WorldWideScience

Sample records for endocrine system

  1. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  2. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  4. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems With the Endocrine System Print en español Sistema endócrino Although we rarely think about them, the ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  5. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids / Your Endocrine System Print en español Tu sistema endocrino You might say endocrine (say: EN-doh- ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  6. Imaging of endocrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the role of nuclear medicine in the study of morphology and pathophysiology of various endocrine organs has greatly expanded. Newly developed radiopharmaceuticals, new instrumentation, innovative study designs and dual isotope techniques have contributed significantly to the evaluation of parathyroid and adrenal diseases. In selected cases, patients with metabolic bone disorders and infertility have greatly been benefited. (author)

  7. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  9. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  11. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2018-02-01

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  13. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  16. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  17. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Appetite-Controlling Endocrine Systems in Teleosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Gomes, Ana S.; Murashita, Koji; Angotzi, Rita; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Volkoff, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian studies have shaped our understanding of the endocrine control of appetite and body weight in vertebrates and provided the basic vertebrate model that involves central (brain) and peripheral signaling pathways as well as environmental cues. The hypothalamus has a crucial function in the control of food intake, but other parts of the brain are also involved. The description of a range of key neuropeptides and hormones as well as more details of their specific roles in appetite control continues to be in progress. Endocrine signals are based on hormones that can be divided into two groups: those that induce (orexigenic), and those that inhibit (anorexigenic) appetite and food consumption. Peripheral signals originate in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, adipose tissue, and other tissues and reach the hypothalamus through both endocrine and neuroendocrine actions. While many mammalian-like endocrine appetite-controlling networks and mechanisms have been described for some key model teleosts, mainly zebrafish and goldfish, very little knowledge exists on these systems in fishes as a group. Fishes represent over 30,000 species, and there is a large variability in their ecological niches and habitats as well as life history adaptations, transitions between life stages and feeding behaviors. In the context of food intake and appetite control, common adaptations to extended periods of starvation or periods of abundant food availability are of particular interest. This review summarizes the recent findings on endocrine appetite-controlling systems in fish, highlights their impact on growth and survival, and discusses the perspectives in this research field to shed light on the intriguing adaptations that exist in fish and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:28458653

  19. Schedule for Rating Disabilities; the Endocrine System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) by revising the portion of the Schedule that addresses endocrine conditions and disorders of the endocrine system. The effect of this action is to ensure that the VASRD uses current medical terminology and to provide detailed and updated criteria for evaluation of endocrine disorders.

  20. Practice of the integrated endocrine system course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-han MEI; Rong CAI

    2015-01-01

    The integrated curriculum is an important direction of the medical medical education reform under new situation and challenges of medical development.Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine has implemented the integrated curriculum reform in recent years.The endocrine system course is one of important intergrated courses and integrates relevant contents of multiple disciplines of basic medicine,diagnostics and medical imaging.Various teaching methods are adopted,such as classroom lecture,discussion,problembased learning,experimental lesson and clinical clerkship,etc.The teaching practice is carried on in several aspects:course arrangement,teaching methods,course website construction,teaching team construction and so on.

  1. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  2. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  3. Theory and applications of artificial endocrine system-an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei; QIANG Sheng; GAO X Z

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by the biological endocrine system, the Artificial Endocrine System (AES) has been proposed and investigated during the past decade. As a novel branch of computational intelligence methods, it has its unique and distinguishing features. This paper intends to give an overview of the current research work in the AES. The preliminary theory of the AES, which is based on the simplified mathematic models of natural endocrine system, is first introduced here. Some typical AES algorithms and their applications are also briefly discussed. Finally, a few remarks and conclusions are made.

  4. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  5. Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.

  6. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  7. Parabens and their effects on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Karolina; Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Górska, Maria; Jabłońska, Ewa

    2018-03-27

    Preservatives (ingredients which inhibit growth of microorganisms) are used to prolong shelf life of various foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products. Parabens are one of the most popular preservatives used in the aforementioned products and is currently being used worldwide. Parabens are easily absorbed by the human body. Thus, it is important to discuss about their safety with respect to human physiology. In view of the current literature, which classifies parabens as a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), it seems that the precise assessment of their influence on the human endocrine system is particularly important. Disruption of the endocrine homoeostasis might lead to multidirectional implications causing disruption of fitness and functions of the body. Therefore, in this review article, we aimed to summarize the current literature on properties, occurrence, and metabolism of parabens as well as to present recent progress in knowledge about their influence on the human endocrine system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-03-01

    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Nanotoxicity: a growing need for study in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefei; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiangjun; Lobie, Peter E; Chen, Chunying; Zhu, Tao

    2013-05-27

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are engineered for commercial purposes such as semiconductors, building materials, cosmetics, and drug carriers, while natural nanoparticles (NPs) already exist in the environment. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, they may interact actively with biological systems. Some of these interactions might be detrimental to human health, and therefore studies on the potential 'nanotoxicity' of these materials in different organ systems are warranted. The purpose of developing the concept of nanotoxicity is to recognize and evaluate the hazards and risks of NMs and evaluate safety. This review will summarize and discuss recent reports derived from cell lines or animal models concerning the effects of NMs on, and their application in, the endocrine system of mammalian and other species. It will present an update on current studies of the effects of some typical NMs-such as metal-based NMs, carbon-based NMs, and dendrimers-on endocrine functions, in which some effects are adverse or unwanted and others are favorable or intended. Disruption of endocrine function is associated with adverse health outcomes including reproductive failure, metabolic syndrome, and some types of cancer. Further investigations are therefore required to obtain a thorough understanding of any potential risk of pathological endocrine disruption from products containing NMs. This review aims to provide impetus for further studies on the interactions of NMs with endocrine functions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  12. The peripheral GABAergic system as a target in endocrine disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladkevich, A; Korf, J; Hakobyan, VP; Melkonyan, KV

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its well-recognized function as a cerebral inhibitory transmitter, less well established is the role of GABA in peripheral nervous and endocrine systems. We Summarize current evidence that GABA serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the autonomic nervous system and as a

  13. Tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, R A; Nesland, J M

    1994-01-01

    For the sake of discussion, the markedly diversified tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system are classified as those originating in classic epithelial endocrine organs (eg, adrenal cortical adenomas), from the diffuse endocrine cells (eg, jejunal carcinoid tumors), or from clusters of these cells (eg, islet cell tumors); and those arising from neurosecretory neurons (eg, neuroblastoma) or paraganglia (eg, carotid body tumor). Although traditional transmission electron microscopy is useful for identifying neurosecretory or endosecretory granules as such, with few exceptions (eg, insulin-containing granules with a complex paracrystalline core) it is not possible to ascribe a granule type (size, shape, or ultrastructure) to a distinct nosologic entity or secretory product because of their overlapping fine structures in different cell types. Immunoelectron microscopy methods utilizing colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies can be used to localize virtually any antigen (peptide or neuroamine) to a specific neurosecretory or endosecretory granule or other cell structure. General endocrine/neuroendocrine cell markers such as neuron-specific enolase, the chromogranins, and synaptophysin are useful in identifying neuroendocrine differentiation in a neoplasm using routine immunohistochemical procedures. The current relevance of the APUD concept of Pearse as well as the biologic importance of endocrine/neuroendocrine secretory products such as bombesin and insulinlike growth factors also are discussed.

  14. Rhythms in the endocrine system of fish: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Mairi; Azpeleta, Clara; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando

    2017-12-01

    The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day. We mainly focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which can be considered as the master axis of the endocrine system of vertebrates and regulates a great variety of functions, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis, stress response, and osmoregulation. In addition, the rhythms of other hormones, such as melatonin and the factors, produced in the gastrointestinal system of fish are reviewed.

  15. The impact of opioids on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Nathaniel; Mazer, Norman A

    2009-02-01

    Opioids have been used for medicinal and analgesic purposes for centuries. However, their negative effects on the endocrine system, which have been known for some times, are barely discussed in modern medicine. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of opioids on the endocrine system. A review of the English language literature on preclinical and clinical studies of any type on the influence of opioids on the endocrine system was conducted. Preliminary recommendations for monitoring and managing these problems were provided. Long-term opioid therapy for either addiction or chronic pain often induces hypogonadism owing to central suppression of hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Symptoms of opioid-induced hypogonadism include loss of libido, infertility, fatigue, depression, anxiety, loss of muscle strength and mass, osteoporosis, and compression fractures in both men and women; impotence in men; and menstrual irregularities and galactorrhea in women. In view of the increased use of opioids for chronic pain, it has become increasingly important to monitor patients taking opioids and manage endocrine complications. Therefore, patients on opioid therapy should be routinely screened for such symptoms and for laboratory abnormalities in sex hormones. Opioid-induced hypogonadism seems to be a common complication of therapeutic or illicit opioid use. Patients on long-term opioid therapy should be prospectively monitored, and in cases of opioid-induced hypogonadism, we recommend nonopioid pain management, opioid rotation, or sex hormone supplementation after careful consideration of the risks and benefits.

  16. [Novel concepts in biology of diffuse endocrine system: results and future investigations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse endocrine system is a largest part of endocrine system of vertebrates. Recend findings showed that DES-cells are not neuroectodermal but have ectodermal, mesodermal, and entodermal ontogeny. The article reviews novel concept of diffuse endocrine system anatomy and physiology, functional role of DES hormones and poorly investigated aspects like DES-cell morphology, hormones secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Further research of diffuse endocrine system has a great significance for biochemistry, morphology, and clinical medicine.

  17. Endocrine system on chip for a diabetes treatment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu

    2017-02-21

    The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.

  18. Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Impacts on Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobling, Susan

    2014-07-01

    We often talk about the importance of water, but one area that's often overlooked is the safety of our water supply. How many people actually think about the purity of their water when they turn on the tap? We may have real reason to be concerned because our water delivery systems and treatment technology seem to be stuck in the past, relying on old water treatment and water delivery systems. While these systems still do a great job filtering out particles, parasites and bacteria, they usually fail to remove 21st century contaminants like pesticides, industrial chemicals, lead, pharmaceuticals and arsenic. Indeed our water contains already a whole plethora of things in daily commerce and pharmaceuticals are increasingly showing up in the water supply, including antibiotics, anti-convulsants, mood altering medications and sex hormones. As the world's dependence on chemicals grows, our water supplies will continue to feel the effects, which inevitably will touch every person on this planet...

  19. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  20. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 38 CFR 4.119 - Schedule of ratings-endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minute), eye involvement, muscular weakness, loss of weight, and sympathetic nervous system...-endocrine system. 4.119 Section 4.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Endocrine System § 4.119 Schedule of ratings...

  2. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  3. Local and global analysis of endocrine regulation as a non-cyclic feedback system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghvafard, Hadi; Proskurnikov, A.V.; Cao, Ming

    2018-01-01

    To understand the sophisticated control mechanisms of the human's endocrine system is a challenging task that is a crucial step towards precise medical treatment of many dysfunctions and diseases. Although mathematical models describing the endocrine system as a whole are still elusive, recently

  4. [The role of selenium in endocrine system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Rácz, Károly

    2013-10-13

    Oxygen derived free radicals, generated by a number of cellular reactions, include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. They exert their cytotoxic effects mainly via peroxidation of the cell membrane resulting in the loss of membrane integrity. The essential trace element, selenium exerts complex effects on the endocrine systems, partly due to its antioxidant capacity. Well-characterized selenoproteins include iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism and protection from oxidative damage. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been investigated and most studies confirmed the beneficial effect of selenium supplementation in Hashimoto's and Graves's diseases. Recently, selenium proved to be effective in mild inflammatory orbitopathy. There are a number of reports about the effect of selenium in diabetes mellitus, but the data are controversial as both insulin-like and diabetes-inducing effects of selenium have been described. Selenium was successfully used in both female and male infertility of autoimmune origin.

  5. Endocrine Disruption of Vasopressin Systems and Related Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather B. Patisaul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are chemicals that interfere with the organizational or activational effects of hormones. Although the vast majority of the EDC literature focuses on steroid hormone signaling related impacts, growing evidence from a myriad of species reveals that the nonapeptide hormones vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT may also be EDC targets. EDCs shown to alter pathways and behaviors coordinated by AVP and/or OT include the plastics component bisphenol A (BPA, the soy phytoestrogen genistein (GEN, and various flame retardants. Many effects are sex specific and likely involve action at nuclear estrogen receptors. Effects include the elimination or reversal of well-characterized sexually dimorphic aspects of the AVP system, including innervation of the lateral septum and other brain regions critical for social and other non-reproductive behaviors. Disruption of magnocellular AVP function has also been reported in rats, suggesting possible effects on hemodynamics and cardiovascular function.

  6. The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the

  7. [Chronic heart failure and cachexia: role of endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei Cas, A; Muoio, A; Zavaroni, I

    2011-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major health problem that carries a devastating prognosis. The prognosis worsens considerably once cardiac cachexia has been diagnosed. Neurohormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic and immunological alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of cardiac cachexia. Cachexia is characterized by a hypothalamic inappropriate response to the mechanisms controlling energy homeostasis. Levels of the anorexigenic hormone leptin are decreased whereas the orexigenic gherlin hormone levels are normal or elevated. Nevertheless, energy intake is not increased as expected due to a persistent activation of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) system (anorexigenic) paralleled by a decreased activity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY, orexigenic) neurons. Cachexia is also characterized by an imbalance in anabolic (impairment in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis, insulin resistance) and catabolic (increased levels of catecholamines, increased cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio and activation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleuchin-6, interleuchin-1') at the basis of the wasting process. This review discusses the complex role of the endocrine system in modulating energy balance, appetite and metabolism in patients with chronic heart failure. A joint multidisciplinary effort of the cardiologists, immunologists and endocrinologists might be useful to identify the precise mechanisms involved in the neuroendocrine alteration and to develop therapeutic strategies able to improve the prognosis of CHF patients.

  8. Vitamin D endocrine system involvement in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Pizzorni, Carmen; Sulli, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol in the skin (80-90%) under the sunlight and then metabolized into an active D hormone in liver, kidney and peripheral immune/inflammatory cells. These endocrine-immune effects include also the coordinated activities of the vitamin D-activating enzyme, 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on cells of the immune system in mediating intracrine and paracrine actions. Vitamin D is implicated in prevention and protection from chronic infections (i.e. tubercolosis), cancer (i.e. breast cancer) and autoimmune rheumatic diseases since regulates both innate and adaptive immunity potentiating the innate response (monocytes/macrophages with antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation), but suppressing the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocyte functions). Vitamin D has modulatory effects on B lymphocytes and Ig production and recent reports have demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 does indeed exert direct effects on B cell homeostasis. A circannual rhythm of trough vitamin D levels in winter and peaks in summer time showed negative correlation with clinical status at least in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, the onset of symptoms of early arthritis during winter or spring have been associated with greater radiographic evidence of disease progression at 12 months possibly are also related to seasonal lower vitamin D serum levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Generalized evaluation of the endocrine system using the results of radiodiagnostic studies in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaprudnova, S.N.; Tkacheva, G.A.; Narkevich, B.Ya.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a comparative analysis of 3 different decision rules to give a summary evaluation of endocrine system function. The application of the rules to the evaluation of the hormonal status of patients with gastric cancer has shown that the index of the state of the endocrine system gets deteriorated compared to the normal one, however it greatly improves in clinically effective treatment. From the view-point of the quality of classifiers for an in vitro study of the endocrine status the best of the proposed classifiers is the determination of Euclidean distance from normal in the multidimensional space of the diagnostic signs

  10. Radiologic manifestations in the musculoskeletal system of miscellaneous endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, F S

    1991-01-01

    The manifestations of endocrine derangements in the musculoskeletal system in infancy and childhood are disturbances in growth and maturation and in adulthood are disturbances in maintenance and metabolism. Hypercortisolism during skeletal immaturity suppresses growth. In the adult, hypercortisolism leads to osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and muscle wasting. Deficiency of growth hormone during skeletal development results in short stature. An excess of growth hormone in a skeletally immature individual results in gigantism, an excess in a skeletally mature individual results in acromegaly. Patients with gigantism have extreme height with normal body proportions. Musculoskeletal manifestations of acromegaly include soft-tissue thickening, vertebral body enlargement, characteristic hand and foot changes, and enthesal bony proliferation. Hyperthyroidism causes catabolism of protein and loss of connective tissue, which manifest as muscle wasting. Deficient levels of thyroid hormone cause defects in growth and development. Severe growth retardation from congenital hypothyroidism is rare because neonatal screening recognizes the disorder and leads to early treatment. The skeletal manifestation of hypergonadism in children is precocious growth and early skeletal maturation. Although the initial precocious growth spurt results in a tall child, early closure of the growth plates results in a short adult. Hypogonadism in the prepubertal child results in delayed adolescence and delayed skeletal maturation. Diabetes mellitus in childhood results in decreased growth, a phenomenon presumed to be secondary to nutritional abnormalities. Generalized osteoporosis and short stature are common. In the adult, generalized osteoporosis may accompany insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus if obesity is absent. Calcification of interdigital arteries of the foot is common in diabetics and uncommon in other conditions. Additional skeletal manifestations relate to complications of diabetes such as

  11. Environmental endocrine disruptors: Effects on the human male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, M F; Hasan, N; Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C

    2015-12-01

    Incidences of altered development and neoplasia of male reproductive organs have increased during the last 50 years, as shown by epidemiological data. These data are associated with the increased presence of environmental chemicals, specifically "endocrine disruptors," that interfere with normal hormonal action. Much research has gone into testing the effects of specific endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the development of male reproductive organs and endocrine-related cancers in both in vitro and in vivo models. Efforts have been made to bridge the accruing laboratory findings with the epidemiological data to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between EDCs, altered development and carcinogenesis. The ability of EDCs to predispose target fetal and adult tissues to neoplastic transformation is best explained under the framework of the tissue organization field theory of carcinogenesis (TOFT), which posits that carcinogenesis is development gone awry. Here, we focus on the available evidence, from both empirical and epidemiological studies, regarding the effects of EDCs on male reproductive development and carcinogenesis of endocrine target tissues. We also critique current research methodology utilized in the investigation of EDCs effects and outline what could possibly be done to address these obstacles moving forward.

  12. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  13. The Endocrine System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Endocrine System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This module on the endocrine system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use the…

  14. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short

  15. Overview of the Pathophysiological Implications of Organotins on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Vinicius Bermond; Faria, Rodrigo Alves; Dos Santos, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Organotins (OTs) are pollutants that are used widely by industry as disinfectants, pesticides, and most frequently as biocides in antifouling paints. This mini-review presents the main evidences from the literature about morphophysiological changes induced by OTs in the mammal endocrine system, focusing on the metabolism and reproductive control. Similar to other toxic compounds, the main effects with potential health risks to humans and experimental animals are not only related to dose and time of exposure but also to age, gender, and tissue/cell exposed. Regarding the underlying mechanisms, current literature indicates that OTs can directly damage endocrine glands, as well as interfere with neurohormonal control of endocrine function (i.e., in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis), altering hormone synthesis and/or bioavailability or activity of hormone receptors in the target cells. Importantly, OTs induces biochemical and morphological changes in gonads, abnormal steroidogenesis, both associated with reproductive dysfunctions such as irregular estrous cyclicity in female or spermatogenic disorders in male animals. Additionally, due to their role on endocrine systems predisposing to obesity, OTs are also included in the metabolism disrupting chemical hypothesis, either by central (e.g., accurate nucleus and lateral hypothalamus) or peripheral (e.g., adipose tissue) mechanisms. Thus, OTs should be indeed considered a major endocrine disruptor, being indispensable to understand the main toxic effects on the different tissues and its causative role for endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive dysfunctions observed.

  16. Overview of the Pathophysiological Implications of Organotins on the Endocrine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Bermond Marques

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotins (OTs are pollutants that are used widely by industry as disinfectants, pesticides, and most frequently as biocides in antifouling paints. This mini-review presents the main evidences from the literature about morphophysiological changes induced by OTs in the mammal endocrine system, focusing on the metabolism and reproductive control. Similar to other toxic compounds, the main effects with potential health risks to humans and experimental animals are not only related to dose and time of exposure but also to age, gender, and tissue/cell exposed. Regarding the underlying mechanisms, current literature indicates that OTs can directly damage endocrine glands, as well as interfere with neurohormonal control of endocrine function (i.e., in the hypothalamic–pituitary axis, altering hormone synthesis and/or bioavailability or activity of hormone receptors in the target cells. Importantly, OTs induces biochemical and morphological changes in gonads, abnormal steroidogenesis, both associated with reproductive dysfunctions such as irregular estrous cyclicity in female or spermatogenic disorders in male animals. Additionally, due to their role on endocrine systems predisposing to obesity, OTs are also included in the metabolism disrupting chemical hypothesis, either by central (e.g., accurate nucleus and lateral hypothalamus or peripheral (e.g., adipose tissue mechanisms. Thus, OTs should be indeed considered a major endocrine disruptor, being indispensable to understand the main toxic effects on the different tissues and its causative role for endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive dysfunctions observed.

  17. Overview of the Pathophysiological Implications of Organotins on the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Vinicius Bermond; Faria, Rodrigo Alves; Dos Santos, Leonardo

    2018-01-01

    Organotins (OTs) are pollutants that are used widely by industry as disinfectants, pesticides, and most frequently as biocides in antifouling paints. This mini-review presents the main evidences from the literature about morphophysiological changes induced by OTs in the mammal endocrine system, focusing on the metabolism and reproductive control. Similar to other toxic compounds, the main effects with potential health risks to humans and experimental animals are not only related to dose and time of exposure but also to age, gender, and tissue/cell exposed. Regarding the underlying mechanisms, current literature indicates that OTs can directly damage endocrine glands, as well as interfere with neurohormonal control of endocrine function (i.e., in the hypothalamic–pituitary axis), altering hormone synthesis and/or bioavailability or activity of hormone receptors in the target cells. Importantly, OTs induces biochemical and morphological changes in gonads, abnormal steroidogenesis, both associated with reproductive dysfunctions such as irregular estrous cyclicity in female or spermatogenic disorders in male animals. Additionally, due to their role on endocrine systems predisposing to obesity, OTs are also included in the metabolism disrupting chemical hypothesis, either by central (e.g., accurate nucleus and lateral hypothalamus) or peripheral (e.g., adipose tissue) mechanisms. Thus, OTs should be indeed considered a major endocrine disruptor, being indispensable to understand the main toxic effects on the different tissues and its causative role for endocrine, metabolic, and reproductive dysfunctions observed. PMID:29615977

  18. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.

  19. [Outstanding problems of normal and pathological morphology of the diffuse endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse endocrine system (DES)--a mosaic-cellular endoepithelial gland--is the biggest part of the human endocrine system. Scientists used to consider cells of DES as neuroectodermal. According to modem data cells of DES are different cytogenetic types because they develop from the different embryonic blastophyllum. So that any hormone-active tumors originated from DES of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system shouldn't be considered as neuroendocrinal tumors. The basic problems of DES morphology and pathology are the creation of scientifically substantiated histogenetic classification of DES tumors.

  20. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their impact on the male reproductive system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDe Falco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are identified for their ability to perturb the homeostasis of endocrine system and hormonal balance. The male reproductive system is under close control of hormones and each change in their concentration and time of exposition and action can induce a deregulation of its physiology. In this review we summarize the most recent studies on two main categories of EDCs with different action: the estrogenic bisphenol A and alkylphenols and the anti-androgenic phthalates. This review describes the main effects of these substances on male reproductive system.

  1. Effects of Anorexia Nervosa on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Charumathi; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by severe undernutrition associated with alterations in multiple endocrine axes, which are primarily adaptive to the state of caloric deprivation. Hormonal changes include growth hormone (GH) resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, hypothalamic hypogonadism, relative hypercortisolemia and changes in appetite regulating hormones, including leptin, ghrelin, and peptide YY. These alterations contribute to abnormalities in bone metabolism leading to low bone mass, impaired bone microarchitecture, and increased risk for fracture, and may also negatively impact cognition, emotions and mood. The best strategy to improve all biologic outcomes is weight and menstrual recovery. Physiological estrogen replacement improves bone accrual rates and measures of trait anxiety in adolescents with AN. Other therapies including testosterone and IGF-1 replacement, and use of DHEA with oral estrogen-progesterone combination pills, bisphosphonates and teriparatide have also been studied to improve bone outcomes. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  2. Long non-coding RNAs as regulators of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Marko; Lodish, Harvey F; Sun, Lei

    2015-03-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse group of RNAs that are often lineage-specific and that regulate multiple biological functions. Many are nuclear and are essential parts of ribonucleoprotein complexes that modify chromatin segments and establish active or repressive chromatin states; others are cytosolic and regulate the stability of mRNA or act as microRNA sponges. This Review summarizes the current knowledge of lncRNAs as regulators of the endocrine system, with a focus on the identification and mode of action of several endocrine-important lncRNAs. We highlight lncRNAs that have a role in the development and function of pancreatic β cells, white and brown adipose tissue, and other endocrine organs, and discuss the involvement of these molecules in endocrine dysfunction (for example, diabetes mellitus). We also address the associations of lncRNAs with nuclear receptors involved in major hormonal signalling pathways, such as estrogen and androgen receptors, and the relevance of these associations in certain endocrine cancers.

  3. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  4. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 7.0: Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on the endocrine system is the seventh of ten (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory epxerience. Module objectives are for students to…

  5. Immune System: An Emerging Player in Mediating Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Metabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Amita; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Simmons, Rebecca A

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes and obesity continues to increase. In addition to the well-known contributors to these disorders, such as food intake and sedentary lifestyle, recent research in the exposure science discipline provides evidence that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals like bisphenol A and phthalates via multiple routes (e.g., food, drink, skin contact) also contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disorders. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt any aspect of hormone action. It is becoming increasingly clear that EDCs not only affect endocrine function but also adversely affect immune system function. In this review, we focus on human, animal, and in vitro studies that demonstrate EDC exposure induces dysfunction of the immune system, which, in turn, has detrimental effects on metabolic health. These findings highlight how the immune system is emerging as a novel player by which EDCs may mediate their effects on metabolic health. We also discuss studies highlighting mechanisms by which EDCs affect the immune system. Finally, we consider that a better understanding of the immunomodulatory roles of EDCs will provide clues to enhance metabolic function and contribute toward the long-term goal of reducing the burden of environmentally induced diabetes and obesity. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  6. The use of metabolising systems for in vitro testing of endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.N.; Janssens, W.; Bernauer, U.; Brandon, E.; Coecke, S.; Combes, R.; Edwards, P.; Freidig, A.; Freyberger, A.; Kolanczyk, R.; Mc Ardie, C.; Mekenyan, O.; Schmieder, P.; Schrader, T.; Takeyoshi, M.; Burg, B. van der

    2008-01-01

    Legislation and prospective legislative proposals in for instance the USA, Europe, and Japan require, or may require that chemicals are tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS) and may

  7. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE KINETICS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this presentation a model for the hormonal regulation of the reproductive endocrine system in the adult male rat will be discussed. The model includes a description of the kinetics of the androgenic hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, as well as the receptor-mediate...

  8. Radio immune analysis of endocrine system state at exposure to different physical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozdyil's'ka, O.M.; Rozdtil's'kij, S.Yi.; Bratchuk, O.M.; Yakimova, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    Radio immune analysis allows to define more exactly the mechanisms of physical factors action and may be used for validation of new therapeutic techniques. The ultra-high frequency magneto therapy, sinusoid modulated current and direct current influence the state of the endocrine system differently but within the physiological norm. The most prominent action of the physical factor is observed at trans cerebral mode

  9. High School Students' Written Argumentation Qualities with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) Designed about Human Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekli, Gülsah Sezen; Çimer, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated development of students' scientific argumentation levels in the applications made with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) designed about Human Endocrine System. The case study method was used: The study group was formed of 43 students in the 11th grade of the science high school in Rize. Human Endocrine System…

  10. [Endocrine disruptors : Evidence from epidemiological studies necessitates a critical review of model systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Gebauer, S; Nüchter, M; Baber, R; Ried, J; von Bergen, M; Kiess, W

    2017-06-01

    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) cause adverse health effects through interaction with endocrine systems. They are classified by chemical structure, effects on specific endocrine systems, bioaccumulation, persistence in the environment, or clinically observable effects. For research of the complex mechanisms of action in the human body, only in vitro model systems have so far been available, that have insufficient high-throughput capacity, which makes risk evaluation more difficult. In addition, in industrial nations, living people are often exposed to mixtures of substances, with various effects. The clinical importance of epigenetic changes caused by the action of EDCs during vulnerable phases of development is currently unclear. Epidemiological studies are criticized because reproducibility is not always guaranteed. Nevertheless, they remain the method of choice for the development and analysis of suitable model systems. Positive associations, in spite of sometimes conflicting results, are key in the selection of factors that can then be analysed in model systems in an unbiased way. This article depicts the mainly positive epidemiological findings for EDC-caused effects in the fields of growth and metabolism, neurocognitive development and sexual development and reproduction. As a result, there is a need for closer linkage between epidemiological studies and mechanistic research into model systems, especially focusing on the interaction of different EDCs and the consequences of prenatal and early life exposure.

  11. In vitro steroid profiling system for the evaluation of endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yosuke; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Masashi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disruptors (ED) are chemicals that affect various aspects of the endocrine system, often leading to the inhibition of steroidogenesis. Current chemical safety policies that restrict human exposure to such chemicals describe often time-consuming and costly methods for the evaluation of ED effects. We aimed to develop an effective tool for accurate phenotypic chemical toxicology studies. We developed an in vitro ED evaluation system using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) methods for metabolomic analysis of multi-marker profiles. Accounting for sample preparation and GC/MS/MS conditions, we established a screening method that allowed the simultaneous analysis of 17 steroids with good reproducibility and a linear calibration curve. Moreover, we applied the developed system to H295R human adrenocortical cells exposed to forskolin and prochloraz in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines and observed dose-dependent variations in steroid profiles. While the OECD guidelines include only testosterone and 17β-estradiol, our system enabled a comprehensive and highly sensitive analysis of steroid profile alteration due to ED exposure. The application of our ED evaluation screen could be economical and provide novel insights into the hazards of ED exposure to the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P endocrine system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  13. Influence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    OpenAIRE

    Samah M.M. Fathy; Ashraf M.M. Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of intra-peritoneal injection of purified exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, ca...

  14. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  15. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Effects of magnesium valproate on endocrine system and reproductive functions of female epileptics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Li; Ding, Jun-Qing; Huang, Xi-Shun

    2011-08-09

    To explore the effects of valproate (VPA) on endocrine system in adolescent and reproductive female patients with epilepsy. A total of 30 adolescent and reproductive female patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy at our hospital during July 2009 to March 2010 were recruited. All cases with magnesium VPA alone were included. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) were detected respectively at pre-therapy and 3, 6 and 12 months post-therapy. And the changes of menstruation and ovaries were recorded. The serum concentration of PRL was lower at 3 and 6 months post-therapy than that at pre-therapy. There was significant difference (P = 0.010 and 0.014). The serum concentration of E2 significantly decreased after a 3-month therapy of valproate (P endocrine system and hormonal levels, but also induce such endocrine dysfunction syndromes as menstrual suspension and polycystic ovary. It eventually causes polycystic ovary syndrome.

  17. [Role of the endocrine system in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Reismann, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-11-29

    The most frequent liver disorder in metabolic syndrome is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Its pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process, characterized by insulin resistance and involvement of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via hyperlipidemia and obesity. Adult patients with growth hormone deficiency have a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype with obesity and many characteristic metabolic alterations. The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in metabolic syndrome as well. Cushing's syndrome has also features of metabolic syndrome. Mild elevation of transaminase activities is commonly seen in patients with adrenal failure. Non-alcoholic steatosis is twice as common in postmenopusal as in premenopausal women and hormonal replacement therapy decreases the risk of steatosis. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleeping apnoe syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more frequent in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hypoandrogenism in males and hyperandrogenism in females may lead to fatty liver via obesity and insulin resistance. Adipokines (leptin, acylation stimulating protein, adiponectin) have a potential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver. The alterations of endocrine system must be considered in the background of cryptogenic liver diseases. The endocrine perspective may help the therapeutic approaches in the future.

  18. Once and for all, LXRα and LXRβ are gatekeepers of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqdasy, Salwan; Trousson, Amalia; Tauveron, Igor; Volle, David H; Baron, Silvère; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A

    2016-06-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors whose transcriptional activity is regulated by oxysterols, the oxidized forms of cholesterol. Described in the late 1990s as lipid sensors, both LXRs regulate cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Over the years, deep phenotypic analyses of mouse models deficient for LXRα and/or LXRβ have pointed out various other physiological functions including glucose homeostasis, immunology, and neuroprotection. This review enlightens the "endocrine" functions of LXRs; they deeply impact plasma glucose directly and by modulating insulin signaling, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, thyroid and pituitary hormone levels, and bone homeostasis. Besides, LXR signaling is also involved in adrenal physiology, steroid synthesis, and male and female reproduction. Hence, LXRs are definitely involved in the endocrine system and could thus be considered as endocrine receptors, even though oxysterols do not fully correspond to the definition of hormones. Finally, because they are ligand-regulated transcription factors, LXRs are potential pharmacological targets with promising beneficial metabolic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  20. Structure transformations of endocrine system organs during adaptation to increased radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakova, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that during ecological monitoring of contaminated territories registration of early abnormalities in an organism is hampered by man-caused influence of habitat. Under these circumstances study of both structural and functional changes in organs and tissues of rodents inhabiting radioactive contaminated territories is of great importance. Study of structural features of endocrine glands, hormones of which trigger the process of active adaptive changes in an organism, is very important in radioecological surveys. Basing on long-term study of voles we have determined that long-term living by rodents on the territories characterized by increased natural and artificial radioactivity (radium contaminated fields in the Komi Republic and 30-km zone of Chernobyl APS) substantially influences morpho-functional state of endocrine system organs, causing quantitative and qualitative changes. It is demonstrated that population processes modify biological consequences of small doze chronic ionizing radiation in habitat. We noticed the following: high heterogeneity of histological changes of thyroid gland and adrenal gland as a response to radioactive habitat contamination; disorder of interconnection among different links of endocrine system; dependence of radiation effects on gender, age, degree and character of radiation contamination of a habitat as well as duration of radioactive influence. We have got data on morphological characteristics of thyroid gland and adrenal gland during different phases of population amount of this kind of rodents. It was discovered that effectiveness of radiation influence is not the same during different periods of population cycle. Presence of voles on the territories characterized by increased radioactivity causes chronic tension of adrenal cortex (increasing of the organ mass, enlarging of thickness of zona fasciculata and zona reticularis). Destructive-necrotic processes combine with manifestation of reparative regeneration

  1. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals-Mechanisms of action on male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorkiewicz, Iwona; Zaręba, Kamil; Wołczyński, Sławomir; Czerniecki, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that can cause disturbances in the endocrine system and have multiple harmful effects on health by targeting different organs and systems in the human body. Mass industrial production and widespread use of EDCs have resulted in worldwide contamination. Accumulating evidence suggest that human exposure to EDCs is related to the impairment of male reproductive function and can interrupt other hormonally regulated metabolic processes, particularly if exposure occurs during early development. Investigation of studies absent in previous reviews and meta-analysis of adverse effects of EDCs on functioning of the male reproductive system is the core of this work. Four main modes of action of EDCs on male fertility have been summarized in this review. First, studies describing estrogen- pathway disturbing chemicals are investigated. Second, androgen-signaling pathway alterations and influence on androgen sensitive tissues are examined. Third, evaluation of steroidogenesis dysfunction is discussed by focusing on the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway, which is targeted by EDCs. Last, the reportedly destructive role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on sperm function is discussed. Spermatogenesis is a remarkably complex process, hence multiple studies point out various dysfunctions depending on the development state at which the exposure occurred. Collected data show the need to account for critical windows of exposure such as fetal, perinatal and pubertal periods as well as effects of mixtures of several compounds in future research.

  2. Microbial endocrinology: the interplay between the microbiota and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Hadar; Debelius, Justine W; Knight, Rob; Koren, Omry

    2015-07-01

    The new field of microbiome research studies the microbes within multicellular hosts and the many effects of these microbes on the host's health and well-being. We now know that microbes influence metabolism, immunity and even behavior. Essential questions, which are just starting to be answered, are what are the mechanisms by which these bacteria affect specific host characteristics. One important but understudied mechanism appears to involve hormones. Although the precise pathways of microbiota-hormonal signaling have not yet been deciphered, specific changes in hormone levels correlate with the presence of the gut microbiota. The microbiota produces and secretes hormones, responds to host hormones and regulates expression levels of host hormones. Here, we summarize the links between the endocrine system and the gut microbiota. We categorize these interactions by the different functions of the hormones, including those affecting behavior, sexual attraction, appetite and metabolism, gender and immunity. Future research in this area will reveal additional connections, and elucidate the pathways and consequences of bacterial interactions with the host endocrine system. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2013-10-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the disruption caused to the thyroid endocrine system by pentachlorophenol (PCP) using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the in vitro assay, rat pituitary GH3 cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM PCP. PCP exposure significantly downregulated basal and triiodothyronine (T3)-induced Dio 1 transcription, indicating the antagonistic activity of PCP in vitro. In the in vivo assay, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 1, 3, and 10 μg/L of PCP until 14 days post-fertilization. PCP exposure resulted in decreased thyroxine (T4) levels, but elevated contents of whole-body T3. PCP exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes along hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including those encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone, sodium/iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, Dio 1 and Dio 2, alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptor, and uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase. PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The results indicate that PCP potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  5. Social Interactions and Familial Relationships Preservice Science Teachers Describe during Interviews about Their Drawings of the Endocrine and Gastrointestinal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined preservice science teachers' understandings of the structure and function of the human gastrointestinal and endocrine systems through drawings and interviews. Moreover, the preservice science teachers described where they thought they learned about the systems. The 142 preservice teachers were asked to draw the human…

  6. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals: effects on the male and female reproductive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifakis, Stavros; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) comprise a group of chemical compounds that have been examined extensively due to the potential harmful effects in the health of human populations. During the past decades, particular focus has been given to the harmful effects of EDCs to the reproductive system. The estimation of human exposure to EDCs can be broadly categorized into occupational and environmental exposure, and has been a major challenge due to the structural diversity of the chemicals that are derived by many different sources at doses below the limit of detection used by conventional methodologies. Animal and in vitro studies have supported the conclusion that endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the hormone dependent pathways responsible for male and female gonadal development, either through direct interaction with hormone receptors or via epigenetic and cell-cycle regulatory modes of action. In human populations, the majority of the studies point towards an association between exposure to EDCs and male and/or female reproduction system disorders, such as infertility, endometriosis, breast cancer, testicular cancer, poor sperm quality and/or function. Despite promising discoveries, a causal relationship between the reproductive disorders and exposure to specific toxicants is yet to be established, due to the complexity of the clinical protocols used, the degree of occupational or environmental exposure, the determination of the variables measured and the sample size of the subjects examined. Future studies should focus on a uniform system of examining human populations with regard to the exposure to specific EDCs and the direct effect on the reproductive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. How UV Light Touches the Brain and Endocrine System Through Skin, and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Andrzej T; Zmijewski, Michal A; Plonka, Przemyslaw M; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Paus, Ralf

    2018-05-01

    The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain and restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. Although UV energy has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis but also induces skin pathology (e.g., cancer, aging, autoimmune responses). These effects are secondary to the transduction of UV electromagnetic energy into chemical, hormonal, and neural signals, defined by the nature of the chromophores and tissue compartments receiving specific UV wavelength. UV radiation can upregulate local neuroendocrine axes, with UVB being markedly more efficient than UVA. The locally induced cytokines, corticotropin-releasing hormone, urocortins, proopiomelanocortin-peptides, enkephalins, or others can be released into circulation to exert systemic effects, including activation of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, opioidogenic effects, and immunosuppression, independent of vitamin D synthesis. Similar effects are seen after exposure of the eyes and skin to UV, through which UVB activates hypothalamic paraventricular and arcuate nuclei and exerts very rapid stimulatory effects on the brain. Thus, UV touches the brain and central neuroendocrine system to reset body homeostasis. This invites multiple therapeutic applications of UV radiation, for example, in the management of autoimmune and mood disorders, addiction, and obesity.

  8. Update on the biologic role of the vitamin D endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusso, Adriana S

    2014-03-01

    The integrity of the vitamin D endocrine system is essential for human health. Nutritional vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy individuals, associates with a higher risk of mortality for all causes, despite normal serum calcitriol. These deadly causes extend beyond the recognized adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on calcium and phosphate homeostasis predisposing to secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and vascular calcification. Vitamin D deficiency also associates with an early onset of disorders of aging, including hypertension, proteinuria, insulin resistance, immune abnormalities that enhance the propensity for viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, cancer, and multiple organ damage due to excessive systemic inflammation causing atherosclerosis, vascular stiffness, renal lesions, and impaired DNA-damage responses. The frequency and severity of all of these disorders markedly increase in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because the kidney is essential to maintain serum levels of calcitriol, the most potent endogenous endocrine activator of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and also of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, for local rather than systemic VDR activation. The goal of this review is to update the current understanding of the pathophysiology behind the classical and non-classical actions of VDR activation that help prevent the onset and/or attenuate the progression of renal and cardiovascular damage in CKD. This knowledge is essential to identify non-invasive, sensitive and accurate biomarkers of the severity of these disorders, a first step to generate evidence-based recommendations for a safe correction of vitamin D and/or calcitriol deficiency in the course of CKD that effectively improves outcomes.

