endocrine therapy and/or chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Mi Hwa; Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Hansang; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2018-03-16

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of the clinical activity of fulvestrant in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) previously treated with endocrine therapy and/or chemotherapy. We reviewed the medical records of all patients with MBC treated at Samsung Medical Center between January 2009 and August 2016. Patients received fulvestrant 250 mg intramuscularly every 28 days (from January 2009 to November 2010) or 500 mg intramuscularly every 28 days (from December 2010 to August 2016). Tumor responses were assessed every 8 weeks and at the end of treatment, as well as when disease progression was suspected. A total of 84 patients were included in this study. A median of two previous endocrine treatments had been performed; 79% of the patients had received two or more endocrine treatments. Forty-five patients (54%) had been treated with chemotherapy for MBC before the fulvestrant treatment course. Visceral metastasis was found in 49 patients (58%). The estimated median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 5.5) and 32.5 months (95% CI, 17.6 to 47.4), respectively. The disease control rate was 40.5% (95% CI, 30.5 to 51.5); partial response was observed in 16% of the patients and stable disease was observed in 25% of the patients. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were mild-to-moderate grade myalgia (10.5% of the patients), injection site pain (7%), and fatigue (7%). Fulvestrant was generally well tolerated. Fulvestrant showed encouraging clinical activity and favorable feasibility in postmenopausal women with MBC who had been treated with multiple endocrine therapies and/or cytotoxic chemotherapies.

  11. Mapping the Decision-Making Process for Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer: The Role of Decisional Resolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beryl, Louise L; Rendle, Katharine A S; Halley, Meghan C; Gillespie, Katherine A; May, Suepattra G; Glover, Jennifer; Yu, Peter; Chattopadhyay, Runi; Frosch, Dominick L

    2017-01-01

    Studies show adjuvant endocrine therapy increases survival and decreases risk of breast cancer recurrence for hormone receptor-positive tumors. Yet studies also suggest that adherence rates among women taking this therapy may be as low as 50% owing largely to adverse side effects. Despite these rates, research on longitudinal patient decision making regarding this therapy is scant. We sought to map the decision-making process for women considering and initiating adjuvant endocrine therapy, paying particular attention to patterns of uncertainty and decisional change over time. A longitudinal series of semistructured interviews conducted at a multispecialty health care organization in Northern California with 35 newly diagnosed patients eligible for adjuvant endocrine therapy were analyzed. Analysis led to the identification and indexing of 3 new decision-making constructs-decisional phase, decisional direction, and decisional resolve-which were then organized using a visual matrix and examined for patterns characterizing the decision-making process. Our data reveal that most patients do not make a single, discrete decision to take or not take hormone therapy but rather traverse multiple decisional states, characterized by 1) phase, 2) direction, and 3) strength of resolve. Our analysis tracks these decisional states longitudinally using a grayscale-coded matrix. Our data show that decisional resolve wavers not just when considering therapy, as the existing concept of decisional conflict suggests, but even after initiating it, which may signal future decisions to forgo therapy. Adjuvant endocrine therapy, like other chronic care decisions, has a longer decision-making process and implementation period. Thus, theoretical, empirical, and clinical approaches should consider further exploring the new concept and measurement of decisional resolve, as it may help to improve subsequent medication adherence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Hormones in the city: endocrine ecology of urban birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonier, Frances

    2012-05-01

    Urbanization dramatically changes the landscape, presenting organisms with novel challenges and often leading to reduced species diversity. Urban ecologists have documented numerous biotic and abiotic consequences of urbanization, such as altered climate, species interactions, and community composition, but we lack an understanding of the mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to urbanization. Here, I review findings from the nascent field of study of the endocrine ecology of urban birds. Thus far, no clear or consistent patterns have been revealed, but we do have evidence that urban habitat can shape endocrine traits, and that those traits might contribute to adaptation to the urban environment. I suggest strong approaches for future work addressing exciting questions about the role of endocrine traits in mediating responses to urbanization within species across the globe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Adjuvant psychological therapy in long-term endocrine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J; Turner-Cobb, J M

    2017-06-01

    Consideration of psychological distress in long-term endocrine conditions is of vital importance given the prevalence of anxiety and depression in such disorders. Poor mental health can lead to compromised self-care, higher utilization of health services, lower rates of adherence, reduced quality of life and ultimately poorer outcomes. Adjuvant psychological therapy offers an effective resource to reduce distress in endocrine conditions. While the vast majority of work in this area has focused on psychological screening and intervention in diabetes, identification and recognition of psychological distress are equally important in other endocrinological conditions, with supportive evidence in polycystic ovary syndrome and Addison's disease. Referral pathways and recommendations set out by UK guidelines and the Department of Health mandate requires greater attention across a wider range of long-term endocrine conditions to facilitate improved quality of life and health outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P.; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    . Correlation with CTG(n) expansion size was investigated with the Pearson correlation test. Eighteen percent of the DM1 patients had hyperparathyroidism with increased PTH compared with 0.5% in the background population. Of these, 16% had normocalcemia and 2% had hypercalcemia. An additional 3% had...... LH, but normal testosterone levels, indicating relative insufficiency. Numbers of CTG repeats correlated directly with plasma PTH, phosphate, LH, and tended to correlate with plasma testosterone for males. This is the largest study of endocrine dysfunction in a cohort of Caucasian patients with DM1....... We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma...

  15. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  16. Circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, H; Kinga, N; Racz, K; Patocs, A

    2016-01-01

    Specific, sensitive and non-invasive biomarkers are always needed in endocrine disorders. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules with well-known role in gene expression regulation. They are frequently dysregulated in metabolic and endocrine diseases. Recently it has been shown that they are secreted into biofluids by nearly all kind of cell types. As they can be taken up by other cells they may have a role in a new kind of paracrine, cell-to-cell communication. Circulating miRNAs are protected by RNA-binding proteins or microvesicles hence they can be attractive candidates as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of extracellular miRNA's and our knowledge about their origin and potential roles in endocrine and metabolic diseases. Discussions about the technical challenges occurring during identification and measurement of extracellular miRNAs and future perspectives about their roles are also highlighted.

  17. The Perlman syndrome: familial renal dysplasia with Wilms tumor, fetal gigantism and multiple congenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, G; Martini-Neri, M E; Katz, B E; Opitz, J M

    1984-09-01

    We describe a familial syndrome of renal dysplasia, Wilms tumor, hyperplasia of the endocrine pancreas, fetal gigantism, multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation. This condition was previously described by Perlman et al [1973, 1975] and we propose to call it the "Perlman syndrome." It appears to be transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait. The possible relationships between dysplasia, neoplasia and malformation are discussed.

