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Sample records for endocrine tumors parathryoid

  1. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  2. Primary endocrine-secreting pancreatic tumors.

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    Macaron, C

    1980-04-01

    Insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), vipoma, somatostatinoma and a tumor that secretes human pancreatic polypeptide are the primary endocrine-secreting tumors of the pancreas. hormones are produced by specific tumor cell types and cause a variety of dramatic clinical pictures. Diagnosis often requires hormone assays. Computerized tomography may be helpful. Definitive surgical treatment is possible, but metastases may be present.

  3. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

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    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  4. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagusnerve

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from ...

  5. Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors

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    Reubi, J.C.

    1987-06-19

    Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively rare neoplasias that secrete large amounts of peptide hormones such as insulin, glucagon, gastrin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These substances are usually responsible for the distinct clinical features observed in patients with such tumors. Although most are relatively slow growing tumors, they may lead in early stages to dramatic symptoms such as hypoglycemia, gastric ulcerations, or watery diarrhea. Unfortunately they are often difficult to localize precisely at that stage. Somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide that inhibits peptide hormone release in various sites such as the pituitary, the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract, has been shown recently to have beneficial effects when given chronically in the form of a stable non-degradable octapeptide analogue (SMS 201-995) in such gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. This essay demonstrates with autoradiographic techniques the very high density of somatostatin receptors in one case of human gastrinoma. A hematoxylineosin-stained histologic section reveals a well-defined, 2-mm-long tumor surrounded by normal tissue. After incubation of the section with an iodinated somatostatin analogue (/sup 125/I-(Leu, D-Trp, Tyr)-somatostatin-28), the distribution of somatostatin receptors was visualized on tritium-sensitive films after a one-week exposure of the section in x-ray cassettes.

  6. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

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    Tonelli, Francesco, E-mail: f.tonelli@dfc.unifi.it; Giudici, Francesco [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Surgical Unit, Medical School, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy); Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School and Regional Centre for Hereditary Endocrine Tumors, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy)

    2012-05-07

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present.

  7. Gastroenteropancreatic endocrine tumors; Gastroenteropankreatische endokrine Tumoren

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    Schmid-Tannwald, C.; Schmid-Tannwald, C.M.; Reiser, M.F.; Berger, F. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) are a rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Only 2 % of gastrointestinal tumors belong to the group of neuroendocrine neoplasms. A wide spectrum of diagnostic imaging modalities is available: apart from ultrasound not only computed tomography (CT) but also magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT) play an important role in detection and staging of GEP-NETs. The PET-CT technique with somatostatin analogues is used for staging as well as for evaluation and monitoring of treatment with peptide radionuclide radiation therapy. According to the literature NETs of the small bowel with a size over 3 cm can be detected with a sensitivity of 84.7 % and a specificity of 96.6 % using CT enteroclysis and MR enteroclysis provides the detection of NETs of the small bowel in 93.3 % of cases. 'The sensitivity of MRI in detection of pancreatic NETs is between 74 % and 100 % and is, therefore, higher than CT. Detection of small primary tumors is carried out using PET-CT and seems to be the most sensitive imaging modality to identify the exact location. On the other hand MRI has to be regarded as the best imaging modality for detection of liver metastases compared to CT and PET-CT. The role of diagnostic imaging is to identify the exact location of the primary tumor and possible metastases, to define an appropriate therapy and to monitor treatment effects; however, the choice of the most appropriate diagnostic imaging modality varies depending on the location and type of the primary tumor. The GEP-NETs are predominantly well-vascularized; therefore, dual-phase CT/MR imaging with the arterial and venous phases after contrast media injection is mandatory for detection and localization of primary tumors and metastases. For whole body staging CT and PET-CT should be performed. (orig.) [German] Gastroenteropankreatische endokrine Tumoren bilden eine heterogene, seltene Tumorgruppe, die ca. 2

  8. Characteristics of the spontaneous gastric endocrine tumor of mastomys

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    Modlin, I.M.; Zucker, K.A.; Zdon, M.J.; Sussman, J.; Adrian, T.E.

    1988-03-01

    Mastomys is a rodent which has been reported to develop spontaneous antral endocrine tumors with acid hypersecretion and duodenal ulceration. This study documents the establishment of a breeding colony and the characterization of the tumors and their possible secretagogues. Parietal cell secretory characteristics were studied using isolated gastric glands (IGG) of both normal (n = 5) and tumor-bearing animals. Tumors (n = 6) and control gastric tissue samples were examined by light transmission microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Gastrin was measured by radioimmunoassay in both plasma and tissue. IGG were prepared by collagenase dispersion and acid sequestration assessed by (/sup 14/C)AP accumulation. Secretory mechanisms of this species were identified by establishment of a histamine dose-response curve and use of 8-bromo-cAMP. Receptor and proton pump inhibitions were assessed using cimetidine (10(-5)M) and the H/K ATPase inhibitor omeprazole (10(-5). Both reduced (/sup 14/C)AP accumulation significantly (P less than 0.05). 8-Bromo-cAMP and histamine significantly stimulated (/sup 14/C)AP accumulation (P less than 0.05). Although parietal cells were substantially increased in tumor animals as compared to controls, the physiological parameters of acid secretion appeared normal in both and were comparable to other species which have been studied. Tumors were Grimelius positive and contained diffuse electron-dense granules. Immunohistochemistry was negative for gastrin, bombesin, serotonin, neuron-specific enolase, calcitonin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Tumor histamine-like immunoreactivity was, however, positive. Normal stomach contained 1001 +/- 185 compared to less than 0.5 pmole/g gastrin in tumors. Plasma gastrin was normal in both groups (29 +/- 5) as compared to 26 +/- 8 pmole/liter.

  9. A Novel Germline CDKN1B Mutation Causing Multiple Endocrine Tumors: Clinical, Genetic and Functional Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Molatore, Sara; Marinoni, Ilaria; Lee, Misu; Pulz, Elke; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Pellegata, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are characterized by tumors involving two or more endocrine glands. Two MEN syndromes have long been known: MEN1 and MEN2, caused by germline mutations in MEN1 or RET, respectively. Recently, mutations in CDKN1B, encoding the cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27, were identified in patients having a MEN1-like phenotype but no MEN1 gene mutations. Currently, the molecular mechanisms mediating the role of p27 in tumor predi...

  10. The PI3K/Akt pathway in tumors of endocrine tissues

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    Helen Louise Robbins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway is a key driver in carcinogenesis. Defects in this pathway in human cancer syndromes such as Cowden’s disease and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia result in tumors of endocrine tissues, highlighting its importance in these cancer types. This review explores the growing evidence from multiple animal and in vitro models and from analysis of human tumors for the involvement of this pathway in the following: thyroid carcinoma subtypes, parathyroid carcinoma, pituitary tumors, adrenocortical carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma, neuroblastoma, and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Whilst data are not always consistent, immunohistochemistry performed on human tumor tissue has been used alongside other techniques to demonstrate Akt overactivation. We review active Akt as a potential prognostic marker and the PI3K pathway as a therapeutic target in endocrine neoplasia.

  11. Early development of endocrine and metabolic consequences after treatment of central nervous system tumors in children

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    Eglė Ramanauskienė

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Survivors of brain tumors suffer from numerous endocrine and metabolic consequences, majority of them developing within the first 5 years after brain tumor therapy. An active follow-up aiming for early diagnosis and therapy is essential for improvement of quality of life in these patients.

  12. Synchronous adrenocortical neoplasms, paragangliomas, and pheochromocytomas: syndromic considerations regarding an unusual constellation of endocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Melissa; Tabrizi, Mohsen; Kapsner, Patricia; Hanson, Joshua Anspach

    2014-12-01

    The most common clinical syndromes presenting with paragangliomas and/or pheochromocytomas as their endocrine components are multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, Carney-Stratakis syndrome, Carney triad, and the recently described hereditary paraganglioma syndrome. Only Carney triad is known to also present with adrenocortical adenomas, currently representing the only described syndrome in which all 3 of the aforementioned tumors are found together. In most cases, prototypical lesions of the triad such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor and pulmonary chondromas are also seen. We present a case of a young woman with synchronous paragangliomas, adrenal/extra-adrenal cortical neoplasms, and pheochromocytoma without genetic mutations for multiple endocrine neoplasia 2, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis, and succinate dehydrogenase. We speculate that this represents a previously undescribed presentation of Carney triad and, at the very least, indicates the need for monitoring for the development of other tumors of the triad. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Pancreatic polypeptide secreting endocrine pancreas tumor associated with multiple stomach and duodenal ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, U M; Jäger, H J; Klöppel, G; Hasse, F M

    1997-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman presented with multiple gastroduodenal ulcera caused by a pancreatic polypeptidoma (PPoma) without hypergastrinemia or gastrin-producing tumor cells. After curative resection of the neoplasm, the clinical symptoms disappeared and the patient has now been disease-free for 6 years. We conclude that patients with non-gastrin-producing endocrine pancreatic tumors may demonstrate the clinical features of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and should be included in the differential diagnosis of this syndrome.

  14. Visual outcome, endocrine function and tumor control after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy of craniopharyngiomas in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine visual outcome, endocrine function and tumor control in a prospective cohort of craniopharyngioma patients, treated with fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen adult patients with craniopharyngiomas were...... eligible for analysis. They were treated with linear accelerator-based FSRT during 1999-2015. In all cases, diagnosis was confirmed by histological analysis. The prescription dose to the tumor was 54 Gy (median, range 48-54) in 1.8 or 2.0 Gy per fraction, and the maximum radiation dose to the optic nerves.......7-13.1) for visual outcome, endocrine function, and tumor control, respectively. RESULTS: Visual acuity impairment was present in 10 patients (62.5%) and visual field defects were present in 12 patients (75%) before FSRT. One patient developed radiation-induced optic neuropathy at seven years after FSRT. Thirteen...

  15. Pancreatic endocrine tumors or apudomas Tumores endocrinos o apudomas pancreáticos

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    Modesto Varas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET are difficult to diagnose. Their accurate localization using imaging techniques is intended to provide a definite cure. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a PET series from a private institution. Patients and methods: the medical records of 19 patients with PETs were reviewed, including 4 cases of MEN-1, for a period of 17 years (1994-2010. A database was set up with ten parameters: age, sex, symptoms, imaging techniques, size and location in the pancreas, metastasis, surgery, complications, adjuvant therapies, definite diagnosis, and survival or death. Results: a total of 19 cases were analyzed. Mean age at presentation was 51 years (range: 26-67 y (14 males, 5 females, and tumor size was 5 to 80 mm (X: 20 mm. Metastatic disease was present in 37% (7/19. Most underwent the following imaging techniques: ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Fine needle aspiration punction (FNA was performed for the primary tumor in 4 cases. Non-functioning: 7 cases (37%, insulinoma: 2 cases [1 with possible multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN], Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES from gastrinoma: 5 (3 with MEN-1, glucagonoma: 2 cases, 2 somatostatinomas; carcinoid: 1 case with carcinoide-like syndrome. Most patients were operated upon: 14/19 (73%. Four (4/14: 28% has postoperative complications following pancreatectomy: pancreatitis, pseudocyst, and abdominal collections. Some patients received chemotherapy (4, somatostatin (3 and interferon (2 before or after surgery. Median follow-up was 48 months. Actuarial survival during the study was 73.6% (14/19. Conclusions: age was similar to that described in the literature. Males were predominant. Most cases were non-functioning (37%. Most patients underwent surgery (73% with little morbidity (28% and an actuarial survival of 73.6% at the time of the study.Introducción y objetivo: los tumores endocrinos pancre

  16. Characterization of a naturally-occurring p27 mutation predisposing to multiple endocrine tumors

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    Pulz Elke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background p27Kip1 (p27 is an important negative regulator of the cell cycle and a putative tumor suppressor. The finding that a spontaneous germline frameshift mutation in Cdkn1b (encoding p27 causes the MENX multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome in the rat provided the first evidence that Cdkn1b is a tumor susceptibility gene for endocrine tumors. Noteworthy, germline p27 mutations were also identified in human patients presenting with endocrine tumors. At present, it is not clear which features of p27 are crucial for this tissue-specific tumor predisposition in both rats and humans. It was shown that the MENX-associated Cdkn1b mutation causes reduced expression of the encoded protein, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. To better understand the role of p27 in tumor predisposition and to characterize the MENX animal model at the molecular level, a prerequisite for future preclinical studies, we set out to assess the functional properties of the MENX-associated p27 mutant protein (named p27fs177 in vitro and in vivo. Results In vitro, p27fs177 retains some properties of the wild-type p27 (p27wt protein: it localizes to the nucleus; it interacts with cyclin-dependent kinases and, to lower extent, with cyclins. In contrast to p27wt, p27fs177 is highly unstable and rapidly degraded in every phase of the cell-cycle, including quiescence. It is in part degraded by Skp2-dependent proteasomal proteolysis, similarly to p27wt. Photobleaching studies showed reduced motility of p27fs177 in the nucleus compared to p27wt, suggesting that in this compartment p27fs177 is part of a multi-protein complex, likely together with the degradation machinery. Studies of primary rat newborn fibroblasts (RNF established from normal and MENX-affected littermates confirmed the rapid degradation of p27fs177 in vivo which can be rescued by Bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor drug. Overexpression of the negative regulators microRNA-221/222 plays no role in

  17. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Prognostic value of WHO grade in pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 : Results from the DutchMEN1 Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conemans, Elfi B.; Brosens, Lodewijk A. A.; Raicu-Ionita, Gabriela M.; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Hermus, Ad R.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Drent, Madeleine L.; Timmers, H. Th Marc; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Valk, Gerlof D.; Vriens, Menno R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prognostic value of WHO grade in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) in patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) is unknown. Methods: We performed a cohort study using the Dutch National MEN1 database, which includes >90% of the Dutch MEN1 population with data

  19. Surgical management of pancreatico-duodenal tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1

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    Göran Åkerström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatico-duodenal tumors are the second most common endocrinopathy in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1, and have a pronounced effect on life expectancy as the principal cause of disease-related death. Previous discussions about surgical management have focused mainly on syndromes of hormone excess and, in particular, the management of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1-related Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Since hormonal syndromes tend to occur late and indicate the presence of metastases, screening with biochemical markers and endoscopic ultrasound is recommended for early detection of pancreatico-duodenal tumors, and with early surgery before metastases have developed. Surgery is recommended in patients with or without hormonal syndromes in the absence of disseminated liver metastases. The suggested operation includes distal 80% subtotal pancreatic resection together with enucleation of tumors in the head of the pancreas, and in cases with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, excision of duodenal gastrinomas together with clearance of regional lymph node metastases. This strategy, with early and aggressive surgery before metastases have developed, is believed to reduce the risks for tumor recurrence and malignant progression.

  20. Zebrafish in Translational Cancer Research: Insight into Leukemia, Melanoma, Glioma and Endocrine Tumor Biology

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    Aurora Irene Idilli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 15 years, zebrafish have emerged as a powerful tool for studying human cancers. Transgenic techniques have been employed to model different types of tumors, including leukemia, melanoma, glioblastoma and endocrine tumors. These models present histopathological and molecular conservation with their human cancer counterparts and have been fundamental for understanding mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression. Moreover, xenotransplantation of human cancer cells in embryos or adult zebrafish offers the advantage of studying the behavior of human cancer cells in a live organism. Chemical-genetic screens using zebrafish embryos have uncovered novel druggable pathways and new therapeutic strategies, some of which are now tested in clinical trials. In this review, we will report on recent advances in using zebrafish as a model in cancer studies—with specific focus on four cancer types—where zebrafish has contributed to novel discoveries or approaches to novel therapies.

  1. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors.

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    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami; Ripoche, Doriane; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Chen, Yuan-Jia; Rehfeld, Jens F; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Pattou, François; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Bertolino, Philippe; Zhang, Chang Xian

    2015-10-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have migrated from the duodenum. In the current study, we further characterized previously described transient pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells using cell lineage tracing in a pan-pancreatic progenitor and a pancreatic endocrine progenitor model. We provide evidence showing that pancreatic gastrin-expressing cells, found from embryonic day 12.5 until postnatal day 7, are derived from pancreatic Ptf1a(+) and neurogenin 3-expressing (Ngn3(+)) progenitors. Importantly, the majority of them coexpress glucagon, with 4% coexpressing insulin, indicating that they are a temporary subpopulation of both alpha and beta cells. Interestingly, Men1 disruption in both Ngn3 progenitors and beta and alpha cells resulted in the development of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors, suggesting that the latter developed from islet cells. Finally, we detected gastrin expression using three human cohorts with pancreatic endocrine tumors (pNETs) that have not been diagnosed as gastrinomas (in 9/34 pNETs from 6/14 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in 5/35 sporadic nonfunctioning pNETs, and in 2/20 sporadic insulinomas), consistent with observations made in mouse models. Our work provides insight into the histogenesis of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Cystic degeneration of neuro endocrine tumor of pancreas and Crohn's disease: true or coincidental association?

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    Hedfi, Mohamed; Abbasi, Imed; Intissar, Chibani; Salwa, Ammar; Chouchen, Adnen

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) or islet cell tumors are rare lesions, the incidence of which is estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 person-years in the general population. PETs can be divided into functional (exhibit a distinct clinical syndrome due to hormone hypersecretion) and non-functional tumors. The majority of PETs are non-functional. In spite of their rarity, cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are characterized by existing or potential malignancy that cannot be ignored during decisive process with regard to the choice of treatment. The purpose of this workis to find an association with Crohn's disease and cystic degeneration of a neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas. Crohn's disease may affect extraintestinal organs, including the pancreas. In such cases, It seems certain that many patients diagnosed with Crohn disease (CD) are predisposed to a wider spectrum of cancers. We present a case of pancreatic cyst with no typical features of pseudocyst in the medical interview, with history of Crohn's disease, treated by caudal pancreatectomy. We tried to evaluate the clinical and morphological features of so-called cystic neoplasms associated with inflammatory bowel disease and to define their pathological characteristics.

  3. Autoimmune pancreatitis with atypical imaging findings that mimicked an endocrine tumor

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    Neuzillet, Cindy; Lepère, Céline; Hajjam, Mostafa El; Palazzo, Laurent; Fabre, Monique; Turki, Hajer; Hammel, Pascal; Rougier, Philippe; Mitry, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis in middle-aged patients, and is characterised by a marked infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in pancreatic tissue. Diagnosis of focal forms can be difficult as AIP may mimic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pediatric cases of AIP are exceptional. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl who had a focal AIP and associated cholangitis, with a very unusual vascularized mass that mimicked a pancreatic endocrine tumor. The diagnosis was obtained by a pancreatic biopsy, thus avoiding surgical resection, and all the clinical, biological and radiological abnormalities resolved after steroid therapy with 6 mo of follow-up. PMID:20556844

  4. Trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization as first-line treatment for hepatic metastases from endocrine tumors

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    Roche, Alain; Girish, Baragur V.; de Baere, Thierry [Service de Radiologie Interventionnelle, Institut Gustave Roussy, rue Camille Desmoulins 39, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Baudin, Eric; Schlumberger, Martin [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Institut Gustave Roussy, rue Camille Desmoulins 39, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Boige, Valerie; Ducreux, Michel [Service d' Oncologie Digestive, Institut Gustave Roussy, rue Camille Desmoulins 39, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Elias, Dominique; Lasser, Philippe [Service de Chirurgie Digestive, Institut Gustave Roussy, rue Camille Desmoulins 39, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to report the outcome in patients with liver metastasis from endocrine tumors who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as first-line non-surgical treatment. From January 1990 to December 2000, 14 patients with progressive unresectable liver metastases from digestive neuroendocrine tumor were treated with TACE (mean of 3.6 sessions) before any non-surgical treatment (somatostatin analogue, chemotherapy or interferon). Liver involvement was less than 50% in 11 patients. Size of the largest lesion ranged from 1.5 to 10 cm. Ten patients presented with carcinoid symptoms. The TACE was performed with Doxorubicin emulsified in Lipiodol and gelatin sponge particles. Symptomatic response upon flushes and/or diarrhea was complete in 7 of 10 cases and partial in 2 of 10 cases. An objective morphologic response was noted in 12 of 14 cases. The 5- and 10-year survival rate from diagnosis was 83 and 56%, respectively. Six patients were alive at the end of the study after 27-100 months from first TACE and 38-142 months from diagnosis. Three of them were successfully palliated for 55, 69, and 100 months with only TACE as treatment. Long-term palliation is possible in unresectable liver metastases from digestive neuroendocrine tumors with a few sessions of TACE as first-line and eventually exclusive treatment. (orig.)

  5. In vitro and in vivo studies with [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine on digestive tumoral cell lines and in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejjari, Mimoun [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Laboratoire CREATIS-ANIMAGE UMR 5515 Cnrs-U630 Inserm-Insa de Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Kryza, David [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Poncet, Gilles [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Roche, Colette [Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Perek, Nathalie [Departement de Biophysique, Faculte de Medecine J. Lisfranc, 42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Chayvialle, Jean-Alain [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Le Bars, Didier [Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); CERMEP, 59 Boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron Cedex (France); Scoazec, Jean-Yves [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Inserm U865, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Janier, Marc [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Laboratoire CREATIS-ANIMAGE UMR 5515 Cnrs-U630 Inserm-Insa de Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Borson-Chazot, Francoise [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Quai des Celestins, 69002 Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Federation Sante, Domaine Rockefeller, 69008 Lyon (France); Inserm U664, Faculte de Medecine RTH Laennec, 69008 Lyon (France)], E-mail: francoise.borson-chazot@chu-lyon.fr

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate (a) in vitro the relationship between [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine ([{sup 18}F]FCH) uptake and cell growth in endocrine cell lines and (b) in vivo the uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH by tumoral sites in an animal model of metastasized endocrine tumor. Methods: In vitro studies were conducted on three endocrine and two nonendocrine digestive tumoral cell lines. The proliferative ratio was estimated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH and that of [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) were measured before and after cytotoxic therapy. [{sup 18}F]FCH biodistribution was studied in nude mice and in an endocrine xenografted mice model. Results: The [{sup 18}F]FCH uptake in tumoral cell lines was related to their proliferative capacities as measured by the MTT assay in basal conditions. After cytotoxic therapy, the IC{sub 50} values calculated with the [{sup 18}F]FCH incorporation test were very close to those determined with the MTT assay. Biodistribution studies showed that [{sup 18}F]FCH was predominantly concentrated in the liver and kidney of nude mice. In the STC-1 xenografted animal model, the uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in the primary tumor was only 1.1%. On autoradiography and micro-positron emission tomography, there was no uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in liver metastases but there was a significant uptake of [{sup 18}F]FDG. Conclusions: In vitro studies suggested that the incorporation of [{sup 18}F]FCH in endocrine tumor cell lines was related to their growth capacities; however, in vivo studies conducted in an endocrine xenografted animal model showed an uptake of [{sup 18}F]FCH in hepatic metastases lower than that in normal liver cells. An influence of the microenvironment or a competition phenomenon for [{sup 18}F]FCH uptake between normal liver and endocrine tumor cells cannot be excluded.

  6. Endocrine and visual function after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of perioptic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, M.; Semrau, R.; Mueller, R.P. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Treuer, H.; Hoevels, M.; Sturm, V. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Stereotaxy and Functional Neurosurgery

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To find out whether the use of stereotactic techniques for fractionated radiotherapy reduces toxicity to the endocrine and visual system in patients with benign perioptic tumors. Patients and methods: From 1993 to 2009, 29 patients were treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The most frequent tumor types were grade I meningioma (n = 11) and pituitary adenoma (n = 10, 7 nonfunctioning, 3 growth hormone-producing). Patients were immobilized with the GTC frame (Radionics, USA) and the planning target volume (PTV; median 24.7, 4.6-58.6 ml) was irradiated with a total dose of 52.2 Gy (range, 45.0-55.8 Gy) in 1.8-Gy fractions using a linear accelerator (6 MeV photons) equipped with a micro-multileaf collimator. Maximum doses to the optic system and pituitary gland were 53.4 Gy (range, 11.5-57.6 Gy) and 53.6 Gy (range, 12.0-57.9 Gy). Results: Median follow-up was 45 months (range, 10-105 months). Local control was achieved in all but 1 patient (actuarial rate 92% at 5 years and 10 years). In 9 of 29 patients (31%), partial remission was observed (actuarial response rate 40% at 5 years and 10 years). In 4 of 26 patients (15%) with at least partial pituitary function, new hormonal deficits developed (actuarial rate 21% at 5 years and 10 years). This rate was significantly higher in patients treated for a larger PTV ( 25 ml: 0% vs. 42% at 5 years and 10 years, p = 0.028). Visual function improved in 4 of 15 patients (27%) who had prior impairment. None of the patients developed treatment-related optic neuropathy, but 2 patients experienced new disease-related visual deficits. Conclusion: Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for benign tumors of the perioptic and sellar region results in satisfactory response and local control rates and does not affect the visual system. The assumption that patients can be spared hypophyseal insufficiency only holds for small tumors. (orig.)

  7. Improved Benefit of SPECT/CT Compared to SPECT Alone for the Accurate Localization of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca G. Bural

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the clinical utility of SPECT/ CT in subjects with endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors compared to SPECT alone. Material and Methods: 48 subjects (31 women;17 men; mean age 54±11 with clinical suspicion or diagnosis of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumor had 50 SPECT/CT scans (32 Tc-99m MIBI, 5 post treatment I-131, 8 In-111 Pentetreotide, and 5 I-123 MIBG. SPECT alone findings were compared to SPECT/CT and to pathology or radiological follow up. Results: From the 32 Tc-99m MIBI scans, SPECT accurately localized the lesion in 22 positive subjects while SPECT/CT did in 31 subjects. Parathyroid lesions not seen on SPECT alone were smaller than 10 mm. In five post treatment I-131 scans, SPECT alone neither characterized, nor localized any lesions accurately. SPECT/CT revealed 3 benign etiologies, a metastatic lymph node, and one equivocal lesion. In 8 In-111 Pentetreotide scans, SPECT alone could not localize primary or metastatic lesions in 6 subjects all of which were localized with SPECT/CT. In five I-123 MIBG scans, SPECT alone could not detect a 1.1 cm adrenal lesion or correctly characterize normal physiologic adrenal uptake in consecutive scans of the same patient with prior history of adrenelectomy, all of which were correctly localized and characterized with SPECT/CT. Conclusion: SPECT/CT is superior to SPECT alone in the assessment of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors. It is better in lesion localization and lesion characterization leading to a decrease in the number of equivocal findings. SPECT/CT should be included in the clinical work up of all patients with diagnosis or suspicion of endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:91-96

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 1 immunoreactivity in gastroentero-pancreatic endocrine tumors: a light- and electron-microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissele, R; Göke, R; Weichardt, U; Fehmann, H C; Arnold, R; Göke, B

    1994-06-01

    The preproglucagon gene encodes, in addition to glucagon, two smaller peptides with structural similarity: glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) 7-36 amide is the most powerful incretin candidate. In the present study, GLP-1 immunoreactivity was investigated in tissue specimens of various types of gastroenteropancreatic tumors, and the serum-levels of GLP-1 were assayed. Immunohistochemical staining of 88 tumors revealed GLP-1 immunoreactivity in 17 neoplasias (19.3%), viz., in 7 out of 33 non-functioning tumors, 4 out of 20 gastrinomas, 4 out of 13 insulinomas, 1 out of 3 vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide (VIP)omas and 1 adrenocorticotropic-hormone (ACTH)-producing tumor. In these tumors, GLP-1-immunoreactive cells were distributed either diffusely, arranged in clusters, or as single cells. All GLP-1-positive tumors were immunoreactive for glucagon or glicentin, 10 tumors were immunoreactive for pancreatic polypeptide, and 8 tumors for insulin. Ultrastructural analysis of 8 GLP-1-positive tumors, with the immunogold technique, demonstrated GLP-1 immunoreactivity mainly in cells resembling the A-cells of the pancreas or the L-cells of the gut. Of the 17 GLP-1-immunoreactive tumors, 15 were primarily located in the pancreas. Additionally, 2 non-functioning tumors of the rectum were GLP-1 immunoreactive. Five tumors were GLP-1 immunoreactive from 9 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia I syndrome. Patients with GLP-1-immunoreactive tumors were characterized by a significantly lower rate of distant metastases (P < 0.01) and a higher rate of curative resections (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Lack of mutations of exon 2 of the MEN1 gene in endocrine and nonendocrine sporadic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa S.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the mutations that underlie most cases of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 syndrome, somatic mutations of the MEN1 gene have also been described in sporadic tumors like gastrinomas, insulinomas and bronchial carcinoid neoplasm. We examined exon 2 of this gene, where most of the mutations have been described, in 148 endocrine and nonendocrine sporadic tumors. DNA was obtained by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation from 92 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples, and from 40 fresh tumor tissue samples. We used 5 pairs of primers to encompass the complete coding sequence of exon 2 of the MEN1 gene that was screened by the polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP technique in 78 sporadic thyroid cancers: 28 follicular adenomas, 35 papillary carcinomas, 14 follicular carcinomas, and 1 anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. We also examined 46 adrenal lesions (3 hyperplasias, 3 adenomas and 35 adrenocortical carcinomas, 2 pheochromocytomas, 2 ganglioneuroblastomas, and 1 lymphoma and 24 breast cancers (6 noninvasive, 16 infiltrating ductal, and 2 invasive lobular tumors. The PCR product of 5 tumors suspected to present band shifts by SSCP was cloned. Direct sense and antisense sequencing did not identify mutations. These results suggest that the MEN1 gene is not important in breast, thyroid or adrenal sporadic tumorigenesis. Because the frequency of mutations varies significantly among tumor subgroups and allelic deletions are frequently observed at 11q13 in thyroid and adrenal cancers, another tumor suppressor gene residing in this region is likely to be involved in the tumorigenesis of these neoplasms.

  10. [Increase of alpha-fetoprotein in pancreatic endocrine tumors with hepatic metastases. Apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, G; Bergemer, A M; Turner, L; Parlier, H; Bernades, P; Dupuy, P

    1996-03-01

    We report two cases of metastatic non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumour with very elevated plasma levels of alpha-fetoprotein. In these two cases, serial plasma levels of alpha-fetoprotein, initially normal, correlated well with hepatic tumour progression and were associated with fatal outcome. These results suggest that elevated plasma concentration of alpha-fetoprotein may be caused by metastatic pancreatic endocrine tumour and than alpha-fetoprotein serial measurement may be useful in prognostic evaluation.

  11. Ependymoma and Carcinoid Tumor Associated with Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma in a Patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Spaulding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian teratomas rarely undergo new neoplastic transformation and account for a small percentage of malignant ovarian germ cell neoplasms. Here we report a case of a 51-year-old woman with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I who was found to have an ependymoma and neuroendocrine tumor (trabecular carcinoid associated with mature cystic teratoma of her left ovary. The ependymoma component displayed cells with round nuclei and occasional small nucleoli which were focally arranged in perivascular pseudorosettes and true rosettes. Rare mitoses were identified. No necrosis was present. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for S-100 and GFAP. The Ki67 proliferation index was very low (2-3%. In contrast, the endocrine tumor component was composed of small uniform cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei, and speckled chromatin. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin and focally positive for chromogranin. This rare case illustrates that MEN I may have an influence on the pathogenesis of ovarian teratomas as they undergo malignant transformation.

  12. [Two cases of a nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumor found on a medical checkup].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nio, Kouki; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Yamashita, Taro; Kagaya, Takashi; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Sakai, Akito; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Honda, Masao; Kaneko, Shuichi; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Ohta, Tetsuo; Zen, Yo

    2009-04-01

    Case 1) A 35-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for detailed examination of a 50-mm pancreas head tumor with surrounding lymph node swelling detected on medical checkup images. Ultrasound-guided lymph node biopsy specimens gave a diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer, and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy was given after surgical resection of the tumor. Case 2) A 52-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for detailed examination of an 18-mm pancreas head tumor detected by medical checkup FDG-PET images. Imaging tests gave a diagnosis of a nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor. He underwent surgical resection, and the tumor was diagnosed as benign pathologically. Both cases showed FDG-PET accumulation in the tumors irrespective of their malignant or benign nature. Increased prevalence of FDG-PET checkup may increase the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in asymptomatic subjects.

  13. A possible new syndrome with double endocrine tumors in association with an unprecedented type of familial heart-hand syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamagishi Masakazu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The combination of a pituitary prolactinoma and an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma is extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, double endocrine tumors in association with heart-hand syndrome have not previously been reported. Case presentation A 21-year-old Japanese woman presented with galactorrhea and decreased visual acuity. A large pituitary adenoma with an increased level of serum prolactin was apparent by computed tomography. She additionally showed mild hypertension (136/90 mmHg accompanied by hypokalemia. The plasma aldosterone concentration was increased. Computed tomography showed a mass in the right adrenal gland. No other tumors were found despite extensive imaging studies. Physical and radiographic examinations showed skeletal malformations of the hands and feet, including hypoplasia of the first digit in all four limbs. An atrial septal defect was demonstrated by echocardiography. Similar digital and cardiac abnormalities were detected in our patient's father, and a clinical diagnosis of hereditary heart-hand syndrome was made. Conclusion No established heart-hand syndrome was wholly compatible with the family's phenotype. Her father had no obvious endocrine tumors, implying that the parent of transmission determined variable phenotypic expression of the disease: heart-hand syndrome with multiple endocrine tumors from the paternal transmission or no endocrine tumor from the maternal transmission. This suggests that the gene or genes responsible for the disease may be under tissue-specific imprinting control.

  14. Preoperative Imaging Overestimates the Tumor Size in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Associated with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenta, V; Slater, E P; Kann, P H; Albers, M B; Manoharan, J; Ramaswamy, A; Mahnken, A H; Bartsch, D K

    2017-10-26

    Radiological tumor size of non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (Nf-pNENs) associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a crucial parameter to indicate surgery. The aim of this study was to compare radiological size (RS) and pathologic size (PS) of MEN1 associated with pNENs. Prospectively collected data of MEN1 patients who underwent pancreatic resections for pNENs were retrospectively analyzed. RS was defined as the largest tumor diameter measured on endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). PS was defined as the largest tumor diameter on pathological analysis. Student's t test and linear regression analysis were used to compare the median RS and PS. p  20 mm had in reality a PS < 20 mm. MRI was the imaging technique that best correlated with PS in the total cohort (r = 0.8; p < 0.0001), whereas EUS was the best correlating imaging tool in pNENs < 20 mm (r = 0.5; p = 0.0001). Preoperative imaging, especially EUS, frequently overestimates the size of MEN1-pNENs, especially those with a PS < 20 mm. This should be considered when indicating surgery in MEN1 patients with small Nf-pNENs.

  15. Differentiation of pancreatic serous cystadenoma from endocrine tumor and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm based on washout pattern on multiphase CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, Shinya; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio; Ikoma, Akira; Minamiguchi, Hiroki; Nakai, Motoki; Sanda, Hiroki; Nakata, Kouhei; Takeuchi, Taizou; Tanaka, Takami; Shirai, Shintaro; Sonomura, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the washout (WO) pattern of serous cystadenomas (SCAs) compared with endocrine tumors (ETs) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Patients with serous cystadenoma (n = 12), ET (n = 29), and IPMN (n = 35) underwent 4-phase computed tomography CT. Tumors were categorized as hyperdense or hypodense. Computed tomographic values measured were unenhanced attenuation (AU), pancreatic attenuation (A12, 12 seconds), portal attenuation (A35), and equilibrium (A158). Computed tomographic parameters calculated were wash-in (WI) = A12 - AU; WO = A12 - A35; and washout ratio (WOR) = WO/WI × 100/22. Hyperdense SCAs had significantly higher WOR than did hyperdense ETs (P = 0.001). Among the 3 hypodense tumors, SCAs had the significantly highest WOR (P < 0.05/3). Relative to the pancreas, the WOR of SCAs were equivalent, whereas the WOR of ETs and IPMNs were significantly lower. Hyperdense SCAs had significantly higher WOR than did hyperdense ETs, and hypodense SCAs had the significantly highest WOR among the three.

  16. Somatic mutations of the RET proto-oncogene are not required for tumor development in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) gene carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsvater, RM; deWit, MJ; Zewald, RA; Hofstra, RMW; Buys, CHCM; vanAmstel, HKP; Hoppener, JWM; Lips, CJM

    1996-01-01

    Germ line mutations in one allele of the RET proto-oncogene predispose to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) syndromes, To investigate whether these inherited mutations alone can cause the development of tumors in vivo (oncogene model) or whether somatic mutations in the homologous RET

  17. Thymic and Bronchial Carcinoid Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: The Mayo Clinic Experience from 1977 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ospina, Naykky; Thompson, Geoffrey B; C Nichols, Francis; Cassivi, Stephen D; Young, William F

    2015-12-01

    The clinical features of thymic carcinoid (TC) and bronchial carcinoid (BC) tumors as part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) have been rarely described and their importance in clinical practice is debated. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and outcome of this uncommon manifestation of MEN1 in a tertiary care center setting. We present the clinical features of patients with MEN1 and either TC or BC evaluated at the Mayo Clinic from 1977 to 2013. A total of 348 patients with MEN1 were evaluated and the prevalence of TC was 2.0% (n = 7) and of BC 4.9% (n = 17). The majority of the patients with BC were men (61%) diagnosed on routine screening (77%) and BC was not the confirmed cause of death in any patient. In contrast, TC patients were all men and during follow-up 43% died due to TC complications. We conclude that TC and BC tumors are uncommon, but important components of MEN1. BC were most commonly diagnosed during routine screening and associated with an indolent course. TC were predominantly seen in men and associated with a more aggressive behavior.