  9. Aging of the endocrine system and its potential impact on sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Cesari, Matteo; Mari, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Sarcopenia, occurring as a primary consequence of aging, is a progressive generalized decline of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. One major cause of muscle mass and strength loss with aging appears to be the alteration in hormonal networks involved in the inflammatory processes, muscle regeneration and protein synthesis. This review describes the recent findings concerning the role of the aging on the endocrine system in the development of sarcopenia. We also report the benefits and safety of hormone replacement therapy in elderly subjects and discuss future perspectives in the therapy and prevention of skeletal muscle aging. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical consequences of Chernobyl with focus on the endocrine system: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information on effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  11. Medical Consequences of Chernobyl with Focus on the Endocrine System - Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  12. Catecholamines, cardiac natriuretic peptides and chromogranin A: evolution and physiopathology of a 'whip-brake' system of the endocrine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tota, Bruno; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Gattuso, Alfonsina

    2010-09-15

    In the past 50 years, extensive evidence has shown the ability of vertebrate cardiac non-neuronal cells to synthesize and release catecholamines (CA). This formed the mindset behind the search for the intrinsic endocrine heart properties, culminating in 1981 with the discovery of the natriuretic peptides (NP). CA and NP, co-existing in the endocrine secretion granules and acting as major cardiovascular regulators in health and disease, have become of great biomedical relevance for their potent diagnostic and therapeutic use. The concept of the endocrine heart was later enriched by the identification of a growing number of cardiac hormonal substances involved in organ modulation under normal and stress-induced conditions. Recently, chromogranin A (CgA), a major constituent of the secretory granules, and its derived cardio-suppressive and antiadrenergic peptides, vasostatin-1 and catestatin, were shown as new players in this framework, functioning as cardiac counter-regulators in 'zero steady-state error' homeostasis, particularly under intense excitatory stimuli, e.g. CA-induced myocardial stress. Here, we present evidence for the hypothesis that is gaining support, particularly among human cardiologists. The actions of CA, NP and CgA, we argue, may be viewed as a hallmark of the cardiac capacity to organize 'whip-brake' connection-integration processes in spatio-temporal networks. The involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/nitric oxide (NO) system in this configuration is discussed. The use of fish and amphibian paradigms will illustrate the ways that incipient endocrine-humoral agents have evolved as components of cardiac molecular loops and important intermediates during evolutionary transitions, or in a distinct phylogenetic lineage, or under stress challenges. This may help to grasp the old evolutionary roots of these intracardiac endocrine/paracrine networks and how they have evolved from relatively less complicated designs. The latter can also be used

  13. The endocrine system controlling sexual reproduction in animals: Part of the evolutionary ancient but well conserved immune system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-15

    Drastic changes in hormone titers, in particular of steroid hormones, are intuitively interpreted as necessary and beneficial for optimal functioning of animals. Peaks in progesterone- and estradiol titers that accompany the estrus cycle in female vertebrates as well as in ecdysteroids at each molt and during metamorphosis of holometabolous insects are prominent examples. A recent analysis of insect metamorphosis yielded the view that, in general, a sharp rise in sex steroid hormone titer signals that somewhere in the body some tissue(s) is undergoing programmed cell death/apoptosis. Increased steroid production is part of this process. Typical examples are ovarian follicle cells in female vertebrates and invertebrates and the prothoracic gland cells, the main production site of ecdysteroids in larval insects. A duality emerges: programmed cell death-apoptosis is deleterious at the cellular level, but it may yield beneficial effects at the organismal level. Reconciling both opposites requires reevaluating the probable evolutionary origin and role of peptidic brain hormones that direct steroid hormone synthesis. Do e.g. Luteinizing Hormone in vertebrates and Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH: acting through the Torso receptor) in insects still retain an ancient role as toxins in the early immune system? Does the functional link of some neuropeptides with Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis make sense in endocrine archeology? The endocrine system as a remnant of the ancient immune system is undoubtedly counterintuitive. Yet, we will argue that such paradigm enables the logical framing of many aspects, the endocrine one inclusive of both male and female reproductive physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. PATHOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF ENDOCRINOPATHIES. DISORDERS OF HYPOTHALAMOHYPOPHYSIAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.F. Litvitskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first lection in the course «Endocrinopathies» discusses main rules of endocrinology, main causes and key stages of endocrine pathology development, etiology and pathogenesis of the most frequent hypophysial disorders with their symptoms and mechanisms, and several types of adenohypophysial pathology. Author gives some tests and situational tasks for the evaluation of the level of knowledge, and the answers to the tests.Key words: endocrinopathy, hypopituitarism, hyperpituitarism, acromegalia, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inadequate secretion of ADH.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (4: 47–60

  15. Endocrine Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndrome (PCOS) Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Primary Hyperparathyroidism Prolactinoma Thyroid Tests Turner Syndrome Contact Us The National ... Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información de la ...

  16. The Insulin Regulatory Network in Adult Hippocampus and Pancreatic Endocrine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Machida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very strong correlation between the insulin-mediated regulatory system of the central nervous system and the pancreatic endocrine system. There are many examples of the same transcriptional factors being expressed in both regions in their embryonic development stages. Hormonal signals from the pancreatic islets influence the regulation of energy homeostasis by the brain, and the brain in turn influences the secretions of the islets. Diabetes induces neuronal death in different regions of the brain especially hippocampus, causes alterations on the neuronal circuits and therefore impairs learning and memory, for which the hippocampus is responsible. The hippocampus is a region of the brain where steady neurogenesis continues throughout life. Adult neurogenesis from undifferentiated neural stem cells is greatly decreased in diabetic patients, and as a result their learning and memory functions decline. Might it be possible to reactivate stem cells whose functions have deteriorated and that are present in the tissues in which the lesions occur in diabetes, a lifestyle disease, which plagues modern humans and develops as a result of the behavior of insulin-related factor? In this paper we summarize research in regard to these matters based on examples in recent years.

  17. Altered time structure of neuro-endocrine-immune system function in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carughi Stefano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset and the development of neoplastic disease may be influenced by many physiological, biological and immunological factors. The nervous, endocrine and immune system might act as an integrated unit to mantain body defense against this pathological process and reciprocal influences have been evidenced among hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pineal gland and immune system. In this study we evaluated differences among healthy subjects and subjects suffering from lung cancer in the 24-hour secretory profile of melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 and circadian variations of lymphocyte subpopulations. Methods In ten healthy male volunteers (age range 45-66 and ten male patients with untreated non small cell lung cancer (age range 46-65 we measured melatonin, cortisol, TRH, TSH, FT4, GH, IGF-1 and IL-2 serum levels and percentages of lymphocyte subpopulations on blood samples collected every four hours for 24 hours. One-way ANOVA between the timepoints for each variable and each group was performed to look for a time-effect, the presence of circadian rhythmicity was evaluated, MESOR, amplitude and acrophase values, mean diurnal levels and mean nocturnal levels were compared. Results A clear circadian rhythm was validated in the control group for hormone serum level and for lymphocyte subsets variation. Melatonin, TRH, TSH, GH, CD3, CD4, HLA-DR, CD20 and CD25 expressing cells presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase during the night. Cortisol, CD8, CD8bright, CD8dim, CD16, TcRδ1 and δTcS1 presented circadian rhythmicity with acrophase in the morning/at noon. FT4, IGF-1 and IL-2 variation did not show circadian rhythmicity. In lung cancer patients cortisol, TRH, TSH and GH serum level and all the lymphocyte subsubsets variation (except for CD4 showed loss of circadian rhythmicity. MESOR of cortisol, TRH, GH, IL-2 and CD16 was increased, whereas MESOR of TSH, IGF-1, CD8, CD8bright, TcRδ1 and

  18. Impact of G protein-coupled receptor heteromers in endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, K C; Hanyaloglu, A C

    2017-07-05

    The fine-tuning of endocrine homeostasis is regulated by dynamic receptor mediated processes. The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have diverse roles in the modulation of all endocrine axes, thus understanding the mechanisms underpinning their functionality is paramount for treatment of endocrinopathies. Evidence over the last 20 years has highlighted homo and heteromerization as a key mode of mediating GPCR functional diversity. This review will discuss the concept of GPCR heteromerization and its relevance to endocrine function, detailing in vitro and in vivo evidence, and exploring current and potential pharmacological strategies for specific targeting of GPCR heteromers in endocrine heath and disease. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of Insulin-Immunoreactive Cells and Endocrine Cells Within the Duct System of the Adult Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Yu, Lan; Zou, Xia; Zhao, Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The adult pancreatic duct system accommodates endocrine cells that have the potential to produce insulin. Here we report the characterization and distribution of insulin-immunoreactive cells and endocrine cells within the ductal units of adult human pancreas. Sequential pancreas sections from 12 nondiabetic adults were stained with biomarkers of ductal epithelial cells (cytokeratin 19), acinar cells (amylase), endocrine cells (chromogranin A; neuron-specific enolase), islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide), cell proliferation (Ki-67), and neogenesis (CD29). The number of islet hormone-immunoreactive cells increased from large ducts to the terminal branches. The insulin-producing cells outnumbered endocrine cells reactive for glucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide. The proportions of insulin-immunoreactive count compared with local islets (100% as a baseline) were 1.5% for the main ducts, 7.2% for interlobular ducts, 24.8% for intralobular ducts, 67.9% for intercalated ducts, and 348.9% for centroacinar cells. Both Ki-67- and CD29-labeled cells were predominantly localized in the terminal branches around the islets. The terminal branches also showed cells coexpressing islet hormones and cytokeratin 19. The adult human pancreatic ducts showed islet hormone-producing cells. The insulin-reactive cells predominantly localized in terminal branches where they may retain potential capability for β-cell neogenesis.

  20. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Update in endocrine autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders.

  2. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J.; Aday, D.D.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kullman, Seth W.; Rice, J.A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Law, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  3. The Effects of Electromagnetic Field on the Endocrine System in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangün, Özlem; Dündar, Bumin; Çömlekçi, Selçuk; Büyükgebiz, Attila

    2015-12-01

    Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizan radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children's vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children.

  4. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (Pcolloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (Pinsulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  5. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Anne-Constance; Faass, Oliver; Köllner, Bernd; Shved, Natallia; Link, Karl; Casanova, Ayako; Wenger, Michael; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Ullrich, Oliver; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-26

    A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived), which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine) IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health.

  6. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Constance Franz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived, which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health.

  7. Does balneotherapy with low radon concentration in water influence the endocrine system? A controlled non-randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Katalin; Berhés, István; Kovács, Tibor; Kávási, Norbert; Somlai, János; Bender, Tamás

    2009-08-01

    Radon bath is a well-established modality of balneotherapy for the management of degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether baths of relatively low (80 Bq/l) radon concentration have any influence on the functioning of the endocrine system. In the study, a non-randomized pilot study, 27 patients with degenerative musculoskeletal disorders received 30-min radon baths (of 31-32 degrees C temperature and 80 Bq/l average radon concentration) daily, for 15 days. Twenty-five patients with matching pathologies were subjected to balneotherapy according to the same protocol, using thermal water with negligible radon content (6 Bq/l). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were measured before and after a balneotherapy course of 15 sessions. Comparison of the accumulated data using the Wilcoxon test did not reveal any significant difference between pre- and post-treatment values or between the two patient groups. It is noted that while the beneficial effects of balneotherapy with radon-containing water on degenerative disorders is widely known, only few data have been published in the literature on its effect on endocrine functions. The present study failed to demonstrate any substantial effect of thermal water with relatively low radon content on the functioning of the endocrine system.

  8. Endocrine disruptive effects of chemicals eluted from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves using reporter gene assay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kanako; Nonaka, Ryouichi; Ohyama, Ken-ichi; Nagai, Fumiko; Ogata, Akio; Iida, Mitsuru

    2008-03-01

    Disposable gloves made of nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are used for contact with foodstuffs rather than polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), because endocrine-disruptive effects are suspected for phthalate diesters including DEHP. However, 4,4'-butylidenebis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol) (BBBC), 2,4-di-t-butylphenol, and 2,2,4-trimetyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate can be eluted from NBR gloves, and possibly also detected in food. In this study, we examined the endocrine-disrupting effects of these chemicals via androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated pathways using stably transfected reporter gene cell lines expressing AR (AR-EcoScreen system) and ER (MVLN cells), respectively. We also examined the binding activities of these chemicals to AR and ER. The IC50 value of BBBC for antagonistic androgen was in the range of 10(-6)M. The strength of inhibition was about 5 times that of a known androgen antagonist, 1,1'-(2,2-dichloroethylidene)bis[4-chlorobenzene] (p,p'-DDE), and similar to that of bisphenol A. The IC50 value of BBBC for antagonistic estrogen was in the range of 10(-6)M. These results suggest that BBBC and its structural homologue, 4,4'-thiobis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol) are androgen and estrogen antagonists. It is therefore necessary to study these chemicals in vivo, and clarify their effect on the endocrine system.

  9. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds: Their role in reproductive systems, metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulivo, Monica; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Capri, Ettore; Barceló, Damià

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are released into the environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDCs have major risks for humans by targeting different organs and systems in the body (e.g. reproductive system, breast tissue, adipose tissue, pancreas, etc.). Due to the ubiquity of human exposure to these compounds the aim of this review is to describe the most recent data on the effects induced by phthalates, bisphenol A and parabens in a critical window of exposure: in utero, during pregnancy, infants, and children. The interactions and mechanisms of toxicity of EDCs in relation to human general health problems, especially those broadening the term of endocrine disruption to 'metabolic disruption', should be deeply investigated. These include endocrine disturbances, with particular reference to reproductive problems and breast, testicular and ovarian cancers, and metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of the endocannabinoid system in food intake, energy homeostasis and regulation of the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Jones, Peter M; Persaud, Shanta J

    2011-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a signalling cascade consisting of CB1 and CB2 receptors, and enzymes for the synthesis and degradation of endogenous ligands for these receptors. Central CB1 receptors have been most widely studied since they play key roles in energy homeostasis and rimonabant, a CB1 receptor antagonist, was used clinically to treat obesity. Less is known about CB2 receptors, but their abundant expression by lymphocytes and macrophages has led to suggestions of their importance in immune and inflammatory reactions. More recently, it has become apparent that both CB1 and CB2 receptors are more widely expressed than originally thought, and the capacity of endocannabinoids to regulate energy balance also occurs through their interactions with cannabinoid receptors on a variety of peripheral tissues. In general, pathological overactivation of the ECS contributes to weight gain, reduced sensitivity to insulin and glucose intolerance, and blockade of CB1 receptors reduces body weight through increased secretion of anorectic signals and improved insulin sensitivity. However, the notion that the ECS per se is detrimental to energy homeostasis is an oversimplification, since activation of cannabinoid receptors expressed by islet cells can stimulate insulin secretion, which is obviously beneficial under conditions of impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. We propose that under normal physiological conditions cannabinoid signalling in the endocrine pancreas is a bona fide mechanism of regulating insulin secretion to maintain blood glucose levels, but that energy balance becomes dysregulated with excessive food intake, leading to adipogenesis and fat accumulation through enhanced cannabinoid synthesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Novel Functions of MicroRNA-17-92 Cluster in the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shan; Chen, Xiang; He, Yuedong; Yu, Xijie

    2018-01-01

    MiR-17-92 cluster is coded by MIR17HG in chromosome 13, which is highly conserved in vertebrates. Published literatures have proved that miR-17-92 cluster critically regulates tumorigenesis and metastasis. Recent researches showed that the miR-17-92 cluster also plays novel functions in the endocrine system. To summarize recent findings on the physiological and pathological roles of miR-17-92 cluster in bone, lipid and glucose metabolisms. MiR-17-92 cluster plays significant regulatory roles in bone development and metabolism through regulating the differentiation and function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. In addition, miR-17- 92 cluster is nearly involved in every aspect of lipid metabolism. Last but not the least, the miR-17-92 cluster is closely bound up with pancreatic beta cell function, development of type 1 diabetes and insulin resistance. However, whether miR-17-92 cluster is involved in the communication among bone, fat and glucose metabolisms remains unknown. Growing evidence indicates that miR-17-92 cluster plays significant roles in bone, lipid and glucose metabolisms through a variety of signaling pathways. Fully understanding its modulating mechanisms may necessarily facilitate to comprehend the clinical and molecule features of some metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis, arthrosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. It may provide new drug targets to prevent and cure these disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Conserved genetic pathways controlling the development of the diffuse endocrine system in vertebrates and Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L

    2010-05-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A.; Blaauboer, Bas J.; Degen, Gisela H.; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L.; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G.; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P.

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be

  14. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be ...

  15. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study...

  16. Corticosteroids and interleukin-1, messengers for communication between the endocrine and immune system in carp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weyts, F.A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Summary

    Stress-induced inummosuppression is a well known phenomenon and mostly attributed to actions of steroid hormones released upon activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis. In mammals, this endocrine-immune interaction is part of a

  17. The Endocrine Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  18. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  19. Endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andrew M; Walker, Mark; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W

    2013-10-15

    Endocrine dysfunction in mitochondrial disease is commonplace, but predominantly restricted to disease of the endocrine pancreas resulting in diabetes mellitus. Other endocrine manifestations occur, but are relatively rare by comparison. In mitochondrial disease, neuromuscular symptoms often dominate the clinical phenotype, but it is of paramount importance to appreciate the multi-system nature of the disease, of which endocrine dysfunction may be a part. The numerous phenotypes attributable to pathogenic mutations in both the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA creates a complex and heterogeneous catalogue of disease which can be difficult to navigate for novices and experts alike. In this article we provide an overview of the endocrine disorders associated with mitochondrial disease, the way in which the underlying mitochondrial disorder influences the clinical presentation, and how these factors influence subsequent management. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. CXCL14-like Immunoreactivity Exists in Somatostatin-containing Endocrine Cells, and in the Lamina Propria and Submucosal Somatostatinergic Nervous System of Mouse Alimentary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hirohumi; Yamada, Kentaro; Matsuda, Yasuhiro; Onozuka, Minoru; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2017-12-26

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells and neurons in mouse alimentary tract by immunohistochemistry. CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were found as closed-type cells in the stomach and open-type cells in the small intestine. The immunostaining of these endocrine cells corresponded with that of the somatostatin-containing endocrine cells. Only a few CXCL14 immunoreactive endocrine cells were seen in the large intestine. CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers were observed in the muscular layer from the stomach to the rectum with most abundance in the rectum. Many CXCL14 immunoreactive fibers were observed in the lamina propria and submucosal layer from the duodenum to the rectum with most abundance in the rectum; these fibers corresponded to the somatostatin-containing nerve fibers. Some CXCL14 immunoreactive neuronal somata that were also immuno-positive for somatostatin, were noted in the submucosal layer of the rectum. However, the remaining parts of the alimentary tract presented with almost negligible immunoreactive somata. The co-localization of CXCL14 and somatostatin suggests that CXCL14 contributes to the function of somatostatin, which include the inhibition of other endocrine and exocrine cells and the enteric nervous systems.

  1. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Hass, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    This study examined late-life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalates, pesticides, u.v.-filters, bisphenol A, parabens, and the drug paracetamol. The groups received vehicle (control), a mixture of all 13 chemicals at 150-times (TotalMix150) or 450-times (TotalMix450) high-end human exposure, or 450-times a mixture of nine predominantly anti-androgenic chemicals (AAMix450). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age were assessed. Few female offspring showed significantly regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared with controls. In 19-month-old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than controls, and in ventral prostate an overrepresentation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared with controls, particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450 group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence of pituitary tumors. These delayed effects highlight the need for further studies on the role of endocrine disrupters in hormone-related disorders in aging humans.

  2. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Li, Hong-Bo; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in aquatic environment may adversely impact fish health by disrupting their thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of short-term exposure of arsenite (AsIII) on thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish. We measured As concentrations, As speciation, and thyroid hormone thyroxine levels in whole zebrafish, oxidative stress (H2O2) and damage (MDA) in the liver, and gene transcription in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in the brain and liver tissues of zebrafish after exposing to different AsIII concentrations for 48 h. Result indicated that exposure to AsIII increased inorganic As in zebrafish to 0.46-0.72 mg kg(-1), induced oxidative stress with H2O2 being increased by 1.4-2.5 times and caused oxidative damage with MDA being augmented by 1.6 times. AsIII exposure increased thyroxine levels by 1.3-1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Toxicological assessment of drugs that affect the endocrine system in puberty-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Toxicologists must ensure that clinical risk-to-benefit analysis should be made both for genders and age groups, with any treatment. Puberty concerns physiological changes leading to organism's maturation. Pubertal growth disorders are increasing in last decades: besides causing physical and psychological distress, they may signal underlying endocrine-metabolic abnormalities with serious health consequences later on. Therapeutic approaches for some health conditions in childhood and adolescence are considered. The authors discuss how some diseases and treatments can impact pubertal growth. The authors look at particular immunological disorders such as asthma and how both the disease and treatment affects pubertal growth. They also discuss how the provision of available data can help to assess the dose-response of the drug, in these cases, and minimize the chance of side effects. The authors also discuss pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and how both the disease and treatment can mitigate the growth delay. Last, but not least, the authors discuss how the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders may accentuate endocrine issues in juvenile patients. Hyperprolactinemia induction by some antipsychotics is highlighted as an example. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of drugs prescribed during childhood and adolescence and intended to be used in the long term is required. Furthermore, future treatment strategies and safer compounds development should be supported by the knowledge of mechanisms underlying adverse side effects in pubertal growth and development.

  4. Assessment of the effects of the carbamazepine on the endogenous endocrine system of Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, A L; Floro, A M; Palma, P

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the endocrine activity of the antiepileptic pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) in the crustacean Daphnia magna was assessed. To assess the hormonal activity of the drug, we exposed maternal daphnids and embryos to environmental relevant concentrations of CBZ (ranging from 10 to 200 μg/L) and to mixtures of CBZ with fenoxycarb (FEN; 1 μg/L). Chronic exposure to CBZ significantly decreased the reproductive output and the number of molts of D. magna at 200 μg/L. This compound induced the production of male offspring (12 ± 1.7 %), in a non-concentration-dependent manner, acting as a weak juvenile hormone analog. Results showed that this substance, at tested concentrations, did not antagonize the juvenoid action of FEN. Further, CBZ has shown to be toxic to daphnid embryos through maternal exposure interfering with their normal gastrulation and organogenesis stages but not producing direct embryo toxicity. These findings suggest that CBZ could act as an endocrine disruptor in D. magna as it decreases the reproductive output, interferes with sex determination, and causes development abnormality in offspring. Therefore, CBZ could directly affect the population sustainability.

  5. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Degen, Gisela H; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P

    2015-07-01

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be subjected to the well-evaluated health risk characterization approach used for many years including adverse outcome pathways. Many of the points arguing for a specific approach for risk characterization of chemicals with hormonal activity are based on highly speculative conclusions. These conclusions are not well supported when evaluating the available information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Disorders of the endocrine system due to radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Panhypopituitarism, infertility, gynaecomastia, impaired growth leading to short stature, failure to undergo normal pubertal development, hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid tumours may complicate the treatment of malignant disease. The complexity of modern anti-cancer treatment has made it more difficult to delineate the exact aetiological role of radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy as many patients receive both modalities of therapy. In addition, combination chemotherapy has largely replaced treatment with a single cytotoxic drug, which means that it is often impossible to estimate the contribution of any one single drug to the adverse side effects of chemotherapy. The biological effect of a given radiation treatment regime depends not only on the total radiation dose received but also the method of irradiation, number of fractions, fraction size and duration of irradiation. Only a limited amount of information is available on dose-time relationships for radiation-induced damage to endocrine glands. (author)

  7. Disorders of the endocrine system due to radiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalet, S M [Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK)

    1983-11-01

    Panhypopituitarism, infertility, gynaecomastia, impaired growth leading to short stature, failure to undergo normal pubertal development, hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid tumours may complicate the treatment of malignant disease. The complexity of modern anti-cancer treatment has made it more difficult to delineate the exact aetiological role of radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy as many patients receive both modalities of therapy. In addition, combination chemotherapy has largely replaced treatment with a single cytotoxic drug, which means that it is often impossible to estimate the contribution of any one single drug to the adverse side effects of chemotherapy. The biological effect of a given radiation treatment regime depends not only on the total radiation dose received but also the method of irradiation, number of fractions, fraction size and duration of irradiation. Only a limited amount of information is available on dose-time relationships for radiation-induced damage to endocrine glands.

  8. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold

    2014-01-01

    ). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age were assessed. Few female offspring showed significantly regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared with controls. In 19-month-old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than...... controls, and in ventral prostate an overrepresentation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared with controls, particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450...... group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence...

  9. N-acetyltransferase (nat) is a critical conjunct of photoperiodism between the circadian system and endocrine axis in Antheraea pernyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ahmed A M; Wang, Qiushi; Bembenek, Jadwiga; Ichihara, Naoyuki; Hiragaki, Susumu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takeda, Makio

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1923, the biology of photoperiodism remains a mystery in many ways. We sought the link connecting the circadian system to an endocrine switch, using Antheraea pernyi. PER-, CLK- and CYC-ir were co-expressed in two pairs of dorsolateral neurons of the protocerebrum, suggesting that these are the circadian neurons that also express melatonin-, NAT- and HIOMT-ir. The results suggest that a melatonin pathway is present in the circadian neurons. Melatonin receptor (MT2 or MEL-1B-R)-ir in PTTH-ir neurons juxtaposing clock neurons suggests that melatonin gates PTTH release. RIA showed a melatonin rhythm with a peak four hours after lights off in adult brain both under LD16:8 (LD) and LD12:12 (SD), and both the peak and the baseline levels were higher under LD than SD, suggesting a photoperiodic influence. When pupae in diapause were exposed to 10 cycles of LD, or stored at 4 °C for 4 months under constant darkness, an increase of NAT activity was observed when PTTH released ecdysone. DNA sequence upstream of nat contained E-boxes to which CYC/CLK could bind, and nat transcription was turned off by clk or cyc dsRNA. dsRNA(NAT) caused dysfunction of photoperiodism. dsRNA(PER) upregulated nat transcription as anticipated, based on findings in the Drosophila melanogaster circadian system. Transcription of nat, cyc and clk peaked at ZT12. RIA showed that dsRNA(NAT) decreased melatonin while dsRNA(PER) increased melatonin. Thus nat, a clock controlled gene, is the critical link between the circadian clock and endocrine switch. MT-binding may release PTTH, resulting in termination of diapause. This study thus examined all of the basic functional units from the clock: a photoperiodic counter as an accumulator of mRNA(NAT), to endocrine switch for photoperiodism in A. pernyi showing this system is self-complete without additional device especially for photoperiodism.

  10. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    OpenAIRE

    LENCU, CODRU?A; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary ? cortical, and involuntary ? metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthy...

  11. Effects of 1-week head-down tilt bed rest on bone formation and the calcium endocrine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Whalen, Robert T.; Fung, Paul; Sherrard, Donald J.; Maloney, Norma

    1992-01-01

    The -6-deg head-down tilt (HDT) is employed in the study of 8 subjects to determine early responses in human bone and calcium endocrines during spaceflight. The average rates of bone formation in the iliac crest are determined by means of a single-dose labeling schedule and are found to decrease in 6 of the subjects. The decrease varies directly with walking miles, and increased excretion of urinary Ca and Na are observed preceding increased levels of ionized serum calcium on a bed-rest day late in the week. Reduced phosphorous excretions are also followed by increased serum phosphorous on day six, and reductions are noted in parathyroid hormone and vitamin D by the end of the experiment. The data demonstrate the responsiveness of the skeletal system to biomechanical stimuli such as the HDT.

  12. Impact of co-exposure with butachlor and triadimefon on thyroid endocrine system in larval zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuyan; Wang, Qiangwei; Jiao, Fang; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-09-01

    Butachlor (BTL) and triadimefon (TDF), the widely used herbicide and fungicide, are unavoidable enter into the aquatic environment. However, there were limited study regarding to the joint toxicity of these two pesticides on fish at present. To evaluate the potential thyroid-disrupting toxicity and exposed to different concentrations of BTL mixed with TDF. Zebrafish embryo (n=3) were exposed to 0.01 and 0.05 fold of LC50 from the acute joint toxicity test, of which 0.32mg/L (BTL) and 9.41mg/L (TDF) for single or mixture agents (BTL: 0.0064mg/L, 0.032mg/L; TDF: 0.1882mg/L, 0.9410mg/L; co-exposure: 0.0032mg/L BTL+0.0941mg/L TDF, 0.016mg/l BTL+0.4705mg/L TDF) after 10-day post-fertilization. Hatching, malformation, survival rates and thyroid hormones (THs), genes expression involved in HPT-axis of embryos were measured and detected in control and separately/co-exposure treatments. THs contents were evaluated by ELISA kit and the expression levels of genes were determined by RT-PCR. Hatching, malformation and survival rates of embryos exposed to single BTL exhibited no statistically significant difference from the control besides decreased of high concentration in survival rates. Exposure to TDF reduced hatching, survival rate and increased malformation. The combined exposure to BTL and TDF resulted in greater adverse effects on embryonic development. BTL exposure significantly increased free T3 and T4 contents. Elevated free T3 content was also observed in the larvae exposed with single BTL. Co-exposure of the two pesticides caused greater enhanced of T3 and T4 levels. Furthermore, gene data showed BTL up-regulated the mRNA expression of tpo, tshβ, tg, ttr, dio2, TDF up-regulated the mRNA expression of tpo, trα, ttr, dio2 and down-regulated trβ gene. The mixture of the two pesticides caused up-regulation mRNA expression of trα, trβ, tg, ttr, dio2. BTL and TDF resulted in adverse effects on zebrafish embryonic development and caused thyroid endocrine disruption

  13. Endocrine active contaminants in aquatic systems and intersex in common sport fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Pow, Crystal S. D.; Law, J. Mac; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Rice, James A.; Kullman, Seth W.; Aday, D. Derek

    2017-01-01

    Male fish are susceptible to developing intersex, a condition characterized by the presence of testicular oocytes. In the present study, the relationship between intersex and exposure to estrogenic endocrine active contaminants (EACs) was assessed for 2 genera of sport fish, Micropterus and Lepomis, at 20 riverine sites. Seasonal trends and relationships between EACs and intersex (prevalence and severity) were examined at varying putative sources of EACs throughout North Carolina, identified as point sources, nonpoint sources, and reference sites. Intersex was identified in both genera, which was documented for the first time in wild-caught Lepomis. Intersex was more prevalent (59.8%) and more severe (1.6 mean rank) in Micropterus, which was highly correlation to EACs in sediment. In contrast, intersex was less common (9.9%) and less severe (0.2 mean rank) in Lepomis and was highly correlated to EACs in the water column. The authors found that concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial EACs, and estrogens were highest at point source sites; however, no source type variation was identified in the prevalence or severity of intersex, nor were there seasonal trends in intersex or EAC concentrations. The authors’ results associate genus-specific prevalence of intersex with specific EAC classes in common sport fishes having biological, ecological, and conservation implications.

  14. The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Murakami, Mariko; Node, Koichi; Matsumura, Ritsuko; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-07-24

    The circadian clock is entrained to environmental cycles by external cue-mediated phase adjustment. Although the light input pathway has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced phase resetting remains unclear. The tissue-specific sensitivity of peripheral entrainment to feeding suggests the involvement of multiple pathways, including humoral and neuronal signals. Previous in vitro studies with cultured cells indicate that endocrine factors may function as entrainment cues for peripheral clocks. However, blood-borne factors that are well characterized in actual feeding-induced resetting have yet to be identified. Here, we report that insulin may be involved in feeding-induced tissue-type-dependent entrainment in vivo. In ex vivo culture experiments, insulin-induced phase shift in peripheral clocks was dependent on tissue type, which was consistent with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, and peripheral entrainment in insulin-sensitive tissues involved PI3K- and MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. These results suggest that insulin may be an immediate early factor in feeding-mediated tissue-specific entrainment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: opioids and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jennifer A; Opper, Susan E; Agarwal, Sonali; Fibuch, Eugene E

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are among the oldest known and most widely used analgesics. The application of opioids has expanded over the last few decades, especially in the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. This upsurge in opioid use has been accompanied by the increasingly recognized occurrence of opioid-associated endocrinopathy. This may arise after exposure to enteral, parenteral, or neuraxial opioids. Opioid-associated endocrinopathy consists primarily of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction and may manifest with symptoms of hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, and other hormonal disturbances. Additionally, opioid related endocrine dysfunction may be coupled with such disorders as osteoporosis and mood disturbances including depression. Undesirable changes in pain sensitivity such as opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and reduced potency of opioid analgesia may also be potential consequences of chronic opioid consumption. Few studies to date have been able to establish what degree of opioid exposure, in terms of dose or duration of therapy, may predispose patients to opioid-associated endocrinopathy. This article will review the currently available literature concerning opioid-associated endocrinopathy and will provide recommendations for the evaluation, monitoring, and management of opioid-associated endocrinopathy and its other accompanying undesired effects.

  16. Neurotransmitters and putative neuromodulators in the gut of Anguilla anguilla (L.. Localizations in the enteric nervous and endocrine systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Veggetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The gut of silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L. was investigated in order to describe both the cholinergic and adrenergic intramural innervations, and the localization of possible accessory neuromediators. Histochemical reactions for the demonstration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form-(NADPH-diaphorase and acetylcholinesterese (AChEase were performed, as well as the immunohistochemical testing of tyrosine hydroxylase, met-enkephalin, substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, bombesin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, neuropeptide Y (NPY, somatostatin, cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8, serotonin, cholineacetyltransferase. The results evidenced a different pattern in comparison with other vertebrates, namely mammals, and with other fish. Both NADPH-diaphorase and AChEase activities were histochemically detected all along the gut in the myenteric plexus, the inner musculature and the propria-submucosa. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was observed in the intestinal tract only, both in the myenteric plexus and in the inner musculature. Several neuropeptides (metenkephalin, CGRP, bombesin, substance P, VIP, NPY, somatostatin were, in addition, detected in the intramural innervation; some of them also in epithelial cells of the diffuse endocrine system (met-enkephalin, substance P, NPY, somatostatin. Serotonin was only present in endocrine cells. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity was present in localizations to those of similar NADPHdiaphorase- reactivity, and in the same nerve bundles in which substance P- and CGRP-likeimmunoreactivities were detectable in the intestinal tract. In addition, NADPH-diaphorase-reactive neurons showed an anatomical relationship with AChEase-reactive nerve terminals, and a similar relationship existed between the latter and substance P-like immunoreactivity.

  17. Life-cycle exposure to microcystin-LR interferes with the reproductive endocrine system of male zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yujing; Li, Li; Hou, Jie; Wu, Ning; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    Recently, MC-LR reproductive toxicity drew great attention. Limited information was available on endocrine-disrupting effects of MC-LR on the reproduction system in fish. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until they reached sexual maturity. Male zebrafish were selected, and changes in growth and developmental parameters, testicular histological structure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones were studied along with the related-gene transcriptional responses in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis). The results, for the first time, show a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes growth inhibition, testicular damage and delayed sperm maturation. A significant decrease in T/E2 ratio indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormones balance. The changes in transcriptional responses of HPG-axis related genes revealed that MC-LR promoted the conversion of T to E2 in circulating blood. It was also noted that vtg1 mRNA expression in the liver was up-regulated, which implied that MC-LR could induce estrogenic-like effects at environmentally relevant concentrations and long-term exposure. Our findings indicated that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes endocrine disruption with organic and functional damage of the testis, which might compromise the quality of life for the survivors and pose a potent threat on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The immune system of geriatric mice is modulated by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (diethylstilbestrol, α-zearalanol, and genistein): Effects on interferon-γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calemine, Jillian; Zalenka, Julie; Karpuzoglu-Sahin, Ebru; Ward, Daniel L.; Lengi, Andrea; Ahmed, S. Ansar

    2003-01-01

    The immune system is a potential target for estrogenic endocrine disrupters. To date, there is limited information on whether estrogenic endocrine disruptors modulate the immune system of aged individuals. To address this issue, groups of 74-week-old mice were given nine oral doses of selected estrogenic endocrine disrupters: diethylstilbestrol (DES, 3 μg/100 g bw), α-zearalanol (0.5 mg/100 g bw), or genistein (0.15 mg/100 g bw) in corn oil, or corn oil alone, over 2.5 weeks. Both developmental (thymus) and mature (spleen) lymphoid organs were affected, although specific effects varied with the chemical. DES significantly decreased thymocyte numbers. However, relative percentages of thymocyte subsets were not altered. While splenic cellularity and percentages of T and B cells were unchanged, splenocytes from DES-exposed mice had significantly decreased ability to proliferate in response to Concanavalin-A (Con-A). Con-A-activated splenocytes from mice treated with genistein or α-zearalanol had decreased levels of interferon-γ (IFNγ) protein in their culture supernatants compared to similar cultures from oil-treated mice. RT-PCR analysis of Con-A-activated splenocytes revealed that the expression of IFNγ gene is altered by DES or genistein treatment. Together, these results suggest that estrogenic endocrine disruptors modulate the immune system of aged mice

  19. Enantioselective disruption of the endocrine system by Cis-Bifenthrin in the male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Miao, Wenyu; Lin, Xiaojian; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-07-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests in China. At present, the commercial BF is a mixed compound containing cis isomers (cis-BF) including two enantiomers of 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. In the present study, the two individual cis-BF enantiomers were separated by a preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. Then, four week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF separately daily for 3 weeks at doses of 0, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively. Results showed that the transcription status of some genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and transport as well as testosterone (T) synthesis in the testes were influenced by cis-BF enantiomers. Especially, we observed that the transcription status of key genes on the pathway of T synthesis including cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P45017α)) were selectively altered in the testis of mice when treated with 1S-cis-BF, suggesting that it is the possible reason to explain why the lower serum T concentration in 1S-cis-BF treated group. Taken together, it concluded that both of the cis-BF enantiomers have the endocrine disruption activities, while 1S-cis-BF was higher than 1R-cis-BF in mice when exposed during the puberty. The data was helpful to understand the toxicity of cis-BF in mammals under enantiomeric level. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. SECONDARY (ENDOCRINE HYPERTENSION: LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Yukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a  very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  1. Hypothalamic transcriptional expression of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors differs among polycystic ovary syndrome rat models with different endocrine phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Carvalho, Kátia Cândido; Giannocco, Gisele; Duarte, Daniele Coelho; Garcia, Natália; Soares-Junior, José Maria; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Maliqueo, Manuel; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that affects reproductive-age women. The mechanisms underlying the endocrine heterogeneity and neuroendocrinology of polycystic ovary syndrome are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of the kisspeptin system and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse regulators in the hypothalamus as well as factors related to luteinizing hormone secretion in the pituitary of polycystic ovary syndrome rat models induced by testosterone or estradiol. A single injection of testosterone propionate (1.25 mg) (n=10) or estradiol benzoate (0.5 mg) (n=10) was administered to female rats at 2 days of age to induce experimental polycystic ovary syndrome. Controls were injected with a vehicle (n=10). Animals were euthanized at 90-94 days of age, and the hypothalamus and pituitary gland were used for gene expression analysis. Rats exposed to testosterone exhibited increased transcriptional expression of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-β and reduced expression of kisspeptin in the hypothalamus. However, rats exposed to estradiol did not show any significant changes in hormone levels relative to controls but exhibited hypothalamic downregulation of kisspeptin, tachykinin 3 and estrogen receptor-α genes and upregulation of the gene that encodes the kisspeptin receptor. Testosterone- and estradiol-exposed rats with different endocrine phenotypes showed differential transcriptional expression of members of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors in the hypothalamus. These differences might account for the different endocrine phenotypes found in testosterone- and estradiol-induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats.