  18. Interest of the PET with F DOPA in the exploration of endocrine para neoplastic syndromes (E.P.S.): about four cases; Interet de la TEP a la FDOPA dans l'exploration des syndromes paraneoplasiques endocriniens (SPE): a propos de 4 cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau Triby, C.; Pina, G.; Bournaud, C. [Centre de medecine nucleaire, groupement hospitalier Est, Lyon, (France); Billotey, C. [CERMEP, Lyon, (France); Raverot, G.; Borson Chazot, F. [service d' endocrinologie, groupement hospitalier Est, Lyon, (France)

    2009-05-15

    In front an ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) or growth hormone (GH) the existence of an endocrine tumor must be evoked. The topographical diagnosis of these tumors is often difficult. The positron computed tomography with 6-fluoro-({sup 18}F)-L-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (PET-FDOPA) showed recently a good sensitivity in the detection of well differentiated endocrine tumors. We report our experience of the PET-FDOPA in the explorations of para-neoplasic endocrine syndromes. Our experience was relatively disappointing, this examination being a little contributive for our patients. The scintigraphy of receptors with somatostatin with octreoscan keeps all this place in this indication. (N.C.)

  19. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  20. PAM50 Risk of Recurrence Score Predicts 10-Year Distant Recurrence in a Comprehensive Danish Cohort of Postmenopausal Women Allocated to 5 Years of Endocrine Therapy for Hormone Receptor–Positive Early Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lænkholm, Anne Vibeke; Jensen, M.B.; Eriksen, J O

    2018-01-01

    with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of endocrine therapy alone. Patients and Methods Using the population-based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database, follow-up data were collected on all patients diagnosed from 2000 through 2003 who, by nationwide guidelines, were...... treated with endocrine therapy for 5 years. Primary tumor blocks from 2,740 patients were tested with Prosigna and, after determination of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, data from 2,558 hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative samples were analyzed, including 1,395 node...

  1. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  2. Nuclear medicine procedures to diagnose endocrine pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bares, R.; Besenfelder, H.; Eschmann, S.M.; Pfannenberg, C.

    2003-01-01

    The typical clinical features of endocrine pancreatic tumours are either symptoms caused by excessive hormone production or progressive tumour growth. In several prospective studies it has been shown that somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is the most accurate imaging technique currently available to detect endocrine pancreatic tumours. Therefore it should be used whenever curative surgical treatment appears to be feasible. Furthermore it should be applied if a radionuclide treatment of inoperable tumours is considered. In this situation scintigraphy with 123 I-mIBG might be useful, too. Future developments include the use of PET with labelled somatostatin analogues or DOPA derivatives as well as image fusion techniques to optimize preoperative tumour localization. (orig.) [de

  3. Purinergic receptors in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    2008-01-01

    The pancreas is a complex gland performing both endocrine and exocrine functions. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that both endocrine and exocrine cells possess purinergic receptors, which influence processes such as insulin secretion and epithelial ion transport. Most commonly......, there is also evidence for other P2 and adenosine receptors in beta cells (P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(6), P2X subtypes and A(1) receptors) and in glucagon-secreting alpha cells (P2X(7), A(2) receptors). In the exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and ATP-hydrolysing and ATP-generating enzymes. P2 receptors...

  4. Aurora kinase A as a possible marker for endocrine resistance in early estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Iversen, Benedikte R; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2018-01-01

    in 980 tumors and semi quantitively scored into three groups; negative/weak, moderate and high. The Aurora A expression levels were compared to other clinico-pathological parameters and outcome, defined as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: High expression of Aurora......BACKGROUND: Cell culture studies have disclosed that the mitotic Aurora kinase A is causally involved in both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor resistant cell growth and thus may be a potential new marker for endocrine resistance in the clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Archival tumor tissue...... A was found in 26.9% of patients and moderate in 57.0%. High expression was significantly associated with high malignancy grade and HER2 amplification. High Aurora A expression was significantly more frequent in ductal compared to lobular carcinomas. We found no significant association between Aurora...

  5. Current opinion on PET for gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederichs, C.G.; Schirrmeister, H.; Staib, L.

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of FDG-PET for restaging of colorectal carcinoma and for the differentiation of indeterminate hepatic lesions is well-documented. Accuracies of FDG-PET for recurrence, lymph node status and the detection of distant metastases are higher compared with computed tomography, for example. For other epithelial gastrointestinal tumors similar results have also been demonstrated in smaller trials or case presentations. The differentiation of recurrent rectal carcinoma from scar and PET for endocrine tumors are described elsewhere (Der Nuklearmediziner PET II, in preparation). Almost no data exist for rare tumors like anal carcinoma or tumors of the small intestines. For hepatocellular carcinoma, FDG-PET has a high positive predictive value, and the intensity of the uptake correlates well with grading. However, FDG-PET is not suitable for the exclusion of hepatocellular carcinoma due to insufficient sensitivity. The differentiation of benign and malignant pancreatic masses works well for selected patients. FDG-PET for lymph node staging is at least as accurate as conventional staging, and for the detection of distant metastases FDG-PET is superior compared with conventional staging. Few data exist on therapy control of gastrointestinal tumors. (orig.) [de

  6. Gene expression patterns in pancreatic tumors, cells and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anson W Lowe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancers of the pancreas originate from both the endocrine and exocrine elements of the organ, and represent a major cause of cancer-related death. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of gene expression for pancreatic tumors, the normal pancreas, and nonneoplastic pancreatic disease.DNA microarrays were used to assess the gene expression for surgically derived pancreatic adenocarcinomas, islet cell tumors, and mesenchymal tumors. The addition of normal pancreata, isolated islets, isolated pancreatic ducts, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines enhanced subsequent analysis by increasing the diversity in gene expression profiles obtained. Exocrine, endocrine, and mesenchymal tumors displayed unique gene expression profiles. Similarities in gene expression support the pancreatic duct as the origin of adenocarcinomas. In addition, genes highly expressed in other cancers and associated with specific signal transduction pathways were also found in pancreatic tumors.The scope of the present work was enhanced by the inclusion of publicly available datasets that encompass a wide spectrum of human tissues and enabled the identification of candidate genes that may serve diagnostic and therapeutic goals.

  7. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  8. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  9. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  10. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  11. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  12. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  13. [Novel concepts in biology of diffuse endocrine system: results and future investigations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse endocrine system is a largest part of endocrine system of vertebrates. Recend findings showed that DES-cells are not neuroectodermal but have ectodermal, mesodermal, and entodermal ontogeny. The article reviews novel concept of diffuse endocrine system anatomy and physiology, functional role of DES hormones and poorly investigated aspects like DES-cell morphology, hormones secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Further research of diffuse endocrine system has a great significance for biochemistry, morphology, and clinical medicine.

  14. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    -called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty has been described in several case reports of accidental exposure to oestrogenic compounds in cosmetic products, food and pharmaceuticals. Local epidemics of premature thelarche have also been suggested to be linked to endocrine disrupters. Children adopted from...... developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  15. Long-term neuro-endocrine sequelae after treatment for childhood medulloblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikens, J.; Michiels, E. M.; Behrendt, H.; Endert, E.; Bakker, P. J.; Fliers, E.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of neuro-endocrine deficiencies following craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma is well known, but data concerning the spectrum and prevalence of endocrine abnormalities in adulthood are scarce. We studied endocrine function in 20 (median age 25 years) adult subjects, 8-25

  16. Toxicity of compounds with endocrine activity in the OECD 421 reproductive toxicity screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Elvers LH; Wester PW; LEO; LPI

    1998-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption has, in view of human risk assessment, raised the question on whether more sensitive test methods are needed to detect the reproductive toxic properties of xenobiotic compounds with endocrine properties. We studied six known and alleged endocrine disruptors in an

  17. Testis tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Maier, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating new combinations of drugs with the goal of diminishing the toxicity associated with the current regimens while not compromising the chance for cure. The evolution of information and staging studies such as tumor markers, CT scanning and MR scanning has made possible the detection of residual metastatic disease while obviating the need for surgical staging procedures. This has made less treatment possible for a large number of patients. The regularity of follow-up studies has made early detection of recurrences a possibility, so that effective and curative treatment is generally possible

  18. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on huma...