  18. Preclinical evaluation of new radioligand of cholecystokinin/gastrin receptors in endocrine tumors xenograft nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillouet, S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France) and Inserm U563, Therapeutic Innovation and Molecular Oncologic Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France)]. E-mail: brillouet.severine@claudiusregaud.fr; Caselles, O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Dierickx, L.O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Mestre, B. [CNRS, LSPCMIB-UMR5068, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Nalis, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Picard, C. [CNRS, LSPCMIB-UMR5068, Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Favre, G. [Inserm U563, Therapeutic Innovation and Molecular Oncologic Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Poirot, M. [Inserm U563, Therapeutic Innovation and Molecular Oncologic Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Silvente-Poirot, S. [Inserm U563, Therapeutic Innovation and Molecular Oncologic Department, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Courbon, F. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institut Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France)

    2007-02-01

    The cholecystokinin(CCK)/gastrin 2 receptors (R-CCK2) are overexpressed in 90% of medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) and in 60% of small cell lung cancers but not or poorly in corresponding healthy tissues. They represent a relevant target for the diagnosis and internal targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. Although previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of radiolabeled CCK/gastrin to target CCK-2 receptor-expressing tissues in animals and patients, some problems remained unsolved to identify an optimum candidate for in vivo targeting of R-CCK2-expressing tumors. By a rational approach and 'in silico' drug design, we synthesized a new CCK-derivative with high affinity for the R-CCK2. The aim of this study was to achieve the radiolabeling of a new radioligand, to assess its efficacy using a published CCK radioligand ({sup 111}In-DTPA-CCK8) as a control for the R-CCK2 targeting. This new CCK-derivative was radiolabeled with {sup 111}In. Nude mice, bearing the human MTC TT tumors and NIH-3T3 cell line expressing a tumorigenic mutant of the R-CCK2, were injected with this radiolabeled peptide. In vivo planar scintigraphies were acquired. Thereafter, biodistribution studies (%ID/g tissue) were done. The conditions of radiolabelling were optimized to obtain a radiochemical purity >90%. Scintigraphic images of xenograft mice showed significant tumor uptake with a target to nontarget ratio higher than two. These results were confirmed by the biodistribution studies which showed as expected a significant activity in the spleen, the liver and the kidneys. Therefore, this new radiolabeled compound is a promised new candidate for molecular imaging and internal radiotherapy for R-CCK2 tumor targeting.

  19. Preclinical evaluation of new radioligand of cholecystokinin/gastrin receptors in endocrine tumors xenograft nude mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brillouet, S.; Caselles, O.; Dierickx, L. O.; Mestre, B.; Nalis, J.; Picard, C.; Favre, G.; Poirot, M.; Silvente-Poirot, S.; Courbon, F.

    2007-02-01

    The cholecystokinin(CCK)/gastrin 2 receptors (R-CCK2) are overexpressed in 90% of medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) and in 60% of small cell lung cancers but not or poorly in corresponding healthy tissues. They represent a relevant target for the diagnosis and internal targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. Although previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of radiolabeled CCK/gastrin to target CCK-2 receptor-expressing tissues in animals and patients, some problems remained unsolved to identify an optimum candidate for in vivo targeting of R-CCK2-expressing tumors. By a rational approach and " in silico" drug design, we synthesized a new CCK-derivative with high affinity for the R-CCK2. The aim of this study was to achieve the radiolabeling of a new radioligand, to assess its efficacy using a published CCK radioligand ( 111In-DTPA-CCK8) as a control for the R-CCK2 targeting. This new CCK-derivative was radiolabeled with 111In. Nude mice, bearing the human MTC TT tumors and NIH-3T3 cell line expressing a tumorigenic mutant of the R-CCK2, were injected with this radiolabeled peptide. In vivo planar scintigraphies were acquired. Thereafter, biodistribution studies (%ID/g tissue) were done. The conditions of radiolabelling were optimized to obtain a radiochemical purity >90%. Scintigraphic images of xenograft mice showed significant tumor uptake with a target to nontarget ratio higher than two. These results were confirmed by the biodistribution studies which showed as expected a significant activity in the spleen, the liver and the kidneys. Therefore, this new radiolabeled compound is a promised new candidate for molecular imaging and internal radiotherapy for R-CCK2 tumor targeting.

  20. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal endocrine cells and neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashima, Hirosato, E-mail: hmashima1-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan); Ohno, Hideki [Division of Advanced Medical Science, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Yamada, Yumi; Sakai, Toshitaka; Ohnishi, Hirohide [Department of Gastroenterology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita 010-8543 (Japan)

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells along the colorectum. ► INSL5 is expressed increasingly from proximal colon to rectum. ► INSL5 co-localizes rarely with chromogranin A. ► All rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined expressed INSL5. -- Abstract: Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin superfamily, and is a potent agonist for RXFP4. We have shown that INSL5 is expressed in enteroendocrine cells (EECs) along the colorectum with a gradient increase toward the rectum. RXFP4 is ubiquitously expressed along the digestive tract. INSL5-positive EECs have little immunoreactivity to chromogranin A (CgA) and might be a unique marker of colorectal EECs. CgA-positive EECs were distributed normally along the colorectum in INSL5 null mice, suggesting that INSL5 is not required for the development of CgA-positive EECs. Exogenous INSL5 did not affect the proliferation of human colon cancer cell lines, and chemically-induced colitis in INSL5 null mice did not show any significant changes in inflammation or mucosal healing compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, all of the rectal neuroendocrine tumors examined co-expressed INSL5 and RXFP4. INSL5 may be a unique marker of colorectal EECs, and INSL5–RXFP4 signaling might play a role in an autocrine/paracrine fashion in the colorectal epithelium and rectal neuroendocrine tumors.

  1. A review of endocrine late effects in children after brain tumor therapy; Endokrinologische Funktionsstoerungen nach Hirntumortherapie im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, M.; Langer, T.; Beck, J.D.; Doerr, H.G. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Kinderklinik mit Poliklinik

    1999-07-01

    Background: Advances in the therapy of malignant brain tumors in children have led to a significant improvement in survival rates over the last few decades. As a result, the recognition and treatment of late effects have become more important. In addition to secondary tumors and deficiencies in cognitive and intellectual skills, the resulting endocrine disturbances play an important role. Method: Own data and literature review. Results: Deviations from the normal growth hormone secretion are usually recognized first and are most common, and have already been observed after conventional whole brain irradiation with 18 G. With some delay, other hypothalamopituitary deficiencies may occur, including panhypopituitarism. Puberty may come too early or too late or may not appear at all. Girls in particular, frequently experience an early and rapid pubertal development after brain tumor therapy, which may lead to further reduction in height due to an accelerated bone maturation. Functional disturbances of the thyroid and adrenal glands due to hypothalamic or pituitary deficiency are less common, and usually seen only after a radiation dose of over 40 Gy. Conclusion: Survivors of childhood brain tumors must be considered as long-term survivors, in whom the first therapy-induced long-term side effects appear almost immediately after the end of therapy. Maximum quality of life for the individual patient can only be achieved by long-term care and close cooperation of specialists in the different medical disciplines involved. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Fortschritte in der Therapie maligner Hirntumoren im Kindesalter haben in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu einer deutlichen Verbesserung der Ueberlebensraten gefuehrt. Daher kommt dem Erkennen therapiebedingter Spaetfolgen zunehmend eine Bedeutung zu. Neben Zweittumoren, kognitiven und intellektuellen Einbussen spielen hormonelle Folgestoerungen eine bedeutende Rolle. Methode: Eigene Erfahrungen und Literaturrecherche. Ergebnisse

  2. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE for Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Occurring in Association with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 and Cushing's Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Chinna; Basu, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) occurring in association with other endocrine syndromes forms a distinct entity. The aim was to assess the therapy response profile of the routine peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in this relatively uncommon but clinically challenging subgroup of patients. A retrospective analysis was undertaken from the case records from those who were treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE for metastatic NET. In addition to assessing the therapeutic efficacy, emphasis was also gi...

  3. Long-term follow-up of endocrine function among young children with newly diagnosed malignant central nervous system tumors treated with irradiation-avoiding regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Anne M; Cheung, Clement; Rangan, Kasey; Freyer, David; Nahata, Leena; Dhall, Girish; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2017-11-01

    The adverse effects of irradiation on endocrine function among patients with pediatric brain tumor are well documented. Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by marrow-ablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) without central nervous system (CNS) irradiation has demonstrated efficacy in a proportion of very young children with some malignant CNS tumors. This study assessed the long-term endocrine function of young children following chemotherapy-only treatment regimens. A retrospective chart review was performed on 99 patients under 6 years of age with malignant brain tumors newly diagnosed between May 1991 and October 2010 treated with irradiation-avoiding strategies. Thirty patients survived post-AuHCR without cranial irradiation for a mean of 8.1 years (range 3.0-22.25 years). The patient cohort included 18 males and 12 females (mean age at AuHCR of 2.5 years, range 0.8-5.1 years). All 30 surviving patients had documented normal age-related thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3), prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol levels. Insulin-like growth factor 1 age-related levels were abnormal in one child with normal height. Ninety-seven percent of patients had normal cortisol levels, while follicle-stimulating hormone and LH levels among females were normal in 83% and 92%, respectively, and in 100% of males. Growth charts demonstrated age-associated growth within 2 standard deviations of the mean in 67% of patients. Of 10 patients (33%) with short stature, 6 had proportional diminutions in both height and weight. These findings demonstrate that the use of relatively brief, intensive chemotherapy regimens including marrow-ablative chemotherapy with AuHCR results in fewer endocrine sequelae than treatment schemes utilizing CNS irradiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The prognostic and predictive value of Tregs and tumor immune subtypes in postmenopausal, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy: a Dutch TEAM study analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C. Engels (Charla C.); A. Charehbili; C.J.H. van de Velde; E. Bastiaannet (Esther); A. Sajet (Anita); H. Putter (Hein); E.A. van Vliet; R.L.P. van Vlierberghe (Ronald L.); V.T.H.B.M. Smit (Vincent); J.M.S. Bartlett (John); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); G.-J. Liefers (Gerrit-Jan); P.J.K. Kuppen (P. J K)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEvidence exists for an immunomodulatory effect of endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive (HR+ve) breast cancer (BC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the prognostic and predictive value of tumor immune markers and the tumor immune profile in HR+ve BC, treated with

  5. Positron emission tomography in digestive neuroendocrine tumors: choice of the tracer; Apport de la tomographie par emission de positons dans les tumeurs endocrines digestives: choix du traceur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taieb, D.; Tessonnier, L.; Mundler, O. [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de La Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et de Medecine Nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2009-11-15

    Digestive endocrine tumors represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasm sharing common characteristics such as their high density of peptide receptors, their ability to take up amino acids and de-carboxylate them into biogenic amines and their low glycolytic activity. These features are used for nuclear imaging targeting. To date, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is considered the 'gold standard' imaging procedure of well-differentiated tumors. Despite the significant contribution of SPECT/CT, the use of positron emission tomography imaging (PET) is growing rapidly. Three PET imaging modalities are currently available: {sup 68}Ga-labeled somatostatin analogs PET, {sup 18}F-dihydroxy-phenylalanine PET ({sup 18}F-DOPA) and {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose PET ({sup 18}F-F.D.G.). This article focuses on the current targets of molecular imaging and highlights the potential clinical applications of new targets. (authors)

  6. Parallel in vivo and in vitro detection of functional somatostatin receptors in human endocrine pancreatic tumors: Consequences with regard to diagnosis, localization, and therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberts, S.W.; Hofland, L.J.; van Koetsveld, P.M.; Reubi, J.C.; Bruining, H.A.; Bakker, W.H.; Krenning, E.P. (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherland))

    1990-09-01

    The effects of octreotide in vivo and in vitro on hormone release, in vivo ({sup 123}I)Tyr3-octreotide scanning, and in vitro ({sup 125}I)Tyr3-octreotide autoradiography were compared in five patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors. ({sup 123}I)Tyr3-octreotide scanning localized the primary tumor and/or previously unknown metastases in four of the five patients. The patient with a negative scan had an insulinoma that did not respond to octreotide in vivo. No Tyr3-octreotide-binding sites were subsequently found at autoradiography of the tumor, whereas somatostatin-14 receptors were present at a high density. In parallel, culture studies with the cells prepared from this adenoma showed that insulin release was not affected by octreotide, while both somatostatin-14 and -28 significantly suppressed hormone release. Culture studies of the tumor cells from two gastrinomas showed a dose-dependent inhibition of gastrin release by octreotide. Octreotide exerted direct antiproliferative effects in one of these gastrinomas, which had been shown to be rapidly growing in vivo. Both gastrinomas had specific somatostatin receptors, as measured by in vitro receptor autoradiography. Somatostatin release by the cultured somatostatinoma cells from one of these patients was suppressed by octreotide.

  7. Growth hormone-releasing hormone-producing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 family with an uncommon phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Elisa; Ferrante, Emanuele; Verrua, Elisa; Malchiodi, Elena; Mantovani, Giovanna; Filopanti, Marcello; Ferrero, Stefano; Pietrabissa, Andrea; Vanoli, Alessandro; La Rosa, Stefano; Zatelli, Maria C; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Verga, Uberta

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) family characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, in association with acromegaly because of ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) secretion by a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor in a young man and with a bronchial carcinoid in his mother. We investigate the clinical, radiological imaging, histopathologic findings, and therapy. An 18-year-old man successfully underwent subtotal parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. A subsequent genetic analysis showed a MEN1 gene mutation. Three years later, acromegaly because of ectopic GHRH secretion was diagnosed (pituitary MRI negative and elevated GHRH levels). A search for an ectopic tumor was unsuccessful and somatostatin analog therapy was started. Successively, scintigraphy with somatostatin analogs (68-Ga-DOTATOC-PET) showed three focal areas in the pancreatic tail. Distal pancreatectomy showed multiple pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and hormonal status was normalized. Afterwards, the evaluation of the patient's mother, carrying the same mutation, indicated a primary hyperparathyroidism and a 4 cm lung mass. The patient underwent subtotal pneumonectomy and the histological analysis was consistent with the diagnosis of a typical bronchial carcinoid. In conclusion, an atypical phenotype may be recorded in MEN1 families, thus emphasizing the importance of the new imaging and surgical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of such a rare disease.

  8. Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy with177Lu-DOTATATE for Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Occurring in Association with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 and Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Chinna; Basu, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) occurring in association with other endocrine syndromes forms a distinct entity. The aim was to assess the therapy response profile of the routine peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) in this relatively uncommon but clinically challenging subgroup of patients. A retrospective analysis was undertaken from the case records from those who were treated with 177 Lu-DOTATATE for metastatic NET. In addition to assessing the therapeutic efficacy, emphasis was also given to study lesional sites and scan pattern. A total of 5 cases were found: In this series of five cases, four belonged to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome; in these four MEN1 syndrome patients, the primary site of NET was thymic region ( n = 1), duodenum ( n = 1), and pancreas ( n = 2). The fifth case was of Cushing's syndrome with the primary site of NET in the thymus. A good symptomatic response was observed in all MEN1 syndrome cases (100%) and progression of symptoms in the patient with Cushing's syndrome. The biochemical response (assessed by measurement of tumor marker serum chromogranin A) demonstrated very good partial response (defined by more than 75% reduction of tumor marker) in 2 MEN1 cases and Cushing's syndrome, good partial response (25-75% reduction of tumor marker) in the remaining 2 MEN1 cases. Scan wise (assessed by technetium [ 99m Tc]-hydrazinonicotinamide [HYNIC]-tektrotyd [TOC]/ 68 Ga-DOTA-NOC/TATE positron emission tomography-computed tomography [PET-CT] and fluorodeoxyglucose [FDG] PET-CT) partial response was observed in 3 MEN1 cases, stable disease was noted in one MEN1 case and disease progression was noted in the patient with Cushing's syndrome. The change in FDG uptake was found to be an important sensitive scan parameter in the treatment evaluation of NETs compared to somatostatin receptor-based imaging in the cases with low MiB1 index. In our series, good palliative response to 177 Lu-DOTA-octreotate (DOTATATE) PRRT was

  9. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System Print A A ... called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  10. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Neuroendocrine tumors comprise heterogeneous group of neoplasms which originate from endocrine cells, both within endocrine organs and within the cells of diffuse endocrine system. These tumors have vari- able clinical behavior ranging from well-differentiated, slow growing tumors to ...

  11. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  12. The prognostic and predictive value of Tregs and tumor immune subtypes in postmenopausal, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy: a Dutch TEAM study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, C C; Charehbili, A; van de Velde, C J H; Bastiaannet, E; Sajet, A; Putter, H; van Vliet, E A; van Vlierberghe, R L P; Smit, V T H B M; Bartlett, J M S; Seynaeve, C; Liefers, G J; Kuppen, P J K

    2015-02-01

    Evidence exists for an immunomodulatory effect of endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive (HR+ve) breast cancer (BC). Therefore, the aim of this study was to define the prognostic and predictive value of tumor immune markers and the tumor immune profile in HR+ve BC, treated with different endocrine treatment regimens. 2,596 Dutch TEAM patients were treated with 5 years of adjuvant hormonal treatment, randomly assigned to different regimens: 5 years of exemestane or sequential treatment (2.5 years of tamoxifen-2.5 years of exemestane). Immunohistochemistry was performed for HLA class I, HLA-E, HLA-G, and FoxP3. Tumor immune subtypes (IS) (low, intermediate & high immune susceptible) were determined by the effect size of mono-immune markers on relapse rate. Patients on sequential treatment with high level of tumor-infiltrating FoxP3+ cells had significant (p = 0.019, HR 0.729, 95% CI 0.560-0.949) better OS. Significant interaction for endocrine treatment and FoxP3+ presence was seen (OS p Tumor IS were only of prognostic value for the sequentially endocrine-treated patients (RFP: p = 0.035, HR intermediate IS 1.420, 95% CI 0.878-2.297; HR low IS 1.657, 95% CI 1.131-2.428; BCSS: p = 0.002, HR intermediate IS 2.486, 95% CI 1.375-4.495; HR low IS 2.422, 95% CI 1.439-4.076; and OS: p = 0.005, HR intermediate IS 1.509, 95% CI 0.950-2.395; HR low IS 1.848, 95% CI 1.277-2.675). Tregs and the tumor IS presented in this study harbor prognostic value for sequentially endocrine-treated HR+ve postmenopausal BC patients, but not for solely exemestane-treated patients. Therefore, these markers could be used as a clinical risk stratification tool to guide adjuvant treatment in this BC population.

  13. Targeting a G-protein-coupled receptor overexpressed in endocrine tumors by magnetic nanoparticles to induce cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Claire; El Hajj Diab, Darine; Connord, Vincent; Clerc, Pascal; Meunier, Etienne; Pipy, Bernard; Payré, Bruno; Tan, Reasmey P; Gougeon, Michel; Carrey, Julian; Gigoux, Véronique; Fourmy, Daniel

    2014-02-25

    Nanotherapy using targeted magnetic nanoparticles grafted with peptidic ligands of receptors overexpressed in cancers is a promising therapeutic strategy. However, nanoconjugation of peptides can dramatically affect their properties with respect to receptor recognition, mechanism of internalization, intracellular trafficking, and fate. Furthermore, investigations are needed to better understand the mechanism whereby application of an alternating magnetic field to cells containing targeted nanoparticles induces cell death. Here, we designed a nanoplatform (termed MG-IONP-DY647) composed of an iron oxide nanocrystal decorated with a ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor, the cholecystokinin-2 receptor (CCK2R) that is overexpressed in several malignant cancers. MG-IONP-DY647 did not stimulate inflammasome of Raw 264.7 macrophages. They recognized cells expressing CCK2R with a high specificity, subsequently internalized via a mechanism involving recruitment of β-arrestins, clathrin-coated pits, and dynamin and were directed to lysosomes. Binding and internalization of MG-IONP-DY647 were dependent on the density of the ligand at the nanoparticle surface and were slowed down relative to free ligand. Trafficking of CCK2R internalized with the nanoparticles was slightly modified relative to CCK2R internalized in response to free ligand. Application of an alternating magnetic field to cells containing MG-IONP-DY647 induced apoptosis and cell death through a lysosomal death pathway, demonstrating that cell death is triggered even though nanoparticles of low thermal power are internalized in minute amounts by the cells. Together with pioneer findings using iron oxide nanoparticles targeting tumoral cells expressing epidermal growth factor receptor, these data represent a solid basis for future studies aiming at establishing the proof-of-concept of nanotherapy of cancers using ligand-grafted magnetic nanoparticles specifically internalized via cell surface receptors.

  14. Tumorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, J.U.; Heegaard, S.

    2005-01-01

    oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer......oftalmologi, øjenlågstumorer, conjunctivale tumorer, malignt melanom, retinoblastom, orbitale tumorer...

  15. Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-12-01

    The study of a number of rare familial syndromes associated with endocrine tumor development has led to the identification of genes involved in the development of these tumors. Major advances have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of these rare endocrine tumors, resulting in the elucidation of causative genes in rare familial diseases and a better understanding of the signaling pathways implicated in endocrine cancers. Recognition of the familial syndrome associated with a particular patient's endocrine tumor has important implications in terms of prognosis, screening of family members, and screening for associated conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. Fact Steroid ...

  17. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  18. Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo F. Ricci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices.

  19. Endocrine Labomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory endocrinology forms an integral part of 21 st century endocrinology. Perhaps, no other specialty of medicine is as closely associated with laboratory as endocrinology. This review intends to highlight the challenges faced by an endocrinologist before interpreting a hormone assay report. This review by no means is holistic but intends to highlight some of the pitfalls of laboratory endocrinology and arouse further interest in this important but neglected section of endocrinology. Lack of standardization, as well as rigorous implementation is some of the major challenges facing endocrine assays in our country. It is essential to be aware not only of the details of the method of analysis of a hormone, the pre-analytical requisites, but also disease-specific analytical issues to prevent unnecessary concern both for the patient, as well as the treating physician, as well as needless investigations. Problems with interpretation of serum prolactin, thyroglobulin, steroid hormone assays, rennin assay and vitamin-D assay have been highlighted.

  20. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Endocrine Treatment of Transsexual Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  2. Single-port transumbilical laparoscopic excision of retroperitoneal schwannoma mimicking a nonfunctional endocrine tumor in the body of the pancreas: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Noriaki; Tomita, Masato; Mitsuhashi, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Nobuaki; Obuchi, Toru; Yoshikawa, Yusuke; Tagaya, Nobumi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    Schwannomas are benign tumors that arise from neural sheath Schwann cells. Solitary benign schwannoma is generally located in the head and neck and is a rare neoplasm among the tumors of the retroperitoneal space. Reports of laparoscopic excision of retroperitoneal schwannomas have recently been on the increase. However, few cases of single-port laparoscopic excision of these tumors have been reported. Moreover, there are no reports of single-port excision of schwannomas attached to the body of pancreas and around the splenic vessels. This is the first report of a schwannoma lying adjacent to the body of the pancreas between the splenic artery and vein that was excised by single-port laparoscopic surgery. The most notable aspect of our procedure is the use of bipolar forceps. Single-port laparoscopic excision using bipolar forceps is a feasible and safe procedure for retroperitoneal solitary tumors, even when they are close to the splenic artery and vein.

  3. VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through

  4. Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peanut plants (aflatoxins) Excessive sunlight exposure Genetic problems Obesity Radiation exposure Viruses Types of tumors known to be caused by or linked with viruses are: Cervical cancer (human papillomavirus) Most anal cancers (human papillomavirus) Some ...

  5. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  6. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Luisetto, G; Basso, S M M; Basso, U; Brunello, A; Camozzi, V

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the first leading causes of death in women, and currently endocrine treatment is of major therapeutic value in patients with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and GnRH agonists are the drugs of choice. Tamoxifen, a partial nonsteroidal estrogen agonist, is a type II competitive inhibitor of estradiol at its receptor, and the prototype of SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors significantly lower serum estradiol concentration in postmenopausal patients, having no detectable effects on adrenocortical steroids formation, while GnRH agonists suppress ovarian function, inducing a menopause-like condition in premenopausal women. Endocrine therapy has generally a relatively low morbidity, leading to a significant reduction of mortality for breast cancer. The aim of chemoprevention is to interfere early with the process of carcinogenesis, reducing the risk of cancer development. As preventive agents, raloxifene and tamoxifene are equivalent, while raloxifene has more potent antiresorptive effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocrine treatment is usually considered a standard choice for patients with estrogen-receptor positive cancers and non-life-threatening advanced disease, or for older patients unfit for aggressive chemotherapy regimens. Several therapeutic protocols used in patients with breast cancer are associated with bone loss, which may lead to an increased risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice to treat such a drug-induced bone disease. The aim of this review is to outline current understanding on endocrine therapy of breast cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  7. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spikes Is mealtime insulin right for you? The Endocrine System Access more 3D visualizations by downloading the Hormone ... Endocrinologist Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  8. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search The Endocrine System Access more 3D visualizations by downloading the Hormone ... About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  9. Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 4 of 4 Items. 2013. Vol 7, No 1 ...

  10. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The endocrine quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  12. Pituitary tumors in patients with MEN1 syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis V. Syro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the characteristics of pituitary tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal-dominant disorder most commonly characterized by tumors of the pituitary, parathyroid, endocrine-gastrointestinal tract, and pancreas. A MEDLINE search for all available publications regarding multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and pituitary adenomas was undertaken. The prevalence of pituitary tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may vary from 10% to 60% depending on the studied series, and such tumors may occur as the first clinical manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in 25% of sporadic and 10% of familial cases. Patients were younger and the time between initial and subsequent multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 endocrine lesions was significantly longer when pituitary disease was the initial manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Tumors were larger and more invasive and clinical manifestations related to the size of the pituitary adenoma were significantly more frequent in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in subjects with non-multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Normalization of pituitary hypersecretion was much less frequent in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in subjects with non-multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Pituitary tumors in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome tend to be larger, invasive and more symptomatic, and they tend to occur in younger patients when they are the initial presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

  13. Multiple endocrine neoplasia: the Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types 1 and 2 are genetic diseases that are inherited as autosomal traits. The major clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 include the so-called "3 P's": parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors, including gastroenteroneuroendocrine tumors. Genetic testing can be performed on patients and the potential carriers of the menin gene mutation, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is less straightforward than multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Most likely, the main advantage of genetic testing in MEN1 is to exclude from further studies those who are negative for the genetic mutation if they belong to a family with a known history of MEN1. In Chile, we started with rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene genetic testing (MEN2 15 years ago. We carried out a prophylactic total thyroidectomy to prevent medullary thyroid carcinoma in a three-year-old girl who presented with microscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma. More than 90% of the individuals who tested positive using a genetic test achieved a biochemical cure compared with only 27% of patients who receive a clinical diagnosis. Mutations are mainly located in exon 11; the most common is C634W, rather than C634R. Hypertensive crisis was the cause of death in three patients, and extensive distant metastases occurred in nine (including two patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B of 14 patients. Earlier recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma and the other features of the disease, especially pheochromocytoma, will improve the survival rate of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  14. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted......The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  15. Endocrine sequelae in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casano Sancho, Paula

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to the advances in cancer treatment, the five-year survival rate after childhood cancer has increased up to 80%. Therefore 1/500 young adults will be a survivor. Endocrine sequelae are most common, affecting 40-60% of survivors. The most frequent sequelae include growth failure and gonadal and thyroid diseases. Sequelae occur more frequently in survivors from central nervous system tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma. Their development will depend on the type of cancer, its location, age at diagnosis, and treatment administered. Treatments associated to more endocrine sequels are cranial radiotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Because of the high prevalence of endocrine sequelae, international guidelines recommend endocrinologists to prospectively evaluate the survivors. As some of these endocrine changes will not develop until adult life, transition programs should be implemented, and active investigation should be made to decrease the endocrine consequences of cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing....... To improve knowledge on possible influences of endocrine disrupters on female reproductive system, the effects of EDCs on genital malformations in females and the development of mammary glands were studied in the present project. AIMS: The aims for the studies on male and female mammary gland development...... effects on prepubertal female rat mammary glands were observed at lower levels than those affecting other endpoints studied. CONCLUSION: The present findings in rats suggest that EDCs may affect mammary gland development in women and men, although risk assessment including comparison with exposure...

  18. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000399.htm Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...

  19. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Special Needs Glasses and Contact Lenses Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System Print A A A en español Tu sistema ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  20. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ER-positive breast cancer patients with more than three positive nodes or grade 3 tumors are at high risk of late recurrence after 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fangbin; Zhang, Jianbing; Li, Shanbao; Wu, Junyi; Jin, Tao; Qin, Jun; Wang, Ye; Wang, Min; Xu, Junming

    2017-01-01

    Currently, although several clinical trials available give strong suggestions that extension of endocrine therapy has benefits, the risk level at which patients may benefit from extended endocrine therapy remains uncertain. This study aimed to identify the proportion of patients at a substantial risk of late recurrence after 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy. We reviewed 1,056 female patients with primary breast cancer who underwent curative resection between January 2006 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to identify prognostic factors. A total of 327 eligible patients were eventually enrolled in this study. Among them, 42 (12.8%) patients suffered from distant metastasis and 34 (10.4%) patients experienced locoregional recurrence after 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy. In multivariate analysis, patients with more than three positive nodes (hazard ratio [HR] =2.176, 95% CI=1.071-4.421; P =0.032) and histologic grade 3 disease (HR=2.098, 95% CI=1.300-3.385; P =0.002) were significantly associated with high risk of late recurrence. However, only histologic grade 3 (HR=2.212, 95% CI=1.166-4.194; P =0.015) was significantly associated with high risk of distant metastasis. Late relapse after completion of 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy was still common, and grade 3 and more than three positive nodes were the risk factors of late recurrence, while grade 3 was the only risk factor of late distant metastasis. These patients might benefit from extended endocrine therapy.

  2. Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts original contributions related to the practice and science of clinical endocrinology, articles updating the clinical endocrinologist on current areas of interest in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, articles discussing dilemma facing endocrinologists in the clinical, social, and ethical arena of ...

  3. Endocrine Drugs in Aircrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    intracellular inflammatory action of corticosteroids, the and extracellular communication. The site of action contraceptive action of gonadal steroids...complications occur have results in the disappearance of weakness, malaise allowed more effective methods of prevention and and fatigue. Anorexia and...disease * Osteoporosis "* Pancreatitis * Myopathy Endocrine-Metabolic Neuropsychiatric "* latrogenic Cushing * Psychosis "* Acne, hirsutism, menstrual

  4. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating disorders: obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. In: Wilson JD, Foster ... Original Articles should be restricted to clinical or basic studies, particularly translational research, which add new information to the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of endocrine disorders that have not been published previously.

  5. Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Angelousi, Anna; Weickert, Martin O; Randeva, Harpal S; Kaltsas, Gregory; Grossman, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    The majority of neoplasms are responsible for symptoms caused by mass effects to surrounding tissues and/or through the development of metastases. However, occasionally neoplasms, with or without endocrine differentiation, acquire the ability to secrete a variety of bioactive substances or induce immune cross-reactivity with the normal tissues that can lead to the development of characteristic clinical syndromes. These syndromes are named endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes when the specific secretory components (hormones, peptides or cytokines) are unrelated to the anticipated tissue or organ of origin. Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes can complicate the patient's clinical course, response to treatment, impact prognosis and even be confused as metastatic spread. These syndromes can precede, occur concomitantly or present at a later stage of tumour development, and along with the secreted substances constitute the biological 'fingerprint' of the tumour. Their detection can facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying neoplasia, monitor response to treatment and/or detect early recurrences following successful initial management. Although when associated with tumours of low malignant potential they usually do not affect long-term outcome, in cases of highly malignant tumours, endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes are usually associated with poorer survival outcomes. Recent medical advances have not only improved our understanding of paraneoplastic syndrome pathogenesis in general but also enhanced their diagnosis and treatment. Yet, given the rarity of endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes, there is a paucity of prospective clinical trials to guide management. The development of well-designed prospective multicentre trials remains a priority in the field in order to fully characterise these syndromes and provide evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. [Early endocrine complications in childhood cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Cristina; Andrades Toledo, Mónica; Cárdeno Morales, Álvaro; Gutiérrez Carrasco, Ignacio; Ramírez Villar, Gema Lucía; Pérez Hurtado, José María; García García, Emilio

    2016-10-21

    The treatment of childhood cancers has increased survival rates, but also the risk of sequelae, such as endocrine complications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood malignant tumors within the first years after treatment and analyze the variables related to their appearance. A retrospective medical record review of patients referred to pediatric endocrinology after treatment of malignancy. Outcome measures were frequency and types of endocrine dysfunction and new-onset obesity. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed every 6 months. Statistics tests were: chi square and multiple logistic regression. Fifty five patients (26 women) were included with an age at diagnosis of tumour (mean±standard deviation) 6.0±4.4 years and followed up for 6.8±3.6 years. Thirty endocrine disorders were diagnosed in 26 patients (47.3%), 17 women (P=.01). Eleven adolescents had primary hypogonadism (26.2% to 0.6±0.5 years of follow-up) in relation to local irradiation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.99, P=.005). Eleven patients had a pituitary disorder (20.0%) 5.2±2.4 years after diagnosis in relation to brain irradiation (OR 1.54, P=.039). Six children (10.9%) had primary hypothyroidism from 3.2±1.0 years of follow-up. Two children developed obesity. Endocrine disorders are frequently seen within the first years after diagnosis of a childhood cancer, so hormonal evaluation should start early and be repeated periodically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. ER-positive breast cancer patients with more than three positive nodes or grade 3 tumors are at high risk of late recurrence after 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song F

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fangbin Song,1 Jianbing Zhang,2 Shanbao Li,1 Junyi Wu,1 Tao Jin,1 Jun Qin,1 Ye Wang,1 Min Wang,1 Junming Xu1 1Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Pathology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Currently, although several clinical trials available give strong suggestions that extension of endocrine therapy has benefits, the risk level at which patients may benefit from extended endocrine therapy remains uncertain. This study aimed to identify the proportion of patients at a substantial risk of late recurrence after 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy.Patients and methods: We reviewed 1,056 female patients with primary breast cancer who underwent curative resection between January 2006 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to identify prognostic factors.Results: A total of 327 eligible patients were eventually enrolled in this study. Among them, 42 (12.8% patients suffered from distant metastasis and 34 (10.4% patients experienced locoregional recurrence after 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy. In multivariate analysis, patients with more than three positive nodes (hazard ratio [HR] =2.176, 95% CI=1.071–4.421; P=0.032 and histologic grade 3 disease (HR=2.098, 95% CI=1.300–3.385; P=0.002 were significantly associated with high risk of late recurrence. However, only histologic grade 3 (HR=2.212, 95% CI=1.166–4.194; P=0.015 was significantly associated with high risk of distant metastasis.Conclusion: Late relapse after completion of 5-year adjuvant endocrine therapy was still common, and grade 3 and more than three positive nodes were the risk factors of late recurrence, while grade 3 was the only risk factor of late distant metastasis. These patients might benefit from extended endocrine therapy. Keywords: Ki-67, breast neoplasms, prognosis, extended endocrine

  8. Zearalenone endocrine system catch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the contamination of our environment with thousands of both natural and man-made chemicals which affect the endocrine system of humans and animals. These so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to mimic or block the action of hormones and therefore disrupt sexual development in utero. EDCs are organochlorine pesticides, dioxin compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, alkylpolyethoxylates, plastic additives and phytoestrogens (occurring naturally in foods: isoflavones coumenestans and zearalenone. The structure of zearalenone is similar to the structure of estrogens and it enables binding to the estrogenic receptors. DNA laddering on gel electrophoresis was present 12 h after dosing thus indicating a conclusion that there was apoptosis. Apoptosis is the principal mechanism contributing to germ cell depletion and testicular atrophy following zearalenone exposure.

  9. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...

  10. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  11. Alterations in polyadenylation and its implications for endocrine disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Anders Aagaard; Plass, Mireya; Krogh, Anders

    2013-01-01

    , polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) and to be associated with type I and II diabetes, pre-eclampsia, fragile X-associated premature ovarian insufficiency, ectopic Cushing syndrome, and many cancer diseases, including several types of endocrine tumor diseases. Perspectives: Recent developments in high...