  2. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 has critical roles in regulation of the endocrine system and social behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugi-Tokita, M; Yoshida, T; Kageyama, S; Kawata, M; Kawauchi, A

    2018-03-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 7 (mGluR7) is one of the group III mGluRs, which are negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gi/Go proteins and localised to presynaptic active zones of the mammalian central nervous system. We previously reported that mGluR7 is essential for intermale aggression and amygdala-dependent fear learning. To elucidate the role of mGluR7 in the neuroendocrine system, we performed biochemical analyses and found a significant reduction of testosterone levels in mGluR7 knockout (KO) mice. Testosterone replacement restored intermale aggressive behaviour in castrated wild-type mice to the level of gonadally intact wild-type mice. However, given the same dosage of testosterone replacement, mGluR7 KO mice showed almost no aggressive behaviour. These results indicate that reduction of plasma testosterone is unrelated to the deficit in intermale aggression in mGluR7 KO mice. Social investigating behaviour of intact mGluR7 KO mice also differed from that of wild-type mice; e.g. the KO mice showing less frequent anogenital sniffing and more frequent grooming behaviour. Testosterone replacement increased anogenital sniffing and grooming behaviour in castrated mGluR7 KO mice, while the differences were still present between castrated wild-type mice and KO mice after both underwent testosterone replacement. These results imply that reduction of plasma testosterone may partially inhibit social investigating behaviours in intact mGluR7 KO mice. Furthermore, castrated mGluR7 KO mice have smaller seminal vesicles than those of castrated wild-type mice, although seminal vesicle weights were normal in intact mice. These observations suggest that, besides testicular testosterone, some other hormone levels may be dysregulated in mGluR7 KO mice, and indicate a critical role of mGluR7 in the endocrine system. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that mGluR7 is essential for the regulation of the endocrine system, in addition to innate behaviours

  3. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on lead bioconcentration and toxicity on thyroid endocrine system and neuronal development in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wei; Zhu, Biran; Xiao, Xiaohong; Li, Ying; Dirbaba, Niguse Bekele; Zhou, Bingsheng; Wu, Hongjuan

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable attention because of their wide range of applications. Interactions between heavy metals (e.g., Pb) and NPs in aquatic environments may modify the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of NPs (e.g., nano-TiO2) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Pb and its effects in the thyroid endocrine and nervous systems of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Zebrafish embryos (2-h post-fertilization) were exposed to five concentrations of Pb alone (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30μg/L) or in combination with nano-TiO2 (0.1mg/L) until 6 days post-fertilization. Results showed that the bioconcentration of Pb was significantly enhanced when combined with nano-TiO2 than when used alone. Zebrafish exposure to Pb alone at 30μg/L significantly decreased the thyroid hormone levels (T4 and T3), whereas nano-TiO2 treatment alone did not produce detectable changes. The levels of T4 and T3 were further decreased when Pb was combined with nano-TiO2 than when used alone. The transcription of the thyroid hormone-related factor tg gene was remarkably down-regulated by Pb treatment alone but up-regulated when Pb was combined with nano-TiO2. The significant up-regulation of tshβ gene and the down-regulation of TTR gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid were observed in Pb with or without nano-TiO2 treatment groups. In addition, the transcription of genes involved in central nervous system (CNS) development (α-tubulin, mbp, gfap and shha) were significantly down-regulated by Pb and nano-TiO2 co-exposure as compared with Pb exposure alone. The locomotion activity analyzes confirmed that nano-TiO2 might enhance the toxicity of Pb to CNS development. These results suggest that nano-TiO2 increase bioconcentration of lead, which lead to the disruption of thyroid endocrine and neuronal system in zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Endocrine aspects of cancer gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Boscaro, Marco; Palù, Giorgio

    2004-02-01

    The field of cancer gene therapy is in continuous expansion, and technology is quickly moving ahead as far as gene targeting and regulation of gene expression are concerned. This review focuses on the endocrine aspects of gene therapy, including the possibility to exploit hormone and hormone receptor functions for regulating therapeutic gene expression, the use of endocrine-specific genes as new therapeutic tools, the effects of viral vector delivery and transgene expression on the endocrine system, and the endocrine response to viral vector delivery. Present ethical concerns of gene therapy and the risk of germ cell transduction are also discussed, along with potential lines of innovation to improve cell and gene targeting.

  5. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  6. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  7. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... the endocrine system. This draft guidance also discusses factors to consider in determining the need... interfere with some aspect of the endocrine system of an organism or its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although the systems most commonly affected...

  8. Disorders in endocrine link of adaptation system and their possible participation in development of endocrine and psichosomatical pathologies for persons working in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone for a long time. Endocrine adaptopathology in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheban, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    The studies realized in the 30-km zone give an opportunity to reveal changes in the system including hypothalamus, hypothesis and adrenal cortex for persons working at the Pripyat' research and production joint enterprise for a long time. Stable stress in cortisol secretion at absence of expected synchronous increase in secretion of ACTG especially for persons with irradiation doses more than 0.25 Gy is noted. Connection between irradiation dose and adrenal gland secretion decreasing degree is revealed. Hypothetical model of disadaptosis radiation-induced variant is suggested. the conclusion on existance of common pathogenetic basis of many endocrine and psychosomatic diseases is made. 2 refs.; 10 tabs

  9. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals, epigenetics, and skeletal system dysfunction: exploration of links using bisphenol A as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Frances; Smith, Lauren M; Susiarjo, Martha; Jepsen, Karl J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Early life exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been associated with physiological changes of endocrine-sensitive tissues throughout postnatal life. Although hormones play a critical role in skeletal growth and maintenance, the effects of prenatal EDC exposure on adult bone health are not well understood. Moreover, studies assessing skeletal changes across multiple generations are limited. In this article, we present previously unpublished data demonstrating dose-, sex-, and generation-specific changes in bone morphology and function in adult mice developmentally exposed to the model estrogenic EDC bisphenol A (BPA) at doses of 10 μg (lower dose) or 10 mg per kg bw/d (upper dose) throughout gestation and lactation. We show that F1 generation adult males, but not females, developmentally exposed to bisphenol A exhibit dose-dependent reductions in outer bone size resulting in compromised bone stiffness and strength. These structural alterations and weaker bone phenotypes in the F1 generation did not persist in the F2 generation. Instead, F2 generation males exhibited greater bone strength. The underlying mechanisms driving the EDC-induced physiological changes remain to be determined. We discuss potential molecular changes that could contribute to the EDC-induced skeletal effects, with an emphasis on epigenetic dysregulation. Furthermore, we assess the necessity of intact sex steroid receptors to mediate these effects. Expanding future assessments of EDC-induced effects to the skeleton may provide much needed insight into one of the many health effects of these chemicals and aid in regulatory decision making regarding exposure of vulnerable populations to these chemicals. PMID:29732168

  10. A data storage, retrieval and analysis system for endocrine research. [for Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, L. E.; Johnston, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    This retrieval system builds, updates, retrieves, and performs basic statistical analyses on blood, urine, and diet parameters for the M071 and M073 Skylab and Apollo experiments. This system permits data entry from cards to build an indexed sequential file. Programs are easily modified for specialized analyses.

  11. Endocrine pathology: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2018-01-01

    Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals. Indeed, the production of hormones is the hallmark of the endocrine system, and some aspects of gynecological/testicular, bone and liver pathology also fall into the realm of this specialty. Many of the lesions that are the focus of this discipline are increasing in incidence and their pathology is becoming more complex with increased understanding of molecular pathology and a high incidence of familial disease. The future of endocrine pathology will demand a depth of understanding of structure, function, prognosis and prediction as pathologists play a key role in the multidisciplinary care team of patients with endocrine diseases. It is anticipated that new technologies will allow increased subspecialisation in pathology and growth of this important area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prediction of Endocrine System Affectation in Fisher 344 Rats by Food Intake Exposed with Malathion, Applying Naïve Bayes Classifier and Genetic Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Juan David Sandino; Hurtado, Darío Amaya; Sandoval, Olga Lucía Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Reported cases of uncontrolled use of pesticides and its produced effects by direct or indirect exposition, represent a high risk for human health. Therefore, in this paper, it is shown the results of the development and execution of an algorithm that predicts the possible effects in endocrine system in Fisher 344 (F344) rats, occasioned by ingestion of malathion. It was referred to ToxRefDB database in which different case studies in F344 rats exposed to malathion were collected. The experimental data were processed using Naïve Bayes (NB) machine learning classifier, which was subsequently optimized using genetic algorithms (GAs). The model was executed in an application with a graphical user interface programmed in C#. There was a tendency to suffer bigger alterations, increasing levels in the parathyroid gland in dosages between 4 and 5 mg/kg/day, in contrast to the thyroid gland for doses between 739 and 868 mg/kg/day. It was showed a greater resistance for females to contract effects on the endocrine system by the ingestion of malathion. Females were more susceptible to suffer alterations in the pituitary gland with exposure times between 3 and 6 months. The prediction model based on NB classifiers allowed to analyze all the possible combinations of the studied variables and improving its accuracy using GAs. Excepting the pituitary gland, females demonstrated better resistance to contract effects by increasing levels on the rest of endocrine system glands.

  13. The effects of long-term endurance training on the immune and endocrine systems of elderly men: the role of cytokines and anabolic hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natale Valéria

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background a decline in immune and endocrine function occurs with aging. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of long-term endurance training on the immune and endocrine system of elderly men. The possible interaction between these systems was also analysed. Results elderly runners showed a significantly higher T cell proliferative response and IL-2 production than sedentary elderly controls. IL-2 production was similar to that in young adults. Their serum IL-6 levels were significantly lower than their sedentary peers. They also showed significantly lower IL-3 production in comparison to sedentary elderly subjects but similar to the youngs. Anabolic hormone levels did not differ between elderly groups and no clear correlation was found between hormones and cytokine levels. Conclusion highly conditioned elderly men seem to have relatively better preserved immune system than the sedentary elderly men. Long-term endurance training has the potential to decelerate the age-related decline in immune function but not the deterioration in endocrine function.

  14. Interaction of the endocrine system with inflammation: a function of energy and volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Rainer H

    2014-02-13

    During acute systemic infectious disease, precisely regulated release of energy-rich substrates (glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids) and auxiliary elements such as calcium/phosphorus from storage sites (fat tissue, muscle, liver, and bone) are highly important because these factors are needed by an energy-consuming immune system in a situation with little or no food/water intake (sickness behavior). This positively selected program for short-lived infectious diseases is similarly applied during chronic inflammatory diseases. This review presents the interaction of hormones and inflammation by focusing on energy storage/expenditure and volume regulation. Energy storage hormones are represented by insulin (glucose/lipid storage and growth-related processes), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (muscle and bone growth), androgens (muscle and bone growth), vitamin D (bone growth), and osteocalcin (bone growth, support of insulin, and testosterone). Energy expenditure hormones are represented by cortisol (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides/muscle protein, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), noradrenaline/adrenaline (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), growth hormone (glucogenic, lipolytic; has also growth-related aspects; water retention), thyroid gland hormones (increase metabolic effects of adrenaline/noradrenaline), and angiotensin II (induce insulin resistance and retain water). In chronic inflammatory diseases, a preponderance of energy expenditure pathways is switched on, leading to typical hormonal changes such as insulin/IGF-1 resistance, hypoandrogenemia, hypovitaminosis D, mild hypercortisolemia, and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Though necessary during acute inflammation in the context of systemic infection or trauma, these long-standing changes contribute to increased mortality in chronic

  15. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  16. Zebrafish as a model to study the neuroendocrine system and toxicity of endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekar, Gayathri

    2011-01-01

    Zebrafish is a popular vertebrate model system to study development and perform genetic analysis. It offers numerous advantages such as small size, short generation time, high fecundity, rapid and ex utero development of embryos and optically transparent embryos. Zebrafish is genetically closely related to humans and share high similarity in developmental processes, physiology and behavior. In addition, recent advances in forward and reverse genetics coupled with the availabili...

  17. Tolerance of the central nervous system to photon irradiation. Endocrine complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigg, D.R.; Murray, R.M.L.; Koschel, K. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1982-01-01

    Dose-response isoeffect equations have been determined for hypothalamic pituitary insufficiency following cranial irradiation. Of particular importance is the occurrence of complications at doses substantially less than those commonly used for the treatment of central nervous system tumors. Such complications may be severe and potentially life threatening. These complications occur when a small midline 'target' volume containing the pituitary gland, infundibulum and adjacent inferior hypothalamic structures is irradiated. Direct pituitary irradiation is unlikely to be a factor, at least in some cases. The possible role of incidental hypothalamic irradiation in the control of acromegaly and pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome is discussed.

  18. Vitamin D endocrine system and the immune response in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Plebani, M; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Adorini, Luciano; Tincani, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. The presence of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) in the cells of the immune system and the fact that several of these cells produce the vitamin D hormone suggested that vitamin D could have immunoregulatory properties, and now potent immunomodulatory activities on dendritic cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, as well as B cells have been confirmed. Serum levels of vitamin D have been found to be significantly lower in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, and type-1 diabetes mellitus than in the healthy population. In addition, it was also found that lower levels of vitamin D were associated with higher disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Promising clinical results together with evidence for the regulation of multiple immunomodulatory mechanisms by VDR agonists represent a sound basis for further exploration of their potential in the treatment of rheumatic autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... issues. This paper aims at discussing the relevance of the endocrine perspective with regard to EDC effects on pubertal timing. Puberty involves particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Reports about the advancing onset of puberty in several countries have led to the hypothesis...

  20. Review of the biological effects of weightlessness on the human endocrine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies from space flights over the past two decades have demonstrated that there are basic physiological changes in humans during space flight. These changes include cephalad fluid shifts, loss of fluid and electrolytes, loss of muscle mass, space motion sickness, anemia, reduced immune response, and loss of calcium and mineralized bone. The cause of most of these manifestations is not known but the general approach has been to investigate systemic and hormonal changes. However, data from the 1973-1974 Skylabs, Spacelab 3 (SL-3), Spacelab D-I (SL-DI), and now the new SLS-1 missions support a more basic biological response to microgravity that may occur at the tissue, cellular, and molecular level. This report summarizes ground-based and SLS-1 experiments that examined the mechanism of loss of red blood cell mass in humans, the loss of bone mass and lowered osteoblast growth under space flight conditions, and loss of immune function in microgravity.

  1. Changes in the endocrine system which controls reproduction in female rats neonatally exposed to a low-dose of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, A.

    1988-06-01

    Exposure of animals to high doses of ionizing radiation causes irreversible damage to the reproductive system and brings upon infertility. The results of this work indicate that neonatal exposure of female rats on day 8 of life to gamma irradiation of 6 R and 15 R causes reduction in number of offspring these rats produce when mature. The latter results from hormonal changes in the endocrine system which controls reproduction. However, one could not define one site of the hypothalamo - hypophyseal - ovarian axis which when damaged would be responsible for the radiation-induced damage to the productive system. (Author)

  2. Expression of RYamide in the nervous and endocrine system of Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Ladislav; Čižmár, Daniel; Bednár, Branislav; Žitňan, Dušan

    2016-06-01

    RYamides are neuropeptides encoded by a gene whose precise expression and function have not yet been determined. We identified the RYamide gene transcript (fmgV1g15f, SilkBase database) and predicted two candidates for G-protein coupled RYamide receptors (A19-BAG68418 and A22-BAG68421) in the silkworm Bombyx mori. We cloned the RYamide transcript and described its spatial expression using in situ hybridisation. In the larval central nervous system (CNS) expression of RYamide was restricted to 12-14 small neurons in the brain and two posterior neurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion. During metamorphosis their number decreased to eight protocerebral neurons in the adults. Multiple staining, using various insect neuropeptide antibodies, revealed that neurons expressing RYamide are different from other peptidergic cells in the CNS. We also found RYamide expression in the enteroendocrine cells (EC) of the anterior midgut of larvae, pupae and adults. Two minor subpopulations of these EC were also immunoreactive to antibodies against tachykinin and myosupressin. This expression pattern suggests RYamides may play a role in the regulation of feeding and digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interaction of fast and slow dynamics in endocrine control systems with an application to β-cell dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Fang; Khan, Michael; van den Berg, Hugo A

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine dynamics spans a wide range of time scales, from rapid responses to physiological challenges to with slow responses that adapt the system to the demands placed on it. We outline a non-linear averaging procedure to extract the slower dynamics in a way that accounts properly for the non-linear dynamics of the faster time scale and is applicable to a hierarchy of more than two time scales, although we restrict our discussion to two scales for the sake of clarity. The procedure is exact if the slow time scale is infinitely slow (the dimensionless ε-quantity is the period of the fast time scale fluctuation times an upper bound to the slow time scale rate of change). However, even for an imperfect separation of time scales we find that this construction provides an excellent approximation for the slow-time dynamics at considerably reduced computational cost. Besides the computation advantage, the averaged equation provided a qualitative insight into the interaction of the time scales. We demonstrate the procedure and its advantages by applying the theory to the model described by Tolić et al. [I.M. Tolić, E. Mosekilde, J. Sturis, Modeling the insulin-glucose feedback system: the significance of pulsatile insulin secretion, J. Theor. Biol. 207 (2000) 361-375.] for ultradian dynamics of the glucose-insulin homeostasis feedback system, extended to include β-cell dynamics. We find that the dynamics of the β-cell mass are dependent not only on the glycemic load (amount of glucose administered to the system), but also on the way this load is applied (i.e. three meals daily versus constant infusion), effects that are lost in the inappropriate methods used by the earlier authors. Furthermore, we find that the loss of the protection against apoptosis conferred by insulin that occurs at elevated levels of insulin has a functional role in keeping the β-cell mass in check without compromising regulatory function. We also find that replenishment of β-cells from a

  4. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    of alkylphenols, these are disseminated in the environment with sewage sludge, and domestic animals and humans are likely to be exposed via the food chain. Using the pig as an in vivo model, we studied the effect of intrauterine exposure to tertiary octylphenol (OP) on essential reproductive parameters over 3......With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...

  5. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That Can Go Wrong Print en español El sistema endocrino Ever dozed through chemistry class and wondered ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  6. Endocrine system: acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linfoot, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Acromegaly and gigantism represent multisystem diseases resulting from either a primary pituitary tumor or an ill-defined hypothalamo-hypophyseal dysfunction causing somatotropic cell hyperplasia and tumor formation. Clinical manifestations of the disease result from three major processes: (1) excessive growth hormone (HGH) secretion, (2) deficiencies of other pituitary tropic hormones, and (3) local invasion of parasellar neural and vascular structures. The treatment of this disease, and side effects, are discussed

  7. The utilization of the climatic chamber to evaluate the influence of ambient conditions on endocrine, nervous and immune systems of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of an organism to a change in environmental conditions is a complex and in some aspects a poorly understood physiological process. The activating influence of stress on the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis and the suppression of TSH, LH, FSH release is well known. The interplay of communication between the endocrine and immune systems plays an essential role in modulating the response to stress related mediators. The basis of many contradictory and incoherent results of experiments is due to the various methodologies of creating changes in environmental conditions, the way of collecting blood samples which influence stress mediators, the case of assessing the influence of many factors on reproductive functions and the performance of experiments without synchronization with the reproductive cycle. The review will focus on the presentation of simple and repeatable methods of development of an adaptation stress to changed environmental conditions (temperature, oxygenation, humidity and the technique of blood collection during hour-long estimation of interactions between the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. We would like to place emphasis on appropriate ways of performing experiments on female rats, with regards to the choice of a suitable phase of the reproductive cycle. Also on ways of anaesthesia and microsurgical techniques of vein catheterisation for repeated blood sampling. The performance of all phases of the experiment allow us to estimate only the influence of environmental conditions and eliminate interfering factors during the process of preparing animal for the experiment.

  8. The utilization of the climatic chamber to evaluate the influence of ambient conditions on endocrine, nervous and immune systems of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Arkadiusz; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    The adaptation of an organism to a change in environmental conditions is a complex and in some aspects a poorly understood physiological process. The activating influence of stress on the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis and the suppression of TSH, LH, FSH release is well known. The interplay of communication between the endocrine and immune systems plays an essential role in modulating the response to stress related mediators. The basis of many contradictory and incoherent results of experiments is due to the various methodologies of creating changes in environmental conditions, the way of collecting blood samples which influence stress mediators, the case of assessing the influence of many factors on reproductive functions and the performance of experiments without synchronization with the reproductive cycle. The review will focus on the presentation of simple and repeatable methods of development of an adaptation stress to changed environmental conditions (temperature, oxygenation, humidity) and the technique of blood collection during hour-long estimation of interactions between the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. We would like to place emphasis on appropriate ways of performing experiments on female rats, with regards to the choice of a suitable phase of the reproductive cycle. Also on ways of anaesthesia and microsurgical techniques of vein catheterisation for repeated blood sampling. The performance of all phases of the experiment allow us to estimate only the influence of environmental conditions and eliminate interfering factors during the process of preparing animal for the experiment.

  9. Socioeconomic conditions across life related to multiple measures of the endocrine system in older adults: Longitudinal findings from a British birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Lashen, Hany; Keevil, Brian; Wu, Frederick C W; Holly, Jeff M P; Ong, Ken K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how socioeconomic position (SEP) across life impacts on different axes of the endocrine system which are thought to underlie the ageing process and its adverse consequences. We examined how indicators of SEP across life related to multiple markers of the endocrine system in late midlife, and hypothesized that lower SEP across life would be associated with an adverse hormone profile across multiple axes. Data were from a British cohort study of 875 men and 905 women followed since their birth in March 1946 with circulating free testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measured at both 53 and 60-64 years, and evening cortisol at 60-64 years. Indicators of SEP were ascertained prospectively across life-paternal occupational class at 4, highest educational attainment at 26, household occupational class at 53, and household income at 60-64 years. Associations between SEP and hormones were investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models. Lower SEP was associated with lower free testosterone among men, higher free testosterone among women, and lower IGF-I and higher evening cortisol in both sexes. For example, the mean standardised difference in IGF-I comparing the lowest with the highest educational attainment at 26 years (slope index of inequality) was -0.4 in men (95% CI -0.7 to -0.2) and -0.4 in women (-0.6 to -0.2). Associations with each hormone differed by SEP indicator used and sex, and were particularly pronounced when using a composite adverse hormone score. For example, the odds of having 1 additional adverse hormone concentration in the lowest compared with highest education level were 3.7 (95% CI: 2.1, 6.3) among men, and 1.6 (1.0, 2.7) among women (P (sex interaction) = 0.02). We found no evidence that SEP was related to apparent age-related declines in free testosterone or IGF-I. Lower SEP was associated with an adverse hormone profile across multiple endocrine axes. SEP differences in endocrine

  10. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  11. Long-term follow-up of endocrine function among young children with newly diagnosed malignant central nervous system tumors treated with irradiation-avoiding regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Anne M; Cheung, Clement; Rangan, Kasey; Freyer, David; Nahata, Leena; Dhall, Girish; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2017-11-01

    The adverse effects of irradiation on endocrine function among patients with pediatric brain tumor are well documented. Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by marrow-ablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) without central nervous system (CNS) irradiation has demonstrated efficacy in a proportion of very young children with some malignant CNS tumors. This study assessed the long-term endocrine function of young children following chemotherapy-only treatment regimens. A retrospective chart review was performed on 99 patients under 6 years of age with malignant brain tumors newly diagnosed between May 1991 and October 2010 treated with irradiation-avoiding strategies. Thirty patients survived post-AuHCR without cranial irradiation for a mean of 8.1 years (range 3.0-22.25 years). The patient cohort included 18 males and 12 females (mean age at AuHCR of 2.5 years, range 0.8-5.1 years). All 30 surviving patients had documented normal age-related thyroid function, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3), prolactin, testosterone, and estradiol levels. Insulin-like growth factor 1 age-related levels were abnormal in one child with normal height. Ninety-seven percent of patients had normal cortisol levels, while follicle-stimulating hormone and LH levels among females were normal in 83% and 92%, respectively, and in 100% of males. Growth charts demonstrated age-associated growth within 2 standard deviations of the mean in 67% of patients. Of 10 patients (33%) with short stature, 6 had proportional diminutions in both height and weight. These findings demonstrate that the use of relatively brief, intensive chemotherapy regimens including marrow-ablative chemotherapy with AuHCR results in fewer endocrine sequelae than treatment schemes utilizing CNS irradiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A systematic expression analysis implicates Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C in the regulation of the vascular and endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Matthias; Xia, Jingjing; Friedel, Roland H; Offermanns, Stefan; Worzfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Plexins serve as receptors for semaphorins and play important roles in the developing nervous system. Plexin-B2 controls decisive developmental programs in the neural tube and cerebellum. However, whether Plexin-B2 also regulates biological functions in adult nonneuronal tissues is unknown. Here we show by two methodologically independent approaches that Plexin-B2 is expressed in discrete cell types of several nonneuronal tissues in the adult mouse. In the vasculature, Plexin-B2 is selectively expressed in functionally specialized endothelial cells. In endocrine organs, Plexin-B2 localizes to the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and to both cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland. Plexin-B2 expression is also detected in certain types of immune and epithelial cells. In addition, we report on a systematic comparison of the expression patterns of Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C, which show complementarity or overlap in some but not all tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 and its family member Plexin-B1 display largely nonredundant expression patterns. This work establishes Plexin-B2 and Sema4C as potential regulators of the vascular and endocrine system and provides an anatomical basis to understand the biological functions of this ligand-receptor pair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of internal irradiation on the endocrine system and the importance of its functional state for the development of late sequelae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedov, V.I.; Norets, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of choosing and proving criteria for the estimation of their biological effect at the level of organism results from the necessity to clarify the danger of incorporation of low doses of radioactive compounds. Therefore the importance of changes in the functional state of the endocrine system for the development of late sequelae following internal irradiation was investigated. Male and female rats were injected once with 1.22x10 4 Bq/g body weight 75 Se-selenomethionine. In the blood plasma the content of thyroxine, corticosterone, testosterone, and estradiol was determined. Moreover, the conditions of adaptation and reparation processes as well as of the reproductive function were checked. A long time afterwards the male rats showed a suppression of the functions of the endocrine system which led to a suppression of the adaptive and repairing processes and of the reproductive function, to a decrease in body weight and dynamic activity. In female animals such phenomena did never occur; that is probably connected to the weakly pronounced changes in the hormonal state. The results allow to propose the hormonal state as a criterion for evaluation of the biological effect of internal irradiation. (author)

  14. Investigations of the Effects of Synthetic Chemicals on the Endocrine System of Common Carp in Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Leiker, Thomas A.; Orsak, Erik

    2006-01-01

    in Las Vegas Wash and Bay environments include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (including DDT and DDE), and 'emerging contaminants' such as fragrances/musks, flame retardants, triclosan and its breakdown products, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals (Bevans and others, 1996; Boyd and Furlong, 2002; Leiker and others, in press). Many of these compounds are able to interact with the endocrine system of animals and potentially cause reproductive impacts. The National Park Service (NPS) manages Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) with about 8 million yearly visitors including 500,000 anglers drawn to its world-class recreational fishery. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) provides management for the federally designated, endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and for more than 180 species of migratory birds that utilize LMNRA surface waters. These multiple uses of surface water in the area demonstrate their vital importance to the LMNRA as well as the need to maintain the quality of water at levels that are adequate for these uses.

  15. Radiological imaging of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Imaging studies are playing an increasingly role in the evaluation of endocrine diseases; accordingly, familiarity with the specific indications for the various modalities, and with the characteristic findings, is essential. This multi-author work, which is intended for both radiologists and endocrinologists, considers the role of all the recent imaging techniques, including ultrasound (particular color Doppler), computed tomography, MRI, and scintigraphy. Following an extensive introduction on the pituitary, subsequent chapters discuss in detail the normal anatomy and pathology of the female and male reproductive systems. Remaining chapters provide state-of-the-art data on the thyroid, parathyroids, pancreatic endocrine tumors, adrenal glands, hormonal tumors (carcinoids and MEN), and imaging of the complications of hormone therapy. (orig.)

  16. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  17. Pesticides Provoke Endocrine Disruption A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, M.A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing numbers of environmental chemicals,including pesticides, have the ability to produce endocrine disruption by various mechanisms. such substances may affect hormone secretion from an endocrine gland and may alter the rate of hormone elimination from the body. environmental chemicals may also disrupt regulatory feedback mechanisms that exist between two endocrine organs; or may interact with a hormone receptor either by mimicking or antagonizing the actions of the natural hormone. these chemicals are referred to endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDC's). EDC's act to alter the blood hormone levels or the subsequent action of hormones . the use of radioimmunoassay(RIA) constitutes a superior and unrivalled tool for the determination and quantification of hormones.the endocrine system participates in virtually all important functions of an organism, such as sexual differentiation before birth, sexual maturation during puberty, reproduction in adulthood, growth, metabolism, digestion, cardiovascular function and excretion. hormones are also implicated in the etiology of certain cancers of hormone- dependent tissues, such as those of the breast, uterus, and prostate gland. therefore, endocrine disruption can potentially produce widespread effects. scientists should not stick to the past belief which presumes that pesticides have limited effect on some hormones. A paradigm shift in which a wider vision of understanding of the wholesome complex effects of pesticides on the whole body rather than a narrow limited understanding should take place

  18. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ...... metabolising system using liver S9 mixtures or hepatic rat microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, to be able to detect effects and predict mixture effects. In addition, a new hypothesis have emerge concerning a potential role of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and the development of obesity and obesity related diseases. AIM: This PhD project aimed to gain more information regarding...

  19. The pump, the exchanger, and the holy spirit: origins and 40-year evolution of ideas about the ouabain-Na+ pump endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2018-01-01

    Two prescient 1953 publications set the stage for the elucidation of a novel endocrine system: Schatzmann's report that cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) are all Na + pump inhibitors, and Szent-Gyorgi's suggestion that there is an endogenous "missing screw" in heart failure that CTSs like digoxin may replace. In 1977 I postulated that an endogenous Na + pump inhibitor acts as a natriuretic hormone and simultaneously elevates blood pressure (BP) in salt-dependent hypertension. This hypothesis was based on the idea that excess renal salt retention promoted the secretion of a CTS-like hormone that inhibits renal Na + pumps and salt reabsorption. The hormone also inhibits arterial Na + pumps, elevates myocyte Na + and promotes Na/Ca exchanger-mediated Ca 2+ gain. This enhances vasoconstriction and arterial tone-the hallmark of hypertension. Here I describe how those ideas led to the discovery that the CTS-like hormone is endogenous ouabain (EO), a key factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension and heart failure. Seminal observations that underlie the still-emerging picture of the EO-Na + pump endocrine system in the physiology and pathophysiology of multiple organ systems are summarized. Milestones include: 1) cloning the Na + pump isoforms and physiological studies of mutated pumps in mice; 2) discovery that Na + pumps are also EO-triggered signaling molecules; 3) demonstration that ouabain, but not digoxin, is hypertensinogenic; 4) elucidation of EO's roles in kidney development and cardiovascular and renal physiology and pathophysiology; 5) discovery of "brain ouabain", a component of a novel hypothalamic neuromodulatory pathway; and 6) finding that EO and its brain receptors modulate behavior and learning.

  20. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  1. Management of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahaly, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine orbitopathy is the most common extrathyroidal manifestation of Basedow's disease and is characterized by a lymphocyte infiltration of the peribulbar space. Infiltrating and activated T cells react with orbital target cells and secrete cytokines, leading to accumulation of glycosaminoglycans, interstitial edema, and enlargement of the extra ocular muscels. Interdisciplinary management is recommended for rapid diagnosis and effective therapy of patients with endocrine orbitopathy. Immunosuppressive treatment is often used initially, and by suppressing inflammatory changes, it can result in subjective and objective improvement of thyroid eye disease. (orig.) [de

  2. Experimental evidence of a dual endocrine control of biosynthesis in the main nidamental glands of Sepia officinalis L. by factors from the central nervous system and the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, J; Boucaud-Camou, E

    1993-12-01

    1. A rapid, reliable and quantitative in vitro bioassay was developed to study the endocrine control of the biosynthesis of the egg capsule: incorporation of 14C-labelled D-glucose in polysaccharides and glycoproteins increased in dispersed-cell suspensions of main nidamental glands from maturing females. 2. Brain, optic lobes (OL) and ovary extracts from mature and maturing females stimulated the incorporation of 14C-labelled D-glucose in polysaccharidic and glycoproteic fractions of a nidamental cell suspension, whereas optic gland (OG) had no effect. 3. These results bring the first experimental evidence that one of the spawning events (egg-capsule edification) is controlled by the central nervous system and the ovary in a cephalopod.

  3. What Is Men's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search form Search What is Men's Endocrine Health? Men's endocrine health incorporates physical activity and sound nutrition to maintain a strong body; however, a major emphasis includes male sexuality ...

  4. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  5. Molecular mechanism of endocrine system impairment by 17α-methyltestosterone in gynogenic Pengze crucian carp offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Chen, Jiazhang; Liu, Yan; Gao, Jiancao; Yang, Yanping; Zhang, Yingying; Bing, Xuwen; Gao, Zexia; Liang, Hongwei; Wang, Zaizhao

    2016-06-01

    The effects of synthetic androgen 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) on endocrine impairment were examined in crucian carp. Immature 7-month old mono-female Pengze crucian carp (Pcc) F2 offspring were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/L of MT (week 2, 4, and 8). Gonadosomatic index, hepatosomatic index and intestine weight altered considerably and oocyte development was repressed. In the treatment groups, ovarian 11-ketotestosterone decreased, whereas 17β-estradiol and testosterone increased, and ovarian aromatase activities increased at week 4. However, in the brain tissue, those values significantly decreased. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated changes in steroid receptor genes and upregulation of steroidogenic genes (Pcc-3bhsd, Pcc-11bhsd2 Pcc-cyp11a1), while the other three steroidogenic genes (Pcc-cyp17a1, Pcc-cyp19a1a and Pcc-star) decreased from week 4 to week 8. Ovarian, hepatic Pcc-vtg B and vitellogenin concentration increased in both 50 and 100 μg/L of MT exposure groups. This study adds further information regarding the effects of androgens on the development of previtellogenic oocytes, which suggests that MT could directly target estrogen signaling pathway, or indirectly affect steroidogenesis and vitellogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric endocrine surgery development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Dedov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Department of pediatric surgery at the Endocrinology Research Centre has been around for nearly two years. During operation, surgical treatment has received more than 500 patients with various endocrine disorders. The article discusses modern diagnostic approaches and surgical options for diseases included in the new direction of pediatric surgery – endocrine surgery in children. There are discussions about options for radical treatment of Graves disease in children, positive and negative aspects of surgical and radioactive iodine treatment. Is own stats of postoperative hyperparathyroidism. Is proposed to optimize the algorithm of actions in identifying thyroid nodules in children. In primary hyperparathyroidism, the emphasis is on the complexity of the postoperative management of patients related to the feature of children’s age in determining the severity of the reactions on the water-electrolyte disorders. Separately reviewed the literature of the adrenal glands diseases in children, demonstrating their own clinical cases which required surgical intervention. The authors describe the possibilities of modern neurosurgical equipment in the Endocrinology Research Centre in operations on the pituitary gland in children. Patients of different age groups performed transnasal transsphenoidal removal of tumors of the chiasm-sellar region using endoscopic assistance. The article also cited research data of pancreas diseases and their surgical treatment. Much attention is paid to the gender section of endocrine surgery in children. Discusses the tactics in disorders of sex development, gonadal tumors in children, diseases of the breast. In conclusion outlines the prospects for the development of endocrine surgery in children.

  7. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Articles should be restricted to clinical or basic studies, particularly translational research, which add new information to the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of endocrine disorders that have not been published previously. These manuscripts should be restricted to 3,500 words, no more than 40 references, and no ...

  8. Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts original contributions related to the practice and science of clinical endocrinology, articles updating the clinical endocrinologist on current areas of interest in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, articles discussing dilemma facing endocrinologists in the clinical, social, and ethical arena of ...

  9. Endocrine diseases in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, N.J.; van Zeeland, Y.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Endocrine diseases are among the most commonly seen conditions in ferrets. Tumours of the islet cells in the pancreas, referred to as insulinomas, and tumours of the adrenal glands, referred to as hyperadrenocorticism, are more commonly described in this species than in any other species.

  10. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  11. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  12. [Vitamin D and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Natielen Jacques; Garcia, Vivian Cristina; Martini, Ligia Araújo

    2009-07-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency has been worldwide reported in all age groups in recent years. It has been considered a Public Health matter since decreased levels of vitamin D has been related to several chronic diseases, as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity and hypertension. Glucose intolerance and insulin secretion has been observed during vitamin D deficiency, both in animals and humans resulting in T2DM. The supposed mechanism underlying these findings is presence of vitamin D receptor in several tissues and cells, including pancreatic beta-cells, adipocyte and muscle cells. In obese individuals, the impaired vitamin D endocrine system, characterized by high levels of PTH and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could induce a negative feedback for the hepatic synthesis of 25(OH)D and also contribute to a higher intracellular calcium, which in turn secrete less insulin and deteriorate insulin sensitivity. In hypertension, vitamin D could act on renin-angiotensin system and also in vascular function. Administration of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) could decreases renin gene expression and inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. However, prospective and intervention human studies that clearly demonstrates the benefits of vitamin D status adequacy in the prevention and treatment of endocrine metabolic diseases are lacking. Further research still necessary to assure the maximum benefit of vitamin D in such situations.

  13. Radiation pathomorphology of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzhakov, V.V.; Yakovleva, N.D.; Kvetnoj, I.M.; Ulitina, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the results of histochemical, electronmicroscopic and radioautographic analysis of the effects of a total single gamma irradiation on the functional morphology of cells of the diffuse endocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. Irradiation in dosses from 5 to 20 Gy results in reduction of the detectability of argyrophilic and argentaffine cells. Changes in these cells counts are related to the irradiation dose. The reaction observed early after the irradiation is related to changes in the endocrine and endoplasmatic reticulum

  14. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetic and endocrine emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, T; Dang, C

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine emergencies constitute only a small percentage of the emergency workload of general doctors, comprising about 1.5% of all hospital admission in England in 2004–5. Most of these are diabetes related with the remaining conditions totalling a few hundred cases at most. Hence any individual doctor might not have sufficient exposure to be confident in their management. This review discusses the management of diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, hypoglycaemia, hyperca...

  16. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  17. Radiotherapy of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weischedel, U.; Wieland, C.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of the history and a discussion of recent theories about pathogenesis of endocrine ophthalmopathy the authros give a report on their radiotherapeutical treatment results with cobalt-60-γ-rays in 50 patients. Amelioration was achieved in 50% of the cases, in the other 50% no progression was seen. Radiotherapy is of antiphlogistic and functional effectivity and should be integrated in the treatment regime in early stages. (orig.) [de

  18. Depresión y neuroplasticidad: Interacción de los sistemas nervioso, endocrino e inmune Depression and neuroplasticity: Interaction of nervous, endocrine and immune systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cassano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La depresión clínica es una enfermedad física y psíquica que presenta bases neuropatológicas, sin embargo aún no se tiene un conocimiento exacto del origen o causas de esta enfermedad. Se conoce que existe un componente genético, aunque el componente ambiental en el desarrollo de la depresión es innegable. El estrés juega un rol esencial en el desencadenamiento de la depresión. La interacción y respuesta del sistema endocrino, inmune y nervioso se encuentran afectadas en este desorden. La observación de los efectos de los antidepresivos sobre la neurotransmisión monoaminérgica ha llevado hace muchos años a la hipótesis de las monoaminas de la depresión. Sin embargo, esta hipótesis ya no puede explicar muchos de los efectos de las drogas antidepresivas. La nueva hipótesis para explicar los efectos de los antidepresivos es la de neuroplasticidad neuronal. Esta hipótesis propone que los cambios que esas drogas producen sobre diversos sistemas, entre ellos el sistema nervioso, el inmune y el endocrino, son capaces de inducir cambios neuroadaptativos en el cerebro. La neuroplasticidad ha sido definida como la habilidad del cerebro para reorganizarse a sí mismo y formar nuevas conexiones neuronales a lo largo de la vida. Se propone que el mecanismo por el cual los antidepresivos logran sus efectos es mediante la neuroplasticidad.Clinical depression is a physical and psychic disease that has neuropathological basis, although the clear understanding of its ethiopathology is still missing. There is evidence of a genetic component in depression, however, the participation of environment is crucial. Stress plays an essential role in the onset of depression. The interaction and the response of the endocrine system with the immune and nervous system are altered in depression. The observation of the effect of antidepressants on monoaminergic transmitters leads to the hypothesis of monoamines. However this hypothesis cannot explain many of

  19. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  1. Radiological imaging in endocrine hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan J Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While different generations of assays have played important role in elucidating causes of different endocrine disorders, radiological techniques are instrumental in localizing the pathology. This statement cannot be truer in any disease entity other than endocrine hypertension. This review makes an effort to highlight the role of different radiological modalities, especially ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the evaluation of different causes of endocrine hypertension.

  2. Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira-Fernandes

    Full Text Available Recently the environmental obesogen hypothesis has been formulated, proposing a role for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the development of obesity. To evaluate this hypothesis, a screening system for obesogenic compounds is urgently needed. In this study, we suggest a standardised protocol for obesogen screening based on the 3T3-L1 cell line, a well-characterised adipogenesis model, and direct fluorescent measurement using Nile red lipid staining technique. In a first phase, we characterised the assay using the acknowledged obesogens rosiglitazone and tributyltin. Based on the obtained dose-response curves for these model compounds, a lipid accumulation threshold value was calculated to ensure the biological relevance and reliability of statistically significant effects. This threshold based method was combined with the well described strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD method for classification of non-, weak- or strong obesogenic compounds. In the next step, a range of EDCs, used in personal and household care products (parabens, musks, phthalates and alkylphenol compounds, were tested to further evaluate the obesogenicity screening assay for its discriminative power and sensitivity. Additionally, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ dependency of the positive compounds was evaluated using PPARγ activation and antagonist experiments. Our results showed the adipogenic potential of all tested parabens, several musks and phthalate compounds and bisphenol A (BPA. PPARγ activation was associated with adipogenesis for parabens, phthalates and BPA, however not required for obesogenic effects induced by Tonalide, indicating the role of other obesogenic mechanisms for this compound.