  19. Rhythms in the endocrine system of fish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Azpeleta, Clara; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day. We mainly focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which can be considered as the master axis of the endocrine system of vertebrates and regulates a great variety of functions, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis, stress response, and osmoregulation. In addition, the rhythms of other hormones, such as melatonin and the factors, produced in the gastrointestinal system of fish are reviewed.

  20. Endocrine dysfunction after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Titlbach, O.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Kubel, M.; Helbig, W.; Leipzig Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Data regarding changes of endocrine parameters after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are described. Endocrine glands are usually resistant to irradiation under morphological aspects. But new methods of determination and sensitive tests were developed in the last few years. Now it is possible to detect already small functional changes. Endocrine studies in the course of the disease were followed serially in 16 patients with TBI and BMT. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with a high-dose, short-term chemotherapy. Reactions of the endocrine system showed a defined temporary order. Changes of ACTH and cortisol were in the beginning. The pituitary-adrenal cortex system responds in a different way. The pituitary-thyroid system develops a short-term 'low-T 3 -syndrome' reflecting the extreme stress of the organism. At the same time we obtained an increase of thyroxine. Testosterone and luteotropic hormone, the sexual steroids showed levels representing a primary gonadal insufficiency. The studies in the posttransplant period yielded a return to the normal range at most of the hormonal levels with the exception of the sexual steroids. Sterility is one of the late effects of TBI. A tendency towards hypothyroidism could be noticed in some cases being only subclinical forms. Reasons and possible therapy are discussed. (author)

  1. The peripheral GABAergic system as a target in endocrine disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladkevich, A; Korf, J; Hakobyan, VP; Melkonyan, KV

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its well-recognized function as a cerebral inhibitory transmitter, less well established is the role of GABA in peripheral nervous and endocrine systems. We Summarize current evidence that GABA serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the autonomic nervous system and as a

  2. Use of functional tests in radioimmune diagnosis of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for determining corticotropin (ACTH), somatotropin (STH), prolactin (LTH) and thyrotropin (TTH) concentration in blood for endocrine disease diagnosis are described. Reactions of earlier mentioned functional tests to specific stimulators and inhibitors for differential diagnosis of such diseases as Icenko-Cushing one, pituitary body and hypothalamus diseases, galactorrhea and amenorrhea syndrome are considered. The diagnosis reliability is underlined

  3. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 173-180 ISSN 2190-460X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * pituitary * endocrine glands Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  4. The impact of opioids on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Nathaniel; Mazer, Norman A

    2009-02-01

    Opioids have been used for medicinal and analgesic purposes for centuries. However, their negative effects on the endocrine system, which have been known for some times, are barely discussed in modern medicine. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of opioids on the endocrine system. A review of the English language literature on preclinical and clinical studies of any type on the influence of opioids on the endocrine system was conducted. Preliminary recommendations for monitoring and managing these problems were provided. Long-term opioid therapy for either addiction or chronic pain often induces hypogonadism owing to central suppression of hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Symptoms of opioid-induced hypogonadism include loss of libido, infertility, fatigue, depression, anxiety, loss of muscle strength and mass, osteoporosis, and compression fractures in both men and women; impotence in men; and menstrual irregularities and galactorrhea in women. In view of the increased use of opioids for chronic pain, it has become increasingly important to monitor patients taking opioids and manage endocrine complications. Therefore, patients on opioid therapy should be routinely screened for such symptoms and for laboratory abnormalities in sex hormones. Opioid-induced hypogonadism seems to be a common complication of therapeutic or illicit opioid use. Patients on long-term opioid therapy should be prospectively monitored, and in cases of opioid-induced hypogonadism, we recommend nonopioid pain management, opioid rotation, or sex hormone supplementation after careful consideration of the risks and benefits.

  5. Biomarkers used in Environmental Health with focus on Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and can disrupt the normal function of the body. Bio-monitoring is the assessment of internal doses of EDCs and has been used for decades to provide information about exposures to chemicals giving...

  6. Endocrine Disruptor Degradation by Photocatalytic Pilot Plant Unit.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spáčilová, Lucie; Morozová, Magdalena; Mašín, P.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, František; Dytrych, Pavel; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena; Šolcová, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2016), s. 4613-4620 ISSN 2458-9403 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984398 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * titanium dioxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M)

  7. Muscular Dystrophies at Different Ages: Metabolic and Endocrine Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana del Rocío Cruz Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Common metabolic and endocrine alterations exist across a wide range of muscular dystrophies. Skeletal muscle plays an important role in glucose metabolism and is a major participant in different signaling pathways. Therefore, its damage may lead to different metabolic disruptions. Two of the most important metabolic alterations in muscular dystrophies may be insulin resistance and obesity. However, only insulin resistance has been demonstrated in myotonic dystrophy. In addition, endocrine disturbances such as hypogonadism, low levels of testosterone, and growth hormone have been reported. This eventually will result in consequences such as growth failure and delayed puberty in the case of childhood dystrophies. Other consequences may be reduced male fertility, reduced spermatogenesis, and oligospermia, both in childhood as well as in adult muscular dystrophies. These facts all suggest that there is a need for better comprehension of metabolic and endocrine implications for muscular dystrophies with the purpose of developing improved clinical treatments and/or improvements in the quality of life of patients with dystrophy. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the current knowledge about of metabolic and endocrine alterations in diverse types of dystrophinopathies, which will be divided into two groups: childhood and adult dystrophies which have different age of onset.

  8. Effects of endocrine disrupting heavy metals on pituitary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of hypogonadism and visceral obesity (VO) was recently demonstrated in male auto-mechanics occupationally exposed to endocrine disruptors (ED)-lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The effects of exposure to these EDs on pituitary and gonadal ...

  9. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during ...

  10. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: Tier I Screening Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system,' the Food Quality Protection Act and subsequent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic A...

  11. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2012-01-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves’ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495

  12. Two Virus Based Endocrine Disruptor Assays Effective Across Vertebrate Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of hormone mimics, or endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC’s), in the environment are increasing. Sources range from agricultural run–off, pharmaceuticals in waste water, to industrial operations. Current levels of contamination are sufficient to alter sexual develo...