  12. The Human HNP36 Gene Is Localized to Chromosome 11q13 and Produces Alternative Transcripts That Are Not Mutated in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Type 1 (MEN I) Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, John B; Rexer, Brent; Sirripurapu, Sarada; John, Sutha; Goldstein, Richard; Phillips, John A; Haley, Linda L; Sait, Shiela N.J; Shows, Thomas B; Smith, Carissa M; Gerhard, Daniela S

    1997-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 (MEN I), is an autosomal dominant syndrome of selected endocrine neoplasms whose causative gene, a suspected tumor suppressor, has been localized to chromosome 11q13, but has not been identified...

  13. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  14. [Hand and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amélie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence

    2013-12-01

    The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism… Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Women's Health Endocrine Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Ekta; Faubion, Stephanie; Hines, Stephanie; Stuenkel, Cynthia A

    2017-11-07

    The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice changing journal articles summarized for our readers. Topics include menopause, sexual dysfunction, breast health, contraception, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this clinical update, we selected four recent high-impact publications related to endocrine issues in women. We have chosen to highlight research on subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including cognitive outcomes in offspring; the progression of metabolic syndrome severity during the menopausal transition; and the association of diabetes and metformin use with cancer risk and mortality.

  16. Postmenopausal women who progress on fulvestrant ('Faslodex') remain sensitive to further endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergote, I; Robertson, J F R; Kleeberg, U; Burton, G; Osborne, C K; Mauriac, L

    2003-05-01

    This retrospective evaluation of data from two randomized, multicenter trials examined whether tumor responses to further endocrine therapy were seen in postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer who had progressed on both initial endocrine therapy, usually tamoxifen, and on the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist fulvestrant ('Faslodex'). A combined total of 423 patients received fulvestrant 250 mg as a monthly intramuscular injection. After progression on fulvestrant, some patients received another endocrine therapy. Responses to subsequent endocrine therapy were assessed using a questionnaire sent to the trial investigators. Best responses were classified as a complete or partial response (CR or PR), stable disease (SD) lasting > or = 24 weeks, or disease progression. Follow-up data were available for 54 patients who derived clinical benefit (CB, defined as CR, PR or SD) from fulvestrant and who received subsequent endocrine therapy, resulting in a PR in 4 patients, SD in 21 patients, and disease progression in 29 patients. Data were available for 51 patients who derived no CB from fulvestrant and who received further endocrine therapy, resulting in a PR in 1 patient, SD in 17 patients, and disease progression in 33 patients. Aromatase inhibitors were used as subsequent endocrine therapy in > 80% of patients. After progression on fulvestrant, patients may retain sensitivity to other endocrine agents. Fulvestrant provides an additional option to existing endocrine therapies for the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and may provide the opportunity to extend the sequence of endocrine regimens before cytotoxic chemotherapy is required.

  17. Endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders leading to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Amitabha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the first steps toward the correct diagnosis of dementia is to segregate out the nondegenerative dementias from possible degenerative dementias. Nondegenerative dementias could be due to traumatic, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, toxic, infective, and immunological causes. They could also be caused by tumors, subdural hematomas, and normal pressure hydrocephalus. Many of the nondegenerative dementias occur at an earlier age and often progress quickly compared to Alzheimer′s disease and other degenerative dementias. Many are treatable or preventable with simple measures. This review aims to give an overview of some of the more important endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, and toxic disorders that may lead to dementia.

  18. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Endocrine Practice, a peer reviewed publication published twice a year is the official publication of the Nigerian Chapter of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE-Nigeria). The primary mission of the Nigerian Endocrine Practice is to enhance the health care of patients with ...

  19. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2009-04-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  20. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  1. No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raitila, A; Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A

    2007-01-01

    . Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing. No somatic mutations were identified. However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X...... as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age. Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1...... (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC). Genes underlying MEN1 and CNC are rarely mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas, but more often in other lesions contributing to these two syndromes. Thus far, the occurrence of somatic AIP mutations has not been studied in endocrine tumors other than pituitary adenomas...

  2. Challenges in defining predictive markers for response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Alexey A; Miller, William R

    2009-11-01

    Endocrine therapy is a major treatment modality for hormone-dependent breast cancer. It has a relatively low morbidity, and there is evidence that antihormonal treatments have had a significant effect in reducing mortality for breast cancer. Despite this, resistance to endocrine therapy, either primary or acquired during treatment, occurs in the majority of patients, and is a major obstacle to optimal clinical management. There is therefore an urgent need to identify, on an individual basis, those tumors that are most likely to respond to endocrine therapy (so sparing patients with resistant tumors the needless side effects of ineffective therapy), and the mechanisms of resistance in tumors that are nonresponsive to treatment (so these can be bypassed). These needs are the focus of this review, which discusses the particular issues encountered when investigating the potential of multigene expression signatures as predictive factors for response to aromatase inhibitors, which have recently become front-line endocrine therapies for postmenopausal patients with breast cancer.

  3. Endocrine Actions of Osteocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Patti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Once transcribed, this protein undergoes posttranslational modifications within osteoblastic cells before its secretion, including the carboxylation of three glutamic residues in glutamic acid, which is essential for hydroxyapatite binding and deposition in the extracellular matrix of bone. Recent provocative data from experimental observations in mice showed that the circulating undercarboxylated fraction of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion and sensitivity, lowers blood glucose, and decreases visceral fat in both genders, while it enhances testosterone production by the testes in males. Moreover, both total and undercarboxylated osteocalcins increase following physical activity with potential positive effects on glucose tolerance. Despite that these evidences have been only in part confirmed in humans, further prospective investigations are needed to definitively establish the endocrine role of osteocalcin both in the general population and cohorts of patients with diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

  4. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, western style diet and smoking......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more...... than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin...

  5. SARCOPENIA: AN ENDOCRINE DISORDER?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Alexis; Morley, John E; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Vinik, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as low muscle function (walking speed or grip strength) in the presence of low muscle mass. A simple screening test-the SARC-F-is available to identify persons with sarcopenia. The major endocrine causes of sarcopenia are diabetes mellitus and male hypogonadism. Other causes are decreased physical activity, loss of motor neuron units, weight loss, inflammatory cytokines, reduced blood flow to muscles, very low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and decreased growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Treatment for sarcopenia includes resistance and aerobic exercise, leucine-enriched essential amino acids, and vitamin D. In hypogonadal males, testosterone improves muscle mass, strength, and function. Selective androgen receptor molecules and anti-myostatin activin II receptor molecules are under development as possible treatments for sarcopenia. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease DHEA = dehydroepiandrosterone IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 GH = growth hormone mTOR = mammalian target of rapamycin SARM = selective androgen receptor molecule.

  6. Endocrine therapy of human breast cancer grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Osborne, C K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1987-01-01

    mice bearing transplanted human breast tumors have been proposed as such a model. This review therefore discusses the use of the athymic nude mouse model of the study of human breast cancer biology, and focuses on four subjects: 1. biological characteristics of heterotransplanted breast tumors; 2......Although there have been extensive studies of rodent breast tumor models, and of human breast cancer cell lines in culture, there is still need for a human tumor model which can be manipulated experimentally but also provides a valid expression of the tumor cells in a host environment. Athymic nude....... endocrinology and pharmacology of hormonal agents in the nude mouse; 3. endocrine sensitivity of heterotransplanted tumors; and 4. applicability and limitations of this model for the study of human breast cancer....

  7. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). Clinical, biochemical and genetical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, K; Skogseid, B; Eriksson, B

    1989-01-01

    The syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease affecting several endocrine organs. The affected organs include the pituitary, the parathyroids and endocrine pancreas, where different types of lesions can be found, such as hyperplasia or frank carcinomas. The most life threatening lesions are the endocrine pancreatic tumors, which cause about 80% of all deaths among the MEN-1 members. In our own series of 108 members from 16 families with multiple endocrine neoplasia, 55 members had the MEN-1 trait. Among these members, pituitary lesions were found in 42%, parathyroid involvement in 89% and endocrine pancreatic tumors in 58%. Hyperparathyroidism was the presenting lesion of the MEN-1 trait. By using a specific meal stimulation test we have been able to unveil pancreatic lesions up to a median of five years previous to radiological detection. Very recently we have been able to detect a specific genetic lesion in MEN-1 members by studying DNA rearrangements with recombinant DNA technique, using the method of polymorphic restriction enzyme recognition in three large kindreds. The MEN-1 locus maps to chromosome 11q and the MEN-1 predisposition would be a constitutional mutation in heterozygous form, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Tumor development involves a second mutational event which involves the chromosome 11, carrying the remaining 'wild' type allele at the MEN-1 locus by means of chromosome loss event. Survival analysis demonstrates that patients with the MEN-1 syndrome had a significantly better survival from diagnosis than patients with sporadic endocrine pancreatic tumors (median 15.1 years and 5.8 years respectively, p = 0.0068). Earlier diagnosis and start of treatment might account for a longer survival in the MEN-1 group, but a possibility of differences in tumor biology between familial and sporadic endocrine pancreatic tumors cannot be ruled out. The surgical treatment of patients with MEN-1

  8. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  9. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  10. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  11. as endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of removing EDCs and other pollutants at South African wastewater treatment .... of a particular component within one endocrine axis may also ...... HPG. Hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal. HPT. Hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid.

  12. [Outstanding problems of normal and pathological morphology of the diffuse endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse endocrine system (DES)--a mosaic-cellular endoepithelial gland--is the biggest part of the human endocrine system. Scientists used to consider cells of DES as neuroectodermal. According to modem data cells of DES are different cytogenetic types because they develop from the different embryonic blastophyllum. So that any hormone-active tumors originated from DES of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system shouldn't be considered as neuroendocrinal tumors. The basic problems of DES morphology and pathology are the creation of scientifically substantiated histogenetic classification of DES tumors.

  13. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative potencies of the somatostatin analogs octreotide, BIM-23014, and RC-160 on the inhibition of hormone release by cultured human endocrine tumor cells and normal rat anterior pituitary cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); M. Waaijers (Marlijn); J. Zuyderwijk; S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn the present study we investigated the effects of the somatostatin (SS) analogs octreotide, RC-160, and BIM-23014 on GH release by cultured cells of human GH-secreting pituitary tumors, in normal rat anterior pituitary cells, and on gastrin release by

  15. Endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Didem; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Erbas, Tomris

    2010-01-01

    To present an overview of the published data on endocrine involvement and endocrine dysfunction in patients with systemic amyloidosis. We conducted a review of the medical literature using MEDLINE data sources, including clinical trials, in vitro studies, and case reports on pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal, and gonadal involvement in systemic amyloidosis. Reports of endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis seem to consist primarily of small-samplesize clinical trials or case reports, probably because of the rarity of the disease itself. Systemic amyloidosis mainly involves and causes functional impairment in the thyroid and testes in the endocrine system. Evaluation of adrenal function necessitates special consideration because amyloid infiltration of the adrenal glands resulting in failure may be a life-threatening condition. Amyloid deposition commonly seen in the pituitary gland and the pancreas of patients with Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively, is generally classified as local amyloidosis and should not be confused with systemic involvement. Additionally, detection of amyloid deposition in the thyroid and testes may have a diagnostic role in patients with suspected systemic or renal amyloidosis. Published data suggest that systemic amyloidosis frequently involves the endocrine system, and endocrine dysfunction seems to be not as rare as previously thought. A rapidly growing goiter or symptoms and signs of adrenal or gonadal dysfunction should raise suspicion of amyloid infiltration. Involvement of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic sites in systemic amyloidosis still remains to be clarified. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed for complete characterization of the effect of systemic amyloidosis on the endocrine system.

  16. Endocrine Health Problems Detected in 764 Patients Evaluated in a Late Effects Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Conceição Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many pediatric cancer survivors have endocrine conditions. After treatment with alkylating agents, steroids, methotrexate, and radiation, several endocrine dysfunctions may appear. Surveillance for late effects is recommended by guidelines worldwide. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the endocrine outcomes of 764 patients followed during a 20 years’ period in our out-patient clinic. Design: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records. Patients: The study included 764 patients whose oncological or hematological dangerous diseases appeared before they were 18 years old. Larger groups were constituted by leukemias, central nervous tumors, and lymphomas. Outcome Measures: The frequency and types of endocrine conditions were analyzed. Results: 1,091 endocrine conditions were observed in all groups. The most common types of endocrine conditions were problems with growth and the thyroid. We found puberty abnormalities and bone problems in third and fourth places of frequency. ACTH insufficiency was found in seventh place. Conclusion: Endocrine dysfunctions are very common in survivor populations. Endocrinologists should be aware of international guidelines and make an effort to optimize screening and treatment of endocrine effects of cancer therapy. The crucial period is the puberty with growth spurt failure and accelerated maturity both of which can bring future social and professional difficulties.

  17. [Two cases reports of pancreatic endocrine microadenoma incidentally found].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Béma; Delage-Corre, Manuela; Durand-Fontanier, Sylvaine; Mathonnet, Muriel; Paraf, François; Labrousse, François

    2013-12-01

    A 59-year-old male, was admitted to our hospital for a tumor of the pancreatic tail. Serum CEA and CA 19-9 levels were normal. Splenopancreasectomy found a desmoid tumour. A 69-year-old male was referred to our institution for chronic anemia and inflammatory syndrome with splenomegaly. Splenectomy showed an important splenic congestion and siderosis. Both patients had a type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, histological examination revealed pancreatic endocrine microadenomas. The two patients' postoperative course was unremarkable. Eleven and 24 months respectively after the diagnosis, the patients are alive and well, with no tumor recurrence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term Follow-up of MEN1 Patients Who Do Not Have Initial Surgery for Small ≤2 cm Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors, an AFCE and GTE Study: Association Francophone de Chirurgie Endocrinienne & Groupe d'Etude des Tumeurs Endocrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frederic; Sadowski, Samira M; Pattou, François; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Mirallié, Eric; Le Bras, Maëlle; Sebag, Frédéric; Niccoli, Patricia; Deguelte, Sophie; Cadiot, Guillaume; Poncet, Gilles; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Chaffanjon, Philippe; Chabre, Olivier; Menegaux, Fabrice; Baudin, Eric; Ruszniewski, Philippe; Du Boullay, Hélène; Goudet, Pierre

    2017-03-15

    To report long-term follow-up of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and nonfunctioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PET). Pancreaticoduodenal tumors occur in almost all patients with MEN1 and are a major cause of death. The natural history and clinical outcome are poorly defined, and management is still controversial for small NF-PET. Clinical outcome and tumor progression were analyzed in 46 patients with MEN1 with 2 cm or smaller NF-PET who did not have surgery at the time of initial diagnosis. Survival data were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Forty-six patients with MEN1 were followed prospectively for 10.7 ± 4.2 (mean ± standard deviation) years. One patient was lost to follow-up and 1 died from a cause unrelated to MEN1. Twenty-eight patients had stable disease and 16 showed significant progression of pancreaticoduodenal involvement, indicated by increase in size or number of tumors, development of a hypersecretion syndrome, need for surgery (7 patients), and death from metastatic NF-PET (1 patient). The mean event-free survival was 13.9 ± 1.1 years after NF-PET diagnosis. At last follow-up, none of the living patients who had undergone surgery or follow-up had evidence of metastases on imaging studies. Our study shows that conservative management for patients with MEN1 with NF-PET of 2 cm or smaller is associated with a low risk of disease-specific mortality. The decision to recommend surgery to prevent tumor spread should be balanced with operative mortality and morbidity, and patients should be informed about the risk-benefit ratio of conservative versus aggressive management when the NF-PET represents an intermediate risk.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used

  19. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  20. Lipid effects of endocrine medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Dan V; Vora, Avni; Mazzone, Theodore

    2011-02-01

    Various alterations of lipid homeostasis have a significant role in the pathophysiology of the artherosclerotic process. The effects of usual lipid-lowering agents such as statins, fibrates, or niacin are well known, but other endocrine therapeutic agents could also affect the blood levels of various lipoproteins and, in turn, influence atheroma formation. In this review, we attempt to summarize the effect of several hormonal and non-hormonal endocrine agents on lipid metabolism, including insulin, thyroid hormone, sex hormones, glucocorticoids, growth hormone, and several anti-diabetic agents.

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aspect of your health. What is the endocrine system? Your endocrine system includes glands and organs that make and release ... to feel well. How can TBI affect the endocrine system? Two important parts of the endocrine system—the ...

  2. A Testicular Leydig Cell Tumor with Azoospermia; Re-visited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    Leydig tumor is relatively a rare testicular tumor but the most common non-germ cell gonadal tumor. It constitutes about. 1-3% of all testicular tumors. Clinically, it is usually presented as a testicular mass or with endocrine symptoms, which include gynecomastia, increased sex hormone levels, and other correlated symptoms ...

  3. Case Report: A Testicular Leydig Cell Tumor with Azoospermia; Re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leydig tumor is relatively a rare testicular tumor but the most common non-germ cell gonadal tumor. It constitutes about 1-3% of all testicular tumors. Clinically, it is usually presented as a testicular mass or with endocrine symptoms, which include gynecomastia, increased sex hormone levels, and other correlated symptoms.

  4. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  6. Role of SST, CORT and Ghrelin and its receptors at the endocrine pancreas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen eChanclón

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Somatostatin (SST, cortistatin (CORT, and its receptors (sst1-5, and ghrelin and its receptors (GHS-R are two highly interrelated neuropeptide systems with a broad range of overlapping biological actions at central, cardiovascular and immune levels among others. Besides their potent regulatory role on GH release, its endocrine actions are highlighted by SST/CORT and ghrelin influence on insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. Interestingly, most components of these systems are expressed at the endocrine pancreas and are actively involved in the modulation of pancreatic islet function and, consequently influence glucose homeostasis. In addition, some of them also participate in islet survival and regeneration. Furthermore, under severe metabolic condition as well as in endocrine pathologies, their expression profile is severely deregulated. These finding suggest that SST/CORT and ghrelin systems could play a relevant role in pancreatic function under metabolic and endocrine pathologies. Accordingly, these systems have been therapeutically targeted for the prevention or amelioration of certain metabolic conditions (obesity as well as for tumor growth inhibition and/or hormonal regulation in endocrine pathologies (neuroendocrine tumors. This review focuses on the interrelationship between SST/CORT and ghrelin systems and their role in severe metabolic conditions and some endocrine disorders.

  7. Glucocorticoid receptor knockdown decreases the antioxidant protection of B16 melanoma cells: an endocrine system-related mechanism that compromises metastatic cell resistance to vascular endothelium-induced tumor cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrador, Elena; Valles, Soraya L; Benlloch, María; Sirerol, J Antoni; Pellicer, José A; Alcácer, Javier; Coronado, Javier Alcácer-F; Estrela, José M

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported an interorgan system in which stress-related hormones (corticosterone and noradrenaline), interleukin-6, and glutathione (GSH) coordinately regulate metastatic growth of highly aggressive B16-F10 melanoma cells. Corticosterone, at levels measured in tumor-bearing mice, also induces apoptotic cell death in metastatic cells with low GSH content. In the present study we explored the potential role of glucocorticoids in the regulation of metastatic cell death/survival during the early stages of organ invasion. Glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) knockdown decreased the expression and activity of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), the rate-limiting step in GSH synthesis, in metastatic cells in vivo independent of the tumor location (liver, lung, or subcutaneous). The decrease in γ-GCS activity was associated with lower intracellular GSH levels. Nrf2- and p53-dependent down-regulation of γ-GCS was associated with a decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, but not of the O2--generating NADPH oxidase. The GCR knockdown-induced decrease in antioxidant protection caused a drastic decrease in the survival of metastatic cells during their interaction with endothelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo; only 10% of cancer cells attached to the endothelium survived compared to 90% survival observed in the controls. This very low rate of metastatic cell survival was partially increased (up to 52%) in vivo by inoculating B16-F10 cells preloaded with GSH ester, which enters the cell and delivers free GSH. Taken together, our results indicate that glucocorticoid signaling influences the survival of metastatic cells during their interaction with the vascular endothelium.

  8. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  9. Endocrine disruptors and their effects on puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Çetinkaya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors and their possible impact on human health have become a topic of discussion. Endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in plastics, detergents, pesticides and industrial chemicals. Some of these persist in the environment and others do not. Some are lipophilic, sequestered in adipose tissue and secreted in milk, and others may only be present for short periods of time but at critical periods of development. Endocrine disruptors are defined as an extrogenous substance or mixture that alters the function of the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny. Endocrine disruptors affect the reproductive system and they may be responsible for oligospermia, abnormality of sperm characteristics, disorders of testicular steroidogenesis, testicular atrophy, uterus weight increases and precocious puberty. In this review, we aimed to assess on exposure to endocrine disruptors and the effects of endocrine disruptors on puberty.

  10. Exclusion of the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C beta 3 (PLC beta 3) gene as candidate for the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M J; Landsvater, R M; Sinke, R J; Geurts van Kessel, A; Lips, C J; Höppener, J W

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by hyperplasia and neoplasia in several endocrine organs. The MEN 1 gene, which is most probably a tumor suppressor gene, has been localized to a 900-kb region on chromosome 11q13. The human

  11. Afferent Endocrine Control of Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...

  12. Classical endocrine diseases causing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jolanta U

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several endocrine diseases, including common ones such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovarian syndrome to rare ones such as Cushing's syndrome, central hypothyroidism and hypothalamic disorders. The mechanisms for the development of obesity vary in according to the endocrine condition. Hypothyroidism is associated with accumulation of hyaluronic acid within various tissues, additional fluid retention due to reduced cardiac output and reduced thermogenesis. The pathophysiology of obesity associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome remains complex as obesity itself may simultaneously be the cause and the effect of the syndrome. Net excess of androgen appears to be pivotal in the development of central obesity. In Cushing's syndrome, an interaction with thyroid and growth hormones plays an important role in addition to an increased adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. This review also describes remaining rare cases: hypothalamic obesity due to central hypothyroidism and combined hormone deficiencies.

  13. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid diseas...

  14. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  15. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-10-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.

  16. Skull x-ray in the evaluation of endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C; Li, Y P; Hindo, W

    1978-06-01

    The skull x-ray remains invaluable as a first step in the diagnosis of many endocrine disorders. Pituitary tumors commonly cause enlargement or distortion of the sella turcica, which can be seen on skull x-ray. Pinealomas and craniopharyngiomas may also be detected. Hyperparathyroidism can cause granular decalcification in the skull. Hypoparathyroidism produces calcification of the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Lesions due due to metastatic malignancies or eosinophilic granulomas may be noted in cases of diabetes insipidus. Sellar enlargement may be due to the "empty sella" syndrome. Twenty-five percent of all cases of enlarged sella may be accounted for by this syndrome.

  17. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  18. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  19. Osmoregulation and endocrine glands of teleosts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oguri, M

    1970-01-01

    ...), have indicated that the following endocrine glands: thyroid gland, hypophysis, interrenal body, urophysis, corpuscle of stannius and juxtaglomerular cells, are involved in the osmoregulation in teleosts...

  20. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  1. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  2. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  3. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-04-01

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Around 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive and hence their development is highly dependent on estradiol. While the invention of endocrine therapies has revolusioned the treatment of the disease, resistance to therapy eventually occurs in a large number of patients. This paper seeks to illustrate and discuss the complexity and heterogeneity of the mechanisms which underlie resistance and the approaches proposed to combat them. It will also focus on the use and development of methods for predicting which patients are likely to develop resistance.

  5. Neuroimmune endocrine effects of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marco Antonioli, Joanna Rybka, LA CarvalhoPsychoimmunology Translational Laboratory, Health Science Research Centre, Roehampton University, London, UKAbstract: Antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date the most often used treatment for depression, but the exact mechanism of action underlying its therapeutic effect is still unclear. Many theories have been put forward to account for depression, as well as antidepressant activity, but none of them is exhaustive. Neuroimmune endocrine impairment is found in depressed patients; high levels of circulating corticosteroids along with hyperactivation of the immune system, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, low levels of melatonin in plasma and urine, and disentrainment of circadian rhythms have been demonstrated. Moreover, antidepressant treatment seems to correct or at least to interfere with these alterations. In this review, we summarize the complex neuroimmune endocrine and chronobiological alterations found in patients with depression and how these systems interact with each other. We also explain how antidepressant therapy can modify these systems, along with some possible mechanisms of action shown in animal and human models.Keywords: antidepressant agents, biological markers, human, cytokines, neuroinflammation, psychoneuroimmunology, endophenotype

  6. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Environmental endocrine disruptors: New diabetogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénichel, Patrick; Chevalier, Nicolas

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects. Most are present in the food chain and accumulate in the fat mass after absorption. In rodents, bisphenol A stimulates synthesis and secretion of pancreatic β cells and disturbs insulin signaling in liver, muscle and adipose tissue through epigenetic changes leading to insulin resistance and β cell impairment. In humans, epidemiological reports show statistical link between exposure to pesticides, polychlorinated bisphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins or aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbides or heavy metals and DT2 after acute accidental releases or early in life and/or chronic, low doses exposure. More prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the importance of such environmental risk factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal. Journal Home > Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. People. » Contact ...

  9. Positron emission tomography (PET) in endocrine tumours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine pancreatic tumours is probably limited to those that are less well differentiated and metabolically active. However, a future role for PET imaging in the detection of endocrine tumours, using more specific substrates, appears very promising. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa Vol.

  10. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  11. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ...

  12. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  13. Acute circulatory deficiency due to endocrinal tumoral manipulation: the pinealoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heithem, Chemchihik; Issaoui, Ghazi; Khadraoui, Mejdi; Ladib, Mohamed; Naija, Walid; Said, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    We rapport the case of a patient presenting intra-abdominal metastasis of a pinealoblastoma, via a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, confirmed by an anatomo-pathologic exam. The patient presented an acute hydrocephalus secondary to DVP dysfunction. The surgical manipulation of this metastasis had caused an acute circulatory deficiency due to massive serotonin release. In this case we analyze pineal gland physiology and serotonin effect on different systems.

  14. Acute circulatory deficiency due to endocrinal tumoral manipulation: the pinealoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Heithem, Chemchihik; Issaoui, Ghazi; Khadraoui, Mejdi; Ladib, Mohamed; Naija, Walid; Said, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    We rapport the case of a patient presenting intra-abdominal metastasis of a pinealoblastoma, via a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, confirmed by an anatomo-pathologic exam. The patient presented an acute hydrocephalus secondary to DVP dysfunction. The surgical manipulation of this metastasis had caused an acute circulatory deficiency due to massive serotonin release. In this case we analyze pineal gland physiology and serotonin effect on different systems.

  15. ENDOCRINE MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Shatha; Eisenberg, Yuval

    2017-11-16

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations. We conducted a PubMed search for articles related to PH1. The terms "primary hyperoxaluria," "nonPTH mediated hypercalcemia," "hypothyroidism," and "hypogonadism" were used to identify pertinent literature. Given the rarity of PH1, there is scant literature regarding the incidence and clinical significance of endocrine manifestations of this disorder. There are rare reports of hypercalcemia secondary to osteoclast-stimulating activity of macrophages in bone granulomas, which occur in response to oxalate deposits. We report that hypercalcemia may also be mediated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 (OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism are thought to be due partly to calcium oxalate deposition in thyroid and testicular tissue. The presented case is the first to report PTHrP mediated hypercalcemia and primary hypogonadism in a patient with PH1. PH1 is a metabolic disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Owing to its rarity, it is not widely recognized in the field of endocrinology, despite presenting with several endocrinopathies. Recognition of endocrine disturbances can result in early and successful treatment, limiting morbidity and improving quality of life in these challenging patients. PH = primary hyperoxaluria; ESRD = end stage renal disease; PTH = parathyroid hormone; 1,25 (OH)2D = 1,25 dihydoxyvitamin D; PTHrP = parathyroid hormone related protein; CKD = chronic kidney disease; AGT = alanine: glyoxylate

  16. [Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia I (Wermers Syndrome), Forms of Clinical Manifestation, 5 Case Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drbalová, Karolína; Herdová, Kateřina; Krejčí, Petr; Nývltová, Monika; Solař, Svatopluk; Vedralová, Lenka; Záruba, Pavel; Netuka, David; Bavor, Petr

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) is a condition in which several endocrine organs of an individual are affected by adenoma, hyperplasia and less often carcinoma, either simultaneously or at different stages of life. Two existing syndromes, MEN1 and MEN2 (2A, 2B), in literature is also mentioned MEN4, are associated also with other non-endocrine disorders. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) affects the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic area. 95 % of patients show very early manifestation of hyperparathyroidism, often before 40 years of age. Multiple adenomas gradually involve all four parathyroid glands. The first clinical sign of MEN1 includes recurrent nephrolithiasis. The second most frequent manifestation of MEN1 is pancreatic area (pancreas, stomach and duodenum), again multiple malignancies of varying degree which can metastasize. Most often gastrinomas and insulinomas are involved. Pituitary adenomas occur in about one third of MEN1 patients and tend to be larger and less responsive to treatment. Tumors appearing most often are prolactinomas, tumors producing growth hormone, or afunctional adenomas. The other endocrine tumors include carcinoids and adrenal lesions. In the last year we have registered four MEN1 syndrome patients in our center and one patient has been already followed since 2008. In four out of five patients, nephrolithiasis after 30 years of age was the first clinical symptom, but only one of theses cases resulted in MEN1 diagnosis. In all patients, the clinical symptoms intensified and the diagnosis was established between 36 and 40 years of age. A crutial factor is a cooperation with the urology examination of kidney stones formation in young individuals with nephrolithiasis in order to reveal the potential cases of MEN1 syndrome very early on. Consider the MEN1 genetic diagnostics if recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism or recurrent gastroduodenal ulcer disease appear in patients under 40 years of age.Key words: carcinoid - gastrinoma

  17. A high level of estrogen-stimulated proteins selects breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy with good prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L H Weischenfeldt, Katrine; Kirkegaard, Tove; Rasmussen, Birgitte B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant endocrine therapy has significantly improved survival of estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer patients, but around 20% relapse within 10 years. High expression of ER-stimulated proteins like progesterone receptor (PR), Bcl-2 and insulin-like growth factor receptor I...... (IGF-IR) is a marker for estrogen-driven cell growth. Therefore, patients with high tumor levels of these proteins may have particularly good prognosis following adjuvant endocrine therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Archival tumor tissue was available from 1323 of 1396 Danish breast cancer patients...

  18. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead to muscle weakness, weakened bones and fractures, and thinning skin, among other problems. Pituitary tumors that produce growth hormone cause excessive bone growth or disfigurement. In general, surgery is the ...

  19. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664

  20. Behcet's Disease and Endocrine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet's disease (BD is a chronic disease which is characterized by recurrent oral apthous ulcerations, recurrent genital ulcerations, skin eruptions, ocular involvements and other various systemic manifestations as well as systemic vasculitis. Endocrine involvement in BD regarding various systems can be seen. Hypophysis is one of the best and dense vascularized organs of the body, thus it is likely that it can be affected by BD. Not only anterior hypophysis functions, but posterior hypophysis functions as well can be affected. As BD is a disease of autoimmune process, it may be possible that adrenal insufficiency or alterations in the cortisol levels could be expected. Another concern is whether or not there is insulin resistance in patients with BD. The avaliable data suggests that there is an increased susceptibility to insulin resistance in patients with BD.

  1. Single photon emission computed tomography procedure improves accuracy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumours; Dectection des tumeurs endocrines de l'abdomen: interet de la tomographie et des images planaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebtahi, R.; Genin, R.; Rouzet, F.; Bleicner-Perez, S.; Lievre, A.; Scigliano, S.; Vialle, C.; Le Guludec, D. [Hopital Bichat, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Cadiot, G. [Hopital de Reims, Service de Gastro-Enterologie, 51 - Reims (France); Sobhani, I. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, Service de Gastro-Enterologie, 94 - Creteil (France); Mignon, M. [Hopital Bichat, Service de Gastro-Enterologie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-05-15

    Somatostatin receptors scintigraphy (SRS) is a sensitive method for the detection of endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of anterior and posterior planar associated to single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) compared to anterior and posterior planar associated to additional lateral and oblique views in the detection of abdominal endocrine tumors. One hundred and sixty four patients with endocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors were included in this study. Scintigraphic images were performed after injection of 189 {+-} 23 MBq of {sup 111}In-Pentetreotide. Abdominal planar images were performed 4 h and 24 hours after injection. Abdominal SPECT was performed at 24 hours. The combination of anterior and posterior abdominal planar images with SPECT using iterative reconstruction detected significantly more tumoral sites compared to multiple planar images (298 versus 280 for the liver, p = 0.01 and 90 versus 88 for coeliac area). In particular liver lesions were better delineated on tomographic slices. The combination of {sup 111}In-Pentetreotide SPECT with anterior and posterior planar images is more sensitive than multiple planar images to detect abdominal endocrine tumors. (author)

  2. Alopecia With Endocrine Therapies in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggar, Vishal; Wu, Shenhong; Dickler, Maura N.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whereas the frequency of alopecia to cytotoxic chemotherapies has been well described, the incidence of alopecia during endocrine therapies (i.e., anti-estrogens, aromatase inhibitors) has not been investigated. Endocrine agents are widely used in the treatment and prevention of many solid tumors, principally those of the breast and prostate. Adherence to these therapies is suboptimal, in part because of toxicities. We performed a systematic analysis of the literature to ascertain the incidence and risk for alopecia in patients receiving endocrine therapies. Methods. An independent search of citations was conducted using the PubMed database for all literature as of February 2013. Phase II–III studies using the terms “tamoxifen,” “toremifene,” “raloxifene,” “anastrozole,” “letrozole,” “exemestane,” “fulvestrant,” “leuprolide,” “flutamide,” “bicalutamide,” “nilutamide,” “fluoxymesterone,” “estradiol,” “octreotide,” “megestrol,” “medroxyprogesterone acetate,” “enzalutamide,” and “abiraterone” were searched. Results. Data from 19,430 patients in 35 clinical trials were available for analysis. Of these, 13,415 patients had received endocrine treatments and 6,015 patients served as controls. The incidence of all-grade alopecia ranged from 0% to 25%, with an overall incidence of 4.4% (95% confidence interval: 3.3%–5.9%). The highest incidence of all-grade alopecia was observed in patients treated with tamoxifen in a phase II trial (25.4%); similarly, the overall incidence of grade 2 alopecia by meta-analysis was highest with tamoxifen (6.4%). The overall relative risk of alopecia in comparison with placebo was 12.88 (p Alopecia is a common yet underreported adverse event of endocrine-based cancer therapies. Their long-term use heightens the importance of this condition on patients' quality of life. These findings are critical for pretherapy counseling, the identification of risk

  3. Increased STAT1 signaling in endocrine-resistant breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    Full Text Available Proteomic profiling of the estrogen/tamoxifen-sensitive MCF-7 cell line and its partially sensitive (MCF-7/LCC1 and fully resistant (MCF-7/LCC9 variants was performed to identify modifiers of endocrine sensitivity in breast cancer. Analysis of the expression of 120 paired phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated epitopes in key oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways revealed that STAT1 and several phosphorylated epitopes (phospho-STAT1(Tyr701 and phospho-STAT3(Ser727 were differentially expressed between endocrine resistant and parental controls, confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blotting. The STAT1 inhibitor EGCG was a more effective inhibitor of the endocrine resistant MCF-7/LCC1 and MCF-7/LCC9 lines than parental MCF-7 cells, while STAT3 inhibitors Stattic and WP1066 were equally effective in endocrine-resistant and parental lines. The effects of the STAT inhibitors were additive, rather than synergistic, when tested in combination with tamoxifen in vitro. Expression of STAT1 and STAT3 were measured by quantitative immunofluorescence in invasive breast cancers and matched lymph nodes. When lymph node expression was compared to its paired primary breast cancer expression, there was greater expression of cytoplasmic STAT1 (∼3.1 fold, phospho-STAT3(Ser727 (∼1.8 fold, and STAT5 (∼1.5 fold and nuclear phospho-STAT3(Ser727 (∼1.5 fold in the nodes. Expression levels of STAT1 and STAT3 transcript were analysed in 550 breast cancers from publicly available gene expression datasets (GSE2990, GSE12093, GSE6532. When treatment with tamoxifen was considered, STAT1 gene expression was nearly predictive of distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS, log-rank p = 0.067, while STAT3 gene expression was predictive of DMFS (log-rank p<0.0001. Analysis of STAT1 and STAT3 protein expression in a series of 546 breast cancers also indicated that high expression of STAT3 protein was associated with improved survival (DMFS, p = 0.006. These results suggest

  4. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...