  3. In vivo identical reversibility of rad-bio-chem lesions in blood, bone marrow, liver, endocrine system and on the whole body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, C.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental scientific researches of a new patented pharmaceutical product STANOSIMAGNE, was initiated, directed and developed since 1995, as interdisciplinary challenge for in vivo decorporation on natural way of radio-toxic uranium (235U) and radionuclides, and the treatment of lesions induced by radiation injury, or heavy metals. The synergic effect - decorporation and reversibility - for in vivo identical reversibility of rad-bio-chem lesions in blood, bone marrow, liver, endocrine system, derma and vital organs verifies and sustains the scientific discovery. The safety and efficiency of clinical administration of the medicine STANOSIMAGNE capsules and ointment is based on the non-clinic (pre-clinic) practical pharmacological research on 635 standard laboratory animals regarding the absence of any kind of toxicity. The pharmacology researches have been carried out, along with medical, pharmaceutical and biochemical didactic specialists, coming from the Laboratories Departments of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry, Biochemistry, Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technique of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy 'Carol Davila', Bucharest. The treatment of the persons exposed to irradiation or heavy metals contamination, in risk areas, and the continuation of the pilot clinical studies on several cases, that could not be solved by regular medical methods and treatments, are in accordance with the Directive 2001/20/CE, of the Parliament of the European Union, which implement the norms of good practice, in clinical studies.(author)

  4. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T.; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products– including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption. PMID:21899826

  5. Exposure to a complex cocktail of environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds disturbs the kisspeptin/GPR54 system in ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Michelle; Fowler, Paul A; Amezaga, Maria R; Rhind, Stewart M; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Sharpe, Richard M; Evans, Neil P

    2009-10-01

    Ubiquitous environmental chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are associated with declining human reproductive health, as well as an increasing incidence of cancers of the reproductive system. Verifying such links requires animal models exposed to "real-life," environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of EDC, particularly in utero, when sensitivity to EDC exposure is maximal. We evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to a pollutant cocktail (sewage sludge) on the ovine fetal reproductive neuroendocrine axes, particularly the kisspeptin (KiSS-1)/GPR54 (G-protein-coupled receptor 54) system. KiSS-1, GPR54, and ERalpha (estrogen receptor alpha) mRNA expression was quantified in control (C) and treated (T) maternal and fetal (110-day) hypothalami and pituitary glands using semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and colocalization of kisspeptin with LHbeta (luteinizing hormone beta) and ERalpha in C and T fetal pituitary glands quantified using dual-labeling immunohistochemistry. Fetuses exposed in utero to the EDC mixture showed reduced KiSS-1 mRNA expression across three hypothalamic regions examined (rostral, mid, and caudal) and had fewer kisspetin immunopositive cells colocalized with both LHbeta and ERalpha in the pituitary gland. In contrast, treatment had no effect on parameters measured in the adult ewe hypothalamus or pituitary. This study demonstrates that the developing fetus is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals, which cause significant neuroendocrine alterations. The important role of kisspeptin/GPR54 in regulating puberty and adult reproduction means that in utero disruption of this system is likely to have long-term consequences in adulthood and represents a novel, additional pathway through which environmental chemicals perturb human reproduction.

  6. The neuroimmune-endocrine axis: pathophysiological implications for the central nervous system cytokines and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal hormone dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Licinio

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are molecules that were initially discovered in the immune system as mediators of communication between various types of immune cells. However, it soon became evident that cytokines exert profound effects on key functions of the central nervous system, such as food intake, fever, neuroendocrine regulation, long-term potentiation, and behavior. In the 80's and 90's our group and others discovered that the genes encoding various cytokines and their receptors are expressed in vascular, glial, and neuronal structures of the adult brain. Most cytokines act through cell surface receptors that have one transmembrane domain and which transduce a signal through the JAK/STAT pathway. Of particular physiological and pathophysiological relevance is the fact that cytokines are potent regulators of hypothalamic neuropeptidergic systems that maintain neuroendocrine homeostasis and which regulate the body's response to stress. The mechanisms by which cytokine signaling affects the function of stress-related neuroendocrine systems are reviewed in this article.

  7. VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through

  8. Mitochondrial disease and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jasmine; Rahman, Joyeeta; Achermann, John C; Dattani, Mehul T; Rahman, Shamima

    2017-02-01

    Mitochondria are critical organelles for endocrine health; steroid hormone biosynthesis occurs in these organelles and they provide energy in the form of ATP for hormone production and trafficking. Mitochondrial diseases are multisystem disorders that feature defective oxidative phosphorylation, and are characterized by enormous clinical, biochemical and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mitochondrial diseases have been found to result from >250 monogenic defects encoded across two genomes: the nuclear genome and the ancient circular mitochondrial genome located within mitochondria themselves. Endocrine dysfunction is often observed in genetic mitochondrial diseases and reflects decreased intracellular production or extracellular secretion of hormones. Diabetes mellitus is the most frequently described endocrine disturbance in patients with inherited mitochondrial diseases, but other endocrine manifestations in these patients can include growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, hypoparathyroidism and thyroid disease. Although mitochondrial endocrine dysfunction frequently occurs in the context of multisystem disease, some mitochondrial disorders are characterized by isolated endocrine involvement. Furthermore, additional monogenic mitochondrial endocrine diseases are anticipated to be revealed by the application of genome-wide next-generation sequencing approaches in the future. Understanding the mitochondrial basis of endocrine disturbance is key to developing innovative therapies for patients with mitochondrial diseases.

  9. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health.

  10. [To the question of pathophysiological fundamentals of endocrine system functioning in patients with a first psychotic episode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorobets, L N

    2015-01-01

    To study the characteristics of prolactin secretion in patients with a first psychotic episode (FPE) with regard to disease severity, gender and patient's neuromediator system state. Author studied 76 patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders and 34 normals (control group). There was a significant negative sex-related correlation between the severity of psychopathologic symptoms and plasma prolactin levels. Based on the results author attempted to explain the hormonal disbalance in the patients with FPE taking into account the state of monoaminergic mediator systems in patients.

  11. Effects of Endocrine Disruptors Ethinylestradiol and Procloraz on the vocal system of the frog Xenopus tropicalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Nørum, Ulrik; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    -male competitive interactions. The call is associated with larger more numerous neural and muscular structures of sound production. The vocalization system of Xenopus and other Pipid frogs, the larynx and associated structures, is extremely sexual dimorphic. This includes both gross morphology such as size...

  12. Quantitative global sensitivity analysis of a biologically based dose-response pregnancy model for the thyroid endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumen, Annie; McNally, Kevin; George, Nysia; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Loizou, George D

    2015-01-01

    A deterministic biologically based dose-response model for the thyroidal system in a near-term pregnant woman and the fetus was recently developed to evaluate quantitatively thyroid hormone perturbations. The current work focuses on conducting a quantitative global sensitivity analysis on this complex model to identify and characterize the sources and contributions of uncertainties in the predicted model output. The workflow and methodologies suitable for computationally expensive models, such as the Morris screening method and Gaussian Emulation processes, were used for the implementation of the global sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity indices, such as main, total and interaction effects, were computed for a screened set of the total thyroidal system descriptive model input parameters. Furthermore, a narrower sub-set of the most influential parameters affecting the model output of maternal thyroid hormone levels were identified in addition to the characterization of their overall and pair-wise parameter interaction quotients. The characteristic trends of influence in model output for each of these individual model input parameters over their plausible ranges were elucidated using Gaussian Emulation processes. Through global sensitivity analysis we have gained a better understanding of the model behavior and performance beyond the domains of observation by the simultaneous variation in model inputs over their range of plausible uncertainties. The sensitivity analysis helped identify parameters that determine the driving mechanisms of the maternal and fetal iodide kinetics, thyroid function and their interactions, and contributed to an improved understanding of the system modeled. We have thus demonstrated the use and application of global sensitivity analysis for a biologically based dose-response model for sensitive life-stages such as pregnancy that provides richer information on the model and the thyroidal system modeled compared to local sensitivity analysis.

  13. Quantitative global sensitivity analysis of a biologically based dose-response pregnancy model for the thyroid endocrine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie eLumen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic biologically based dose-response model for the thyroidal system in a near-term pregnant woman and the fetus was recently developed to evaluate quantitatively thyroid hormone perturbations. The current work focuses on conducting a quantitative global sensitivity analysis on this complex model to identify and characterize the sources and contributions of uncertainties in the predicted model output. The workflow and methodologies suitable for computationally expensive models, such as the Morris screening method and Gaussian Emulation processes, were used for the implementation of the global sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity indices, such as main, total and interaction effects, were computed for a screened set of the total thyroidal system descriptive model input parameters. Furthermore, a narrower sub-set of the most influential parameters affecting the model output of maternal thyroid hormone levels were identified in addition to the characterization of their overall and pair-wise parameter interaction quotients. The characteristic trends of influence in model output for each of these individual model input parameters over their plausible ranges were elucidated using Gaussian Emulation processes. Through global sensitivity analysis we have gained a better understanding of the model behavior and performance beyond the domains of observation by the simultaneous variation in model inputs over their range of plausible uncertainties. The sensitivity analysis helped identify parameters that determine the driving mechanisms of the maternal and fetal iodide kinetics, thyroid function and their interactions, and contributed to an improved understanding of the system modeled. We have thus demonstrated the use and application of global sensitivity analysis for a biologically based dose-response model for sensitive life-stages such as pregnancy that provides richer information on the model and the thyroidal system modeled compared to local

  14. Morphofunctional characteristics of endocrine pancreatic damage exposed to imbalanced food with excess nutrients on mother – fetus system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Nikolayeva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study. The study is devoted to the mechanisms of pancreatic damage by exploring of its morphofunctional state as the result of imbalanced diet with an excess of nutrients on the mother – fetus system. Materials and Methods. Before pregnancy and during pregnancy the female rats were fed with an increased amount of carbohydrates. The control group of animals was maintained in standard vivarium conditions with normal balanced diet. Morphological processing included a set of histological and histochemical methods. Assessment of the secretory activity of the pancreas and hormones-substratum relationships was examined using biochemical method. Statistical investigation included a univariate dispersіon analysis. Results. We have defined the options of the pancreatic dysfunction (hyperpancreatism, hypopancreatism, dispancreatism in rats under the action of high fat and carbohydrates diet on the mother-fetus system. Also, high level of insulin combined with hypercorticosteronemia (in rats and hypocorticosteronemia (in some offspring was revealed, which probably had a compensatory character and caused the activation of catabolic processes. This is evidenced by hyperglycemia, mild hypoproteinemia, insignificant increased level of fatty acids and significant increased level of ketone bodies. We have found that the rats, as well as their mothers, are exposed to marked violation of morphology and function of the pancreas (we have found out the compensatory hypertrophy and hyperplasia, a sufficiently high morphofunctional activity in the structural components of the pancreas while strengthening the dystrophic and sclerotic processes, which persist in the first two months of postnatal life, despite the physiological conditions of existence and balanced diet. We have clarified the mechanism of pancreas damage in rats as a result of an imbalanced diet on the mother – fetus system. Conclusions. The results of the study indicate that the

  15. Endocrine Actions of Osteocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Patti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Once transcribed, this protein undergoes posttranslational modifications within osteoblastic cells before its secretion, including the carboxylation of three glutamic residues in glutamic acid, which is essential for hydroxyapatite binding and deposition in the extracellular matrix of bone. Recent provocative data from experimental observations in mice showed that the circulating undercarboxylated fraction of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion and sensitivity, lowers blood glucose, and decreases visceral fat in both genders, while it enhances testosterone production by the testes in males. Moreover, both total and undercarboxylated osteocalcins increase following physical activity with potential positive effects on glucose tolerance. Despite that these evidences have been only in part confirmed in humans, further prospective investigations are needed to definitively establish the endocrine role of osteocalcin both in the general population and cohorts of patients with diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

  16. Preparation of Single-cohort Colonies and Hormone Treatment of Worker Honeybees to Analyze Physiology Associated with Role and/or Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi; Kubo, Takeo

    2016-09-06

    Honeybee workers are engaged in various tasks related to maintaining colony activity. The tasks of the workers change according to their age (age-related division of labor). Young workers are engaged in nursing the brood (nurse bees), while older workers are engaged in foraging for nectar and pollen (foragers). The physiology of the workers changes in association with this role shift. For example, the main function of the hypopharyngeal glands (HPGs) changes from the secretion of major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) to the secretion of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Because worker tasks change as the workers age in typical colonies, it is difficult to discriminate the physiological changes that occur with aging from those that occur with the role shift. To study the physiological changes in worker tissues, including the HPGs, in association with the role shift, it would be useful to manipulate the honeybee colony population by preparing single-cohort colonies in which workers of almost the same age perform different tasks. Here we describe a detailed protocol for preparing single-cohort colonies for this analysis. Six to eight days after single-cohort colony preparation, precocious foragers that perform foraging tasks earlier than usual appear in the colony. Representative results indicated role-associated changes in HPG gene expression, suggesting role-associated HPG function. In addition to manipulating the colony population, analysis of the endocrine system is important for investigating role-associated physiology. Here, we also describe a detailed protocol for treating workers with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), an active form of ecdysone, and methoprene, a juvenile hormone analogue. The survival rate of treated bees was sufficient to examine gene expression in the HPGs. Gene expression changes were observed in response to 20E- and/or methoprene-treatment, suggesting that hormone treatments induce physiological changes of the HPGs. The protocol for hormone

  17. Endocrine autoimmune diseases and female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Aritro; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that immune-mediated processes affect female reproductive success at multiple levels. Crosstalk between endocrine and immune systems regulates a large number of biological processes that affect target tissues, and this crosstalk involves gene expression, cytokine and/or lymphokine release and hormone action. In addition, endocrine-immune interactions have a major role in the implantation process of the fetal (paternally derived) semi-allograft, which requires a reprogramming process of the maternal immune system from rejection to temporary tolerance for the length of gestation. Usually, the female immune system is supportive of all of these processes and, therefore, facilitates reproductive success. Abnormalities of the female immune system, including autoimmunity, potentially interfere at multiple levels. The relevance of the immune system to female infertility is increasingly recognized by investigators, but clinically is often not adequately considered and is, therefore, underestimated. This Review summarizes the effect of individual autoimmune endocrine diseases on female fertility, and points towards selected developments expected in the near future.

  18. ENDOCRINE PANCREATIC FUNCTION IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Novokhatny

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study the endocrine function of pancreas in acute pancreatitis. To define the role of endocrine pancreatic function in the etiology and pathogenesis of the acute pancreatitis. To assess the prospects of the use of pancreatic hormones in the treatment and predicting the outcomes of acute pancreatitis. Materials and methods of the research Survey of publications in specialized periodical medical journals, PubMed sources developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Search in PubMed was carried out in the following databases: MEDLINE, Pre MEDLINE. Results of the research. In a significant proportion of patients who recovered from acute pancreatitis, exocrine and endocrine functional impairments were found. This finding was not detected only in patients after severe acute pancreatitis. Routine evaluation of pancreatic function after acute pancreatitis should be considered. The comparative analysis of the synthetic analogues (somatostatin, calcitonin, leu-enkefalin-dalargin influence on the glucose metabolism of rats in acute pancreatitis of was made. Physiological reaction of beta-cells is preserved in infusion of somatostatin. However, infusion of calcitonin results in the distortion of counterregulatory action of insulin and glucagon. It was detected that pancreatic renin-angiotensin system is markedly activated in the experimental rat models of chronic hypoxia and acute pancreatitis. The activation of the pancreatic renin-angiotensin system by

  19. Octopus gonadotrophin-releasing hormone: a multifunctional peptide in the endocrine and nervous systems of the cephalopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, H; Shigeno, S; Kano, N; Haraguchi, S; Osugi, T; Tsutsui, K

    2009-03-01

    The optic gland, which is analogous to the anterior pituitary in the context of gonadal maturation, is found on the upper posterior edge of the optic tract of the octopus Octopus vulgaris. In mature octopus, the optic glands enlarge and secrete a gonadotrophic hormone. A peptide with structural features similar to that of vertebrate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was isolated from the brain of octopus and was named oct-GnRH. Oct-GnRH showed luteinising hormone-releasing activity in the anterior pituitary cells of the Japanese quail Coturnix coturnix. Oct-GnRH immunoreactive signals were observed in the glandular cells of the mature optic gland. Oct-GnRH stimulated the synthesis and release of sex steroids from the ovary and testis, and elicited contractions of the oviduct. Oct-GnRH receptor was expressed in the gonads and accessory organs, such as the oviduct and oviducal gland. These results suggest that oct-GnRH induces the gonadal maturation and oviposition by regulating sex steroidogenesis and a series of egg-laying behaviours via the oct-GnRH receptor. The distribution and expression of oct-GnRH in the central and peripheral nervous systems suggest that oct-GnRH acts as a multifunctional modulatory factor in feeding, memory processing, sensory, movement and autonomic functions.

  20. Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals: Review of Toxicological Mechanisms Using Molecular Pathway Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Oneyeol; Kim, Hye Lim; Weon, Jong-Il; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are known to cause harmful effects to human through various exposure routes. These chemicals mainly appear to interfere with the endocrine or hormone systems. As importantly, numerous studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of endocrine disruptors can induce fatal disorders including obesity and cancer. Using diverse biological tools, the potential molecular mechanisms related with these diseases by exposure of endocrine disruptors. Recently, pathway analysis, a bioinformatics tool, is being widely used to predict the potential mechanism or biological network of certain chemicals. In this review, we initially summarize the major molecular mechanisms involved in the induction of the above mentioned diseases by endocrine disruptors. Additionally, we provide the potential markers and signaling mechanisms discovered via pathway analysis under exposure to representative endocrine disruptors, bisphenol, diethylhexylphthalate, and nonylphenol. The review emphasizes the importance of pathway analysis using bioinformatics to finding the specific mechanisms of toxic chemicals, including endocrine disruptors. PMID:25853100

  1. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagusnerve

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from ...

  2. What Is Women's Endocrine Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harness the power to prevent endocrine disorders, the Power of Prevention. Childhood Childhood is a time of rapid growth and development to learn healthy living habits and priorities. It can, however, be a great ...

  3. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  4. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  5. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  6. Skin Manifestations of Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine diseases may result in changes in cutaneous function and morphology, which cause various skin manifestations, including nonspecific or pathognomonic signs. Some of these manifestations are already known dermatologic diseases with only increased frequency in this patient group. As a result the skin may the play role of a screen displaying endocrine disorders, either due to hormone excess or deficiency. Awareness of the skin manifestations may permit prompt and adequate approach to the patients, and therefore facilitate the early diagnosis of the endocrine disease and even be life saving. Some of these manifestations may be recognized clinically, but sometimes they need to be confirmed histopathologically. In this article, many endocrine diseases and their associated skin lesions will be reviewed briefly.

  7. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  8. Endocrine Abnormalities in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    In patients with chronic kidney disease the alterations of the endocrine system may arise from several causes. The kidney is the site of degradation as well as synthesis of many different hormones. Moreover, a number of concomitant pathological conditions such as inflammation, metabolic acidosis and malnutrition may participate in the pathogenesis of endocrine abnormalities in this group of patients. The most pronounced endocrine abnormalities in patients with chronic kidney disease are the deficiencies of: calcitriol, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor and, erythropoietin (EPO). Additionally accumulation of several hormones, such as: prolactin, growth hormone and insulin frequently also occur. The clinical consequences of the abovementioned endocrine abnormalities are among others: anemia, infertility and bone diseases.

  9. Childhood obesity and endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Taek Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity around the world has increased sharply. Strong evidence has emerged over the last decades that human exposure to numerous endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is the cause of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Many EDCs are manmade chemicals that are released into the environment. EDCs are exogenous compounds that interfere with hormonal regulation and normal endocrine systems, thereby affecting the health of animals and humans. The number of chemicals belonging to EDCs is increasing and some of them are very stable; they persist in the environment (persistent organic pollutants. Although they are banned, their concentrations have been continuously increasing over time. This review gives a brief introduction to common EDCs, and evidence of harmful effects of EDCs on obesity-related diseases; we focus in particular on EDCs’ role in causing mitochondrial dysfunction.

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article. PMID:28208663

  12. Endocrine myopathy: Case-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babul Reddy Hanmayyagari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine myopathy means muscle weakness in the presence of an abnormal endocrine state. Most of the endocrine disorders are associated with myopathy and it is usually reversible with correction of the underlying disturbance, though, there is an increasing knowledge of the metabolic effects of hormones, endocrine myopathy is a less recognized and often overlooked entity in clinical practice. Here, we describe this association in three of our patients, then, we discuss systematically about endocrine myopathy.

  13. Endocrine Dysfunctions in Patients with Inherited Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Şahin; Sağlam, Halil

    2016-09-01

    Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) can affect many organ systems, including the endocrine system. There are limited data regarding endocrine dysfunctions related to IMDs in adults, however, no data exist in pediatric patients with IMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate endocrine dysfunctions in patients with IMDs by assessing their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Data were obtained retrospectively from the medical reports of patients with IMDs who were followed by the division of pediatric metabolism and nutrition between June 2011 and November 2013. In total, 260 patients [139 males (53%) and 121 females (47%)] with an IMD diagnosis were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 5.94 (range; 0.08 to 49) years and 95.8% (249 of 260 patients) were in the pediatric age group. Growth status was evaluated in 258 patients and of them, 27 (10.5%) had growth failure, all cases of which were attributed to non-endocrine reasons. There was a significant correlation between growth failure and serum albumin levels below 3.5 g/dL (p=0.002). Only three of 260 (1.1%) patients had endocrine dysfunction. Of these, one with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and another with Kearns-Sayre syndrome had diabetes, and one with glycerol kinase deficiency had glucocorticoid deficiency. Endocrine dysfunction in patients with IMDs is relatively rare. For this reason, there is no need to conduct routine endocrine evaluations in most patients with IMDs unless a careful and detailed history and a physical examination point to an endocrine dysfunction.

  14. Targeting the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for the management of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases: An historical view and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Zouboulis, Christos C; Vogt, Thomas; Holick, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D represents one of the major driving factors for the development of life on earth and for human evolution. While up to 10-20 % of the human organism's requirements in vitamin D can be obtained by the diet (under most living conditions in the USA and Europe), approximately 90 % of all needed vitamin D has to be photosynthesized in the skin through the action of the sun (ultraviolet-B (UV-B)). The skin represents a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), being both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites. It was shown that human keratinocytes possess the enzymatic machinery (CYP27B1) for the synthesis of the biologically most active natural vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), representing an autonomous vitamin D 3 pathway. Cutaneous production of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 may exert intracrine, autocrine, and paracrine effects on keratinocytes and on neighboring cells. Many skin cells (including keratinocytes, sebocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, and skin immune cells) express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an absolute pre-requisite for the mediation of genomic effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and analogs. VDR belongs to the superfamily of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors, which includes the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors as well as the retinoid X receptors (RXR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR). Numerous studies, including cDNA microarray analyses of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), indicate that as many as 500-1000 genes may be regulated by VDR ligands that control various cellular functions including growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The observation that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is extremely effective in inducing the terminal differentiation and in inhibiting the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes has resulted in the use of vitamin D analogs for the treatment of psoriasis. This review gives an historical view and summarizes our present

  15. Challenge and perspective: the relevance of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-03-16

    During evolution, the ability of many organisms to synthesize vitamin D photochemically represented, and still represents, a major driving factor for the development of life on earth. In humans because not more than 10-20% of the requirement of vitamin D can be satisfied by the diet (under most living conditions in the US and Europe), the remaining 80-90% need to be photochemically synthesized in the skin through the action of solar or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The skin is a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), representing both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites. Human keratinocytes contain the enzymatic machinery (CYP27B1) for the synthesis of the biologically most active natural vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ), representing an autonomous vitamin D 3 pathway. Cutaneous production of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 may mediate intracrine, autocrine and paracrine effects on keratinocytes and on neighboring cells. Many skin cells (including keratinocytes, sebocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, macrophages and other skin immune cells) express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an absolute pre-requisite for exerting genomic effects of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 and analogs. The VDR is a member of the superfamily of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors, which also contains the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors as well as the retinoid-X receptors (RXR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR). A large body of evidence, including cDNA microarray analyses of mRNAs, indicates that as many as 500-1000 genes may be controlled by VDR ligands that regulate a broad variety of cellular functions including growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clinical and laboratory investigations, including the observation that 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 is very effective in inducing the terminal differentiation and in inhibiting the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes have resulted

  16. Celiac disease and endocrine autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaly, George J; Schuppan, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a small-intestinal inflammatory disease that is triggered by the ingestion of the storage proteins (gluten) of wheat, barley and rye. Endocrine autoimmunity is prevalent in patients with CD and their relatives. The genes that predispose to endocrine autoimmune diseases, e.g. type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid diseases, and Addison's disease, i.e. DR3-DQ2 and DR4-DQ8, are also the major genetic determinants of CD, which is the best understood HLA-linked disease. Thus, up to 30% of first-degree relatives both of patients with CD and/or endocrine autoimmunity are affected by the other disease. In CD, certain gluten proteins bind with high affinity to HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 in the small-intestinal mucosa, to activate gluten-specific T cells which are instrumental in the destruction of the resorptive villi. Here, the autoantigen tissue transglutaminase increases the T cell response by generating deamidated gluten peptides that bind more strongly to DQ2 or DQ8. Classical symptoms such as diarrhea and consequences of malabsorption like anemia and osteoporosis are often absent in patients with (screening-detected) CD, but this absence does not significantly affect these patients' incidence of endocrine autoimmunity. Moreover, once autoimmunity is established, a gluten-free diet is not able to induce remission. However, ongoing studies attempt to address how far a gluten-free diet may prevent or retard the development of CD and endocrine autoimmunity in children at risk. The close relationship between CD and endocrine autoimmunity warrants a broader immune genetic and endocrine screening of CD patients and their relatives. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Neurobehavioral endocrine regulation of small mammal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A brief review is given of the hypothesis that density-dependent behavioral-endocrine negative feedbacks can regulate and often limit the growth of populations of many species of small mammals. Recent laboratory studies are summarized that show how stress, particularly psychogenic, which results in increased adrenocortical secretion also alters gonadotropin secretion and inhibits reproduction. Chronic stress due to crowding, immobilization, et al. inhibits the release of LH and FSH, particularly by abolishing the pulsatile release of LH, and also causes a rise in prolactin (at least acutely). Stimulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical system is accompanied by an inversely proportional inhibition of growth hormone secretion. Decreasing photoperiod enhances the sensitivity of the hypothalamus to inhibition of gonadotropin secretion by androgens and estrogens. Other endocrine responses to increased density or subordinate social rank also are summarized. How these facts fit into the negative feedback scheme is discussed, including the greatly prolonged effects of diminished lactation. The changed quality of the animals associated with changes in density discussed by Lidicker also can be explained by the above responses to density. Data on changes in growth and reproductive function which are consistent with the behavioral-endocrine feedback hypothesis are presented for several populations of small mammals, including some previously unpublished data for Microtus pennsylvanicus

  18. Comparative effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on the aquatic larvae of Chironomus riparius based on gene expression assays related to the endocrine system, the stress response and ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planelló, Rosario; Herrero, Oscar; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis; Morcillo, Gloria

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two of the most extensively used phthalates, were studied in Chironomus riparius under acute short-term treatments, to compare their relative toxicities and identify genes sensitive to exposure. The ecotoxicity of these phthalates was assessed by analysis of the alterations in gene expression profiles of selected inducible and constitutive genes related to the endocrine system, the cellular stress response and the ribosomal machinery. Fourth instar larvae, a model system in aquatic toxicology, were experimentally exposed to five increasing concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100mg/L) of DEHP and BBP for 24h. Gene expression was analysed by the changes in levels of transcripts, using RT-PCR techniques with specific gene probes. The exposures to DEHP or BBP were able to rapidly induce the hsp70 gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the cognate form hsc70 was not altered by either of these chemicals. Transcription of ribosomal RNA as a measure of cell viability, quantified by the levels of ITS2, was not affected by DEHP, but was slightly, yet significantly, downregulated by BBP at the highest concentrations tested. Finally, as these phthalates are classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), their potential effect on the ecdysone endocrine system was studied by analysing the two genes, EcR and usp, of the heterodimeric ecdysone receptor complex. It was found that BBP provoked the overexpression of the EcR gene, with significant increases from exposures of 0.1mg/L and above, while DEHP significantly decreased the activity of this gene at the highest concentration. These data are relevant as they show for the first time the ability of phthalates to interfere with endocrine marker genes in invertebrates, demonstrating their potential capacity to alter the ecdysone signalling pathway. Overall, the study clearly shows a differential gene-toxin interaction

  19. Assessment of thyroid endocrine system impairment and oxidative stress mediated by cobalt ferrite (CoFe2 O4 ) nanoparticles in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farooq; Liu, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Ying; Yao, Hongzhou; Zhao, Fangfang; Ling, Zhaoxing; Xu, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Fascinating super paramagnetic uniqueness of iron oxide particles at nano-scale level make them extremely useful in the state of the art therapies, equipments, and techniques. Cobalt ferrite (CoFe 2 O 4 ) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively used in nano-based medicine and electronics, results in extensive discharge and accumulation into the environment. However, very limited information is available for their endocrine disrupting potential in aquatic organisms. In this study, the thyroid endocrine disrupting ability of CoFe 2 O 4 NPs in Zebrafish larvae for 168-h post fertilization (hpf) was evaluated. The results showed the elevated amounts of T4 and T3 hormones by malformation of hypothalamus pituitary axis in zebrafish larvae. These elevated levels of whole body THs leads to delayed hatching, head and eye malformation, arrested development, and alterations in metabolism. The influence of THs disruption on ROS production and change in activities of catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione s-transferase (mu-GST), and acid phosphatase (AP) were also studied. The production of significantly higher amounts of in vivo generation of ROS leads to membrane damage and oxidative stress. Presences of NPs and NPs agglomerates/aggregates were also the contributing factors in mechanical damaging the membranes and physiological structure of thyroid axis. The increased activities of CAT, mu-GST, and AP confirmed the increased oxidative stress, possible DNA, and metabolic alterations, respectively. The excessive production of in vivo ROS leads to severe apoptosis in head, eye, and heart region confirming that malformation leads to malfunctioning of hypothalamus pituitary axis. ROS-induced oxidative DNA damage by formation of 8-OHdG DNA adducts elaborates the genotoxicity potential of CoFe 2 O 4 NPs. This study will help us to better understand the risk and assessment of endocrine disrupting potential of nanoparticles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 2068

  20. Scintigraphic imaging of endocrine organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, M.D.; Shapiro, B.; Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear medicine approach to the portrayal of endocrine organs is unique; the scintigraphic images provide not only anatomic and localization information, but in many instances allow a quantitative assessment of organ function. The ability to image endocrine glands is based upon the design of radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals with characteristics to take advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and advantage of many unique and specific biochemical and metabolic functions of these tissues. The recent introduction of new radiopharmaceutical and tracers has provided the consulting endocrinologist with imaging procedures that allow localization and functional characterization not available by other single, noninvasive diagnostic modalities. This review will serve as an update of the available techniques to image and quantitate the function of the endocrine glands using the nuclear medicine approach

  1. Psychosocial approach to endocrine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonino, Nicoletta; Tomba, Elena; Fava, Giovanni A

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the psychosocial aspects of endocrine disease, such as the role of life stress in the pathogenesis of some conditions, their association with affective disorders, and the presence of residual symptoms after adequate treatment. In clinical endocrinology, exploration of psychosocial antecedents may elucidate the temporal relationships between life events and symptom onset, as it has been shown to be relevant for pituitary (Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia) or thyroid (Graves' disease) conditions, as well as the role of allostatic load, linked to chronic stress, in uncovering a person's vulnerability. After endocrine abnormalities are established, they are frequently associated with a wide range of psychological symptoms: at times, such symptoms reach the level of psychiatric illness (mainly mood and anxiety disorders); at other times, however, they can only be identified by the subclinical forms of assessment provided by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR). Indeed, in a population study, the majority of patients suffered from at least one of the three DCPR syndromes considered: irritable mood, demoralization, persistent somatization. In particular, irritable mood was found to occur in 46% of 146 patients successfully treated for endocrine conditions, a rate similar to that found in cardiology and higher than in oncology and gastroenterology. Long-standing endocrine disorders may imply a degree of irreversibility of the pathological process and induce highly individualized affective responses. In patients who showed persistence or even worsening of psychological distress upon proper endocrine treatment, the value of appropriate psychiatric interventions was underscored. As it happened in other fields of clinical medicine, a conceptual shift from a merely biomedical care to a psychosomatic consideration of the person and his/her quality of life appears to be necessary for improving

  2. Endocrine Disorders in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is frequently complicated by endocrine disorders. Diabetes can be expected to affect most with CF and pancreatic insufficiency and varies widely in age of onset, but early identification and treatment improve morbidity and mortality. Short stature can be exacerbated by relative delay of puberty and by use of inhaled corticosteroids. Bone disease in CF causes fragility fractures and should be assessed by monitoring bone mineral density and optimizing vitamin D status. Detecting and managing endocrine complications in CF can reduce morbidity and mortality in CF. These complications can be expected to become more common as the CF population ages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endocrine ophthalmopathy and radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, F. Anders

    2006-01-01

    Endocrine ophthalmopathy is to some degree present in most patients with Graves' disease. In few cases, a severe form of the condition develops and in the majority of these cases, the course of the eye problems has been influenced by the treatment for thyrotoxicosis. In this regard, radioiodine therapy has been increasingly recognized as carrying a special risk. Here, the current understanding of endocrine ophthalmopathy and the risks associated with the development of severe eye disease are discussed. The results of a retrospective investigation of patients with severe eye disease in our hospital, and the experience with corticosteroid administration following radioiodine in order to reduce the risk of ophthalmopathy, are also presented

  4. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and male reproductive health: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Balabanič

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Balanced functioning of the endocrine system is essential for preservation of human species by providing normal growth and development, reproduction, and normal functioning of all other organ systems. In the last decades, emerging area of interest is the impact of environmental exposures to human health. Important environmental pollutants are endocrine-disrupting che- micals (EDCs, which can have adverse e ects on the living organism due to their interference with the endocrine system. The group of known EDCs embraces ubiquitous synthetic substan- ces used as industrial lubricants and solvents, with their by-products, incomplete combustion remains, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, pesticides and plasticizers. Natural com- pounds such as genistein, a phytoestrogen, and heavy metals can also have endocrine e ects. Endocrine disruption is a serious public health problem. EDCs among other health problems ge- nerate reproductive disorders in males, such as decreases in sperm count and quality, increases in testicular germ cell numbers, prostate and breast cancers, cryptorchidism and hypospadias, impaired fertility, and infertility. This paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impa- ct of EDCs on reproductive disorders in human males.

  5. Arterial and venous thrombosis in endocrine diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zaane, Bregje; Stuijver, Danka J. F.; Squizzato, Alessandro; Gerdes, Victor E. A.

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine diseases have been associated with cardiovascular events. Both altered coagulation and fibrinolysis markers and thrombotic disorders have been described in several endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the evidence on the influence of thyroid diseases, cortisol excess and deficiency,

  6. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J. L.; Taat, C. W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W. H.; Becker, A. E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were

  8. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.J.; Lois, J.F.; Gomes, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A case of multiple endocrine neoplasia (Men) consisting of an unusual combination of an insulin-producing islet cell tumour and an adrenal adenoma is reported. CT clearly demonstrated the adrenal mass whereas the pancreatic lesion remained questionable. Conversely angiography located the pancreatic tumour but the adrenal findings were subtle. (orig.)

  9. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  10. A critical review of histopathological findings associated with endocrine and non-endocrine hepatic toxicity in fish models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jeffrey C; Wheeler, James R

    2018-04-01

    Although frequently examined as a target organ for non-endocrine toxicity, histopathological evaluation of the liver is becoming a routine component of endocrine disruption studies that utilize various fish species as test subjects. However, the interpretation of microscopic liver findings can be challenging, especially when attempting to distinguish adverse changes associated with endocrine disrupting substances from those caused by systemic or direct hepatic toxicity. The purpose of this project was to conduct a critical assessment of the available peer-reviewed and grey literature concerning the histopathologic effects of reproductive endocrine active substances (EAS) and non-endocrine acting substances in the livers of fish models, and to determine if liver histopathology can be used to reliably distinguish endocrine from non-endocrine etiologies. The results of this review suggest that few compound-specific histopathologic liver effects have been identified, among which are estrogen agonist-induced increases in hepatocyte basophilia and proteinaceous intravascular fluid in adult male teleosts, and potentially, decreased hepatocyte basophilia in female fish exposed to substances that possess androgenic, anti-estrogenic, or aromatase inhibitory activity. This review also used published standardized methodology to assess the credibility of the histopathology data in each of the 117 articles that reported liver effects of treatment, and consequently it was determined that in only 37% of those papers were the data considered either highly credible or credible. The outcome of this work highlights the value of histopathologic liver evaluation as an investigative tool for EAS studies, and provides information that may have implications for EAS hazard assessment. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dysbaric osteonecrosis (caisson disease of bone): are active oxygen species and the endocrine system responsible, and can control of the production of free radicals and their reaction products confer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G R

    1987-01-01

    The development of osteonecrosis after exposure to altered air pressures is consistent with cellular injury brought about by active oxygen species. The syndrome is considered to arise as a result of an unusual combination of circumstances in which hyperoxia itself, together with the additive responses of the endocrine system to hyperoxia, hypothermia and exertion, each appear to play a part; the net result is thought to increase the mitochondrial generation of superoxide. It is suggested that effective prophylaxis may be possible primarily by establishing a nutritional status that is adequate to ensure that the functional activities of radical-scavenging systems are not hampered by deficiencies either of essential trace elements or of vitamin E. Pharmacological pretreatments designed both to decrease excessive levels of superoxide through increased catalysis of anionic dismutation and to attenuate enzyme-dependent peroxidation may provide an additional line of defence.

  12. Direct and indirect endocrine disruption : aromatase and estrogen receptor-mediated processes in breast cancer development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heneweer, Marjoke

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been defined by the World Health Organization as: “exogenous substances or mixtures that alters function(s) of the endocrine system and causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations”. Synthetic, as well as,

  13. Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Catherine M; Ackerman, Kathryn E; Berga, Sarah L; Kaplan, Jay R; Mastorakos, George; Misra, Madhusmita; Murad, M Hassan; Santoro, Nanette F; Warren, Michelle P

    2017-05-01

    The American Society for Reproductive Medicine, the European Society of Endocrinology, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. This guideline was funded by the Endocrine Society. To formulate clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of eight experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The task force commissioned two systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Endocrine Society committees and members and cosponsoring organizations reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of this guideline. FHA is a form of chronic anovulation, not due to identifiable organic causes, but often associated with stress, weight loss, excessive exercise, or a combination thereof. Investigations should include assessment of systemic and endocrinologic etiologies, as FHA is a diagnosis of exclusion. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is necessary, including medical, dietary, and mental health support. Medical complications include, among others, bone loss and infertility, and appropriate therapies are under debate and investigation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  14. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  15. Designing Endocrine Disruption Out of the Next Generation of Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, T T; Abagyan, R; Blumberg, B; Collins, T J; Crews, D; DeFur, P L; Dickerson, S M; Edwards, T M; Gore, A C; Guillette, L J; Hayes, T; Heindel, J J; Moores, A; Patisaul, H B; Tal, T L; Thayer, K A; Vandenberg, L N; Warner, J; Watson, C S; Saal, F S Vom; Zoeller, R T; O'Brien, K P; Myers, J P

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of green chemistry is to avoid hazard in the design of new chemicals. This objective is best achieved when information about a chemical's potential hazardous effects is obtained as early in the design process as feasible. Endocrine disruption is a type of hazard that to date has been inadequately addressed by both industrial and regulatory science. To aid chemists in avoiding this hazard, we propose an endocrine disruption testing protocol for use by chemists in the design of new chemicals. The Tiered Protocol for Endocrine Disruption (TiPED) has been created under the oversight of a scientific advisory committee composed of leading representatives from both green chemistry and the environmental health sciences. TiPED is conceived as a tool for new chemical design, thus it starts with a chemist theoretically at "the drawing board." It consists of five testing tiers ranging from broad in silico evaluation up through specific cell- and whole organism-based assays. To be effective at detecting endocrine disruption, a testing protocol must be able to measure potential hormone-like or hormone-inhibiting effects of chemicals, as well as the many possible interactions and signaling sequellae such chemicals may have with cell-based receptors. Accordingly, we have designed this protocol to broadly interrogate the endocrine system. The proposed protocol will not detect all possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption, because scientific understanding of these phenomena is advancing rapidly. To ensure that the protocol remains current, we have established a plan for incorporating new assays into the protocol as the science advances. In this paper we present the principles that should guide the science of testing new chemicals for endocrine disruption, as well as principles by which to evaluate individual assays for applicability, and laboratories for reliability. In a 'proof-of-principle' test, we ran 6 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that act via

  16. Immunohistochemical study on gastrointestinal endocrine cells of four reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Gen; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS), glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted. RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates. Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS, SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus; while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells, which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found

  17. Specifying pancreatic endocrine cell fates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collombat, Patrick; Hecksher-Sørensen, Jacob; Serup, Palle; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2006-07-01

    Cell replacement therapy could represent an attractive alternative to insulin injections for the treatment of diabetes. However, this approach requires a thorough understanding of the molecular switches controlling the specification of the different pancreatic cell-types in vivo. These are derived from an apparently identical pool of cells originating from the early gut endoderm, which are successively specified towards the pancreatic, endocrine, and hormone-expressing cell lineages. Numerous studies have outlined the crucial roles exerted by transcription factors in promoting the cell destiny, defining the cell identity and maintaining a particular cell fate. This review focuses on the mechanisms regulating the morphogenesis of the pancreas with particular emphasis on recent findings concerning the transcription factor hierarchy orchestrating endocrine cell fate allocation.

  18. Afferent Endocrine Control of Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...

  19. Endocrine manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Philip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac disease can have extra gastrointestinal tract (GIT presentations, most of which are endocrine. The aim of this study was to present patients diagnosed to have celiac disease from an endocrine department and to study the prevalence of endocrinopathies in celiac disease. Materials and Methods: A total of 36 patients from the endocrinology department (LLRM Medical College, Meerut between January 2011 and July 2012 and who were diagnosed to have celiac disease were included in the study. Results: Short stature was the commonest presentation (25%, other presentations included short stature and delayed puberty (20%, delayed puberty (11%, screening for celiac disease in type-1 DM patients (17%, rickets (6%, anemia not responding to oral therapy (6%, type-1 DM with recurrent hypoglycaemia (6%, and osteomalacia (3%. The endocrine manifestations include (after complete evaluation short stature (58%, delayed puberty (31%, elevated alkaline phospahatase (67%, low calcium (22%, X-rays suggestive of osteomalacia or rickets (8%, capopedal spasm (6%, and night blindness (6%. Anti-TPO antibody positivity was found in 53%, hypothyroidism in 28%, subclinical hypothyroidism in 17%, and type-1 DM in 25% of the patients. A total of 14% patients had no GI symptoms. Conclusion: Celiac disease is an endocrine disrupter as well as the great masquerader having varied presentations including short stature, delayed puberty, and rickets. Some patients who have celiac disease may not have any GI symptoms, making the diagnosis all the more difficult. Also, there is significant incidence of celiac disease with hypothyroidism and type-1 DM, making screening for it important in these diseases.

  20. Pituitary autoantibodies in endocrine disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bensing, Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune endocrine disorders are characterised by the development of autoantibodies to specific autoantigens in the target organs. Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH) is a disease characterised by inflammation of the pituitary gland, often resulting in hypopituitarism. The aetiology of LyH is considered to be autoimmune. However, only a few pituitary autoantigens have so far been identified. Reliable autoantibody markers are requested in the diagnostic procedure of LyH to avoid...

  1. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  2. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-10-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.

  3. Roentgenodiagnosis of endocrinic osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Roentgenological symptoms of skeleton and bone joints pathological changes in diseases of pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, genitals and adrenal glands are described. Modern data on hormone effect on growth, development and differentiation of bone tissue of various age periods are given. Information on anatomy, physiology and age-dependent roentgenoanatomy of locomotor system is presented. The book is of interest to endocrinologists, pediatrists, orthopedists

  4. Endocrine Pancreas Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    conditions and then counted using Neubauer Hemocytometer (Hausser Scientific, Horsham, A), as previously published [4,25]. .3. UASMC Ki-67 staining As another...digital camera and interfaced with a computer. . Statistical analysis Results from each experiment were averaged and xpressed as mean± S.D. Comparisons...Images were captured by a Photometrics Cool SNAP digital camera (Roper Scientific, Tucson, AZ) and Nikon C1 confocal system at 40× objective lens and

  5. Spectrum of Endocrine Disorders in Central Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osei Sarfo-Kantanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although an increasing burden of endocrine disorders is recorded worldwide, the greatest increase is occurring in developing countries. However, the spectrum of these disorders is not well described in most developing countries. Objective. The objective of this study was to profile the frequency of endocrine disorders and their basic demographic characteristics in an endocrine outpatient clinic in Kumasi, central Ghana. Methods. A retrospective review was conducted on endocrine disorders seen over a five-year period between January 2011 and December 2015 at the outpatient endocrine clinic of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. All medical records of patients seen at the endocrine clinic were reviewed by endocrinologists and all endocrinological diagnoses were classified according to ICD-10. Results. 3070 adults enrolled for care in the endocrine outpatient service between 2011 and 2015. This comprised 2056 females and 1014 males (female : male ratio of 2.0 : 1.0 with an overall median age of 54 (IQR, 41–64 years. The commonest primary endocrine disorders seen were diabetes, thyroid, and adrenal disorders at frequencies of 79.1%, 13.1%, and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions. Type 2 diabetes and thyroid disorders represent by far the two commonest disorders seen at the endocrine clinic. The increased frequency and wide spectrum of endocrine disorders suggest the need for well-trained endocrinologists to improve the health of the population.

  6. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L....... stagnalis embryos to rotate in the eggs is serotonin/dopamine regulated. We have developed a system to quantify embryo rotation and present results of exposure to serotonin, dopamine and different anti-depressive pharmaceuticals (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRI´s) using the L. stagnalis...

  7. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program: Tier I Screening Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system,' the Food Quality Protection Act and subsequent amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act and Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic A...

  8. Gestational Diabetes Alters Offspring DNA Methylation Profiles in Human and Rat: Identification of Key Pathways Involved in Endocrine System Disorders, Insulin Signaling, Diabetes Signaling, and ILK Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Sophie; Guillemin, Claire; Ergaz, Zivanit; Dimov, Sergiy; Suderman, Matthew; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ornoy, Asher; Szyf, Moshe

    2015-06-01

    Gestational diabetes is associated with risk for metabolic disease later in life. Using a cross-species approach in rat and humans, we examined the hypothesis that gestational diabetes during pregnancy triggers changes in the methylome of the offspring that might be mediating these risks. We show in a gestation diabetes rat model, the Cohen diabetic rat, that gestational diabetes triggers wide alterations in DNA methylation in the placenta in both candidate diabetes genes and genome-wide promoters, thus providing evidence for a causal relationship between diabetes during pregnancy and DNA methylation alterations. There is a significant overlap between differentially methylated genes in the placenta and the liver of the rat offspring. Several genes differentially methylated in rat placenta exposed to maternal diabetes are also differentially methylated in the human placenta of offspring exposed to gestational diabetes in utero. DNA methylation changes inversely correlate with changes in expression. The changes in DNA methylation affect known functional gene pathways involved in endocrine function, metabolism, and insulin responses. These data provide support to the hypothesis that early-life exposures and their effects on metabolic disease are mediated by DNA methylation changes. This has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  9. Personal and clinical social support and adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy among hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients in an integrated health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroenke, Candyce H; Hershman, Dawn L; Gomez, Scarlett L; Adams, Sara R; Eldridge, Elizabeth H; Kwan, Marilyn L; Ergas, Isaac J; Kubo, Ai; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2018-04-18

    We evaluated associations between personal and clinical social support and non-adherence to adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) in a large, Northern California breast cancer (BC) cohort from an integrated healthcare network. This study included 3382 women from the Pathways Study diagnosed from 2005 to 2013 with stages I-III hormone receptor-positive BC and who responded to the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support and Interpersonal Processes of Care surveys, approximately 2 months post-diagnosis. We used logistic regression to evaluate associations between tertiles of social support and non-initiation (social support (P trend = 0.02). Women with moderate (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.99-1.45) or low (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60) personal social support were also more likely to discontinue treatment (P trend = 0.01). Furthermore, women with moderate (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.53) or low (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.12-1.70) personal social support had higher non-adherence (P trend = 0.007). Associations with clinical social support and outcomes were similar. Notably, high clinical social support mitigated the risk of discontinuation when patients' personal support was moderate or low (P value = 0.04). Women with low personal or clinical social support had higher AET non-adherence. Clinician teams may need to fill support gaps that compromise treatment adherence.

  10. Clinical evaluation of radiotherapy for endocrine ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Mieda, Chieko

    1990-01-01

    Ten patients with severe endocrine ophthalmopathy were treated by radiotherapy at Hyogo Medical Center for Adults from May 1984 to February 1988. All but one of the patients had poorly responded to previous systemic or topical corticosteroid therapy. The target of the radiotherapy was both retrobulbar tissues. The radiation field used was about 4 x 4 cm, excluding the pituitary gland and the brain, and was angled 5deg posteriorly to avoid the contralateral lens. A total of 2000 cGy was given to each patient over a 2 week-period. Eight of the ten patients showed some response, with 5 of them (50%) having a good to excellent response. Treatment was more effective for soft tissue changes, proptosis and keratopathy, while myopathy was less responsive. As for the duration of the eye signs and symptoms, those of a shorter duration (less than 12 months) responded better. It was also noted that the degree of the eye muscle enlargement on the pre-treatment orbital CT scan was directly correlated to the results of the treatment. Although three of the patients experienced transient headache, there were no serious acute reactions or long term complications. In conclusion, retrobulbar radiotherapy is a well-tolerated, safe and effective treatment for sever endocrine ophthalmopathy. (author)

  11. Endocrinal investigations on Sudanese malnourished children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Mohammed, F. S.; Bushra, M. M.; Babiker, A. H.; Hisham, M.

    2004-01-01

    Malnutrition showed a high incidence among Sudanese children under five years of age. It affects directly the endocrine system of such children. In this the thyroid gland selected as a very important endocrine organ to be studied in 49 malnourished children under five years. Other 20 well- nourished children were selected to act as a control subjects . Both study and control groups were match for age and sex. The patients were seen and assessed for the disease in different hospital in Khartoum by consultant pediatrician. Thyroid function (thyroxineT4 and Triiodothyronine) was tested with a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. Some other biochemical parameters (hemoglobin Hb % total protein) were also investigated for the two groups (Patients and control) to confirm malnutrition. The means of the investigated parameters of the patients were compared with those of control group. The results showed 20 % of the malnourished children was complained of sever hypothyroidism (T4<25μmol/I) and (T3<0.3μmol/I) considering the normal range (55-142μmol/I) and (0.8-3μmol/I) respectively. The difference was highly significant together. The patients group showed low level in the two parameters, which indicate malnutrition. The the thyroid function in the malnourished children was severely affected by malnutrition, and such a test is strongly recommended to be a routine investigation for malnourished children. ( Author)

  12. Clinical evaluation of radiotherapy for endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Kayoko; Oshitani, Takashi; Mieda, Chieko (Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Hyogo (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-06-01

    Ten patients with severe endocrine ophthalmopathy were treated by radiotherapy at Hyogo Medical Center for Adults from May 1984 to February 1988. All but one of the patients had poorly responded to previous systemic or topical corticosteroid therapy. The target of the radiotherapy was both retrobulbar tissues. The radiation field used was about 4 x 4 cm, excluding the pituitary gland and the brain, and was angled 5deg posteriorly to avoid the contralateral lens. A total of 2000 cGy was given to each patient over a 2 week-period. Eight of the ten patients showed some response, with 5 of them (50%) having a good to excellent response. Treatment was more effective for soft tissue changes, proptosis and keratopathy, while myopathy was less responsive. As for the duration of the eye signs and symptoms, those of a shorter duration (less than 12 months) responded better. It was also noted that the degree of the eye muscle enlargement on the pre-treatment orbital CT scan was directly correlated to the results of the treatment. Although three of the patients experienced transient headache, there were no serious acute reactions or long term complications. In conclusion, retrobulbar radiotherapy is a well-tolerated, safe and effective treatment for sever endocrine ophthalmopathy. (author).

  13. Endocrine dysfunction after total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Titlbach, O.; Hoffmann, F.A.; Kubel, M.; Helbig, W.; Leipzig Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Data regarding changes of endocrine parameters after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are described. Endocrine glands are usually resistant to irradiation under morphological aspects. But new methods of determination and sensitive tests were developed in the last few years. Now it is possible to detect already small functional changes. Endocrine studies in the course of the disease were followed serially in 16 patients with TBI and BMT. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with a high-dose, short-term chemotherapy. Reactions of the endocrine system showed a defined temporary order. Changes of ACTH and cortisol were in the beginning. The pituitary-adrenal cortex system responds in a different way. The pituitary-thyroid system develops a short-term 'low-T 3 -syndrome' reflecting the extreme stress of the organism. At the same time we obtained an increase of thyroxine. Testosterone and luteotropic hormone, the sexual steroids showed levels representing a primary gonadal insufficiency. The studies in the posttransplant period yielded a return to the normal range at most of the hormonal levels with the exception of the sexual steroids. Sterility is one of the late effects of TBI. A tendency towards hypothyroidism could be noticed in some cases being only subclinical forms. Reasons and possible therapy are discussed. (author)

  14. [Arterial hypertension secondary to endocrine disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Anna; Zulewski, Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Endocrine hypertension offers a potentially curative therapy if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. In contrast to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension especially in the elderly, the classical endocrine causes remain a rare entity. Among patients with arterial hypertension the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma is less than 1%. Primary hyperaldosteronism is more frequent with a reported prevalence of up to 9%. In order to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially harmful evaluations and therapies due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of the critical endocrine tests it is mandatory to limit the exploration for endocrine causes to preselected patients with high pretest probability for an endocrine disorder. Younger age at manifestation of arterial hypertension or drug resistant hypertension together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  15. How can we estimate natural selection on endocrine traits? Lessons from evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonier, Frances; Martin, Paul R

    2016-11-30

    An evolutionary perspective can enrich almost any endeavour in biology, providing a deeper understanding of the variation we see in nature. To this end, evolutionary endocrinologists seek to describe the fitness consequences of variation in endocrine traits. Much of the recent work in our field, however, follows a flawed approach to the study of how selection shapes endocrine traits. Briefly, this approach relies on among-individual correlations between endocrine phenotypes (often circulating hormone levels) and fitness metrics to estimate selection on those endocrine traits. Adaptive plasticity in both endocrine and fitness-related traits can drive these correlations, generating patterns that do not accurately reflect natural selection. We illustrate why this approach to studying selection on endocrine traits is problematic, referring to work from evolutionary biologists who, decades ago, described this problem as it relates to a variety of other plastic traits. We extend these arguments to evolutionary endocrinology, where the likelihood that this flaw generates bias in estimates of selection is unusually high due to the exceptional responsiveness of hormones to environmental conditions, and their function to induce adaptive life-history responses to environmental variation. We end with a review of productive approaches for investigating the fitness consequences of variation in endocrine traits that we expect will generate exciting advances in our understanding of endocrine system evolution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  17. Radiotherapy for unresectable endocrine pancreatic carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennvall, J.; Ljungberg, O.; Ahren, B.; Gustavsson, A.; Nillson, L.O.

    1992-01-01

    Surgery, when possible, is the treatment of choice for the uncommon endocrine tumours of pancreas. Unresectable cases are usually treated with cytostatic drugs or α-interferon. We describe a patient with unresectable, locally advanced endocrine pancreatic carcinoma (measuring 5 x 5 x 6 cm) that was totally cured by external radiation therapy only (40 Gy). This case together with four cases in the literature indicate that external radiation therapy should be considered in locally unresectable endocrine pancreatic carcinomas. (author)

  18. Androgenic endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment plant effluents in India: Their influence on reproductive processes and systemic toxicity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Viswanath, Gunda; Roy, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are linked to human health and diseases as they mimic or block the normal functioning of endogenous hormones. The present work dealt with a comparative study of the androgenic potential of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents in Northern region of India, well known for its polluted water. Water samples were screened for their androgenic potential using the Hershberger assay and when they were found positive for androgenicity, we studied their mode of action in intact rats. The data showed a significant change in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues (SATs) of castrated and intact rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testis: cytochrome P450 SCC , cytochrome P450 C17 , 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile showed a decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones and increased testosterone level. Further, increase in the serum level of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT and histopathological changes in kidney and liver of treated animals, confirmed the toxic effects of contaminating chemicals. Analysis of water samples using HPLC and GC-MS showed the presence of various compounds and from them, four prominent aromatic compounds viz. nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene and two testosterone equivalents, were identified. Our data suggest that despite rigorous treatment, the final treated effluent from WWTP still has enough androgenic and toxic compounds to affect general health

  19. ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY: ETIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikonova L. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.

  20. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-03-25

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  1. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish. Copyright © 2015

  2. Physiology of the endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelking, L R

    1997-11-01

    The endocrine pancreas is composed of nests of cells called the islets of Langerhans, which comprise only about 20% of pancreatic cell mass and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Insulin is anabolic, increasing storage of glucose, fatty acids and amino acids, while glucagon namely stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis. Somatostatin acts as a paracrine agent to inhibit both insulin and glucagon release, and, therefore, to modulate their output. This article explores factors controlling release of these hormones, as well as the way in which they affect fuel metabolism in the whole animal.

  3. Genetic basis of endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the review was analysis of literature data relating to the molecular genetic basis and diagnosis of endocrine pathology. We searched for published and unpublished researches using Pubmed as the search engine by the keywords: ‘genes’, ‘endocrine diseases’, ‘molecular diagnostics’, ‘prohormones’, ‘nuclear receptors and transcription factors’, taking into consideration studies conducted over the last 10 years, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, conference abstracts, personal files, and contact with expert informants. The criterion for the selection of articles for the study was based on their close relevance to the topic, thus out of 144 analyzed articles, the findings of the researchers covered in 32 articles were crucial. The described nosologies presented various heredi­tary forms of hypopituitarism, disturbances of steroid hormone biosynthesis, abnormal gender formation, monogenic forms of diabetes mellitus, endocrine tumors, etc. Pathology is identified that is associated with a mutation of genes encoding protein prohormones, receptors, steroid biosynthesis enzymes, intracellular signaling molecules, transport proteins, ion channels, and transcription factors. Among the endocrine diseases associated with defects in genes encoding protein prohormones, the defects of the GH1 gene are most common, the defects in the gene CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase are among diseases associated with defects in genes encoding enzymes. More often mutations of genes encoding proteins belong to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. Most of the mutations associated with MEN-2A are concentrated in the rich cysteine region of the Ret receptor. More than 70 monogenic syndromes are known, in which there is a marked tolerance to glucose and some form of diabetes mellitus is diagnosed, diabetes mellitus caused by mutation of the mitochondrial gene (mutation tRNALeu, UUR is also detected. Of all the monogenic forms of

  4. Endocrine Disease in Aged Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2016-08-01

    Aging horses may be at particular risk of endocrine disease. Two major equine endocrinopathies, pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and equine metabolic syndrome, are commonly encountered in an aging population and may present with several recognizable signs, including laminitis. Investigation, treatment, and management of these diseases are discussed. Additionally, aging may be associated with development of rarer endocrinopathic problems, often associated with neoplasia, including diabetes mellitus and other confounders of glucose homeostasis, as well as thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal diseases. Brief details of the recognition and management of these conditions are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endocrine autoimmune disease: genetics become complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebolt, Janneke; Koeleman, Bobby P C; van Haeften, Timon W

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system is a frequent target in pathogenic autoimmune responses. Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease are the prevailing examples. When several diseases cluster together in one individual, the phenomenon is called autoimmune polyglandular syndrome. Progress has been made in understanding the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked and primary immune deficiencies helped uncover the role of key regulators in the preservation of immune tolerance. Alleles of the major histocompatibility complex have been known to contribute to the susceptibility to most forms of autoimmunity for more than 3 decades. Furthermore, sequencing studies revealed three non-major histocompatibility complex loci and some disease specific loci, which control T lymphocyte activation or signalling. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled acceleration in the identification of novel (non-HLA) loci and hence other relevant immune response pathways. Interestingly, several loci are shared between autoimmune diseases, and surprisingly some work in opposite direction. This means that the same allele which predisposes to a certain autoimmune disease can be protective in another. Well powered GWAS in type 1 diabetes has led to the uncovering of a significant number of risk variants with modest effect. These studies showed that the innate immune system may also play a role in addition to the adaptive immune system. It is anticipated that next generation sequencing techniques will uncover other (rare) variants. For other autoimmune disease (such as autoimmune thyroid disease) GWAS are clearly needed. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  6. Feline primary hyperaldosteronism: an emerging endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diola Bento

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The primary hyperaldosteronism, an endocrine disease increasingly identified in cats, is characterized by adrenal gland dysfunction that interferes with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, triggering the hypersecretion of aldosterone. Pathophysiological consequences of excessive aldosterone secretion are related to increased sodium and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium, which induce hypertension and severe hypokalemia, respectively. The most common clinical findings in cats include: polydipsia, nocturia, polyuria, generalized weakness, neck ventroflexion, syncope, anorexia, weight loss, pendulous abdomen and blindness. Diagnosis is based on the evidence of hormonal hypersecretion with suppression of renin release, imaging and histopathological evaluation of adrenal glands. Treatment may be curative with adrenalectomy, in cases of unilateral disease, or conservative, through administration of aldosterone antagonists, potassium supplementation and antihypertensives. Prognosis varies from fair to good with the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the main aspects of primary aldosteronism in cats, providing the clinician with important information for the diagnosis of this disease.

  7. Pulmonary complications of endocrine and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Carlos E; Zirbes, Jacquelyn

    2012-03-01

    There are many important respiratory manifestations of endocrine and metabolic diseases in children. Acute and chronic pulmonary infections are the most common respiratory abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus, although cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema are also possible. Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 may be indistinguishable from cystic fibrosis (CF) unless serum aldosterone, plasma renin activity, and urinary electrolytes are measured and mutation analysis rules out CF. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism may alter lung function and affect the central respiratory drive. The thyroid hormone plays an essential role in lung development, surfactant synthesis, and lung defence. Complications of hypoparathyroidism are largely due to hypocalcaemia. Laryngospasm can lead to stridor and airway obstruction. Ovarian tumours, benign or malignant, may present with unilateral or bilateral pleural effusions. Metabolic storage disorders, primarily as a consequence of lysosomal dysfunction from enzymatic deficiencies, constitute a diverse group of rare conditions that can have profound effects on the respiratory system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2012-01-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves’ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495

  9. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  10. Endocrine control of epigenetic mechanisms in male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankolkar, Mandar; Balasinor, N H

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine control of reproduction is very well known and has been echoed by many research groups. However, recent developments point to the ability of toxic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) to alter epigenetic information of the gametes which gets transferred to the developing embryo and affects the immediate reproductive outcome or even persists transgenerationally. These epigenetic aberrations contribute to the ensuing pathophysiology of reproductive disorders. Investigations of the female in cases of poor reproductive outcome have been the main strategy towards diagnosis. However, despite the male partner contributing half of his genome to the progeny, thorough investigations in the male have been ignored. Environmental pollutants are all pervading and are encountered in our day-to-day life. Many of these pollutants have potential to disrupt the endocrine system. Here, we discuss how the male gametes (spermatozoa) are susceptible to a myriad of epigenetic insults inflicted by exposure to endocrine disruptors and how important is the contribution of the epigenetic marks of the spermatozoa in healthy reproduction. We advocate that sperm epigenetics should be considered as a significant contributor to reproductive health and should be researched further and be subsequently included in routine diagnostic workup in cases of poor reproductive outcome.

  11. Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immunology: A Psychobiological Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Katlein; Lotti, Torello M

    2017-01-01

    Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Immunology (P.N.E.I.) is a scientific field of study that investigates the link between bidirectional communications among the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system and the correlations of this cross-talk with physical health. The P.N.E.I. innovative medical approach represents a paradigm shift from a strictly biomedical view of health and disease taken as hermetically sealed compartments to a more interdisciplinary one. The key element of P.N.E.I. approach is represented by the concept of bidirectional cross-talk between the psychoneuroendocrine and immune systems. The Low Dose Medicine is one of the most promising approaches able to allow the researchers to design innovative therapeutic strategies for the treatment of skin diseases based on the rebalance of the immune response.

  12. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  13. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands

  14. The application of PET in endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhibin

    2003-01-01

    There are wide application of PET in endocrine tumors, including thyroid cancer, parathyroid adenoma, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Many papers concluded that in diagnosing endocrine tumors, PET does not show apparent advantages comparing with traditional radionuclide imaging methods. But as a useful complementary method, its clinical value has been recognized

  15. Diagnosis and pathology of endocrine diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriver, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 22 papers under the headings of Diagnosis and Pathology of endocrine diseases. Topics covered include: Laboratory tests in the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders, Pathology of thyroid diseases, Diagnosis of adrenourtical disease, Radiologic techniques in evaluating endocrine disorders; and the Pituitary and adrenal glands.

  16. Intrinsic imperfections of endocrine replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W. A.; Lamberts, S. W. J.

    2003-01-01

    Hormonal substitution therapy has been extremely successful, with respect to morbidity and mortality, in the treatment of the major syndromes of endocrine insufficiency. However, many patients treated for endocrine insufficiencies still suffer from more or less vague complaints and a decreased

  17. Tailoring endocrine treatment for early breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontein, Duveken Berthe Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several important aspects of adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-sensitive, early-stage breast cancer. In our ongoing efforts to tailor treatment so as to provide the best possible care to each of our patients, we studied the influence of various

  18. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  19. Endocrine Function in Aquatic Invertebrates and Evidence for Disruption by Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder, L. C. V.; Pottinger, T. G.; Billinghurst, Z.; Depledge, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objectives 1. This report addresses five primary objectives:- (i) to summarize the key elements of invertebrate endocrine systems; (ii) to assess whether existing test systems are adequate for the detection of endocrine disruption in invertebrates, what new tests might be required, which species of invertebrates are most appropriate for such tests, what end-points should be measured and whether the same organisms can be used for both laboratory and environme...

  20. Pediatric reference value distributions and covariate-stratified reference intervals for 29 endocrine and special chemistry biomarkers on the Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems: a CALIPER study of healthy community children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbasy, Kimiya; Lin, Danny C C; Stoianov, Alexandra; Chan, Man Khun; Bevilacqua, Victoria; Chen, Yunqi; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-04-01

    The CALIPER program is a national research initiative aimed at closing the gaps in pediatric reference intervals. CALIPER previously reported reference intervals for endocrine and special chemistry markers on Abbott immunoassays. We now report new pediatric reference intervals for immunoassays on the Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems and assess platform-specific differences in reference values. A total of 711 healthy children and adolescents from birth to reference intervals calculated in accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP28-A3c guidelines. Complex profiles were observed for all 29 analytes, necessitating unique age and/or sex-specific partitions. Overall, changes in analyte concentrations observed over the course of development were similar to trends previously reported, and are consistent with biochemical and physiological changes that occur during childhood. Marked differences were observed for some assays including progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone where reference intervals were higher than those reported on Abbott immunoassays and parathyroid hormone where intervals were lower. This study highlights the importance of determining reference intervals specific for each analytical platform. The CALIPER Pediatric Reference Interval database will enable accurate diagnosis and laboratory assessment of children monitored by Beckman Coulter Immunoassay Systems in health care institutions worldwide. These reference intervals must however be validated by individual labs for the local pediatric population as recommended by CLSI.

  1. Electrocardiographic changes in the most frequent endocrine disorders associated with cardiovascular diseases. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Irina Iuliana; Ungureanu, Maria Christina; Iliescu, D; Petriş, A; Botnariu, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Car- diovascular abnormalities associated with endocrine diseases are often frequent and due to complex relationships between endocrine glands (with internal secretion) and cardiovascular system (heart and vessels). Certain hormones secreted by the endocrine glands (particularly the thyroid and pituitary gland) excesses or deficiencies, are involved in morphogenesis, growth processes and activity regulation of cardiovascular system, most often in connection with the autonomic nervous system. There are also a lot of electrocardiographic changes caused by hormonal disorders that requires differential diagnosis and represents the source of erroneous diagnosis. Endocrine pathology occurred later than a heart disease, may worse heart function. Ignoring the cardiovascular events that may occur in the evolution of endo- crine diseases, may induce increased mortality due to cardiovascular complications.

  2. Development and application of QSAR models for mechanisms related to endocrine disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard Rosenberg, Sine

    Humans are daily exposed to a wide variety of man-made chemicals through food, consumer products, water, air inhalation etc. For the main part of these chemicals no or only very limited information is available on their potential to cause endocrine disruption. Traditionally such information has...... is a background section, comprising 1) an introduction to the endocrine system with a focus on thyroid hormones (THs) and their essential function in neurodevelopment as well as a description of how chemicals may interference with endocrine mechanisms and cause adverse effects, 2) an introduction to the applied...

  3. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans—especially during development—may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the

  4. Endocrine resistance in breast cancer – an overview and update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert; Tyson, John J.; Dixon, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tumors that express detectable levels of the product of the ESR1 gene (estrogen receptor-α; ERα) represent the single largest molecular subtype of breast cancer. More women eventually die from ERα+ breast cancer than from either HER2+ disease (almost half of which also express ERα) and/or from triple negative breast cancer (ERα-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, and HER2-negative). Antiestrogens and aromatase inhibitors are largely indistinguishable from each other in their abilities to improve overall survival and almost 50% of ERα+ breast cancers will eventually fail one or more of these endocrine interventions. The precise reasons why these therapies fail in ERα+ breast cancer remain largely unknown. Pharmacogenetic explanations for Tamoxifen resistance are controversial. The role of ERα mutations in endocrine resistance remains unclear. Targeting the growth factors and oncogenes most strongly correlated with endocrine resistance has proven mostly disappointing in their abilities to improve overall survival substantially, particularly in the metastatic setting. Nonetheless, there are new concepts in endocrine resistance that integrate molecular signaling, cellular metabolism, and stress responses including endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) that provide novel insights and suggest innovative therapeutic targets. Encouraging evidence that drug combinations with CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors can extend recurrence free survival may yet translate to improvements in overall survival. Whether the improvements seen with immunotherapy in other cancers can be achieved in breast cancer remains to be determined, particularly for ERα+ breast cancers. This review explores the basic mechanisms of resistance to endocrine therapies, concluding with some new insights from systems biology approaches further implicating autophagy and the UPR in detail, and a brief discussion of exciting new avenues and future prospects. PMID:26455641

  5. Genetics of Common Endocrine Disease: The Present and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Mark O

    2016-03-01

    In honor of the 75th issue of the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, the author was invited to present his perspectives on genetics in human endocrinology. This paper reviews what the field has achieved in the genetics of common endocrine disease, and offers predictions on where the field will move in the future and its impact on endocrine clinical practice. The October 2015 data release of the National Human Genome Research Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute (NHGRI-EBI) Catalog of Published Genome-wide Association Studies was queried regarding endocrinologic diseases and traits. PubMed searches were focused on genetic prediction of disease, genetic findings and drug targets, functional interrogation of genetic loci, use of genetics to subtype disease, missing heritability, systems genomics, and higher order chromatin structures as regulators of gene function. Nearly a quarter of genome wide association study findings concern endocrinologic diseases and traits. While these findings have not yet dramatically altered clinical care, genetics will have a major impact by providing the drug targets of tomorrow, facilitated by experimental and bioinformatic advances that will shorten the time from gene discovery to drug development. Use of genetic findings to subtype common endocrine disease will allow more precise prevention and treatment efforts. Future advances will allow us to move away from the common view of DNA as a string of letters, allowing exploration of higher order structure that likely explains much "missing heritability." The future will see a greater role of genetics at the bedside, with genetic epidemiologic discoveries leading not only to new treatments of endocrine disease, but also helping us prescribe the right drug to the right patients by allowing subclassification of common heterogeneous endocrine conditions. Future technological breakthroughs will reveal the heritable mysteries hidden in chromatin structure, leading to a

  6. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664

  7. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2017-01-01

    In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically...... evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...... methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen and thyroid signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  9. Endocrine activity of persistent organic pollutants accumulated in human silicone implants — Dosing in vitro assays by partitioning from silicone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Mayer, Philipp; Pedersen, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulated in human tissues may pose a risk for human health by interfering with the endocrine system. This study establishes a new link between actual human internal POP levels and the endocrine active dose in vitro, applying partitioning-controlled dosing...

  10. Vitamin A, endocrine tissues and hormones: interplay and interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Brossaud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (retinol is a micronutrient critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. In adults, vitamin A and metabolites such as retinoic acid (RA play major roles in vision, immune and brain functions and tissue remodelling and metabolism. This review presents the physiological interactions of retinoids and endocrine tissues and hormonal systems. Two endocrine systems have been particularly studied. In the pituitary, retinoids target the corticotrophs with a possible therapeutic use in corticotropinomas. In the thyroid, retinoids interfere with iodine metabolism and vitamin A deficiency aggravates thyroid dysfunction caused by iodine-deficient diets. Retinoids use in thyroid cancer appears less promising than expected. Recent and still controversial studies investigated the relations between retinoids and metabolic syndrome. Indeed, retinoids contribute to pancreatic development and modify fat and glucose metabolism. However, more detailed studies are needed before planning any therapeutic use. Finally, retinoids probably play more minor roles in adrenal and gonads development and function apart from their major effects on spermatogenesis.

  11. Neurocutaneous spectrum of multiple endocrine neoplasia-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I or Wermer syndrome is characterized by primary hyperparathyroidism, enteropancreatic endocrine tumor, and a pituitary pathology. A 35-year-old male presented with visual field defects, hyperprolactinemia, and hypogonadism. He also had multiple infraumbilical skin-colored nodules. A syndromal association of Wermer syndrome was derived using the dermal, pituitary, parathyroid, and gastrointestinal hormonal manifestations of the tumor. The radiological and histological findings of lesion which underwent biopsy are discussed. The presence of collagenomas, lipomas, and hypopigmented macules in a patient with neuroendocrine symptoms should raise the suspicion of an underlying multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  12. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado,CM; von Mühlen,C

    2015-01-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs thr...

  13. Phosphodiesterases in endocrine physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzosi, Delphine; Bertherat, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    The cAMP-protein kinase A pathway plays a central role in the development and physiology of endocrine tissues. cAMP mediates the intracellular effects of numerous peptide hormones. Various cellular and molecular alterations of the cAMP-signaling pathway have been observed in endocrine diseases. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are key regulatory enzymes of intracellular cAMP levels. Indeed, PDEs are the only known mechanism for inactivation of cAMP by catalysis to 5'-AMP. It has been suggested that disruption of PDEs could also have a role in the pathogenesis of many endocrine diseases. This review summarizes the most recent advances concerning the role of the PDEs in the physiopathology of endocrine diseases. The potential significance of this knowledge can be easily envisaged by the development of drugs targeting specific PDEs.

  14. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... suggest a hitherto unknown mode of action by EDCs through inhibition of the PG pathway and suggest new avenues to investigate effects of EDCs on reproductive and immunological disorders that have become increasingly common in recent decades....

  15. No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raitila, A; Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A

    2007-01-01

    . Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing. No somatic mutations were identified. However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X...... as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age. Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1...... (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC). Genes underlying MEN1 and CNC are rarely mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas, but more often in other lesions contributing to these two syndromes. Thus far, the occurrence of somatic AIP mutations has not been studied in endocrine tumors other than pituitary adenomas...

  16. Evaluation of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    is also regulated by estrogens in molluscs even though it still remains unknown if and where vertebrate steroids are synthesized in molluscs and regulation of the endocrine system in molluscs is also unknown. By using our newly developed ELISA the present work investigates if yolk protein is a suitable......During recent years invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in the field of endocrine disruption and development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in molluscs is under development. The development of standardized...... tests to detect effects of EDCs in molluscs has proved cumbersome due to lack of specific biomarkers and endpoints for endocrine effects. Intersex (presence of oocytes in the testis) and induction of vitellogenin (the yolk protein precursor in oviparous vertebrates) have been used as biomarkers for EDCs...

  17. Endocrine manifestations of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison

    2018-02-01

    To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.

  18. Physiology of fish endocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plisetskaya, E M

    1989-06-01

    From the very beginning of physiological studies on the endocine pancreas, fish have been used as experimental subjects. Fish insulin was one of the first vertebrate insulins isolated and one of the first insulins whose primary and then tertiary structures were reported. Before a second pancreatic hormone, glucagon, was characterized, a physiologically active 'impurity', similar to that in mammalian insulin preparations, was found in fish insulins.Fish have become the most widely used model for studies of biosynthesis and processing of the pancreatic hormones. It seems inconceivable, therefore, that until the recent past cod and tuna insulins have been the only purified piscine islet hormones available for physiological experiments. The situation has changed remarkably during the last decade.In this review the contemporary status of physiological studies on the fish pancreas is outlined with an emphasis on the following topics: 1) contents of pancreatic peptides in plasma and in islet tissue; 2) actions of piscine pancreatic hormones in fish; 3) specific metabolic consequences of an acute insufficiency of pancreatic peptides; 4) functional interrelations among pancreatic peptides which differ from those of mammals. The pitfalls, lacunae and the perspectives of contemporary physiological studies on fish endocrine pancreas are outlined.

  19. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  20. Endocrine Disrupting Contaminants—Beyond the Dogma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of endocrine disruption have largely been associated with wildlife and driven by observations documenting estrogenic, androgenic, antiandrogenic, and antithyroid actions. These actions, in response to exposure to ecologically relevant concentrations of various environmental contaminants, have now been established in numerous vertebrate species. However, many potential mechanisms and endocrine actions have not been studied. For example, the DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] metabolite, p,p′-DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] is known to disrupt prostaglandin synthesis in the uterus of birds, providing part of the explanation for DDT-induced egg shell thinning. Few studies have examined prostaglandin synthesis as a target for endocrine disruption, yet these hormones are active in reproduction, immune responses, and cardiovascular physiology. Future studies must broaden the basic science approach to endocrine disruption, thereby expanding the mechanisms and endocrine end points examined. This goal should be accomplished even if the primary influence and funding continue to emphasize a narrower approach based on regulatory needs. Without this broader approach, research into endocrine disruption will become dominated by a narrow dogma, focusing on a few end points and mechanisms. PMID:16818240

  1. Consensus models to predict endocrine disruption for all ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humans are potentially exposed to tens of thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. It is well known that some environmental chemicals mimic natural hormones and thus have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these environmental chemicals have never been tested for their ability to disrupt the endocrine system, in particular, their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor. EPA needs tools to prioritize thousands of chemicals, for instance in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP). Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project (CERAPP) was intended to be a demonstration of the use of predictive computational models on HTS data including ToxCast and Tox21 assays to prioritize a large chemical universe of 32464 unique structures for one specific molecular target – the estrogen receptor. CERAPP combined multiple computational models for prediction of estrogen receptor activity, and used the predicted results to build a unique consensus model. Models were developed in collaboration between 17 groups in the U.S. and Europe and applied to predict the common set of chemicals. Structure-based techniques such as docking and several QSAR modeling approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1677 compounds provided by U.S. EPA, to build a total of 42 classification models and 8 regression models for binding, agonist and antagonist activity. All predictions were evaluated on ToxCast data and on an exte

  2. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves′ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman′s syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove′s syndrome, Cushing′s disease, and Addison′s disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner′s, Rothmund′s, and Klinefelter′s syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner′s, Cockayne′s, Wolfram′s, Kearns Sayre′s, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases.

  3. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  4. The Use of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology in Korea: A Nationwide Multicenter Survey by the Korean Society of Endocrine Pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC has standardized the reporting of thyroid cytology specimens. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the nationwide usage of TBSRTC and assess the malignancy rates in each category of TBSRTC in Korea. Methods Questionnaire surveys were used for data collection on the fine needle aspiration (FNA of thyroid nodules at 74 institutes in 2012. The incidences and follow-up malignancy rates of each category diagnosed from January to December, 2011, in each institute were also collected and analyzed. Results Sixty out of 74 institutes answering the surveys reported the results of thyroid FNA in accordance with TBSRTC. The average malignancy rates for resected cases in 15 institutes were as follows: nondiagnostic, 45.6%; benign, 16.5%; atypical of undetermined significance, 68.8%; suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN, 30.2%; suspicious for malignancy, 97.5%; malignancy, 99.7%. Conclusions More than 80% of Korean institutes were using TBSRTC as of 2012. All malignancy rates other than the SFN and malignancy categories were higher than those reported by other countries. Therefore, the guidelines for treating patients with thyroid nodules in Korea should be revisited based on the malignancy rates reported in this study.

  5. Effects of leisure activities at home on perceived care burden and the endocrine system of caregivers of dementia patients: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Akemi; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Hayashi, Toshio; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2016-02-01

    Psychological stress associated with caregiving is thought to underlie the high incidence of hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and mortality, as well as reduced immune function, among caregivers of dementia patients. Here, we examined the effects of periodic leisure activities performed by caregivers of dementia patients with care recipients at home on perceived care burden and levels of stress hormones. Participants were 42 caregivers aged ≥ 65 years of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's dementia. They were randomly assigned to intervention and non-intervention groups. The intervention group underwent a leisure activity program (30 min/3 times/week for 24 weeks) with the care recipient, and the control group underwent normal care activities. The Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) score, a subjective indicator of care burden, significantly decreased after intervention in the intervention group (p leisure activity on the neuroendocrine system. Our findings suggest that periodic leisure activities can reduce perceived care burden among caregivers of dementia patients. However, in order to evaluate accurately the effects of leisure activities of the present study, long-term follow-up of both caregivers and care recipients is necessary. The Nagoya University Department of Medicine Ethics Committee Clinical Trials Registry Number is 1290.

  6. Changes of endocrine and ultrasound markers as ovarian aging in modifying the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) staging system with subclassification of mid reproductive age stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ting; Luo, Aiyue; Jiang, Jingjing; Du, Xiaofang; Yang, Shuhong; Lai, Zhiwen; Shen, Wei; Lu, Yunping; Ma, Ding; Wang, Shixuan

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate the changes of ovarian aging markers across the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) stages and modify it with subclassification of mid reproductive age stage (MR). Healthy females were classified according to the STRAW system. Serum basal FSH, LH, E2, and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) were detected, FSH/LH ratio calculated, and antral follicle counts (AFCs) determined in follicular phase. Progression through the whole STRAW stages under MR stage subdivided is associated with elevations in FSH, LH, FSH/LH ratio and decreases in E2, AMH and AFCs (p age in MR stage. 0.982 ng/ml AMH and 3 antral follicles (low level of MR 25-30 years) were set as cutoffs to distinguish MR stage into early mid reproductive age (EMR) and late mid reproductive age (LMR) stages. The women in EMR stage compared with LMR could retrieve more oocytes in IVF treatment (p stage, demonstrating disparate reproductive aging period with reduced ovarian reserve in young age across the STRAW stages.

  7. Effects of stress on gastrointestinal function: interactions of neural and endocrine systems in mediating stress-induced intestinal dysfunction in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The etiology of stress-induced intestinal dysfunction is completely unresolved, and the lack of an appropriate animal model has hindered studies of causality. We compared a number of stressors and their resultant effects on intestinal transit, a measure of the propulsive motor activity of the gut, in the rat. We found that the response of the intestine to stress, and the neural systems activated by stress, were dependent on the type and duration of stress, as well as the animal strain, and gender. We developed a model, acute wrapping restraint stress, to fully characterize the effects of stress on intestinal transit. Wrap restraint stress is a nonulcerogenic model in which rats are subjected to acute restraint by wrapping them in a harness of paper tape to restrict, but not prevent movement of the upper body and forelimbs. Transit was evaluated by the geometric center method, in which a radiomarker ( 51 Cr) is instilled directly into the proximal duodenum and proximal colon via a surgically placed intestinal cannula, in fasted, adult female Sprague Dawley rats

  8. The role of the kisspeptin system in regulation of the reproductive endocrine axis and territorial behavior in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman-Lee, Lorin; Greives, Timothy; Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S

    2017-03-01

    The neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor are essential for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and regulating reproduction. While the role of kisspeptin in regulating the HPG axis in mammals has been well established, little is known about the functional ability of kisspeptins to activate the HPG axis and associated behavior in non-mammalian species. Here we experimentally examined the effects of kisspeptin on downstream release of testosterone and associated aggression and display behaviors in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana). We found that exogenous treatment with kisspeptin resulted in an increase in circulating testosterone levels, castration blocked the kisspeptin-induced increase in testosterone, and testosterone levels in kisspeptin-treated animals were positively related to frequency of aggressive behaviors. This evidence provides a clear link between kisspeptin, testosterone, and aggressive behavior in lizards. Thus, it is likely that kisspeptin plays an important role more broadly in non-mammalian systems in the regulation of reproductive physiology and related behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Katherine K.; Biever, Ronald C.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Holbech, Henrik; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Krueger, Hank; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Ankley, Gerald T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine active chemicals are described, and associated challenges are discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across geographies, but all basically evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or to the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro, and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine hazard and risk. These limitations include a lack of certainty regarding: 1) adequately sensitive species and life stages; 2) mechanistic endpoints that are diagnostic for endocrine pathways of concern; and 3) the linkage between mechanistic responses and apical, adverse outcomes. Furthermore, some existing test methods are resource intensive with regard to time, cost, and use of animals. However, based on recent experiences, there are opportunities to improve approaches to and guidance for existing test methods and to reduce uncertainty. For example, in vitro high-throughput screening could be used to prioritize chemicals for testing and provide insights as to the most appropriate assays for characterizing hazard and risk. Other recommendations include adding endpoints for elucidating connections between mechanistic effects and adverse outcomes, identifying potentially sensitive taxa for which test methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen, and thyroid

  10. Endocrine pancreatic function changes after acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Deqing; Xu, Yaping; Zeng, Yue; Wang, Xingpeng

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impairment of pancreatic endocrine function and the associated risk factors after acute pancreatitis (AP). Fifty-nine patients were subjected to tests of pancreatic function after an attack of pancreatitis. The mean time after the event was 3.5 years. Pancreatic endocrine function was evaluated by fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide. Homeostasis model assessment was used to evaluate insulin resistance and islet β-cell function. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by fecal elastase 1. Factors that could influence endocrine function were also investigated. Nineteen patients (32%) were found to have elevated FBG, whereas 5 (8%) had abnormal glycosylated hemoglobin levels. The levels of FBG, fasting blood insulin, and C-peptide were higher in patients than in controls (P endocrine insufficiency. Pancreatic exocrine functional impairment was found at the same time. Endocrine functional impairment with insulin resistance was found in patients after AP. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes-related symptoms increased the likelihood of developing functional impairment after AP.

  11. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. Cardiovascular, endocrine and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, M.H.; Olsen, N.V.; Christensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate...... highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including...

  13. The endocrine system in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    1988-01-01

    A trial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, has been measured in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF has increased by 59 percent, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell proudction, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  14. Effects of narcotics on the endocrine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zil, M.

    1990-01-01

    Endocrinological assessment of group of heroin addicts (n=91) was done and those who underwent full detoxification procedure (n=31) were also followed up after treatment. Pre and post detoxification evaluation included estimation of growth hormone (GH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leuteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TEST), estradiol (EST), cortisol (CORT), insulin (INS) and Free Thyroxine (FT4). Factors like duration of drug abuse, polydrug addiction, hepatic function status, age of abusers and dose including cumulative dose were also assessed but no significant bearing on the results was elicited. Difference between pre and post detoxification hormonal levels was highly significant in growth hormone, Testosterone, and prolactin values and less significant for FSH, ESTRADIOL, FT4 and TSH. But for a few exceptions, our results compared well with those reported in the literature and compare with reflect the widespread hormonal and endocrinological aberrations noted in heroin addicts. (author)

  15. The endocrine system in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.; Cintron, N. M.

    Hormones are important effectors of the body's response to microgravity in the areas of fluid and electrolyte metabolism, erythropoiesis, and calcium metabolism. For many years antidiuretic hormone, cortisol and aldosterone have been considered the hormones most important for regulation of body fluid volume and blood levels of electrolytes, but they cannot account totally for losses of fluid and electrolytes during space flight. We have now measured atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), a hormone recently shown to regulate sodium and water excretion, in blood specimens obtained during flight. After 30 or 42 h of weightlessness, mean ANF was elevated. After 175 or 180 h, ANF had decreased by 59%, and it changed little between that time and soon after landing. There is probably an increase in ANF early inflight associated with the fluid shift, followed by a compensatory decrease in blood volume. Increased renal blood flow may cause the later ANF decrease. Erythropoietin (Ep), a hormone involved in the control of red blood cell production, was measured in blood samples taken during the first Spacelab mission and was significantly decreased on the second day of flight, suggesting also an increase in renal blood flow. Spacelab-2 investigators report that the active vitamin D metabolite 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 increased early in the flight, indicating that a stimulus for increased bone resorption occurs by 30 h after launch.

  16. Obesity Pathogenesis: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael W; Seeley, Randy J; Zeltser, Lori M; Drewnowski, Adam; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is among the most common and costly chronic disorders worldwide. Estimates suggest that in the United States obesity affects one-third of adults, accounts for up to one-third of total mortality, is concentrated among lower income groups, and increasingly affects children as well as adults. A lack of effective options for long-term weight reduction magnifies the enormity of this problem; individuals who successfully complete behavioral and dietary weight-loss programs eventually regain most of the lost weight. We included evidence from basic science, clinical, and epidemiological literature to assess current knowledge regarding mechanisms underlying excess body-fat accumulation, the biological defense of excess fat mass, and the tendency for lost weight to be regained. A major area of emphasis is the science of energy homeostasis, the biological process that maintains weight stability by actively matching energy intake to energy expenditure over time. Growing evidence suggests that obesity is a disorder of the energy homeostasis system, rather than simply arising from the passive accumulation of excess weight. We need to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this "upward setting" or "resetting" of the defended level of body-fat mass, whether inherited or acquired. The ongoing study of how genetic, developmental, and environmental forces affect the energy homeostasis system will help us better understand these mechanisms and are therefore a major focus of this statement. The scientific goal is to elucidate obesity pathogenesis so as to better inform treatment, public policy, advocacy, and awareness of obesity in ways that ultimately diminish its public health and economic consequences. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  17. Radiologic techniques in evaluation endocrine disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, C.R.; Schultz, C.L.; Butler, H.E.; Haaga, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses evaluation of normal and diseased endocrine organs that has been facilitated by the development of new radiologic-imaging techniques including nuclear medicine, ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. With improvement in resolution and tissue contrast, abnormalities as small as 5 mm can now be imaged with these modalities. Endocrinologists and clinicians involved in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients with endocrine diseases can be substantially aided by a proper radiologic workup. The authors describe and illustrate various radiologic techniques that are useful for evaluating thyroid and parathyroid derangements

  18. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...

  19. Metabolic, endocrine, and related bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Bone is living tissue, and old bone is constantly removed and replaced with new bone. Normally this exchange is in balance, and the mineral content remains relatively constant. This balance may be disturbed as a result of certain metabolic and endocrinologic disorders. The term dystrophy, referring to a disturbance of nutrition, is applied to metabolic and endocrine bone diseases and should be distinguished from the term dysplasia, referring to a disturbance of bone growth. The two terms are easily confused but are not interchangeable. Metabolic bone disease is caused by endocrine imbalance, vitamin deficiency or excess, and other disturbances in bone metabolism leading to osteoporosis and osteomalacia

  20. A comprehensive review of regulatory test methods for endocrine adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manibusan, M K; Touart, L W

    2017-07-01

    Development of new endocrine disruption-relevant test methods has been the subject of intensive research efforts for the past several decades, prompted in part by mandates in the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA). While scientific understanding and test methods have advanced, questions remain on whether current scientific methods are capable of adequately addressing the complexities of the endocrine system for regulatory health and ecological risk assessments. The specific objective of this article is to perform a comprehensive, detailed evaluation of the adequacy of current test methods to inform regulatory risk assessments of whether a substance has the potential to perturb endocrine-related pathways resulting in human adverse effects. To that end,  approximately 42 existing test guidelines (TGs) were considered in the evaluation of coverage for endocrine-related adverse effects. In addition to evaluations of whether test methods are adequate to capture endocrine-related effects, considerations of further enhancements to current test methods, along with the need to develop novel test methods to address existing test method gaps are described. From this specific evaluation, up to 35 test methods are capable of informing whether a chemical substance perturbs known endocrine related biological pathways. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that current validated test methods are adequate to discern substances that may perturb the endocrine system, resulting in an adverse health effect. Together, these test methods predominantly form the core data requirements of a typical food-use pesticide registration submission. It is recognized, however, that the current state of science is rapidly advancing and there is a need to update current test methods to include added enhancements to ensure continued coverage and public health and environmental protection.

  1. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...

  2. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  3. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  4. Endocrine causes of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Laura; Jornayvaz, François R

    2015-10-21

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, becoming a substantial public health burden. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of disorders, from simple conditions such as steatosis to severe manifestations such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. The relationship of NAFLD with metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes is well described and related to insulin resistance, with NAFLD being recognized as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD may also coincide with endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency or hypercortisolism. It is therefore essential to remember, when discovering altered liver enzymes or hepatic steatosis on radiological exams, that endocrine diseases can cause NAFLD. Indeed, the overall prognosis of NAFLD may be modified by treatment of the underlying endocrine pathology. In this review, we will discuss endocrine diseases that can cause NALFD. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms will be presented and specific treatments will be reviewed.

  5. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neonatal endocrine emergencies: a primer for the emergency physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elizabeth; Pearson, Nadia M; Pillow, M Tyson; Toledo, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The resuscitation principles of securing the airway and stabilizing hemodynamics remain the same in any neonatal emergency. However, stabilizing endocrine disorders may prove especially challenging. Several organ systems are affected simultaneously and the clinical presentation can be subtle. Although not all-inclusive, the implementation of newborn screening tests has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality in neonates. Implementing routine screening tests worldwide and improving the accuracy of present tests remains the challenge for healthcare providers. With further study of these disorders and best treatment practices we can provide neonates presenting to the emergency department with the best possible outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Career Advancement: Meeting the Challenges Confronting the Next Generation of Endocrinologists and Endocrine Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santen, Richard J; Joham, Anju; Fishbein, Lauren; Vella, Kristen R; Ebeling, Peter R; Gibson-Helm, Melanie; Teede, Helena

    2016-12-01

    Challenges and opportunities face the next generation (Next-Gen) of endocrine researchers and clinicians, the lifeblood of the field of endocrinology for the future. A symposium jointly sponsored by The Endocrine Society and the Endocrine Society of Australia was convened to discuss approaches to addressing the present and future Next-Gen needs. Data collection by literature review, assessment of previously completed questionnaires, commissioning of a new questionnaire, and summarization of symposium discussions were studied. Next-Gen endocrine researchers face diminishing grant funding in inflation-adjusted terms. The average age of individuals being awarded their first independent investigator funding has increased to age 45 years. For clinicians, a workforce gap exists between endocrinologists needed and those currently trained. Clinicians in practice are increasingly becoming employees of integrated hospital systems, resulting in greater time spent on nonclinical issues. Workforce data and published reviews identify challenges specifically related to early career women in endocrinology. Strategies to Address Issues: Recommendations encompassed the areas of grant support for research, mentoring, education, templates for career development, specific programs for Next-Gen members by senior colleagues as outlined in the text, networking, team science, and life/work integration. Endocrine societies focusing on Next-Gen members provide a powerful mechanism to support these critical areas. A concerted effort to empower, train, and support the next generation of clinical endocrinologists and endocrine researchers is necessary to ensure the viability and vibrancy of our discipline and to optimize our contributions to improving health outcomes. Collaborative engagement of endocrine societies globally will be necessary to support our next generation moving forward.

  8. Endocrine determinants of haemostasis and thrombosis risk: Focus on thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, L.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores endocrine determinants of the haemostatic system and thrombosis risk with main focus on thyroid hormone. It describes, in three parts, the effects of thyroid hormone on the haemostatic system, the effects of thyroid hormone (mimetics) on lipids and the effects of other hormones

  9. Fiscal 2000 research and development of technologies for intelligent infrastructure creation and utilization. Development of high-precision screening assay system for endocrine disrupting chemicals and construction of database; 2000 nendo chiteki kiban sose riyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. Naibunpi kakuran busshitsu no koseido screening shiken hoho no kaihatsu oyobi data kiban seibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development is carried out for the establishment of a system for assaying endocrine disruption now presenting itself as a hazard and for the application of the assay system to important chemicals and chemicals under development for the detection of presence of endocrine disrupting action in them. In this fiscal year, for the establishment of a reporter-gene assay system, cell characteristics were clarified through the determination of the expression sequence of the produced cell, the determination of the stable conservation period of the cell, and the study of the sustenance of activity. Studies were conducted, targeted at the stable supply of cells usable for high-throughput screening. Basic data were collected for the Hershberger assay being developed by OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) and for the repeated administration test method for assaying thyroid hormone action by use of pubertal rats. For the assay of impact on environmental organisms, moreover, basic data were collected for the establishment of testing methods using fishes and amphibians. (NEDO)

  10. Reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects of triclosan: Population exposure, present evidence and potential mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Tian, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan has been used as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for over 40 years worldwide. Increasing reports indicate frequent detection and broad exposure to triclosan in the natural environment and the human body. Current laboratory studies in various species provide strong evidence for its disrupting effects on the endocrine system, especially reproductive hormones. Multiple modes of action have been suggested, including disrupting hormone metabolism, displacing hormones from hormone receptors and disrupting steroidogenic enzyme activity. Although epidemiological studies on its effects in humans are mostly negative but conflicting, which is typical of much of the early evidence on the toxicity of EDCs, overall, the evidence suggests that triclosan is an EDC. This article reviews human exposure to triclosan, describes the current evidence regarding its reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects, and discusses potential mechanisms to provide insights for further study on its endocrine-disrupting effects in humans. - Highlights: • Triclosan is widely detected in human urine, blood and breast milk. • Laboratory studies suggest reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects of triclosan. • Laboratory studies suggest estrogenic properties of triclosan. • There are three potential mechanisms regarding the estrogenic effect of triclosan. • Prospective epidemiological studies on vulnerable populations are needed. - This review summarizes current evidence on human exposure to triclosan, and its reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects and potential mechanisms.

  11. Endocrine emergencies in critically ill patients: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine emergencies pose unique challenges for the attending intensivist while managing critically ill patients. Besides taking care of primary disease state, one has to divert an equal attention to the possible associated endocrinopathies also. One of the common reasons for inability to timely diagnose an endocrinal failure in critically ill patients being the dominance of other severe systemic diseases and their clinical presentation. The timely diagnosis and administration of therapeutic interventions for these endocrine disorders can improve the outcome in critically ill patients. The timely diagnosis and administration of timely therapeutics in common endocrine disorders like severe thyroid disease, acute adrenal insufficiency and diabetic ketoacidosis significantly influence the outcome and prognosis. Careful evaluation of clinical history and a high degree of suspicion are the corner stone to diagnose such problems. Aggressive management of the patient is equally important as the complications are devastating and can prove highly fatal. The present article is an attempt to review some of the common endocrine emergencies in intensive care unit and the challenges associated with their diagnosis and management.

  12. International spinal cord injury endocrine and metabolic extended data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, W A; Wecht, J M; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Endocrine and Metabolic Extended Data Set (ISCIEMEDS) within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of endocrine and metabolic findings in the SCI population. This study was conducted in an international setting. The ISCIEMEDS was developed by a working group. The initial ISCIEMEDS was revised based on suggestions from members of the International SCI Data Sets Committee, the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Executive and Scientific Committees, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Board, other interested organizations, societies and individual reviewers. The data set was posted for two months on ISCoS and ASIA websites for comments. Variable names were standardized, and a suggested database structure for the ISCIEMEDS was provided by the Common Data Elements (CDEs) project at the National Institute on Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) of the US National Institute of Health (NIH), and are available at https://commondataelements.ninds.nih.gov/SCI.aspx#tab=Data_Standards. The final ISCIEMEDS contains questions on the endocrine and metabolic conditions related to SCI. Because the information may be collected at any time, the date of data collection is important to determine the time after SCI. ISCIEMEDS includes information on carbohydrate metabolism (6 variables), calcium and bone metabolism (12 variables), thyroid function (9 variables), adrenal function (2 variables), gonadal function (7 variables), pituitary function (6 variables), sympathetic nervous system function (1 variable) and renin-aldosterone axis function (2 variables). The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the website of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk/international-sci-data-sets).

  13. ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING IN ADOLESCENTS — ENDOCRINE PROFILE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the endocrine profile condition in adolescent girls with abnormal uterine bleeding. Patients and methods: The participants of the study were 110 adolescent girls in the age between 11 and 15 years taken to hospital by emergency indication in the period between 2010–2013 years with dysfunctional uterine bleeding for the term from 3 to 48 days. In the first day of hospitalization before starting the hormonal therapy all patients underwent the physical examination, ultrasonic examination of pelvic organs and endocrine profile assessment. Concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH and the levels of mammotropic hormone, thyrotropic hormone, estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in their blood were determined. Besides that physicians assessed the complete blood count indices: hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte number and hematocrits. Results: It was determined that the predisposing causes of abnormal uterine bleeding development in adolescents: high somatic pathology frequency, abnormalities of neuroendocrinal system and menstrual cycle. Gynecological pathology in adolescents is represented by significant disorders of menstrual function establishment expressed in the later beginning of menstruation, its intensity and duration. The authors also note the higher frequency of inflammatory diseases such as adnexitis, edeitis, vulvovaginitis and coleitis in comparison with the control group (37.3 and 30%, respectively. Another tendency was observed while studying the endocrine profile: in patients with hyperestrogenism the normal or increased content of FSH at the normal or lowered LH concentration is observed. At the same time, in patients with hypestrogenism FSH concentration at the lower limits of the age group is lowered, while LH concentration is lowered or normal. Conclusion: Abnormal uterine bleeding in adolescents in the most cases is developing in the setting

  14. GROWTH AND ENDOCRINE FUNCTION IN TUNISIAN THALASSEMIA MAJOR PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naouel GUIRAT

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia major (TM is among prevalent hereditary disorders imposing high expenses on health-care system worldwide. The patient’s survival is dependent on lifetime blood transfusion which leads to iron overload and its toxicity on various organs including endocrine glands. This article provides an overview of  endocrine disorders in beta-TM patients. This single center investigation enrolled 28 beta-TM patients (16 males, 12 females  regularly transfused with packed red cell since early years of life. For each patient were determined: age, sex, number of transfusions received, history of splenectomy and anthropometric parameters. Evaluation for hormonal status including growth, gonadal, thyroid, adrenal cortex, and parathyroid glands was done for all patients. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to diagnose osteoporosis. Assessment of iron overload status was performed by measuring the serum ferritin concentration and the results of magnetic resonance imaging T2*. Growth retardation was found in 16 of the 28 studied patients (57 %.Thirteen among them had delayed puberty. Spontaneous puberty was achieved in 16 cases. Growth hormone (GH deficiency was found in 10 cases (35 %. Seventeen among the studied patients (60 % developed disorders of glucose homeostasis. Subclinical hypothyroidism was found in six patients (21 %. Intensive chelation therapy had allowed the reversibility of this complication in five cases. Adrenal Insufficiency was found in 9 cases (32%. Hypoparathyroidism has occurred in one case. Ten of the 28 studied patients had osteoporosis (35%. Twenty-three of the 28 studied patients (82% had at least one endocrine complication.

  15. Periodontal Disease and Dental Caries among children and Adolescents Suffering from Endocrine Disorders - A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminsky, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most common oral diseases. Their link to disorders of endocrine system is of high interest. Most of the available data relates to the adult population, though its importance among children and adolescents is paramount. To review the existing evidence examining the link between these clinical conditions among children and adolescents. Electronic bibliographic databases and hand searches of relevant publications, based on prepared list of relevant key-words was performed. Paucity of existing data leaves the question of association between most endocrine disorders of the youth with dental caries and periodontal disease, inconclusive, apart from obesity and diabetes mellitus, where it seems to be elucidated. A profound research should be done in order to amend our understanding to what extent, if at all, exists the link between these oral maladies and different pediatric endocrine disorders. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  16. Central control of glucose homeostasis: the brain--endocrine pancreas axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorens, B

    2010-10-01

    A large body of data gathered over the last decades has delineated the neuronal pathways that link the central nervous system with the autonomic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, which controls alpha- and beta-cell secretion activity and mass. These are important regulatory functions that are certainly keys for preserving the capacity of the endocrine pancreas to control glucose homeostasis over a lifetime. Identifying the cells involved in controlling the autonomic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, in response to nutrient, hormonal and environmental cues and how these cues are detected to activate neuronal activity are important goals of current research. Elucidation of these questions may possibly lead to new means for preserving or restoring defects in insulin and glucagon secretion associated with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid, portable detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J Porter; Schinn, Song-Min; Jones, Matthew D; Bundy, Bradley C

    2017-12-04

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are structurally diverse compounds that can interact with nuclear hormone receptors, posing significant risk to human and ecological health. Unfortunately, many conventional biosensors have been too structure-specific, labor-intensive or laboratory-oriented to detect broad ranges of EDC effectively. Recently, several technological advances are providing more rapid, portable, and affordable detection of endocrine-disrupting activity through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions. Here, we overview these recent advances applied to EDC biosensors - including cell lyophilization, cell immobilization, cell-free systems, smartphone-based signal detection, and improved competitive binding assays.

  18. Endocrine cells in the denervated intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Gilda C; Zucoloto, Sérgio; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2000-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of myenteric denervation of the proximal jejunum on endocrine cell population of the crypt-villus unit, 5 months after treatment with benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Male Wistar albino rats weighing on average 100 g were allocated to two groups: the BAC group − the proximal jejunal serosa was treated with 2 mm BAC for 30 min, and the control group − treated with saline solution (0,9% NaCl). There was a significant reduction in neurone number in the jejunal myenteric plexus of the BAC group and the endocrine cell population (serotoninergic and argyrophilic cells) was significantly increased in this intestine segment. In conclusion, the present findings provide further evidence that the myenteric denervation induced by BAC may lead to the development of a local imbalance of the neurotransmitters, with a consequent induction of enteroendocrine cell (argyrophilic and serotoninergic cells) hyperplasia in the crypt and villus. PMID:10971748

  19. Endocrine consequences of irradiation and cancer chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review is presented of endocrine dysfunction as a long-term effect of radiotherapy and cancer chemotherapy, with particular reference to children, and to Hodgkin's disease. The hypothalamus and pituitary, growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid and parathyroid, and gonads are discussed. Suggestions are made for long-term measures to be taken, such as measuring growth rates, L-thyroxine replacement, sperm storage, etc. (U.K.)

  20. The endolymphatic sac, a potential endocrine gland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1999-01-01

    A previous investigation indicated that the chief cells of the endolymphatic sac produce an endogenous inhibitor of sodium re-absorption in the kidneys, which has tentatively been named "saccin". In this study, the ultrastructure of the endolymphatic sac and in particular the chief cells...... is described, demonstrating that this organ fulfils the morphological criteria of a potential endocrine gland. Accordingly, the chief cells are shown to exhibit all the organelles and characteristics of cells that simultaneously synthesize, secrete, absorb and digest proteins....

  1. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  2. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.

  3. ENDOCRINE PANCREATIC FUNCTION IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    OpenAIRE

    P. V. Novokhatny

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Among the organs of internal secretion pancreas has a special place thanks to active exocrine function and a wide range of physiological actions of produced hormones. Violations of endocrine pancreas arises in 6.5-38 % of patients with acute pancreatitis. However, there is still no clear understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms of hormonal dysfunction of the pancreas in acute pancreatitis, there is no uniform algorithms for its correction. Aim of the research was to study...

  4. Towards an internationally harmonized test method for reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Wollenberger, Leah

    2007-01-01

    with marine copepods (Acartia tonsa, Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe battagliai, and Amphiascus tenuiremis). The present paper gives an overview on the endocrine system of crustaceans with special emphasis on development and reproduction, which are targets for endocrine disruption, and reviews available methods......New and updated methods to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment since these substances are often not detected using existing chronic toxicity tests. Numerous reports on the effects of EDCs on crustacean...... development and reproduction have been published and the development of life-cycle tests with crustaceans has been prioritized within the OECD work program for endocrine disrupter testing and assessment. As a result, Sweden, and Denmark initiated a proposal for development of a full life-cycle test...

  5. Hedgehog signaling: endocrine gland development and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-01-01

    The role of hedgehog signaling is analyzed in relation to the developing endocrine glands: pituitary, ovary, testis, adrenal cortex, pancreas, prostate, and epiphyseal growth. Experimental and pathological correlates of these organs are also discussed. The second section addresses a number of topics. First, the pituitary gland, no matter how hypoplastic, is present in most cases of human holoprosencephaly, unlike animals in which it is always said to be absent. The difference appears to be that animal mutations and teratogenic models involve both copies of the gene in question, whereas in humans the condition is most commonly heterozygous. Second, tests of endocrine function are not reported with great frequency, and an early demise in severe cases of holoprosencephaly accounts for this trend. Reported tests of endocrine function are reviewed. Third, diabetes insipidus has been recorded in a number of cases of holoprosencephaly. Its frequency is unknown because it could be masked by adrenal insufficiency in some cases and may not be recognized in others. Because of the abnormal hypothalamic-infundibular region in holoprosencephaly, diabetes insipidus could be caused by a defect in the supra-optic or paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei or in release of ADH via the infundibulum and posterior pituitary.

  6. Endocrine Regulation of T-cell Development and Peripheral T-cell Maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van der Weerd (Kim)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ During the last century a large number of studies have demonstrated that complex interplay exists between the immune and the neuro-endocrine systems. This interplay, via shared cytokines, hormones and their respective receptors and nervous innervations, results in a

  7. Student Perceptions of the Use of Presentations as a Method of Learning Endocrine and Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins-Opitz, Susan B.; Tufts, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Second-year medical students at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine (Durban, South Africa) were given a brief to prepare oral presentations on topics related to disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and endocrine system in the form of "patient-doctor" role play and to submit written documents about their topics. This initiative…

  8. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Thomas P; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F; Struik, Dicky; Makris, Konstantinos C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Frederiksen, Hanne; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain

  9. Endocrine Disorders in Childhood: A Selective Survey of Intellectual and Educational Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, David E.; Barrick, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Examines intellectual and educational sequelae of selected endocrine systems and the psychosocial impact of their medical conditions. Many conditions are named including: Growth Hormone Deficiency, Turner Syndrome, Precocious Puberty, Klinefelters Syndrome, Congenital Hypothyroidism, and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Gives psychoeducational…

  10. Treatment of Cushing's Syndrome: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Lynnette K.; Biller, Beverly M. K.; Findling, James W.; Murad, M. Hassan; Newell-Price, John; Savage, Martin O.; Tabarin, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective is to formulate clinical practice guidelines for treating Cushing's syndrome. Participants: Participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The European Society for Endocrinology co-sponsored the guideline. Evidence: The Task Force used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The Task Force commissioned three systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. Consensus Process: The Task Force achieved consensus through one group meeting, several conference calls, and numerous e-mail communications. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Conclusions: Treatment of Cushing's syndrome is essential to reduce mortality and associated comorbidities. Effective treatment includes the normalization of cortisol levels or action. It also includes the normalization of comorbidities via directly treating the cause of Cushing's syndrome and by adjunctive treatments (eg, antihypertensives). Surgical resection of the causal lesion(s) is generally the first-line approach. The choice of second-line treatments, including medication, bilateral adrenalectomy, and radiation therapy (for corticotrope tumors), must be individualized to each patient. PMID:26222757

  11. Endocrine Disruptor Vinclozolin Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Adult-Onset Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anway, Matthew D.; Leathers, Charles; Skinner, Michael K.

    2018-01-01

    The fetal basis of adult disease is poorly understood on a molecular level and cannot be solely attributed to genetic mutations or a single etiology. Embryonic exposure to environmental compounds has been shown to promote various disease states or lesions in the first generation (F1). The current study used the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin (antiandrogenic compound) in a transient embryonic exposure at the time of gonadal sex determination in rats. Adult animals from the F1 generation and all subsequent generations examined (F1–F4) developed a number of disease states or tissue abnormalities including prostate disease, kidney disease, immune system abnormalities, testis abnormalities, and tumor development (e.g. breast). In addition, a number of blood abnormalities developed including hypercholesterolemia. The incidence or prevalence of these transgenerational disease states was high and consistent across all generations (F1–F4) and, based on data from a previous study, appears to be due in part to epigenetic alterations in the male germ line. The observations demonstrate that an environmental compound, endocrine disruptor, can induce transgenerational disease states or abnormalities, and this suggests a potential epigenetic etiology and molecular basis of adult onset disease. PMID:16973726

  12. Endocrine Regulation of T-cell Development and Peripheral T-cell Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Weerd, Kim

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ During the last century a large number of studies have demonstrated that complex interplay exists between the immune and the neuro-endocrine systems. This interplay, via shared cytokines, hormones and their respective receptors and nervous innervations, results in a highly organized integrated surveillance system capable of preserving homeostasis of the body to a large numbers of disturbances. Within this surveillance system the immune system recognizes external (...

  13. Application of Adverse Outcome Pathways to U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Patience; Noyes, Pamela D; Casey, Warren M; Dix, David J

    2017-09-01

    The U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) screens and tests environmental chemicals for potential effects in estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone pathways, and it is one of the only regulatory programs designed around chemical mode of action. This review describes the EDSP's use of adverse outcome pathway (AOP) and toxicity pathway frameworks to organize and integrate diverse biological data for evaluating the endocrine activity of chemicals. Using these frameworks helps to establish biologically plausible links between endocrine mechanisms and apical responses when those end points are not measured in the same assay. Pathway frameworks can facilitate a weight of evidence determination of a chemical's potential endocrine activity, identify data gaps, aid study design, direct assay development, and guide testing strategies. Pathway frameworks also can be used to evaluate the performance of computational approaches as alternatives for low-throughput and animal-based assays and predict downstream key events. In cases where computational methods can be validated based on performance, they may be considered as alternatives to specific assays or end points. A variety of biological systems affect apical end points used in regulatory risk assessments, and without mechanistic data, an endocrine mode of action cannot be determined. Because the EDSP was designed to consider mode of action, toxicity pathway and AOP concepts are a natural fit. Pathway frameworks have diverse applications to endocrine screening and testing. An estrogen pathway example is presented, and similar approaches are being used to evaluate alternative methods and develop predictive models for androgen and thyroid pathways. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1304.

  14. Adaptive PID control based on orthogonal endocrine neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Miroslav B; Antić, Dragan S; Milojković, Marko T; Nikolić, Saša S; Perić, Staniša Lj; Spasić, Miodrag D

    2016-12-01

    A new intelligent hybrid structure used for online tuning of a PID controller is proposed in this paper. The structure is based on two adaptive neural networks, both with built-in Chebyshev orthogonal polynomials. First substructure network is a regular orthogonal neural network with implemented artificial endocrine factor (OENN), in the form of environmental stimuli, to its weights. It is used for approximation of control signals and for processing system deviation/disturbance signals which are introduced in the form of environmental stimuli. The output values of OENN are used to calculate artificial environmental stimuli (AES), which represent required adaptation measure of a second network-orthogonal endocrine adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (OEANFIS). OEANFIS is used to process control, output and error signals of a system and to generate adjustable values of proportional, derivative, and integral parameters, used for online tuning of a PID controller. The developed structure is experimentally tested on a laboratory model of the 3D crane system in terms of analysing tracking performances and deviation signals (error signals) of a payload. OENN-OEANFIS performances are compared with traditional PID and 6 intelligent PID type controllers. Tracking performance comparisons (in transient and steady-state period) showed that the proposed adaptive controller possesses performances within the range of other tested controllers. The main contribution of OENN-OEANFIS structure is significant minimization of deviation signals (17%-79%) compared to other controllers. It is recommended to exploit it when dealing with a highly nonlinear system which operates in the presence of undesirable disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface molecular imprinting onto fluorescein-coated magnetic nanoparticlesvia reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: A facile three-in-one system for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Dong, Cunku; Chu, Jia; Qi, Jingyao; Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Electronic

  16. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  17. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  18. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca; Lavado, Ramon; Thibaut, Remi; Minier, Christophe; Porte, Cinta

    2006-01-01

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period

  19. Evidence of endocrine alteration in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus from the NW Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Skilton, Rebeca [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Lavado, Ramon [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Thibaut, Remi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Minier, Christophe [Laboratoire d' Ecotoxicologie, Universite du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, F-76058 Le Havre (France); Porte, Cinta [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cpvqam@cid.csic.es

    2006-05-15

    Red mullet (Mullus barbatus) were collected from different sampling sites (NW Mediterranean) in spring and autumn, with the aim of assessing potential alterations of the endocrine system. Alkylphenols were measured in fish bile as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Key enzymatic activities involved in both synthesis (ovarian 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and P450 aromatase) and metabolism of steroids were assessed together with histological alterations of the gonads. During the spring sampling, delayed gamete maturation, intersexuality, fibrosis, and depressed ovarian P450 aromatase activity were observed in organisms from the most polluted sites. During the autumn sampling, those effects were less evident, indicating that fish might be more susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals during the reproductive period. Nonetheless, enhanced glucuronidation of testosterone and estradiol was observed. Overall, this work provides first evidences of significant alterations in the endocrine system of red mullet from highly impacted areas in the NW Mediterranean. - Red mullet may be more susceptible to endocrine disruptors during the reproductive period.

  20. Endocrine alterations in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To study the frequency of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal dysfunction in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients and to correlate them at different levels of CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: Forty-three HIV-positive cases were included in the study group. Cases were divided into three groups on the basis of CD4 cell count. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, Cortisol, FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol were estimated by the radioimmunoassay method. Hormone levels between cases were compared and their correlation with CD4 count was analyzed. Results: Prevalence of gonadal dysfunction (88.3% was the most common endocrine dysfunction followed by thyroid (60.4% and adrenal dysfunction (27.9%. Secondary hypogonadism (68.4% was more common than primary (31.6%. Low T3 syndrome, that is, isolated low free T3, was the most common (25.6% thyroid dysfunction followed by secondary hypothyroidism (16.2% and subclinical hypothyroidism (11.6%. Adrenal excess (16.3% was more common than adrenal insufficiency (11.6%. The difference in hormonal dysfunction between male and female was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05. 27.9% of patients had multiple hormone deficiency. There was negligible or no correlation between CD4 count and serum hormone level. Conclusion: In our study, endocrine dysfunction was quite common among HIV-infected patients but there was no correlation between hormone levels and CD4 count. Endocrine dysfunctions and role of hormone replacement therapy in HIV-infected patient needs to be substantiated by large longitudinal study, so that it will help to reduce morbidity, improve quality of life.

  1. [Autoimmune thyroid disease and other non-endocrine autoimmune diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilas, Ljiljana Todorović; Icin, Tijana; Paro, Jovanka Novaković; Bajkin, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are chronic conditions initiated by the loss of immunological tolerance to self-antigens. They constitute heterogeneous group of disorders, in which multiple alterations in the immune system result in a spectrum of syndromes that either target specific organs or affect the body systematically. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a possible shift of one autoimmune disease to another or the fact that more than one autoimmune disease may coexist in a single patient or in the same family. Numerous autoimmune diseases have been shown to coexist frequently with thyroid autoimmune diseases. AUTOIMMNUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: This part of the study reviews the prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disease coexisting with: pernicious anaemia, vitiligo, celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, miastenia gravis, alopecia areata and sclerosis multiplex, and several recommendations for screening have been given. AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE AND OTHER ORGAN NON-SPECIFIC NON-ENDOCRINE AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES: Special attention is given to the correlation between autoimmune thyroid disease and rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, syndrome Sjögren, systemic sclerosis and mixed connective tissue disease. Screening for autoimmune thyroid diseases should be recommended in everyday clinical practice, in patients with primary organ-specific or organ non-specific autoimmune disease. Otherwise, in patients with primary thyroid autoimmune disease, there is no good reason of seeking for all other autoimmune diseases, although these patients have a greater risk of developing other autoimmune disease. Economic aspects of medicine require further analyzing of these data, from cost/benefit point of view to justified either mandatory screening or medical practitioner judgment.

  2. Endocrine and neuroendocrine regulation of fathering behavior in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Although paternal care is generally rare among vertebrates, care of eggs and young by male birds is extremely common and may take on a variety of forms across species. Thus, birds provide ample opportunities for investigating both the evolution of and the proximate mechanisms underpinning diverse aspects of fathering behavior. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the endocrine and neuroendocrine influences on paternal care in this vertebrate group. In this review, I focus on proximate mechanisms of paternal care in birds. I place an emphasis on specific hormones that vary predictably and/or unpredictably during the parental phase in both captive and wild birds: prolactin and progesterone are generally assumed to enhance paternal care, whereas testosterone and corticosterone are commonly-though not always correctly-assumed to inhibit paternal care. In addition, because endocrine secretions are not the sole mechanistic influence on paternal behavior, I also explore potential roles for certain neuropeptide systems (specifically the oxytocin-vasopressin nonapeptides and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone) and social and experiential factors in influencing paternal behavior in birds. Ultimately, mechanistic control of fathering behavior in birds is complex, and I suggest specific avenues for future research with the goal of narrowing gaps in our understanding of this complexity. Such avenues include (1) experimental studies that carefully consider not only endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of paternal behavior, but also the ecology, phylogenetic history, and social context of focal species; (2) investigations that focus on individual variation in both hormonal and behavioral responses during the parental phase; (3) studies that investigate mechanisms of maternal and paternal care independently, rather than assuming that the mechanistic foundations of care are similar between the sexes; (4

  3. Cardiovascular, endocrine and renal effects of urodilatin in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bestle, M.H.; Olsen, N.V.; Christensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate......Effects of urodilatin (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1) infused over 2 h on separate study days were studied in eight normal subjects with use of a randomized, double-blind protocol. All doses decreased renal plasma flow (hippurate clearance, 13-37%) and increased fractional Li+ clearance (7......-22%) and urinary Na+ excretion (by 30, 76, 136, and 99% at 5, 10, 20, and 40 ng. kg-1. min-1, respectively). Glomerular filtration rate did not increase significantly with any dose. The two lowest doses decreased cardiac output (7 and 16%) and stroke volume (10 and 20%) without changing mean arterial blood...

  4. Ductuloinsular tumors of the pancreas - Endocrine tumors with entrapped nonneoplastic ductules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeden, Susanne; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Morsink, Folkert H.; Weterman, Marian A. J.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Klöppel, Günter; Klimstra, David S.

    2004-01-01

    Rare pancreatic neoplasms have been reported that show both endocrine and exocrine differentiation in the neoplastic components. In addition, pancreatic endocrine tumors may contain small, cytologically bland ductules intimately admixed with the endocrine component. It was recently suggested that

  5. Hematologic and pancreatic endocrine abnormalities after ionisingirradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, D.F.; Heydenrych, J.J.; Smit, B.

    1986-01-01

    Besides the use of ionizing irradiation in the treatment of malignant tumours of the abdominal cavity, irradiation has also been documented to suppress the classical organ allograft rejection response in man and experimental models. Recently, fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and subtotal bone-marrow irradiation has been proved successfull in suppressing rejection of liver and kidney allografts in primates resulting in permanent tolerance. This study evaluates the detrimental side-effects of fractionated irradiation on peripheral blood, bone-marrow, pancreatic morphology and function in our primate model. Twenty primates received fractionated irradiation in doses of 800 (8 Gy) and 1000 (10 Gy) rads respectively administered at 100 rad (1 Gy) biweekly over a 4 to 5 week period. During the last weeks of irradiation 300 millilitres (ml) of donor specific blood was transfused in 50 ml aliquotes to combat the myelosuppressive effects of irradiation. Within 1 week of irradiation marked bonemarrow suppression was characterized by pancytopaenia and hypoplasia Pancreatic endocrine disturbances include hypoin-sulinaemia associated with mild glucose intolerance and reduced K-values. Significant pathological changes of the pancreas included nuclear and cytocavitary network changes affecting both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic elements. Although irradiation has proved to be a powerful immunosuppressive modality, significant haematological and organ damage occurred despite fractionation over a 4 to 5 week period

  6. Sarcopenia and Age-Related Endocrine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.

  7. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Peppa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  8. Influence of metabolism on endocrine activities of bisphenol S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skledar, Darja Gramec; Schmidt, Jan; Fic, Anja; Klopčič, Ivana; Trontelj, Jurij; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Finel, Moshe; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS; bis[4-hydroxyphenyl]sulfone) is commonly used as a replacement for bisphenol A in numerous consumer products. The main goal of this study was to examine the influence of different metabolic reactions that BPS undergoes on the endocrine activity. We demonstrate that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of BPS, catalyzed mainly by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, is its major in-vitro phase I biotransformation. Nevertheless, coupled oxidative-conjugative reactions analyses revealed that glucuronidation and formation of BPS glucuronide is the predominant BPS metabolic pathway. BPS reactive metabolites that can be tracked as glutathione conjugates were not detected in the present study. Two in-vitro systems were used to evaluate the endocrine activity of BPS and its two main metabolites, BPS glucuronide and hydroxylated BPS 4-(4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (BPSM1). In addition, we have tested two structural analogs of BPS, bis[4-(2-hydroxyetoxy)phenyl]sulfone (BHEPS) and 4,4-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol) (dBPS). The test systems were yeast cells, for evaluating estrogenic and androgenic activities, and the GH3.TRE-Luc reporter cell line for measuring thyroid hormone activity. BPS and BPSM1 were weak agonists of the estrogen receptor, EC50 values of 8.4 × 10(-5) M and 6.7 × 10(-4) M, respectively. Additionally, BPSM1 exhibited weak antagonistic activity toward the thyroid hormone receptor, with an IC50 of 4.3 × 10(-5) M. In contrast to BPSM1, BPS glucuronide was inactive in these assays, inhibiting neither the estrogen nor the thyroid hormone receptors. Hence, glucuronidation appears to be the most important pathway for both BPS metabolism and detoxification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Expansion of Adult Human Pancreatic Tissue Yields Organoids Harboring Progenitor Cells with Endocrine Differentiation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J.M. Loomans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating an unlimited source of human insulin-producing cells is a prerequisite to advance β cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here, we describe a 3D culture system that supports the expansion of adult human pancreatic tissue and the generation of a cell subpopulation with progenitor characteristics. These cells display high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi, express pancreatic progenitors markers (PDX1, PTF1A, CPA1, and MYC, and can form new organoids in contrast to ALDHlo cells. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that ALDHhi cells are closer to human fetal pancreatic tissue compared with adult pancreatic tissue. Endocrine lineage markers were detected upon in vitro differentiation. Engrafted organoids differentiated toward insulin-positive (INS+ cells, and circulating human C-peptide was detected upon glucose challenge 1 month after transplantation. Engrafted ALDHhi cells formed INS+ cells. We conclude that adult human pancreatic tissue has potential for expansion into 3D structures harboring progenitor cells with endocrine differentiation potential. : In the context of β cell replacement therapy for diabetes, de Koning and colleagues describe a 3D culture platform that supports ex vivo expansion of human pancreatic tissue as organoids. These organoids harbor a subpopulation of ALDHhi cells that display proliferative capacity and can differentiate to an endocrine fate. Keywords: pancreas, organoid, human, ALDH, endocrine differentiation, beta cells, insulin, progenitor, fetal, diabetes

  10. Informative importance of determination of trace elements in biologocal mediums in patients with endocrine pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Николаевна Андрусишина

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The changes of mineral metabolism in human organism caused by the deficiency or excess of trace elements in environment (air, food stuffs, water can lead to disorder of functional status of organism.An excess or deficiency of the certain metals disturb the balance of metabolic processes in organism that causes the different changes in endocrine system too. That is why the aim of research was to detect the peculiarities of distribution of macro and trace elements in patients with different endocrine pathology and to show the reasonability of the complex approach in assessment of microelementoses at hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus.Methods. The balance of 15 macro and trace elements in different biological mediums (hairs, whole blood, blood serum, urine was studied using EAAS and AES-ICP methods.Result. There was demonstrated the high informative importance of determination of K, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn at pancreas pathology and Cr, Mn, Se, Zn- at thyroid pathology in human. There was detected that endocrine pathology is characterized with the surplus accumulation of Al, As and Pb in organism of examined patients.Conclusions. To increase the reliability and efficiency of the clinical diagnostics of endocrine human pathology there was demonstrated the high informative importance of the complex approach in choice of biological mediums at assessment of the trace elements imbalance. 

  11. Models of Stress in Nonhuman Primates and Their Relevance for Human Psychopathology and Endocrine Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S.; Hamel, Amanda F.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction. PMID:25225311

  12. Models of stress in nonhuman primates and their relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S; Hamel, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  13. Myopathies of endocrine disorders: A prospective clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Major categories of endocrine myopathy include those associated with: Adrenal dysfunction (as in Cushing′s disease or steroid myopathy; thyroid dysfunction (as in myxedema coma or thyrotoxic myopathy; vitamin D deficiency; parathyroid dysfunction; and pituitary dysfunction. Steroid myopathy is the most common endocrine myopathy. Objective: To study the etiology, varied presentations, and outcome after therapy of patients with endocrine myopathies. Materials and Methods: Myopathy was evaluated by the standard clinical procedures: Detailed clinical history, manual muscle strength testing, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK. Endocrine disorders were diagnosed as per clinical features and biochemical parameters. The treatment was given to patients as per underlying endocrine disease. Myopathy was assessed before and after treatment. Results: Out of the 37 patients who were diagnosed with endocrine myopathies, thyroid dysfunction was the most common cause (17 cases, followed by vitamin D deficiency in nine, adrenal dysfunction in six, parathyroid dysfunction in three, and pituitary dysfunction in two. Some patients had atypical presentation (repeated falls in one, tongue fasciculations in one, neck weakness in five, one with ptosis and facial weakness, asymmetrical onset in one, and calf hypertrophy in one. The serum creatine kinase (CK concentration did not correlate with muscle weakness. Following the treatment regimen which was specific for a given myopathy, 26 patients recovered fully. Conclusion: We found varied clinical presentations of endocrine myopathies. All the patients with neuromuscular complaints should be investigated for endocrine causes because significant number of them recovers fully with specific treatment.

  14. Endocrine dysfunction among adult patients with tuberculosis: An African experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Kibirige

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A broad spectrum of endocrine conditions has been reported among adult patients with tuberculosis in Africa. This review aims to describe the magnitude and pathogenesis of the following endocrinopathies among patients with tuberculosis in Africa: adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, disorders of calcium and vitamin D metabolism, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism. PubMed database and Google scholar were used to search for the relevant published English language studies and case reports relating to endocrine abnormalities and tuberculosis in Africa up to July 2013. The search terms used were endocrine dysfunction, endocrine abnormalities, adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, hypogonadism, disorders of calcium and vitamin D metabolism, tuberculosis, Africa. Reference lists of the identified articles were further used to identify other studies. Adrenal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus and calcium-vitamin D abnormalities were the most prevalent and frequently reported endocrine disorders among adult patients with tuberculosis in Africa. A meticulous endocrine evaluation among tuberculosis patients with suspected endocrine abnormalities should be encouraged in Africa and other high TB endemic regions. Treatment of these endocrine disorders has generally been shown to improve quality of life and reduce mortality.

  15. Multiple endocrine diseases in dogs: 35 cases (1996-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G

    2011-06-15

    To characterize a population of dogs from a tertiary care center with 2 or more endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Retrospective case series. 35 dogs with 2 or more endocrine disorders. Medical records were reviewed, and the following was recorded: clinical signs, physical examination findings, and the results of CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, aerobic bacterial culture of urine samples, endocrine testing, diagnostic imaging, and necropsy. 35 dogs with more than 1 endocrine disorder were identified. Seventy-seven percent (27/35) of the dogs were male, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first endocrinopathy was 7.9 years. Miniature Schnauzer was the most common breed. Twenty-eight of 35 (80%) dogs had 2 disorders; 7 (20%) had 3 disorders. The most common combinations of disorders included diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism in 57.1 % (20/35) of dogs; hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism in 22.9% (8/35) of dogs; and diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in 28.6% (10/35) of dogs. A mean of 14.5 months elapsed between diagnosis of the first and second endocrine disorders, whereas there was a mean of 31.1 months between diagnosis of the first and third endocrine disorders. Results suggested that the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders was uncommon in dogs. The most common combinations of endocrine disorders in this population of dogs were diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, followed by hypoadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism.

  16. Paediatric Endocrine Disorders at the University College Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Until recently, most published research focus more on infectious diseases and malnutrition giving the impression that endocrine disorders are uncommon. Reports on endocrine disorders in children in developing countries are few compared to developed countries reflecting the different level of prevalence in ...

  17. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  18. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.

  19. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  20. Tributyltin: Advancing the science on assessing endocrine disruption with an unconventional endocrine-disrupting compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Biever, Ronald C.; Guiney, Patrick; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schwarz, Tamar; Meador, James P.

    2018-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated—interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA. One of the most important lessons learned from years of research on TBT concerns apparent species sensitivity. Several aspects such as the rates of uptake and elimination, chemical potency, and metabolic capacity are all important for identifying the most sensitive species for a given chemical, including EDCs. For TBT, much of this was discovered by trial and error, hence important relationships and important sensitive taxa were not identified until several decades after its introduction to the environment. As recognized for many years, TBT-induced responses are known to occur at very low concentrations for molluscs, a fact that has more recently also been observed in fish species. This review explores the MeOA and effects of TBT in different species (aquatic molluscs and other invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals) according to the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disruptor Testing and Assessment (CFEDTA). The information gathered on biological effects that are relevant for populations of aquatic animals was used to construct Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) based on No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) and Lowest Observed Effect Concentrations (LOECs). Fish appear at the lower end of these distributions

  1. Tributyltin: Advancing the Science on Assessing Endocrine Disruption with an Unconventional Endocrine-Disrupting Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Biever, Ron; Guiney, Patrick D; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schwarz, Tamar; Meador, James P

    Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA. One of the most important lessons learned from years of research on TBT concerns apparent species sensitivity. Several aspects such as the rates of uptake and elimination, chemical potency, and metabolic capacity are all important for identifying the most sensitive species for a given chemical, including EDCs. For TBT, much of this was discovered by trial and error, hence important relationships and important sensitive taxa were not identified until several decades after its introduction to the environment. As recognized for many years, TBT-induced responses are known to occur at very low concentrations for molluscs, a fact that has more recently also been observed in fish species. This review explores the MeOA and effects of TBT in different species (aquatic molluscs and other invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals) according to the OECD Conceptual Framework for Endocrine Disruptor Testing and Assessment (CFEDTA). The information gathered on biological effects that are relevant for populations of aquatic animals was used to construct Species Sensitivity Distributions (SSDs) based on No Observed Effect Concentrations (NOECs) and Lowest Observed Effect Concentrations (LOECs). Fish appear at the lower end of these distributions

  2. Methodical approaches to managing risks for endocrine diseases evolvement in children related to impacts of environmental factors occuring on areas aimed for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Luzhetskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vital to develop systems of preventing risk-associated pathology due to constantly high levels of endocrine diseases in children exposed to chemicals with trophic effects on endocrine system (lead, cadmium, manganese, chromium, nickel, benzene, phenol, formaldehyde, benzpyrene, chlorine-organic compounds, and nitrates. Applying risk management techniques is one of the most promising trends in prevention of diseases related to environmental impacts. We offer methodical approaches based on system combination of activities at various management levels aimed at improving risk-oriented model of surveillance and control. These approaches enable allowing for detected thropic risk factors in regional social-hygienic monitoring programs, implementing algorithms of case monitoring over exposed children population, and applying contemporary prevention technologies. Social-hygienic monitoring improvement at territorial level implies stricter control and more comprehensive lists of monitored components. This can be achieved by studying compounds which form risks for endocrine system, by working out scientific-methodological grounds for accounting chemical compounds which are trophic for endocrine system, as well as by refining volumes and contents of scheduled inspections performed at high risks objects together with laboratory examination of chemical compounds including those thropic for endocrine system. Local level includes algorithms and schemes of prevention activities aimed at early detection of endocrine disorders related to chemicals impacts. When we give grounds for personified technologies of endocrine diseases prevention (alimentary disorders, physical retardation and obesity related to impacts exerted by chemicals which are trophic for endocrine system we should remember that individual programs choice is based not only on their capacity to eliminate priority compounds determining total chemical load on a person faster but also on

  3. The effect of lead intoxication on endocrine functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, K K; Doumouchtsis, S K; Doumouchtsis, E K; Perrea, D N

    2009-02-01

    Studies on the effects of lead on the endocrine system are mainly based on occupationally lead-exposed workers and experimental animal models. Although evidence is conflicting, it has been reported that accumulation of lead affects the majority of the endocrine glands. In particular, it appears to have an effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis causing blunted TSH, GH, and FSH/LH responses to TRH, GHRH, and GnRH stimulation, respectively. Suppressed GH release has been reported, probably caused by reduced synthesis of GHRH, inhibition of GHRH release or reduced somatotrope responsiveness. Higher levels of PRL in lead intoxication have been reported. In short-term lead-exposed individuals, high LH and FSH levels are usually associated to normal testosterone concentrations, whereas in long-term exposed individuals' low testosterone levels do not induce high LH and FSH concentrations. These findings suggest that lead initially causes some subclinical testicular damage, followed by hypothalamic or pituitary disturbance when longer periods of exposure take place. Similarly, lead accumulates in granulosa cells of the ovary, causing delays in growth and pubertal development and reduced fertility in females. In the parenchyma of adrenals histological and cytological changes are demonstrated, causing changes in plasma basal and stress-mediated corticosterone concentrations and reduced cytosolic and nuclear glucocorticoid receptor binding. Thyroid hormone kinetics are also affected. Central defect of the thyroid axis or an alteration in T4 metabolism or binding to proteins may be involved in derangements in thyroid hormone action. Lead toxicity involves alterations on calcitropic hormones' homeostasis, which increase the risk of skeletal disorders.

  4. Endocrine disruption: In silico interactions between phthalate plasticizers and corticosteroid binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq A; Beg, Mohd A

    2017-12-01

    Endocrine disruption is a phenomenon when a man-made or natural compound interferes with normal hormone function in human or animal body systems. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have assumed considerable importance as a result of industrial activity, mass production of synthetic chemicals and environmental pollution. Phthalate plasticizers are a group of chemicals used widely and diversely in industry especially in the plastic industry, and many of the phthalate compounds have endocrine-disrupting properties. Increasing evidence indicates that steroid nuclear receptors and steroid binding proteins are the main targets of endocrine disruption. Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a steroid binding protein that binds and transports cortisol in the blood circulation and is a potential target for endocrine disruption. An imbalance of cortisol in the body leads to many health problems. Induced fit docking of nine important and environmentally relevant phthalate plasticizers (DMP, BBP, DBP, DIBP, DnHP, DEHP, DINP, DnOP, DIDP) showed interactions with 10-19 amino acid residues of CBG. Comparison of the interacting residues of CBG with phthalate ligands and cortisol showed an overlapping of the majority (53-82%) of residues for each phthalate. Five of nine phthalate compounds and cortisol shared a hydrogen bonding interaction with the Arg-252 residue of CBG. Long-chain phthalates, such as DEHP, DINP, DnOP and DIDP displayed a higher binding affinity and formed a number of interactions with CBG in comparison to short-chain phthalates. The similarity in structural binding characteristics of phthalate compounds and native ligand cortisol suggested potential competitive conflicts in CBG-cortisol binding function and possible disruption of cortisol and progesterone homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Endocrine check-up in adolescents and indications for referral: A guide for health care providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that young people between the ages of 11 and 21 years should be seen annually by their pediatricians, since annual checkups can be an important opportunity for health evaluation and anticipatory guidance. Parents of infants and young children are accustomed to regularly visiting a pediatrician for their child′s checkups. Unfortunately, when children reach the teen years, these annual checkups may decrease in frequency. In routine check-ups and medical office visits, particular attention should be paid to the possibility of a developmental or endocrine disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment may prevent medical complications in adulthood and foster age-appropriate development. Our purpose is to acquaint readers with the concept, based on current scientific understanding, that some endocrine disorders may be associated with a wide range of deleterious health consequences including an increased risk of hypertension and hyperlipidemia, increased risk of coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, significant anxiety and lack of self-esteem. Understanding the milestones and developmental stages of adolescence is essential for pediatricians and all other health providers who care for adolescents. Treating adolescents involves knowledge of a variety of medical, social and legal information; in addition, close working relationships must be established within the adolescent′s network to create an effective care system. In summary, we underline the importance of a periodic endocrine checkup in adolescents in order to identify endocrine problems early and develop an approach to treatment for those patients who need help during this time. Indications for endocrine referral for professional and other healthcare providers are also included. These lists are clearly not intended to be comprehensive, but will hopefully serve as a guide for specific clinical circumstances.

  6. Exocrine cell-derived microparticles in response to lipopolysaccharide promote endocrine dysfunction in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Andrei Alexandru; Gleizes, Céline; Alhosin, Mahmoud; Yala, Elhassan; Zobairi, Fatiha; Leclercq, Alexandre; Stoian, Gheorghe; Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Prévost, Gilles; Toti, Florence; Kessler, Laurence

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes in cystic fibrosis (CF) is a result of exocrine pancreas alteration followed by endocrine dysfunction at a later stage. Microparticles (MPs) are plasma membrane fragments shed from stimulated or damaged cells that act as cellular effectors. Our aim was to identify a new form of interaction between exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells mediated by exocrine MPs, in the context of recurrent infection in CF. MPs from either human exocrine CFTRΔF508-mutated (CFPAC-1) cells or exocrine normal pancreatic (PANC-1) cells were collected after treatment by LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and applied to rat endocrine normal insulin-secreting RIN-m5F cells. MP membrane integration in target cells was established by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry using PKH26 lipid probe. Apoptosis, lysosomal activity, insulin secretion were measured after 18 h. MP-mediated NF-κB activation was measured in HEK-Blue reporter cells by SEAP reporter gene system and in RIN-m5F cells by Western blot. In endocrine normal cells, CFTR inhibition was achieved using Inhibitor-172. Compared to PANC-1, MPs from CFPAC-1 significantly reduced insulin secretion and lysosomal activity in RIN-m5F. MPs induced NF-κB activation by increasing the level of IκB phosphorylation. Moreover, the inhibition of NF-κB activation using specific inhibitors was associated with a restored insulin secretion. Interestingly, CFTR inhibition in normal RIN-m5F cells promoted apoptosis and decreased insulin secretion. During recurrent infections associated with CF, exocrine MPs may contribute to endocrine cell dysfunction via NF-κB pathways. Membrane CFTR dysfunction is associated with decreased insulin secretion. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Cystic Fibrosis Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and growth of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Jérémie; Kadawathagedara, Manik; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2017-06-01

    According to the "environmental obesogen hypothesis", early-life (including in utero) exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may disturb the mechanisms involved in adipogenesis or energy storage, and thus may increase the susceptibility to overweight and obesity. Animal models have shown that exposure to several of these chemicals could induce adipogenesis and mechanisms have been described. Epidemiological studies are crucial to know whether this effect could also be observed in humans. We aimed at summarizing the literature in epidemiology on the relationship between EDCs exposure and child's growth. Overall, epidemiological studies suggest that pre- and/or early postnatal exposure to some EDCs may increase the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood. In that review, we present some limitations of these studies, mainly in exposure assessment, that currently prevent to conclude about causality. Recent advances in epidemiology should bring further knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endocrine Disruptors and Leydig Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Svechnikov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, a large body of information concerning the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs on animals and humans has been accumulated. EDCs are of synthetic or natural origin and certain groups are known to disrupt the action of androgens and to impair the development of the male reproductive tract and external genitalia. The present overview describes the effects of the different classes of EDCs, such as pesticides, phthalates, dioxins, and phytoestrogens, including newly synthesized resveratrol analogs on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. The potential impact of these compounds on androgen production by Leydig cells during fetal development and in the adult age is discussed. In addition, the possible role of EDCs in connection with the increasing frequency of abnormalities in reproductive development in animals and humans is discussed.

  10. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  11. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  12. Duodenal endocrine cells in adult coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, K; Alumets, J; Berg, N O; Håkanson, R; Sundler, F

    1979-01-01

    Using immunohistochemical techniques we studied duodenal biopsies from 18 patients with coeliac disease and 24 patients with normal duodenal morphology. We had access to antisera against the following gastrointestinal peptides: cholecystokinin (CCK), gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), gastrin-17, glucagon-enteroglucagon, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic peptide (PP), secretin, somatostatin, substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The somatostatin, GIP, CCK, and glucagon cells were increased in number in coeliac disease. The number of motilin cells was slightly increased, while secretin cells were reduced. Cells storing gastrin-17, substance P, or neurotensin were rare in all patients regardless of diagnosis. No PP immunoreactive cells were found and VIP was localised to neurons only. In biopsies from patients having a mucosa with ridging of villi the number of the various endocrine cell types did not differ from that in the control group. Images Fig. 2 PMID:385455

  13. Endocrine Disrupters in Human Blood and Breast Milk: Extraction Methodologies, Cellular Uptake and Effect on Key Nuclear Receptor Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    -products from incineration plants, plastic additives, technical industry products, pesticides from the farming industry and detergent degradation products. Many of these substances can interfere with the hormonal system in organisms. The common name for these compounds is endocrine disrupters (EDCs). Some EDCs...... are persistent to degradation and are also called persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Endocrine disrupters are compounds that can interfere with an organism’s hormone system by interacting with the hormone receptors. Many of an organism’s body functions are controlled by interactions between hormones...

  14. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  15. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  16. Characterization of the interactions between endocrine disruptors and aquatic humic substances from tropical rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero, Wander G.; Oliveira, Luciana C. de; Cunha, Bruno B.; Oliveira, Lilian K. de; Goveia, Danielle; Fraceto, Leonardo F.; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Rocha, Julio Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between two endocrine disruptors (ED) and aquatic humic substances (AHS) from tropical rivers were studied using an ultrafiltration system equipped with a 1 kDa cut-off cellulose membrane to separate free ED from the fraction bound in the AHS. Quantification of 17α-ethynylestradiol and bisphenol A was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The times required for establishment of equilibrium between the AHS and the ED were ca. 30 min, and complexation capacities for 17α-ethynylestradiol and bisphenol A were 18.53 and 2.07 mg g -1 TOC, respectively. The greater interaction of AHS with 17α-ethynylestradiol, compared to bisphenol A, was due to the presence of hydrogen in the structure of 17α-ethynylestradiol, which could interact with ionized oxygenated groups of the AHS. The results indicate that AHS can strongly influence the transport and reactivity of endocrine disruptors in aquatic systems. (author)

  17. Structure of neuro-endocrine and neuro-epithelial interactions in human foetal pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivova, Yuliya; Proshchina, Alexandra; Barabanov, Valeriy; Leonova, Olga; Saveliev, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    In the pancreas of many mammals including humans, endocrine islet cells can be integrated with the nervous system components into neuro-insular complexes. The mechanism of the formation of such complexes is not clearly understood. The present study evaluated the interactions between the nervous system components, epithelial cells and endocrine cells in the human pancreas. Foetal pancreas, gestational age 19-23 weeks (13 cases) and 30-34 weeks (7 cases), were studied using double immunohistochemical labeling with neural markers (S100 protein and beta III tubulin), epithelial marker (cytokeratin 19 (CK19)) and antibodies to insulin and glucagon. We first analyse the structure of neuro-insular complexes using confocal microscopy and provide immunohistochemical evidences of the presence of endocrine cells within the ganglia or inside the nerve bundles. We showed that the nervous system components contact with the epithelial cells located in ducts or in clusters outside the ductal epithelium and form complexes with separate epithelial cells. We observed CK19-positive cells inside the ganglia and nerve bundles which were located separately or were integrated with the islets. Therefore, we conclude that neuro-insular complexes may forms as a result of integration between epithelial cells and nervous system components at the initial stages of islets formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  19. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Thomas P; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain...... and BMI triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and benzyl paraben) were detected, while five npEDCs (bisphenol A...

  20. Remote postradiation immunodeficiency a disorder of endocrine regulation and thymic function. Role of intersystems interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savina, N.P.

    1999-01-01

    A total of 265 reports on radiation effects on the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems are reviewed. The role of the thymus, hypothalamus, and pituitary in remote manifestations of immunodeficiency in patients with cancer of the head and neck, treated by radiotherapy, is discussed. The pathogenesis of stubborn postradiation disturbances in immunoendocrine homeostasis after local exposure of the thymus and hypothalamus-pituitary at doses of 1-10 Gy, characterized as a syndrome, is analyzed [ru

  1. Financial burden is associated with worse health-related quality of life in adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, Benjamin J; Goswami, Sneha; Helenowski, Irene; Yount, Susan E; Sturgeon, Cord

    2017-12-01

    Health-related quality of life and financial burden among patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is poorly described. It is not known how financial burden influences health-related quality of life in this population. We hypothesized that the financial burden attributable to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is associated with worse health-related quality of life. United States adults (≥18 years) with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 were recruited from the AMENSupport MEN online support group. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and financial burden were assessed via an online survey. The instrument Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System 29-item profile measure was used to assess health-related quality of life. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify significant variables in each Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domain. Out of 1,378 members in AMENSupport, our survey link was accessed 449 times (33%). Of 153 US respondents who completed our survey, 84% reported financial burden attributable to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. The degree of financial burden had a linear relationship with worse health-related quality of life across all Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System domains (r = 0.36-0.55, P financial event(s). Borrowing money from friends/family (30%), unemployment (13%), and spending >$100/month out-of-pocket on prescription medications (46%) were associated consistently with impaired health-related quality of life (ß = 3.75-6.77, P times more likely to be unemployed and declare bankruptcy than the US population, respectively. This study characterizes the financial burden in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Individuals with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 report a high degree of financial burden, negative financial events, and unemployment. Each of these factors was associated with worse health-related quality of life

  2. Cloning of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, JG

    2004-01-01

    Aim: In order to clarify the pathogenesis of endocrine exophthalmos, and lay foundations for finding the new functions of its relative genes, the cloning of its relative genes was carried out. Methods: The thyroid tissues of 10 hyperthyroidism patients, 5 of them with endocrine exophthalmos and 5 without that, were obtained. Their mRNA were collected respectively by using Quick Prep Micro mRNA purification kit. Then the same amount of the mRNA from 5 patients with endocrine exophthalmos was added into an eppendorf tube to form a mRNA pool. And that of the 5 patients without endocrine exophthalmos was also prepared as the other pool. As a model, the pool was used to synthesize the single and double chains of cDNA through SMART Tm PCR cDNA Synthesis Kit. The double chains cDNA from the endocrine exophthalmos patients, being used as tester, and that from the patients without endocrine exophthalmos, being used as driver, were digested by restriction endonucleases Hae III to get the fragments which was less than 500 bases. The tester cDNA was ligated with adapt or 1 or 2 respectively. Then the subtractive suppressive hybridization was performed between tester and driver cDNA. And the efficacies of subtraction were measured. The differential genes between the thyroid tissues of endocrine exophthalmos and the thyroid tissues without endocrine exophthalmos were obtained through two cycles of subtractive hybridization and two cycles PCR. The differential genes were cloned into the vector of pT-Adv, and then transformed into E.coliDH5a. 48 white clonies were selected to build the subtractive suppressive library of the relative genes of endocrine exophthalmos. The primer 2 was applied for the colony PCR of the relative genes. The amplified genes were obtained and purified by using Quaqwich Spine PCR Purification Kit. According to the principle of random primer, the double chains cDNA from the thyroid tissues with or without endocrine exophthalmos were digested by Hae III

  3. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  4. Affective disorders and endocrine disease. New insights from psychosomatic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, G A

    1994-01-01

    This is a review of psychosomatic interactions between affective disorders (depressive and anxiety disturbances, irritable mood) and endocrine disease. Particular reference is made to stressful life events in the pathogenesis of endocrine disease, psychopathology of hormonal disturbances, and pathophysiology of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in depression and Cushing's disease. These psychosomatic interactions may lead to appraisal of common etiological mechanisms in endocrine and psychiatric disorders, of the value of retaining the category of organic affective syndromes in psychiatric classification, and of the need for research on quality-of-life measures in endocrine disease. The establishment of "psychoendocrine units," where both endocrinologists and psychiatrists should work, is advocated. Such psychoendocrine units may serve and benefit clinical populations who currently defy traditional medical subdivisions.

  5. REMOVAL OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR CHEMICALS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A group of chemicals, known as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) have been identified as having the potential to cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Among this group DDT, PCBs, endosulfan, methoxychlor, diethylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, and bisphenol A ...

  6. Multiple endocrine diseases in cats: 15 cases (1997-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica L; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first disorder was 10.3 years. The most common combination of disorders was diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Two cats had concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, one cat had concurrent central diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. A mean of 25.7 months elapsed between diagnoses of the first and second endocrine disorder, but this was variable. This study suggests the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders is uncommon in cats. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiologic features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, N. Cem; Semelka, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents imaging features of cystic, endocrine and other pancreatic neoplasms. Microcystic adenoma which is composed of small cysts ( 2 cm) are accounted for mucinous cystic neoplasms, its variant along pancreatic duct is ductectatic mucinous cystic neoplasm. Endocrine tumors of pancreas are hypervascular and can be depicted on early dynamic enhanced crosssectional imaging modalities or on angiography when they are <1 cm. Pancreatic metastases and lymphomas are rare neoplasms which should also be included in differential diagnosis for pancreatic masses

  8. Endocrine disruptors in female reproductive tract development and carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and their effects on human fetal development and adult health have promoted research into the underlying molecular mechanisms of endocrine disruption. Gene targeting technology has allowed insight into the genetic pathways governing reproductive tract development and how exposure to EDCs during a critical developmental window can alter reproductive tract development, potentially forming the basis for adult diseases. This review prima...

  9. X-Ray semiotics of cranial involvement in endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuzyak, M.I.; Kramnoj, I.E.; Belaya, L.M.; Tyazhelova, O.V.; Litvinenko, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    The incidence and type of X-ray semeiotics of the skull involvement were studied in 703 patients with endocrine diseases. Craniorgam analysis involved study of the thickness and structure of the vault bones, shape and size of the skull, status of the sutures, internal plate relief, changes of the base of the skull, of the sella turcica first of all, and facial bone. The characteristic X-ray symprom complexes of the involvement of the skull in some endocrine diseases were distinguished

  10. Monitoring and risk assessment for endocrine disruptors in the aquatic environment: a biomarker approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerregaard, P.; Korsgaard, B.; Christiansen, L.B.; Pedersen, K.L.; Christensen, L.J.; Pedersen, S.N.; Horn, P. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Biologisk Inst.

    1998-12-31

    Evidence that a number of chemicals affect wildlife populations or individuals via interaction with endocrine systems has been increasing in recent years. Not all of the mechanisms of action are fully understood, but endocrine disrupting chemicals may work at various biochemical levels, e.g. affecting the synthesis of hormones, interfering with hormone transporting proteins in the blood, affecting the metabolisation of hormones or by direct effects on cellular hormone receptors. In dogwhelks Nucella lapillus tributyltin inhibits the aromatase that converts testosterone to oestrogen thereby masculinising the females (Oehlmann et al. 1996). Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls interfere with thyroxin transporting proteins in the blood of seals. Chemicals that induce MFO-activity may indirectly lead to altered hormone levels by increasing the metabolisation of hormones. Alkylphenols react directly with the oestrogen receptor which in turn may lead to feminisation of male organisms exposed. (orig.)

  11. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla

    health and the environment. A number of issues relevant for the development of criteria for EDs were considered such as definition, potency, lead effects, specificity and relevance for humans and the environment. The proposed criteria divide substances into three categories dependent on the available...... and the main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with focus on information needed for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The aim of the report was to propose scientific criteria for the identification of ED substances of concern for human...

  12. Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratochwil, C.; Giesel, F.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50 % and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90 %. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in > 30 % and symptom control in almost 80 % of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. (orig.) [de

  13. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Rai, Gopal K; Akhtar, Javed; Phillip, Rajeev; Gutch, Manish; Arya, T V S

    2013-10-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner's syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  14. New opportunities in endocrine ophthalmopathy diagnostics (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta S. Taskina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine ophthalmopathy (EOP is a progressive autoimmune disease that affects soft retrobulbar tissues in thyroid gland diseases. The statistical data on this disease are presented. The review presents both generally accepted and alternative approaches to the diagnosis of EOP different stages. Detailed clinical symptoms, main severity and activity score classifications of EOP, the required list of physical and instrumental examinations are given. We described the diagnostic value of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, optical coherence tomography, Heidelberg Retina Tomography, radioisotope studies, triplex scanning of the major vessels of the eye, the Doppler mapping method, indocyanine-green angiography, as well as the histological examination of soft retrobulbar tissues biopsy in EOP. Generally accepted diagnostic methods of EOP have their disadvantages. Therefore, nowadays the promising direction is immunological, biochemical and genetic studies of EOP activity markers. The peculiarity of these methods in EOP diagnosis is an accuracy, possibility of multiple measurements, few side effects and a relatively low cost. Further studies of key mechanisms of the development of edema, leukocyte infiltration with subsequent formation of fibrosis of extraocular muscles and retrobulbar fiber in EOP is of significance, which may improve diagnostics of clinical complicated cases and initial stages of the disease.

  15. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner′s syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  16. [Endocrine complications of cystic fibrosis in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanet, M; Wieliczko, M-C

    2012-05-01

    Since the 20 last years, the median age of survival has dramatically improved in children suffering from cystic fibrosis and complications such as growth retardation, pubertal delay and low bone mineral density are now more often than not observed in affected adolescents. The severity of the disease and the poor nutritional status due to pancreatic insufficiency and malabsorption are commonly implicated but recent data suggest that the disease could also play a role though the alteration of the chlore chanel (CFTR). Furthermore an increase prevalence of glucose intolerance and diabetes due to the progressive β cells destruction is observed in these children that make the life sometimes difficult for these adolescents already affected by an heavy chronic disease. The monitoring of the children should thus now become pluridisciplinary and include regular clinical evaluation of height and pubertal status, mineral bone density by DEXA and OGTT every two years since 10 years of age. Therefore, in addition to the standard treatment of cystic fibrosis is now added the vitamin D supplementation, the subcutaneous insulin therapy and may be the growth hormone that could be a new therapeutic demonstrating beneficial effects in these chronic disease. However further studies need to be performed to improve the management of these new endocrine complications more and more frequent in children and adolescents suffering from cystic fibrosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Sarcopenic Obesity and Endocrinal Adaptation with Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity.

  18. The endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Patrick; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Marbaix, Etienne

    2012-07-25

    During the reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes cycles of substantial remodeling including, at menstruation, a massive but delimited tissue breakdown immediately followed by scarless repair. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation in the light of recent observations that undermine obsolete dogmas. Menstruation can be globally considered as a response to falling progesterone concentration. However, tissue breakdown is heterogeneous and tightly controlled in space and time by a complex network of regulators and effectors, including cytokines, chemokines, proteases and various components of an inflammatory response. Moreover, menstruation must be regarded as part of a complex and integrated mechanism of tissue remodeling including features that precede and follow tissue lysis, i.e. decidualization and immediate post-menstrual regeneration. The understanding of the regulation of menstruation is of major basic and clinical interest. Indeed, these mechanisms largely overlap with those controlling other histopathological occurrences of tissue remodeling, such as development and cancer, and inappropriate control of menstrual features is a major potential cause of two frequent endometrial pathologies (i.e. abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. QSAR Methods to Screen Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on in silico methods addressing toxicological studies about EDCs with a special focus on the application of QSAR models for screening purpose. Since Estrogen-like (ER activity has been extensively studied, the majority of the available models are based on ER-related endpoints. Some of these models are here reviewed and described. As example for their application, we screen an assembled dataset of candidate substitutes for some known EDCs belonging to the chemical classes of phthalates, bisphenols and parabens, selected considering their toxicological relevance and broad application, with the general aim of preliminary assessing their ED potential. The goal of the substitution processes is to advance inherently safer chemicals and products, consistent with the principles of green chemistry. Results suggest that the integration of a family of different models accounting for different endpoints can be a convenient way to describe ED as properly as possible and allow also both to increase the confidence of the predictions and to maximize the probability that most active compounds are correctly found.

  20. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: associated disorders and mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coster, Sam; van Larebeke, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  1. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  2. Highlighting Indication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in endocrine emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Anne; Wang, Chih-Hsien; You, Hao-Chun; Chou, Nai-Kwoun; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, I-Hui; Tseng, Li-Jung; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2015-08-24

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been repeatedly used to rescue patients with cardiopulmonary arrest. However, its clinical utility in endocrine emergencies remains unclear. Herein, we describe a case series of 12 patients presenting with refractory shock secondary to endocrine emergencies who were rescued by ECMO support. Patients were identified between 2005 and 2012 from our ECMO registry. The diagnostic distribution was as follows: pheochromocytoma crisis (n = 4), thyroid storm (n = 5), and diabetic ketoacidosis (n = 3). The initial presentation of pheochromocytoma crisis was indistinguishable from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and frequently accompanied by paroxysmal hypertension and limb ischemia. Thyroid storm was characterized by hyperbilirubinemia and severe gastrointestinal bleeding, whereas neurological symptoms were common in diabetic ketoacidosis. The clinical outcomes of patients with endocrine emergencies were compared with those of 80 cases with AMI who received ECMO because of cardiogenic shock. The cardiac function and the general conditions showed a significantly faster recovery in patients with endocrine emergencies than in those with AMI. We conclude that ECMO support can be clinically useful in endocrine emergencies. The screening of endocrine diseases should be considered during the resuscitation of patients with refractory circulatory shock.

  3. Endocrine potency of wastewater: Contents of endocrine disrupting chemicals and effects measured by in vivo and in vitro assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Krüger, Tanja; Long, Manhai

    2011-01-01

    chemical analysis and a battery of bioassays. Influent samples, collected at the first STP grate, and effluent samples, collected after the sewage treatment, were extracted using solid phase extraction. Extracts were analyzed for the content of a range of industrial chemicals with endocrine disrupting...... properties: phthalate metabolites, parabens, industrial phenols, ultraviolet screens, and natural and synthetic steroid estrogens. The endocrine disrupting bioactivity and toxicity of the extracts were analyzed in cell culture assay for the potency to affect the function of the estrogen, androgen, aryl......Industrial and municipal effluents are important sources of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) discharged into the aquatic environment. This study investigated the endocrine potency of wastewater and the cleaning efficiency of two typical urban Danish sewage treatment plants (STPs), using...

  4. In vitro metabolism and bioavailability tests for endocrine active substances: What is needed next for regulatory purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legistation and prospective legislative proposals internationally (may) require that chemicals be tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive in vitro are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS) and may be puta...

  5. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals reduces female rat follicle reserves and accelerates reproductive aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Hass, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development can have negative consequences later in life. In this study we investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to mixtures of human relevant EDCs on the female reproductive system. Rat dams were exposed to a mixture of phthalates,...

  6. 78 FR 35922 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Second List of Chemicals and Substances for Tier 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... health or the environment due to disruption of the endocrine system. The determination that a chemical... chemicals (e.g., triclosan, alkylphenols and alkylphenol polyethoxylates, bisphenol A, musk fragrances, and..., methanol, and perchlorate) can occur naturally in the environment, this is not the only known pathway of...

  7. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites

  8. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-09-14

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.

  9. Use of nuclear receptor luciferase-based bioassays to detect endocrine active chemicals in a biosolids-biochar amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolyn G; Joshi, Geetika; Bair, Daniel A; Oriol, Charlotte; He, Guochun; Parikh, Sanjai J; Denison, Michael S; Scow, Kate M

    2017-08-01

    Biosolids are a potentially valuable source of carbon and nutrients for agricultural soils; however, potential unintended impacts on human health and the environment must be considered. Virtually all biosolids contain trace amounts endocrine-disrupting chemicals derived from human use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). One potential way to reduce the bioavailability of PPCPs is to co-apply biosolids with biochar to soil, because biochar's chemical (e.g., aromaticity) and physical properties (e.g., surface area) give it a high affinity to bind many organic chemicals in the environment. We developed a soil-specific extraction method and utilized a luciferase-based bioassay (CALUX) to detect endocrine active chemicals in a biosolids-biochar co-amendment soil greenhouse study. Both biochar (walnut shell, 900 °C) and biosolids had positive impacts on carrot and lettuce biomass accumulation over our study period. However, the walnut shell biochar stimulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, suggesting the presence of potential endocrine active chemicals in the biochar. Since the biochar rate tested (100 t ha -1 ) is above the average agronomic rate (10-20 t ha -1 ), endocrine effects would not be expected in most environmental applications. The effect of high temperature biochars on endocrine system pathways must be explored further, using both quantitative analytical tools to identify potential endocrine active chemicals and highly sensitive bioanalytical assays such as CALUX to measure the resulting biological activity of such compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Endocrine and metabolic characteristics in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glintborg, Dorte

    2016-04-01

    Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas. The manifestations of PCOS are diverse, and up to 50% patients are normal weight. In most cases, however, the severity of symptoms can be related to abdominal obesity. Increased inflammation in PCOS can be measured as decreased adiponectin levels and increased levels of adipokines, chemokines, and interleukins. In the present thesis the use of these inflammatory markers is reviewed, but more data including hard end points are needed to determine which of these markers that should be introduced to the daily clinic. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulates ovarian and adrenal androgen production, whereas SHBG levels are decreased. Increased testosterone levels may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, therefore describing PCOS as a vicious cycle. Abdominal obesity and increased activation of the inflammatory system is seen in both normal weight and obese PCOS patients leading to an increased risk of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and possibly cardiovascular disease. Patients diagnosed with PCOS therefore should be screened for elements in the metabolic syndrome including weight, waist, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipid status. Our data supported that prolactin and HbA1c levels could be markers of cardiovascular risk and should be confirmed by prospective studies. PCOS is a life-long condition and treatment modalities involve lifestyle modification, insulin sensitizers such as metformin, or

  11. The endocrine disruptors among the environmental risk factors for stillbirth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roncati, Luca; Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012–2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term ‘placental barrier’ in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier, it is

  12. The endocrine disruptors among the environmental risk factors for stillbirth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncati, Luca, E-mail: emailmedical@gmail.com [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy); Department of Diagnostic and Clinical Medicine and of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, MO (Italy); Piscioli, Francesco; Pusiol, Teresa [Provincial Health Care Services, Institute of Pathology, Santa Maria del Carmine Hospital, Rovereto, TN (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants have been lately taken into consideration for their adverse effects, as possible stillbirth contributors; stillbirth can be in fact considered the most dramatic pregnancy complication. Congenital abnormalities account for few stillbirths and many related disorders are potentially modifiable or often coexist, such as maternal infections, non-communicable diseases, lifestyle factors and maternal age. Causal pathways for stillbirth frequently involve impaired placental function, either with fetal growth restriction or preterm labour. For this reason, many current efforts are focusing on the study of endocrine disruptor (ED) placental transfer, to better understand the in utero exposure dynamics. In this regard, our research group has investigated, by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, the EDs presence in brain samples of 24 stillbirths, collected over a 3-year period (2012–2014), coming from the Northeast Italy, a notorious area devoted to apple cultivation. Surprisingly, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), well-known EDs, have been detected in 11 samples. Apart from the noteworthy evidence of pesticides' bio-persistence, this finding implies a redefinition of the placental barrier concept: not a real safety system, but a time-deferral mechanism of absorption. The term ‘placental barrier’ in fact refers to a 4-membrane structure, made up by two epithelial layers, which exactly lining the chorionic villi, and by two endothelial layers, belonging to the feeding vessels for the fetus. It is an effective barrier only for a low administration of water-soluble substances, which encounter obstacle to cross four instead of two membranes. High doses of water-soluble compounds can reach appreciable concentration in the fetal blood, and the lipid-soluble chemicals, such as EDs, are able to pass the placental barrier, through a simple mechanism of passive diffusion, even in minimal concentrations. After crossing the placental barrier

  13. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  14. Sexual orientation modulates endocrine stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J; Pruessner, Jens C

    2015-04-01

    Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their "coming out"). Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published

  15. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić-Macut Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l, or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l hypothyrodism. We analyzed 50 patients (35 with clinical hypothyroidism and 15 with subclinical form. In all patients anthropometric data (age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate, and clinical signs of hypothyroidism (skin changes, menstrual disorders were determined. Blood was drawn in fasting state for measurement of FT4, sTSH, glucose, lipids, ionized calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, gonadotropins, estradiol in women of reproductive age, and testosterone in men. Skin lesions were rarely present. Oligomenorrhea was more frequent in subclinical hypothyroidism, and menopause in clinical hypothyroidism. Blood pressure was normal in all subjects. Patients with clinical hypothyroidism compared to those with subclinical form had higher TSH values (19.5 ± 5.7 vs. 5.9 ± 0.3 mIU/l, and higher doses of L-thyroxine (81.2 ± 4.6 vs. 21.4 ± 3.5 μg/day. Disturbance of glycemic control was present in 18% of patients. Total cholesterol and LDL were insignificantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in subclinical form of the disease. FT4, calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, gonadotropins, estradiol and testosterone did not differ between groups. The proatherogenic relation of estradiol with triglycerides was established in women with clinical form of hypothyroidism.

  16. Integrative assessment of enantioselectivity in endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Meirong [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Fang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Cui; Zhang Quan [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Gan Jianying [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Liu Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zjut.edu.c [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The increasing release of chiral chemicals into the environment dictates attention to a better understanding of enantioselectivity in their human and ecotoxicological effects. Although enantioselectivity has been considered in many recent studies, there is little effort for discerning the connection between different processes, and as such, our current knowledge about chiral contaminants is rather scattered and incoherent. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated enantioselectivity of two chiral pesticides, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and (Z)-cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF), in immunotoxicity to macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and endocrine disruption activity in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Analysis of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and receptor gene expression showed significant differences between the enantiomers of LCT or cis-BF in estrogenic potential and immunocytotoxicity. The selectivity in these effects consistently followed the same direction, with (-)-LCT or 1S-cis-BF displaying a greater activity than its counterpart. The consistency was attributed to interplaying mechanisms in the closely interacting immune and endocrine systems. The underlying interplays suggest that other chiral xenobiotics may also show a directional enantioselectivity in immunotoxicity and endocrine toxicity. Given that many biological processes are inter-related, enantioselectivity may follow specific patterns that can be revealed via integrative assessments as demonstrated in this study. - Chiral contaminants should consider multiple effects and relate directions of enantioselectivity to their interplaying processes.

  17. EDCs DataBank: 3D-Structure database of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Grajales, Diana; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-01-02

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of compounds that affect the endocrine system, frequently found in everyday products and epidemiologically associated with several diseases. The purpose of this work was to develop EDCs DataBank, the only database of EDCs with three-dimensional structures. This database was built on MySQL using the EU list of potential endocrine disruptors and TEDX list. It contains the three-dimensional structures available on PubChem, as well as a wide variety of information from different databases and text mining tools, useful for almost any kind of research regarding EDCs. The web platform was developed employing HTML, CSS and PHP languages, with dynamic contents in a graphic environment, facilitating information analysis. Currently EDCs DataBank has 615 molecules, including pesticides, natural and industrial products, cosmetics, drugs and food additives, among other low molecular weight xenobiotics. Therefore, this database can be used to study the toxicological effects of these molecules, or to develop pharmaceuticals targeting hormone receptors, through docking studies, high-throughput virtual screening and ligand-protein interaction analysis. EDCs DataBank is totally user-friendly and the 3D-structures of the molecules can be downloaded in several formats. This database is freely available at http://edcs.unicartagena.edu.co. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Role of adipocytokines and its correlation with endocrine pancreatic function in patients with pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorowska, Anita; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Kaczka, Aleksandra; Borkowska, Anna; Czupryniak, Leszek; Małecka-Panas, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Some authors suggest that adipocytokines contribute to the induction of pancreatic carcinogenesis as well as the development of endocrine insufficiency. We evaluate the circulating concentrations of leptin, resistin and visfatin in patients with newly diagnosed pancreatic cancer (PC) and relationship between serum adipocytokines level and clinicopathological features of PC. Moreover the usefulness of those adipocytokines as possible biomarkers of endocrine pancreatic function in PC has been assessed. The pilot study group consisted of 45 individuals (mean age 65.6 ± 11.5 years, BMI 21.8 ± 3.4 kg/m(2)) with newly diagnosed PC (within last 1-3 months) and 13 healthy individuals with age, gender and BMI matched to the study group. Among PC patients 18 (40%) had recently diagnosed diabetes. Fasting plasma leptin, resistin, visfatin concentrations were determined with ELISA (R&D Systems, Phoenix Pharmaceuticals) and insulin by RIA (DakoCytomation). Patients with PC as compared to controls had significantly lower plasma leptin (40.6 ± 21.3 vs 63.2 ± 16.3 pg/mL; p pancreatic cancer are characterized with lower level of leptin. This pilot study showed significantly higher resistin concentrations in patients with PC in comparison to healthy controls, which may be helpful in PC early diagnosis. Changes in leptin and resistin level in PC are not likely related to endocrine disorders. Copyright © 2013 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A path forward in the debate over health impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Bjerregaard, Poul; Bornman, Riana; Brandt, Ingvar; Iguchi, Taisen; Jobling, Susan; Kidd, Karen A; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-12-22

    Several recent publications reflect debate on the issue of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs), indicating that two seemingly mutually exclusive perspectives are being articulated separately and independently. Considering this, a group of scientists with expertise in basic science, medicine and risk assessment reviewed the various aspects of the debate to identify the most significant areas of dispute and to propose a path forward. We identified four areas of debate. The first is about the definitions for terms such as "endocrine disrupting chemical", "adverse effects", and "endocrine system". The second is focused on elements of hormone action including "potency", "endpoints", "timing", "dose" and "thresholds". The third addresses the information needed to establish sufficient evidence of harm. Finally, the fourth focuses on the need to develop and the characteristics of transparent, systematic methods to review the EDC literature. Herein we identify areas of general consensus and propose resolutions for these four areas that would allow the field to move beyond the current and, in our opinion, ineffective debate.

  20. Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides by Capillary GC with Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Hrouzková

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals, among them many pesticides, alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans at very low concentration levels. Therefore, the importance of method development for their analysis in food and the environment is increasing. This also covers contributions in the field of ultra-trace analysis of multicomponent mixtures of organic pollutants in complex matrices. With this fact conventional capillary gas chromatography (CGC and fast CGC with mass spectrometric detection (MS has acquired a real importance in the analysis of endocrine disrupting pesticide (EDP residues. This paper provides an overview of GC methods, including sample preparation steps, for analysis of EDPs in a variety of matrices at ultra-trace concentration levels. Emphasis is put on separation method, mode of MS detection and ionization and obtained limits of detection and quantification. Analysis time is one of the most important aspects that should be considered in the choice of analytical methods for routine analysis. Therefore, the benefits of developed fast GC methods are important.

  1. Integrative assessment of enantioselectivity in endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Meirong; Chen Fang; Wang Cui; Zhang Quan; Gan Jianying; Liu Weiping

    2010-01-01

    The increasing release of chiral chemicals into the environment dictates attention to a better understanding of enantioselectivity in their human and ecotoxicological effects. Although enantioselectivity has been considered in many recent studies, there is little effort for discerning the connection between different processes, and as such, our current knowledge about chiral contaminants is rather scattered and incoherent. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated enantioselectivity of two chiral pesticides, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and (Z)-cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF), in immunotoxicity to macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and endocrine disruption activity in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Analysis of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and receptor gene expression showed significant differences between the enantiomers of LCT or cis-BF in estrogenic potential and immunocytotoxicity. The selectivity in these effects consistently followed the same direction, with (-)-LCT or 1S-cis-BF displaying a greater activity than its counterpart. The consistency was attributed to interplaying mechanisms in the closely interacting immune and endocrine systems. The underlying interplays suggest that other chiral xenobiotics may also show a directional enantioselectivity in immunotoxicity and endocrine toxicity. Given that many biological processes are inter-related, enantioselectivity may follow specific patterns that can be revealed via integrative assessments as demonstrated in this study. - Chiral contaminants should consider multiple effects and relate directions of enantioselectivity to their interplaying processes.

  2. Endocrine disrupting activities and immunomodulatory effects in lymphoblastoid cell lines of diclofenac, 4-hydroxydiclofenac and paracetamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopčič, Ivana; Markovič, Tijana; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2018-05-16

    A critical literature review reveals that knowledge of side effects of pharmaceuticals diclofenac and paracetamol is extremely important because of their widespread use and occurrence in the environment. In order to delineate whether these compounds have endocrine activity and influence on the immune system, we assessed the potential endocrine disrupting and immunomodulatory activities of: diclofenac (DIC), its metabolite 4-hydroxydiclofenac (4-HD) and paracetamol (PAR). Herein, we report on their impact on estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR). The endocrine disrupting effects were assessed in vitro in MDA-kb2 and GH3.TRE-Luc cell lines and by the XenoScreen YES/YAS assay. Moreover, binding affinity to nuclear receptors (GR and AR) was also measured. Immunomodulatory properties of the compounds were evaluated in lymphoblastoid cell lines. All the tested compounds showed endocrine disrupting and immunomodulatory activities. The results revealed that both DIC and its metabolite 4-HD exhibited significant estrogenic, anti-androgenic (in YAS assay), (anti)-androgenic, (anti)-glucocorticoid and anti-thyroid hormonal activities (in luciferase reporter gene assays). DIC showed direct binding to the GR, while its metabolite 4-HD to the GR and AR. Only metabolite 4-HD showed estrogenic, androgenic (in YAS assay) and thyroid-hormonal activities. PAR had anti-androgenic activity and anti-thyroid hormonal activity. PAR displayed GR agonist activity with competition to its receptor and agonistic activity to AR. All of the compounds significantly modulated pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine production in lymphoblastoid cell lines and were thus proven immunomodulatory. The study is useful in determining toxicological effects and contributes to the knowledge of possible side effects of diclofenac, its metabolite and paracetamol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae after exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhai

    Full Text Available Phthalates are extensively used as plasticizers in a variety of daily-life products, resulting in widespread distribution in aquatic environments. However, limited information is available on the endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the hydrolytic metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP disrupts thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos were exposed to different concentrations of MEHP (1.6, 8, 40, and 200 μg/L from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf to 168 hpf. The whole-body content of thyroid hormone and transcription of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis were examined. Treatment with MEHP significantly decreased whole-body T4 contents and increased whole-body T3 contents, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2 and UGT1ab might be responsible for decreased T4 contents. Elevated gene transcription of Dio1 was also observed in this study, which might assist to degrade increased T3 contents. Exposure to MEHP also significantly induced transcription of genes involved in thyroid development (Nkx2.1 and Pax8 and thyroid hormone synthesis (TSHβ, NIS and TG. However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to MEHP. Overall, these results demonstrate that acute exposure to MEHP alters whole-body contents of thyroid hormones in zebrafish embryos/larvae and changes the transcription of genes involved in the HPT axis, thus exerting thyroid endocrine toxicity.

  4. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  5. Endocrine disruptors: from Wingspread to environmental developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Caroline M; Rubin, Beverly S; Soto, Ana M; Sonnenschein, Carlos

    2002-12-01

    The production and release of synthetic chemicals into the environment has been a hallmark of the "Second Industrial Revolution" and the "Green Revolution." Soon after the inception of these chemicals, anecdotal evidence began to emerge linking environmental contamination of rivers and lakes with a variety of developmental and reproductive abnormalities in wildlife species. The accumulation of evidence suggesting that these synthetic chemicals were detrimental to wildlife, and potentially humans, as a result of their hormonal activity, led to the proposal of the endocrine disruptor hypothesis at the 1991 Wingspread Conference. Since that time, experimental and epidemiological data have shown that exposure of the developing fetus or neonate to environmentally-relevant concentrations of certain synthetic chemicals causes morphological, biochemical, physiological and behavioral anomalies in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. The ubiquitous use, and subsequent human exposure, of one particular chemical, the estrogen mimic bisphenol A (BPA), is the subject of this present review. We have highlighted this chemical since it provides an arresting model of how chemical exposure impacts developmental processes involved in the morphogenesis of tissues and organs, including those of the male and female reproductive systems, the mammary glands and the brain.

  6. Spectrum of endocrine abnormalities associated with acanthosis nigricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, L Y; Wortsman, J; Gavin, J R; Goldman, J

    1987-10-01

    Acanthosis nigricans is a marker for disorders of insulin action, endocrine abnormalities, and cancer of internal organs. To evaluate the clinical significance of this marker the systemic alterations and clinical features of 26 patients with acanthosis nigricans seen at two institutions were reviewed. Most subjects affected by acanthosis nigricans were female (20 patients), Caucasian (22 patients), in the third decade of life (13 patients), and overweight (24 patients greater than 120 percent ideal body weight). Gonadal disease, present in 17 patients, was expressed as polycystic ovary syndrome (11 cases), disorders of prolactin secretion (two cases, one with polycystic ovary syndrome), streak gonads (one case), and hypogonadism of the male (four cases). Thyroid disease and tinea versicolor were present in four patients each. Three patients were receiving insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus, and in two additional patients diabetes mellitus was detected during the diagnostic workup. All patients had elevated fasting insulin levels; most of them also had an exaggerated insulin response to a glucose load. Two of 18 patients tested had antibodies against the insulin receptor in the circulation. Skin biopsy of acanthosis nigricans lesions from all 26 patients showed a typical pattern of hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, and epidermal papillomatosis. Colloidal iron staining showed glycosaminoglycan infiltration of the papillary dermis (21 of 21 cases), consisting mainly of hyaluronic acid. It is concluded that: (1) hyperinsulinenemia and local dermal glycosaminoglycan deposition are regular features in acanthosis nigricans and (2) patients with acanthosis nigricans should be screened for diabetes mellitus, gonadal disease, and hypothyroidism.

  7. Psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune mechanisms of action of yoga in type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pratap; Khandelwal, Bidita; Sherpa, Namgyal T

    2015-01-01

    Yoga has been found to benefit all the components of health viz. physical, mental, social and spiritual well being by incorporating a wide variety of practices. Pathophysiology of Type II DM and co-morbidities in Type II DM has been correlated with stress mechanisms. Stress suppresses body's immune system and neuro-humoral actions thereby aff ecting normal psychological state. It would not be wrong to state that correlation of diabetes with stress, anxiety and other psychological factors are bidirectional and lead to difficulty in understanding the interrelated mechanisms. Type II DM cannot be understood in isolation with psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and depression, neuro-endocrine and immunological factors. There is no review which tries to understand these mechanisms exclusively. The present literature review aims to understand interrelated Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine and Immunological mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Published literature concerning mechanisms of action of Yoga in Type II DM emphasizing psycho-neuro-endocrine or immunological relations was retrieved from Pubmed using key words yoga, Type II diabetes mellitus, psychological, neural, endocrine, immune and mechanism of action. Those studies which explained the psycho-neuroendocrine and immune mechanisms of action of yoga were included and rest were excluded. Although primary aim of this study is to explain these mechanisms in Type II DM, some studies in non-diabetic population which had a similar pathway of stress mechanism was included because many insightful studies were available in that area. Search was conducted using terms yoga OR yogic AND diabetes OR diabetic IN title OR abstract for English articles. Of the 89 articles, we excluded non-English articles (22), editorials (20) and letters to editor (10). 37 studies were considered for this review. The postulated mechanism of action of yoga is through parasympathetic activation and the associated anti

  8. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Biever, Ronald C; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D; Dreier, David A; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop ® "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  9. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C.; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K.; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D.; Dreier, David; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L. Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James P.; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne L.; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R.; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop® “Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)” was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS—not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  10. Hormones in the city: endocrine ecology of urban birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonier, Frances

    2012-05-01

    Urbanization dramatically changes the landscape, presenting organisms with novel challenges and often leading to reduced species diversity. Urban ecologists have documented numerous biotic and abiotic consequences of urbanization, such as altered climate, species interactions, and community composition, but we lack an understanding of the mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to urbanization. Here, I review findings from the nascent field of study of the endocrine ecology of urban birds. Thus far, no clear or consistent patterns have been revealed, but we do have evidence that urban habitat can shape endocrine traits, and that those traits might contribute to adaptation to the urban environment. I suggest strong approaches for future work addressing exciting questions about the role of endocrine traits in mediating responses to urbanization within species across the globe. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endocrine and gonadial tumors among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    A review of 4,136 consecutive autopsies between 1961 and 1977 and surgical cases from A-bomb survivors seen in Hiroshima University School of Medicine was made in terms of pituitary tumors, parathyroid tumors, thyroid cancer, carcinoid, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, and multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT). The occurrence of thyroid cancer, parathyroid tumors, and MEGT may be correlated with atomic radiation. Mortality from endocrine and gonadial tumors tended to be higher with increasing T65 doses. As for MEGT, the combination of thyroid cancer and ovarian tumors occurred frequently among A-bomb survivors. The combination of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and pheochromacytoma of the adrenal gland was unlikely to be related to atomic radiation. Further study may be needed in elucidating possible effects of atomic radiation on endocrine hormones. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Adjuvant psychological therapy in long-term endocrine conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, J; Turner-Cobb, J M

    2017-06-01

    Consideration of psychological distress in long-term endocrine conditions is of vital importance given the prevalence of anxiety and depression in such disorders. Poor mental health can lead to compromised self-care, higher utilization of health services, lower rates of adherence, reduced quality of life and ultimately poorer outcomes. Adjuvant psychological therapy offers an effective resource to reduce distress in endocrine conditions. While the vast majority of work in this area has focused on psychological screening and intervention in diabetes, identification and recognition of psychological distress are equally important in other endocrinological conditions, with supportive evidence in polycystic ovary syndrome and Addison's disease. Referral pathways and recommendations set out by UK guidelines and the Department of Health mandate requires greater attention across a wider range of long-term endocrine conditions to facilitate improved quality of life and health outcome. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P.; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    . Correlation with CTG(n) expansion size was investigated with the Pearson correlation test. Eighteen percent of the DM1 patients had hyperparathyroidism with increased PTH compared with 0.5% in the background population. Of these, 16% had normocalcemia and 2% had hypercalcemia. An additional 3% had...... LH, but normal testosterone levels, indicating relative insufficiency. Numbers of CTG repeats correlated directly with plasma PTH, phosphate, LH, and tended to correlate with plasma testosterone for males. This is the largest study of endocrine dysfunction in a cohort of Caucasian patients with DM1....... We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma...

  14. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  15. Circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, H; Kinga, N; Racz, K; Patocs, A

    2016-01-01

    Specific, sensitive and non-invasive biomarkers are always needed in endocrine disorders. miRNAs are short, non-coding RNA molecules with well-known role in gene expression regulation. They are frequently dysregulated in metabolic and endocrine diseases. Recently it has been shown that they are secreted into biofluids by nearly all kind of cell types. As they can be taken up by other cells they may have a role in a new kind of paracrine, cell-to-cell communication. Circulating miRNAs are protected by RNA-binding proteins or microvesicles hence they can be attractive candidates as diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the characteristics of extracellular miRNA's and our knowledge about their origin and potential roles in endocrine and metabolic diseases. Discussions about the technical challenges occurring during identification and measurement of extracellular miRNAs and future perspectives about their roles are also highlighted.

  16. Are In Vitro Methods for the Detection of Endocrine Potentials in the Aquatic Environment Predictive for In Vivo Effects? Outcomes of the Projects SchussenAktiv and SchussenAktivplus in the Lake Constance Area, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anja; Bender, Katrin; Blaha, Ludek; Giebner, Sabrina; Kuch, Bertram; Köhler, Heinz-R.; Maier, Diana; Oehlmann, Jörg; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Sieratowicz, Agnes; Ziebart, Simone; Triebskorn, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Many studies about endocrine pollution in the aquatic environment reveal changes in the reproduction system of biota. We analysed endocrine activities in two rivers in Southern Germany using three approaches: (1) chemical analyses, (2) in vitro bioassays, and (3) in vivo investigations in fish and snails. Chemical analyses were based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. For in vitro analyses of endocrine potentials in water, sediment, and waste water samples, we used the E-screen assay (human breast cancer cells MCF-7) and reporter gene assays (human cell line HeLa-9903 and MDA-kb2). In addition, we performed reproduction tests with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to analyse water and sediment samples. We exposed juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario) to water downstream of a wastewater outfall (Schussen River) or to water from a reference site (Argen River) to investigate the vitellogenin production. Furthermore, two feral fish species, chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus), were caught in both rivers to determine their gonadal maturity and the gonadosomatic index. Chemical analyses provided only little information about endocrine active substances, whereas the in vitro assays revealed endocrine potentials in most of the samples. In addition to endocrine potentials, we also observed toxic potentials (E-screen/reproduction test) in waste water samples, which could interfere with and camouflage endocrine effects. The results of our in vivo tests were mostly in line with the results of the in vitro assays and revealed a consistent reproduction-disrupting (reproduction tests) and an occasional endocrine action (vitellogenin levels) in both investigated rivers, with more pronounced effects for the Schussen river (e.g. a lower gonadosomatic index). We were able to show that biological in vitro assays for endocrine potentials in natural stream water reasonably reflect reproduction and endocrine disruption

  17. Are in vitro methods for the detection of endocrine potentials in the aquatic environment predictive for in vivo effects? Outcomes of the Projects SchussenAktiv and SchussenAktivplus in the Lake Constance Area, Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Henneberg

    Full Text Available Many studies about endocrine pollution in the aquatic environment reveal changes in the reproduction system of biota. We analysed endocrine activities in two rivers in Southern Germany using three approaches: (1 chemical analyses, (2 in vitro bioassays, and (3 in vivo investigations in fish and snails. Chemical analyses were based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. For in vitro analyses of endocrine potentials in water, sediment, and waste water samples, we used the E-screen assay (human breast cancer cells MCF-7 and reporter gene assays (human cell line HeLa-9903 and MDA-kb2. In addition, we performed reproduction tests with the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum to analyse water and sediment samples. We exposed juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario to water downstream of a wastewater outfall (Schussen River or to water from a reference site (Argen River to investigate the vitellogenin production. Furthermore, two feral fish species, chub (Leuciscus cephalus and spirlin (Alburnoides bipunctatus, were caught in both rivers to determine their gonadal maturity and the gonadosomatic index. Chemical analyses provided only little information about endocrine active substances, whereas the in vitro assays revealed endocrine potentials in most of the samples. In addition to endocrine potentials, we also observed toxic potentials (E-screen/reproduction test in waste water samples, which could interfere with and camouflage endocrine effects. The results of our in vivo tests were mostly in line with the results of the in vitro assays and revealed a consistent reproduction-disrupting (reproduction tests and an occasional endocrine action (vitellogenin levels in both investigated rivers, with more pronounced effects for the Schussen river (e.g. a lower gonadosomatic index. We were able to show that biological in vitro assays for endocrine potentials in natural stream water reasonably reflect reproduction and endocrine

  18. Electrochemical nano biosensor alarm devices for the determination of endocrine disruptor agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwuoha, E.; Hendricks, N.; Baker, P.

    2009-01-01

    The role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme systems in the detoxification of bioactive and hydrophobic xenobiotics, such as drugs, environmental pollutants, food supplements, steroids and endocrine disruptors, cannot be over-emphasized. In this study we present the development and amperometric transduction of cytochromal biosensor alarm device for the determination of endocrine disruptors. As a class II microsomal b-type heme enzyme, CYP3A4 requires the obligatory presence of electron transfer donor redox protein, NAD(P)H, and cytochrome b5 for its physiological reactivity. Optimal reconstitution assays preferably involves vesicle forming phospholipids, detergents and specialized reducing agents. Biosensor offers the possibility of observing direct electron transfer reaction of cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) without the requirement of the enzyme's physiological redox partners (1,2). In this study, a nanobiosensor alarm device for the determination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (an endocrine disruptor and hepatocarcinogen) was developed with genetically engineered CYP3A4 imprinted on carbon electrode chips that was modified with polypyrrole-gold nanoparticles. The sensor amperometric signals resulted from the two-electron monooxygenation reaction between the ferri-heme CYP3A4 enzyme and the endocrine disruptor compound. The biosensor was interrogated electrochemically for its ability to detect and report the presence of the endocrine disruptor compound in real time. Accordingly, the response time, sensitivity, storage stability, dynamic linear range and detection limits of the device were evaluated. The biosensor alarm device had a detection limit of 43 ng/L for 2,4-dichlorophenol which is lower than the European Union limit of 300 ng/L for pesticide compounds in ground water; as well as the USA Environmental Protection Agency's drinking water equivalent level (DWEL) of 2000 ng/L (3,4). Chromatographic studies despite their tedious sample preparation and time-consuming pre

  19. Nuclear medicine procedures to diagnose endocrine pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bares, R.; Besenfelder, H.; Eschmann, S.M.; Pfannenberg, C.

    2003-01-01

    The typical clinical features of endocrine pancreatic tumours are either symptoms caused by excessive hormone production or progressive tumour growth. In several prospective studies it has been shown that somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is the most accurate imaging technique currently available to detect endocrine pancreatic tumours. Therefore it should be used whenever curative surgical treatment appears to be feasible. Furthermore it should be applied if a radionuclide treatment of inoperable tumours is considered. In this situation scintigraphy with 123 I-mIBG might be useful, too. Future developments include the use of PET with labelled somatostatin analogues or DOPA derivatives as well as image fusion techniques to optimize preoperative tumour localization. (orig.) [de

  20. Purinergic receptors in the endocrine and exocrine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    2008-01-01

    The pancreas is a complex gland performing both endocrine and exocrine functions. In recent years there has been increasing evidence that both endocrine and exocrine cells possess purinergic receptors, which influence processes such as insulin secretion and epithelial ion transport. Most commonly......, there is also evidence for other P2 and adenosine receptors in beta cells (P2Y(2), P2Y(4), P2Y(6), P2X subtypes and A(1) receptors) and in glucagon-secreting alpha cells (P2X(7), A(2) receptors). In the exocrine pancreas, acini release ATP and ATP-hydrolysing and ATP-generating enzymes. P2 receptors...

  1. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  2. Keeping Up with the Diabetes Technology: 2016 Endocrine Society Guidelines of Insulin Pump Therapy and Continuous Glucose Monitor Management of Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galderisi, Alfonso; Schlissel, Elise; Cengiz, Eda

    2017-09-23

    Decades after the invention of insulin pump, diabetes management has encountered a technology revolution with the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring, sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy and closed-loop/artificial pancreas systems. In this review, we discuss the significance of the 2016 Endocrine Society Guidelines for insulin pump therapy and continuous glucose monitoring and summarize findings from relevant diabetes technology studies that were conducted after the publication of the 2016 Endocrine Society Guidelines. The 2016 Endocrine Society Guidelines have been a great resource for clinicians managing diabetes in this new era of diabetes technology. There is good body of evidence indicating that using diabetes technology systems safely tightens glycemic control while managing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The first-generation diabetes technology systems will evolve as we gain more experience and collaboratively work to improve them with an ultimate goal of keeping people with diabetes complication and burden-free until the cure for diabetes becomes a reality.

  3. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana, E-mail: viviana.scognamiglio@mlib.ic.cnr.it [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano [Biosensor S.r.l. - Via degli Olmetti 44 00060 Formello, Rome (Italy); Buonasera, Katia [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche - Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Rome (Italy); Giardi, Maria Teresa [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 {mu}M and 4.5 {mu}M, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 {mu}M and 35 {mu}M respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  4. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano; Buonasera, Katia; Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. ► The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. ► Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. ► The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 μM and 4.5 μM, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 μM and 35 μM respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  5. CT and MR imaging findings of endocrine tumor of the pancreas according to WHO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rha, Sung Eun; Jung, Seung Eun; Lee, Kang Hoon; Ku, Young Mi; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Jae Mun

    2007-01-01

    The pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas originating from totipotential stem cells or differentiated mature endocrine cells within the exocrine gland. Endocrine tumors are usually classified into functioning and non-functioning tumors and presents with a range of benignity or malignancy. In this article, we present the various CT and MR imaging findings of endocrine tumors of pancreas according to recent WHO classification

  6. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    -called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty has been described in several case reports of accidental exposure to oestrogenic compounds in cosmetic products, food and pharmaceuticals. Local epidemics of premature thelarche have also been suggested to be linked to endocrine disrupters. Children adopted from...... developing countries to industrialized countries often develop precocious puberty. Not only precocious puberty, but also delayed puberty can, theoretically, be associated with exposure to endocrine disrupters. While it is very plausible that endocrine disrupters may disturb pubertal development...

  7. Endocrine surgery as a model for value-based health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Amer G; Ituarte, Philip H G; Wiggins, Randi; Teisberg, Elizabeth O; Harari, Avital; Yeh, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Experts advocate restructuring health care in the United States into a value-based system that maximizes positive health outcomes achieved per dollar spent. We describe how a value-based system implemented by the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Section of Endocrine Surgery (SES) has optimized both quality and costs while increasing patient volume. Two SES clinical pathways were studied, one allocating patients to the most appropriate surgical care setting based on clinical complexity, and another standardizing initial management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The mean cost per endocrine case performed from 2005 to 2010 was determined at each of three care settings: A tertiary care inpatient facility, a community inpatient facility, and an ambulatory facility. Blood tumor marker levels (thyroglobulin, Tg) and reoperation rates were compared between PTC patients who underwent routine central neck dissection (CND) and those who did not. Surgical patient volume and regional market share were analyzed over time. The cost of care was substantially lower in both the community inpatient facility (14% cost savings) and the ambulatory facility (58% cost savings) in comparison with the tertiary care inpatient facility. Patients who underwent CND had lower Tg levels (6.6 vs 15.0 ng/mL; P = 0.024) and a reduced need for re-operation (1.5 vs 6.1%; P = 0.004) compared with those who did not undergo CND. UCLA maintained its position as the market leader in endocrine procedures while expanding its market share by 151% from 4.9% in 2003 to 7.4% in 2010. A value-driven health care delivery system can deliver improved clinical outcomes while reducing costs within a subspecialty surgical service. Broader application of these principles may contribute to resolving current dilemmas in the provision of care nationally.

  8. Endocrine identification of menopausal status of Sudanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, M. M. M.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to identify the menopausal statues of Sudanese women which is critically important in determining the treatment strategy for infertile patients. In this study samples were collected from two hundred Sudanese women, aged between 35 and 62. They were from different social classes and are not suffering any systemic or endocrine disease. They were not exposed to any surgical intervention by complete hysterectomy or partial removal of ovaries or thyroidectomy. Reproductive hormones were determined for these women. Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) was adopted for the measurement of serum prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of estradiol and esterone, whereas, enzyme immunoassay (tube format) was used for the determination of serum testosterone. Average menopausal age for Sudanese women was determined in this study and found to be 43.0±4.2 which is lower than that of the neighboring countries. A new classification system was developed during this study which uses a combination of symptoms together with hormonal profile in order to identify the menopausal status of women. The three key tools of this system are FSH and LH level together with the absence of menstrual cycle during the last three months. The new classification scheme had successfully differentiated the early peri-menopausal women from pre-menopausal ones. The early peri-menopausal women according to the new classification scheme are suffering cycle irregularities and amenorrhea but with normal hormonal levels. The new classification scheme is now, clearly indicating that amenorrhea with normal hormonal levels may be an indication to the beginning of the peri-menopausal life. The big challenge faced during this study had been the sub-classification of the peri-menopausal stage as it is not a single homogeneous stage but a wide heterogenous and transitional stage extending from

  9. Endocrine Disrupters: the new players able to affect the epigenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia eCasati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three main levels of epigenetic control on genome: DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and microRNA expression. The term Epigenetics has been widened by NIH to include both heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable. These changes might be produced mostly by the early life environment and might affect health influencing the susceptibility to develop diseases, from cancer to mental disorder, during the entire life span. The most studied environmental influences acting on epigenome are diet, infections, wasting, child care, smoking and environmental pollutants, in particular endocrine disrupters (EDs. These are environmental xenobiotics able to interfere with the normal development of the male and female reproductive systems of wildlife, of experimental animals and possibly of humans, disrupting the normal reproductive functions. Data from literature indicate that EDs can act at different levels of epigenetic control, in some cases transgenerationally, in particular when the exposure to these compounds occurs during the prenatal and earliest period of life. Some of the best characterized EDs will be considered in this review. Among the EDs, vinclozolin (VZ and methoxychlor (MXC promote epigenetic transgenerational effects. Polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs, the most widespread environmental EDs, affect histone post-translational modifications in a dimorphic way, possibly as the result of an alteration of gene expression of the enzymes involved in histone modification, as the demethylase Jarid1b, an enzyme also involved in regulating the interaction of androgens with their receptor.

  10. Long-term neuro-endocrine sequelae after treatment for childhood medulloblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikens, J.; Michiels, E. M.; Behrendt, H.; Endert, E.; Bakker, P. J.; Fliers, E.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of neuro-endocrine deficiencies following craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma is well known, but data concerning the spectrum and prevalence of endocrine abnormalities in adulthood are scarce. We studied endocrine function in 20 (median age 25 years) adult subjects, 8-25

  11. Toxicity of compounds with endocrine activity in the OECD 421 reproductive toxicity screening test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma AH; Verhoef A; Elvers LH; Wester PW; LEO; LPI

    1998-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption has, in view of human risk assessment, raised the question on whether more sensitive test methods are needed to detect the reproductive toxic properties of xenobiotic compounds with endocrine properties. We studied six known and alleged endocrine disruptors in an

  12. Direct action of endocrine disrupting chemicals on human sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Müller, Astrid; Egeberg, Dorte L

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), omnipresent in food, household, and personal care products, have been implicated in adverse trends in human reproduction, including infertility and increasing demand for assisted reproduction. Here, we study the action of 96 ubiquitous EDCs on huma...

  13. Use of functional tests in radioimmune diagnosis of endocrine diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for determining corticotropin (ACTH), somatotropin (STH), prolactin (LTH) and thyrotropin (TTH) concentration in blood for endocrine disease diagnosis are described. Reactions of earlier mentioned functional tests to specific stimulators and inhibitors for differential diagnosis of such diseases as Icenko-Cushing one, pituitary body and hypothalamus diseases, galactorrhea and amenorrhea syndrome are considered. The diagnosis reliability is underlined

  14. P2X receptor channels in endocrine glands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2013), s. 173-180 ISSN 2190-460X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic P2X receptor channels * pituitary * endocrine glands Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  15. Biomarkers used in Environmental Health with focus on Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Tanja; Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and can disrupt the normal function of the body. Bio-monitoring is the assessment of internal doses of EDCs and has been used for decades to provide information about exposures to chemicals giving...

  16. Endocrine Disruptor Degradation by Photocatalytic Pilot Plant Unit.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spáčilová, Lucie; Morozová, Magdalena; Mašín, P.; Maléterová, Ywetta; Kaštánek, František; Dytrych, Pavel; Ezechiáš, Martin; Křesinová, Zdena; Šolcová, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2016), s. 4613-4620 ISSN 2458-9403 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Grant - others:NATO(US) SPS984398 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : endocrine disruptor * titanium dioxide * photocatalysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M)

  17. Muscular Dystrophies at Different Ages: Metabolic and Endocrine Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana del Rocío Cruz Guzmán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Common metabolic and endocrine alterations exist across a wide range of muscular dystrophies. Skeletal muscle plays an important role in glucose metabolism and is a major participant in different signaling pathways. Therefore, its damage may lead to different metabolic disruptions. Two of the most important metabolic alterations in muscular dystrophies may be insulin resistance and obesity. However, only insulin resistance has been demonstrated in myotonic dystrophy. In addition, endocrine disturbances such as hypogonadism, low levels of testosterone, and growth hormone have been reported. This eventually will result in consequences such as growth failure and delayed puberty in the case of childhood dystrophies. Other consequences may be reduced male fertility, reduced spermatogenesis, and oligospermia, both in childhood as well as in adult muscular dystrophies. These facts all suggest that there is a need for better comprehension of metabolic and endocrine implications for muscular dystrophies with the purpose of developing improved clinical treatments and/or improvements in the quality of life of patients with dystrophy. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to describe the current knowledge about of metabolic and endocrine alterations in diverse types of dystrophinopathies, which will be divided into two groups: childhood and adult dystrophies which have different age of onset.

  18. Effects of endocrine disrupting heavy metals on pituitary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association of hypogonadism and visceral obesity (VO) was recently demonstrated in male auto-mechanics occupationally exposed to endocrine disruptors (ED)-lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic, known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. The effects of exposure to these EDs on pituitary and gonadal ...

  19. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during ...

  20. Two Virus Based Endocrine Disruptor Assays Effective Across Vertebrate Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of hormone mimics, or endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC’s), in the environment are increasing. Sources range from agricultural run–off, pharmaceuticals in waste water, to industrial operations. Current levels of contamination are sufficient to alter sexual develo...