  13. Incidence of endocrine disorders in Indian adult male population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015. They were recruited between the ages of 17 and 20 years in good health, and their morbidity data were derived from the medical records. We calculated the incidence rates as per person-years (py using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Our analysis includes 51,217 participants (median: age 33 years, range: 17–54 with a mean follow-up of 12.5 years. Yearly evaluation of the data gave a cumulative follow-up duration of 613,925 py. The incidence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia was 0.41, 0.23, and 0.12 per 1000 py, respectively. The incidence of thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and metabolic bone disorders was 3.9, 8.6, 1.6, 0.81, and 0.97 per 100,000 py, respectively. Conclusion: Our cohort had lower incidence rates of endocrine disorders when compared with the Western population. Long-term epidemiological studies are essential to identify the demographic trends of the endocrine disorders in India.

  14. Endocrine Hypertension | Elamin | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is noted in both adults and children but it is more relevant for children where it comes second to renal hypertension, the common cause of hypertension in that age group. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 3 (3) 2008: pp.

  15. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L

    2012-01-01

    An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variabili...

  16. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  17. Steroidogenesis in vitro : towards relevant models for endocrine disruptor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, M.J.E.

    2016-01-01

    Starting our search for in vitro alternative methods to screen for steroidogenesis toxicity, we focused on the effects of (suggested) endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme activity. CYP17 is responsible for conversion of progestagens to dehydroepiandrosterone

  18. Neuro-endocrine regulation of LH secretion in cyclic pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierx, J.

    1999-01-01

    The present thesis describes the study in the hormonal (endocrine) regulation of the fertility in the female pig. Fertility is optimal when during the reproductive cycle the concentrations of hormones change in a particular sequence. In the present thesis it has been shown that, amongst

  19. Persisting challenges in plasma endocrinology: reference values and endocrine tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Pereira Arias, A. M.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of plasma hormone concentrations is of fundamental importance for the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases. Although hormone analyses are performed in huge numbers in all hospitals on a daily basis, the interpretation of the resulting plasma hormone concentrations can be

  20. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  1. Environmental endocrine disruptors: Effects on the human male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, M F; Hasan, N; Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C

    2015-12-01

    Incidences of altered development and neoplasia of male reproductive organs have increased during the last 50 years, as shown by epidemiological data. These data are associated with the increased presence of environmental chemicals, specifically "endocrine disruptors," that interfere with normal hormonal action. Much research has gone into testing the effects of specific endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the development of male reproductive organs and endocrine-related cancers in both in vitro and in vivo models. Efforts have been made to bridge the accruing laboratory findings with the epidemiological data to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between EDCs, altered development and carcinogenesis. The ability of EDCs to predispose target fetal and adult tissues to neoplastic transformation is best explained under the framework of the tissue organization field theory of carcinogenesis (TOFT), which posits that carcinogenesis is development gone awry. Here, we focus on the available evidence, from both empirical and epidemiological studies, regarding the effects of EDCs on male reproductive development and carcinogenesis of endocrine target tissues. We also critique current research methodology utilized in the investigation of EDCs effects and outline what could possibly be done to address these obstacles moving forward.

  2. Endocrine control of epigenetic mechanisms in male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankolkar, Mandar; Balasinor, N H

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine control of reproduction is very well known and has been echoed by many research groups. However, recent developments point to the ability of toxic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) to alter epigenetic information of the gametes which gets transferred to the developing embryo and affects the immediate reproductive outcome or even persists transgenerationally. These epigenetic aberrations contribute to the ensuing pathophysiology of reproductive disorders. Investigations of the female in cases of poor reproductive outcome have been the main strategy towards diagnosis. However, despite the male partner contributing half of his genome to the progeny, thorough investigations in the male have been ignored. Environmental pollutants are all pervading and are encountered in our day-to-day life. Many of these pollutants have potential to disrupt the endocrine system. Here, we discuss how the male gametes (spermatozoa) are susceptible to a myriad of epigenetic insults inflicted by exposure to endocrine disruptors and how important is the contribution of the epigenetic marks of the spermatozoa in healthy reproduction. We advocate that sperm epigenetics should be considered as a significant contributor to reproductive health and should be researched further and be subsequently included in routine diagnostic workup in cases of poor reproductive outcome.

  3. Results of retrobulbar irradiation in case of benign endocrinous ophtalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, R.; Hassenstein, E.; Dausch, D.

    1981-01-01

    83 patients with a benign endocrinous opthalmopathy were submitted to radio-iodine and thyreostatic therapy and to high voltage therapy of the retrobulbar region. The opthalmologic controls showed that 30% of the treated patients had improved data and 70% had unchanged data. These results were independent from the individual radiation qualities used and the field sizes. (orig.) [de

  4. Sleep and Quality of Life in Endocrine Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise; Verster, Joris; PandiPerumal, S.R.; Streiner, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary It is well established that a close relationship exists between sleep and hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. Sleep has an electrophysiological component and an endocrine component, i.e., the distinct patterns of hormone secretion. Both the electrophysiological and the hormonal

  5. Imaging Finding of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, Tae Jun; Cho, Hee Woo

    2012-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with characteristic clinical and radiological manifestations. Many reports on MEN1 have been published; however, no cases of radiologically diagnosed MEN1 have been reported. Therefore, we report on a radiologically diagnosed case of MEN1 with clinical symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer.

  6. Metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects of critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F.M. Joosten (Koen)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 provides the aims of the studies (chapter 1) and a general overview and discussion of the current literature of metabolic, endocrine and nutritional aspects in critically ill children (chapter 2). In Part 2 the clinical use of an indirect calorimeter is tested and validated for

  7. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  8. The importance of computed tomography in diagnosis and therapy assessment in endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullerich, K.; Fischedick, O.; Uhlenbrock, D.; Rohwerder, R.; Staedtische Kliniken Dortmund

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography enables with combined evaluation of the transverse and coronary scans an accurate analysis of the changes in the extraocular muscles both topographically and quantitatively; furthermore, it enables an assessment of the protrusion of the eyeball, as well as of the interactions between the optic nerve and the orbital muscle at the apex of the orbita. The retraction of the upper eyelid and the motility blockades which are typical for endocrinal orbitopathy are caused by fibrosis of the levator muscle of the eyelid, of the musculus rectus inferior bulbi, of the inferior oblique muscle of the eyeball, and of the musculus rectus medialis bulbi. - Diagnosis of the thyroid metabolism by means of nuclear medicine affords further essential aids in the proper classification of the process. - In differential diagnosis, particular attention must be paid, first of all, to acute and chronic exophtalmic myositis, tumorous space-occupying growths in the retrobulbar region, as well as tumorous processes of the orbital margins. Here, too, computed tomography complements diagnosis via sonography and the conventional examination methods, yielding decisive additional information. Furthermore, the method is an important help in follow-up control and in the preparation of surgical procedures directed at relieving blockades of the ocular muscles. (orig.) [de

  9. Inhibition of connexin43 gap junction channels by the endocrine disruptor ioxynil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leithe, Edward; Kjenseth, Ane; Bruun, Jarle; Sirnes, Solveig; Rivedal, Edgar

    2010-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular plasma membrane domains containing channels that mediate transport of ions, metabolites and small signaling molecules between adjacent cells. Gap junctions play important roles in a variety of cellular processes, including regulation of cell growth and differentiation, maintenance of tissue homeostasis and embryogenesis. The constituents of gap junction channels are a family of trans-membrane proteins called connexins, of which the best-studied is connexin43. Connexin43 functions as a tumor suppressor protein in various tissue types and is frequently dysregulated in human cancers. The pesticide ioxynil has previously been shown to act as an endocrine disrupting chemical and has multiple effects on the thyroid axis. Furthermore, both ioxynil and its derivative ioxynil octanoate have been reported to induce tumors in animal bioassays. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the possible tumorigenic effects of these compounds are unknown. In the present study we show that ioxynil and ioxynil octanoate are strong inhibitors of connexin43 gap junction channels. Both compounds induced rapid loss of connexin43 gap junctions at the plasma membrane and increased connexin43 degradation. Ioxynil octanoate, but not ioxynil, was found to be a strong activator of ERK1/2. The compounds also had different effects on the phosphorylation status of connexin43. Taken together, the data show that ioxynil and ioxynil octanoate are potent inhibitors of intercellular communication via gap junctions.