  6. Endocrine-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint blockade and expert insights on their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznol, Mario; Postow, Michael A; Davies, Marianne J; Pavlick, Anna C; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Shaheen, Montaser; Veloski, Colleen; Robert, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Agents that modulate immune checkpoint proteins, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), have become a mainstay in cancer treatment. The clinical benefit afforded by immune checkpoint inhibitors can be accompanied by immune-related adverse events (irAE) that affect the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and endocrine system. The types of irAEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors are generally consistent across tumor types. Immune-related endocrine events can affect the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as other downstream target organs. These events are unique when compared with other irAEs because the manifestations are often irreversible. Immune-related endocrine events are typically grade 1/2 in severity and often present with non-specific symptoms, making them difficult to diagnose. The mechanisms underlying immune-related target organ damage in select individuals remain mostly undefined. Management includes close patient monitoring, appropriate laboratory testing for endocrine function, replacement of hormones, and consultation with an endocrinologist when appropriate. An awareness of the symptoms and management of immune-related endocrine events may aid in the safe and appropriate use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptors and prostate cancer associations: biochemical and pathophysiological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Rossetti, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Di Palo, Rossella; Lamantia, Elvira; Castaldo, Luigi; Nocerino, Flavia; Ametrano, Gianluca; Cappuccio, Francesca; Malzone, Gabriella; Montanari, Micaela; Vanacore, Daniela; Romano, Francesco Jacopo; Piscitelli, Raffaele; Iovane, Gelsomina; Pepe, Maria Filomena; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Perdonà, Sisto; Muto, Paolo; Botti, Gerardo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; De Falco, Francesco; Maiolino, Piera; Caraglia, Michele; Montella, Maurizio; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Facchini, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes the main pathophysiological basis of the relationship between metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptor exposure and prostate cancer that is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and hormonal factors having a central role in the initiation and recurrence of many western chronic diseases including hormonal-related cancers and it is considered as the worlds leading health problem in the coming years. Many biological factors correlate metabolic syndrome to prostate cancer and this review is aimed to focus, principally, on growth factors, cytokines, adipokines, central obesity, endocrine abnormalities and exposure to specific endocrine disruptors, a cluster of chemicals, to which we are daily exposed, with a hormone-like structure influencing oncogenes, tumor suppressors and proteins with a key role in metabolism, cell survival and chemo-resistance of prostate cancer cells. Finally, this review will analyze, from a molecular point of view, how specific foods could reduce the relative risk of incidence and recurrence of prostate cancer or inhibit the biological effects of endocrine disruptors on prostate cancer cells. On the basis of these considerations, prostate cancer remains a great health problem in terms of incidence and prevalence and interventional studies based on the treatment of metabolic syndrome in cancer patients, minimizing exposure to endocrine disruptors, could be a key point in the overall management of this disease. PMID:28389628

  8. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1: institution, management, and data analysis of a nationwide multicenter patient database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Francesca; Cianferotti, Luisella; Boaretto, Francesca; Cetani, Filomena; Cioppi, Federica; Colao, Annamaria; Davì, Maria Vittoria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Ferolla, Piero; Ferone, Diego; Fossi, Caterina; Giudici, Francesco; Gronchi, Giorgio; Loli, Paola; Mantero, Franco; Marcocci, Claudio; Marini, Francesca; Masi, Laura; Opocher, Giuseppe; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca; Scillitani, Alfredo; Sciortino, Giovanna; Spada, Anna; Tomassetti, Paola; Tonelli, Francesco; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to integrate European epidemiological data on patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 by creating an Italian registry of this syndrome, including clinical and genetic characteristics and therapeutic management. Clinical, familial and genetic data of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, diagnosed, treated, and followed-up for a mean time of 11.3 years, in 14 Italian referral endocrinological centers, were collected, over a 3-year course (2011-2013), to build a national electronic database. The Italian multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 database includes 475 patients (271 women and 204 men), of whom 383 patients (80.6%) were classified as familial cases (from 136 different pedigrees), and 92 (19.4%) patients were sporadic cases. A MEN1 mutation was identified in 92.6% of familial cases and in 48.9% of sporadic cases. Four hundred thirty-six patients were symptomatic, presenting primary hyperparathyroidism, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and pituitary tumors in 93, 53, and 41% of cases, respectively. Thirty-nine subjects, belonging to affected pedigrees positive for a MEN1 mutation, were asymptomatic at clinical and biochemical screening. Age at diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 probands was similar for both familial and simplex cases (mean age 47.2 ± 15.3 years). In familial cases, diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 in relatives of affected probands was made more than 10 years in advance (mean age at diagnosis 36.5 ± 17.6 years). The analysis of Italian registry of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients revealed that clinical features of Italian multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 patients are similar to those of other western countries, and confirmed that the genetic test allowed multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis 10 years earlier than biochemical or clinical diagnosis.

  9. Endocrine effects on heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gamberini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors associated with thalassemic heart disease, endocrine disturbance is also a contributing factor. We present a retrospective, cross sectional study, which aims to establish the prevalence of cardiac complications in thalassaemia major (TM patients with endocrine complications and to evaluate the influence of endocrine disease on cardiac complications. Endocrinological and cardiological parameters were considered on 957 TM patients who are enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassemia (MIOT network in 68 sites in Italy. Patients with pubertal hypogonadism (163 males and 175 females, hypothyroidism (192, diabetes mellitus (87 and hypoparathyroidism (61, were compared according to cardiac complications: global heart T2*, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, arrythmias, pulmonary hypertension and myocardial fibrosis. Control groups were made up according to the age range of patients with the corresponding endocrinopathy. The prevalence of cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure was significantly increased in patients with endocrinopathies. Cardiac complications tended to increase according to the number of endocrinologies affecting the patient. 与地中海贫血心脏疾病相关的因素中,内分泌失调也是一个促进因素。 我们进行了回顾和断面研究,旨在患有内分泌并发症的重型地中海贫血患者中建立心脏并发症的患病率,以及评估内分泌疾病对心脏并发症的影响。 曾考虑到意大利地中海贫血心肌铁过载(MIOT)网络的68个站点上注册的957名重型地中海贫血患者的内分泌和心脏病学参数。 根据以下心脏并发症对青春期性腺机能减退的患者(男性163名、女性175名)、甲状腺机能减退患者(192名)、糖尿病患者(87名)和甲状旁腺机能减退患者(61名)进行了比较: 心脏 T2*、心功能障碍、心脏衰竭、心率不齐、肺动脉高

  10. [Endocrine disruptors are a novel direction of endocrinologic scientific investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous anthropogenic chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and others), that are able to bind hormonal receptors of endocrine and other cells in vivo and act like hormones. These substances disrupt endocrine regulation of metabolism, reproduction and adaptive reactions of organisms and promote human and animal endocrine disorders.

  11. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects passed down ...

  12. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malabsorptive procedures. Weight loss depends on following a strict diet. • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RYGB ... index.cfm). www.hormone.org Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery Patient Guide November 2010

  13. Endocrine Disorders Induced by Antiepileptic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disturbances in adolescent women with epilepsy, and the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and hormonal contraception are discussed by a pediatric neurologist and epileptologist at the Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

  14. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2018-02-01

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  16. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... new knowledge on endocrine disrupters with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board....... The overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasia multiple endocrine neoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... stones, thinning of bones, nausea and vomiting, high blood pressure (hypertension), weakness, and fatigue. The most common sign ...

  18. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... issues. This paper aims at discussing the relevance of the endocrine perspective with regard to EDC effects on pubertal timing. Puberty involves particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Reports about the advancing onset of puberty in several countries have led to the hypothesis...

  19. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  20. Wilson′s disease: An endocrine revelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilson′s disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. The affected patients, who otherwise have a near normal life span, may often suffer from some potentially treatable and under recognized endocrine disorders that may hinder their quality of life. We explored previously published literature on the various endocrine aspects of this disease with their probable underlying mechanisms, highlighting the universal need of research in this area.

  1. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  2. Endocrine manifestations of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison

    2018-02-01

    To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.

  3. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  4. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  5. Frequent RET protooncogene mutations in multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadro, L.; Panariello, L.; Salvatore, D.; Carlomagno, F.; Del Prete, M.; Nunziata, V.; Colantuoni, V.; Di Giovanni, G.; Brandi, M.L.; Mannelli, M. [and others

    1994-08-01

    The occurrence of mutations in the RET protooncogene has been investigated in 12 multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A families and 18 cases of sporadic thyroid medullary carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Ten of 12 families showed single base substitutions in the RET protooncogene exons 10 and 11, coding for the extracellular domain of the protein. Tumor tissues from 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A patients were analyzed at the DNA and ribonucleic acid levels and revealed the same heterozygous mutations found in the peripheral blood lymphocytes. This demonstrates that both the normal and mutant alleles are expressed. No mutations in these exons were detected in the 18 cases of sporadic tumors investigated. These data provide further evidence that the mutated RET protooncogene acts in a dominant fashion and is responsible for the pathogenesis of this syndrome. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aurora kinase A as a possible marker for endocrine resistance in early estrogen receptor positive breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Iversen, Benedikte R; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cell culture studies have disclosed that the mitotic Aurora kinase A is causally involved in both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor resistant cell growth and thus may be a potential new marker for endocrine resistance in the clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Archival tumor tissue...

  8. Genetic polymorphisms and metabolism of endocrine disruptors in cancer susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatagima Ana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have estimated that approximately 80% of all cancers are related to environmental factors. Individual cancer susceptibility can be the result of several host factors, including differences in metabolism, DNA repair, altered expression of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes, and nutritional status. Xenobiotic metabolism is the principal mechanism for maintaining homeostasis during the body's exposure to xenobiotics. The balance of xenobiotic absorption and elimination rates in metabolism can be important in the prevention of DNA damage by chemical carcinogens. Thus the ability to metabolize and eliminate xenobiotics can be considered one of the body's first protective mechanisms. Variability in individual metabolism has been related to the enzymatic polymorphisms involved in activation and detoxification of chemical carcinogens. This paper is a contemporary literature review on genetic polymorphisms involved in the metabolism of endocrine disruptors potentially related to cancer development.

  9. [Circulating microRNAs in the diagnostics of endocrine neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decmann, Ábel; Perge, Pál; Nagy, Zoltán; Butz, Henriett; Patócs, Attila; Igaz, Péter

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA, miR) are short - 19-25 nucleotide long - single stranded (in their mature form), non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression mostly at the posttranscriptional level. microRNAs are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes such as cell differentiation and proliferation, development, haematopoesis, cell death, while their aberrant expression is observed in numerous diseases, like autoimmune disorders, inflammations, vascular diseases or tumorigenesis. microRNAs are expressed in a tissue specific fashion. Beyond their appearance in tissues, they can be found in body fluids as well. microRNAs are present in blood, mother milk, semen, saliva, urine, etc. MicroRNAs in body fluids, especially the blood-borne circulating microRNAs can be exploited as minimally invasive biomarkers of tumor diagnosis. The number of endocrine tumor-associated circulating microRNA alterations is relatively low, mostly described for papillary thyroid cancer, adrenocortical cancer, ovarian and neuroendocrine tumors. As the histological diagnosis including the establishment of malignancy of some of these neoplasms is difficult, studies on circulating microRNAs might have great perspectives. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(13), 483-490.

  10. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  11. [Standards, Options and Recommendations (SOR) for endocrine therapy in patients with non metastatic breast cancer. FNCLCC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauriac, L; Blanc-Vincent, M P; Luporsi, E; Cutuli, B; Fourquet, A; Garbay, J R; Giard, S; Spyratos, F; Zafrani, B; Dilhuydy, J M

    2000-06-01

    The "Standards, Options and Recommendations" (SOR) project, started in 1993, is a collaboration between the Federation of the French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC), the 20 French Cancer Centres and specialists from French Public Universities, General Hospitals and Private Clinics. The main objective is the development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of health care and outcome for cancer patients. The methodology is based on literature systematic review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts, with feedback from specialists in cancer care delivery. To develop clinical practice guidelines according to the definitions of Standards, Options and Recommendations for endocrine therapy in patients with non metastatic breast cancer. Data have been identified by literature search using Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and Cochrane databases - until july 1999 - and the personal reference lists of the expert group. Once the guidelines were defined, the document was submitted for review to 125 independent reviewers. The main recommendations for the endocrine therapy of patients with non metastatic breast cancer are: 1) Endocrine therapy modalities depend on menopausal status or age of women: ovarian suppression for premenopausal women, antiestrogen drug therapy for postmenopausal women (standard). 2) Tamoxifen (20 mg/d - 5 years) is beneficial to women with positive estrogen receptor tumor (standard, level of evidence A). There is no indication of tamoxifen treatment for women with negative estrogen receptor tumor (standard, level of evidence A). 3) For postmenopausal women with positive estrogen receptor tumor, tamoxifen is the standard adjuvant treatment (level of evidence A). For postmenopausal women with negative estrogen receptor, adjuvant chemotherapy has to be considered (option, level of evidence A). No adjuvant treatment has to be considered for women with poor health condition (option). 4) For premenopausal women with estrogen receptor

  12. Assessing for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 in Patients Evaluated for Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome-Clues to a Safer Diagnostic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Ospina, Naykky; Donegan, Diane; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Al-Hilli, Zahraa; Young, William F

    2017-05-01

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare cause of tumoral hypergastrinemia; 1 of 5 patients with this syndrome also has multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The diagnosis of this disease is complicated by the widespread use of proton pump inhibitors that can elevate serum gastrin levels, the cornerstone for biochemical diagnosis. Abrupt discontinuation of proton pump inhibitors could lead to adverse outcomes. Clinician awareness of the relationship between Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 could lead to a safer diagnostic pathway. We conducted a retrospective review of a cohort of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. There were 287 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (73 with gastrinoma) evaluated between 1997 and 2014. Two patients experienced adverse events after proton pump inhibitor therapy was discontinued to re-measure serum gastrin level during the evaluation of severe peptic ulcer disease. In both cases, the diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was made after proton pump therapy was discontinued. Abrupt discontinuation of proton pump therapy can lead to adverse outcomes in patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Clinical assessment for features of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (eg, serum calcium levels, personal and family history of hypercalcemia, pituitary or pancreatic tumors) could identify patients with higher risk for a tumoral source of hypergastrinemia where imaging studies can help support the diagnosis without the potential side effects of abrupt discontinuation of proton pump inhibitor therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neoadjuvant endocrine treatment in breast cancer: analysis of daily practice in large cancer center to facilitate decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debled, Marc; Auxepaules, Gaël; de Lara, Christine Tunon; Garbay, Delphine; Brouste, Véronique; Bussières, Emmanuel; Mauriac, Louis; MacGrogan, Gaëtan

    2014-11-01

    To examine outcomes of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy in daily practice to inform decision making. We retrospectively selected 204 patients who received neoadjuvant endocrine therapy with T2 (≥30 mm) or T3 tumors, examining subsequent breast-sparing surgery and long-term outcomes. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy was administered for 7.3 months (median) and breast-sparing surgery was achievable in 53% of patients. Smaller initial tumor size and modified version of the Scarff-Bloom and Richardson grades 1 to 2 were associated with breast-sparing surgery. Disease progression during treatment was 6.9%; actuarial risk of local relapse was 3% at 5 years and 15% at 10 years. Five- and 10-year metastasis relapse-free survival was 78% and 63%, respectively. Grade 3, negative progesterone receptors, and absence or slow response to neoadjuvant therapy were associated prognostic factors. These daily practice data provide important information about feasibility, efficacy, and long-term results of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy and can be used to inform patients for decision making between mastectomy and endocrine induction therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evidence for endocrine disruption in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetken, Matthias; Bachmann, Jean; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption (ED) in invertebrates has generated remarkably little interest in the past compared to research with aquatic vertebrates in this area. However, with more than 95% of all known species in the animal kingdom, invertebrates constitute a very important part of the global biodiversity with key species for the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that ED in invertebrates has been investigated on a smaller scale than in vertebrates, invertebrates provide some of the best documented examples for deleterious effects in wildlife populations following an exposure to endocrine-active substances. The article provides an overview of the diversity in endocrine systems of invertebrates. The principal susceptibility of invertebrates to endocrine-active compounds is demonstrated with the case studies of tributyltin effects in mollusks and of insect growth regulators, the latter as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters. The additional evidence for ED in invertebrates from laboratory and field studies is summarized as an update and amendment of the EDIETA report from 1998. Finally, conclusions about the scale and implications of the observed effects are drawn and research needs are defined.

  15. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  16. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell functions and some hormone-producing endocrine cell functions. Some hormones that are produced by neuroendocrine cells are cortisol, histamine, insulin and serotonin. Risk factors Factors that increase the ...

  18. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG......) to assess the effect of chemicals in molluscs. To date no endocrine specific mollusc biomarkers have though been validated and included in draft test guidelines due to lack of knowledge of the endocrine system. Here we investigate effects of pharmaceuticals targeting serotonin and dopamine in a cost...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L...

  19. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...

  1. Activated HER-receptors in predicting outcome of ER-positive breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mathilde Skaarup; Bjerre, Karsten; Lykkesfeldt, Anne Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The four human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER1-4) are involved in growth stimulation and may play a role in endocrine resistance. The receptors form dimers, leading to activation by mutual phosphorylation. Our purpose was to explore the role of the activated receptors (pHER1, pHER2, pHER3......) in endocrine treated breast cancer in terms of co-expression and association with disease-free survival (DFS) in 1062 patients with ER-positive tumors. Furthermore, HER2 amplification was evaluated. We found positive associations between the phosphorylated receptors. pHER1 and pHER3 were co-expressed with one...

  2. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...

  3. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  4. Schedule for Rating Disabilities; the Endocrine System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) by revising the portion of the Schedule that addresses endocrine conditions and disorders of the endocrine system. The effect of this action is to ensure that the VASRD uses current medical terminology and to provide detailed and updated criteria for evaluation of endocrine disorders.

  5. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  6. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  7. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental "Obesogen" Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-07-28

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called "obesogenic environment". Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity.

  8. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, and f) effect on PPAR α and γ using a transactivation assay. For the in vitro metabolism studies, ten selected EDCs: five azole fungicides, three parabens, and two phthalates, were tested in vitro in the T-screen assay to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDCs to bind to and activate...... when looking at the metabolism of the azole fungicides. The PCBinduced rat microsomes gave a statistically significant difference between the amount of parent compound before and after treatment with the microsomes for four out of the five azole fungicides tested. When using the human liver S9...

  9. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  10. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many chemicals have recently been demonstrated to be Endocrine-disrupting compounds and may potential interfere with normal reproductive processes. In this study, we quantified the effect of Bonnylight crude oil contaminated diet on Wister albino rats. Forty-five rats (twenty male and twenty five females) were expose to ...

  11. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting activity of Bonny light crude oil contaminated - diet on Wistar albino rats. Olawale OTITOJU. 1* and Ikechukwu N. E. ONWURAH. 2. 1Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, P M B 1008 Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. 2Dept of Biochemistry, Pollution ...

  12. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  13. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  14. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify...

  15. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  16. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  17. Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Wylie C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Gooren, Louis J; Meyer, Walter J; Spack, Norman P; Tangpricha, Vin; Montori, Victor M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for endocrine treatment of transsexual persons. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence, which was low or very low. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society, European Society of Endocrinology, European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and World Professional Association for Transgender Health commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Transsexual persons seeking to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender require a safe, effective hormone regimen that will 1) suppress endogenous hormone secretion determined by the person's genetic/biologic sex and 2) maintain sex hormone levels within the normal range for the person's desired gender. A mental health professional (MHP) must recommend endocrine treatment and participate in ongoing care throughout the endocrine transition and decision for surgical sex reassignment. The endocrinologist must confirm the diagnostic criteria the MHP used to make these recommendations. Because a diagnosis of transsexualism in a prepubertal child cannot be made with certainty, we do not recommend endocrine treatment of prepubertal children. We recommend treating transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2) by suppressing puberty with GnRH analogues until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. We suggest suppressing endogenous sex hormones, maintaining physiologic levels of gender-appropriate sex hormones and monitoring for known risks in adult transsexual persons.

  18. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  19. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Greg K; Taylor, Howard E; Kiesling, Richard L; Ferrey, Mark L; Jahns, Nathan D; Bartell, Steve E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Spinal tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - spinal cord ... tissue) Myeloma (blood cancer that starts in the plasma cells of the bone marrow) A small number of spinal tumors occur in the nerves of the spinal cord itself. Tumors that start in spinal tissue are ...

  1. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms tumor is a rare type of kidney cancer. It causes a tumor on one or both kidneys. It usually affects ... are at risk should be screened for Wilms tumor every three months until they turn eight. Symptoms ...

  2. Solid and papillary tumor of the pancreas: ultrastructural observations on two contrasting cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Roza, G; Cleary, K R; Ordóñez, N G; el-Naggar, A; Mackay, B; Romsdahl, M M

    1997-01-01

    Two papillary and solid tumors of the pancreas are reported which differed in their clinical features, ultrastructure, and biologic behavior. Both tumors contained papillary and solid areas by light microscopy. One tumor followed the more usual indolent course. The second patient presented with a liver metastasis and died of progressive disease in a relatively short period of time. Neither neoplasm showed convincing immunohistochemical or ultrastructural evidence of endocrine differentiation, but the electron microscopic findings hinted that this tumor possesses at least latent endocrine properties.

  3. Disease and treatment factors associated with lower quality of life scores in adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sneha; Peipert, Benjamin J; Helenowski, Irene; Yount, Susan E; Sturgeon, Cord

    2017-12-01

    Physical and psychosocial morbidity of multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 is ill-defined. How disease and treatment-related factors relate to patient-reported outcomes including health-related quality of life is unknown. We hypothesized that disease and treatment burden negatively impacts health-related quality of life in adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1. Adults (≥18 years) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 completed an online survey of demographics, disease features, treatments, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item profile measure, and scores were compared with normative US data. Multivariable modeling was performed to evaluate factors associated with decreased health-related quality of life. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1 patients (n = 207) reported worse health-related quality of life compared with US normative data in all health-related quality of life domains (P 50 miles for doctor appointments and ≥20 doctor appointments/year (P quality of life. History of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors was not associated with worse health-related quality of life. This is the largest study to assess clinical and treatment factors associated with health-related quality of life in multiple endocrine neoplasia type-1. Persistent hyperparathyroidism, increased travel distance and frequency of doctor appointments were all associated with worse health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  7. Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Endocrine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tarçın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent studies have also shown that PON activity was related to several disorders, including endocrine disorders as well. In this paper, we review the relation of PON1 activity with endocrine diseases like diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, obesity and dyslipidemia. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 33-8

  8. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models. © 2010

  9. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  10. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.

  11. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Trbojević, Božo

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l), or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l) hypothyrodi...

  12. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  13. Serum steroid levels in intact and endocrine ablated BALB/c nude mice and their intact littermates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Svenstrup, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those of t...... to changes in serum steroids following oophorectomy and orchiectomy, support the usefulness of human tumor xenograft models for the study of hormone-tumor interactions.......An investigation was made of the serum steroid levels found in intact and endocrine ablated nude mice of both sexes and in their intact homozygous littermates. The results showed that nude mice have a normal steroidogenesis, but with decreased levels of circulating steroids compared to those...

  14. A high level of estrogen-stimulated proteins selects breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy with good prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L H Weischenfeldt, Katrine; Kirkegaard, Tove; Rasmussen, Birgitte B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adjuvant endocrine therapy has significantly improved survival of estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer patients, but around 20% relapse within 10 years. High expression of ER-stimulated proteins like progesterone receptor (PR), Bcl-2 and insulin-like growth factor receptor I...... (IGF-IR) is a marker for estrogen-driven cell growth. Therefore, patients with high tumor levels of these proteins may have particularly good prognosis following adjuvant endocrine therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Archival tumor tissue was available from 1323 of 1396 Danish breast cancer patients...... enrolled in BIG 1-98, a randomized phase-III clinical trial comparing adjuvant letrozole, tamoxifen or a sequence of the two drugs. Immunohistochemical staining for ER, HER-2, PR, Bcl-2 and IGF-IR was performed and determined by Allred scoring (ER, PR and Bcl-2) or HercepTest (HER-2 and IGF-IR). RESULTS...

  15. Feminizing adrenocortical tumors: Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    On the biological point, estrogen overproduction with or without increase in other adrenal hormones are the main abnormalities. Radiological examination usually shows the tumor, describes its limits and its eventual metastases. Adrenal and endocrine origins are confirmed by biochemical assessments and histology, but that one is unable to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors, except if metastases are already present. Immunostaining using anti-aromatase antibodies is the only tool that distinguishes FAT from other adrenocortical tumors. Abdominal surgery is the best and the first line treatment. For large tumors (≥10 cm, an open access is preferred to coeliosurgery, but for the small ones, or when the surgeon is experienced, endoscopic surgery seems to give excellent results. Surgery can be preceded by adrenolytic agents such as ortho paraprime dichloro diphenyl dichloroethane (Mitotane, ketoconazole or by aromatase inhibitors, but till now there is not any controlled study to compare the benefit of different drugs. New anti-estrogens can be used too, but their results need to be confirmed in malignant tumors resistant to classical chemotherapy and to conventional radiotherapy. Targeted therapy can be used too, as in other adrenocortical tumors, but the results need to be confirmed.

  16. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors. PMID:26382024

  17. Is TNF a link between aging-related reproductive endocrine dyscrasia and Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Atwood, Craig S

    2011-01-01

    This commentary addresses a novel mechanism by which aging-related changes in reproductive hormones could mediate their action in the brain. It presents the evidence that dyotic endocrine signals modulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and related cytokines, and that these cytokines are a functionally important downstream link mediating neurodegeneration and dysfunction. This convergence of dyotic signaling on TNF-mediated degeneration and dysfunction has important implications for understanding the pathophysiology of AD, stroke, and traumatic brain disease, and also for the treatment of these diseases.

  18. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  19. [Chronic heart failure and cachexia: role of endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Cas, A; Muoio, A; Zavaroni, I

    2011-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major health problem that carries a devastating prognosis. The prognosis worsens considerably once cardiac cachexia has been diagnosed. Neurohormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic and immunological alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of cardiac cachexia. Cachexia is characterized by a hypothalamic inappropriate response to the mechanisms controlling energy homeostasis. Levels of the anorexigenic hormone leptin are decreased whereas the orexigenic gherlin hormone levels are normal or elevated. Nevertheless, energy intake is not increased as expected due to a persistent activation of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) system (anorexigenic) paralleled by a decreased activity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY, orexigenic) neurons. Cachexia is also characterized by an imbalance in anabolic (impairment in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis, insulin resistance) and catabolic (increased levels of catecholamines, increased cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio and activation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleuchin-6, interleuchin-1') at the basis of the wasting process. This review discusses the complex role of the endocrine system in modulating energy balance, appetite and metabolism in patients with chronic heart failure. A joint multidisciplinary effort of the cardiologists, immunologists and endocrinologists might be useful to identify the precise mechanisms involved in the neuroendocrine alteration and to develop therapeutic strategies able to improve the prognosis of CHF patients.

  20. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  1. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  2. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine function and its association to number of CTG repeats in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Concentration of various hormones and metabolites in venous blood was used to assess the endocrine function in 97 patients with DM1....... We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma...

  3. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  4. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  5. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothalamic glioma; Hypothalamus - tumor ... The exact cause of hypothalamic tumors is not known. It is likely that they result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In children, ...

  6. Pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In dogs, hypercortisolism is one of the most frequently observed endocrine disorders, with an estimated incidence of about 1-2 cases per 1000 dogs per year. Approximately 15% of these cases is due to a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumor (AT). Cortisol-secreting ATs are characterized by

  7. Acute coronary syndrome: a rare case of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloberti, Alessadro; Meani, Paolo; Pirola, Roberto; Varrenti, Marisa; Boniardi, Marco; De Biase, Anna Maria; Vallerio, Paola; Bonacina, Edgardo; Mancia, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Giannattasio, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor arising from neuroectodermal chromaffin tissues in the adrenal gland or extra-adrenal paraganglia (paragangliomas). The prevalence of the tumor is 0.1%-0.6% in the hypertensive population, of which 10%-20% are malignant. Pheochromocytoma produces, stores, and secretes catecholamines, as well as leads to hypertensive crisis, arrhythmia, angina, and acute myocardial infarction without coronary artery diseases. We report a case of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a final diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia with pheochromocytoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

  8. Health disparities in endocrine disorders: biological, clinical, and nonclinical factors--an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. consensus process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the Advocacy and Public

  9. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A.; Chin, Marshall H.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L.; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E.; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. Participants in Development of Scientific Statement: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. Evidence: The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. Consensus Process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the

  10. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  11. Odontogenic Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    TAHSİNOĞLU, Melih

    2013-01-01

    DefinitionThe neoplasms that consist of the cells considered specialized for odontogenesis, and their product (dentin, enamel, cementum) are called odontogenic tumors.ClassificationTo initiate odontogenesis, epithelium is a must. Same rule holds for the odontogenic tumors: without odontogenic epithelium, odontogenic tumors cannot be, without the induction of odontogenic epithelium odontogenic mesenchyme cannot develop.

  12. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B A; Eroschenko, V P; Fox, G A; Fry, D M; Gorsline, J

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  14. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  15. Endocrine disruption: fact or urban legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Borgert, Christopher J; Dietrich, Daniel; Rozman, Karl K

    2013-12-16

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances that cause adverse health effects via endocrine-mediated mechanisms in an intact organism or its progeny or (sub) populations. Purported EDCs in personal care products include 4-MBC (UV filter) or parabens that showed oestrogenic activity in screening tests, although regulatory toxicity studies showed no adverse effects on reproductive endpoints. Hormonal potency is the key issue of the safety of EDCs. Oestrogen-based drugs, e.g. the contraceptive pill or the synthetic oestrogen DES, possess potencies up to 7 orders of magnitude higher than those of PCP ingredients; yet, in utero exposure to these drugs did not adversely affect fertility or sexual organ development of offspring unless exposed to extreme doses. Additive effects of EDs are unlikely due to the multitude of mechanisms how substances may produce a hormone-like activity; even after uptake of different substances with a similar mode of action, the possibility of additive effects is reduced by different absorption, metabolism and kinetics. This is supported by a number of studies on mixtures of chemical EDCs. Overall, despite of 20 years of research a human health risk from exposure to low concentrations of exogenous chemical substances with weak hormone-like activities remains an unproven and unlikely hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  17. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Peppa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  18. Rapid development of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma despite transcervical thymectomy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhalapathy Sadacharan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic neuroendocrine (NE tumors are a rare manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1. They are malignant and aggressive tumors and form a major cause of mortality in MEN-1. Transcervical thymectomy (TCT at the time of parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT in MEN-1 usually prevents thymic NE tumors. We report a 56-year-old nonsmoker male with sporadic MEN-1 who presented with thymic NE carcinoma developing rapidly within a span of 8 months after subtotal parathyroidectomy and TCT for PHPT. We present a brief review of literature on this rare NE malignancy, focusing on its occurrence despite TCT. This case highlights the fact that thymic NE carcinoma may develop even after TCT in MEN-1. Regular surveillance for these aggressive thymic NE tumors is mandatory even after TCT in MEN-1 setting.

  19. Paediatric endocrine disorders as seen at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In most developing countries, data on the prevalence and distribution of paediatric endocrine disorders is lacking. Objective: To describe the pattern of endocrine disorders seen in the Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria between 2004 to 2013.

  20. The endocrine effects of mercury in humans and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shirlee W; Meiller, Jesse C; Mahaffey, Kathryn R

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is well studied and research continues as our knowledge of its health risks increases. One expanding area of research not well emphasized to date is the endocrine effects of Hg. This review summarizes the existing literature on the effects of Hg on the endocrine system and identifies gaps in the knowledge. It focuses on the thyroid, adrenal, and reproductive systems, including the accumulation of Hg in the endocrine system, sex differences that are manifested with Hg exposure, reproductive effects in male and female animals including humans, and Hg effects on the thyroid and adrenal systems. We concluded that there are five main endocrine-related mechanisms of Hg across these systems: (a) accumulation in the endocrine system; (b) specific cytotoxicity in endocrine tissues; (c) changes in hormone concentrations; (d) interactions with sex hormones; and (e) up-regulation or down-regulation of enzymes within the steroidogenesis pathway. Recommendations for key areas of research to better understand how the endocrine effects of Hg affect human and wildlife health were developed, and include increasing the amount of basic biological information available about Hg and wildlife species, exploring the role of Hg in the presence of other stressors and chemicals, understanding sublethal and indirect effects of Hg on adverse outcomes, developing better methods to extrapolate effects across species, and understanding the effects of Hg on multiple organ systems following exposure of an animal. Greater inclusion of endocrine endpoints in epidemiological and field studies on humans and wildlife will also advance the research in this area.

  1. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311470238

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  2. paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.O. Jarrett1, B.O. Ogunbosi1 and O.O. Ayoola2. 1. Department of Paediatrics, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2. Endocrine Science Research Group, University of Manchester, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital,. Manchester, UK. Correspondence: Dr. Omolola Ayoola. Endocrine Science Research Group,.

  3. Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A | Klisiewicz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN-2A) is an autosomal dominant genetic syndrome consisting of medullary thyroid carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. A germline ...

  4. The heart of the matter: Cardiac manifestations of endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya John Binu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disorders manifest as a disturbance in the milieu of multiple organ systems. The cardiovascular system may be directly affected or alter its function to maintain the state of homeostasis. In this article, we aim to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical features and management of cardiac manifestations of various endocrine disorders.

  5. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.

  6. In vitro screening for endocrine disruptive activity in selected South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various waterborne anthropogenic contaminants disrupt the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, targeting reproductive pathways, among others. Very little is known, however, regarding the occurrence of endocrine disruptive activity in South African freshwater ecosystems, and coastal ecosystems have not been ...

  7. paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infectious diseases, childhood endocrine disorders constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. ... on infectious diseases and malnutrition giving the impression that endocrine disorders are uncommon. Reports on .... of Vitamin D and the role of ultra violent light in prevention.12 The increased risk in dark skinned.

  8. The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the

  9. INTRODUCTION Endocrine disorders do occur among children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine disorders in children in developing countries are few compared to ... children. We use this case to illustrate the challenges of diagnosis, management and of follow up of this treatable endocrine condition in a developing country and the ... electrocardiography, full blood count, urine culture and urinalysis were all ...

  10. Endocrine disruptors induce perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of human pluripotent stem cell derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamani, Uthra; Gross, Andrew R.; Ocampo, Camille; Andres, Allen M.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Sareen, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We ...

  11. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking. To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%–14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled

  12. Hidden diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 unraveled during workup of virilization caused by adrenocortical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kharb

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN1 is an autosomal dominant syndrome with classic triad of parathyroid hyperplasia, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, and pituitary adenomas. Other recognized manifestations include carcinoid, cutaneous or adrenocortical tumors. It is commonly presented with clinical features related to parathyroid, pancreas or pituitary lesions. Here, we have presented a case that had virilization and biochemical Cushing′s syndrome due to adrenocortical carcinoma as presenting feature of MEN1. Cushing′s syndrome in MEN1 is an extremely rare and usually late manifestation and most cases are due to corticotropin-producing pituitary adenomas. Although Cushing′s syndrome generally develops years after the more typical manifestations of MEN1 appear, it may be the primary manifestation of MEN1 syndrome particularly when related to adrenal adenoma or carcinoma.

  13. The application of estrogen receptor-1 mutations' detection through circulating tumor dna in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binliang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Endocrine therapy is the cornerstone of treatment for patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. Unfortunately, although most patients initially respond to endocrine treatment, they will eventually acquire resistance to endocrine therapy. The mechanisms of endocrine resistance are complicated. In particular, the estrogen receptor-1 (ESR1 mutation has been recognized as an important topic in recent years. Mutation of ESR1 leads to complete aromatase inhibitor resistance and partial resistance to estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists. Therefore, during clinical treatment, it is of great importance to continuously monitor ESR1 mutations before and after endocrine therapy. Conventional tissue biopsies have unavoidable disadvantages, and therefore, the use of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA has become more prevalent because it is noninvasive and convenient, has excellent sensitivity, and can quickly assess the overall situation of the tumor. The current methods for detecting ctDNA ESR1 mutations mainly include droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and next-generation sequencing techniques. Based on their advantages and disadvantages, we can establish an initial ESR1 mutation monitoring system. However, developing robust methods to monitor ESR1 mutation, detecting endocrine drug resistance, and evaluating prognoses for guiding clinical treatment strategies require long-term exploration. In this review, we will summarize recent concepts and advancements regarding ESR1 mutation monitoring, ctDNA detection technology, and their application in endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

  14. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented...... in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  15. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  16. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm collides with a well-differentiated pancreatic endocrine neoplasm in an adult man: case report and review of histogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shirley X; Adair, Carol F; Balani, Jyoti; Mansour, John C; Gokaslan, Sefik T

    2015-02-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare, clinicopathologically distinct neoplasm with a tendency to affect young women. The histogenesis of SPN is not well defined. Pancreatic endocrine neoplasms (PENs) are also uncommon tumors of the pancreas. Our comprehensive review of the literature did not yield any reported cases of collision tumors of the above two neoplasms. We report a case of such a collision tumor in a 45-year-old man. This tumor was an incidental finding on computed tomography, followed by fine-needle aspiration confirmation of a tumor that was initially diagnosed as an SPN only. A histologic examination of a 2.1-cm mass following distal pancreatectomy revealed a 0.7-cm PEN partly engulfed by an SPN. The tumors showed different morphologic and immunohistochemical features, confirming the presence of a collision tumor. A comparative analysis of immunoprofiles of these tumors yielded interesting findings, enabling us to postulate that SPNs may originate from a multipotential primordial cell that may follow different differentiation pathways, such as endocrine, epithelial, and acinar. The ultrastructures and immunophenotypic characteristics appear to support this hypothesis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  17. Odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysomali, Evanthia; Leventis, Minas; Titsinides, Savas; Kyriakopoulos, Vasileios; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to analyze the frequency and distribution of odontogenic tumors in a Greek population and compare the findings with those reported in the recent literature. Records of the Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology, Dental School, University of Athens, with histologic diagnosis of odontogenic tumors (based on the World Health Organization 2005 classification) were reviewed retrospectively from January 1970 to December 2011. A total of 652 cases of odontogenic tumors were reported. Of these, 651 (99.8%) were benign and only 1 (0.2%) was malignant. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor was the most frequent lesion (52.7%), followed by odontoma (18.9%) and ameloblastoma (16.1%). The mean age of patients was 38.0 years with a wide range (2.5-92 years). Odontogenic tumors are rare lesions and appear to show a definite geographic variation. In Athens, Greece, they are presented mainly by the keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and ameloblastoma.