  10. Endocrine disruptors and the breast: early life effects and later life disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macon, Madisa B; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future.

  11. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  12. Endocrine system on chip for a diabetes treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu

    2017-02-21

    The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.

  13. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. Copyright © 2015

  14. Genetics of Common Endocrine Disease: The Present and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mark O

    2016-03-01

    In honor of the 75th issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, the author was invited to present his perspectives on genetics in human endocrinology. This paper reviews what the field has achieved in the genetics of common endocrine disease, and offers predictions on where the field will move in the future and its impact on endocrine clinical practice. The October 2015 data release of the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute (NHGRI-EBI) Catalog of Published Genome-wide Association Studies was queried regarding endocrinologic diseases and traits. PubMed searches were focused on genetic prediction of disease, genetic findings and drug targets, functional interrogation of genetic loci, use of genetics to subtype disease, missing heritability, systems genomics, and higher order chromatin structures as regulators of gene function. Nearly a quarter of genome wide association study findings concern endocrinologic diseases and traits. While these findings have not yet dramatically altered clinical care, genetics will have a major impact by providing the drug targets of tomorrow, facilitated by experimental and bioinformatic advances that will shorten the time from gene discovery to drug development. Use of genetic findings to subtype common endocrine disease will allow more precise prevention and treatment efforts. Future advances will allow us to move away from the common view of DNA as a string of letters, allowing exploration of higher order structure that likely explains much "missing heritability." The future will see a greater role of genetics at the bedside, with genetic epidemiologic discoveries leading not only to new treatments of endocrine disease, but also helping us prescribe the right drug to the right patients by allowing subclassification of common heterogeneous endocrine conditions. Future technological breakthroughs will reveal the heritable mysteries hidden in chromatin structure, leading to a

  15. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami

    2015-01-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have ...

  16. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy James T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration. Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53; automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88, food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53, and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92. Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4 and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5. Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and

  17. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and

  18. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, James T; Keith, Margaret M; Watterson, Andrew; Park, Robert; Gilbertson, Michael; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Beck, Matthias; Abu-Zahra, Hakam; Schneider, Kenneth; Reinhartz, Abraham; Dematteo, Robert; Luginaah, Isaac

    2012-11-19

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case-control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration). Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82); bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53); automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88), food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53), and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92). Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4) and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5). These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and endocrine disruptors, and demonstrate the value of detailed work

  19. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Birla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.

  20. Stimulatory effects of combined endocrine disruptors on MA-10 Leydig cell steroid production and lipid homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Steven; Boisvert, Annie; Naghi, Andrada; Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Greimel, Peter; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Culty, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that in-utero exposure to a mixture of the phytoestrogen Genistein (GEN), and plasticizer DEHP, induces short- and long-term alterations in testicular gene and protein expression different from individual exposures. These studies identified fetal and adult Leydig cells as sensitive targets for low dose endocrine disruptor (ED) mixtures. To further investigate the direct effects and mechanisms of toxicity of GEN and DEHP, MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cells were exposed in-vitro to varying concentrations of GEN and MEHP, the principal bioactive metabolite of DEHP. Combined 10 μM GEN + 10 μM MEHP had a stimulatory effect on basal progesterone production. Consistent with increased androgenicity, the mRNA of steroidogenic and cholesterol mediators Star, Cyp11a, Srb1 and Hsl, as well as upstream orphan nuclear receptors Nr2f2 and Sf1 were all significantly increased uniquely in the mixture treatment group. Insl3, a sensitive marker of Leydig endocrine disruption and cell function, was significantly decreased by combined GEN + MEHP. Lipid analysis by high-performance thin layer chromatography demonstrated the ability of combined 10 μM combined GEN + MEHP, but not individual exposures, to increase levels of several neutral lipids and phospholipid classes, indicating a generalized deregulation of lipid homeostasis. Further investigation by qPCR analysis revealed a concomitant increase in cholesterol (Hmgcoa) and phospholipid (Srebp1c, Fasn) mediator mRNAs, suggesting the possible involvement of upstream LXRα agonism. These results suggest a deregulation of MA-10 Leydig function in response to a combination of GEN + MEHP. We propose a working model for GEN + MEHP doses relevant to human exposure involving LXR agonism and activation of other transcription factors. Taken more broadly, this research highlights the importance of assessing the impact of ED mixtures in multiple toxicological models across a range of environmentally

  1. Bicaudal C1 promotes pancreatic NEUROG3+ endocrine progenitor differentiation and ductal morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemaire, Laurence A; Goulley, Joan; Kim, Yung Hae

    2015-01-01

    that line the ducts during development, and in the ducts after birth, but not in differentiated endocrine or acinar cells. Genetic inactivation of Bicc1 leads to ductal cell over-proliferation and cyst formation. Transcriptome comparison between WT and Bicc1 KO pancreata, before the phenotype onset, reveals......(+) endocrine progenitor production. Its deletion leads to a late but sustained endocrine progenitor decrease, resulting in a 50% reduction of endocrine cells. We show that BICC1 functions downstream of ONECUT1 in the pathway controlling both NEUROG3(+) endocrine cell production and ductal morphogenesis...

  2. Higher risk of death among MEN1 patients with mutations in the JunD interacting domain: a Groupe d'etude des Tumeurs Endocrines (GTE) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Julien; Bourredjem, Abderrahmane; Faivre, Laurence; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Calender, Alain; Murat, Arnaud; Giraud, Sophie; Niccoli, Patricia; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Barlier, Anne; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Clauser, Eric; Tabarin, Antoine; Parfait, Béatrice; Chabre, Olivier; Castermans, Emilie; Beckers, Albert; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Le Bras, Morgane; Delemer, Brigitte; Bouchard, Philippe; Guilhem, Isabelle; Rohmer, Vincent; Goichot, Bernard; Caron, Philippe; Baudin, Eric; Chanson, Philippe; Groussin, Lionel; Du Boullay, Hélène; Weryha, Georges; Lecomte, Pierre; Penfornis, Alfred; Bihan, Hélène; Archambeaud, Françoise; Kerlan, Véronique; Duron, Françoise; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Vergès, Bruno; Rodier, Michel; Renard, Michel; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Binquet, Christine; Goudet, Pierre

    2013-05-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1), which is secondary to mutation of the MEN1 gene, is a rare autosomal-dominant disease that predisposes mutation carriers to endocrine tumors. Although genotype-phenotype studies have so far failed to identify any statistical correlations, some families harbor recurrent tumor patterns. The function of MENIN is unclear, but has been described through the discovery of its interacting partners. Mutations in the interacting domains of MENIN functional partners have been shown to directly alter its regulation abilities. We report on a cohort of MEN1 patients from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients with a molecular diagnosis and a clinical follow-up, totaling 262 families and 806 patients, were included. Associations between mutation type, location or interacting factors of the MENIN protein and death as well as the occurrence of MEN1-related tumors were tested using a frailty Cox model to adjust for potential heterogeneity across families. Accounting for the heterogeneity across families, the overall risk of death was significantly higher when mutations affected the JunD interacting domain (adjusted HR = 1.88: 95%-CI = 1.15-3.07). Patients had a higher risk of death from cancers of the MEN1 spectrum (HR = 2.34; 95%-CI = 1.23-4.43). This genotype-phenotype correlation study confirmed the lack of direct genotype-phenotype correlations. However, patients with mutations affecting the JunD interacting domain had a higher risk of death secondary to a MEN1 tumor and should thus be considered for surgical indications, genetic counseling and follow-up.

  3. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  4. Metastatic Insulinoma Following Resection of Nonsecreting Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoopa A. Koshy MD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman presented to our clinic for recurrent hypoglycemia after undergoing resection of an incidentally discovered nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumor 6 years ago. She underwent a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, after which she developed diabetes and was placed on an insulin pump. Pathology showed a pancreatic endocrine neoplasm with negative islet hormone immunostains. Two years later, computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed multiple liver lesions. Biopsy of a liver lesion showed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm, consistent with pancreatic origin. Six years later, she presented to clinic with 1.5 years of recurrent hypoglycemia. Laboratory results showed elevated proinsulin, insulin levels, and c-peptide levels during a hypoglycemic episode. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen redemonstrated multiple liver lesions. Repeated transarterial catheter chemoembolization and microwave thermal ablation controlled hypoglycemia. The unusual features of interest of this case include the transformation of nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumor to a metastatic insulinoma and the occurrence of atrial flutter after octreotide for treatment.

  5. Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals: Review of Toxicological Mechanisms Using Molecular Pathway Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Oneyeol; Kim, Hye Lim; Weon, Jong-Il; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are known to cause harmful effects to human through various exposure routes. These chemicals mainly appear to interfere with the endocrine or hormone systems. As importantly, numerous studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of endocrine disruptors can induce fatal disorders including obesity and cancer. Using diverse biological tools, the potential molecular mechanisms related with these diseases by exposure of endocrine disruptors. Recently, pathway analysis, a bioinformatics tool, is being widely used to predict the potential mechanism or biological network of certain chemicals. In this review, we initially summarize the major molecular mechanisms involved in the induction of the above mentioned diseases by endocrine disruptors. Additionally, we provide the potential markers and signaling mechanisms discovered via pathway analysis under exposure to representative endocrine disruptors, bisphenol, diethylhexylphthalate, and nonylphenol. The review emphasizes the importance of pathway analysis using bioinformatics to finding the specific mechanisms of toxic chemicals, including endocrine disruptors. PMID:25853100

  6. The 2017 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the pituitary gland: a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M Beatriz S

    2017-10-01

    The 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of endocrine tumors has been recently released. In this new edition, major changes are recommended in several areas of the classification of tumors of the anterior pituitary gland (adenophypophysis). The scope of the present manuscript is to summarize these recommended changes, emphasizing a few significant topics. These changes include the following: (1) a novel approach for classifying pituitary neuroendocrine tumors according to pituitary adenohypophyseal cell lineages; (2) changes to the histological grading of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors with the elimination of the term "atypical adenoma;" and (3) introduction of new entities like the pituitary blastoma and re-definition of old entities like the null-cell adenoma. This new classification is very practical and mostly based on immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones, pituitary-specific transcription factors, and other immunohistochemical markers commonly used in pathology practice, not requiring routine ultrastructural analysis of the tumors. Evaluation of tumor proliferation potential, by mitotic count and Ki-67 labeling index, and tumor invasion is strongly recommended on individual case basis to identify clinically aggressive adenomas. In addition, the classification offers the treating clinical team information on tumor prognosis by identifying specific variants of adenomas associated with an elevated risk for recurrence. Changes in the classification of non-neuroendocrine tumors are also proposed, in particular those tumors arising in the posterior pituitary including pituicytoma, granular cell tumor of the posterior pituitary, and spindle cell oncocytoma. These changes endorse those previously published in the 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors. Other tumors arising in the sellar region are also reviewed in detail including craniopharyngiomas, mesenchymal and stromal tumors, germ cell tumors, and hematopoietic tumors. It is

  7. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor - incidental finding during a follow-up CT for primary ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, D.; Balev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) are primary, usually we 11-differentiated pancreatic tumors. Their origin is not fully understood, but they are thought to develop from the pluripotent cells in the exocrine part of the pancreas. PNET are a heterogeneous group with different malignant potential. In some of the patients with sporadical forms of PNET there is association with other malignancies such as ovarian cancer, breast cancer, bladder and prostate cancers. We present a case of 50-year-old woman, with incidentally found pancreatic neoplasm, during a follow-up CT for ovarian cancer. Laparotomy and pancreatic biopsy are performed. Histological diagnosis confirms a well- differentiated endocrine tumor of the pancreas. (authors)

  8. Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immunology: A Psychobiological Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello M

    2017-01-01

    Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immunology (P.N.E.I.) is a scientific field of study that investigates the link between bidirectional communications among the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system and the correlations of this cross-talk with physical health. The P.N.E.I. innovative medical approach represents a paradigm shift from a strictly biomedical view of health and disease taken as hermetically sealed compartments to a more interdisciplinary one. The key element of P.N.E.I. approach is represented by the concept of bidirectional cross-talk between the psychoneuroendocrine and immune systems. The Low Dose Medicine is one of the most promising approaches able to allow the researchers to design innovative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of skin diseases based on the rebalance of the immune response.