  18. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for "diabesity."

  19. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  20. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and growth of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Jérémie; Kadawathagedara, Manik; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2017-06-01

    According to the "environmental obesogen hypothesis", early-life (including in utero) exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may disturb the mechanisms involved in adipogenesis or energy storage, and thus may increase the susceptibility to overweight and obesity. Animal models have shown that exposure to several of these chemicals could induce adipogenesis and mechanisms have been described. Epidemiological studies are crucial to know whether this effect could also be observed in humans. We aimed at summarizing the literature in epidemiology on the relationship between EDCs exposure and child's growth. Overall, epidemiological studies suggest that pre- and/or early postnatal exposure to some EDCs may increase the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood. In that review, we present some limitations of these studies, mainly in exposure assessment, that currently prevent to conclude about causality. Recent advances in epidemiology should bring further knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla

    The aim of this session is to give a presentation of the report (both ENV and HH) on criteria carried out by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. CEHOS is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls...... and gives examples of available ED data and relevant placement in groups. The overall purpose of the report is to provide scientific background for Danish input to the ongoing EU work within this field....

  3. Endocrine and follicular studies in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M G; Biggs, C; Faillace, L S

    1993-01-01

    The enhanced early embryonic survival in Chinese Meishan compared with Large-White gilts may be due, in part, to differences in ovarian and endocrine function, particularly during the periovulatory period. The overall patterns of oestradiol, LH and FSH secretion were not different between Meishan and Large-White hybrid controls during this period, although circulating inhibin concentrations were higher in Meishan gilts. Thus, there appeared to be a decreased sensitivity to inhibin feedback on FSH secretion in Meishan gilts. Behavioural oestrus was exhibited earlier relative to the LH surge in Meishan gilts than in Large-White hybrid gilts, but the time interval from the oestradiol peak until the LH surge was similar in both breeds. This finding suggests that Meishan gilts are more sensitive in terms of initiating a behavioural response, but not in terms of positive feedback. Although preovulatory follicular characteristics were as variable in Meishan as in Large-White hybrid gilts, follicles from Meishan gilts were smaller, but contained a higher concentration of oestradiol in the follicular fluid. This was probably due to increased aromatase activity in both granulosa and theca cells of Meishan follicles. The enhanced maturation of the intrafollicular environment in Meishan gilts was reflected in the oocyte population which was at a more advanced stage of development in the period preceding ovulation. In addition to decreasing the time between onset of oestrus and ovulation, advancing the LH surge to coincide with onset of oestrus (via hCG administration) decreased embryo survival at day 30 of gestation. It is concluded that both endocrine and follicular mechanisms have a role in ensuring the prolificacy in the Meishan breed.

  4. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  5. Genomic profiling of ER+ breast cancers after short-term estrogen suppression reveals alterations associated with endocrine resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltnane, Jennifer M; Hutchinson, Katherine E; Stricker, Thomas P; Formisano, Luigi; Young, Christian D; Estrada, Monica V; Nixon, Mellissa J; Du, Liping; Sanchez, Violeta; Ericsson, Paula Gonzalez; Kuba, Maria G; Sanders, Melinda E; Mu, Xinmeng J; Van Allen, Eliezer M; Wagle, Nikhil; Mayer, Ingrid A; Abramson, Vandana; Gόmez, Henry; Rizzo, Monica; Toy, Weiyi; Chandarlapaty, Sarat; Mayer, Erica L; Christiansen, Jason; Murphy, Danielle; Fitzgerald, Kerry; Wang, Kai; Ross, Jeffrey S; Miller, Vincent A; Stephens, Phillip J; Yelensky, Roman; Garraway, Levi; Shyr, Yu; Meszoely, Ingrid; Balko, Justin M; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2017-08-09

    Inhibition of proliferation in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers after short-term antiestrogen therapy correlates with long-term patient outcome. We profiled 155 ER+/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) early breast cancers from 143 patients treated with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole for 10 to 21 days before surgery. Twenty-one percent of tumors remained highly proliferative, suggesting that these tumors harbor alterations associated with intrinsic endocrine therapy resistance. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a correlation between 8p11-12 and 11q13 gene amplifications, including FGFR1 and CCND1, respectively, and high Ki67. We corroborated these findings in a separate cohort of serial pretreatment, postneoadjuvant chemotherapy, and recurrent ER+ tumors. Combined inhibition of FGFR1 and CDK4/6 reversed antiestrogen resistance in ER+FGFR1/CCND1 coamplified CAMA1 breast cancer cells. RNA sequencing of letrozole-treated tumors revealed the existence of intrachromosomal ESR1 fusion transcripts and increased expression of gene signatures indicative of enhanced E2F-mediated transcription and cell cycle processes in cancers with high Ki67. These data suggest that short-term preoperative estrogen deprivation followed by genomic profiling can be used to identify druggable alterations that may cause intrinsic endocrine therapy resistance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Endocrine adaptations in the foal over the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J; Ousey, J C

    2012-02-01

    In adapting to life ex utero, the foal encounters a number of physiological challenges. It has to assume the nutritional, respiratory and excretory functions of the placenta and activate full regulatory control over its own internal environment for the first time. To achieve this, there must be structural and functional changes to a wide range of tissues including several endocrine glands. In most species, including the horse, these maturational changes begin in late gestation and continue into the first few days of neonatal life. Consequently, during this perinatal period, there are major changes in the sensitivity and/or set point of key endocrine axes, which alter the circulating hormone concentrations in the foal. In turn, these endocrine changes are responsible for many of the other physiological adaptations essential for neonatal survival. The perinatal alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are particularly important in these processes, although the sympatho-adrenal medullary axis and endocrine pancreas also have key roles in ensuring homeostasis during the multiple novel stimuli experienced at birth. Abnormalities in the perinatal endocrine profile caused by adverse conditions before or after birth may, therefore, lead to maladaptation or aid survival of the newborn foal depending on the specific circumstances. This review examines the perinatal changes in endocrinology in normal and compromised foals and the role of these endocrine changes in the physiological adaptations to extrauterine life with particular emphasis on the HPA axis, adreno-medullary catecholamines and the endocrine pancreas.

  7. Changes in gastric endocrine cells in Balb/c mice bearing CT-26 carcinoma cells: an immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Cho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and density of gastric endocrine cells in Balb/c mice bearing CT-26 carcinoma cells were studied immunohistochemically employing specific antisera against serotonin, somatostatin, glucagon, gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK-8 and human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP. The animals were divided into two groups, a non-implanted sham group and a CT-26 carcinoma cell-implanted group. Samples were collected from two regions of the stomach (fundus and pylorus at 28 days after implantation of the medium or the CT-26 cells (1×105 cells/mouse. Five of the 6 types of immunoreactive (IR cells were identified, with only the hPP IR cells not being detected. The regional distribution of the gastric endocrine cells in the CT-26 implanted group was similar to that of the non-implanted sham group. However, the endocrine cells were significantly decreased in the CT- 26-implanted group as compared to those of the nonimplanted sham group. Serotonin- and somatostatin-IR cells in the fundus and pylorus , and gastrin- and CCK-8-IR cells in the pylorus of the CT-26 implanted groups were significantly decreased compared to those of the sham group. In addition, glucagon-IR cells were restricted only to the fundus of the sham animals. hPP-IR cells were not detected in either the T-26 implanted- or the non-implanted group. Since endocrine cells are the anatomical units responsible for the production of gut hormones, a change in their density may reflect a change in their capacity to produce such hormones. Implantation of the tumor cell mass induced severe quantitative changes in gastric endocrine cell density, an abnormality which may contribute to the development of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as anorexia and indigestion, frequently encountered in cancer patients.

  8. Pindborg tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal; Gowri, S.; J.Dinakar

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  9. Pindborg tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kumar Caliaperoumal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT, also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  10. Pindborg tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliaperoumal, Santhosh Kumar; Gowri, S; Dinakar, J

    2016-01-01

    Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT), also known as Pindborg tumor, is a rare odontogenic epithelial neoplasm. So far, nearly 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We are reporting a case of CEOT in a 42-year-old male patient with painless bony swelling in the mandible. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features are discussed with relevant references.

  11. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parts of the body; most commonly, the lungs, liver, bone, and/or brain. About 10% are stage IV. Stage V: Cancer is found in both kidneys at diagnosis (also called bilateral tumors). About 5% are stage V. Surgery is most often used to treat Wilms tumor. For stages I through IV, a ...

  12. Endocrine disrupting chemicals – probability of adverse environmental effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Endocrine disruptors are defined as chemicals substances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and wildlife. Exposure to EDCs in animals models correlate positively with an increased incidence of malformations of genital tract, on neoplasmas, obesity, alternations on male and female reproduction and changes in neuroendocrinology and behavior. Results from animal models, human clinical observations and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant risk to public health.

  13. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  14. Headway in resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yali; Sun, Qiang

    2010-09-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is the major problem for ERα(+) breast cancer patients. Research in endocrine resistance, mainly based on breast cancer cell lines and transplantation animal models, has indicated that phosphorylation of estrogen receptors, high expression of SRC and high activation of ErbB/MAPK pathway are the 3 main mechanisms for occurrence of endocrine resistance. Restoration of ER expression and exploration of inhibitors to various biological targets are the 2 promising ways to solve this problem. Further research is needed to deeply explore relevant mechanisms and resolvents so as to guide clinical practice.

  15. Leydig cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - Leydig cell; Testicular tumor - Leydig; Testicular neoplasm ... The cause of this tumor is unknown. There are no known risk factors for this tumor. Unlike germ cell tumors of the testicles, this tumor ...

  16. Poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas responded to gemcitabine: Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazuru, Shoichi; Yoshio, Toshiyuki; Suemura, Shigeki; Itoh, Mari; Araki, Manabu; Yoshioka, Chiaki; Ohta, Makiyo; Sueyoshi, Yuka; Ohta, Takashi; Hasegawa, Hiroko; Morita, Kaori; Toyama, Takashi; Kuzushita, Noriyoshi; Kodama, Yoshinori; Mano, Masayuki; Mita, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Poorly differentiated endocrine carcinoma (PDEC) of the pancreas is a rare and aggressive tumor. First-line treatment is commonly a combination of etoposide and cisplatin, but there is no consensus regarding further treatment recommendations. In this report, we describe a case of pancreatic PDEC treated with gemcitabine as third-line chemotherapy. A 62-year-old man with pancreatic PDEC was administered etoposide plus cisplatin as first-line treatment; he then received irinotecan for tumor relapse. However, because irinotecan induced ileus in this patient, we chose gemcitabine as third-line chemotherapy. After two cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15 every 4 wk), a partial tumor response was noted by computed tomography (approximately 68% reduction in tumor size). Our patient survived for 15 mo after diagnosis. This is a rare case of unresectable pancreatic PDEC, which showed a partial response to gemcitabine after the failure of two other regimens. Gemcitabine could be an effective treatment option for pancreatic PDEC that is resistant to other treatments. PMID:20698050

  17. Neurological, psychiatric, ophthalmological, and endocrine complications in giant male prolactinomas: An observational study in Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolactinomas are less frequent, but more invasive in males. Giant ones (≥4 cm are extremely rare in literature. Their neurological, psychiatric and endocrine complications are life threatening. Our aim was to report the largest mono center series in order to analyze their frequency, their characteristics, and their complications. Subjects and Methods: All patients had clinical examination, hormonal, ophthalmological, and radiological assessment based on computed tomography scan and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Positive diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, high prolactin ± immunohistochemy study. Mixed adenomas were excluded by hormonal exploration and immunohistochemy. For those who received medical treatment only, a reduction in tumor size was considered a supplementary positive point for the diagnosis. Results: Among 154 male prolactinomas seen between 1987 and 2013, we observed 44 giant tumors (28.5%. Median age = 36 years, and 38.3% were under 30. Median tumor height = 53.95 mm (40-130 and median prolactin = 15,715 ng/ml (n < 20. Solid and cystic aspect ± calcifications was observed in 25%. 42 had cavernous sinuses invasion. Other invasions were: Posterior= 65.9%, anterior= 63.6%, temporal= 15.9% and frontal = 9%. For endocrine complications: Hypogonadism = 98.4%, thyrotroph and corticotroph deficits were seen in respectively 34%, and 32%. Posterior pituitary insufficiency was observed in one case. For ophthalmological complications: Optic atrophy = 46%, Ptosis = 6.8%, diplopia/strabismus = 4.5%. Neurological complications were: Memory loss and/or unconsciousness = 18.2%, epilepsy = 15.9%, frontal syndrome = 9% and obstructive hydrocephalus = 6.8%. Conclusion: Giant prolactinomas account for 28% in our population. Severe neurological complications are frequent. But, obstructive hydrocephalus is rare, which argues for a slow progression.

  18. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... determine the potential for a drug to disrupt the endocrine system. This draft guidance also discusses... compounds that have the potential to interfere with some aspect of the endocrine system of an organism or its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although...

  19. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  20. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  1. Differential levels of Neurod establish zebrafish endocrine pancreas cell fates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalgin, Gökhan; Prince, Victoria E

    2015-01-01

    .... Differentiation of appropriate numbers of each hormone-expressing endocrine cell type is essential for the normal development of the pancreas and ultimately for effective maintenance of blood glucose levels...

  2. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day eac...... as endocrine disruptors in vivo, although the profile of action in vivo varies. As ketoconazole is known to implicate numerous endocrine-disrupting effects in humans, the concern for the effects of the other tested azole fungicides in humans is growing.......The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each...

  3. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L

    2012-01-01

    exposures to have potent and irreversible effects. Finally, with regard to the current program designed to detect putative EDC, namely, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, we offer recommendations for strengthening this program through the incorporation of basic endocrine principles to promote......An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variability...... in regulation of these events across the life cycle. The developmental age at which EDC exposures occur is a critical consideration in understanding their effects. Because endocrine systems exhibit tissue-, cell-, and receptor-specific actions during the life cycle, EDC can produce complex, mosaic effects...

  4. Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.

  5. Cabergoline and the risk of valvular lesions in endocrine disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Livadariu, E.; Markov, M.; Daly, Adrian; Burlacu, M. C.; BETEA, Daniela; Pierard, Luc; Beckers, Albert

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The cardiac valvular risk associated with lower exposure to cabergoline in common endocrine conditions such as hyperprolactinemia is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional, case-control echocardiographic study to assess the valvular status in 102 subjects receiving cabergoline for endocrine disorders and 51 matched control subjects. Cabergoline treatment ranged from 12 to 228 months, with a cumulative dose of 18-1718 mg. Valvular regurgitation was equally prevalent...

  6. Sarcopenic Obesity and Endocrinal Adaptation with Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity.

  7. Metabolic and endocrine effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copinschi, Georges

    2005-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has multiple effects on endocrine and metabolic function. In particular, sleep restriction is accompanied by increased cortisol levels in the afternoon and early evening and a shorter quiescent period compared with extended sleep periods. Those alterations could facilitate central and peripheral disturbances that are associated with glucocorticoid excess, such as memory deficits, and are similar to those observed in aging. Thus, chronic sleep loss could contribute to acceleration of the aging process. Sleep restriction is also associated with an impairment of carbohydrate tolerance, similar to that observed in individuals with clinically significant impaired glucose tolerance. Thus, chronic sleep deprivation may increase the risk for diabetes. Finally, sleep plays an important role in energy balance. Partial sleep deprivation was found to be associated with a decrease in plasma levels of leptin and a concomitant increase in plasma levels of ghrelin; subjective ratings of hunger and appetite also increased (the appetite for protein-rich foods was not significantly affected). Moreover, a remarkable correlation was found between the increase in hunger and the increase in the ghrelin:leptin ratio. Thus, the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and food intake appears to be influenced by sleep duration, and sleep restriction may favor the development of obesity.

  8. QSAR Methods to Screen Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on in silico methods addressing toxicological studies about EDCs with a special focus on the application of QSAR models for screening purpose. Since Estrogen-like (ER activity has been extensively studied, the majority of the available models are based on ER-related endpoints. Some of these models are here reviewed and described. As example for their application, we screen an assembled dataset of candidate substitutes for some known EDCs belonging to the chemical classes of phthalates, bisphenols and parabens, selected considering their toxicological relevance and broad application, with the general aim of preliminary assessing their ED potential. The goal of the substitution processes is to advance inherently safer chemicals and products, consistent with the principles of green chemistry. Results suggest that the integration of a family of different models accounting for different endpoints can be a convenient way to describe ED as properly as possible and allow also both to increase the confidence of the predictions and to maximize the probability that most active compounds are correctly found.

  9. The endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Patrick; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Marbaix, Etienne

    2012-07-25

    During the reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes cycles of substantial remodeling including, at menstruation, a massive but delimited tissue breakdown immediately followed by scarless repair. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation in the light of recent observations that undermine obsolete dogmas. Menstruation can be globally considered as a response to falling progesterone concentration. However, tissue breakdown is heterogeneous and tightly controlled in space and time by a complex network of regulators and effectors, including cytokines, chemokines, proteases and various components of an inflammatory response. Moreover, menstruation must be regarded as part of a complex and integrated mechanism of tissue remodeling including features that precede and follow tissue lysis, i.e. decidualization and immediate post-menstrual regeneration. The understanding of the regulation of menstruation is of major basic and clinical interest. Indeed, these mechanisms largely overlap with those controlling other histopathological occurrences of tissue remodeling, such as development and cancer, and inappropriate control of menstrual features is a major potential cause of two frequent endometrial pathologies (i.e. abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner′s syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  11. Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Kenji; Machida, Takuji; Hirafuji, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays a key role in postural retention as well as locomotion for maintaining the physical activities of human life. Skeletal muscle has a second role as an elaborate energy production and consumption system that influences the whole body's energy metabolism. Skeletal muscle is a specific organ that engenders a physical force, and exercise training has been known to bring about multiple benefits for human health maintenance and/or improvement. The mechanisms underlying the improvement of the human physical condition have been revealed: skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes multiple factors, and these muscle-derived factors, so-called as myokines, exert beneficial effects on peripheral and remote organs. In this short review, we focus on the third aspect of skeletal muscle function - namely, the release of multiple types of myokines, which constitute a broad network for regulating the function of remote organs as well as skeletal muscle itself. We conclusively show that skeletal muscle is one of the endocrine organs and that understanding the mechanisms of production and secretion of myokines may lead to a new pharmacological approach for treatment of clinical disorders.

  12. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

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    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans—especially during development—may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the

  13. Endocrine surgery as a model for value-based health care delivery.

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    Abdulla, Amer G; Ituarte, Philip H G; Wiggins, Randi; Teisberg, Elizabeth O; Harari, Avital; Yeh, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Experts advocate restructuring health care in the United States into a value-based system that maximizes positive health outcomes achieved per dollar spent. We describe how a value-based system implemented by the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Section of Endocrine Surgery (SES) has optimized both quality and costs while increasing patient volume. Two SES clinical pathways were studied, one allocating patients to the most appropriate surgical care setting based on clinical complexity, and another standardizing initial management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The mean cost per endocrine case performed from 2005 to 2010 was determined at each of three care settings: A tertiary care inpatient facility, a community inpatient facility, and an ambulatory facility. Blood tumor marker levels (thyroglobulin, Tg) and reoperation rates were compared between PTC patients who underwent routine central neck dissection (CND) and those who did not. Surgical patient volume and regional market share were analyzed over time. The cost of care was substantially lower in both the community inpatient facility (14% cost savings) and the ambulatory facility (58% cost savings) in comparison with the tertiary care inpatient facility. Patients who underwent CND had lower Tg levels (6.6 vs 15.0 ng/mL; P = 0.024) and a reduced need for re-operation (1.5 vs 6.1%; P = 0.004) compared with those who did not undergo CND. UCLA maintained its position as the market leader in endocrine procedures while expanding its market share by 151% from 4.9% in 2003 to 7.4% in 2010. A value-driven health care delivery system can deliver improved clinical outcomes while reducing costs within a subspecialty surgical service. Broader application of these principles may contribute to resolving current dilemmas in the provision of care nationally.

  14. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

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    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  15. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

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    Kent Reifschneider

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries (TBI are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life.

  16. [Glomus jugulare tumor: perioperative management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Fraile, J R; Bermejo, L; de Miguel, A; Aristegui, M; Hervías, M; Quirós, P

    1996-12-01

    Surgical treatment of glomus jugulare tumors yields high rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality for several reasons, among them neuroendocrine secretory activity, a high degree of vascularization, intracranial extension, duration of surgery and cranial nerve lesion. Secretory activity (e.g. catecholamines and serotonin) should be investigated before surgery and treated appropriately. Carotid arteriography (and ball occlusion) are useful to assess vascularization of the tumor and determine the need to clamp the carotid artery during the procedure. Potential complications such as hemodynamic alterations (bleeding or endocrine response), pulmonary embolism (air or thrombotic), hypothermia, facial nerve lesion, should be monitored for during surgery. After surgery cranial nerve involvement, which can lead to dysphagia and bronchoaspiration, must be looked for; the risk of cerebro-spinal fluid fistula is also high. We report the case of a woman who underwent surgery for a non secreting glomus jugulare tumor with extradural intracranial invasion. The main complications during surgery were bleeding with hemodynamic repercussions, pulmonary embolism, lesions in the VII, VIII and X cranial nerves, and opening of the dura mater (which required insertion of an intradural drain to prevent formation of a fistula). After surgery oral intake was delayed until intestinal function was established and glottic sphincter competence was verified by fiberoptic laryngoscopy. The only complication presenting at this time was cephalea, which disappeared upon removal of the drain on day 4. The patient was released on day 10.

  17. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  18. Association between glycodelin and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in Iranian breast cancer patients: impact of environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidgoli, Sepideh Arbabi; Korani, Mitra; Bozorgi, Niloofar; Zavarhei, Mansour Djamali; Ziarati, Parisa; Akbarzadeh, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer affects Iranian women one decade younger than their counterparts in other countries and the underlying risk factors have remained controversial. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates the effects of many environmental endocrine disruptors and contributes to the many other genes and Gd is an endocrine-regulated glycoprotein which may induce by AhR ligands in endometrium. This study has aimed to compare the interactions between Gd and AhR and other fundamental genes (p53, K-Ras, ER, PgR, AR) between pre and post menopausal Iranian breast cancer patients. To conduct immunohistochemical studies with appropriate monoclonal antibodies, 25 premenopausal invasive ductal carcinomas and 29 postmenopausal invasive ductal carcinomas were selected retrospectively in 2008-2010 from the pathology department of Imam Khomeini hospital complex of Tehran. Higher levels of AhR in epithelial cells of premenopausal patients and breast fibroadenoma emphasized the susceptibility of these cells to environmental induced tumors. Current study demonstrated a significant association between tumoral levels of Gd and AhR (p=0.002) in breast cancers which confirms the preliminary hypothesis about the role of TCDD exposure on Gd biosynthesis and secretion in TCDD-treated endometrial epithelial cells. In summary this study showed the dual prognostic role of Gd especially in premenopausal breast cancer which could be induced by AhR overexpression. Further studies are necessary to find the direct role of breast carcinogens as well as endocrine disrupting chemicals on the differential levels of Gd in breast tumors.

  19. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reveal the vast diversity of genetic and epigenetic alterations that exist between brain tumors. This biological ... social workers, psychologists, and nurses. A supportive family environment is also helpful. Surgery GBM’s capacity to wildly ...

  20. Minireview: Gut Microbiota: The Neglected Endocrine Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gerard; Stilling, Roman M.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The concept that the gut microbiota serves as a virtual endocrine organ arises from a number of important observations. Evidence for a direct role arises from its metabolic capacity to produce and regulate multiple compounds that reach the circulation and act to influence the function of distal organs and systems. For example, metabolism of carbohydrates results in the production of short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate and propionate, which provide an important source of nutrients as well as regulatory control of the host digestive system. This influence over host metabolism is also seen in the ability of the prebiotic inulin to influence production of relevant hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and leptin. Moreover, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, which produces conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to reduce body-weight gain and white adipose tissue without effects on food intake. Manipulating the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract modulates plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Indirectly and through as yet unknown mechanisms, the gut microbiota exerts control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This is clear from studies on animals raised in a germ-free environment, who show exaggerated responses to psychological stress, which normalizes after monocolonization by certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. It is tempting to speculate that therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may be useful in treating stress-related disorders and metabolic diseases. PMID:24892638

  1. Endocrine activity of mycotoxins and mycotoxin mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaegdt, Heidi; Daminet, Britt; Evrard, Annick; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; Pussemier, Luc; Callebaut, Alfons; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Reporter gene assays incorporating nuclear receptors (estrogen, androgen, thyroid β and PPARγ2) have been implemented to assess the endocrine activity of 13 mycotoxins and their mixtures. As expected, zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β- zearalenol turned out to have the strongest estrogenic potency (EC50 8,7 10-10 ± 0,8; 3,1 10-11 ± 0,5 and 1,3 10-8 ± 0,3 M respectively). The metabolite of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol also had estrogenic activity (EC50 3,8 10-7 ± 1,1 M). Furthermore, most of the mycotoxins (and their mixtures) showed anti-androgenic effects (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol with potencies within one order of magnitude of that of the reference compound flutamide). In particular, deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol acted as antagonists for the PPARy2 receptor. When testing mixtures of mycotoxins on the same cell systems, we showed that most of the mixtures reacted as predicted by the concentration addition (CA) theory. Generally, the CA was within the 95% confidence interval of the observed ones, only minor deviations were detected. Although these reporter gene tests cannot be directly extrapolated in vivo, they can be the basis for further research. Especially the additive effects of ZEN and its metabolites are of importance and could have repercussions in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

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    Bjekić-Macut Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l, or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l hypothyrodism. We analyzed 50 patients (35 with clinical hypothyroidism and 15 with subclinical form. In all patients anthropometric data (age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate, and clinical signs of hypothyroidism (skin changes, menstrual disorders were determined. Blood was drawn in fasting state for measurement of FT4, sTSH, glucose, lipids, ionized calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, gonadotropins, estradiol in women of reproductive age, and testosterone in men. Skin lesions were rarely present. Oligomenorrhea was more frequent in subclinical hypothyroidism, and menopause in clinical hypothyroidism. Blood pressure was normal in all subjects. Patients with clinical hypothyroidism compared to those with subclinical form had higher TSH values (19.5 ± 5.7 vs. 5.9 ± 0.3 mIU/l, and higher doses of L-thyroxine (81.2 ± 4.6 vs. 21.4 ± 3.5 μg/day. Disturbance of glycemic control was present in 18% of patients. Total cholesterol and LDL were insignificantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in subclinical form of the disease. FT4, calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, gonadotropins, estradiol and testosterone did not differ between groups. The proatherogenic relation of estradiol with triglycerides was established in women with clinical form of hypothyroidism.

  3. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  4. Efeito do treinamento físico como modulador positivo nas alterações no eixo neuroimunoendócrino em indivíduos com insuficiência cardíaca crônica: possível atuação do fator de necrose tumoral-alfa Efecto del entrenamiento físico como modulador positivo en las alteraciones en el eje neuroinmunoendócrino en indivíduos con insuficiência cardíaca crônica: posible actuación como factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa Effect of physical training as positive modulator on the alterations in the neuro-immune-endocrine axis in patients with chronic heart failure: possible role of the tumoral necrosis factor-alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Bicudo Pereira Costa Rosa

    2005-08-01

    responsble por la progresión en el deterioro clínico en la ICC. En este cuadro, la principal citoquina envuelta en el cuadro fisiopatológico de la ICC es el factor de necrosis tumoral-alfa (TNF-alfa. Así, el TF puede actuar en el cuadro de ICC de dos maneras, mejorando el desempeño durante el ejercicio físico, bien como atenuando el cuadro de deterioro de elevada concentración de citoquinas pro-inflamatórias en el sistema cardiovascular, pudiendo representar una importante opción inmunomodulatoria, y de esta forma, permitir una mejora significativa en el cuadro clínico del paciente.Chronic physical exercise or physical training (PT has been widely used in the last years with therapeutic and preventive purposes in a series of pathophysiological conditions, including cardiovascular disease. Besides the cardiovascular benefits, PT seems capable to modulate in pathological conditions, at the presence of an abnormal inflammatory response, including over expression of proinflammatory cytokines through a neuro-immune-endocrine interaction. Nowadays chronic heart failure (CHF is reviewed as the consequence of an interplay of hemodynamic, neurohormonal, immunological and endocrine mechanisms. This abnormal inflammatory response, including the over expression of proinflammatory cytokines may be proposed as responsible for the progression and clinical deterioration in CHF. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha is the main proinflammatory cytokines involved in the inflammatory cascade implicated in the pathophysiological of CHF. PT may improve exercise performance by modifying the inflammatory status, as well as by allowing reversing the inflammation-induced harmful effects on the cardiovascular system, and that PT may represent an important immunomodulatory option that may be possible to intervene in the progression of the disease.

  5. Endocrine-Therapy-Resistant ESR1 Variants Revealed by Genomic Characterization of Breast-Cancer-Derived Xenografts

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    Shunqiang Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To characterize patient-derived xenografts (PDXs for functional studies, we made whole-genome comparisons with originating breast cancers representative of the major intrinsic subtypes. Structural and copy number aberrations were found to be retained with high fidelity. However, at the single-nucleotide level, variable numbers of PDX-specific somatic events were documented, although they were only rarely functionally significant. Variant allele frequencies were often preserved in the PDXs, demonstrating that clonal representation can be transplantable. Estrogen-receptor-positive PDXs were associated with ESR1 ligand-binding-domain mutations, gene amplification, or an ESR1/YAP1 translocation. These events produced different endocrine-therapy-response phenotypes in human, cell line, and PDX endocrine-response studies. Hence, deeply sequenced PDX models are an important resource for the search for genome-forward treatment options and capture endocrine-drug-resistance etiologies that are not observed in standard cell lines. The originating tumor genome provides a benchmark for assessing genetic drift and clonal representation after transplantation.

  6. Surgical approach to medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2

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    Marcos R. Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the surgical approaches to medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (medullary thyroid carcinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. The recommended surgical approaches are usually based on the age of the affected carrier/patient, tumor staging and the specific rearranged during transfection codon mutation. We have focused mainly on young children with no apparent disease who are carrying a germline rearranged during transfection mutation. Successful management of medullary thyroid carcinoma in these cases depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy should be performed before 6 months of age in infants carrying the rearranged during transfection 918 codon mutation, by the age of 3 years in rearranged during transfection 634 mutation carriers, at 5 years of age in carriers with level 3 risk rearranged during transfection mutations, and by the age of 10 years in level 4 risk rearranged during transfection mutations. Patients with thyroid tumor >5 mm detected by ultrasound, and basal calcitonin levels >40 pg/ml, frequently have cervical and upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis. In the latter patients, total thyroidectomy should be complemented by extensive lymph node dissection. Also, we briefly review our data from a large familial medullary thyroid carcinoma genealogy harboring a germline rearranged during transfection Cys620Arg mutation. All 14 screened carriers of the rearranged during transfection Cys620Arg mutation who underwent total thyroidectomy before the age of 12 years presented persistently undetectable serum levels of calcitonin (<2 pg/ml during the follow-up period of 2-6 years. Although it is recommended that preventive total thyroidectomy in rearranged during transfection codon 620 mutation carriers is performed before the age of 5 years, in this particular family the surgical intervention performed before the age of 12 years led to an apparent

  7. Reproductive disturbances in multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes.

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    Lytras, Aristides; Tolis, George

    2009-12-01

    In the context of multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes, reproductive abnormalities may occur via a number of different mechanisms, such as hyperprolactinemia, increased GH/IGF-1 levels, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypercortisolism, hyperandrogenism, hyperthyroidism, gonadotropin hypersecretion, as well as, tumorigenesis or functional disturbances in gonads or other reproductive organs. Precocious puberty and/or male feminization is a feature of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Carney complex (CNC), and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), while sperm maturation and ovulation defects have been described in MAS and CNC. Although tumorigenesis of reproductive organs due to a multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndrome is very rare, certain lesions are characteristic and very unusual in the general population. Awareness leading to their recognition is important especially when other endocrine abnormalities coexist, as occasionally they may even be the first manifestation of a syndrome. Lesions such as certain types of ovarian cysts (MAS, CNC), pseudogynecomastia due to neurofibromas of the nipple-areola area (NF1), breast disease (CNC and Cowden disease (CD)), cysts and 'hypernephroid' tumors of the epididymis or bilateral papillary cystadenomas (mesosalpinx cysts) and endometrioid cystadenomas of the broad ligament (von Hippel-Lindau disease), testicular Sertoli calcifying tumors (CNC, PJS) monolateral or bilateral macroochidism and microlithiasis (MAS) may offer diagnostic clues. In addition, multiple neuroendocrine tumor syndromes may be complicated by reproductive malignancies including ovarian cancer in CNC, breast and endometrial cancer in CD, breast malignancies in NF1, and malignant sex-cord stromal tumors in PJS.

  8. Immunohistochemical study on gastrointestinal endocrine cells of four reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Gen; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS), glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted. RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates. Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS, SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus; while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells, which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found

  9. Nanotoxicity: a growing need for study in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefei; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiangjun; Lobie, Peter E; Chen, Chunying; Zhu, Tao

    2013-05-27

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are engineered for commercial purposes such as semiconductors, building materials, cosmetics, and drug carriers, while natural nanoparticles (NPs) already exist in the environment. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, they may interact actively with biological systems. Some of these interactions might be detrimental to human health, and therefore studies on the potential 'nanotoxicity' of these materials in different organ systems are warranted. The purpose of developing the concept of nanotoxicity is to recognize and evaluate the hazards and risks of NMs and evaluate safety. This review will summarize and discuss recent reports derived from cell lines or animal models concerning the effects of NMs on, and their application in, the endocrine system of mammalian and other species. It will present an update on current studies of the effects of some typical NMs-such as metal-based NMs, carbon-based NMs, and dendrimers-on endocrine functions, in which some effects are adverse or unwanted and others are favorable or intended. Disruption of endocrine function is associated with adverse health outcomes including reproductive failure, metabolic syndrome, and some types of cancer. Further investigations are therefore required to obtain a thorough understanding of any potential risk of pathological endocrine disruption from products containing NMs. This review aims to provide impetus for further studies on the interactions of NMs with endocrine functions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders in Children With Cancer Treatment

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    Maryam Nakhaei-Moghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Survivors of childhood malignancy are at risk of long-term late effects. One of the most commonly involved systems in this effect is endocrine system. Appropriate timely recognition and treatment of late complications including endocrine complication is essential for the continuing health and improvement in quality of life in cancer survivors. Objectives Therefore, this study has been conducted to investigate the aforementioned complications resulting from the treatment of the common malignancies in children in Iran. Patients and Methods We performed a cross sectional study for evaluation of endocrine complication in cancer survivors who had finished their cancer treatment and come for followed up in oncology clinic of children medical center. Results Demographic data, treatment modality, and endocrine late effect recorded and analyzed. There were 96 survivors with median age of 13.8 ± 5.8 years (range 3 - 31 years. The median follow up time was 2.7 years (range 1 - 10 years. Hyperinsulinemia was the most common late effect. Other complication was dyslipidemia, overweight, obesity, osteopenia, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis respectively. Conclusions Our study has demonstrated a significant prevalence of endocrine complication after childhood cancer therapy and a long term follow-up program for survivors of childhood cancer is therefore needed.

  11. Endocrine actions of vitamin D in skin: Relevance for photocarcinogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-09-15

    The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Recent findings convincingly support the concept of a new function of the VDR as a tumor suppressor in skin, with key components of the vitamin D endocrine system, including VDR, CYP24A1, CYP27A1, and CYP27B1 being strongly expressed in non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). It has now been shown that anti-tumor effects of VDR, that include some of its ligand-induced growth-regulatory effects, are at least in part mediated by interacting in a highly coordinated manner with the p53 family (p53/p63/p73) in response to a large number of alterations in cell homeostasis, including UV-induced DNA damage, a hallmark for skin photocarcinogenesis. Considering the relevance of the vitamin D endocrine system for carcinogenesis of skin cancer, it is not surprising that low 25(OH)D serum concentrations and genetic variants (SNPs) of the vitamin D endocrine system have been identified as potential risk factors for occurrence and prognosis of skin malignancies. In conclusion, an increasing body of evidence now convincingly supports the concept that the vitamin D endocrine system is of relevance for photocarcinogenesis and progression of NMSC and that its pharmacologic modulation by vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, and analogs represents a promising new strategy for prevention and/or treatment of these malignancies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocrine Disruptors in Mediterranean top marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, M Cristina; Casini, Silvia; Marsili, Letizia

    2006-05-01

    Man-made Endocrine Disruptors (EDs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDs was investigated. In a four-year survey on the Mediterranean population of swordfish (Xiphias gladius), the potential toxicological effects of organochlorine compounds (OCs) on specimens of swordfish and tuna fish (Thunnus thynnus thynnus), caught in the spawning seasons from 1999 to 2002 in the Straits of Messina, Sicily (Italy), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), Zona radiata proteins (Zrp), and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activities (EROD, BPMO). Tissues (skin and blubber) were obtained from Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Balaenoptera physalus from the western Ligurian Sea, between Corsica and the French-Italian coast, and Ionic Sea using biopsy darts launched with a crossbow. Benzo(alpha)pyrene monoxigenase (BPMO) activity was mesured in biopsies and cholrinated hydrocarbon levels were detected. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in Xiphias gladius and Thunnus thynnus thynnus), and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Balaenoptera physalus) exposed to EDs. The present research shows that: a) Vtg and Zrp can be used as diagnostic tools for fish stocks hazard assessment in the Mediterranean Sea; b) that CYP1A1 (BPMO) induction in

  13. Tumoral calcinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumoral calcinosis is an unusual clinical disorder in which large masses of calcium are deposited in the periarticular tissues of the body. The characteristic clinical, radiological and histopathological features of this disorder occurring in three middle aged female patients are reported.

  14. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Human Development (NICHD) National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) See all related organizations Publications Tumores de la glándula pituitaria Order NINDS Publications Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  15. Benign Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cannot spread or invade other parts of your body. Even so, they can be dangerous if they press on vital organs, such as your brain. Tumors are made up of extra cells. Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as your body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, ...

  16. Combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzein Abdulhalem

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas comprise 10%–15% of pancreatic cystic lesions, with the serous cystadenoms being the commonest. The association of exocrine and endocrine tumours of the pancreas unrelated to Von Hipple Lindau disease is very rare. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. We present another case of both these tumours in one patient. Case presentation A female patient was seen in the surgical clinic for a pain in the right groin. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a diagnosis of combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. She underwent surgery and is under regular follow-up in the surgical clinic. Conclusion Biphasic differentiation of pancreatic stem cell during embryological development could happen and may result in combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. Imaging studies are excellent in diagnosing theses lesions. Surgery has a central role and could be curative.

  17. Risk of osteoporosis in endocrine disorders and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a loss of bone mass; the bones become less dense, fragile and prone to fracturing. It is regulated by endocrine-environmental factors with the genetic component accounting for 70% of an individual's variation in bone mass density (BMD). Pathological conditions such as celiac disease (CD) exacerbate the process of bone loss and the presence of osteoporosis in celiac subjects may be the only sign of undiagnosed CD. The interleukins IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are stimulators of bone resorption; the relatives of celiac patients shown the increased IL-1beta supporting the genetic susceptibility. In women osteoporosis is indirectly associated with early menopause and amenorrhea, while in men it is associated with hypogonadism and GH deficit. The direct effect on the bones of CD is secondary to poor absorption of calcium and vitamin D. These endocrine and non-endocrine factors exert their effects on bones by modulating the RANK/RANK-L/OPG system.

  18. Endocrine Disruptor Induction of Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental exposures such as toxicants, nutrition and stress have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease susceptibility. Endocrine disruptors are one of the largest groups of specific toxicants shown to promote this form of epigenetic inheritance. These environmental compounds that interfere with normal endocrine signaling are one of the largest classes of toxicants we are exposed to on a daily level. The ability of ancestral exposures to promote disease susceptibility significantly increases the potential biohazards of these toxicants. Therefore, what your great-grandmother was exposed to during pregnancy may influence your disease development, even in the absence of any exposure, and you are going to pass this on to your grandchildren. This non-genetic form of inheritance significantly impacts our understanding of biology from the origins of disease to evolutionary biology. The current review will describe the previous studies and endocrine disruptors shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. PMID:25088466

  19. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  20. [Neonatal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carla; Rocha, Gustavo; Grilo, Marta; Bianchi, Ricardo; Sotto Mayor, Tânia; Monteiro, Joaquim; Guimarães, Hercília

    2010-01-01

    Tumors affecting the fetus and newborn differ from those found in older children and adults, leading to new diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. To evaluate the main clinical aspects related to neonatal tumors. Retrospective analysis of clinical data from newborn patients admitted to the Service of Neonatology of São João Hospital between 1996 and 2006, with the diagnosis of tumor or neoplasia. Total = 32 cases, 16M/16F, birth weight: 3146 g (965-4590), gestational age 38 weeks (28-41), seven (22%) preterm, C-section rate 75% (n = 24), two with EXIT procedure. Teratoma (n = 8); lymphangioma (n = 7), neuroblastoma (n = 6), haemangioma (n = 5), other solid tumors (n = 6); acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 1). Prenatal diagnosis 50% (n = 16). Teratoma: immature (n = 3); mature (n = 5), sacrococcygeal location (n = 5); cervical (n = 3); total macroscopic resection (n = 8). Cystic lymphangioma: cervical location (n = 5); cervicothoracic location (n = 1); thoracoabdominal location (n = 1); total macroscopic resection (n = 7). NEUROBLASTOMA: abdominal location (n = 5); cervical location (n = 1); deletion 1p (n = 0); oncogene n-myc amplification (n = 0); stage I (n = 1); IIB (n = 1); III (n = 3); IV (n = 1). Chemotherapy (n = 5), according to the (n = 2), surgical resection (n = 4). Four patients remain without disease and two present with residual disease. OTHER SOLID TUMORS: Large haemangiomas (n = 5); scaly papiloma (n = 1); juvenile xanthogranuloma (n = 1); lipoblastoma (n = 1); nephroma (n = 1); nonclassified neoplasm, possible nervous sheath sarcoma (n = 1). All patients showed a good clinical evolution. Acute lymphoblast leukemia (n = 1), deceased. Pre-natal diagnosis allows the planning of a careful multidisciplinary approach. In these rare entities it is crucial to pursue international collaboration, ideally workgroup committees, aiming for better clinical knowledge and an improved prognosis.

  1. Molecular diagnostics of thyroid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2011-05-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common type of endocrine malignancy and its incidence is steadily increasing. Papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma are the most common types of thyroid cancer and represent those tumor types for which use of molecular markers for diagnosis and prognostication is of high clinical significance. To review the most common molecular alterations in thyroid cancer and their diagnostic and prognostic utility. PubMed (US National Library of Medicine)-available review articles, peer-reviewed original articles, and experience of the author. The most common molecular alterations in thyroid cancer include BRAF and RAS point mutations and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPAR γ rearrangements. These nonoverlapping genetic alterations are found in more than 70% of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. These molecular alterations can be detected in surgically resected samples and fine-needle aspiration samples from thyroid nodules and can be of significant diagnostic use. The diagnostic role of BRAF mutations has been studied most extensively, and recent studies also demonstrated a significant diagnostic utility of RAS, RET/PTC, and PAX8/PPAR γ mutations, particularly in thyroid fine-needle aspiration samples with indeterminate cytology. In addition to the diagnostic use, BRAF V600E mutation can also be used for tumor prognostication, as this mutation is associated with higher rate of tumor recurrence and tumor-related mortality. The use of these and other emerging molecular markers is expected to improve significantly the accuracy of cancer diagnosis in thyroid nodules and allow more individualized surgical and postsurgical management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  2. Inhibitors of Src and Focal Adhesion Kinase Promote Endocrine Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrikanova, Ivka; Yebra, Mayra; Simpkinson, Megan; Xu, Yang; Hayek, Alberto; Montgomery, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Stepwise approaches for the derivation of β-cells from human embryonic stem cells have been described. However, low levels of endocrine specification limit the final yield of insulin-producing β-cells. In this study, we show that the pyrrolo-pyrimidine Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor PP2 effectively promotes the endocrine specification of human embryonic stem cell derivatives based on its capacity to induce the expression of proendocrine transcription factors (NGN3, NEUROD1, NKX2.2, and PAX4) and to significantly increase the final yield of insulin-positive cells. We further demonstrate that PP2 inhibits the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and selective inhibition of this kinase is also sufficient to induce early endocrine commitment based on increased expression of NGN3, NEUROD1, and NKX2.2. Additional studies using dominant negative constructs and isolated human fetal pancreata suggest that c-Src is at least partially responsible for inhibiting early endocrine specification. Mechanistically, we propose that inhibition of SFK/FAK signaling can promote endocrine specification by limiting activation of the TGFβR/Smad2/3 pathway. Moreover, we show that inhibition of SFK/FAK signaling suppresses cell growth, increases the expression of the β-cell-associated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57kip2, and simultaneously suppresses the expression of Id1 and Id2. This study has important implications for the derivation of β-cells for the cell-based therapy of diabetes and sheds new light on the signaling events that regulate early endocrine specification. PMID:21852242

  3. Persistent developmental toxicity in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern of permanent damage to the endocrine and nervous systems after developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this study the permanent reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of combined exposure to five endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole...

  4. Interest of the PET with F DOPA in the exploration of endocrine para neoplastic syndromes (E.P.S.): about four cases; Interet de la TEP a la FDOPA dans l'exploration des syndromes paraneoplasiques endocriniens (SPE): a propos de 4 cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau Triby, C.; Pina, G.; Bournaud, C. [Centre de medecine nucleaire, groupement hospitalier Est, Lyon, (France); Billotey, C. [CERMEP, Lyon, (France); Raverot, G.; Borson Chazot, F. [service d' endocrinologie, groupement hospitalier Est, Lyon, (France)

    2009-05-15

    In front an ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) or growth hormone (GH) the existence of an endocrine tumor must be evoked. The topographical diagnosis of these tumors is often difficult. The positron computed tomography with 6-fluoro-({sup 18}F)-L-dihydroxy-phenylalanine (PET-FDOPA) showed recently a good sensitivity in the detection of well differentiated endocrine tumors. We report our experience of the PET-FDOPA in the explorations of para-neoplasic endocrine syndromes. Our experience was relatively disappointing, this examination being a little contributive for our patients. The scintigraphy of receptors with somatostatin with octreoscan keeps all this place in this indication. (N.C.)

  5. Ultrastructural investigation of renomedullary interstitial cells in "endocrine kidney".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavi, B L

    1980-01-01

    In the renomedullary interstitial cells of rats with Selye's "endocrine kidney" in the phase of beginning hypertension there appeared bilateral stress hypergranulation and an ultrastructural pattern of intensive prostaglandin synthesis. In the interstitial tissue of the left medulla there appeared light and dense (fibroblast- or macrophage-like) cells. Along with the stabilization of hypertension a relative degranulation of interstitial cells in the right kidney and an absolute degranulation in the left kidney took place. Necrobiotic changes, appearing in the ischaemic kidney, reflected an exhaustion of morphological substrates of prostaglandin synthesis. The changes in the interstitial cells, possessing endocrine activity, present the decisive links in the genesis of experimental malignant hypertension in rats.

  6. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  7. Purinergic receptors in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    2008-01-01

    The pancreas is a complex gland performing both endocrine and exocrine functions. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that both endocrine and exocrine cells possess purinergic receptors, which influence processes such as insulin secretion and epithelial ion transport. Most commonly......, there is also evidence for other P2 and adenosine receptors in beta cells (P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(6), P2X subtypes and A(1) receptors) and in glucagon-secreting alpha cells (P2X(7), A(2) receptors). In the exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and ATP-hydrolysing and ATP-generating enzymes. P2 receptors...

  8. Elucidating the links between endocrine disruptors and neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Blawas, Ashley M; Gray, Kimberly; Heindel, Jerrold J; Lawler, Cindy P

    2015-06-01

    Recent data indicate that approximately 12% of children in the United States are affected by neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disorders, intellectual disabilities, and autism spectrum disorders. Accumulating evidence indicates a multifactorial etiology for these disorders, with social, physical, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, and chemical toxicants acting together to influence risk. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals during the early stages of life can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus alter brain function and disease susceptibility later in life. This article highlights research efforts and pinpoints approaches that could shed light on the possible associations between environmental chemicals that act on the endocrine system and compromised neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  9. Bilateral interstitial cell tumor of the testis: a report of a case in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leotta, A; Lio, S G

    1994-10-01

    We describe a case of metachronous bilateral interstitial-cell tumor of the testis in a 54-year-old man with no evidence of endocrine symptoms. About 300 Leydig cell tumor cases have been reported in literature and only in 3% the tumor was bilateral. Rare examples have been reported in cryptorchid testis. In adult patients with Leydig cell tumor of the testis, endocrinologic signs occur in 20 per cent of cases and often precede the onset of a palpable testicular mass. Pathological aspects are discussed and a survey of the literature is reported.

  10. Parental Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents and Testicular Germ Cell Tumors in their Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Béatrice; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) were suggested to have a prenatal environmentally related origin. The potential endocrine disrupting properties of certain solvents may interfere with the male genital development in utero. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between mater...

  11. Enhancer-Mediated Oncogenic Function of the Menin Tumor Suppressor in Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, Koen M A; Groner, Anna C.; Vos, Erica S M; Font-Tello, Alba; Gu, Lei; Chi, David; Reyes, Jaime; Cook, Jennifer; Lim, Elgene; Lin, Charles Y.; de Laat, Wouter; Rao, Prakash K.; Long, Henry W.; Brown, Myles

    2017-01-01

    While the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene functions as a tumor suppressor in a variety of cancer types, we explored its oncogenic role in breast tumorigenesis. The MEN1 gene product menin is involved in H3K4 trimethylation and co-activates transcription. We integrated ChIP-seq and

  12. In vitro screening for endocrine disruptive activity in selected South African harbours and river mouths

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Truter, JC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Various waterborne anthropogenic contaminants disrupt the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, targeting reproductive pathways, among others. Very little is known, however, regarding the occurrence of endocrine disruptive activity in South...

  13. Developing brain as an endocrine organ: a paradoxical reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugrumov, M V

    2010-06-01

    The maintaining of homeostasis in the organism in response to a variable environment is provided by the highly hierarchic neuroendocrine-immune system. The crucial component of this system is the hypothalamus providing the endocrine regulation of key peripheral organs, and the adenohypophysis. In this case, neuron-derived signaling molecules (SM) are delivered to the blood vessels in hypothalamic "neurohaemal organs" lacking the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the posterior lobe of the pituitary and the median eminence. The release of SM to the blood vessels in most other brain regions is prohibited by BBB. According to the conventional concept, the development of the neuroendocrine system in ontogenesis begins with the "maturation" of peripheral endocrine glands which first are self-governed and then operate under the adenohypophysial control. Meantime, the brain maturation is under the control of SM secreted by endocrine glands of the developing organism and coming from the placenta and maternal organism. The hypothalamus is involved in the neuroendocrine regulation only after its full maturation that is followed by the conversion of the opened-looped neuroendocrine system to the closed-looped system as in adulthood. Neurons of the developing brain begin to secrete SM shortly after their origin and long before the establishment of specific interneuronal relations providing initially autocrine and paracrine morphogenetic influence on differentiating target neurons. Taking into account that the brain lacks BBB over this ontogenetic period, we hypothesized that it operates as the multipotent endocrine gland secreting SM to the general circulation and thereby providing the endocrine regulation of peripheral organs and the brain. The term "multipotent" means that the spectrum of the brain-derived circulating SM and their occupancy at the periphery in the developing organism should greatly exceed those in adulthood. In order to test this hypothesis, gonadotropin

  14. Tumor thrombus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravina, Mudalsha; Hess, Søren; Chauhan, Mahesh Singh

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Thrombosis in cancer may manifest itself as venous thromboembolic disease or tumor thrombosis (TT). We present our experience with incidentally detected TT on FDG PET/CT in 21 oncologic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all FDG PET/CT examinations during a 5-year......-one patients were included; the most common malignancies were renal cell carcinoma (n=6), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=3), and lung cancer (n=3). Indication for the scan was initial staging (n=15) and suspected recurrence (n=6). Several vessels were affected, the most common was the inferior vena cava (n=14......), but most other major branches of the venous vasculature was represented, and some patients had thrombi in several vessels. FDG uptake was linear in 7 patients, linear with a dilated vessel in 6 patients, and focal in 7 patients. The mean SUVmax of the primary tumors was 10.3 (range, 2.6-31.2; median, 6...

  15. Efficacy of endocrine therapy in relation to progesterone receptor and Ki67 expression in advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Andrea; Farolfi, Alberto; Maltoni, Roberta; Carretta, Elisa; Melegari, Elisabetta; Ferrario, Cristiano; Cecconetto, Lorenzo; Sarti, Samanta; Schirone, Alessio; Fedeli, Anna; Andreis, Daniele; Pietri, Elisabetta; Ibrahim, Toni; Montalto, Erika; Amadori, Dino

    2015-07-01

    We assessed whether progesterone receptor (PgR) and Ki67 in primary tumors and/or matched metastases are predictors of clinical benefit from first-line endocrine therapy (ET) in advanced breast cancer. We evaluated patients treated at our institute with first-line ET (2002-2011), excluding those receiving concomitant chemotherapy or trastuzumab or pretreated with >2 lines of chemotherapy. A cut-off of 20 % immunostained cells was used for PgR and Ki67. The main endpoint was time-to-progression (TTP). Groups were compared by the log-rank test and Cox multivariate analysis. In the 135 assessable patients (93 % were receiving an aromatase inhibitor; biomarker assessment had been performed on primary tumors in 77 cases, on metastases in 23 and on both in 35), median TTP was 16 months (median follow-up 43 months). The overall discordance rate between primary tumors and metastases was 23 % for Ki67 and 31 % for PgR. A longer median TTP (24 vs. 12 months, P = 0.012) was seen for PgR >20 % in metastases. Ki67 showed a trend for TTP prediction in the entire case series (P = 0.062). Patients with high Ki67 and low PgR in metastases had a median TTP of only 5 months. High Ki67 in primary tumors (P = 0.026) or metastases (P = 0.01) predicted disease progression at the first evaluation. PgR in metastases remained a significant independent predictor of TTP at multivariate analysis (HR 2.45). In an ER-high population, PgR >20 % in metastases identified patients with a long TTP on endocrine treatment, while Ki67 >20 % was associated with an increased risk of non-response.

  16. [Novel concepts in biology of diffuse endocrine system: results and future investigations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse endocrine system is a largest part of endocrine system of vertebrates. Recend findings showed that DES-cells are not neuroectodermal but have ectodermal, mesodermal, and entodermal ontogeny. The article reviews novel concept of diffuse endocrine system anatomy and physiology, functional role of DES hormones and poorly investigated aspects like DES-cell morphology, hormones secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Further research of diffuse endocrine system has a great significance for biochemistry, morphology, and clinical medicine.

  17. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    -called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty has been described in several case reports of accidental exposure to oestrogenic compounds in cosmetic products, food and pharmaceuticals. Local epidemics of premature thelarche have also been suggested to be linked to endocrine disrupters. Children adopted from...... developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  18. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  19. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  20. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  1. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back A tumor is an abnormal growth ... health risk. Frequently Asked Questions How are benign liver tumors detected? In most cases, benign liver tumors ...

  2. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  3. Brain tumor (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are classified depending on the exact site of the tumor, the type of tissue involved, benign ... tendencies of the tumor, and other factors. Primary brain tumors can arise from the brain cells, the meninges ( ...

  4. 38 CFR 4.119 - Schedule of ratings-endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-endocrine system. 4.119 Section 4.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Endocrine System § 4.119 Schedule of ratings—endocrine system. Rating 7900Hyperthyroidism Thyroid enlargement, tachycardia (more than 100 beats per...

  5. Two Virus Based Endocrine Disruptor Assays Effective Across Vertebrate Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of hormone mimics, or endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC’s), in the environment are increasing. Sources range from agricultural run–off, pharmaceuticals in waste water, to industrial operations. Current levels of contamination are sufficient to alter sexual develo...

  6. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and

  7. High efficiency endocrine operation protocol: From design to implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarella, Marco A; Lahrichi, Nadia; Cloutier, Fabienne; Kleiman, Simcha; Payne, Richard J; Rosenberg, Lawrence

    2016-10-01

    We developed a high efficiency endocrine operative protocol based on a mathematical programming approach, process reengineering, and value-stream mapping to increase the number of operations completed per day without increasing operating room time at a tertiary-care, academic center. Using this protocol, a case-control study of 72 patients undergoing endocrine operation during high efficiency days were age, sex, and procedure-matched to 72 patients undergoing operation during standard days. The demographic profile, operative times, and perioperative complications were noted. The average number of cases per 8-hour workday in the high efficiency and standard operating rooms were 7 and 5, respectively. Mean procedure times in both groups were similar. The turnaround time (mean ± standard deviation) in the high efficiency group was 8.5 (±2.7) minutes as compared with 15.4 (±4.9) minutes in the standard group (P < .001). Transient postoperative hypocalcemia was 6.9% (5/72) and 8.3% (6/72) for the high efficiency and standard groups, respectively (P = .99). In this study, patients undergoing high efficiency endocrine operation had similar procedure times and perioperative complications compared with the standard group. The proposed high efficiency protocol seems to better utilize operative time and decrease the backlog of patients waiting for endocrine operation in a country with a universal national health care program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging Finding of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, Tae Jun; Cho, Hee Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant inherited syndrome with characteristic clinical and radiological manifestations. Many reports on MEN1 have been published; however, no cases of radiologically diagnosed MEN1 have been reported. Therefore, we report on a radiologically diagnosed case of MEN1 with clinical symptoms of gastroduodenal ulcer.

  9. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders Associated with Human Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Many reports have described endocrine and metabolic disorders in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection . This article reviewed various reports in the literature in order to increase the awareness and thus the need for early intervention when necessary. DATA SOURCE: Data were obtained from ...

  10. ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS AND REPRODUCTION IN VERTEBRATE WILDLIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fields of toxicology, endocrinology, and reproductive physiology recently have combined resources to study the effects of endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) in wildlife populations. EDCs include a wide variety of chemicals that are only related by the ability to disrupt...

  11. Influence of Endocrine Activity on Larval Development in Busseola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the role of juvenile and moulting hormones in development of Busseola fusca. Morphometric measurements were used to distinguish differences in endocrine activity between non-diapause and diapause development with regard to the prothoracic glands and the corpora allata. The corpora ...

  12. The impact of opioids on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Nathaniel; Mazer, Norman A

    2009-02-01

    Opioids have been used for medicinal and analgesic purposes for centuries. However, their negative effects on the endocrine system, which have been known for some times, are barely discussed in modern medicine. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of opioids on the endocrine system. A review of the English language literature on preclinical and clinical studies of any type on the influence of opioids on the endocrine system was conducted. Preliminary recommendations for monitoring and managing these problems were provided. Long-term opioid therapy for either addiction or chronic pain often induces hypogonadism owing to central suppression of hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Symptoms of opioid-induced hypogonadism include loss of libido, infertility, fatigue, depression, anxiety, loss of muscle strength and mass, osteoporosis, and compression fractures in both men and women; impotence in men; and menstrual irregularities and galactorrhea in women. In view of the increased use of opioids for chronic pain, it has become increasingly important to monitor patients taking opioids and manage endocrine complications. Therefore, patients on opioid therapy should be routinely screened for such symptoms and for laboratory abnormalities in sex hormones. Opioid-induced hypogonadism seems to be a common complication of therapeutic or illicit opioid use. Patients on long-term opioid therapy should be prospectively monitored, and in cases of opioid-induced hypogonadism, we recommend nonopioid pain management, opioid rotation, or sex hormone supplementation after careful consideration of the risks and benefits.

  13. Spreeta-based biosensor assays for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; meulenberg, E.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta™-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  14. Review: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (phenol and phthalates) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endocrinedisrupting chemicals have been reported in water, sediment and serum, as well as in fish tissue samples, at a level that could trigger endocrine disruption in humans and wildlife. Although some monitoring has been reported, particularly in water systems within the country, information on EDCs in other ...

  15. Rhythms in the endocrine system of fish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Azpeleta, Clara; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day. We mainly focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which can be considered as the master axis of the endocrine system of vertebrates and regulates a great variety of functions, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis, stress response, and osmoregulation. In addition, the rhythms of other hormones, such as melatonin and the factors, produced in the gastrointestinal system of fish are reviewed.

  16. The peripheral GABAergic system as a target in endocrine disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladkevich, A; Korf, J; Hakobyan, VP; Melkonyan, KV

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its well-recognized function as a cerebral inhibitory transmitter, less well established is the role of GABA in peripheral nervous and endocrine systems. We Summarize current evidence that GABA serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the autonomic nervous system and as a

  17. Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie

    2010-01-01

    Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects. This paper critically discusses the conclusions of recent reviews and original research papers...

  18. Pollution by endocrine disrupting estrogens in aquatic ecosystems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane Erike-Etchie

    This study aimed to assess the extent of pollution of aquatic ecosystems by endocrine disrupting .... Water from these tributaries is collected in the Mindu dam whose purpose is to supply drinking water to Morogoro urban area but also used for fishing activities. ... were supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Texas, USA.

  19. Endocrine Disruptor Degradation by Photocatalytic Pilot Plant Unit.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spáčilová, Lucie; Morozová, Magdalena; Mašín, P.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, František; Dytrych, Pavel; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena; Šolcová, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2016), s. 4613-4620 ISSN 2458-9403 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984398 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * titanium dioxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M)

  20. Paediatric Endocrine Disorders at the University College Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects/Methods: A review of records of children who presented at University College Hospital, Ibadan with paediatric endocrine disorders from 2002 to 2009 was ... Rickets and metabolic disorders constituted 56.4% of patients; Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 12.8%, adrenal disoders in 10.6%, pubertal disorders in ...

  1. Sleep and Quality of Life in Endocrine Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise; Verster, Joris; PandiPerumal, S.R.; Streiner, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary It is well established that a close relationship exists between sleep and hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis. Sleep has an electrophysiological component and an endocrine component, i.e., the distinct patterns of hormone secretion. Both the electrophysiological and the hormonal

  2. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (phenol and phthalates) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been increasing concern about the impacts of exposure to chemical compounds with endocrine disrupting activi- ties in the environment, ... natural and synthetic organic compounds, but are mostly man- made products such as ...... and organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and semi-volatile organic compounds in ...

  3. Endocrine Hypertension | Elamin | Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acromegaly, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is noted in both adults and children but it is more relevant for children where it comes second to renal hypertension, the common cause of hypertension in that age group. Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 3 (3) 2008: pp.

  4. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-01-01

    Jan 1, 1998 ... occurs as a component of either multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A, comprising MTC, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism, or the rarer. MEN type 28 characterised by MTC, phaeochromocytoma,. Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Natal, Durban. R J Pegoraro. BSc, PhD.

  5. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  6. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Yoshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:28053803

  7. Diagnosis and management of endocrine gland neoplasmas. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Functional and nonfunctional neoplasms of the endocrine glands constitute some of the more challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problems in veterinary cancer medicine. This discussion will focus on the clinical signs and syndromes associated with neoplasms of the thyroid, adrenal, and parathyroid glands, and pancreas in companion animals and will concentrate on the mechanisms producing the clinical signs, diagnosis, staging, therapy and prognosis.

  8. 76 FR 19692 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... that causes a hormonal imbalance. When an endocrine gland functions abnormally, producing either too... insulin, impairing glucose absorption and metabolism. Treatment of type 2 DM generally requires lifestyle... blood glucose that may produce acute and long-term complications. Acute complications of hyperglycemia...

  9. Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S V S

    2014-07-01

    An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals.

  10. Endocrine Disruption and In Vitro Ecotoxicology: Recent Advances and Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Kienle, Cornelia; Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Oehlmann, Jörg

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling. Omnipresent in the environment, they can cause adverse effects in a wide range of wildlife. Accordingly, Endocrine Disruption is one focal area of ecotoxicology. Because EDCs induce complex response patterns in vivo via a wide range of mechanisms of action, in vitro techniques have been developed to reduce and understand endocrine toxicity. In this review we revisit the evidence for endocrine disruption in diverse species and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Based on this, we examine the battery of in vitro bioassays currently in use in ecotoxicological research and discuss the following key questions. Why do we use in vitro techniques? What endpoints are we looking at? Which applications are we using in vitro bioassays for? How can we put in vitro data into a broader context? And finally, what is the practical relevance of in vitro data? In critically examining these questions, we review the current state-of-the-art of in vitro (eco)toxicology, highlight important limitations and challenges, and discuss emerging trends and future research needs.

  11. Effects of endocrine disrupting heavy metals on pituitary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of hypogonadism and visceral obesity (VO) was recently demonstrated in male auto-mechanics occupationally exposed to endocrine disruptors (ED)-lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The effects of exposure to these EDs on pituitary and gonadal ...

  12. Steroidogenesis in vitro : towards relevant models for endocrine disruptor screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, M.J.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357301137

    2016-01-01

    Starting our search for in vitro alternative methods to screen for steroidogenesis toxicity, we focused on the effects of (suggested) endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on cytochrome P450 17 (CYP17) enzyme activity. CYP17 is responsible for conversion of progestagens to dehydroepiandrosterone

  13. Pollution by endocrine disrupting estrogens in aquatic ecosystems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Morogoro urban and peri-urban areas. The main sources of fresh water for domestic uses, fishing and agricultural activities in the study areas including the Mindu dam catchment area, Ngerengere and Morogoro Rivers were assessed. The endocrine disrupting estrogens in water samples were ...

  14. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, such as Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems.

  15. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during ...

  16. The Role of ARX in Human Pancreatic Endocrine Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Blair K; Asadi, Ali; Baker, Robert K; Webber, Travis D; Wang, Rennian; Itoh, Masayuki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Miyata, Rie; Akashi, Takumi; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offers a model system to explore human development. Humans with mutations in the transcription factor Aristaless Related Homeobox (ARX) often suffer from the syndrome X-linked lissencephaly with ambiguous genitalia (XLAG), affecting many cell types including those of the pancreas. Indeed, XLAG pancreatic islets lack glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide-positive cells but retain somatostatin, insulin, and ghrelin-positive cells. To further examine the role of ARX in human pancreatic endocrine development, we utilized genomic editing in hESCs to generate deletions in ARX. ARX knockout hESCs retained pancreatic differentiation capacity and ARX knockout endocrine cells were biased toward somatostatin-positive cells (94% of endocrine cells) with reduced pancreatic polypeptide (rarely detected), glucagon (90% reduced) and insulin-positive (65% reduced) lineages. ARX knockout somatostatin-positive cells shared expression patterns with human fetal and adult δ-cells. Differentiated ARX knockout cells upregulated PAX4, NKX2.2, ISL1, HHEX, PCSK1, PCSK2 expression while downregulating PAX6 and IRX2. Re-expression of ARX in ARX knockout pancreatic progenitors reduced HHEX and increased PAX6 and insulin expression following differentiation. Taken together these data suggest that ARX plays a key role in pancreatic endocrine fate specification of pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, glucagon and insulin positive cells from hESCs.

  17. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  18. Management of occult adrenocorticotropin-secreting bronchial carcinoids: limits of endocrine testing and imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, P; Vignati, F; Grossrubatscher, E; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Zurleni, F; Lomuscio, G; Rossetti, O; Ravini, M; Vanzulli, A; Bacchetta, C; Galli, C; Valente, D

    2003-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and the identification of the source of ACTH in occult ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid still represents a challenge for the endocrinologist. We report our experience in six patients with occult bronchial carcinoid in whom extensive hormonal, imaging, and scintigraphic evaluation was performed. All patients presented with hypercortisolism associated with high plasma ACTH values. The CRH test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test suggested an ectopic source of ACTH in three of six patients. During bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, none of the patients showed a central to peripheral ACTH gradient. At the time of diagnosis, none of the patients had radiological evidence of the ectopic source of ACTH, whereas pentetreotide scintigraphy identified the lesion in two of four patients. Finally, a chest computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a bronchial lesion in all patients, and pentetreotide scintigraphy identified four of six lesions. In all patients a bronchial carcinoid was found and removed. In one patient with scintigraphic evidence of residual disease after two operations, radioguided surgery, using a hand-held gamma probe after iv administration of radiolabeled pentetreotide, was performed; this allowed detection and removal of residual multiple mediastinal lymph node metastases. In conclusion, our data show that there is not a single endocrine test or imaging procedure accurate enough to diagnose and localize occult ectopic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. Radioguided surgery appears to be promising in the presence of multiple tumor foci and previous incomplete removal of the tumor.

  19. Synchronous Acromegaly and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüsniye Başer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disorder characterized by the manifestations of sustained hypersecretion of growth hormone and concomitant elevations in circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1. It has been reported that patients with acromegaly are at the increased risk of developing malignant tumors, particularly colorectal cancer. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors of the digestive tract. An association between gastrointestinal stromal tumors and insulin-like growth factor system has been reported. Here, we report a patient diagnosed with synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. A 59-year-old man with iron deficiency anemia presented with enlarged hands, coarse facial feature and several skin tags. Thyroid function tests were within normal range. Growth hormone was 5.14 ng/mL, insulin-like growth factor-1 was 820 ng/mL, and no growth hormone suppression was observed on 75g oral glucose tolerance test. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging revealed microadenoma, and the patient was diagnosed with acromegaly. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy revealed an ulcerovegetan mass in the duodenum and the results of the histopathologcal analysis was consistent with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The association of synchronous and asynchronous gastrointestinal stromal tumors with other malignancies have been reported. The most common accompanying neoplasms are colorectal and gastric adenocarcinomas, as well as pancreatic tumors. However, in the literature, the number of reported cases of synchronous acromegaly and gastrointestinal stromal tumor are limited, and there are no sufficient data on this association. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 52-55

  20. [Surgical treatment of gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Takao; Takahata, Shunichi; Ueda, Junji; Ueki, Takashi; Nagai, Eishi; Mizumoto, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Shuji; Tanaka, Masao

    2013-07-01

    The treatment of choice for gastroentero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor(NET)is resection. Because it is difficult to determine the histological grade of NET before operation, the treatment strategy is usually made based on an imaging study including the tumor's size. Some selected gastrointestinal NETs are indicated for endoscopic resection, while others are resected surgically with lymph node dissection. The types of resections for pancreatic NETs vary from enucleation to pancreatectomy with or without regional lymph node dissection, based on the type of excessive hormone, tumor size, distance from the main pancreatic duct, and the presence of type 1 multiple endocrine neoplasia. Hepatic metastases are also resected, if indicated, and even in patients having unresectable metastatic lesions, multidisciplinary therapy including reduction surgery of over 90% of tumor volume might lead to a favorable prognosis. Postoperative adjuvant therapy is recommended for neuroendocrine carcinoma, while there is no evidence to support adjuvant therapy for curatively resected well-differentiated NET.

  1. Endocrine system on chip for a diabetes treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu

    2017-02-21

    The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.

  2. Occult endocrine dysfunction in patients of cerebrovascular accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. S. Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebrovascular disorders are common conditions leading to significant morbidity and mortality in the population. Occult endocrine disorders also contribute to the morbidity and we studied the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in patients of cerebrovascular accident (CVA. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 30 patients of CVA (aged 18-75, admission within 72 h of symptoms and positive neuroimaging in this prospective, observational study. All subjects were assessed clinically and biochemically for hormonal dysfunction at admission and for mortality at the end of 1 month. The patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (infarct, n = 20 and Group 2 (hemorrhage, n = 10 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests using GraphPad Prism Software, version 6. Results: The study participants (24M:6F had a mean age of 60.7 ± 11.4 years and body weight of 67.2 ± 11.4 kg. Fourteen out of 30 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including sick euthyroid syndrome (SES and central hypothyroidism (n = 10, secondary hypogonadism (n = 3, subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 1, and growth hormone (GH deficiency in two patients. The endocrine conditions did not differ significantly between both the groups and nine out of 30 patients succumbed to their illness within 1 month. None of the hormonal parameters studied, could predict the 30 day mortality. Conclusion: Endocrine disorders are common in acute stage of CVA and commonest finding is a SES. Hormonal dysfunction did not differ based on the etiology of the CVA. Long-term follow-up is essential to understand the morbidity contributed by the hormonal alterations.