  9. Endocrine responses to water restriction in desert sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Muna M.M.

    1994-01-01

    For ruminants grazing in semi-arid areas, the maintenance of balanced water and energy metabolism is challenging to productivity.The metabolic effects of water restriction usually stimulate endocrine which control metabolic activity depending on the thermal environment.Radioimmunoasay technique was used to determine the level of endocrine hormones, namely thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH),thyroxine(T4) and cortisol in desert sheep.Intermittent watering every 24h, 48h and 72h increased TSH level during the morning but decreased it during the afternoon.T4 level decreased during both morning and afternoon.The cortisol level was depressed by water restriction during the morning and afternoon but showed an overlapping pattern with that of the control during the afternoon. (Author)

  10. [Endocrine consequences in young adult survivors of childhood cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R

    2015-10-01

    Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Avian genomics lends insights into endocrine function in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, C V; Lovell, P V

    2018-01-15

    The genomics era has brought along the completed sequencing of a large number of bird genomes that cover a broad range of the avian phylogenetic tree (>30 orders), leading to major novel insights into avian biology and evolution. Among recent findings, the discovery that birds lack a large number of protein coding genes that are organized in highly conserved syntenic clusters in other vertebrates is very intriguing, given the physiological importance of many of these genes. A considerable number of them play prominent endocrine roles, suggesting that birds evolved compensatory genetic or physiological mechanisms that allowed them to survive and thrive in spite of these losses. While further studies are needed to establish the exact extent of avian gene losses, these findings point to birds as potentially highly relevant model organisms for exploring the genetic basis and possible therapeutic approaches for a wide range of endocrine functions and disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. International spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic extended data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, W A; Wecht, J M; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-01-01

    findings in the SCI population. SETTING: This study was conducted in an international setting. METHODS: The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group. The initial ISCIEMEDS was revised based on suggestions from members of the International SCI Data Sets Committee, the International Spinal Cord Society......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic...... (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations, societies and individual reviewers. The data set was posted for two months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. Variable names were standardized, and a suggested database...

  13. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carere

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  14. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carere, Claudio; Costantini, David; Sorace, Alberto; Santucci, Daniela; Alleva, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED) at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  15. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Piecha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1. This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.

  16. Chronology of endocrine differentiation and beta-cell neogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatsuka, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic and incurable disease, which results from absolute or relative insulin insufficiency. Therefore, pancreatic beta cells, which are the only type of cell that expresses insulin, is considered to be a potential target for the cure of diabetes. Although the findings regarding beta-cell neogenesis during pancreas development have been exploited to induce insulin-producing cells from non-beta cells, there are still many hurdles towards generating fully functional beta cells that can produce high levels of insulin and respond to physiological signals. To overcome these problems, a solid understanding of pancreas development and beta-cell formation is required, and several mouse models have been developed to reveal the unique features of each endocrine cell type at distinct developmental time points. Here I review our understanding of pancreas development and endocrine differentiation focusing on recent progresses in improving temporal cell labeling in vivo.

  17. Vitamin A, endocrine tissues and hormones: interplay and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brossaud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (retinol is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids target the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas. In the thyroid, retinoids interfere with iodine metabolism and vitamin A deficiency aggravates thyroid dysfunction caused by iodine-deficient diets. Retinoids use in thyroid cancer appears less promising than expected. Recent and still controversial studies investigated the relations between retinoids and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, retinoids contribute to pancreatic development and modify fat and glucose metabolism. However, more detailed studies are needed before planning any therapeutic use. Finally, retinoids probably play more minor roles in adrenal and gonads development and function apart from their major effects on spermatogenesis.

  18. Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie

    2010-01-01

    Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects. This paper critically discusses the conclusions of recent reviews and original research papers...... and provides an overview of studies on toxicokinetics. After dermal uptake, parabens are hydrolyzed and conjugated and excreted in urine. Despite high total dermal uptake of paraben and metabolites,little intact paraben can be recovered in blood and urine. Paraben metabolites may play a role in the endocrine...... disruption seen in experimental animals and studies are needed to determine human levels of parabens and metabolites. Overall, the estrogenic burden of parabens and their metabolites in blood may exceed the action of endogenous estradiol in childhood and the safety margin for propylparaben is very low when...

  19. EG-VEGF: a key endocrine factor in placental development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Sophie; Hoffmann, Pascale; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), also named prokineticin 1, is the canonical member of the prokineticin family. Numerous reports suggest a direct involvement of this peptide in normal and pathological reproductive processes. Recent advances propose EG-VEGF as a key endocrine factor that controls many aspects of placental development and suggest its involvement in the development of preeclampsia (PE), the most threatening pathology of human pregnancy. This review describes the finely tuned action and regulation of EG-VEGF throughout human pregnancy, argues for its clinical relevance as a potential diagnostic marker of the onset of PE, and discusses future research directions for therapeutic targeting of EG-VEGF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid

  1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Machens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.

  2. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves′ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman′s syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove′s syndrome, Cushing′s disease, and Addison′s disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner′s, Rothmund′s, and Klinefelter′s syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner′s, Cockayne′s, Wolfram′s, Kearns Sayre′s, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases.

  3. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  4. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  5. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  6. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  7. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  8. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  9. CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated endocrine differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chung-Kuang; Lai, Yi-Chyi; Lin, Yung-Fu; Chen, Hau-Ren; Chiang, Ming-Ko

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We identify CCAR1 to directly interact with Ngn3. ► CCAR1 is co-localized with Ngn3 in the nucleus. ► CCAR1 cooperates with Ngn3 in activating NeuroD expression. ► CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated PANC-1 transdifferentiation. -- Abstract: Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that specifies pancreatic endocrine cell fates during pancreas development. It can also initiate a transdifferentiation program when expressed in pancreatic exocrine and ductal cells. However, how Ngn3 initiates a transcriptional cascade to achieve endocrine differentiation is still poorly understood. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors, also interacts with Ngn3. The association between Ngn3 and CCAR1 was verified by pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Using gene reporter assays, we found that CCAR1 is essential for Ngn3 to activate the expression of the reporter genes containing the NeuroD promoter. Moreover, down-regulation of endogenous CCAR1 in the PANC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line inhibits the transdifferentiation program initiated by Ngn3. CCAR1 is, therefore, a novel partner of Ngn3 in mediating endocrine differentiation.

  10. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  11. Endocrine manifestations related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantyghem Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are recessive, genetically transmitted diseases and are classified into 3 main groups according to their mechanisms: cellular intoxication, energy deficiency, and defects of complex molecules. They can be associated with endocrine manifestations, which may be complications from a previously diagnosed IEM of childhood onset. More rarely, endocrinopathies can signal an IEM in adulthood, which should be suspected when an endocrine disorder is associated with multisystemic involvement (neurological, muscular, hepatic features, etc.. IEM can affect all glands, but diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism are the most frequent disorders. A single IEM can present with multiple endocrine dysfunctions, especially those involving energy deficiency (respiratory chain defects, and metal (hemochromatosis and storage disorders (cystinosis. Non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter and sometimes hypoparathyroidism should steer the diagnosis towards a respiratory chain defect. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is frequent in haemochromatosis (often associated with diabetes, whereas primary hypogonadism is reported in Alström disease and cystinosis (both associated with diabetes, the latter also with thyroid dysfunction and galactosemia. Hypogonadism is also frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (with adrenal failure, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and Fabry and glycogen storage diseases (along with thyroid dysfunction in the first 3 and diabetes in the last. This is a new and growing field and is not yet very well recognized in adulthood despite its consequences on growth, bone metabolism and fertility. For this reason, physicians managing adult patients should be aware of these diagnoses.