  3. Concurrent endocrine and other surgical procedures: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rachel; Yen, Tina W F; Doffek, Kara; Carr, Azadeh A; Wilson, Stuart D; Evans, Douglas B; Wang, Tracy S

    2017-05-01

    The number of endocrine procedures, specifically parathyroidectomy, thyroidectomy, and adrenalectomy, being performed is increasing. There is a paucity of literature on the feasibility of combining these procedures with other surgical procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of performing concurrent surgical procedures on postoperative outcomes. This is a single institution retrospective review of multiple prospectively maintained databases of patients who underwent elective thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, and/or adrenalectomy in combination with another procedure. The other procedures included soft tissue, breast or hernia, abdominal major, abdominal minor, cervical, and "other". Demographics, operative details, length-of-stay, and 30-d outcomes were reviewed. "Endocrine-specific" complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, cervical wound infection, hematoma, and other. The cohort comprised 104 patients. Overall, 19 (18%) patients had 21 complications, including endocrine-specific complications in eleven (11%) patients. These eleven complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (n = 3; 3%), hematoma (n = 2; 2%), wound infection (n = 1; 1%), transient hypoparathyroidism (n = 2; 2%), and other (n = 3; 3%). The remaining complications included three (3%) general complications, six (6%) patients with complications related to the concurrent procedure, and one patient who underwent an open adrenalectomy and hysterectomy and developed a midline wound dehiscence, which could not be specifically attributed to either procedure. Less than 5% of patients undergoing a surgical endocrine procedure underwent a concurrent procedure, ranging from soft tissue to major abdominal. Short-term endocrine-specific complications were managed safely, suggesting that concurrent procedures can be considered, with minimal effect on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential for bias in using hybrids between common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and goldfish (Carassius auratus) in endocrine studies: a first report of hybrids in Lake Mead, Nevada, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Orsak, Erik; Sharma, Prakash; Ruessler, Shane

    2013-01-01

    During a 2008 study to assess endocrine and reproductive health of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Lake Mead, Nevada (U.S.A.) we identified two fish, one male and one female, as hybrids with goldfish (Carassius auratus) based on morphology, lateral line scale count, and lack of anterior barbels. Gross examination of the female hybrid ovaries indicated presence of vitellogenic ovarian follicles; whereas histological evaluation of the male hybrid testes showed lobule-like structures with open lumens but without germ cells, suggesting it was sterile. Because common carp/goldfish hybrids are more susceptible to gonadal tumors and may have different endocrine profiles than common carp, researchers using common carp as a model for endocrine/reproductive studies should be aware of the possible presence of hybrids.

  5. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami

    2015-01-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have...

  6. Training our future endocrine surgeons: a look at the endocrine surgery operative experience of U.S. surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebczan, Barbara; McDonald, Robert; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Leverson, Glen; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2010-12-01

    During the last 10 years, the number of endocrine procedures performed in the United States has increased significantly. We sought to determine whether this has translated into an increase in operative volume for general surgery and otolaryngology residents. We evaluated records from the Resident Statistic Summaries of the Residency Review Committee (RRC) for U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents for the years 2004-2008, specifically examining data on thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies. Between 2004 and 2008, the average endocrine case volume of U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents increased by approximately 15%, but otolaryngology residents performed more than twice as many operations as U.S. general surgery residents. The growth in case volume was mostly from increases in the number of thyroidectomies performed by U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents (17.9 to 21.8, P = .007 and 46.5 to 54.4, P = .04). Overall, otolaryngology residents also performed more parathyroidectomies than their general surgery counterparts (11.6 vs 8.8, P = .007). Although there has been an increase in the number of endocrine cases performed by graduating U.S. general surgery residents, this is significantly smaller than that of otolaryngology residents. To remain competitive, general surgery residents wishing to practice endocrine surgery may need to pursue additional fellowship training. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A high level of estrogen-stimulated proteins selects breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy with good prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L H Weischenfeldt, Katrine; Kirkegaard, Tove; Rasmussen, Birgitte B; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Ejlertsen, Bent; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E

    2017-09-01

    Adjuvant endocrine therapy has significantly improved survival of estrogen receptor α (ER)-positive breast cancer patients, but around 20% relapse within 10 years. High expression of ER-stimulated proteins like progesterone receptor (PR), Bcl-2 and insulin-like growth factor receptor I (IGF-IR) is a marker for estrogen-driven cell growth. Therefore, patients with high tumor levels of these proteins may have particularly good prognosis following adjuvant endocrine therapy. Archival tumor tissue was available from 1323 of 1396 Danish breast cancer patients enrolled in BIG 1-98, a randomized phase-III clinical trial comparing adjuvant letrozole, tamoxifen or a sequence of the two drugs. Immunohistochemical staining for ER, HER-2, PR, Bcl-2 and IGF-IR was performed and determined by Allred scoring (ER, PR and Bcl-2) or HercepTest (HER-2 and IGF-IR). Data on all five markers were available from 969 patients with ER-positive, HER-2-negative tumors. These patients were classified in ER activity groups based on the level of PR, Bcl-2 and IGF-IR. High ER activity profile was found in 102 patients (10.5%) and compared with the remaining patients, univariate and multivariate analysis revealed HR (95% CI) and p values for disease-free survival (DFS) of 2.00 (1.20-3.22), 0.008 and 1.70 (1.01-2.84), 0.04 and for the overall survival (OS) of 2.33 (1.19-4.57), 0.01 and 1.90 (0.97-3.79), 0.06, respectively. The high ER activity profile did not disclose difference in DFS or OS according to treatment with tamoxifen or letrozole (p = .06 and .09, respectively). Stratifying endocrine-treated patients in ER activity profile groups disclosed that patient with high ER activity profile (10.5%) had significantly longer DFS and OS, and the profile was an independent marker for DFS. High ER activity is a marker for estrogen-driven tumor growth. We suggest further analyses to disclose whether the ER activity profile or other markers associated with estrogen-driven growth may be used to

  8. Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors: a Canadian case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brophy James T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals and carcinogens, some of which may not yet have been classified as such, are present in many occupational environments and could increase breast cancer risk. Prior research has identified associations with breast cancer and work in agricultural and industrial settings. The purpose of this study was to further characterize possible links between breast cancer risk and occupation, particularly in farming and manufacturing, as well as to examine the impacts of early agricultural exposures, and exposure effects that are specific to the endocrine receptor status of tumours. Methods 1005 breast cancer cases referred by a regional cancer center and 1146 randomly-selected community controls provided detailed data including occupational and reproductive histories. All reported jobs were industry- and occupation-coded for the construction of cumulative exposure metrics representing likely exposure to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors. In a frequency-matched case–control design, exposure effects were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results Across all sectors, women in jobs with potentially high exposures to carcinogens and endocrine disruptors had elevated breast cancer risk (OR = 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.73, for 10 years exposure duration. Specific sectors with elevated risk included: agriculture (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.01-1.82; bars-gambling (OR = 2.28; 95% CI, 0.94-5.53; automotive plastics manufacturing (OR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.47-4.88, food canning (OR = 2.35; 95% CI, 1.00-5.53, and metalworking (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.02-2.92. Estrogen receptor status of tumors with elevated risk differed by occupational grouping. Premenopausal breast cancer risk was highest for automotive plastics (OR = 4.76; 95% CI, 1.58-14.4 and food canning (OR = 5.70; 95% CI, 1.03-31.5. Conclusions These observations support hypotheses linking breast cancer risk and exposures likely to include carcinogens and

  9. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

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    S Birla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.

  10. Endocrine function over time in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia Rebecka; Ørngreen, M C; Witting, N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) have an increased incidence of endocrine dysfunction. In this study, the temporal evolution of endocrine dysfunction in patients with DM1 was investigated. METHODS: Endocrine function was assessed in 68 patients with DM1, in whom...... endocrine function had been followed, on average, for 8 years. The endocrine function was assessed by measuring the concentration of hormones and metabolites in blood and by validating libido with questionnaires. RESULTS: At baseline, 30 of the 68 patients presented with at least one hormonal dysfunction...

  11. A Notch-dependent molecular circuitry initiates pancreatic endocrine and ductal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shih, Hung Ping; Kopp, Janel L; Sandhu, Manbir

    2012-01-01

    signaling promotes the expression of Sox9, which cell-autonomously activates the pro-endocrine gene Ngn3. However, at high Notch activity endocrine differentiation is blocked, as Notch also induces expression of the Ngn3 repressor Hes1. At the transition from high to intermediate Notch activity, only Sox9......, but not Hes1, is maintained, thus de-repressing Ngn3 and initiating endocrine differentiation. In the absence of Sox9 activity, endocrine and ductal cells fail to differentiate, resulting in polycystic ducts devoid of primary cilia. Although Sox9 is required for Ngn3 induction, endocrine differentiation...

  12. Endocrine dysfunctions in children with Williams-Beuren syndrome

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    Yoon-Myung Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWilliams-Beuren syndrome (WBS is caused by a hemizygous microdeletion of chromosome 7q11.23 and is characterized by global cognitive impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and supravalvular aortic stenosis. Endocrine dysfunctions have been reported in patients with WBS. This study was performed to investigate the frequency, clinical features, and outcomes of endocrine dysfunctions in children with WBS.MethodsOne hundred two patients were included. The diagnosis was confirmed by chromosome analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization. Medical charts were reviewed retrospectively to analyze endocrine dysfunctions such as short stature, precocious puberty, thyroid dysfunctions, and hypocalcemia.ResultsThe age at diagnosis was 3.7±4.4 years (one month to 19 years. Height- and weight-standard deviation score (SDS were –1.1±1.1 and –1.4±1.4 at presentation, respectively. Short stature was found in 26 patients (28.3% among those older than 2 years. Body mass index-SDS increased as the patients grew older (P<0.001. Two males and one female (2.9% were diagnosed with central precocious puberty. Nine patients (8.8% were diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism at age 4.0±4.3 years (one month to 12.1 years; their serum thyroid stimulating hormone and free T4 levels were 15.2±5.4 µU/mL and 1.2±0.2 ng/dL, respectively. Hypercalcemia was observed in 12 out of 55 patients under age 3 (22% at the age of 14.3±6.6 months (7 to 28 months with a mean serum calcium level of 13.1±2.1 mg/dL.ConclusionEndocrine dysfunctions are not uncommon causes of morbidity in patients with WBS. The severity and outcomes of their endocrine manifestations were heterogeneous. Long-term follow-up is needed to predict the prognosis of endocrine features.

  13. Metastatic Insulinoma Following Resection of Nonsecreting Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumor

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    Anoopa A. Koshy MD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman presented to our clinic for recurrent hypoglycemia after undergoing resection of an incidentally discovered nonfunctional pancreatic endocrine tumor 6 years ago. She underwent a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, after which she developed diabetes and was placed on an insulin pump. Pathology showed a pancreatic endocrine neoplasm with negative islet hormone immunostains. Two years later, computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed multiple liver lesions. Biopsy of a liver lesion showed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasm, consistent with pancreatic origin. Six years later, she presented to clinic with 1.5 years of recurrent hypoglycemia. Laboratory results showed elevated proinsulin, insulin levels, and c-peptide levels during a hypoglycemic episode. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen redemonstrated multiple liver lesions. Repeated transarterial catheter chemoembolization and microwave thermal ablation controlled hypoglycemia. The unusual features of interest of this case include the transformation of nonfunctioning pancreatic endocrine tumor to a metastatic insulinoma and the occurrence of atrial flutter after octreotide for treatment.

  14. An unusual association of neuroendocrine tumors in MEN 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Mariela; Reyes-García, Rebeca; Alonso García, Guillermo; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 is an autonomic dominant disease with a high degree of penetrance. It is characterized by combinations of over 20 different endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. A 25-year-old woman was referred for 1 year-evolution amenorrhea and bilateral galactorrhea. She also had fasting hypoglycaemia and hypercalcemia, and she was diagnosed of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1A. Resection of three parathyroid glands was performed showing hyperplasia of principal cells. Post-parathyroidectomy serum levels of calcium and intact PTH were normal but 3 years later serum calcium levels rose again. A 99mTc-sestamibi scan showed increased uptake in the low right area compatible with adenoma. After biochemical test showing probable insulinoma, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy showed a focal captation in head and body of pancreas. MRI found two nodules in the same localization. An antral gastrectomy, total pancreatoduodenectomy, colecistectomy and truncal vagotomy was performed and histopathologic examination revealed a combination of neuroendocrine tumors: gastrinomas, somastotinomas, glucagonomas and insulinomas. After surgery she started with tingling in fingers, toes and lips, and calcium levels was 5.9 mg/dl and PTH intact 3 pg/ml. A new 99m Tc-sestamibi scan showed no captation and cervical ultrasonography was normal. Now, 2 years later, she continues with normal calcium and i-PTH levels. This report represents an unusual case of MEN 1A with association of insulinomas, gastrinomas glucagonomas and somatostatinomas in the same patient.

  15. A possible primary cause of cancer: deficient cellular interactions in endocrine pancreas

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    Israël Maurice

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a devastating type of disease. New and innovative ways to tackle cancers that have so far proved refractive to conventional therapies is urgently needed. It is becoming increasingly clear that, in addition to conventional therapeutics targeting by small molecules, that tumor cell metabolism presents new opportunities to target selectively specific cancer cell populations. Metabolic defects in cancer cells can be manifested in many ways that might not be readily apparent, such as altering epigenetic gene regulation for example. The complex rewiring of metabolic pathways gives tumor cells a special advantage over differentiated cells, since they deplete body stores as fuel for their growth and proliferation. Tumor metabolism looks simpler when we consider that some enzymatic switches are in a neoglucogenic direction thereby depleting body stores. However, these pathways may be inadequately switched on by catabolic hormones (glucagon, epinephrine and cortisol in a specific situation where anabolism is activated by, for example insulin released from beta pancreatic cells or IGF, inducing mitosis and synthesis that are powered by glucose catabolism. Such a hybrid metabolic situation would be reached if a pancreatic beta cell mechanism, mediated by GABA, failed to silence neighboring alpha cells and delta cells. The inhibitory transmitter GABA hyperpolarizes alpha and delta cells via their GABA A receptors, and blocks the release of glucagon and somatostatin. Alternatively, an anomaly of alpha cell channels, would lead to a similar situation. Whatever is the alteration, anabolism fails to silence catabolism and enzymatic switches controlled by kinases and phosphatases adopt an inadequate direction, leading to a hybrid metabolic rewiring found in cancer. It is daring to formulate such a hypothesis as this. However, it is quite possible that the starting point in cancer is an alteration of the endocrine pancreas

  16. The 2017 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the pituitary gland: a summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, M Beatriz S

    2017-10-01

    The 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of endocrine tumors has been recently released. In this new edition, major changes are recommended in several areas of the classification of tumors of the anterior pituitary gland (adenophypophysis). The scope of the present manuscript is to summarize these recommended changes, emphasizing a few significant topics. These changes include the following: (1) a novel approach for classifying pituitary neuroendocrine tumors according to pituitary adenohypophyseal cell lineages; (2) changes to the histological grading of pituitary neuroendocrine tumors with the elimination of the term "atypical adenoma;" and (3) introduction of new entities like the pituitary blastoma and re-definition of old entities like the null-cell adenoma. This new classification is very practical and mostly based on immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones, pituitary-specific transcription factors, and other immunohistochemical markers commonly used in pathology practice, not requiring routine ultrastructural analysis of the tumors. Evaluation of tumor proliferation potential, by mitotic count and Ki-67 labeling index, and tumor invasion is strongly recommended on individual case basis to identify clinically aggressive adenomas. In addition, the classification offers the treating clinical team information on tumor prognosis by identifying specific variants of adenomas associated with an elevated risk for recurrence. Changes in the classification of non-neuroendocrine tumors are also proposed, in particular those tumors arising in the posterior pituitary including pituicytoma, granular cell tumor of the posterior pituitary, and spindle cell oncocytoma. These changes endorse those previously published in the 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors. Other tumors arising in the sellar region are also reviewed in detail including craniopharyngiomas, mesenchymal and stromal tumors, germ cell tumors, and hematopoietic tumors. It is

  17. MYB, CD117 and SOX-10 expression in cutaneous adnexal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Mara Therese P; North, Jeffrey P

    2017-05-01

    Elevated MYB expression has been documented in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), cylindroma, and spiradenoma, but the specificity of this finding is unknown. CD117 and SOX-10 expression also occurs in some cutaneous adnexal tumors. This study assesses MYB, CD117 and SOX-10 expression in cutaneous adnexal tumors. Retrospective analysis of 184 benign adnexal tumors (140 eccrine/apocrine, 40 follicular and 10 sebaceous), and 30 malignant adnexal tumors was performed with MYB, SOX-10 and CD117 immunostaining. In the benign adnexal tumors, 16% (23/140) significantly expressed MYB. MYB expression was limited to cylindromas and to a lesser extent, spiradenomas in the benign cohort. Elevated MYB expression was detected in mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and 1 and 4 cases of extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) in the malignant cohort. CD117 and SOX-10 had similar overall positivity rates in benign apocrine and eccrine tumors (45% and 68% respectively), and were generally negative in other benign and malignant adnexal tumors. Expression of MYB appears limited to a small number of cutaneous adnexal tumors, including cylindromas, spiradenomas, ACCs, mucinous carcinoma, endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma and some cases of EMPD. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carere

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  19. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the regulation of energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Angel; Quesada, Ivan; Tudurí, Eva; Nogueiras, Rubén; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma

    2017-09-01

    Energy balance involves the adjustment of food intake, energy expenditure and body fat reserves through homeostatic pathways. These pathways include a multitude of biochemical reactions, as well as hormonal cues. Dysfunction of this homeostatic control system results in common metabolism-related pathologies, which include obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism-disrupting chemicals (MDCs) are a particular class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals that affect energy homeostasis. MDCs affect multiple endocrine mechanisms and thus different cell types that are implicated in metabolic control. MDCs affect gene expression and the biosynthesis of key enzymes, hormones and adipokines that are essential for controlling energy homeostasis. This multifaceted spectrum of actions precludes compensatory responses and favours metabolic disorders. Herein, we review the main mechanisms used by MDCs to alter energy balance. This work should help to identify new MDCs, as well as novel targets of their action.

  20. Review of Prader-Willi syndrome: the endocrine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heksch, Ryan; Kamboj, Manmohan; Anglin, Kathryn; Obrynba, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder with implications on the endocrine and neurologic systems, metabolism, and behavior. Early in life, PWS is characterized by hypotonia and failure to thrive, followed by obesity and hyperphagia. Patients with PWS develop hypothalamic dysfunction which may lead growth hormone deficiency (GHD), hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and poor bone mineral density (BMD). In addition to hypothalamic dysfunction, individuals with PWS have increased risk for obesity which may be complicated by metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this paper, we will review the current literature pertaining to the endocrine concerns of PWS and current recommendations for screening and management of these conditions.

  1. Mixture effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Taxvig, Camilla; Andersen, H. R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Four different equi-molar mixtures were investigated for additive endocrine disrupting effects in vitro using the concentration addition model. It was found that additive effects on the same molecular target (the androgen receptor; AR) can be predicted for both mixtures of compounds with effect...... on AR could not be predicted under assumption of additivity in our model system. For a mixture containing three azole fungicides (epoxiconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole), the observed AR antagonistic effects were close to the predicted effect assuming additivity. Azole fungicides are known...... assuming additivity. Overall these and other studies show that weak endocrine disrupting compounds, like parabens and azole fungicides, give rise to combination effects when they occur in mixtures. These combination effects should be taken into account in regulatory risk assessment not to under...

  2. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  3. Review of Prader-Willi syndrome: the endocrine approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heksch, Ryan; Kamboj, Manmohan; Anglin, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder with implications on the endocrine and neurologic systems, metabolism, and behavior. Early in life, PWS is characterized by hypotonia and failure to thrive, followed by obesity and hyperphagia. Patients with PWS develop hypothalamic dysfunction which may lead growth hormone deficiency (GHD), hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and poor bone mineral density (BMD). In addition to hypothalamic dysfunction, individuals with PWS have increased risk for obesity which may be complicated by metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this paper, we will review the current literature pertaining to the endocrine concerns of PWS and current recommendations for screening and management of these conditions. PMID:29184809

  4. [Neurokinkin B and it's function on reproductive endocrine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Ran; Tian, Zhan-Zhuang

    2012-04-01

    Neurokinkin B (NKB) is a member of tachykinin family and plays a role mainly through its receptor NK3R. NKB and NK3R are wide spread through the neural system. Studies revealed that NKB has kinds of biological functions such as constringing the smooth muscle of hollow viscus, relaxing blood vessels, reducing mean arterial pressure, slowing heart rate, exciting in vitro spinal cord neurons of rats and astringing sphincter pupillae. For the past few years, people pay more and more attentions to the regulating action of NKB on reproductive endocrine and a lot of research are made to discuss the function of NKB in HPGA. This article summarizes the distribution and physiological function of NKB and NK3R, discusses their functions in reproductive endocrine. Future studies will be needed to determine the precise mechanism of NKB.

  5. International spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic extended data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, W A; Wecht, J M; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic...... (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations, societies and individual reviewers. The data set was posted for two months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. Variable names were standardized, and a suggested database...... findings in the SCI population. SETTING: This study was conducted in an international setting. METHODS: The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group. The initial ISCIEMEDS was revised based on suggestions from members of the International SCI Data Sets Committee, the International Spinal Cord Society...

  6. Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Patients with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Piecha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism may occur as a part of an inherited syndrome in a combination with pancreatic endocrine tumours and/or pituitary adenoma, which is classified as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1. This syndrome is caused by a germline mutation in MEN-1 gene encoding a tumour-suppressor protein, menin. Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1, which usually appears in the second decade of life as an asymptomatic hypercalcemia and progresses through the next decades. The most frequent clinical presentation of MEN-1-associated primary hyperparathyroidism is bone demineralisation and recurrent kidney stones rarely followed by chronic kidney disease. The aim of this paper is to present the pathomechanism, screening procedures, diagnosis, and management of primary hyperparathyroidism in the MEN-1 syndrome. It also summarises the recent advances in the pharmacological therapy with a new group of drugs—calcimimetics.

  7. Biosensors for environmental monitoring of endocrine disruptors: a review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Lopez de Alda, Maria J.; Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Marco, Maria-Pilar [Department of Biological Organic Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the applications of biosensors in analysis and monitoring of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the environment. Special attention is devoted to the various types of physical-chemical signal transduction elements, biological mechanisms employed as sensing elements and techniques used for immobilisation of the bioreceptor molecules on the transducer surface. Two different classes of biosensors for EDCs are considered: biosensors that measure endocrine-disrupting effects, and biosensors that respond to the presence of a specific substance (or group of substances) based on the specific recognition of a biomolecule. Several examples of them are presented to illustrate the power of the biosensor technology for environmental applications. Future trends in the development of new, more advanced devices are also outlined. (orig.)

  8. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1999-01-01

    with locally advanced (M0) disease compared with castration, suggesting that this treatment may benefit patients with early disease. Bicalutamide was favoured in 8 out of 9 evaluable quality of life dimensions, and this was statistically significant for sexual interest and physical capacity. Endocrine......Recent interest has focused on the use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer for both the management of patients with non-metastatic disease and as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant to curative therapies. This has resulted in patients with fewer symptoms being treated for longer periods of time. Endocrine...... treatments for prostate cancer, such as castration, combined androgen blockade and non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, have shown similar results in terms of time to progression and survival. The main difference between these treatments is their impact on patients' quality of life. Instruments...

  9. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves′ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman′s syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove′s syndrome, Cushing′s disease, and Addison′s disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner′s, Rothmund′s, and Klinefelter′s syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner′s, Cockayne′s, Wolfram′s, Kearns Sayre′s, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases.

  10. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2: achievements and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Machens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incremental advances in medical technology, such as the development of sensitive hormonal assays for routine clinical care, are the drivers of medical progress. This principle is exemplified by the creation of the concept of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, encompassing medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma, and primary hyperparathyroidism, which did not emerge before the early 1960s. This review sets out to highlight key achievements, such as joint biochemical and DNA-based screening of individuals at risk of developing multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, before casting a spotlight on current challenges which include: (i ill-defined upper limits of calcitonin assays for infants and young children, rendering it difficult to implement the biochemical part of the integrated DNA-based/biochemical concept; (ii our increasingly mobile society in which different service providers are caring for one individual at various stages in the disease process. With familial relationships disintegrating as a result of geographic dispersion, information about the history of the origin family may become sketchy or just unavailable. This is when DNA-based gene tests come into play, confirming or excluding an individual's genetic predisposition to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 even before there is any biochemical or clinical evidence of the disease. However, the unrivaled molecular genetic progress in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 does not come without a price. Screening may uncover unknown gene sequence variants representing either harmless polymorphisms or pathogenic mutations. In this setting, functional characterization of mutant cells in vitro may generate helpful ancillary evidence with regard to the pathogenicity of gene variants in comparison with established mutations.

  11. Osteoporosis in celiac disease and in endocrine and reproductive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, Anna-Velia; Trecca, Antonello; Trinti, Biagino

    2008-01-28

    As the increase in lifespan brings to light diseases that were previously not clinically detectable, osteoporosis has become an issue of worldwide significance. The disease is marked by a loss of bone mass; the bones become less dense, fragile and more prone to fracturing. Because it is regulated by endocrine and environmental factors, osteoporosis presents a multifactorial etiopathogenesis, with the genetic component accounting for 70% of an individual variation in bone mass density (BMD), the principal determinant, with age, of fracture risk. Pathological conditions such as celiac disease (CD) exacerbate the process of bone loss, so that the occurrence of osteoporosis in celiac subjects is of particular note: indeed, the screening of osteoporosis patients for this disease is advisable, since it may be the only sign of undiagnosed CD. An increase in interleukin IL-1beta, of the IL-1 system, in the relatives of celiac patients confirms the genetic predisposition to osteoporosis and its presence is evidence of an association between the two conditions. The direct effect on the bones of CD is secondary to poor absorption of calcium and vitamin D. In women osteoporosis is indirectly associated with early menopause and amenorrhea, and it may follow prolonged breast-feeding and frequent pregnancies, while in men it is associated with hypogonadism and GH deficit. These endocrine and non-endocrine factors exert their effects on bones by modulating the RANK/RANK-L/OPG system. An appropriate lifestyle from adolescence onwards, together with early diagnosis of and treatment for CD and primary and secondary endocrine pathologies are important for the prevention of damage to the bones.

  12. Osteoporosis in celiac disease and in endocrine and reproductive disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trecca, Antonello; Trinti, Biagino

    2008-01-01

    As the increase in lifespan brings to light diseases that were previously not clinically detectable, osteoporosis has become an issue of worldwide significance. The disease is marked by a loss of bone mass; the bones become less dense, fragile and more prone to fracturing. Because it is regulated by endocrine and environmental factors, osteoporosis presents a multifactorial etiopathogenesis, with the genetic component accounting for 70% of an individual variation in bone mass density (BMD), t...

  13. Gut Chemosensing: Interactions between Gut Endocrine Cells and Visceral Afferents

    OpenAIRE

    Raybould, Helen E.

    2009-01-01

    Chemosensing in the gastrointestinal tract is less well understood than many aspects of gut mechanosensitivity; however, it is important in the overall function of the GI tract and indeed the organism as a whole. Chemosensing in the gut represents a complex interplay between the function of enteroendocrine (EEC) cells and visceral (primarily vagal) afferent neurons. In this brief review, I will concentrate on new data on endocrine cells in chemosensing in the GI tract, in particular on new fi...

  14. Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Robin E; Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2012-07-01

    Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid

  15. Characterization of Endocrine Cells and Tumours in the Stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Apostolos V.

    2008-01-01

    Enterochromaffin-like (ECL) and ghrelin cells, in the human gastric mucosa and in gastric endocrine tumours (GETs), were subclassified with respect to immunohistochemical reaction vs. vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2), ghrelin/obestatin, and histidine decarboxylase (HDC). The immunohistochemical expression of ghrelin/obestatin and HDC in GETs was related/correlated to plasma ghrelin/obestatin and urinary methyl imidazole acetic acid (U-MeImAA) excretion respectively, with the intenti...

  16. Endocrine Disruptors and Asthma-Associated Chemicals in Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J.; Perovich, Laura J.; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. Objectives: We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. Methods: We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. Results: We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Conclusions: Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in

  17. Hormonal effect on the inner ear : two endocrine syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnard, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss is a major problem in our society with more than 5 % of the population world-wide suffering from disabling hearing loss according to the WHO. There are many endocrine syndromes associated with hearing loss. In both Turner syndrome and Pendred syndrome hearing loss is a prominent feature often leading to a need for hearing rehabilitation with hearing aids or cochlear implants. Hormonal treatment might also affect the inner ear directly and studies have shown a negative effect on h...

  18. Cholecystokinin expression in tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2016-01-01

    in different neuroendocrine tumors; cerebral gliomas and astrocytomas and specific pediatric tumors. Tumor hypersecretion of CCK was recently reported in a patient with a metastatic islet cell tumor and hypercholecystokininemia resulting in a novel tumor syndrome, the cholecystokininoma syndrome. This review...

  19. Endocrine manifestations related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantyghem Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are recessive, genetically transmitted diseases and are classified into 3 main groups according to their mechanisms: cellular intoxication, energy deficiency, and defects of complex molecules. They can be associated with endocrine manifestations, which may be complications from a previously diagnosed IEM of childhood onset. More rarely, endocrinopathies can signal an IEM in adulthood, which should be suspected when an endocrine disorder is associated with multisystemic involvement (neurological, muscular, hepatic features, etc.. IEM can affect all glands, but diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism are the most frequent disorders. A single IEM can present with multiple endocrine dysfunctions, especially those involving energy deficiency (respiratory chain defects, and metal (hemochromatosis and storage disorders (cystinosis. Non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter and sometimes hypoparathyroidism should steer the diagnosis towards a respiratory chain defect. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is frequent in haemochromatosis (often associated with diabetes, whereas primary hypogonadism is reported in Alström disease and cystinosis (both associated with diabetes, the latter also with thyroid dysfunction and galactosemia. Hypogonadism is also frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (with adrenal failure, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and Fabry and glycogen storage diseases (along with thyroid dysfunction in the first 3 and diabetes in the last. This is a new and growing field and is not yet very well recognized in adulthood despite its consequences on growth, bone metabolism and fertility. For this reason, physicians managing adult patients should be aware of these diagnoses.

  20. Endocrine manifestations and management of Prader-Willi syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder, caused by lack of expression of genes on the paternally inherited chromosome 15q11.2-q13. In infancy it is characterized by hypotonia with poor suck resulting in failure to thrive. As the child ages, other manifestations such as developmental delay, cognitive disability, and behavior problems become evident. Hypothalamic dysfunction has been implicated in many manifestations of this syndrome including hyperphagia, temperature instability, high pain threshold, sleep disordered breathing, and multiple endocrine abnormalities. These include growth hormone deficiency, central adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and complications of obesity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review summarizes the recent literature investigating optimal screening and treatment of endocrine abnormalities associated with PWS, and provides an update on nutrition and food-related behavioral intervention. The standard of care regarding growth hormone therapy and surveillance for potential side effects, the potential for central adrenal insufficiency, evaluation for and treatment of hypogonadism in males and females, and the prevalence and screening recommendations for hypothyroidism and diabetes are covered in detail. PWS is a genetic syndrome in which early diagnosis and careful attention to detail regarding all the potential endocrine and behavioral manifestations can lead to a significant improvement in health and developmental outcomes. Thus, the important role of the provider caring for the child with PWS cannot be overstated. PMID:23962041

  1. [Reproduction, endocrine disorders and celiac disease: risk factors of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, A V; Trinti, B

    2006-04-01

    In genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease (CD) is permanent intolerance to gluten. Besides the overt enteropathy, there are clinical and subclinical forms which appear later in life; target organs include liver, thyroid, skin and reproductive systems. CD interference is related to the different concurrent genetic-environmental factors, showing multifactorial nature. CD induces malabsorption with consequent deficiencies of micronutrients essential for organogenesis, spermatogenesis and bone structure, such as vitamin D and calcium. In fact, among extraintestinal manifestations of CD, osteoporosis deserves attention because it can be a sign of silent CD. In celiac patients' serum, cytochinic imbalance related to bone loss is present; in vitro these sera act on the osteoblastic activity. The IL-1b is also present in celiac patients' relatives, confirming the genetic predisposition to its etiopathogenesis which is also regulated by endocrine-environmental factors. In females, CD acts indirectly on the bone, determining early menopause and amenorrhea. Even frequent pregnancies and long periods of lactation can bring to bone loss; in such periods, silent CD can appear, suggesting the presence of endocrine-immunology factors. In celiac males, osteoporosis presence, besides calcium and vitamin D deficiencies, is associated to growth hormone deficit and hypogonadism, which is related to hyperprolactinemia, endocrine factors which affect the reproduction. Osteoporosis is relevant among the elderly and vitamin D and calcium supplementations are important to people diagnosed with CD later in life. Thus, to prevent damages such as osteoporosis, early CD screening among people with reproductive problems is necessary.

  2. Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels.

  3. CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated endocrine differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chung-Kuang [Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lai, Yi-Chyi [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yung-Fu; Chen, Hau-Ren [Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Ming-Ko, E-mail: biomkc@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Life Science, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify CCAR1 to directly interact with Ngn3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 is co-localized with Ngn3 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 cooperates with Ngn3 in activating NeuroD expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CCAR1 is required for Ngn3-mediated PANC-1 transdifferentiation. -- Abstract: Neurogenin3 (Ngn3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that specifies pancreatic endocrine cell fates during pancreas development. It can also initiate a transdifferentiation program when expressed in pancreatic exocrine and ductal cells. However, how Ngn3 initiates a transcriptional cascade to achieve endocrine differentiation is still poorly understood. Here, we show that cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1), which is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors, also interacts with Ngn3. The association between Ngn3 and CCAR1 was verified by pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Using gene reporter assays, we found that CCAR1 is essential for Ngn3 to activate the expression of the reporter genes containing the NeuroD promoter. Moreover, down-regulation of endogenous CCAR1 in the PANC-1 pancreatic ductal cell line inhibits the transdifferentiation program initiated by Ngn3. CCAR1 is, therefore, a novel partner of Ngn3 in mediating endocrine differentiation.

  4. [Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on birth outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen Zee, E; Cornet, P; Lazimi, G; Rondet, C; Lochard, M; Magnier, A M; Ibanez, G

    2013-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors are ubiquitous chemicals contaminants in the environment, wildlife, and humans. Their adverse effects on reproduction are well-documented. There is growing evidence that they can contribute to the current emergence of chronic diseases. Our aim is to assess the relationships between endocrine disruptors and the neonatal health outcomes. Two persons have independently reviewed Medline and Toxline databases about the following pollutants: bisphenol A, phthalates, parabens, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. Only the human epidemiological studies, in general population with an abstract available, published between 2007 January the 1st and 2011 December the 31st, were analysed. The quality of each study was assessed with the Strobe score. Twenty-five out of 680 studies were included in the analysis. All pollutants were widely detected in maternal and new borns samples. Most of the studies have shown associations between bisphenol A, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds and lower birth weight. The effects on gestational age were less documented and have shown no clear connection. Results for phthalates were more ambiguous. Only one non-instructive study was found on parabens. Due to the inherent methological bias on endocrine disruptors research, further additional studies on environmental health must be investigated. It seems necessary to adopt preventive health measures first for vulnerable population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy: physiological and hormonal aspects of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-12-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase and the foeto-maternal exchange begins to be dominated by secretory function of the placenta. As gestation progresses toward term, the number of cytotrophoblasts again declines and the remaining syncytial layer becomes thin and barely visible. This arrangement facilitates transport of compounds including hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted by placenta and/or mother. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association studies in common endocrine diseases (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akrami SM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the pathogenesis of endocrine disorders increase rapidly by genetic studies at the molecular level. Common endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and cancer follow the multifactorial model in the genetic aspect. This review tries to clarify the approach in molecular studies of such diseases for clinicians in different specialties. How to evaluate a possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism and an endocrinopathy or its complication is the main concern of this review. Two approaches for gene mapping will be discussed as well as main challenges regarding each approach. All such genetic studies ideally include some test of the association between genome sequence variation and the phenotype of interest such as the trait itself, the presence of a given complication, or measures of some endocrinopathy-related intermediate trait. Despite different advances in this analysis, there are major concerns regarding the overall performance and robustness of genetic association studies. By using powerful new high-throughput methods, further insights to molecular basis of such endocrine disorders can be expected. Close correlation between geneticists and clinicians can effectively bridge between basic sciences and clinical investigations.

  7. Hormones and endocrine disruptors in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, R; Kubatova, J; Heracek, J; Sobotka, V; Starka, L

    2013-07-01

    Seminal plasma represents a unique environment for maturation, nutrition, and protection of male germ cells from damaging agents. It contains an array of organic as well as inorganic chemicals, encompassing a number of biologically and immunologically active compounds, including hormones. Seminal plasma contains also various pollutants transferred from outer environment known as endocrine disruptors. They interfere with hormones at the receptor level, act as inhibitors of their biosynthesis, and affect hormone regulation.In this minireview, the main groups of hormones detected in seminal plasma are summarized. Seminal gonadal steroids were investigated mostly with aim to use them as biomarkers of impaired spermatogenesis (sperm count, motility, morphology). Concentrations of hormones in the seminal plasma often differ considerably from the blood plasma levels in dependence on their origin. In some instances (dihydrotestosterone, estradiol), their informative value is higher than determination in blood.Out of peptide hormones detected in seminal plasma, peptides of transforming growth factor beta family, especially antimullerian hormone, and oligopeptides related to thyrotropin releasing hormone have the high informative value, while assessment of seminal gonadotropins and prolactin does not bring advantage over determination in blood.Though there is a large body of information about the endocrine disruptors' impact on male reproduction, especially with their potential role in decline of male reproductive functions within the last decades, there are only scarce reports on their presence in seminal plasma. Herein, the main groups of endocrine disruptors found in seminal plasma are reviewed, and the use of their determination for investigation of fertility disorders is discussed.

  8. Epigenetic regulation of placental endocrine lineages and complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rosalind M

    2013-06-01

    A defining feature of mammals is the development in utero of the fetus supported by the constant flow of nutrients from the mother obtained via a specialized organ: the placenta. The placenta is also a major endocrine organ that synthesizes vast quantities of hormones and cytokines to instruct both maternal and fetal physiology. Nearly 20 years ago, David Haig and colleagues proposed that placental hormones were likely targets of the epigenetic process of genomic imprinting in response to the genetic conflicts imposed by in utero development [Haig (1993) Q. Rev. Biol. 68, 495-532]. There are two simple mechanisms through which genomic imprinting could regulate placental hormones. First, imprints could directly switch on or off alleles of specific genes. Secondly, imprinted genes could alter the expression of placental hormones by regulating the development of placental endocrine lineages. In mice, the placental hormones are synthesized in the trophoblast giant cells and spongiotrophoblast cells of the mature placenta. In the present article, I review the functional role of imprinted genes in regulating these endocrine lineages, which lends support to Haig's original hypothesis. I also discuss how imprinting defects in the placenta may adversely affect the health of the fetus and its mother during pregnancy and beyond.

  9. Feedback control of growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of pancreatic endocrine progenitors in an epithelial plexus niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankaitis, Eric D.; Bechard, Matthew E.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian pancreas, endocrine cells undergo lineage allocation upon emergence from a bipotent duct/endocrine progenitor pool, which resides in the “trunk epithelium.” Major questions remain regarding how niche environments are organized within this epithelium to coordinate endocrine differentiation with programs of epithelial growth, maturation, and morphogenesis. We used EdU pulse-chase and tissue-reconstruction approaches to analyze how endocrine progenitors and their differentiating progeny are assembled within the trunk as it undergoes remodeling from an irregular plexus of tubules to form the eventual mature, branched ductal arbor. The bulk of endocrine progenitors is maintained in an epithelial “plexus state,” which is a transient intermediate during epithelial maturation within which endocrine cell differentiation is continually robust and surprisingly long-lived. Within the plexus, local feedback effects derived from the differentiating and delaminating endocrine cells nonautonomously regulate the flux of endocrine cell birth as well as proliferative growth of the bipotent cell population using Notch-dependent and Notch-independent influences, respectively. These feedback effects in turn maintain the plexus state to ensure prolonged allocation of endocrine cells late into gestation. These findings begin to define a niche-like environment guiding the genesis of the endocrine pancreas and advance current models for how differentiation is coordinated with the growth and morphogenesis of the developing pancreatic epithelium. PMID:26494792

  10. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR SURVIVAL OF MEN1 PATIENTS WITH DUODENOPANCREATIC TUMORS METASTATIC TO THE LIVER : RESULTS FROM THE DMSG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conemans, Elfi B.; Nell, Sjoerd; Pieterman, Carolina R. C.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; Hermus, Ad R.; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N.; Bisschop, Peter H.; Havekes, Bas; Drent, Madeleine L.; Vriens, Menno R.; Valk, Gerlof D.

    Objective: Duodenopancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (DP-NETs) develop in a majority of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and are the leading cause of death. Overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors for patients with liver metastases from DP-NETs are not known. Methods: This

  11. Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracci, Teresa L; Wilcox, Crystal L; Arnes, Luis; Panea, Casandra; Golden, Jeffrey A; May, Catherine Lee; Sussel, Lori

    2011-11-01

    Nkx2.2 and Arx are essential pancreatic transcription factors. Nkx2.2 is necessary for the appropriate specification of the islet alpha, beta, PP and epsilon cell lineages, whereas Arx is required to form the correct ratio of alpha, beta, delta and PP cells. To begin to understand the cooperative functions of Nkx2.2 and Arx in the development of endocrine cell lineages, we generated progenitor cell-specific deletions of Arx on the Nkx2.2 null background. The analysis of these mutants demonstrates that expansion of the ghrelin cell population in the Nkx2.2 null pancreas is not dependent on Arx; however, Arx is necessary for the upregulation of ghrelin mRNA levels in Nkx2.2 mutant epsilon cells. Alternatively, in the absence of Arx, delta cell numbers are increased and Nkx2.2 becomes essential for the repression of somatostatin gene expression. Interestingly, the dysregulation of ghrelin and somatostatin expression in the Nkx2.2/Arx compound mutant (Nkx2.2(null);Arx(Δpanc)) results in the appearance of ghrelin+/somatostatin+ co-expressing cells. These compound mutants also revealed a genetic interaction between Nkx2.2 and Arx in the regulation of the PP cell lineage; the PP cell population is reduced when Nkx2.2 is deleted but is restored back to wildtype numbers in the Nkx2.2(null);Arx(Δpanc) mutant. Moreover, conditional deletion of Arx in specific pancreatic cell populations established that the functions of Arx are necessary in the Neurog3+ endocrine progenitors. Together, these experiments identify novel genetic interactions between Nkx2.2 and Arx within the endocrine progenitor cells that ensure the correct specification and regulation of endocrine hormone-producing cells. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (pbehaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  13. [Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szporek, Bozena J; Cieślik, Tadeusz; Jedrzejewski, Piotr W; Lipiarz, Ludwik Z

    2005-01-01

    The calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm which was first described by Pindborg in 1955 representing only 1% of all odontogenic tumors. The tumor has an ectodermal odontogenic origin. This tumor are considered benign but can be locally aggressive in nature with recurrence rates of 10-15% reported. Surgical treatment varies from simply enucleation to partial resection of the affected bone. Since 1973 three cases only of the Pinborg tumor have been presented in the Polish literature. We described the case of a 44-year-old man with Pindborg tumor in the right maxilla. Standard x-ray examinations and CT scan were performed in order to obtain information about tumor's localization. Autors discuss the radiologic features of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor and treatment method and the relevant literature.

  14. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  15. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Needs a Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  16. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  17. Hand and Wrist Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Tumors and Wrist Tumors Email to a friend * ... are seen commonly. CAUSES Common Types of Wrist Hand Tumors Ganglion Cysts (Figure 1): This is the ...

  18. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Newly Diagnosed Neurological Exam ...

  19. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Headaches Seizures Memory Depression Mood ...

  20. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  1. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  2. DCB - Tumor Metastasis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor metastasis research examines the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and spread to another part of the body. Learn about recent tumor metastasis research studies supported by the Division of Cancer Biology.

  3. Development and Validation of a Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire: Impact of ac Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Zidan, Marwan; Moltz, Kathleen; Adhikari, Amita; Buggs-Saxton, Colleen; Zidan, Hanaa; Abushanab, Dania; Lteif, Aida; Edwin, Chandra

    2016-12-01

    While there is general agreement that patient education is essential for compliance, no objective tools exist to assess knowledge in children and parents of children with endocrine disorders. We aimed to design and validate a Pediatric Endocrine Knowledge Assessment Questionnaire (PEKAQ) for congenital hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, isolated growth hormone deficiency, Graves' disease, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. We evaluated baseline knowledge of children and parents of children with these disorders and assessed impact of educational intervention. At baseline, 77 children (12-18 years) and 162 parents of children 1-18 years participated in this prospective intervention study. Educational handouts for five targeted disorders were designed. Following one-on-one educational intervention, 55 children and 123 parents participated. Baseline and post-intervention knowledge scores were compared using McNemar's test. Adequate multi-rater Kappa measure of agreement was achieved for children's (0.70) and parent's (0.75) PEKAQs. Flesch Reading Ease Score for both PEKAQs (15 questions each) was 65. Post-intervention, significantly higher proportion of parents and children answered majority of questions correctly (pknowledge score was an independent predictor of child's score. To our knowledge, this is the first validated PEKAQ that can be used widely in pediatric endocrinology clinics. We noted significant improvement in knowledge of children and parents of children with endocrine disorders.

  4. Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Öhlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy. PMID:19633051

  5. Altered distribution of metaplastic Paneth, gastrin and pancreatic acinar cells in atrophic gastritic mucosa with endocrine cell lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveci, M Salih; Deveci, Güzin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of progression from gastric endocrine cell hyperplasias (ECHs) to carcinoid tumor (GCT) is still unknown. In these lesions, the distribution of metaplastic Paneth, gastrin and pancreatic acinar cells developing due to consequences of corporal mucosal atrophy has not been investigated in detail. In this study, 33 gastric endoscopic biopsies with endocrine cell lesions were examined. In all cases except 6 with solitary GCT, complete-type (small intestine) intestinal metaplasia (IM) with Paneth cells was observed. The density of lysozyme-positive Paneth cells in IMs in cases with GCTs was less than those in ECH alone. The density of gastrin-positive cells in IMs and average number of micronodules of ECHs were similar. Pancreatic acinar metaplasia (PAM) was observed in 6 cases of GCTs with ECH. The size of GCTs with ECH was smaller than those without ECH. By image analysis, the percentage of Ki67 (MIB-1, proliferation marker) expressing cells of GCTs with ECH was 5.1+/-0.6%, and GCT without ECH 7.8+/-1%. Our results indicate that few Paneth cells and many PAMs in atrophic corporal mucosa are seen more frequently in cases of GCTs with ECH, compared to those in ECH alone. Gastrin-positive cells in the corporal IM may stimulate enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells, which may induce hyperplasia, dysplasia or neoplasia by augmenting the effects of hypergastrinemia through a paracrine mechanism on local gastrin-sensitive cells.

  6. A dynamic Gli code interprets Hh signals to regulate induction, patterning, and endocrine cell specification in the zebrafish pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Christine A; Sbrogna, Jennifer L; Guner, Burcu; Osgood, Marcey; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Karlstrom, Rolf O

    2009-02-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is necessary for the induction and functional patterning of the pituitary placode, however the mechanisms by which Hh signals are interpreted by placodal cells are unknown. Here we show distinct temporal requirements for Hh signaling in endocrine cell differentiation and describe a dynamic Gli transcriptional response code that interprets these Hh signals within the developing adenohypophysis. Gli1 is required for the differentiation of selected endocrine cell types and acts as the major activator of Hh-mediated pituitary induction, while Gli2a and Gli2b contribute more minor activator functions. Intriguingly, this Gli response code changes as development proceeds. Gli1 continues to be required for the activation of the Hh response anteriorly in the pars distalis. In contrast, Gli2b is required to repress Hh target gene expression posteriorly in the pars intermedia. Consistent with these changing roles, gli1, gli2a, and gli2b, but not gli3, are expressed in pituitary precursor cells at the anterior neural ridge. Later in development, gli1 expression is maintained throughout the adenohypophysis while gli2a and gli2b expression are restricted to the pars intermedia. Given the link between Hh signaling and pituitary adenomas in humans, our data suggest misregulation of Gli function may contribute to these common pituitary tumors.

  7. Circulating Tumor Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vicki Plaks; Charlotte D. Koopman; Zena Werb

    2013-01-01

    .... During successful dissemination, tumor cells invade the surrounding tissue of the primary tumor, intravasate into blood and lymphatic vessels, translocate to distant tissues, extravasate, adapt...

  8. {sup 177}Lutetium-DOTATATE peptide radio-receptor therapy for patients with endocrine neoplasm and the individualized semi-automatic dosimetry. A retrospective analysis; {sup 177}Lutetium-DOTATATE-Peptid-Radio-Rezeptor-Therapie bei Patienten mit neuroendokrinen Neoplasien und die individualisierte, semi-automatische-Dosimetrie. Eine retrospektive Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeser, Anastassia

    2016-09-28

    The {sup 177}lutetium-DOTATATE peptide radio-receptor therapy is a promising approach for the palliative treatment of patients with inoperable endocrine neoplasm. The individually variable biological dispersion and the tumor uptake including the protection of critical organs require a precise and reliable organ and tumor dosimetry. The HERMES Hybrid dosimetry module has appeared as reliable and user-friendly tool for clinical application. The next step is supposed to by the complete integration of 3D SPECT imaging.

  9. Intestinal neuroendocrine tumor in a patient with pituitary adenoma. A case report and review of the current screening recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutros Cherif

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1 patients are prone to develop carcinoid tumors. Few cases report the development of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors in patients with MEN-1 syndrome related tumors. This is the first paper to report the occurrence of an intestinal carcinoid tumour in association with a pituitary adenoma. Case presentation A sixty eight year old female presented with intestinal obstruction four years after transphenoidal pituitary resection for pituitary adenoma. During surgical exploration and lysis of adhesions, we accidentally discovered an intestinal carcinoid tumour. Resection of the involved small bowel segment and the draining lymph nodes was undertaken. Postoperative follow up showed no biochemical or radiological evidence of residual tumor. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs may occur as part of familial endocrine cancer syndromes including MEN-1. It is recommended that clinicians search thoroughly for MEN-1 in patients presented with NETs, however, there is no current consensus for screening patients suspected to have MEN-1 to rule out NET. Conclusion We recommend screening patients suspected to have any familial type of endocrine tumors for the presence of NET.

  10. Perioperative outcomes of syndromic paraganglioma and pheochromocytoma resection in patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, or neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, James J; Yan, Qi; McKenzie, Travis J; Weingarten, Toby N; Cavalcante, Alexandre N; Bancos, Irina; Young, William F; Schroeder, Darrell R; Martin, David P; Sprung, Juraj

    2017-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma and/or paraganglioma associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A, and von Hippel-Lindau disease have different catecholamine biochemical phenotypes. We examined perioperative outcomes of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma resection in 3 syndromic forms. Retrospective review of patients undergoing resection of syndromic pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma from 2000 through 2016. Eighty-one patients underwent pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma resection (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A, n = 36; neurofibromatosis type 1, n = 26; von Hippel-Lindau disease, n = 19). Tumor size differed across groups; patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 and von Hippel-Lindau disease had the largest tumors (P = .017). Larger tumor volumes correlated with higher urine 24-hour total metanephrine (r = 0.94, P neoplasia type 2A, von Hippel-Lindau disease, and neurofibromatosis type 1, respectively). High adrenergic secretion (24-hour urine metanepinephrine) was found in neurofibromatosis type 1 (median, 861 μg/24 h), similar to that found in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (median, 809 μg/24 h). The highest noradrenergic secretion (24-hour urine normetanephrine) occurred with von Hippel-Lindau disease (median, 4,598 μg/24 h), followed by neurofibromatosis type 1 and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (median, 1,607 and 923 μg/24 h, respectively). The highest graded complications occurred among patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (P = .036). However, when comparing postoperative outcomes across 3 groups in those who had laparoscopic resection, there was no significant difference (P = .955). Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 had the most volatile intraoperative hemodynamic course and more severe postoperative complications. These complications are related to large tumors associated with abundant catecholamine secretion and the fact that a high proportion underwent open resection. Among only patients who underwent

  11. Coexistence of GH-Producing Pituitary Macroadenoma and Meningioma in a Patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 with Hyperglycemia and Ketosis as First Clinical Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herrero-Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the clinical case of a patient who was admitted with an onset of diabetes mellitus (DM with associated ketosis and whose clinical, hormonal, and radiological evolution revealed the presence of primary hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and GH-producing pituitary macroadenoma in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1. DM is relatively common in cases of acromegaly, but it is not generally associated with ketosis. Simultaneously, the patient presented a meningioma, which is associated with pituitary macroadenoma only in extremely rare cases.

  12. Relative functions of Gαs and its extra-large variant XLαs in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastepe, M

    2012-09-01

    Gαs is a ubiquitous signaling protein necessary for the actions of many neurotransmitters, hormones, and autocrine/paracrine factors. Loss-of-function mutations within the gene encoding Gαs, GNAS, are responsible for multiple human diseases, including Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy, progressive osseous heteroplasia, and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Gain-of-function mutations in the same gene are found in various endocrine and nonendocrine tumors and in patients with McCune-Albright Syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone. In addition to Gαs, GNAS gives rise to multiple additional coding and noncoding transcripts. Among those, XLαs is a paternally expressed product that is partially identical to Gαs. This article reviews the cellular actions of Gαs and XLαs, focusing on the significance of XLαs relative to Gαs in mammalian physiology and human disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Multiple endocrine neoplasia similar to human subtype 2A in a dog: Medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Soler Arias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human multiple endocrine neoplasia subtype 2A (MEN 2A is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma and parathyroid hyperplasia or adenoma in the same individual. In this report, a case of a female Rottweiler with medullary thyroid carcinoma, bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma was described. Clinical manifestations of muscle weakness, polydipsia, polyuria, diarrhea and weight loss were observed. Two adrenal neoplasms were identified incidentally by ultrasonography, and tumor in the left thyroid lobe was identified by palpation. Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed by biochemical testing. Histopathology report was consistent with diagnosis of bilateral pheochromocytoma and parathyroid adenoma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for calcitonin and synaptophysin, and negative for thyroglobulin, which confirmed medullary thyroid carcinoma. This case in a dog is presenting neoplastic characteristics similar to human MEN 2A and emphasizing the importance of using immunohistochemistry for confirmation.

  14. Newer Dopaminergic Agents Cause Minimal Endocrine Effects in Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Jacob S; Govindan, Jyothish P; Chandan Kamath; Charles D’Souza; Mohamed A. Adlan; Lakdasa D. Premawardhana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We studied the prevalence of endocrine dysfunction in subjects with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) on newer dopaminergic agents (DA). DA are also used in endocrine hypersecretory states in small doses and we hypothesized that endocrine dysfunction was likely in IPD where DA were used in comparatively much higher dosage. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-five subjects with IPD, established on DA, were recruited to this cross-sectional study. We measured insulin-like growth factor-1, ...

  15. Locoregional Recurrence Risk in Breast Cancer Patients with Estrogen Receptor Positive Tumors and Residual Nodal Disease following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Mastectomy without Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan Kandula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC and mastectomy, locoregional recurrence (LRR rates are unclear in women with ER+ tumors treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy without postmastectomy radiation (PMRT. To determine if PMRT is needed in these patients, we compared LRR rates of patients with ER+ tumors (treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy with women who have non-ER+ tumors. 85 consecutive breast cancer patients (87 breast tumors treated with NAC and mastectomy without PMRT were reviewed. Patients were divided by residual nodal disease (ypN status (ypN+ versus ypN0 and then stratified by receptor subtype. Among ypN+ patients (n=35, five-year LRR risk in patients with ER+, Her2+, and triple negative tumors was 5%, 33%, and 37%, respectively (p=0.02. Among ypN+/ER+ patients, lymphovascular invasion and grade three disease increased the five-year LRR risk to 13% and 11%, respectively. Among ypN0 patients (n=52, five-year LRR risk in patients with ER+, Her2+, and triple negative tumors was 7%, 22%, and 6%, respectively (p=0.71. In women with ER+ tumors and residual nodal disease, endocrine therapy may be sufficient adjuvant treatment, except in patients with lymphovascular invasion or grade three tumors where PMRT may still be indicated.

  16. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach of tall stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Edoarda V A; Scalco, Renata C; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2017-06-01

    Tall stature is defined as a height of more than 2 standard deviations (s.d.) above average for same sex and age. Tall individuals are usually referred to endocrinologists so that hormonal disorders leading to abnormal growth are excluded. However, the majority of these patients have familial tall stature or constitutional advance of growth (generally associated with obesity), both of which are diagnoses of exclusion. It is necessary to have familiarity with a large number of rarer overgrowth syndromes, especially because some of them may have severe complications such as aortic aneurysm, thromboembolism and tumor predisposition and demand-specific follow-up approaches. Additionally, endocrine disorders associated with tall stature have specific treatments and for this reason their recognition is mandatory. With this review, we intend to provide an up-to-date summary of the genetic conditions associated with overgrowth to emphasize a practical diagnostic approach of patients with tall stature and to discuss the limitations of current growth interruption treatment options. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Liu, Hao [Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Cancer Research Institute, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095 (China); Wang, Hongsheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Xu, Meiying, E-mail: xumy@gdim.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health.

  18. Bicaudal C1 promotes pancreatic NEUROG3+ endocrine progenitor differentiation and ductal morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemaire, Laurence A; Goulley, Joan; Kim, Yung Hae

    2015-01-01

    that PKD2 functions downstream of BICC1 in preventing cyst formation in the pancreas. Moreover, the analysis highlights immune cell infiltration and stromal reaction developing early in the pancreas of Bicc1 knockout mice. In addition to these functions in duct morphogenesis, BICC1 regulates NEUROG3......(+) endocrine progenitor production. Its deletion leads to a late but sustained endocrine progenitor decrease, resulting in a 50% reduction of endocrine cells. We show that BICC1 functions downstream of ONECUT1 in the pathway controlling both NEUROG3(+) endocrine cell production and ductal morphogenesis...

  19. Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasms and Their Precursor Lesions in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Detlef K; Albers, Max B; Lopez, Caroline L; Apitzsch, Jonas C; Walthers, Eduard M; Fink, Ludger; Fendrich, Volker; Slater, Emily P; Waldmann, Jens; Anlauf, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical behavior of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (bNET) associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) are not well defined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, potential precursor lesions and prognosis of bNET in patients with MEN1. A database of 75 prospectively collected MEN1 cases was retrospectively analyzed for bNET. Patient characteristics, imaging and treatment were evaluated. Resection specimens of operated patients were reassessed by two specialized pathologists. Available CT scans of the whole cohort were reviewed to determine the prevalence of bronchopulmonary nodules. Five of the 75 MEN1 patients (6.6%; 2 male, 3 female) developed histologically confirmed bNET after a median follow-up of 134 months. The median age at diagnosis of bNET was 47 years (range 31-67), and all patients were asymptomatic. Four patients underwent anatomic lung resections with lymphadenectomy; the remaining patient with multiple lesions had only a wedge resection of the largest bNET. Tumor sizes ranged from 7 to 32 mm in diameter, and all bNET were well differentiated. Two patients had lymph node metastases. Two of 4 reevaluated resection specimens revealed multifocal bNET, and 3 specimens showed tumorlets (up to 3) associated with multifocal areas of a neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia within the subsegmental bronchi. One bNET-related death (1.3%) occurred during long-term follow-up. Review of the available CT scans of the patients without proven bNET revealed small bronchopulmonary lesions (≥3 mm) in 16 of 53 cases (30.2%). bNET in MEN1 might be more common than previously recognized. Their natural course seems to be rather benign. Multifocal tumorlets and multifocal neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia might represent their precursor lesions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  1. Conditioning Immune and Endocrine Parameters in Humans: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekampe, Judith; van Middendorp, Henriët; Meeuwis, Stefanie H; van Leusden, Jelle W R; Pacheco-López, Gustavo; Hermus, Ad R M M; Evers, Andrea W M

    2017-01-01

    Conditioned pharmacological effects may provide relevant clinical opportunities to improve treatment for patients with a variety of conditions. The aim of this systematic review was to create an overview of studies in this field of research and to investigate whether specific characteristics of the study design make for successful conditioning. The protocol of this review was registered in Prospero (PROSPERO 2015: CRD42015024148). A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed, Embase, and PsychInfo. Studies were included if they were placebo-controlled trials in humans in which the effects of a pharmacological agent on immune or endocrine outcomes (e.g., interleukin-2 and cortisol) were conditioned, using a specific conditioned stimulus. The risk of bias of each study was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. The final selection included 16 studies. Overall, those studies indicate that conditioning of immunosuppression, conditioning of allergic responses, and conditioning of insulin and glycemic responses is possible. Regarding immunostimulants, antiallergic effects, and cortisol conditioning, the preliminary results are promising, but additional studies are needed. This systematic review shows classical conditioning of immune and endocrine responses for various pharmaceutical substances. The studies reviewed here indicate that the number of acquisition and evocation sessions, and characteristics of the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli, are important determinants of the effectiveness of pharmacological conditioning on immune and endocrine parameters. In the future, conditioned pharmacological effects may be used clinically as adjunct therapy in various patient populations. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The EDKB: an established knowledge base for endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Don; Xu, Lei; Fang, Hong; Hong, Huixiao; Perkins, Roger; Harris, Steve; Bearden, Edward D; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida

    2010-10-07

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) and their broad range of potential adverse effects in humans and other animals have been a concern for nearly two decades. Many putative EDs are widely used in commercial products regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) such as food packaging materials, ingredients of cosmetics, medical and dental devices, and drugs. The Endocrine Disruptor Knowledge Base (EDKB) project was initiated in the mid 1990's by the FDA as a resource for the study of EDs. The EDKB database, a component of the project, contains data across multiple assay types for chemicals across a broad structural diversity. This paper demonstrates the utility of EDKB database, an integral part of the EDKB project, for understanding and prioritizing EDs for testing. The EDKB database currently contains 3,257 records of over 1,800 EDs from different assays including estrogen receptor binding, androgen receptor binding, uterotropic activity, cell proliferation, and reporter gene assays. Information for each compound such as chemical structure, assay type, potency, etc. is organized to enable efficient searching. A user-friendly interface provides rapid navigation, Boolean searches on EDs, and both spreadsheet and graphical displays for viewing results. The search engine implemented in the EDKB database enables searching by one or more of the following fields: chemical structure (including exact search and similarity search), name, molecular formula, CAS registration number, experiment source, molecular weight, etc. The data can be cross-linked to other publicly available and related databases including TOXNET, Cactus, ChemIDplus, ChemACX, Chem Finder, and NCI DTP. The EDKB database enables scientists and regulatory reviewers to quickly access ED data from multiple assays for specific or similar compounds. The data have been used to categorize chemicals according to potential risks for endocrine activity, thus providing a basis for prioritizing chemicals for more

  3. Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    ) expression was reduced in prepubertal, but not adult animals exposed to butylparaben. In adult testes, Nr5a1 expression was reduced at all doses, indicating persistent disruption of steroidogenesis. Prostate histology was altered at prepuberty and adult prostate weights were reduced in the high dose group....... Thus, butylparaben exerted endocrine disrupting effects on both male and female offspring. The observed adverse developmental effect on sperm count at the lowest dose is highly relevant to risk assessment, as this is the lowest observed adverse effect level in a study on perinatal exposure...

  4. Skeletal muscle as a gene regulatory endocrine organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K.

    2016-01-01

    hundred putative myokines have been described, some of which are induced by contraction and differentially regulated between healthy and metabolically diseased individuals. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the prototype myokine, which was identified as a muscle-derived cytokine 15 years ago. Recently, IL-6 has...... is an endocrine organ which, by the release of myokines, may influence metabolism in virtually all organs in the body. This knowledge may potentially open up for the possibility of designing new drugs that mimic the effects of myokine signaling....

  5. Biomarkers used in Environmental Health with focus on Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and can disrupt the normal function of the body. Bio-monitoring is the assessment of internal doses of EDCs and has been used for decades to provide information about exposures to chemicals giving...... in human blood is important and ex vivo cell systems have been introduced to enable the assessment of the integrated level of xenobiotic transactivity in humans. Biomonitoring studies for exposure biomarkers have shown that there are geographical differences in the bioaccumulated POP levels...

  6. Cardiovascular, endocrine and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, M.H.; Olsen, N.V.; Christensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate...... highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including...

  7. Cardiovascular, endocrine, and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, M H; Olsen, N V; Christensen, P

    1999-01-01

    remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate...... highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including...

  8. Analgesic use - prevalence, biomonitoring and endocrine and reproductive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, David M; Mazaud-Guittot, Séverine; Gaudriault, Pierre; Lesné, Laurianne; Serrano, Tania; Main, Katharina M; Jégou, Bernard

    2016-07-01

    Paracetamol and NSAIDs, in particular acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and ibuprofen, are among the most used and environmentally released pharmaceutical drugs. The differences in international trends in the sale and consumption of mild analgesics reflect differences in marketing, governmental policies, habits, accessibility, disease patterns and the age distribution of each population. Biomonitoring indicates ubiquitous and high human exposure to paracetamol and to salicylic acid, which is the main metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid. Furthermore, evidence suggests that analgesics can have endocrine disruptive properties capable of altering animal and human reproductive function from fetal life to adulthood in both sexes. Medical and public awareness about these health concerns should be increased, particularly among pregnant women.

  9. Perioperative management of endocrine insufficiency after total pancreatectomy for neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Ajay V; Sheikh, Raashid; Bhagia, Vinita

    2017-07-21

    Indications for total pancreatectomy (TP) have increased, including for diffuse main duct intrapapillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and malignancy; therefore, the need persists for surgeons to develop appropriate endocrine post-operative management strategies. The brittle diabetes after TP differs from type 1/2 diabetes in that patients have absolute deficiency of insulin and functional glucagon. This makes glucose management challenging, complicates recovery, and predisposes to hospital readmissions. This article aims to define the disease, describe the cause for its occurrence, review the anatomy of the endocrine pancreas, and explain how this condition differs from diabetes mellitus in the setting of post-operative management. The morbidity and mortality of post-TP endocrine insufficiency and practical treatment strategies are systematically reviewed from the literature. Finally, an evidence-based treatment algorithm is created for the practicing pancreatic surgeon and their care team of endocrinologists to aid in managing these complex patients. A PubMed, Science Citation Index/Social sciences Citation Index, and Cochrane Evidence-Based Medicine database search was undertaken along with extensive backward search of the references of published articles to identify studies evaluating endocrine morbidity and treatment after TP and to establish an evidence-based treatment strategy. Indications for TP and the etiology of pancreatogenic diabetes are reviewed. After TP, ~80% patients develop hypoglycemic episodes and 40% experience severe hypoglycemia, resulting in 0-8% mortality and 25-45% morbidity. Referral to a nutritionist and endocrinologist for patient education before surgery followed by surgical reevaluation to determine if the patient has the appropriate understanding, support, and resources preoperatively has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality. The use of modern recombinant long-acting insulin analogues, continuous subcutaneous insulin

  10. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimitsu Kiriyama; Hiromi Nochi

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and me...

  11. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  12. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  13. Malignant phyllodes breast tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R. Shah-Patel, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant phyllodes tumor is a rare tumor of the breast occurring in females usually between the ages of 35 and 55 years. It is often difficult to distinguish benign from malignant phyllodes tumors from other benign entities such as fibroadenomas. This case presentation demonstrates a woman with malignant phyllodes tumor treated with mastectomy with abdominal skin flap reconstruction.

  14. Pediatric Odontogenic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Joshua M; McClure, Shawn A

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric odontogenic tumors are rare, and are often associated with impacted teeth. Although they can develop anywhere in the jaws, odontogenic tumors mainly occur in the posterior mandible. This article discusses the diagnosis and treatment of the most common pediatric odontogenic tumors, such as ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  16. Supratentorial tumors; Supratentorielle Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.; Dillmann, K.; Roth, C.; Backens, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Saarland, Homburg (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2007-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a routine diagnostic measure for a suspected intracerebral mass. Computed tomography is usually also indicated. Further diagnostic procedures as well as the interpretation of the findings vary depending on the tumor location. This contribution discusses the symptoms and diagnostics for supratentorial tumors separated in relation to their intra- or extracranial location. Supratentorial tumors include astrocytoma, differentiated by their circumscribed and diffuse growth, ganglioglioma, ependyoma, neurocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET), oligodendroglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET), meningoangiomatosis, pineal tumors, hamartoma, lymphoma, craniopharyngeoma and metastases. The supratentorial extracranial tumors include the choroid plexus, colloid cysts, meningeoma, infantile myofibromatosis and lipoma. The most common subforms, especially of astrocytoma, will also be presented. (orig.)

  17. Cardiac Tumors; Tumeurs cardiaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, J.P.; Fernandez, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Bichat Claude Bernard, Service d' Imagerie, 76 - Rouen (France); Mousseaux, E. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), Service de Radiologie Cardio Vasculaire et Interventionnelle, 75 - Paris (France); Dacher, J.N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Charles Nicolle, 75 - Rouen (France); Crochet, D. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Laennec, Centre Hemodynamique, Radiologie Thoracique et Vasculaire, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2004-04-01

    Metastases are the most frequent tumors of the heart even though they seldom are recognized. Most primary cardiac tumors are benign. The main role of imaging is to differentiate a cardiac tumor from thrombus and rare pseudo-tumors: tuberculoma, hydatid cyst. Echocardiography is the fist line imaging technique to detect cardiac tumors, but CT and MRl arc useful for further characterization and differential diagnosis. Myxoma of the left atrium is the most frequent benign cardiac tumor. It usually is pedunculated and sometimes calcified. Sarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor and usually presents as a sessile infiltrative tumor. Lymphoma and metastases are usually recognized by the presence of known tumor elsewhere of by characteristic direct contiguous involvement. Diagnosing primary and secondary pericardial tumors often is difficult. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis, characterization, pre-surgical evaluation and follow-up. (author)

  18. Tumors in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Tascedda, F; Ottaviani, E.

    2014-01-01

    Tumors are ectopic masses of tissue formed by due to an abnormal cell proliferation. In this review tumors of several invertebrate species are examined. The description of tumors in invertebrates may be a difficult task, because the pathologists are usually inexperienced with invertebrate tissues, and the experts in invertebrate biology are not familiar with the description of tumors. As a consequence, the terminology used in defining the tumor type is related to that used in mammalian pathol...

  19. Tumor angiogenic factor and human skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J E; Hubler, W R

    1975-03-01

    A transparent acrylic hamster cheek-pouch chamber was used to investigate the elaboration of a tumor angiogenic factor (TAF) by human cutaneous neoplasms; direct tumor implantations, transfilter diffusion, and soluble tumor extracts were used in the study. A diffusible and filterable TAF was extracted from cutaneous tumors and produced distinctive patterns of sequential vasodilatation, tortuosity, and neovascular proliferation in the cheek-pouch membrane. Malignant human neoplasms (eg, melanoma, basal cell epithelioma, squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma) produced striking neovascularization; vascular tumors (eg, Kaposi sarcoma, pyogenic granuloma, vascular histiocytoma) stimulated dramatic hyperemia and ectasia. Angiogenesis was conspicuously absent after implantation of control materials and nevoid or normal cutaneous components (with the exception of epidermis). Tumor angiogenic factor appears to induce direct stimulation of endothelial cell mitosis and may be essential for survival of nutritionally ravenous neoplastic tissues. The interference with TAF has therapeutic implications.

  20. Functioning glucagonoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or incidental association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdas Enrico

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is commonly based on clinical criteria, and confirmed by genetic testing. In patients without known MEN1-related germline mutations, the possibility of a casual association between two or more endocrine tumors cannot be excluded and subsequent management may be difficult to plan. We describe a very uncommon case of functioning glucagonoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT in which genetic testing failed to detect germline mutations of MEN-1 and other known genes responsible for MEN1. Case presentation The patient, a 65-year old woman, had been suffering for more than 1 year from weakness, progressive weight loss, angular cheilitis, glossitis and, more recently, skin rashes on the perineum, perioral skin and groin folds. After multidisciplinary investigations, functioning glucagonoma and asymptomatic pHPT were diagnosed and, since family history was negative, sporadic MEN1 was suspected. However, genetic testing revealed neither MEN-1 nor other gene mutations responsible for rarer cases of MEN1 (CDKN1B/p27 and other cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes CDKN1A/p15, CDKN2C/p18, CDKN2B/p21. The patient underwent distal splenopancreatectomy and at the 4-month follow-up she showed complete remission of symptoms. Six months later, a thyroid nodule, suspected to be a malignant neoplasia, and two hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands were detected respectively by ultrasound with fine needle aspiration cytology and 99mTc-sestamibi scan with SPECT acquisition. Total thyroidectomy was performed, whereas selective parathyroidectomy was preferred to a more extensive procedure because the diagnosis of MEN1 was not supported by genetic analysis and intraoperative intact parathyroid hormone had revealed “adenoma-like” kinetics after the second parathyroid resection. Thirty-nine and 25 months after respectively the first and the second operation, the patient is well