  12. Consensus models to predict endocrine disruption for all ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans are potentially exposed to tens of thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. It is well known that some environmental chemicals mimic natural hormones and thus have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these environmental chemicals have never been tested for their ability to disrupt the endocrine system, in particular, their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor. EPA needs tools to prioritize thousands of chemicals, for instance in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project (CERAPP) was intended to be a demonstration of the use of predictive computational models on HTS data including ToxCast and Tox21 assays to prioritize a large chemical universe of 32464 unique structures for one specific molecular target – the estrogen receptor. CERAPP combined multiple computational models for prediction of estrogen receptor activity, and used the predicted results to build a unique consensus model. Models were developed in collaboration between 17 groups in the U.S. and Europe and applied to predict the common set of chemicals. Structure-based techniques such as docking and several QSAR modeling approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1677 compounds provided by U.S. EPA, to build a total of 42 classification models and 8 regression models for binding, agonist and antagonist activity. All predictions were evaluated on ToxCast data and on an exte

  13. Association studies in common endocrine diseases (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akrami SM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the pathogenesis of endocrine disorders increase rapidly by genetic studies at the molecular level. Common endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and cancer follow the multifactorial model in the genetic aspect. This review tries to clarify the approach in molecular studies of such diseases for clinicians in different specialties. How to evaluate a possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism and an endocrinopathy or its complication is the main concern of this review. Two approaches for gene mapping will be discussed as well as main challenges regarding each approach. All such genetic studies ideally include some test of the association between genome sequence variation and the phenotype of interest such as the trait itself, the presence of a given complication, or measures of some endocrinopathy-related intermediate trait. Despite different advances in this analysis, there are major concerns regarding the overall performance and robustness of genetic association studies. By using powerful new high-throughput methods, further insights to molecular basis of such endocrine disorders can be expected. Close correlation between geneticists and clinicians can effectively bridge between basic sciences and clinical investigations.

  14. Phytochemicals for taming agitated immune-endocrine-neural axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema

    2017-07-01

    Homeostasis of immune-endocrine-neural axis is paramount for human health. If this axis gets agitated due to age, genetic variations, environmental exposures or lifestyle assaults, a cascade of adverse reactions occurs in human body. Cytokines, hormones and neurotransmitters, the effector molecules of this axis behave erratically, leading to a gamut of neural, endocrine, autoimmune, and metabolic diseases. Current panel of drugs can tackle some of them but not in a sustainable, benign way as a myriad of side effects, causal of them have been documented. In this context, phytochemicals, the secondary metabolites of plants seem beneficial. These bioactive constituents encompassing polyphenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, lignans, stilbenoids (resveratrol), saponins, polysaccharides, glycosides, and lectins etc. have been proven to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, dermatoprotective, and antimicrobial properties, among a litany of other biological effects. This review presents a holistic perspective of common afflictions resultant of immune-endocrine-neural axis disruption, and the phytochemicals capable of restoring their normalcy and mitigating the ailments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Epicardial adipose tissue in endocrine and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able to synthesize, produce, and secrete bioactive molecules which are then transported into the adjacent myocardium through vasocrine and/or paracrine pathways. Based on these evidences, epicardial adipose tissue can be considered an endocrine organ. Epicardial fat is also thought to provide direct heating to the myocardium and protect the heart during unfavorable hemodynamic conditions, such as ischemia or hypoxia. Epicardial fat has been suggested to play an independent role in the development and progression of obesity- and diabetes-related cardiac abnormalities. Clinically, the thickness of epicardial fat can be easily and accurately measured. Epicardial fat thickness can serve as marker of visceral adiposity and visceral fat changes during weight loss interventions and treatments with drugs targeting the fat. The potential of modulating the epicardial fat with targeted pharmacological agents can open new avenues in the pharmacotherapy of endocrine and metabolic diseases. This review article will provide Endocrine's reader with a focus on epicardial adipose tissue in endocrinology. Novel, established, but also speculative findings on epicardial fat will be discussed from the unexplored perspective of both clinical and basic Endocrinologist.

  16. Endocrine sequelae after radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couto-Silva, Ana Claudia; Adan, Luis Fernando; Brauner, Raja

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapy may result in endocrine abnormalities, osteoporosis, obesity and neurological sequelae in patients treated for cancer. In the hypothalamo-pituitary area, GH deficiency is the most frequent complication. The frequency, delay of appearance and severity of GH deficiency depend most on the dose delivered during cranial irradiation but variables as age at treatment and fractionation schedule may play an important role as well. Other hypothalamo-pituitary dysfunctions are also dose-dependent. Low dose cranial irradiation may induce precocious or early puberty, while high doses are related to gonadotropin deficiency. Endocrine complications due to extracranial irradiation such as gonadal or thyroid abnormalities are described. In spite of normal GH secretion, linear growth may be impaired by bone lesions secondary to craniospinal or total body irradiation. Results on final height have been optimized by better indicators of GH therapy associated with adequate treatment of early or precocious puberty. The purpose of this review is to explore the late endocrine sequelae of radiotherapy. (author)

  17. Precommitment low-level Neurog3 expression defines a long-lived mitotic endocrine-biased progenitor pool that drives production of endocrine-committed cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Matthew E.; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Hipkens, Susan B.; Ustione, Alessandro; Piston, David W.; Yang, Yu-Ping; Magnuson, Mark A.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2016-01-01

    The current model for endocrine cell specification in the pancreas invokes high-level production of the transcription factor Neurogenin 3 (Neurog3) in Sox9+ bipotent epithelial cells as the trigger for endocrine commitment, cell cycle exit, and rapid delamination toward proto-islet clusters. This model posits a transient Neurog3 expression state and short epithelial residence period. We show, however, that a Neurog3TA.LO cell population, defined as Neurog3 transcriptionally active and Sox9+ and often containing nonimmunodetectable Neurog3 protein, has a relatively high mitotic index and prolonged epithelial residency. We propose that this endocrine-biased mitotic progenitor state is functionally separated from a pro-ductal pool and endows them with long-term capacity to make endocrine fate-directed progeny. A novel BAC transgenic Neurog3 reporter detected two types of mitotic behavior in Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, associated with progenitor pool maintenance or derivation of endocrine-committed Neurog3HI cells, respectively. Moreover, limiting Neurog3 expression dramatically increased the proportional representation of Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO progenitors, with a doubling of its mitotic index relative to normal Neurog3 expression, suggesting that low Neurog3 expression is a defining feature of this cycling endocrine-biased state. We propose that Sox9+ Neurog3TA.LO endocrine-biased progenitors feed production of Neurog3HI endocrine-committed cells during pancreas organogenesis. PMID:27585590

  18. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  19. {sup 177}Lutetium-DOTATATE peptide radio-receptor therapy for patients with endocrine neoplasm and the individualized semi-automatic dosimetry. A retrospective analysis; {sup 177}Lutetium-DOTATATE-Peptid-Radio-Rezeptor-Therapie bei Patienten mit neuroendokrinen Neoplasien und die individualisierte, semi-automatische-Dosimetrie. Eine retrospektive Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeser, Anastassia

    2016-09-28

    The {sup 177}lutetium-DOTATATE peptide radio-receptor therapy is a promising approach for the palliative treatment of patients with inoperable endocrine neoplasm. The individually variable biological dispersion and the tumor uptake including the protection of critical organs require a precise and reliable organ and tumor dosimetry. The HERMES Hybrid dosimetry module has appeared as reliable and user-friendly tool for clinical application. The next step is supposed to by the complete integration of 3D SPECT imaging.

  20. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Herget, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions