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Sample records for endocrine surgical scientist

  1. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  2. Surgical treatment of pancreatic endocrine tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cerqueira Cesar Machado

    Full Text Available Surgical approaches to pancreatic endocrine tumors associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may differ greatly from those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Presurgical diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is therefore crucial to plan a proper intervention. Of note, hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 should be surgically treated before pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 resection, apart from insulinoma. Non-functioning pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 >1 cm have a high risk of malignancy and should be treated by a pancreatic resection associated with lymphadenectomy. The vast majority of patients with gastrinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 present with tumor lesions at the duodenum, so the surgery of choice is subtotal or total pancreatoduodenectomy followed by regional lymphadenectomy. The usual surgical treatment for insulinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is distal pancreatectomy up to the mesenteric vein with or without spleen preservation, associated with enucleation of tumor lesions in the pancreatic head. Surgical procedures for glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, and vipomas/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are similar to those applied to sporadic pancreatic endocrine tumors. Some of these surgical strategies for pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 still remain controversial as to their proper extension and timing. Furthermore, surgical resection of single hepatic metastasis secondary to pancreatic endocrine tumors/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may be curative and even in multiple liver metastases surgical resection is possible. Hepatic trans-arterial chemo-embolization is usually associated with surgical resection. Liver transplantation may be needed for select cases. Finally, pre-surgical clinical and genetic diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome and

  3. Concurrent endocrine and other surgical procedures: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rachel; Yen, Tina W F; Doffek, Kara; Carr, Azadeh A; Wilson, Stuart D; Evans, Douglas B; Wang, Tracy S

    2017-05-01

    The number of endocrine procedures, specifically parathyroidectomy, thyroidectomy, and adrenalectomy, being performed is increasing. There is a paucity of literature on the feasibility of combining these procedures with other surgical procedures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of performing concurrent surgical procedures on postoperative outcomes. This is a single institution retrospective review of multiple prospectively maintained databases of patients who underwent elective thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, and/or adrenalectomy in combination with another procedure. The other procedures included soft tissue, breast or hernia, abdominal major, abdominal minor, cervical, and "other". Demographics, operative details, length-of-stay, and 30-d outcomes were reviewed. "Endocrine-specific" complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, hypoparathyroidism, cervical wound infection, hematoma, and other. The cohort comprised 104 patients. Overall, 19 (18%) patients had 21 complications, including endocrine-specific complications in eleven (11%) patients. These eleven complications included recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (n = 3; 3%), hematoma (n = 2; 2%), wound infection (n = 1; 1%), transient hypoparathyroidism (n = 2; 2%), and other (n = 3; 3%). The remaining complications included three (3%) general complications, six (6%) patients with complications related to the concurrent procedure, and one patient who underwent an open adrenalectomy and hysterectomy and developed a midline wound dehiscence, which could not be specifically attributed to either procedure. Less than 5% of patients undergoing a surgical endocrine procedure underwent a concurrent procedure, ranging from soft tissue to major abdominal. Short-term endocrine-specific complications were managed safely, suggesting that concurrent procedures can be considered, with minimal effect on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Surgical approach in patients with hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: total versus partial parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, primary hyperparathyroidism is the first endocrinopathy to be diagnosed in patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, and is also the most common one. The timing of the surgery and strategy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1/hyperparathyroidism are still under debate. The aims of surgery are to: 1 correct hypercalcemia, thus preventing persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism; 2 avoid persistent hypoparathyroidism; and 3 facilitate the surgical treatment of possible recurrences. Currently, two types of surgical approach are indicated: 1 subtotal parathyroidectomy with removal of at least 3-3 K glands; and 2 total parathyroidectomy with grafting of autologous parathyroid tissue. Transcervical thymectomy must be performed with both of these procedures. Unsuccessful surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism is more frequently observed in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 than in sporadic hyperparathyroidism. The recurrence rate is strongly influenced by: 1 the lack of a pre-operative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis; 2 the surgeon's experience; 3 the timing of surgery; 4 the possibility of performing intra-operative confirmation (histologic examination, rapid parathyroid hormone assay of the curative potential of the surgical procedure; and, 5 the surgical strategy. Persistent hyperparathyroidism seems to be more frequent after subtotal parathyroidectomy than after total parathyroidectomy with autologous graft of parathyroid tissue. Conversely, recurrent hyperparathyroidism has a similar frequency in the two surgical strategies. To plan further operations, it is very helpful to know all the available data about previous surgery and to undertake accurate identification of the site of recurrence.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: surgical management of an endocrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] is the commonest cause of anovulatory infertility. Treatment could be medical or surgical. Clomiphene citrate has been the first line treatment and if unsuccessful, can be followed by direct gonadotrophin stimulation. The main setback of gonadotrophins is the otherwise prevalent ...

  6. Surgical approach to medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2

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    Marcos R. Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the surgical approaches to medullary thyroid carcinoma associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (medullary thyroid carcinoma/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. The recommended surgical approaches are usually based on the age of the affected carrier/patient, tumor staging and the specific rearranged during transfection codon mutation. We have focused mainly on young children with no apparent disease who are carrying a germline rearranged during transfection mutation. Successful management of medullary thyroid carcinoma in these cases depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Total thyroidectomy should be performed before 6 months of age in infants carrying the rearranged during transfection 918 codon mutation, by the age of 3 years in rearranged during transfection 634 mutation carriers, at 5 years of age in carriers with level 3 risk rearranged during transfection mutations, and by the age of 10 years in level 4 risk rearranged during transfection mutations. Patients with thyroid tumor >5 mm detected by ultrasound, and basal calcitonin levels >40 pg/ml, frequently have cervical and upper mediastinal lymph node metastasis. In the latter patients, total thyroidectomy should be complemented by extensive lymph node dissection. Also, we briefly review our data from a large familial medullary thyroid carcinoma genealogy harboring a germline rearranged during transfection Cys620Arg mutation. All 14 screened carriers of the rearranged during transfection Cys620Arg mutation who underwent total thyroidectomy before the age of 12 years presented persistently undetectable serum levels of calcitonin (<2 pg/ml during the follow-up period of 2-6 years. Although it is recommended that preventive total thyroidectomy in rearranged during transfection codon 620 mutation carriers is performed before the age of 5 years, in this particular family the surgical intervention performed before the age of 12 years led to an apparent

  7. Surgical management of pancreatico-duodenal tumors in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1

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    Göran Åkerström

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatico-duodenal tumors are the second most common endocrinopathy in multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1, and have a pronounced effect on life expectancy as the principal cause of disease-related death. Previous discussions about surgical management have focused mainly on syndromes of hormone excess and, in particular, the management of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1-related Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Since hormonal syndromes tend to occur late and indicate the presence of metastases, screening with biochemical markers and endoscopic ultrasound is recommended for early detection of pancreatico-duodenal tumors, and with early surgery before metastases have developed. Surgery is recommended in patients with or without hormonal syndromes in the absence of disseminated liver metastases. The suggested operation includes distal 80% subtotal pancreatic resection together with enucleation of tumors in the head of the pancreas, and in cases with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, excision of duodenal gastrinomas together with clearance of regional lymph node metastases. This strategy, with early and aggressive surgery before metastases have developed, is believed to reduce the risks for tumor recurrence and malignant progression.

  8. Training our future endocrine surgeons: a look at the endocrine surgery operative experience of U.S. surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebczan, Barbara; McDonald, Robert; Rajamanickam, Victoria; Leverson, Glen; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S

    2010-12-01

    During the last 10 years, the number of endocrine procedures performed in the United States has increased significantly. We sought to determine whether this has translated into an increase in operative volume for general surgery and otolaryngology residents. We evaluated records from the Resident Statistic Summaries of the Residency Review Committee (RRC) for U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents for the years 2004-2008, specifically examining data on thyroidectomies and parathyroidectomies. Between 2004 and 2008, the average endocrine case volume of U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents increased by approximately 15%, but otolaryngology residents performed more than twice as many operations as U.S. general surgery residents. The growth in case volume was mostly from increases in the number of thyroidectomies performed by U.S. general surgery and otolaryngology residents (17.9 to 21.8, P = .007 and 46.5 to 54.4, P = .04). Overall, otolaryngology residents also performed more parathyroidectomies than their general surgery counterparts (11.6 vs 8.8, P = .007). Although there has been an increase in the number of endocrine cases performed by graduating U.S. general surgery residents, this is significantly smaller than that of otolaryngology residents. To remain competitive, general surgery residents wishing to practice endocrine surgery may need to pursue additional fellowship training. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Endocrine effects of dopexamine vs. dopamine in high-risk surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, T; Strang, C M; Wilhelm, L; Möritz, K U; Siegmund, W; Gründling, M; Hachenberg, T

    2001-12-01

    To compare the endocrine effects of dopexamine and dopamine on prolactin (PRL), dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, thyrotropin (TSH), and peripheral thyroid hormone serum concentrations in surgical patients at risk of developing postoperative complications because of hypoperfusion of various organ systems. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded clinical trial in an adult surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital. Thirty-two male surgical risk patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery. Patients were randomized to receive placebo ( n=8), dopexamine (0.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1), n=8), dopexamine (1 microg kg(-1) min(-1), n=8) or dopamine (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1), n=8) on the first postoperative day. All patients received either a placebo or catecholamine infusion for 24 h. Blood samples were obtained every 2 h for the next 2 days. PRL, DHEAS, cortisol, TSH, triiodothyronine, thyroxin, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxin serum concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay or luminescence immunoassay. Dopexamine (0.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) had no effects on serum concentrations of PRL or TSH. Higher doses of dopexamine (1 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) suppressed PRL secretion significantly, but not TSH. In contrast, infusion of dopamine (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) completely inhibited PRL and TSH secretion. DHEAS, cortisol, and thyroid hormone serum concentrations were not affected by either dopexamine or dopamine infusion. Measurements of hemodynamic parameters, peripheral oxygen saturation, diuresis, blood gases, and standard laboratory parameters were repeated hourly. Significant differences were not found between placebo, dopexamine (0.5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) and dopamine (5 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) group. Dopexamine at 1 microg kg(-1) min(-1) increased the heart rate significantly. Routine postoperative optimizing of men undergoing abdominal surgical procedures with dopexamine at higher doses or dopamine induces

  10. The use of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in endocrine surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahramangil, Bora; Berber, Eren

    2017-06-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging in endocrine surgery is a new, yet highly investigated area. It involves indocyanine green use as well as parathyroid autofluorescence. Several groups have described their technique and reported on the observed utility. However, there is no consensus on technical details. Furthermore, the correlation between intraoperative findings and postoperative outcomes is unclear. With this study, we aim to review the current literature on fluorescence imaging and share our insights on technical details. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The influence of surgical stress on the psychoneuro-endocrine-immune axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahanukar S

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is known to depress the immune system severely. This study was done to evaluate whether surgical stress influenced polymorphonuclear (PMN and monocyte functions in association with serum cortisol and the anxiety score as measured on the HARS Rating Scale. We found that surgery (irrespective of whether it was major or minor significantly depressed PMN and monocyte functions and increased serum cortisol levels. PMN phagocytosis correlated significantly (p < 0.05 with the rise in serum cortisol. In spite of these changes, postoperative clinical recovery was uneventful. No major alterations in the HARS scores were noted pre and post operatively. This study demonstrates that surgical stress depresses the immune system with a concomitant rise in cortisol.

  12. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counselors Kidney Stones Brain and Nervous System Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System Print A A ... called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  13. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. Fact Steroid ...

  14. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases.

  15. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  16. Bloomsbury Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Bloomsbury Scientists is the story of the network of scientists and artists living in a square mile of London before and after the First World War. This inspired group of men and women viewed creativity and freedom as the driving force behind nature, and each strove to understand this in their own inventive way. Their collective energy changed the social mood of the era and brought a new synthesis of knowledge to ideas in science and art. Class barriers were threatened as power shifted from t...

  17. Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo F. Ricci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices.

  18. Endocrine Labomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory endocrinology forms an integral part of 21 st century endocrinology. Perhaps, no other specialty of medicine is as closely associated with laboratory as endocrinology. This review intends to highlight the challenges faced by an endocrinologist before interpreting a hormone assay report. This review by no means is holistic but intends to highlight some of the pitfalls of laboratory endocrinology and arouse further interest in this important but neglected section of endocrinology. Lack of standardization, as well as rigorous implementation is some of the major challenges facing endocrine assays in our country. It is essential to be aware not only of the details of the method of analysis of a hormone, the pre-analytical requisites, but also disease-specific analytical issues to prevent unnecessary concern both for the patient, as well as the treating physician, as well as needless investigations. Problems with interpretation of serum prolactin, thyroglobulin, steroid hormone assays, rennin assay and vitamin-D assay have been highlighted.

  19. Scientist contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Blank; W. Burkhardt; J. Chatterton; W. Dollarhide; L. James; D. Klebenow; W. Krueger; S. Leonard; E. Miller; N. Rimbey; K. Sanders; S. Swanson; R. Tausch; P. Tueller; N. West; J. Young

    2008-01-01

    The primary impetus for this Wildfire Forum is a document authored by John McLain and Sheila Anderson of Resource Concepts, Inc. entitled "Urgent Need for a Scientific Review of the Ecological and Management History of the Great Basin Natural Resources and Recommendations to Achieve Ecosystem Restoration." This document urged prominent scientists who have...

  20. Playing Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  1. Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  2. Endocrine Treatment of Transsexual Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ... About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  3. Sustainable Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  4. Primary endocrine-secreting pancreatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaron, C

    1980-04-01

    Insulinoma, glucagonoma, gastrinoma (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome), vipoma, somatostatinoma and a tumor that secretes human pancreatic polypeptide are the primary endocrine-secreting tumors of the pancreas. hormones are produced by specific tumor cell types and cause a variety of dramatic clinical pictures. Diagnosis often requires hormone assays. Computerized tomography may be helpful. Definitive surgical treatment is possible, but metastases may be present.

  5. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E. (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-08-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis.

  6. Endocrine system: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  7. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: harmful substances and how to test them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olea-Serrano Nicolás

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the opinions of different groups from: scientists, international regulatory bodies, non-governmental organizations and industry; with an interest in the problem of identifying chemical substances with endocrine disrupting activity. There is also discussion of the consequences that exposure to endocrine disruptors may have for human health, considering concrete issues related to: the estimation of risk; the tests that must be used to detect endocrine disruption; the difficulties to establish an association between dose, time of exposure, individual susceptibility, and effect; and the attempts to create a census of endocrine disruptors. Finally, it is proposed that not all hormonal mimics should be included under the single generic denomination of endocrine disruptors.

  8. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spikes Is mealtime insulin right for you? The Endocrine System Access more 3D visualizations by downloading the Hormone ... Endocrinologist Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  9. Introduction to the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search The Endocrine System Access more 3D visualizations by downloading the Hormone ... About Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone Abuse Peer ...

  10. Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Endocrine Practice. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 4 of 4 Items. 2013. Vol 7, No 1 ...

  11. Endocrine system and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The endocrine quiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  13. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2016-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated with a range of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including potential malignancies. Complications of the associated neoplasms are the major causes of morbidities and mortalities in these familial syndromes, e.g., parathyroid carcinoma in HPT-JT syndrome; thymic, bronchial, and enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1; and medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma in MEN2A. Because of the different underlying mechanisms of neoplasia, these familial tumors may have different characteristics compared with their sporadic counterparts. Large-scale clinical trials are frequently lacking due to the rarity of these diseases. With technological advances and the development of new medications, the natural history, diagnosis, and management of these syndromes are also evolving. In this article, we summarize the recent knowledge on endocrine neoplasms in three familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes, with an emphasis on disease characteristics, molecular pathogenesis, recent developments in biochemical and radiological evaluation, and expert opinions on surgical and medical therapies. Because these familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes are associated with a wide variety of tumors in different organs, this review is focused on those endocrine neoplasms with malignant potential. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Wylie C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette A; Gooren, Louis J; Meyer, Walter J; Spack, Norman P; Tangpricha, Vin; Montori, Victor M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for endocrine treatment of transsexual persons. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence, which was low or very low. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society, European Society of Endocrinology, European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and World Professional Association for Transgender Health commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Transsexual persons seeking to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender require a safe, effective hormone regimen that will 1) suppress endogenous hormone secretion determined by the person's genetic/biologic sex and 2) maintain sex hormone levels within the normal range for the person's desired gender. A mental health professional (MHP) must recommend endocrine treatment and participate in ongoing care throughout the endocrine transition and decision for surgical sex reassignment. The endocrinologist must confirm the diagnostic criteria the MHP used to make these recommendations. Because a diagnosis of transsexualism in a prepubertal child cannot be made with certainty, we do not recommend endocrine treatment of prepubertal children. We recommend treating transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2) by suppressing puberty with GnRH analogues until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. We suggest suppressing endogenous sex hormones, maintaining physiologic levels of gender-appropriate sex hormones and monitoring for known risks in adult transsexual persons.

  15. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    hormones and their precursors across the foeto-maternal interface. The endocrine system is the earliest system developing in foetal life, and it is functional from early intrauterine existence through old age. Regulation of the foetal endocrine system relies, to some extent, on precursors secreted......The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...

  16. Endocrine system: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  17. The exposure of fetuses and children to endocrine disrupting chemicals: a European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) call to action statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Söder, Olle

    2011-01-01

    carried out by basic and experimental scientists and wildlife researchers. Relatively few clinical scientists have been engaged in research on this topic to date. The aim of this statement is to have pediatric endocrinologists consider the issue of endocrine disrupters in their clinical work and research....

  18. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing....... To improve knowledge on possible influences of endocrine disrupters on female reproductive system, the effects of EDCs on genital malformations in females and the development of mammary glands were studied in the present project. AIMS: The aims for the studies on male and female mammary gland development...... effects on prepubertal female rat mammary glands were observed at lower levels than those affecting other endpoints studied. CONCLUSION: The present findings in rats suggest that EDCs may affect mammary gland development in women and men, although risk assessment including comparison with exposure...

  19. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000399.htm Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type II (MEN II) is a disorder passed ...

  20. Scientists must speak

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walters, D. Eric; Walters, Gale Climenson

    2011-01-01

    .... Scientists Must Speak: Bringing Presentations to Life helps readers do just that. At some point in their careers, the majority of scientists have to stand up in front of an inquisitive audience or board and present information...

  1. Intravenous morphine after gynecological surgery : pain relief, endocrine and immune respone

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson-Mjöberg, Marianne

    1997-01-01

    Background: We need more efficient methods to alleviate postoperative pain and reduce endocrine / immune stress response. Subjects and methods: Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with iv morphine was evaluated with respect to pain relief and endocrine / immune response to surgical trauma in 130 patients undergoing gynecological surgery. Anesthetic regimens included general anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, epidural morphine and combinations of these methods. Results: Lar...

  2. CREATIVE SCIENTISTS OF TODAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAMBERS, J A

    1964-09-11

    To investigate traits differentiating highly creative research scientists from less creative ones, a questionnaire was sent to 740 male scientists (400 chemists and 340 psychologists). Half of each group had achieved eminence as research scientists; the other half had not achieved research eminence, but were matched on relevant variables. Results indicated that creative scientists are more dominant than less creative ones, that they have more initiative, and are more strongly motivated toward intellectual success.

  3. Inspiring Future Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  4. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Special Needs Glasses and Contact Lenses Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System Print A A A en español Tu sistema ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  5. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nigerian Endocrine Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal accepts original contributions related to the practice and science of clinical endocrinology, articles updating the clinical endocrinologist on current areas of interest in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders, articles discussing dilemma facing endocrinologists in the clinical, social, and ethical arena of ...

  7. Endocrine Drugs in Aircrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    intracellular inflammatory action of corticosteroids, the and extracellular communication. The site of action contraceptive action of gonadal steroids...complications occur have results in the disappearance of weakness, malaise allowed more effective methods of prevention and and fatigue. Anorexia and...disease * Osteoporosis "* Pancreatitis * Myopathy Endocrine-Metabolic Neuropsychiatric "* latrogenic Cushing * Psychosis "* Acne, hirsutism, menstrual

  8. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating disorders: obesity, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. In: Wilson JD, Foster ... Original Articles should be restricted to clinical or basic studies, particularly translational research, which add new information to the etiology, treatment, and outcomes of endocrine disorders that have not been published previously.

  9. Paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Georgios K; Angelousi, Anna; Weickert, Martin O; Randeva, Harpal S; Kaltsas, Gregory; Grossman, Ashley

    2017-06-01

    The majority of neoplasms are responsible for symptoms caused by mass effects to surrounding tissues and/or through the development of metastases. However, occasionally neoplasms, with or without endocrine differentiation, acquire the ability to secrete a variety of bioactive substances or induce immune cross-reactivity with the normal tissues that can lead to the development of characteristic clinical syndromes. These syndromes are named endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes when the specific secretory components (hormones, peptides or cytokines) are unrelated to the anticipated tissue or organ of origin. Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes can complicate the patient's clinical course, response to treatment, impact prognosis and even be confused as metastatic spread. These syndromes can precede, occur concomitantly or present at a later stage of tumour development, and along with the secreted substances constitute the biological 'fingerprint' of the tumour. Their detection can facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying neoplasia, monitor response to treatment and/or detect early recurrences following successful initial management. Although when associated with tumours of low malignant potential they usually do not affect long-term outcome, in cases of highly malignant tumours, endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes are usually associated with poorer survival outcomes. Recent medical advances have not only improved our understanding of paraneoplastic syndrome pathogenesis in general but also enhanced their diagnosis and treatment. Yet, given the rarity of endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes, there is a paucity of prospective clinical trials to guide management. The development of well-designed prospective multicentre trials remains a priority in the field in order to fully characterise these syndromes and provide evidence-based diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzein Abdulhalem

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas comprise 10%–15% of pancreatic cystic lesions, with the serous cystadenoms being the commonest. The association of exocrine and endocrine tumours of the pancreas unrelated to Von Hipple Lindau disease is very rare. Very few cases have been reported in the literature. We present another case of both these tumours in one patient. Case presentation A female patient was seen in the surgical clinic for a pain in the right groin. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a diagnosis of combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. She underwent surgery and is under regular follow-up in the surgical clinic. Conclusion Biphasic differentiation of pancreatic stem cell during embryological development could happen and may result in combined endocrine and exocrine tumours of the pancreas. Imaging studies are excellent in diagnosing theses lesions. Surgery has a central role and could be curative.

  11. Zearalenone endocrine system catch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the contamination of our environment with thousands of both natural and man-made chemicals which affect the endocrine system of humans and animals. These so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to mimic or block the action of hormones and therefore disrupt sexual development in utero. EDCs are organochlorine pesticides, dioxin compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, alkylpolyethoxylates, plastic additives and phytoestrogens (occurring naturally in foods: isoflavones coumenestans and zearalenone. The structure of zearalenone is similar to the structure of estrogens and it enables binding to the estrogenic receptors. DNA laddering on gel electrophoresis was present 12 h after dosing thus indicating a conclusion that there was apoptosis. Apoptosis is the principal mechanism contributing to germ cell depletion and testicular atrophy following zearalenone exposure.

  12. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... processes, and exposure during critical periods of prenatal development might affect reproductive performance over several generations. Alkylphenols and their metabolites are lipophilic substances exerting apparent estrogenic action in in vitro and in vivo testing systems. With the widespread industrial use...

  13. Endocrine disorders in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes as a consequence of physiological alterations at the foetoplacental boundary between mother and foetus. The vast changes in maternal hormones and their binding proteins complicate assessment of the normal level of most hormones...... during gestation. The neuroendocrine events and their timing in the placental, foetal and maternal compartments are critical for initiation and maintenance of pregnancy, for foetal growth and development, and for parturition. As pregnancy advances, the relative number of trophoblasts increase...

  14. Read Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…

  15. Stories of Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  16. Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; van Zundert, Joris J.; Koolen, Corina

    2017-01-01

    Bijdragen scheurkalender Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018. Karina van Dalen-Oskam, Belangrijk woord: Wat is het belangrijkste woord in de Nederlandse taal? In: Young Scientist Wetenschapskalender 2018, 1 september Corina Koolen, Op naar het boekenbal: Hoe wordt je beroemd als schrijver? In:

  17. Scientists on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dente, Karen M

    2007-04-06

    In today's global world, scientists are increasingly mobile and the traditional view of "brain drain" is being replaced by "brain circulation." Countries such as China and India are tapping into a global pool of science talent attracting not only their own citizens back from abroad but also scientists from the US and Europe.

  18. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  19. [Hand and endocrine diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wémeau, Jean-Louis; Ryndak, Amélie; Karrouz, Wassila; Balavoine, Anne-Sophie; Baudoux, Florence

    2013-12-01

    The whole of hormones likely influence state of hands, modifying colouring and trophicity of the skin and having influence on its muscular, tendineous, osseous, articular components. Thus state of the hands contributes to the recognition of the endocrine diseases: hot and moist hands of the Graves' disease, dry, cold and infiltrated hands in myxoedema, pale and fine hands of hypopituitarism, broad and thick hand of acromegaly, brachymetacarpia in the pseudohypoparathyroidism… Diabetes exposes particularly to tendineous and articular retractions, to whitlows and ungual mycosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Women's Health Endocrine Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Ekta; Faubion, Stephanie; Hines, Stephanie; Stuenkel, Cynthia A

    2017-11-07

    The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice changing journal articles summarized for our readers. Topics include menopause, sexual dysfunction, breast health, contraception, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this clinical update, we selected four recent high-impact publications related to endocrine issues in women. We have chosen to highlight research on subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including cognitive outcomes in offspring; the progression of metabolic syndrome severity during the menopausal transition; and the association of diabetes and metformin use with cancer risk and mortality.

  1. A path forward in the debate over health impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, Robert T; Bergmann, Åke; Becher, Georg

    2014-01-01

    and risk assessment reviewed the various aspects of the debate to identify the most significant areas of dispute and to propose a path forward. We identified four areas of debate. The first is about the definitions for terms such as "endocrine disrupting chemical", "adverse effects", and "endocrine system......Several recent publications reflect debate on the issue of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs), indicating that two seemingly mutually exclusive perspectives are being articulated separately and independently. Considering this, a group of scientists with expertise in basic science, medicine...

  2. Scientists planning new internet

    CERN Multimedia

    Cookson, C

    2000-01-01

    British scientists are preparing to build the next generation internet - 'The Grid'. The government is expected to announce about 100 million pounds of funding for the project, to be done in collaboration with CERN (1/2 p).

  3. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  4. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wendy Gordon

    2014-01-01

      A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex...

  5. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Endocrine Practice, a peer reviewed publication published twice a year is the official publication of the Nigerian Chapter of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE-Nigeria). The primary mission of the Nigerian Endocrine Practice is to enhance the health care of patients with ...

  6. Endocrine Actions of Osteocalcin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Patti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteocalcin is the most abundant noncollagenous protein of bone matrix. Once transcribed, this protein undergoes posttranslational modifications within osteoblastic cells before its secretion, including the carboxylation of three glutamic residues in glutamic acid, which is essential for hydroxyapatite binding and deposition in the extracellular matrix of bone. Recent provocative data from experimental observations in mice showed that the circulating undercarboxylated fraction of osteocalcin increases insulin secretion and sensitivity, lowers blood glucose, and decreases visceral fat in both genders, while it enhances testosterone production by the testes in males. Moreover, both total and undercarboxylated osteocalcins increase following physical activity with potential positive effects on glucose tolerance. Despite that these evidences have been only in part confirmed in humans, further prospective investigations are needed to definitively establish the endocrine role of osteocalcin both in the general population and cohorts of patients with diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    controls within all diagnose categories including antibiotics. The causal relationship between PCOS and autoimmune disease represents an interesting new area of research. PCOS is a lifelong condition and long term morbidity could be worsened by obesity, sedentary way of life, western style diet and smoking......Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine condition in premenopausal women. The syndrome is characterized by hyperandrogenism, irregular menses and polycystic ovaries when other etiologies are excluded. Obesity, insulin resistance and low vitamin D levels are present in more...... than 50% patients with PCOS, these factors along with hyperandrogenism could have adverse effects on long term health. Hyperinflammation and impaired epithelial function were reported to a larger extent in women with PCOS and could particularly be associated with hyperandrogenism, obesity and insulin...

  8. SARCOPENIA: AN ENDOCRINE DISORDER?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Alexis; Morley, John E; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Vinik, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as low muscle function (walking speed or grip strength) in the presence of low muscle mass. A simple screening test-the SARC-F-is available to identify persons with sarcopenia. The major endocrine causes of sarcopenia are diabetes mellitus and male hypogonadism. Other causes are decreased physical activity, loss of motor neuron units, weight loss, inflammatory cytokines, reduced blood flow to muscles, very low 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and decreased growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1. Treatment for sarcopenia includes resistance and aerobic exercise, leucine-enriched essential amino acids, and vitamin D. In hypogonadal males, testosterone improves muscle mass, strength, and function. Selective androgen receptor molecules and anti-myostatin activin II receptor molecules are under development as possible treatments for sarcopenia. COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease DHEA = dehydroepiandrosterone IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1 GH = growth hormone mTOR = mammalian target of rapamycin SARM = selective androgen receptor molecule.

  9. Reconciling Scientists and Journalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, H.

    2006-12-01

    The very nature of scientists' and journalists' jobs can put them at cross-purposes. Scientists work for years on one research project, slowly accumulating data, and are hesitant to draw sweeping conclusions without multiple rounds of hypothesis-testing. Journalists, meanwhile, are often looking for "news"—a discovery that was just made ("scientists have just discovered that...") or that defies conventional wisdom and is therefore about to turn society's thinking on its head. The very criteria that the mediamakers often use to determine newsworthiness can automatically preclude some scientific progress from making the news. There are other built-in problems in the relationship between journalists and scientists, some of which we can try to change and others of which we can learn to work around. Drawing on my personal experience as a journalist who has written for a wide variety of magazines, newspapers, and web sites, this talk will illustrate some of the inherent difficulties and offer some suggestions for how to move beyond them. It will provide a background on the way news decisions are made and how the journalist does her job, with an eye toward finding common ground and demonstrating how scientists can enjoy better relationships with journalists—relationships that can help educate the public on important scientific topics and avoid misrepresentation of scientific knowledge in the media.

  10. Marketing for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2012-01-01

    It's a tough time to be a scientist: universities are shutting science departments, funding organisations are facing flat budgets, and many newspapers have dropped their science sections altogether. But according to Marc Kuchner, this anti-science climate doesn't have to equal a career death knell - it just means scientists have to be savvier about promoting their work and themselves. In "Marketing for Scientists", he provides clear, detailed advice about how to land a good job, win funding, and shape the public debate. As an astrophysicist at NASA, Kuchner knows that "marketing" can seem like a superficial distraction, whether your daily work is searching for new planets or seeking a cure for cancer. In fact, he argues, it's a critical component of the modern scientific endeavour, not only advancing personal careers but also society's knowledge. Kuchner approaches marketing as a science in itself. He translates theories about human interaction and sense of self into methods for building relationships - one o...

  11. How Korean Students See Scientists: The Images of the Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinwoong; Kim, Kwang-Suk

    1999-01-01

    Describes an investigation of five aspects of Korean students' images of scientists: (1) mental image; (2) physical image; (3) source of image; (4) "scientists around us;" and (5) "my favorite scientist." Finds that Korean students' stereotypical views of scientists were influenced more by affective and ethical personal…

  12. Fifteen years after "Wingspread"- Environmental Endocrine Disrupters and human and wildlife health: Where we are today and where we need to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1991 a group of expert scientists at a Wingspread work session on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) concluded that "Many compounds introduced into the environment by human activity are capable of disrupting the endocrine system of animals, including fish, wildlife, and hum...

  13. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  14. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  15. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  16. as endocrine disrupting contaminants (EDCs)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of removing EDCs and other pollutants at South African wastewater treatment .... of a particular component within one endocrine axis may also ...... HPG. Hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal. HPT. Hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid.

  17. Developing Scientists' "Soft" Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Wendy

    2014-02-01

    A great deal of professional advice directed at undergraduates, graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and even early-career scientists focuses on technical skills necessary to succeed in a complex work environment in which problems transcend disciplinary boundaries. Collaborative research approaches are emphasized, as are cross-training and gaining nonacademic experiences [Moslemi et al., 2009].

  18. Bringing Scientists to Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  19. Reading about Real Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  20. Michael Polanyi, the Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Comment: Michael Polanyi, the Scientist. John Polanyi. Article-in-a-Box Volume 23 Issue 1 January 2018 pp 15-19. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/023/01/0015-0019. Abstract ...

  1. Vikram Sarabhai, the Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    purposefulness he infused, contagious enthusiasm and inspira- tion he transmitted and the deep concern and love for people he showed made a strong impact on his close colleagues and the institutions he built. Bruno Russi, the celebrated scientist from. MIT with whom Sarabhai collaborated, very aptly summed up.

  2. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  3. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  4. Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

  5. A romantic scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaar Jacobsen, Anja

    2013-12-01

    While giving a lecture on electricity, electrochemistry and magnetism in the spring of 1820, the Danish scientist Hans Christian Ørsted noticed something remarkable: the magnetic needle he was using for one of his demonstrations was deflected by an electric current in a nearby wire.

  6. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  8. The Great Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  9. Scientists want more children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Howard Ecklund

    Full Text Available Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  10. Scientists want more children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E

    2011-01-01

    Scholars partly attribute the low number of women in academic science to the impact of the science career on family life. Yet, the picture of how men and women in science--at different points in the career trajectory--compare in their perceptions of this impact is incomplete. In particular, we know little about the perceptions and experiences of junior and senior scientists at top universities, institutions that have a disproportionate influence on science, science policy, and the next generation of scientists. Here we show that having fewer children than wished as a result of the science career affects the life satisfaction of science faculty and indirectly affects career satisfaction, and that young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral fellows) who have had fewer children than wished are more likely to plan to exit science entirely. We also show that the impact of science on family life is not just a woman's problem; the effect on life satisfaction of having fewer children than desired is more pronounced for male than female faculty, with life satisfaction strongly related to career satisfaction. And, in contrast to other research, gender differences among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows disappear. Family factors impede talented young scientists of both sexes from persisting to research positions in academic science. In an era when the global competitiveness of US science is at risk, it is concerning that a significant proportion of men and women trained in the select few spots available at top US research universities are considering leaving science and that such desires to leave are related to the impact of the science career on family life. Results from our study may inform university family leave policies for science departments as well as mentoring programs in the sciences.

  11. Management Scientists Are Human

    OpenAIRE

    Geert Hofstede

    1994-01-01

    The culture of the national environment in which an organization operates affects the management process through the collective mental programming of its members, its managers, and the management scientists who offer their theories. Four dimensions of national culture differences have been found. Among other things, they affect the implicit models in people's minds of what the act of organizing means. Among the pioneers in management science around 1900, differences along these dimensions are...

  12. Electronic Portfolios for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Dahn, I.; Christmann, A

    2007-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are electronic versions of paper based portfolios. They are increasingly applied in education. Software for building and maintaining ePortfolios is emerging; open specifications for the exchange of ePortfolios exist. They show the potential to serve as a standard tool for documenting achievements in lifelong learning. In this paper we explore the potential of ePortfolios for scientists.

  13. Development and validation of in vitro bioassays for thyroid hormone receptor mediated endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitas, de J.

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate crucial processes in vertebrates such as reproduction, development and energy metabolism. Endocrine disruption via the thyroid hormone system is gaining more attention both from scientists and regulators, because of the increasing incidence of hormone-related cancers and

  14. Endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Didem; Dagdelen, Selcuk; Erbas, Tomris

    2010-01-01

    To present an overview of the published data on endocrine involvement and endocrine dysfunction in patients with systemic amyloidosis. We conducted a review of the medical literature using MEDLINE data sources, including clinical trials, in vitro studies, and case reports on pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreatic, adrenal, and gonadal involvement in systemic amyloidosis. Reports of endocrine involvement in systemic amyloidosis seem to consist primarily of small-samplesize clinical trials or case reports, probably because of the rarity of the disease itself. Systemic amyloidosis mainly involves and causes functional impairment in the thyroid and testes in the endocrine system. Evaluation of adrenal function necessitates special consideration because amyloid infiltration of the adrenal glands resulting in failure may be a life-threatening condition. Amyloid deposition commonly seen in the pituitary gland and the pancreas of patients with Alzheimer disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively, is generally classified as local amyloidosis and should not be confused with systemic involvement. Additionally, detection of amyloid deposition in the thyroid and testes may have a diagnostic role in patients with suspected systemic or renal amyloidosis. Published data suggest that systemic amyloidosis frequently involves the endocrine system, and endocrine dysfunction seems to be not as rare as previously thought. A rapidly growing goiter or symptoms and signs of adrenal or gonadal dysfunction should raise suspicion of amyloid infiltration. Involvement of pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic sites in systemic amyloidosis still remains to be clarified. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed for complete characterization of the effect of systemic amyloidosis on the endocrine system.

  15. Personal Characteristics That Distinguish Creative Scientists from Less Creative Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoying; Kaufman, James C.

    2017-01-01

    What are the personal characteristics that distinguish the creative scientist from the less creative scientist? This study used the concept of implicit theory in a four-part study of scientists and graduate students in science. In the first part, we collected 1382 adjective words that describe the personal characteristics of the creative scientist…

  16. Clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Likhvantseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze clinical polymorphism of endocrine ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves’ disease.Methods: Clinical and radiological data of 18 cases with clinical manifestations of lacrimal gland increase were analyzed and compared with data retrieved from 50 patients without increasing of lacrimal gland.Results: the characteristics of clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy with lacrimal gland increase were presented. this form differs, as the organ of the target, along with orbital fat and/or eye muscles becomes the glandula lacrimalis. A correlation between fact involving, on the one hand, and the intensity and severity of the autoimmune process in orbit, on the other hand were identified.Conclusion: Involvement of this secretion organ in the autoimmune process makes the clinical course of endocrine ophthalmopa-thy more complicated, and leads to eye dry syndrome creation.

  17. Astronomer to Data Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

  18. Lipid effects of endocrine medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailescu, Dan V; Vora, Avni; Mazzone, Theodore

    2011-02-01

    Various alterations of lipid homeostasis have a significant role in the pathophysiology of the artherosclerotic process. The effects of usual lipid-lowering agents such as statins, fibrates, or niacin are well known, but other endocrine therapeutic agents could also affect the blood levels of various lipoproteins and, in turn, influence atheroma formation. In this review, we attempt to summarize the effect of several hormonal and non-hormonal endocrine agents on lipid metabolism, including insulin, thyroid hormone, sex hormones, glucocorticoids, growth hormone, and several anti-diabetic agents.

  19. [The happy scientist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Vergouwen, Anton C M; Smulders, Yvo M

    2012-01-01

    The H-index is a frequently used scale to rank scientists on their scientific output. Whether subjective feeling of happiness is influenced by the level of the H-index on scientists has never been investigated. To investigate the relation between the level of the H index as a measure of scientific success and feelings of unhappiness among Dutch professors. Descriptive; national online questionnaire. All medical professors working at the Dutch university medical centres were invited to participate in an online questionnaire. Pressure to publish was measured by a questionnaire developed for this purpose and signs of burnout were measured on the Utrecht Burnout Scale. The area of emotional exhaustion on this scale was used to measure feelings of unhappiness. Every professor was asked for his or her H-index as an outcome measure. A total of 437 professors completed the questionnaire. Those in the highest tertile of the H index had significantly lower scores for emotional exhaustion (p emotional exhaustion. Professors with children living at home had a 25% higher score on emotional exhaustion than those who did not (p emotional exhaustion: a lower H index is associated with higher scores on emotional exhaustion while a high H index is associated with lower scores.

  20. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on the Endocrine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aspect of your health. What is the endocrine system? Your endocrine system includes glands and organs that make and release ... to feel well. How can TBI affect the endocrine system? Two important parts of the endocrine system—the ...

  2. Cyprus Children's Images of Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjikyriacou, Ritsa Maria

    1998-01-01

    Describes an attempt to determine if there were gender or age differences in the images that 11- to 14-year-old students have of scientists. Results indicate that as female students get older they adopt and project a more stereotypic image of scientists, whereas male students seem to harbor a less stereotypic image of scientists as they age.…

  3. How Scientists Can Become Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Jonathan N; Karlsson, Sven

    2017-05-01

    Translating basic research discoveries through entrepreneurship must be scientist driven and institutionally supported to be successful (not the other way around). Here, we describe why scientists should engage in entrepreneurship, where institutional support for scientist-founders falls short, and how these challenges can be overcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  6. Voices of Romanian scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2016-01-01

    As Romania has now become a Member State of CERN, Romanian scientists share their thoughts about this new era of partnership for their community.   Members of ATLAS from Romanian institutes at CERN (from left to right): Dan Ciubotaru, Michele Renda, Bogdan Blidaru, Alexandra Tudorache, Marina Rotaru, Ana Dumitriu, Valentina Tudorache, Adam Jinaru, Calin Alexa. On 17 July 2016, Romania became the twenty-second Member State of CERN, 25 years after the first cooperation agreement with the country was signed. “CERN and Romania already have a long history of strong collaboration”, says Emmanuel Tsesmelis, head of Relations with Associate Members and Non-Member States. “We very much look forward to strengthening this collaboration as Romania becomes CERN’s twenty-second Member State, which promises the development of mutual interests in scientific research, related technologies and education,” he affirms. Romania&...

  7. Python for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, John M

    2017-01-01

    Scientific Python is a significant public domain alternative to expensive proprietary software packages. This book teaches from scratch everything the working scientist needs to know using copious, downloadable, useful and adaptable code snippets. Readers will discover how easy it is to implement and test non-trivial mathematical algorithms and will be guided through the many freely available add-on modules. A range of examples, relevant to many different fields, illustrate the language's capabilities. The author also shows how to use pre-existing legacy code (usually in Fortran77) within the Python environment, thus avoiding the need to master the original code. In this new edition, several chapters have been re-written to reflect the IPython notebook style. With an extended index, an entirely new chapter discussing SymPy and a substantial increase in the number of code snippets, researchers and research students will be able to quickly acquire all the skills needed for using Python effectively.

  8. ECNS '99 - Young scientists forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceretti, M.; Janssen, S.; McMorrow, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    The Young Scientists Forum is a new venture for ECNS and follows the established tradition of an active participation by young scientists in these conferences. At ECNS '99 the Young Scientists Forum brought together 30 young scientists from 13 European countries. In four working groups......, they discussed emerging scientific trends in their areas of expertise and the instrumentation required to meet the scientific challenges. The outcome was presented in the Young Scientists Panel on the final day of ECNS '99. This paper is a summary of the four working group reports prepared by the Group Conveners....... (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Walter sutton: physician, scientist, inventor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Gregory J; Hulston, Nancy J; Kovac, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Walter S. Sutton (1877-1916) was a physician, scientist, and inventor. Most of the work on Sutton has focused on his recognition that chromosomes carry genetic material and are the basis for Mendelian inheritance. Perhaps less well known is his work on rectal administration of ether. After Sutton's work on genetics, he completed his medical degree in 1907 and began a 2-year surgical fellowship at Roosevelt Hospital, New York City, NY, where he was introduced to the technique of rectal administration of ether. Sutton modified the work of others and documented 100 cases that were reported in his 1910 landmark paper "Anaesthesia by Colonic Absorption of Ether". Sutton had several deaths in his study, but he did not blame the rectal method. He felt that his use of rectal anesthesia was safe when administered appropriately and believed that it offered a distinct advantage over traditional pulmonary ether administration. His indications for its use included (1) head and neck surgery; (2) operations when ether absorption must be minimized due to heart, lung, or kidney problems; and (3) preoperative pulmonary complications. His contraindications included (1) cases involving alimentary tract or weakened colon; (2) laparotomies, except when the peritoneal cavity was not opened; (3) incompetent sphincter or anal fistula; (4) orthopnea; and (5) emergency cases. Sutton wrote the chapter on "Rectal Anesthesia" in one of the first comprehensive textbooks in anesthesia, James Tayloe Gwathmey's Anesthesia. Walter Sutton died of a ruptured appendix in 1916 at age 39. Copyright © 2014 Anesthesia History Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Outstanding problems of normal and pathological morphology of the diffuse endocrine system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse endocrine system (DES)--a mosaic-cellular endoepithelial gland--is the biggest part of the human endocrine system. Scientists used to consider cells of DES as neuroectodermal. According to modem data cells of DES are different cytogenetic types because they develop from the different embryonic blastophyllum. So that any hormone-active tumors originated from DES of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system shouldn't be considered as neuroendocrinal tumors. The basic problems of DES morphology and pathology are the creation of scientifically substantiated histogenetic classification of DES tumors.

  11. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  12. Endocrine disruptors and their effects on puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Çetinkaya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors and their possible impact on human health have become a topic of discussion. Endocrine disrupting chemicals are found in plastics, detergents, pesticides and industrial chemicals. Some of these persist in the environment and others do not. Some are lipophilic, sequestered in adipose tissue and secreted in milk, and others may only be present for short periods of time but at critical periods of development. Endocrine disruptors are defined as an extrogenous substance or mixture that alters the function of the endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny. Endocrine disruptors affect the reproductive system and they may be responsible for oligospermia, abnormality of sperm characteristics, disorders of testicular steroidogenesis, testicular atrophy, uterus weight increases and precocious puberty. In this review, we aimed to assess on exposure to endocrine disruptors and the effects of endocrine disruptors on puberty.

  13. Surgical management of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quérat, C; Germain, N; Dumollard, J-M; Estour, B; Peoc'h, M; Prades, J-M

    2015-04-01

    Hyperthyroidism includes several clinical and histopathological situations. Surgery is commonly indicated after failure of medical treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the indications and complications of surgery as well as endocrine results. Patients operated on for hyperthyroidism between 2004 and 2012 were included in a retrospective study. Total thyroidectomy was performed for Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis; patients with toxic nodule underwent hemithyroidectomy. Pathologic analysis assessed surgical specimens; postoperative complications and resolution of hyperthyroidism were noted. Two hundred patients from 15 to 83 years old were included. One hundred and eighty-eight underwent primary surgery and 12 were re-operated for recurrent goiter (6 with subtotal thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter 25 years previously; 6 with hemithyroidectomy for solitary nodule 15 years previously). Eighty-two patients suffered from toxic multinodular goiter, 78 from Graves' disease, 35 from solitary toxic nodules and 5 from amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. Fourteen papillary carcinomas (including 11 papillary microcarcinomas) and 34 healthy parathyroid glands (17%) were identified in the pathological specimens. Postoperative complications comprised 4% permanent recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (1 year follow-up), 9% hematoma requiring surgical revision, and 3% definitive hypocalcemia. Normalization of thyroid hormone levels was observed in 198 patients. Two recurrences occurred due to incomplete resection (1 case of Graves' disease and 1 intrathoracic toxic goiter that occurred respectively 18 and 5 months after resection). Postoperative complications were more frequent in multinodular goiter (23%) than in Graves' disease (13%) (ns: P>0.05). Surgical management of hyperthyroidism enables good endocrinal control if surgery is complete. Patients need to be fully informed of all possible postoperative complications

  14. A Serendipitous Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2017-07-17

    Growing up in a middle-class Jewish home in the Bronx, I had only one professional goal: to become a physician. However, as with most of my Vietnam-era MD colleagues, I found my residency training interrupted by the Doctor Draft in 1968. Some of us who were academically inclined fulfilled this obligation by serving in the US Public Health Service as commissioned officers stationed at the National Institutes of Health. This experience would eventually change the entire trajectory of my career. Here I describe how, over a period of years, I transitioned from the life of a physician to that of a physician scientist; my 50 years of work on cellular receptors; and some miscellaneous thoughts on subjects as varied as Nobel prizes, scientific lineages, mentoring, publishing, and funding. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology Volume 58 is January 6, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  15. Surgical lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago, the last decades only minor developments have been made. This lack of significant development suggests that the current state of surgical lighting is perfectly developed and functions without any fla...

  16. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: new clinical and pathological features in a contemporary series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Run; Jih, Lily; Zhai, Jing; Nissen, Nicholas N; Colquhoun, Steven; Wolin, Edward; Dhall, Deepti

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the novel clinical and pathological features of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. This was a retrospective review of medical records and surgical pathology specimens of patients with a diagnosis of mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center between 2005 and 2011. Additional immunohistochemistry was performed on the specimens of some patients. Five patients were identified. The median age at presentation was 74 years (range, 59-89 years), and all patients were male. The presenting symptoms were all related to tumor mass effects. The median size of the tumor was 10 cm (range, 3.9-16 cm). Preoperative clinical diagnosis aided by fine-needle aspiration biopsy was incorrect in all 5 cases. Most tumors (3/5) exhibited predominantly endocrine differentiation without hormonal production. Only 10% to 30% of cells were truly amphicrine, whereas most were differentiated into either endocrine or acinar phenotype. The clinical behavior ranged from moderate to aggressive with postoperative survival from 2.5 months to more than 3 years. Four patients received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with variable responses. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas appears to be not uncommon in men, may harbor predominantly endocrine component, is often misdiagnosed by cytology, and exhibits variable clinical behavior. Mixed acinar-endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas should be considered in older patients with sizable pancreatic mass and may warrant aggressive surgical resection and chemotherapy.

  17. Polish Scientists in Fish Immunology: A Short History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Muiswinkel, Willem B.; Pilarczyk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later starting in the late 1930s. Detailed papers on fish vaccination were published from 1970 onwards. Another important development was the unraveling of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions in the 1970s until today. Around 1980, it became more and more clear how important immunomodulation (stimulation or suppression by environmental factors, food components, drugs) was for fish health. The most recent findings are focusing on the discovery of genetic factors, signaling molecules, and receptors, which play a crucial role in the immune response. It can be concluded, that Polish scientists made considerable contributions to our present understanding of fish immunity and to applications in aquaculture worldwide. PMID:26569323

  18. Afferent Endocrine Control of Eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Wolfgang; Holst, Jens Juul

    2016-01-01

    The afferent endocrine factors that control eating can be separated into different categories. One obvious categorization is by the time course of their effects, with long-term factors that signal adiposity and short-term factors that operate within the time frame of single meals. The second...... obvious categorization is by the origin of the endocrine signalling molecules. The level of knowledge concerning the physiological mechanisms and relevance of the hormones that are implicated in the control of eating is clearly different. With the accumulating knowledge about the hormones' actions......, various criteria have been developed for when the effect of a hormone can be considered 'physiologic'. This chapter treats the hormones separately and categorizes them by origin. It discusses ALL hormones that are implicated in eating control such as Gastrointestinal (GI) hormone and glucagon-like peptide...

  19. Classical endocrine diseases causing obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jolanta U

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several endocrine diseases, including common ones such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovarian syndrome to rare ones such as Cushing's syndrome, central hypothyroidism and hypothalamic disorders. The mechanisms for the development of obesity vary in according to the endocrine condition. Hypothyroidism is associated with accumulation of hyaluronic acid within various tissues, additional fluid retention due to reduced cardiac output and reduced thermogenesis. The pathophysiology of obesity associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome remains complex as obesity itself may simultaneously be the cause and the effect of the syndrome. Net excess of androgen appears to be pivotal in the development of central obesity. In Cushing's syndrome, an interaction with thyroid and growth hormones plays an important role in addition to an increased adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. This review also describes remaining rare cases: hypothalamic obesity due to central hypothyroidism and combined hormone deficiencies.

  20. Endocrine therapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Luisetto, G; Basso, S M M; Basso, U; Brunello, A; Camozzi, V

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the first leading causes of death in women, and currently endocrine treatment is of major therapeutic value in patients with estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene, aromatase inhibitors, and GnRH agonists are the drugs of choice. Tamoxifen, a partial nonsteroidal estrogen agonist, is a type II competitive inhibitor of estradiol at its receptor, and the prototype of SERMs. Aromatase inhibitors significantly lower serum estradiol concentration in postmenopausal patients, having no detectable effects on adrenocortical steroids formation, while GnRH agonists suppress ovarian function, inducing a menopause-like condition in premenopausal women. Endocrine therapy has generally a relatively low morbidity, leading to a significant reduction of mortality for breast cancer. The aim of chemoprevention is to interfere early with the process of carcinogenesis, reducing the risk of cancer development. As preventive agents, raloxifene and tamoxifene are equivalent, while raloxifene has more potent antiresorptive effects in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Endocrine treatment is usually considered a standard choice for patients with estrogen-receptor positive cancers and non-life-threatening advanced disease, or for older patients unfit for aggressive chemotherapy regimens. Several therapeutic protocols used in patients with breast cancer are associated with bone loss, which may lead to an increased risk of fracture. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice to treat such a drug-induced bone disease. The aim of this review is to outline current understanding on endocrine therapy of breast cancer. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  1. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid diseas...

  2. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  3. Endocrine manifestations in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2016-10-14

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune small intestinal mucosal disorder that often presents with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss. Often, one or more associated endocrine disorders may be associated with CD. For this review, methods involved an extensive review of published English-language materials. In children and adolescents, prospective studies have demonstrated a significant relationship to insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes, whereas in adults, autoimmune forms of thyroid disease, particularly hypothyroidism, may commonly co-exist. In some with CD, multiple glandular endocrinopathies may also occur and complicate the initial presentation of the intestinal disease. In others presenting with an apparent isolated endocrine disorder, serological screening for underlying subclinical CD may prove to be positive, particularly if type 1 diabetes, autoimmune thyroid or other autoimmune endocrine diseases, such as Addison's disease are first detected. A number of reports have also recorded hypoparathyroidism or hypopituitarism or ovarian failure in CD and these may be improved with a strict gluten-free diet.

  4. Scientists work on nextgen web

    CERN Multimedia

    Bagla, Pallava

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research or CERN are busy mastering the nextgen web. Very soon, the worldwide we as it is called will peak and scientists are already working on the replacement called GRID computing." (1/2 page)

  5. Simulation for the social scientist

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, G. Nigel; Troitzsch, Klaus G

    2005-01-01

    ... sciences. Simulation for the Social Scientist is a practical textbook on the techniques of building computer simulations to assist understanding of social and economic issues and problems. This authoritative book details all the common approaches to social simulation to provide social scientists with an appreciation of the literature and allow those w...

  6. Frontier Scientists use Modern Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'connell, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Engaging Americans and the international community in the excitement and value of Alaskan Arctic discovery is the goal of Frontier Scientists. With a changing climate, resources of polar regions are being eyed by many nations. Frontier Scientists brings the stories of field scientists in the Far North to the public. With a website, an app, short videos, and social media channels; FS is a model for making connections between the public and field scientists. FS will demonstrate how academia, web content, online communities, evaluation and marketing are brought together in a 21st century multi-media platform, how scientists can maintain their integrity while engaging in outreach, and how new forms of media such as short videos can entertain as well as inspire.

  7. Surgical Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for surgical technologists. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of surgical technologists with ...

  8. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  9. Update on endocrine disturbances in anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Hangaard, J; Hagen, C

    2001-01-01

    The marked endocrine changes that occur in anorexia nervosa have aroused a great deal of interest, and over the last decade much research has been conducted in this field. The endocrine disturbances are not specific to this disorder, as they also occur in starvation states secondary to other causes...... of the large body of literature concerning endocrine aspects of anorexia nervosa with the main focus on the latest results, which provide leads for potential etiological theories....

  10. Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonelli, Francesco, E-mail: f.tonelli@dfc.unifi.it; Giudici, Francesco [Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Surgical Unit, Medical School, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy); Giusti, Francesca; Brandi, Maria Luisa [Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School and Regional Centre for Hereditary Endocrine Tumors, University of Florence, Largo Brambilla n° 3, Florence 50134 (Italy)

    2012-05-07

    We reviewed the literature about entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) to clarify their demographic features, localization imaging, practice, and appropriate therapeutical strategies, analyzing the current approach to entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1. Despite the fact that hyperparathyroidism is usually the first manifestation of MEN1, the penetrance of these tumors is similar. They are characterized by multiplicity of lesions, variable expression of the tumors, and propensity for malignant degeneration. Both the histological type and the size of MEN1 neuroendocrine tumors correlate with malignancy. Monitoring of pancreatic peptides and use of imaging exams allow early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment, resulting in prevention of metastatic disease and improvement of long-term survival. Surgery is often the treatment of choice for MEN1-neuroendocrine tumors. The rationale for surgical approach is to curtail malignant progression of the disease, and to cure the associated biochemical syndrome, should it be present.

  11. Osmoregulation and endocrine glands of teleosts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oguri, M

    1970-01-01

    ...), have indicated that the following endocrine glands: thyroid gland, hypophysis, interrenal body, urophysis, corpuscle of stannius and juxtaglomerular cells, are involved in the osmoregulation in teleosts...

  12. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  13. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  14. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  15. Therapeutics for Equine Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Andy E

    2017-04-01

    Equine endocrine disease is commonly encountered by equine practitioners. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) and equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) predominate. The most logical therapeutic approach in PPID uses dopamine agonists; pergolide mesylate is the most common. Bromocryptine and cabergoline are alternative drugs with similar actions. Drugs from other classes have a poor evidence basis, although cyproheptadine and trilostane might be considered. EMS requires management changes as the primary approach; reasonable justification for use of drugs such as levothyroxine and metformin may apply. Therapeutic options exist in rare cases of diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, hyperthyroidism, and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dixon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Around 70% of all breast cancers are estrogen receptor alpha positive and hence their development is highly dependent on estradiol. While the invention of endocrine therapies has revolusioned the treatment of the disease, resistance to therapy eventually occurs in a large number of patients. This paper seeks to illustrate and discuss the complexity and heterogeneity of the mechanisms which underlie resistance and the approaches proposed to combat them. It will also focus on the use and development of methods for predicting which patients are likely to develop resistance.

  17. The history of the Endocrine Society of Australia. The first fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David J; Harding, Philip E; Bach, Leon A

    2011-01-01

    The Endocrine Society of Australia was formed in 1958 with the aims of advancing knowledge and practice in endocrinology (the study of hormones) and to bring together physicians and scientists in this area of study. It was one of the first medical specialist societies in Australia. From humble beginnings with ninety-nine foundation members, it has flourished to a society with almost 950 members which annually runs three successful clinical and scientific meetings, and provides scholarships, research grants, and travel grants for its young members. Members have received international and national recognition within the field and more generally. Collaboration between scientists and physicians has been a key strength of the Society.

  18. Neuroimmune endocrine effects of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonioli M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marco Antonioli, Joanna Rybka, LA CarvalhoPsychoimmunology Translational Laboratory, Health Science Research Centre, Roehampton University, London, UKAbstract: Antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date the most often used treatment for depression, but the exact mechanism of action underlying its therapeutic effect is still unclear. Many theories have been put forward to account for depression, as well as antidepressant activity, but none of them is exhaustive. Neuroimmune endocrine impairment is found in depressed patients; high levels of circulating corticosteroids along with hyperactivation of the immune system, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines, low levels of melatonin in plasma and urine, and disentrainment of circadian rhythms have been demonstrated. Moreover, antidepressant treatment seems to correct or at least to interfere with these alterations. In this review, we summarize the complex neuroimmune endocrine and chronobiological alterations found in patients with depression and how these systems interact with each other. We also explain how antidepressant therapy can modify these systems, along with some possible mechanisms of action shown in animal and human models.Keywords: antidepressant agents, biological markers, human, cytokines, neuroinflammation, psychoneuroimmunology, endophenotype

  19. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Environmental endocrine disruptors: New diabetogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénichel, Patrick; Chevalier, Nicolas

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes has dramatically increased worldwide during the last few decades. While lifestyle factors (sedentariness, noxious food), together with genetic susceptibility, are well-known actors, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may also play a pathophysiological role in the occurrence of metabolic diseases. Both experimental and epidemiological evidence support a role for early and chronic exposure to low doses of chemical pollutants with endocrine and metabolic disrupting effects. Most are present in the food chain and accumulate in the fat mass after absorption. In rodents, bisphenol A stimulates synthesis and secretion of pancreatic β cells and disturbs insulin signaling in liver, muscle and adipose tissue through epigenetic changes leading to insulin resistance and β cell impairment. In humans, epidemiological reports show statistical link between exposure to pesticides, polychlorinated bisphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins or aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbides or heavy metals and DT2 after acute accidental releases or early in life and/or chronic, low doses exposure. More prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to determine the importance of such environmental risk factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Scientists' views about communication objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, John C; Dudo, Anthony; Yuan, Shupei

    2017-08-01

    This study looks at how United States-based academic scientists from five professional scientific societies think about eight different communication objectives. The degree to which scientists say they would prioritize these objectives in the context of face-to-face public engagement is statistically predicted using the scientists' attitudes, normative beliefs, and efficacy beliefs, as well as demographics and past communication activity, training, and past thinking about the objectives. The data allow for questions about the degree to which such variables consistently predict views about objectives. The research is placed in the context of assessing factors that communication trainers might seek to reshape if they wanted get scientists to consider choosing specific communication objectives.

  2. Refugee scientists under the spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extance, Andy

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of people are forced to flee war-torn regions every year, but the struggles of scientists who have to leave their homeland often goes under the radar. Andy Extance reports on initiatives to help

  3. Software Design for Empowering Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    De Roure, David; Goble, Carole

    2009-01-01

    Scientific research is increasingly digital. Some activities, such as data analysis, search, and simulation, can be accelerated by letting scientists write workflows and scripts that automate routine activities. These capture pieces of the scientific method that scientists can share. The averna Workbench, a widely deployed scientific-workflow-management system, together with the myExperiment social Web site for sharing scientific experiments, follow six principles of designing software for ad...

  4. The Local-Cosmopolitan Scientist

    OpenAIRE

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutio...

  5. Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal. Journal Home > Nigerian Endocrine Practice: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. People. » Contact ...

  6. Positron emission tomography (PET) in endocrine tumours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine pancreatic tumours is probably limited to those that are less well differentiated and metabolically active. However, a future role for PET imaging in the detection of endocrine tumours, using more specific substrates, appears very promising. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa Vol.

  7. The molecular classification of hereditary endocrine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lei; Ning, Guang

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary endocrine diseases are an important group of diseases with great heterogeneity. The current classification for hereditary endocrine disease is mostly based upon anatomy, which is helpful for pathophysiological interpretation, but does not address the pathogenic variability associated with different underlying genetic causes. Identification of an endocrinopathy-associated genetic alteration provides evidence for differential diagnosis, discovery of non-classical disease, and the potential for earlier diagnosis and targeted therapy. Molecular diagnosis should be routinely applied when managing patients with suspicion of hereditary disease. To enhance the accurate diagnosis and treatment of patients with hereditary endocrine diseases, we propose categorization of endocrine diseases into three groups based upon the function of the mutant gene: cell differentiation, hormone synthesis and action, and tumorigenesis. Each category was further grouped according to the specific gene function. We believe that this format would facilitate practice of precision medicine in the field of hereditary endocrine diseases.

  8. ENDOCRINE MANIFESTATIONS OF PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Shatha; Eisenberg, Yuval

    2017-11-16

    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations. We conducted a PubMed search for articles related to PH1. The terms "primary hyperoxaluria," "nonPTH mediated hypercalcemia," "hypothyroidism," and "hypogonadism" were used to identify pertinent literature. Given the rarity of PH1, there is scant literature regarding the incidence and clinical significance of endocrine manifestations of this disorder. There are rare reports of hypercalcemia secondary to osteoclast-stimulating activity of macrophages in bone granulomas, which occur in response to oxalate deposits. We report that hypercalcemia may also be mediated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 (OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). Primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism are thought to be due partly to calcium oxalate deposition in thyroid and testicular tissue. The presented case is the first to report PTHrP mediated hypercalcemia and primary hypogonadism in a patient with PH1. PH1 is a metabolic disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Owing to its rarity, it is not widely recognized in the field of endocrinology, despite presenting with several endocrinopathies. Recognition of endocrine disturbances can result in early and successful treatment, limiting morbidity and improving quality of life in these challenging patients. PH = primary hyperoxaluria; ESRD = end stage renal disease; PTH = parathyroid hormone; 1,25 (OH)2D = 1,25 dihydoxyvitamin D; PTHrP = parathyroid hormone related protein; CKD = chronic kidney disease; AGT = alanine: glyoxylate

  9. The EDKB: an established knowledge base for endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Don; Xu, Lei; Fang, Hong; Hong, Huixiao; Perkins, Roger; Harris, Steve; Bearden, Edward D; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida

    2010-10-07

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) and their broad range of potential adverse effects in humans and other animals have been a concern for nearly two decades. Many putative EDs are widely used in commercial products regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) such as food packaging materials, ingredients of cosmetics, medical and dental devices, and drugs. The Endocrine Disruptor Knowledge Base (EDKB) project was initiated in the mid 1990's by the FDA as a resource for the study of EDs. The EDKB database, a component of the project, contains data across multiple assay types for chemicals across a broad structural diversity. This paper demonstrates the utility of EDKB database, an integral part of the EDKB project, for understanding and prioritizing EDs for testing. The EDKB database currently contains 3,257 records of over 1,800 EDs from different assays including estrogen receptor binding, androgen receptor binding, uterotropic activity, cell proliferation, and reporter gene assays. Information for each compound such as chemical structure, assay type, potency, etc. is organized to enable efficient searching. A user-friendly interface provides rapid navigation, Boolean searches on EDs, and both spreadsheet and graphical displays for viewing results. The search engine implemented in the EDKB database enables searching by one or more of the following fields: chemical structure (including exact search and similarity search), name, molecular formula, CAS registration number, experiment source, molecular weight, etc. The data can be cross-linked to other publicly available and related databases including TOXNET, Cactus, ChemIDplus, ChemACX, Chem Finder, and NCI DTP. The EDKB database enables scientists and regulatory reviewers to quickly access ED data from multiple assays for specific or similar compounds. The data have been used to categorize chemicals according to potential risks for endocrine activity, thus providing a basis for prioritizing chemicals for more

  10. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  11. Perioperative management of endocrine insufficiency after total pancreatectomy for neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Ajay V; Sheikh, Raashid; Bhagia, Vinita

    2017-07-21

    Indications for total pancreatectomy (TP) have increased, including for diffuse main duct intrapapillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and malignancy; therefore, the need persists for surgeons to develop appropriate endocrine post-operative management strategies. The brittle diabetes after TP differs from type 1/2 diabetes in that patients have absolute deficiency of insulin and functional glucagon. This makes glucose management challenging, complicates recovery, and predisposes to hospital readmissions. This article aims to define the disease, describe the cause for its occurrence, review the anatomy of the endocrine pancreas, and explain how this condition differs from diabetes mellitus in the setting of post-operative management. The morbidity and mortality of post-TP endocrine insufficiency and practical treatment strategies are systematically reviewed from the literature. Finally, an evidence-based treatment algorithm is created for the practicing pancreatic surgeon and their care team of endocrinologists to aid in managing these complex patients. A PubMed, Science Citation Index/Social sciences Citation Index, and Cochrane Evidence-Based Medicine database search was undertaken along with extensive backward search of the references of published articles to identify studies evaluating endocrine morbidity and treatment after TP and to establish an evidence-based treatment strategy. Indications for TP and the etiology of pancreatogenic diabetes are reviewed. After TP, ~80% patients develop hypoglycemic episodes and 40% experience severe hypoglycemia, resulting in 0-8% mortality and 25-45% morbidity. Referral to a nutritionist and endocrinologist for patient education before surgery followed by surgical reevaluation to determine if the patient has the appropriate understanding, support, and resources preoperatively has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality. The use of modern recombinant long-acting insulin analogues, continuous subcutaneous insulin

  12. Low-dose effects of hormones and endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous hormones have effects on tissue morphology, cell physiology, and behaviors at low doses. In fact, hormones are known to circulate in the part-per-trillion and part-per-billion concentrations, making them highly effective and potent signaling molecules. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) mimic hormones, yet there is strong debate over whether these chemicals can also have effects at low doses. In the 1990s, scientists proposed the "low-dose hypothesis," which postulated that EDCs affect humans and animals at environmentally relevant doses. This chapter focuses on data that support and refute the low-dose hypothesis. A case study examining the highly controversial example of bisphenol A and its low-dose effects on the prostate is examined through the lens of endocrinology. Finally, the chapter concludes with a discussion of factors that can influence the ability of a study to detect and interpret low-dose effects appropriately. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of endocrine active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Annegaaike; Roberts, Mike; Matthiessen, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This collection of papers provides state-of-the-art science on a complex topic that has been challenging for scientists and regulators for a long time. The papers emanated from the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston Workshop® Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA). Forty-eight international experts met in early February 2016 to discuss whether the environmental risks posed by endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) can be reliably assessed. The primary conclusion of the workshop was that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk assessment of EDS is scientifically sound and reliable. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:264-266. © 2016 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2016 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  14. Endocrine Consequences of Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Anorexia nervosa (AN) is prevalent in adolescents and young adults, and endocrine changes include hypothalamic amenorrhea, a nutritionally acquired growth hormone resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), relative hypercortisolemia, decreases in leptin, insulin, amylin and incretins, and increases in ghrelin, PYY and adiponectin. These changes in turn have deleterious effects on bone, and may affect neurocognition, anxiety, depression and eating disorder psychopathology. Low bone density is particularly concerning; clinical fractures occur and changes in both bone microarchitecture and strength estimates have been reported. Recovery causes improvement of many, but not all, hormonal changes, and deficits in bone accrual may persist despite recovery. Physiologic, primarily transdermal, estrogen replacement increases bone density in adolescents, although catch-up is incomplete. In adults, oral estrogen co-administered with rhIGF-1 in one study, and bisphosphonates in another increased bone density, though not to normal. More studies are necessary to determine the optimal therapeutic approach in AN. PMID:24731664

  15. Behcet's Disease and Endocrine System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behcet's disease (BD is a chronic disease which is characterized by recurrent oral apthous ulcerations, recurrent genital ulcerations, skin eruptions, ocular involvements and other various systemic manifestations as well as systemic vasculitis. Endocrine involvement in BD regarding various systems can be seen. Hypophysis is one of the best and dense vascularized organs of the body, thus it is likely that it can be affected by BD. Not only anterior hypophysis functions, but posterior hypophysis functions as well can be affected. As BD is a disease of autoimmune process, it may be possible that adrenal insufficiency or alterations in the cortisol levels could be expected. Another concern is whether or not there is insulin resistance in patients with BD. The avaliable data suggests that there is an increased susceptibility to insulin resistance in patients with BD.

  16. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see ...

  17. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We describe a simple posterior spinal approach tuberculosis, difficulties in surgical treatment of consisting of foraminotomy and discectomy for tuberculous spondylitis are made more complex by lumbar T B spondylosis. The patients' good response neurological deficit, bony deformities, unaffordability to this simple surgical ...

  18. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1). Clinical, biochemical and genetical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, K; Skogseid, B; Eriksson, B

    1989-01-01

    The syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease affecting several endocrine organs. The affected organs include the pituitary, the parathyroids and endocrine pancreas, where different types of lesions can be found, such as hyperplasia or frank carcinomas. The most life threatening lesions are the endocrine pancreatic tumors, which cause about 80% of all deaths among the MEN-1 members. In our own series of 108 members from 16 families with multiple endocrine neoplasia, 55 members had the MEN-1 trait. Among these members, pituitary lesions were found in 42%, parathyroid involvement in 89% and endocrine pancreatic tumors in 58%. Hyperparathyroidism was the presenting lesion of the MEN-1 trait. By using a specific meal stimulation test we have been able to unveil pancreatic lesions up to a median of five years previous to radiological detection. Very recently we have been able to detect a specific genetic lesion in MEN-1 members by studying DNA rearrangements with recombinant DNA technique, using the method of polymorphic restriction enzyme recognition in three large kindreds. The MEN-1 locus maps to chromosome 11q and the MEN-1 predisposition would be a constitutional mutation in heterozygous form, inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Tumor development involves a second mutational event which involves the chromosome 11, carrying the remaining 'wild' type allele at the MEN-1 locus by means of chromosome loss event. Survival analysis demonstrates that patients with the MEN-1 syndrome had a significantly better survival from diagnosis than patients with sporadic endocrine pancreatic tumors (median 15.1 years and 5.8 years respectively, p = 0.0068). Earlier diagnosis and start of treatment might account for a longer survival in the MEN-1 group, but a possibility of differences in tumor biology between familial and sporadic endocrine pancreatic tumors cannot be ruled out. The surgical treatment of patients with MEN-1

  19. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Tian; Wu, Chensheng; Yan, XiaoYong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries, among research works regarding different number of authors, different number of affiliations and different number of references. These observations could be valuable for policy makers when deciding research funding and also for individual researchers when searching for scientific projects.

  20. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Local-Cosmopolitan Scientist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutional goal of science with the goal of the organization; the distinction between groups of locals and cosmopolitans derives from a conflict between two goals.

  2. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...

  3. Endocrine effects on heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Gamberini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the factors associated with thalassemic heart disease, endocrine disturbance is also a contributing factor. We present a retrospective, cross sectional study, which aims to establish the prevalence of cardiac complications in thalassaemia major (TM patients with endocrine complications and to evaluate the influence of endocrine disease on cardiac complications. Endocrinological and cardiological parameters were considered on 957 TM patients who are enrolled in the Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassemia (MIOT network in 68 sites in Italy. Patients with pubertal hypogonadism (163 males and 175 females, hypothyroidism (192, diabetes mellitus (87 and hypoparathyroidism (61, were compared according to cardiac complications: global heart T2*, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, arrythmias, pulmonary hypertension and myocardial fibrosis. Control groups were made up according to the age range of patients with the corresponding endocrinopathy. The prevalence of cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and heart failure was significantly increased in patients with endocrinopathies. Cardiac complications tended to increase according to the number of endocrinologies affecting the patient. 与地中海贫血心脏疾病相关的因素中,内分泌失调也是一个促进因素。 我们进行了回顾和断面研究,旨在患有内分泌并发症的重型地中海贫血患者中建立心脏并发症的患病率,以及评估内分泌疾病对心脏并发症的影响。 曾考虑到意大利地中海贫血心肌铁过载(MIOT)网络的68个站点上注册的957名重型地中海贫血患者的内分泌和心脏病学参数。 根据以下心脏并发症对青春期性腺机能减退的患者(男性163名、女性175名)、甲状腺机能减退患者(192名)、糖尿病患者(87名)和甲状旁腺机能减退患者(61名)进行了比较: 心脏 T2*、心功能障碍、心脏衰竭、心率不齐、肺动脉高

  4. [Endocrine disruptors are a novel direction of endocrinologic scientific investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous anthropogenic chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and others), that are able to bind hormonal receptors of endocrine and other cells in vivo and act like hormones. These substances disrupt endocrine regulation of metabolism, reproduction and adaptive reactions of organisms and promote human and animal endocrine disorders.

  5. Introductory mathematics for earth scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2009-01-01

    Any quantitative work in earth sciences requires mathematical analysis and mathematical methods are essential to the modelling and analysis of the geological, geophysical and environmental processes involved. This book provides an introduction to the fundamental mathematics that all earth scientists need.

  6. Working Women Scientists and Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Betty M.

    1980-01-01

    Reported are findings of an 18-month study by the Scientific Manpower Commission of the labor force participation of women scientists and engineers and the factors affecting their participation. Those factors relating directly include graduate student status, highest degree level, presence and age of children, and field of degree. (CS)

  7. JBS Haldane: an uncommon scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 5. J. B. S. Haldane: an uncommon scientist. M. S. SWAMINATHAN. HALDANE AT 125 Volume 96 Issue 5 November 2017 pp 731-732. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jgen/096/05/0731-0732. Keywords.

  8. Wilhelm Ostwald–The Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 5. Wilhelm Ostwald –The Scientist. Pallavi Bhattacharyya. Article-in-a-Box Volume 17 Issue 5 May 2012 pp 428-433. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/05/0428-0433 ...

  9. Meet EPA Scientist Jay Garland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientist Jay Garland Ph.D. spent twenty years at NASA trying to figure out how astronauts could stay in outer space for a long time without needing more supplies. Now he is bringing the same concepts of reusing and recovering resources to his research

  10. Comprehensive mathematics for computer scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzola, Guerino; Weissmann, Jody

    2005-01-01

    This two-volume textbook Comprehensive Mathematics for the Working Computer Scientist is a self-contained comprehensive presentation of mathematics including sets, numbers, graphs, algebra, logic, grammars, machines, linear geometry, calculus, ODEs, and special themes such as neural networks, Fourier theory, wavelets, numerical.

  11. Scientists and the Selection Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Ransdell, Sarah E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents findings of a study of scientists on the Wason four-card selection task, finding little understanding of the effect of disconfirmatory data in assessing conditionals. Found performance influenced by problem content. Explains performance as memory-cueing plus reasoning-by-analogy. (JM)

  12. [Surgical treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúl; Muciño-Bermejo, María Jimena

    2014-01-01

    Sustained remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus and significantly improved hyperlipidemia and arterial hypertension, control has been achieves in both lean and obese patient after bariatric surgery procedures or other gastrointestinal surgical procedures. It has been demonstrated that the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery in these patients derives not only in reducing weight and caloric intake, but also endocrine changes resulting from surgical manifestation gastrointestinal tract. In this article we review the clinical outcomes of such interventions (collectively called "metabolic surgery") and the perspectives on the role that these surgeries play in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malabsorptive procedures. Weight loss depends on following a strict diet. • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RYGB ... index.cfm). www.hormone.org Endocrine and Nutritional Management After Bariatric Surgery Patient Guide November 2010

  14. Endocrine Disorders Induced by Antiepileptic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disturbances in adolescent women with epilepsy, and the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs and hormonal contraception are discussed by a pediatric neurologist and epileptologist at the Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

  15. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2018-02-01

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  17. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... new knowledge on endocrine disrupters with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board....... The overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: multiple endocrine neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasia multiple endocrine neoplasia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... stones, thinning of bones, nausea and vomiting, high blood pressure (hypertension), weakness, and fatigue. The most common sign ...

  19. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... issues. This paper aims at discussing the relevance of the endocrine perspective with regard to EDC effects on pubertal timing. Puberty involves particular sensitivity to environmental conditions. Reports about the advancing onset of puberty in several countries have led to the hypothesis...

  20. Wilson′s disease: An endocrine revelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kapoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilson′s disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. The affected patients, who otherwise have a near normal life span, may often suffer from some potentially treatable and under recognized endocrine disorders that may hinder their quality of life. We explored previously published literature on the various endocrine aspects of this disease with their probable underlying mechanisms, highlighting the universal need of research in this area.

  1. Health surveillance and endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waissmann William

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the extreme relevance of research on the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs in products of interest to health surveillance (HS. Focusing on EDs, the author highlights the urgency of changes already under way in the direction of HS. The shift should be from product and product-registration approaches to the productive process and its realization in consumption, generation of contaminants, and alterations in the health of workers and the overall population. He briefly describes: regulatory gaps for dealing with EDs; difficulty in evaluating risk and suspension of the production and use of products with its characteristics and the need, as exemplified by such products, to enhance the inter-relationship among all stakeholders and to turn HS into a state-of-the-art technological setting, associated with the academic community and accountable to the public. The author reports on measures already taken in relation to EDs, including the establishment of a reference laboratory for analyzing persistent organic pollutants (POPs, interruption of the use of various POPs in Brazil and an initial review of requirements for registering pesticides under the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA.

  2. Endocrine manifestations of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooten, Rachel; Schmitt, Jessica; Schwartz, Alison

    2018-02-01

    To summarize the recent developments in endocrine disorders associated with Down syndrome. Current research regarding bone health and Down syndrome continues to show an increased prevalence of low bone mass and highlights the importance of considering short stature when interpreting dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The underlying cause of low bone density is an area of active research and will shape treatment and preventive measures. Risk of thyroid disease is present throughout the life course in individuals with Down syndrome. New approaches and understanding of the pathophysiology and management of subclinical hypothyroidism continue to be explored. Individuals with Down syndrome are also at risk for other autoimmune conditions, with recent research revealing the role of the increased expression of the Autoimmune Regulatory gene on 21st chromosome. Lastly, Down-syndrome-specific growth charts were recently published and provide a better assessment of growth. Recent research confirms and expands on the previously known endocrinopathies in Down syndrome and provides more insight into potential underlying mechanisms.

  3. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  4. Endocrine Dysregulation in Anorexia Nervosa Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context: Anorexia nervosa is a primary psychiatric disorder with serious endocrine consequences, including dysregulation of the gonadal, adrenal, and GH axes, and severe bone loss. This Update reviews recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine dysregulation observed in this state of chronic starvation, as well as the mechanisms underlying the disease itself. Evidence Acquisition: Findings of this update are based on a PubMed search and the author's knowledge of this field. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying endocrine dysregulation in states of chronic starvation as well as the etiology of anorexia nervosa itself. This includes a more complex understanding of the pathophysiologic bases of hypogonadism, hypercortisolemia, GH resistance, appetite regulation, and bone loss. Nevertheless, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown, and effective therapies for the endocrine complications and for the disease itself are lacking. Conclusions: Despite significant progress in the field, further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of anorexia nervosa and its endocrine complications. Such investigations promise to yield important advances in the therapeutic approach to this disease as well as to the understanding of the regulation of endocrine function, skeletal biology, and appetite regulation. PMID:21976742

  5. A scientist's view of bioengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, F P

    1994-03-01

    So, to summarize: my themes in this lecture have been: 1. Bioengineering is a many-splendoured thing. 2. There are few differences in principle between scientists and engineers, and they need to work together and respect one another's special contribution. 3. The Department of Health has done much to enhance your career structure and prospects recently; now you have to help us to polish your image even further. 4. There is urgent need for collaboration amongst all parties if we are to counter some potentially deleterious effects of the recent NHS reforms on the work of clinical scientists and engineers. Finally, I wanted to thank you for admitting me, just a little way, into the magical world of biological engineering. Life has become infinitely more exciting since you did so, and I owe you all a considerable debt of gratitude.

  6. Research Integrity of Individual Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haklak, Rockbill

    We are discussing about many aspects of research integrity of individual scientist, who faces the globalization of research ethics in the traditional culture and custom of Japan. Topics are scientific misconduct (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) in writing paper and presenting research results. Managements of research material, research record, grant money, authorship, and conflict of interest are also analyzed and discussed. Finally, we make 5 recommendations to improve research integrity in Japan.

  7. Mathematics for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffrey, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Although designed as a textbook with problem sets in each chapter and selected answers at the end of the book, Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists, Sixth Edition serves equally well as a supplemental text and for self-study. The author strongly encourages readers to make use of computer algebra software, to experiment with it, and to learn more about mathematical functions and the operations that it can perform.

  8. The Scientist as Sentinel (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, N.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists have been warning the world for some time about the risks of anthropogenic interference in the climate system. But we struggle with how, exactly, to express that warning. The norms of scientific behavior enjoin us from the communication strategies normally associated with warnings. If a scientist sounds excited or emotional, for example, it is often assumed that he has lost his capac¬ity to assess data calmly and therefore his conclusions are suspect. If the scientist is a woman, the problem is that much worse. In a recently published article my colleagues and I have shown that scientists have systematically underestimated the threat of climate change (Brysse et al., 2012). We suggested that this occurs for norma¬tive reasons: The scientific values of rationality, dispassion, and self-restraint lead us to demand greater levels of evidence in support of surprising, dramatic, or alarming conclusions than in support of less alarming conclusions. We call this tendency 'err¬ing on the side of least drama.' However, the problem is not only that we err on the side of least drama in our assessment of evidence, it's also that we speak without drama, even when our conclusions are dramatic. We speak without the emotional cadence that people expect to hear when the speaker is worried. Even when we are worried, we don't sound as if we are. In short, we are trying to act as sentinels, but we lack the register with which to do so. Until we find those registers, or partner with colleagues who are able to speak in the cadences that communicating dangers requires, our warnings about climate change will likely continue to go substantially unheeded.

  9. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU......). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...... disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish...

  10. Evidence for endocrine disruption in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetken, Matthias; Bachmann, Jean; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The issue of endocrine disruption (ED) in invertebrates has generated remarkably little interest in the past compared to research with aquatic vertebrates in this area. However, with more than 95% of all known species in the animal kingdom, invertebrates constitute a very important part of the global biodiversity with key species for the structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that ED in invertebrates has been investigated on a smaller scale than in vertebrates, invertebrates provide some of the best documented examples for deleterious effects in wildlife populations following an exposure to endocrine-active substances. The article provides an overview of the diversity in endocrine systems of invertebrates. The principal susceptibility of invertebrates to endocrine-active compounds is demonstrated with the case studies of tributyltin effects in mollusks and of insect growth regulators, the latter as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters. The additional evidence for ED in invertebrates from laboratory and field studies is summarized as an update and amendment of the EDIETA report from 1998. Finally, conclusions about the scale and implications of the observed effects are drawn and research needs are defined.

  11. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  12. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Endocrine sequelae in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casano Sancho, Paula

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to the advances in cancer treatment, the five-year survival rate after childhood cancer has increased up to 80%. Therefore 1/500 young adults will be a survivor. Endocrine sequelae are most common, affecting 40-60% of survivors. The most frequent sequelae include growth failure and gonadal and thyroid diseases. Sequelae occur more frequently in survivors from central nervous system tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma. Their development will depend on the type of cancer, its location, age at diagnosis, and treatment administered. Treatments associated to more endocrine sequels are cranial radiotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation. Because of the high prevalence of endocrine sequelae, international guidelines recommend endocrinologists to prospectively evaluate the survivors. As some of these endocrine changes will not develop until adult life, transition programs should be implemented, and active investigation should be made to decrease the endocrine consequences of cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. SURGICAL EMBRYOLOGY '

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGICAL EMBRYOLOGY ' t. Foetal alcohol syndrome: an osteometric evaluation in the wistar rat animal model. S. S. Adebisi. Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,. Nigeria. Reprint requests to: Dr. S. S. Adebisi. E—mail.' .s'runln'si@tzlgu.adultg,. Abstract. Background: ...

  15. Surgical Audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-06

    Jan 6, 2010 ... Key performance indicators like major complications, readmissions, reoperations, transfers, incident reports, complaints and mortalities must also be included. Surgical audits bear very similar relationship to opera- tional research. There is a critical need for the results to be representative and accurate.

  16. SURGICAL ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SURGICAL ANATOMY. Rare high origin of the radial artery: a bilateral, symmetrical ease. I. O. ()koro and B. C. J iburum. Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, lrno State University, Owerri, Nigeria. Reprint requests to: Dr I. O. 0k0r0, Department of Anatomy, [mo State University, P. M. B. 2000. Owerri, Nigeria.

  17. Inverting EPO: Pedagogy for Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. E.

    2002-05-01

    ``Education and Public Outreach" has an increasingly important role in our field, and is critical to the continued levels of funding from congress. However, in our enthusiasm to interact with the public and improve undergraduate courses, many astronomers find themselves ``reinventing the wheel" in astronomy education. There are many fundamental principles in education with which scientists should be familiar before entering the classroom or engaging the public. In this talk I will overview a pedagogy course we are developing to give graduate students in astronomy a grounding in important and useful principles in education.

  18. A scientist at the seashore

    CERN Document Server

    Trefil, James S

    2005-01-01

    ""A marvelous excursion from the beach to the ends of the solar system . . . captivating.""-The New York Times""So easy to understand yet so dense with knowledge that you'll never look at waves on a beach the same way again.""-San Francisco Chronicle""One of the best popular science books.""-The Kansas City Star""Perfect for the weekend scientist.""-The Richmond News-LeaderA noted physicist and popular science writer heads for the beach to answer common and uncommon questions about the ocean. James S. Trefil, author of Dover Publications' The Moment of Creation: Big Bang Physics from Before th

  19. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG......) to assess the effect of chemicals in molluscs. To date no endocrine specific mollusc biomarkers have though been validated and included in draft test guidelines due to lack of knowledge of the endocrine system. Here we investigate effects of pharmaceuticals targeting serotonin and dopamine in a cost...... efficient and fast in vivo system using embryos of the freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis (the great pond snail). It is known that serotonin and dopamine are involved in many reproductive processes in molluscs Incl. egg maturation and spawning and that pedal ciliary activity causing L...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video ... Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information ...

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see ... I become a scientist? Click to Watch Did You Know? An eagle’s eyesight is about five times ...

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors ... like these and more with our Ask a Scientist video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about ...

  4. Multiple endocrine neoplasia: the Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN types 1 and 2 are genetic diseases that are inherited as autosomal traits. The major clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 include the so-called "3 P's": parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatic tumors, including gastroenteroneuroendocrine tumors. Genetic testing can be performed on patients and the potential carriers of the menin gene mutation, but the genotype-phenotype correlation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is less straightforward than multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Most likely, the main advantage of genetic testing in MEN1 is to exclude from further studies those who are negative for the genetic mutation if they belong to a family with a known history of MEN1. In Chile, we started with rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene genetic testing (MEN2 15 years ago. We carried out a prophylactic total thyroidectomy to prevent medullary thyroid carcinoma in a three-year-old girl who presented with microscopic medullary thyroid carcinoma. More than 90% of the individuals who tested positive using a genetic test achieved a biochemical cure compared with only 27% of patients who receive a clinical diagnosis. Mutations are mainly located in exon 11; the most common is C634W, rather than C634R. Hypertensive crisis was the cause of death in three patients, and extensive distant metastases occurred in nine (including two patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B of 14 patients. Earlier recognition of medullary thyroid carcinoma and the other features of the disease, especially pheochromocytoma, will improve the survival rate of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia.

  5. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  6. Young scientists in the making

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2011-01-01

    Some 700 local primary-school children will be trying out the scientific method for themselves from February to June. After "Draw me a physicist", the latest project "Dans la peau d’un chercheur" ("Be a scientist for a day") is designed to give children a taste of what it's like to be a scientist. Both schemes are the fruit of a partnership between CERN, "PhysiScope" (University of Geneva) and the local education authorities in the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva.   Juliette Davenne (left) and Marie Bugnon (centre) from CERN's Communication Group prepare the mystery boxes for primary schools with Olivier Gaumer (right) of PhysiScope. Imagine a white box that rattles and gives off a strange smell when you shake it… How would you go about finding out what's inside it without opening it? Thirty primary-school teachers from the Pays de Gex and the Canton of Geneva tried out this exercise on Wednesday 26 ...

  7. Can scientists and policy makers work together?

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, B.; Pang, T.; Lin, V.; Puska, P.; Sherman, G.; Goddard, M.; Ackland, M.; Sainsbury, P.; Stachenko, S.; Morrison, H.; Clottey, C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a fundamental question in evidence based policy making—can scientists and policy makers work together? It first provides a scenario outlining the different mentalities and imperatives of scientists and policy makers, and then discusses various issues and solutions relating to whether and how scientists and policy makers can work together. Scientists and policy makers have different goals, attitudes toward information, languages, perception of time, and career paths. Impor...

  8. Students work as scientists for the summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryde, Marianne Vang

    2006-01-01

    Each year, Risø offers its PhD students a course to challenge the natural scientists of the future and to provide them with a more balanced view of their own role as scientists in society.......Each year, Risø offers its PhD students a course to challenge the natural scientists of the future and to provide them with a more balanced view of their own role as scientists in society....

  9. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...

  11. Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

  12. Still Persistent Global Problem of Scientists' Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Pre-service teachers' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to identify whether there is problem of image of scientists and determine where they receive about scientist image. Three hundred thirty five (105 from Turkey, 162 from Europe, 68 from US) elementary pre-service teachers participated in…

  13. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The "common sense" intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...

  14. Surgical Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azarmehr, Iman; Stokbro, Kasper; Bell, R. Bryan

    2017-01-01

    body removal, respectively. The average technical system accuracy and intraoperative precision reported were less than 1 mm and 1 to 2 mm, respectively. In general, SN is reported to be a useful tool for surgical planning, execution, evaluation, and research. The largest numbers of studies and patients......Purpose: This systematic review investigates the most common indications, treatments, and outcomes of surgical navigation (SN) published from 2010 to 2015. The evolution of SN and its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery have rapidly developed over recent years, and therapeutic indications...... surgery, skull-base surgery, and foreign body removal were the areas of interests. Results: The search generated 13 articles dealing with traumatology; 5, 6, 2, and 0 studies were found that dealt with the topics of orthognathic surgery, cancer and reconstruction surgery, skull-base surgery, and foreign...

  15. Special Functions for Applied Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M

    2008-01-01

    Special Functions for Applied Scientists provides the required mathematical tools for researchers active in the physical sciences. The book presents a full suit of elementary functions for scholars at the PhD level and covers a wide-array of topics and begins by introducing elementary classical special functions. From there, differential equations and some applications into statistical distribution theory are examined. The fractional calculus chapter covers fractional integrals and fractional derivatives as well as their applications to reaction-diffusion problems in physics, input-output analysis, Mittag-Leffler stochastic processes and related topics. The authors then cover q-hypergeometric functions, Ramanujan's work and Lie groups. The latter half of this volume presents applications into stochastic processes, random variables, Mittag-Leffler processes, density estimation, order statistics, and problems in astrophysics. Professor Dr. A.M. Mathai is Emeritus Professor of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill ...

  16. LHCb Early Career Scientist Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrick Koppenburg for the LHCb Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    On 15 September 2016, the LHCb collaboration awarded the first set of prizes for outstanding contributions of early career scientists.   From left to right: Guy Wilkinson (LHCb spokesperson), Sascha Stahl, Kevin Dungs, Tim Head, Roel Aaij, Conor Fitzpatrick, Claire Prouvé, Patrick Koppenburg (chair of committee) and Sean Benson. Twenty-five nominations were submitted and considered by the committee, and 5 prizes were awarded to teams or individuals for works that had a significant impact within the last year. The awardees are: Roel Aaij, Sean Benson, Conor Fitzpatrick, Rosen Matev and Sascha Stahl for having implemented and commissioned the revolutionary changes to the LHC Run-2 high-level-trigger, including the first widespread deployment of real-time analysis techniques in High Energy Physics;   Kevin Dungs and Tim Head for having launched the Starterkit initiative, a new style of software tutorials based on modern programming methods. “Starterkit is a group of ph...

  17. Rejuvenating clinician-scientist training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambati, Balamurali K; Cahoon, Judd

    2014-03-28

    Clinician-scientists are becoming increasingly rare in medicine as a whole, but especially in ophthalmology. There is a structural gap between MD-PhD training and K-series awards where interested candidates go through residency and fellowship without any structured research exposure or involvement. Furthermore, the success rate of the MD-PhD and K awards leaves much to be desired. The authors propose a redeployment of training resources to reconfigure residency and fellowship training programs for interested candidates with sufficient additional time for a credible research project, augmented salary, and sound mentoring. Opportunities for research training in nontraditional pathways to diversify skill sets and build interdisciplinary teams also would be a prime objective of this novel "Learn-and-Earn" approach.

  18. Is evaluation of scientist's objective

    CERN Document Server

    Wold, A

    2000-01-01

    There is ample data demonstrating that female scientists advance at a far slower rate than their male colleagues. The low numbers of female professors in European and North American universities is, thus, not solely an effect of few women in the recruitment pool but also to obstacles specific to the female gender. Together with her colleague Christine Wennerås, Agnes Wold conducted a study of the evaluation process at the Swedish Medical Research Council. Evaluators judged the "scientific competence", "research proposal" and "methodology" of applicants for post-doctoral positions in 1995. By relating the scores for "scientific competence" to the applicants' scientific productivity and other factors using multiple regression, Wennerås and Wold demonstrated that the applicant's sex exerted a strong influence on the "competence" score so that male applicants were perceived as being more competent than female applicants of equal productivity. The study was published in Nature (vol 387, p 341-3, 1997) and inspir...

  19. Data Scientist Training for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, C.

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that there will be a shortfall in the near future of skilled talent available to help take advantage of big data in organizations. Meanwhile, government initiatives have encouraged the research community to share their data more openly, raising new challenges for researchers. Librarians can assist in this new data-driven environment. Data Scientist Training for Librarians (or Data Savvy Librarians) is an experimental course being offered by the Harvard Library to train librarians to respond to the growing data needs of their communities. In the course, librarians familiarize themselves with the research data lifecycle, working hands-on with the latest tools for extracting, wrangling, storing, analyzing, and visualizing data. By experiencing the research data lifecycle themselves, and becoming data savvy and embracing the data science culture, librarians can begin to imagine how their services might be transformed.

  20. Endocrine consequences of opioid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisi, Anna Maria; Aurilio, Caterina; Bachiocco, Valeria; Biasi, Giovanni; Fiorenzani, Paolo; Pace, Maria Caterina; Paci, Valentina; Pari, Gilberto; Passavanti, Giandomenico; Ravaioli, Laura; Sindaco, Gianfranco; Vellucci, Renato; Ceccarelli, Ilaria

    2009-12-01

    Gonadal hormones are known to be affected by morphine and other opioids. In this paper, we summarize data collected in recent years which clearly indicate that the opioid-induced effects on steroid hormones depend on the opioid used and in some cases on the sex of the subject. Indeed morphine is able to reduce hormones like testosterone and cortisol in both male and female subjects in just a few hours, probably acting directly on peripheral glands. These depressant effects of morphine on hormones are also present in the treatment of surgical pain and are quickly reversible once opioid administration is suspended. Similar actions were also found to occur in experimental animals and in vitro in glial cells, further confirming the morphine-induced reduction of testosterone cell content. Testosterone and its metabolites are well known substances involved in the development and maintenance of the brain and all body structures. Thus when treating pain with opioids, their effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-related hormones must be considered and, where possible, hormone replacement therapy should be started.

  1. Gastric Endocrine Cell Carcinoma with Long-Term Survival Developing Metachronous Remnant Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Abe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of primary gastric endocrine cell carcinoma in a 79-year-old man is reported. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a large Bormann’s type 2 tumour located in the middle of the stomach. On computed tomography, the gastric wall was thickened by the large tumour, and there were no distant metastases. Distal gastrectomy, lymph node dissection, and partial resection of the transverse colon were performed because the tumour involved the transverse mesocolon. The final pathological diagnosis was endocrine cell carcinoma, with tumour infiltration up to the subserous layer. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given, but metachronous remnant gastric cancer developed 2 years after surgery. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed for the early 0-IIc type gastric cancer, and the surgical margin was preserved. The patient has survived for 5 years after the primary surgery, remaining disease-free so far.

  2. Childhood craniopharyngioma: survival, local control, endocrine and neurologic function following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Kramer, S.

    1983-02-01

    Between 1961 and 1978, 19 patients with a diagnosis of childhood or teenage craniopharyngioma received supervoltage radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either partial surgical resection (10 patients), total gross resection (3 patients), or aspiration and biopsy (6 patients). Fourteen patients were treated primarily and five were treated for recurrence. The five-year survival was 73% with a 10-year survival of 64%. Sixteen percent developed a recurrence following radiotherapy. Long term effects were assesed in terms of neurologic, intellectual, psychological and endocrine function. Seventy-nine percent had none or minimal neurologic disability. The mean full scale IQ for the group was 90. There were no additional endocrine deficiencies that could be directly attributed to radiation. Behavioral disorders occurred in 50%. These results are at least comparable, if not superior, to those of surgery.

  3. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  4. Schedule for Rating Disabilities; the Endocrine System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-02

    This document amends the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Schedule for Rating Disabilities (VASRD) by revising the portion of the Schedule that addresses endocrine conditions and disorders of the endocrine system. The effect of this action is to ensure that the VASRD uses current medical terminology and to provide detailed and updated criteria for evaluation of endocrine disorders.

  5. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  6. Spreeta-based biosensor for endocrine disruptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchesini, G.R.; Koopal, K.; Meulenberg, E.; Haasnoot, W.; Irth, H.

    2007-01-01

    The construction and performance of an automated low-cost Spreeta¿-based prototype biosensor system for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. The system consists primarily of a Spreeta miniature liquid sensor incorporated into an aluminum flow cell holder, dedicated to

  7. Endocrine Aspects of Environmental "Obesogen" Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Francesca; Barrea, Luigi; Di Somma, Carolina; Savanelli, Maria Cristina; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Orio, Francesco; Savastano, Silvia

    2016-07-28

    Growing evidence suggests the causal link between the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the global obesity epidemics, in the context in the so-called "obesogenic environment". Dietary intake of contaminated foods and water, especially in association with unhealthy eating pattern, and inhalation of airborne pollutants represent the major sources of human exposure to EDCs. This is of particular concern in view of the potential impact of obesity on chronic non-transmissible diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hormone-sensitive cancers. The key concept is the identification of adipose tissue not only as a preferential site of storage of EDCs, but also as an endocrine organ and, as such, susceptible to endocrine disruption. The timing of exposure to EDCs is critical to the outcome of that exposure, with early lifetime exposures (e.g., fetal or early postnatal) particularly detrimental because of their permanent effects on obesity later in life. Despite that the mechanisms operating in EDCs effects might vary enormously, this minireview is aimed to provide a general overview on the possible association between the pandemics of obesity and EDCs, briefly describing the endocrine mechanisms linking EDCs exposure and latent onset of obesity.

  8. Mechanistic evaluation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla

    BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent for the ......BACKGROUND: This PhD project is part of the research area concerning effects of endocrine disrupters at the National Food Institute at DTU in Denmark. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have proved to be important for improper development of the male reproductive organs and subsequent......, and f) effect on PPAR α and γ using a transactivation assay. For the in vitro metabolism studies, ten selected EDCs: five azole fungicides, three parabens, and two phthalates, were tested in vitro in the T-screen assay to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDCs to bind to and activate...... when looking at the metabolism of the azole fungicides. The PCBinduced rat microsomes gave a statistically significant difference between the amount of parent compound before and after treatment with the microsomes for four out of the five azole fungicides tested. When using the human liver S9...

  9. Endocrine and Metabolic Aspects of OSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is characterized by repeated spells of apnea.Collapsibility of hypopharynx due to multiple factors involving pharyngeal dilatormuscles and deposition of fat or fluid in the surrounding soft tissues are importantcontributing factors in its pathogenesis. OSA commonly affects obese individuals.Males are more commonly affected than the females probably due to the disturbingeffect of testosterone on sleep.The impact of OSA on human health include disturbances in endocrine and metabolicsystem affecting hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adrenocorticotrophic-cortisolaxis, growth hormone, antidiuretic hormones and insulin resistance. There is atendency for predisposition of the metabolic syndrome or its components includingglycemic dysregulation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and physical parameters relatedto adiposity. On the other hand, several endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism,growth hormone excess, polycystic ovarian disease and testosterone replacement areassociated with increased prevalence of OSA.There is limited information on the effect of treatment of OSA by continuous positiveairway pressure (CPAP on the endocrine and metabolic disturbances. There is a needto conduct randomized controlled trials using CPAP therapy in patients with OSA andto study its cause and effect relationship with endocrine and metabolic disturbances.

  10. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many chemicals have recently been demonstrated to be Endocrine-disrupting compounds and may potential interfere with normal reproductive processes. In this study, we quantified the effect of Bonnylight crude oil contaminated diet on Wister albino rats. Forty-five rats (twenty male and twenty five females) were expose to ...

  11. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting activity of Bonny light crude oil contaminated - diet on Wistar albino rats. Olawale OTITOJU. 1* and Ikechukwu N. E. ONWURAH. 2. 1Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, P M B 1008 Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria. 2Dept of Biochemistry, Pollution ...

  12. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  13. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  14. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify...

  15. Early endocrine disruptors exposure acts on 3T3-L1 differentiation and endocrine activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Boudalia

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that EDs singularly or in mixtures, introduced during early stages of life, could affect the differentiation and the endocrine activity of adipocytes, and can act as potential factors for obesity.

  16. Turkish Primary Students' Perceptions about Scientist and What Factors Affecting the Image of the Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Students' views of science and scientists have been widely studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze image of scientist from drawn picture of scientists using The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) by 5th grade students and to analyze where this image comes from students minds in changing Turkish educational perspective. Two hundred eighty seven…

  17. Scientist in Residence Program Improving Children's Image of Science and Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flick, Larry

    1990-01-01

    Investigated was the effect of the Scientist in Residence Program to inspire elementary school children with their personal enthusiasm for science. Describes changes in the students' image of scientists using the Draw-a-Scientist Test before and after the program. Discusses the results of written responses and feedback from scientists. (YP)

  18. Patterns of citation when Korean scientists cite other Korean scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonok Chung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Citation patterns of Korean scientists are investigated by analyzing the references of the papers authored by Korean chemists and published in two journals of different standing. Particular interest is given to how frequently Korean researchers quote the papers written by other Korean researchers and whether there is any difference in the citation pattern when Korean researchers publish their papers in a top international journal or in a domestic journal. Two journals in the category of multidisciplinary chemistry, the Journal of the American Chemical Society and the Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, are chosen and a detailed analysis of the references of the papers written by Korean authors in 2015 was performed. The author self-citation rate is found to be much larger than the citation rate of other Korean authors. It is also found that the percentage of self-citations and the percentage of the references by Korean authors excluding self-citations are both significantly larger in the Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society than in the Journal of the American Chemical Society. Interpretations of the results based on social exchange theory are proposed.

  19. [Early endocrine complications in childhood cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, Cristina; Andrades Toledo, Mónica; Cárdeno Morales, Álvaro; Gutiérrez Carrasco, Ignacio; Ramírez Villar, Gema Lucía; Pérez Hurtado, José María; García García, Emilio

    2016-10-21

    The treatment of childhood cancers has increased survival rates, but also the risk of sequelae, such as endocrine complications. The objective of this study is to evaluate the endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood malignant tumors within the first years after treatment and analyze the variables related to their appearance. A retrospective medical record review of patients referred to pediatric endocrinology after treatment of malignancy. Outcome measures were frequency and types of endocrine dysfunction and new-onset obesity. Clinical and laboratory evaluations were performed every 6 months. Statistics tests were: chi square and multiple logistic regression. Fifty five patients (26 women) were included with an age at diagnosis of tumour (mean±standard deviation) 6.0±4.4 years and followed up for 6.8±3.6 years. Thirty endocrine disorders were diagnosed in 26 patients (47.3%), 17 women (P=.01). Eleven adolescents had primary hypogonadism (26.2% to 0.6±0.5 years of follow-up) in relation to local irradiation (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.99, P=.005). Eleven patients had a pituitary disorder (20.0%) 5.2±2.4 years after diagnosis in relation to brain irradiation (OR 1.54, P=.039). Six children (10.9%) had primary hypothyroidism from 3.2±1.0 years of follow-up. Two children developed obesity. Endocrine disorders are frequently seen within the first years after diagnosis of a childhood cancer, so hormonal evaluation should start early and be repeated periodically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  1. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  2. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Greg K; Taylor, Howard E; Kiesling, Richard L; Ferrey, Mark L; Jahns, Nathan D; Bartell, Steve E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrotte, P

    2005-01-22

    Root canal treatment usually fails because infection remains within the root canal. An orthograde attempt at re-treatment should always be considered first. However, when surgery is indicated, modern microtechniques coupled with surgical magnification will lead to a better prognosis. Careful management of the hard and soft tissues is essential, specially designed ultrasonic tips should be used for root end preparation which should ideally be sealed with MTA. All cases should be followed up until healing is seen, or failure accepted, and should form a part of clinical audit.

  4. Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused on the design, generation, characterization and application of genetically engineered and biological animal models of human disease, which are aimed at the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. LASP contributes to advancing human health, developing new treatments, and improving existing treatments for cancer and other diseases while ensuring safe and humane treatment of animals. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The successful candidate for this Scientist I appointment will contribute to scientific, methodological, operational, and logistical oversight of multiple projects that vary in complexity, scope of objectives, number and breadth of participating collaborator organizations, as well as anticipated requirements of budgetary, labor, animal and other resources. This employee will be instrumental in identifying the need, ensuring timely availability, documentation compliance, and assisting in coordinating project efforts with other scientific core facilities, such as the Small Animal Imaging Program, Histopathology Laboratory, and high-throughput genotyping and animal diagnostic facilities, etc. In addition, the Scientist I position is anticipated to initiate, promote, and facilitate project scientific communications among members of Center for Advanced Preclinical Research (CAPR) Preclinical Technology and Optimization (PTO) team at all levels, including periodic scientific data exchanges, interim project status updates, key final deliverables such as project reports, publications, press-releases, and meeting presentations. This employee will also provide support to the PTO team

  5. A path forward in the debate over health impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Bjerregaard, Poul; Bornman, Riana; Brandt, Ingvar; Iguchi, Taisen; Jobling, Susan; Kidd, Karen A; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-12-22

    Several recent publications reflect debate on the issue of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs), indicating that two seemingly mutually exclusive perspectives are being articulated separately and independently. Considering this, a group of scientists with expertise in basic science, medicine and risk assessment reviewed the various aspects of the debate to identify the most significant areas of dispute and to propose a path forward. We identified four areas of debate. The first is about the definitions for terms such as "endocrine disrupting chemical", "adverse effects", and "endocrine system". The second is focused on elements of hormone action including "potency", "endpoints", "timing", "dose" and "thresholds". The third addresses the information needed to establish sufficient evidence of harm. Finally, the fourth focuses on the need to develop and the characteristics of transparent, systematic methods to review the EDC literature. Herein we identify areas of general consensus and propose resolutions for these four areas that would allow the field to move beyond the current and, in our opinion, ineffective debate.

  6. A consolidated method for screening the endocrine activity of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevolleau, Sylvie; Debrauwer, Laurent; Stroheker, Thomas; Viglino, Liza; Mourahib, Issam; Meireles, Maria-Helena; Grimaldi, Marina; Balaguer, Patrick; di Gioia, Lodovico

    2016-12-15

    Endocrine activity of drinking water is a matter of growing interest for scientists as well as health authorities. A concentration technique for endocrine activity screening was developed, optimized, and transposed from 200mL to 10L water samples. To avoid any contamination during concentration, the method was developed using exclusively glass, Teflon and stainless steel materials. Any potential losses were tracked using three model radiolabeled molecules, namely BPA, DEHP and 4n-NP. The final method allowed 10L water samples to be concentrated 5000-fold, with good recovery and repeatability. After validation, by concentrating spiked and non-spiked 10L samples of EVIAN natural mineral water, 14 different drinking water samples were concentrated and screened for endocrine disrupting activity using bioluminescent assays. Samples consisting of bottled water, conditioned in various materials (glass, PET) and subjected to different storage conditions, had no hormone-like activities whereas estrogenic activity was found in the filtered tap water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gifted and Talented Students’ Images of Scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Camcı-Erdoğan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate gifted students’ images of scientists. The study involved 25 students in grades 7 and 8. The Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST (Chamber, 183 was used to collect data. Drawings were eval-uated using certain criterion such as a scien-tist’s appearance and investigation, knowledge and technology symbols and gender and working style, place work, expressions, titles-captions-symbols and alternative images and age. The results showed that gifted students’ perceptions about scientists were stereotypical, generally with glasses and laboratory coats and working with experiment tubes, beakers indoors and using books, technological tools and dominantly lonely males. Most gifted stu-dents drew male scientists. Although females drew male scientists, none of the boys drew female scientist.

  8. Endocrine surgery as a model for value-based health care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Amer G; Ituarte, Philip H G; Wiggins, Randi; Teisberg, Elizabeth O; Harari, Avital; Yeh, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Experts advocate restructuring health care in the United States into a value-based system that maximizes positive health outcomes achieved per dollar spent. We describe how a value-based system implemented by the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA Section of Endocrine Surgery (SES) has optimized both quality and costs while increasing patient volume. Two SES clinical pathways were studied, one allocating patients to the most appropriate surgical care setting based on clinical complexity, and another standardizing initial management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The mean cost per endocrine case performed from 2005 to 2010 was determined at each of three care settings: A tertiary care inpatient facility, a community inpatient facility, and an ambulatory facility. Blood tumor marker levels (thyroglobulin, Tg) and reoperation rates were compared between PTC patients who underwent routine central neck dissection (CND) and those who did not. Surgical patient volume and regional market share were analyzed over time. The cost of care was substantially lower in both the community inpatient facility (14% cost savings) and the ambulatory facility (58% cost savings) in comparison with the tertiary care inpatient facility. Patients who underwent CND had lower Tg levels (6.6 vs 15.0 ng/mL; P = 0.024) and a reduced need for re-operation (1.5 vs 6.1%; P = 0.004) compared with those who did not undergo CND. UCLA maintained its position as the market leader in endocrine procedures while expanding its market share by 151% from 4.9% in 2003 to 7.4% in 2010. A value-driven health care delivery system can deliver improved clinical outcomes while reducing costs within a subspecialty surgical service. Broader application of these principles may contribute to resolving current dilemmas in the provision of care nationally.

  9. Clinician-scientist trainee: a German perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossé, Dominick; Milger, Katrin; Morty, Rory E

    2011-12-01

    Clinician-scientists are particularly well positioned to bring basic science findings to the patient's bedside; the ultimate objective of basic research in the health sciences. Concerns have recently been raised about the decreasing workforce of clinician-scientists in both the United States of America and in Canada; however, little is known about clinician-scientists elsewhere around the globe. The purpose of this article is two-fold: 1) to feature clinician-scientist training in Germany; and 2) to provide a comparison with the Canadian system. In a question/answer interview, Rory E. Morty, director of a leading clinician-scientist training program in Germany, and Katrin Milger, a physician and graduate from that program, draw a picture of clinician-scientist training and career opportunities in Germany, outlining the place of clinician-scientists in the German medical system, the advantages and drawbacks of this training, and government initiatives to promote training and career development of clinician-scientists. The interview is followed by a discussion comparing the German and Canadian clinician-scientist development programs, focusing on barriers to trainee recruitment and career progress, and efforts to eliminate the barriers encountered along this very demanding but also very rewarding career path.

  10. SURGICAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Kurniawan Darianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing surgery faces great physiologic and psychologic stress. so nutritional demands are greatly increased during this period and deficiencies can easily develop. If these deficiencies are allowed to develop and are not in screening, serious malnutrition and clinical problem can occur. Therefore careful attention must be given to a patient's nutritional status in preparation of surgery, as well as to the individual nutritional needs. If these needs are met, complications are less likely developing. Natural resources provide for rapid recovery. Proper nutrition can speed healing in surgical patients with major trauma, severe malnutition, burns, and other severe illnesses. New techniques for tube feeding, intravenous nutrition for patients with serious weight loss due to gastrointestinal disorders, and use of supplements can hasten wound healing and shorten recovery times.

  11. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress and Endocrine Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyasu, Daisuke; Yoshida, Hiderou; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2017-02-11

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the "unfolded protein response" (UPR), which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI), Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2) are discussed in this article.

  13. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER Stress and Endocrine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ariyasu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is the organelle where secretory and membrane proteins are synthesized and folded. Unfolded proteins that are retained within the ER can cause ER stress. Eukaryotic cells have a defense system called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR, which protects cells from ER stress. Cells undergo apoptosis when ER stress exceeds the capacity of the UPR, which has been revealed to cause human diseases. Although neurodegenerative diseases are well-known ER stress-related diseases, it has been discovered that endocrine diseases are also related to ER stress. In this review, we focus on ER stress-related human endocrine disorders. In addition to diabetes mellitus, which is well characterized, several relatively rare genetic disorders such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (FNDI, Wolfram syndrome, and isolated growth hormone deficiency type II (IGHD2 are discussed in this article.

  14. Paraoxonase 1 Activity in Endocrine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Tarçın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase is an esterase bound to high-density lipoproteins which by metabolizing lipid peroxides, prevents their accumulation on low-density lipoproteins. It also hydrolyzes various organophosphorus compounds. Considering the role of PON1 in hydrolyzing phospholipid and cholesteryl-ester hydroperoxides and thus protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification, it can be concluded that PON1 may be an indicator of the risk of atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease development. Recent studies have also shown that PON activity was related to several disorders, including endocrine disorders as well. In this paper, we review the relation of PON1 activity with endocrine diseases like diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, osteoporosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, obesity and dyslipidemia. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 33-8

  15. Biological and enzymatic treatment of bisphenol A and other endocrine disrupting compounds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Qayyum; Qayyum, Shariq

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A is predominantly used as an intermediate in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Traces of bisphenol A released into the environment can reach into the wastewater and soil via application of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment systems that receive water containing bisphenol A, or from leachate from uncontrolled landfills. In this study we have made an effort to review the work on the presence of bisphenol A and other related endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment and their impact on the life of living organisms including human beings. Bisphenol A has several implications on the health of human beings as well it can also affect the growth of plants and animals. Number of physicochemical methods such as adsorption, membrane based filtration, ozonation, fenton, electrochemical and photochemical degradation has been used for the removal of bisphenol A. However, these methods have some inherent limitations and therefore cannot be used for large scale treatment of such pollutants. The alternative procedures have attracted the attention of environmental scientists. Biological methods are looking quite promising and these procedures are helpful in the complete degradation of bisphenol A and related compounds. Several bacterial, fungal, and algal strains and mixed cultures have successfully been employed for the degradation of bisphenol A. Recently, enzymatic methods have attracted the attention of the environmentalists for the treatment of bisphenol A and other endocrine disrupting compounds. Numerous types of oxidoreductases; laccases, tyrosinases, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidases, horseradish peroxidase and bitter gourd peroxidase have exhibited their potential for the remediation of such types of compounds. The cytochrome P 450 monooxygenases and hemoglobin have also participated in the degradation of bisphenol A and other related endocrine disrupting compounds. Various redox mediators

  16. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models. © 2010

  17. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  18. Endocrine dysfunction in patients of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease and affects many internal organs in addition to the skin and peripheral nerves. Endocrine dysfunction is often silent and is often missed in patients of leprosy leading to significant morbidity. We studied the presence of occult endocrine disorders in leprosy patients and compared the same with disease parameters. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 40 patients of leprosy (aged 18-70 years, any duration in this cross-sectional, observational study. All subjects were assessed for pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, gonadal function, and dynamic testing was done when deemed necessary. The participants were divided into two groups: Group 1 (Leprosy, n = 40 and Group 2 (Controls, n = 20 and the data were analyzed with appropriate statistical tests. Results: The study participants (35 males, 5 females had a mean age of 36.4 ± 11.3 years, and duration of the disease was 2.5 ± 5.5 years. Eleven out of 40 patients showed results consistent with an endocrine disorder, including subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 4, sick euthyroid syndrome (n = 3, growth hormone (GH deficiency (n = 2, primary hypogonadism (n = 2 and secondary hypogonadism in one patient. One patient had partial hypopituitarism (GH deficiency and secondary hypogonadism and none of the controls showed any hormonal dysfunction. Testosterone levels showed inverse correlation with the number of skin patches (P = 0.0006. Conclusion: Occult endocrine dysfunction is seen in a quarter of patients with leprosy. Thyroid and gonadal axes abnormalities are common, and the severity is more in lepromatous forms of the disease. Further large studies are required to confirm the findings observed in our study.

  19. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Trbojević, Božo

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l), or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l) hypothyrodi...

  20. Endocrine tumors associated with the vagusnerve

    OpenAIRE

    Varoquaux, Arthur; Kebebew, Electron; Sebag, Fréderic; Wolf, Katherine; Henry, Jean-François; Pacak, Karel; Taïeb, David

    2016-01-01

    The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is the main nerve of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Vagal paragangliomas (VPGLs) are a prime example of an endocrine tumor associated with the vagus nerve. This rare, neural-crest tumor constitutes the second most common site of hereditary head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs), most often in relation to mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) gene. The treatment paradigm for VPGL has progressively shifted from ...

  1. The endocrine function of adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de Jesus Pinto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently it is considered the adipose tissue as a dynamic structure involved in many physiological and metabolic processes, produces and releases a variety of active peptides known by the generic name of adipokines that act performing endocrine, paracrine and autocrine. Furthermore, numbers expressed receptors that respond allows the afferent signals from endocrine organs, and also central nervous system. In 1987, the adipose tissue has been identified as the major site of metabolism of steroid hormones, thereafter, in 1994, it was recognized as an endocrine organ and the leptin being an early secretory products identified. In addition other biologically active substances were being isolated, such as adiponectin, resistin, TNF-a, interleukin-6 and others. The adipokines derived from adipose tissue modulate many metabolic parameters such as control of food intake, energy balance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, for example. Thus, the altered secretion of adipokines by adipose tissue may have metabolic effects may present complex relations with the pathophysiological process of obesity, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, atherosclerosis and Diabetes mellitus. The understanding of the molecular processes occurring in the adipocytes may provide new tools for the treatment of pathophysiological conditions such as, for example, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  2. Surgical stress response: does endoscopic surgery confer an advantage?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1999-01-01

    "Open" surgical procedures are followed by profound changes in endocrine metabolic function and various host defense mechanisms, impaired pulmonary function, and hypoxemia. These physiologic changes are supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative morbidity. Endoscopic surgery...... of postoperative pulmonary function and less hypoxemia with endoscopic operation. The slight modification of surgical stress responses by endoscopic surgery is in contrast to the common, though not universal, demonstration of less pain, shorter hospital stay, and less morbidity after endoscopic surgery....... In conclusion, endoscopic surgery has so far not been demonstrated to have important modifying effects on classic endocrine metabolic responses and only a slight inhibitory effect on various inflammatory responses, but with improved pulmonary function and less hypoxemia. More data are needed from major...

  3. Supporting Scientists' Efforts in Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; NASA SMD Astrophysics Science Education; Public Outreach Forum

    2011-12-01

    Earth and space scientists have a long history of engagement in science education and outreach to K-12 students, educators and the public. While a few scientists obtain funding to do science education and public outreach (E/PO), often in partnership with formal or informal educators, many volunteer their time to such efforts. Nevertheless, faced with lingering challenges to science education and science literacy in the US, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, and professional societies are calling for greater numbers of scientists to provide more effective science outreach. The realization of this goal requires understanding the challenges and needs of scientists engaged or interested in education and outreach, figuring out best practices in scientist-educator partnerships, and offering resources and support structures that maximize scientists' efforts in E/PO. The NASA Science Mission Directorate's Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach Forum has initiated several activities toward these ends. Among them are: creating samplers and quick start guides to existing NASA Astrophysics E/PO resources and funding opportunities, a compilation from a variety of sources of credible online guides to doing E/PO, and tip sheets on audience misconceptions about astronomical topics. Feedback from both scientists and E/PO professionals has indicated these efforts are headed in the right direction. This presentation will introduce these resources to the AGU meeting participants, forming a basis for further discussions on how we can better support scientists in E/PO.

  4. Chinese, US scientists find new particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Chinese and US scientists have discovered a new particle at the Beijing Electron Position Collider, which is hard to be explained with any known particles, according to scientists from the Institute of High Energy Physics under the Chinese Academy of Sciences Wednesday" (1/2 page).

  5. How Scientists Develop Competence in Visual Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This…

  6. Tens of Romanian scientists work at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Silian, Sidonia

    2007-01-01

    "The figures regarding the actual number of Romanian scientists working at the European Center for Nuclear Research, or CERN, differ. The CERN data base lists some 30 Romanians on its payroll, while the scientists with the Nuclear Center at Magurele, Romania, say they should be around 50." (1 page)

  7. Communicating Like a Scientist with Multimodal Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mark; Kuhn, Mason

    2012-01-01

    If students are to accurately model how scientists use written communication, they must be given opportunities to use creative means to describe science in the classroom. Scientists often integrate pictures, diagrams, charts, and other modes within text and students should also be encouraged to use multiple modes of communication. This article…

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series ...

  9. Student Pugwash Conference Probes Scientists' Individual Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    Students from 25 nations and senior scientists examined ethical and social dimensions of decision making about science and technology during the 1985 Student Pugwash Conference on scientists' individual responsibilities. Working groups focused on toxic wastes, military uses of space, energy and poverty, genetic engineering, and individual rights.…

  10. Science denial: a guide for scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, Joshua

    2012-12-01

    Evolution, climate change, and vaccination: in these cases and more, scientists, policymakers, and educators are confronted by organized campaigns to spread doubt, denial, and rejection of the scientific community's consensus on central scientific principles. To overcome these threats, scientists not only need to spread scientific knowledge, but must also address the social drivers of science denial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics of Surgical Site Infections Caused by Gram-negative Rod-shaped Bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriacae and Gram-positive Cocci from the Genus Staphylococcus in Patients who Underwent Surgical Procedures on Selected Surgical Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska-Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kołomecki, Krzysztof; Wieloch-Torzecka, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Surgical site infections on surgical wards are the most common cause of postoperative complications. Prevalence of surgical site infections depends on the surgical specialization. Analysis of the causes of surgical site infections allows to conclude that microorganisms from the patient's own microbiota - Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriacae and from the patient's skin microbiota - Gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus are the most common agents inducing surgical site infections. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and characteristics of surgical site infections caused by Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Eneterobacteriacae and Gram-positive cocci from the genus Staphylococcus in patients who underwent surgical procedures at the Regional Specialist Hospital named after M. Copernika in Łódź on selected surgical wards. The study was performed based on retrospective analysis of medical documentation of the treated patients. The study included 195 patients of the Regional Specialist Hospital named after M. Copernik in Łódź who were treated between 2012 and 2014 on the wards of: Vascular, General and Oncological Surgery, Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Neosurgery and Nervous System Tumors and the Ward of Endocrine Surgery - in the Clinic of Endocrine Surgery. The study included 84 women and 111 men. Mean age was 59 years (18 - 94 years old). \\ Results. Surgical site infections caused by Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriacae were reported in 84 out of 195 patients (43.08% of the study group) and by Gram-positive cocci from the genus Staphylococcus were reported in 52 patients (26.67% of the study group). Mixed microbiota was an etiological agent of surgical site infections in four patients (2.5% of the study group). Etiological agent of surgical site infections depends on the ward profile, surgical field cleanliness and a form of surgical site infection.

  12. Suprasellar cysts: clinical presentation, surgical indications, and optimal surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Song-Bai; Wang, Xin-Sheng; Zong, Xu-Yi; Zhang, Ya-Zhuo; Li, Chu-Zhong

    2011-05-18

    To describe the clinical presentation of suprasellar cysts (SSCs) and surgical indications, and compare the treatment methods of endoscopic ventriculocystostomy (VC) and ventriculocystocisternotomy (VCC). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 73 consecutive patients with SSC who were treated between June 2002 and September 2009. Twenty-two patients were treated with VC and 51 with VCC. Outcome was assessed by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were divided into five groups based on age at presentation: age less than 1 year (n = 6), 1-5 years (n = 36), 6-10 years (n = 15), 11-20 years (n = 11), and 21-53 years (n = 5). The main clinical presentations were macrocrania (100%), motor deficits (50%), and gaze disturbance (33.3%) in the age less than 1 year group; macrocrania (75%), motor deficits (63.9%), and gaze disturbance (27.8%) in the 1-5 years group; macrocrania (46.7%), symptoms of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) (40.0%), endocrine dysfunction (40%), and seizures (33.3%) in the 6-10 years group; symptoms of raised ICP (54.5%), endocrine dysfunction (54.5%), and reduced visual field or acuity (36.4%) in the 11-20 years group; and symptoms of raised ICP (80.0%) and reduced visual field or acuity (40.0%) in the 21-53 years group. The overall success rate of endoscopic fenestration was 90.4%. A Kaplan-Meier curve for long-term efficacy of the two treatment modalities showed better results for VCC than for VC (p = 0.008). Different age groups with SSCs have different main clinical presentations. VCC appears to be more efficacious than VC.

  13. Suprasellar cysts: clinical presentation, surgical indications, and optimal surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ya-Zhuo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the clinical presentation of suprasellar cysts (SSCs and surgical indications, and compare the treatment methods of endoscopic ventriculocystostomy (VC and ventriculocystocisternotomy (VCC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of 73 consecutive patients with SSC who were treated between June 2002 and September 2009. Twenty-two patients were treated with VC and 51 with VCC. Outcome was assessed by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging. Results The patients were divided into five groups based on age at presentation: age less than 1 year (n = 6, 1-5 years (n = 36, 6-10 years (n = 15, 11-20 years (n = 11, and 21-53 years (n = 5. The main clinical presentations were macrocrania (100%, motor deficits (50%, and gaze disturbance (33.3% in the age less than 1 year group; macrocrania (75%, motor deficits (63.9%, and gaze disturbance (27.8% in the 1-5 years group; macrocrania (46.7%, symptoms of raised intracranial pressure (ICP (40.0%, endocrine dysfunction (40%, and seizures (33.3% in the 6-10 years group; symptoms of raised ICP (54.5%, endocrine dysfunction (54.5%, and reduced visual field or acuity (36.4% in the 11-20 years group; and symptoms of raised ICP (80.0% and reduced visual field or acuity (40.0% in the 21-53 years group. The overall success rate of endoscopic fenestration was 90.4%. A Kaplan-Meier curve for long-term efficacy of the two treatment modalities showed better results for VCC than for VC (p = 0.008. Conclusions Different age groups with SSCs have different main clinical presentations. VCC appears to be more efficacious than VC.

  14. Successful scientist: What's the winning formula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, April J; Ciappio, Eric D

    2014-11-01

    What does it take to become a successful scientist? This question is usually asked or thought about at some point in a young scientist's career. The early stages of a scientific career are fraught with many hardships, and achieving success can seem impossible and daunting. After encountering many obstacles, it becomes easy to focus on failures and lose sight of career goals. The journey to success can seem so simple when looked upon from the outside, but even the best scientists have endured many hardships, which are often not communicated. This educational symposium featured a diverse panel of 5 accomplished scientists representing different work environments, such as government, industry, and academia. They discussed tips on how to have a successful career journey and the key qualities of a successful scientist. Also, they revealed the secret to what's in the winning formula for success. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Analyzing Prospective Teachers' Images of Scientists Using Positive, Negative and Stereotypical Images of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Wojnowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the…

  16. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors. PMID:26382024

  17. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  18. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  19. Rare and unusual endocrine cancer syndromes with mutated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-12-01

    The study of a number of rare familial syndromes associated with endocrine tumor development has led to the identification of genes involved in the development of these tumors. Major advances have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of these rare endocrine tumors, resulting in the elucidation of causative genes in rare familial diseases and a better understanding of the signaling pathways implicated in endocrine cancers. Recognition of the familial syndrome associated with a particular patient's endocrine tumor has important implications in terms of prognosis, screening of family members, and screening for associated conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The eunuchs of India: An endocrine eye opener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are established guidelines for the endocrine and overall treatment of transsexual persons. These guidelines provide information about the optimal endocrine management of male-to-female and female-to-male transsexual persons. India has a large community of eunuchs, also known as hijras, who are men with gender identity disorders. While this community has been studied from a social and medical point of new, no endocrine work has been done in them. This exploratory article tries to discuss the endocrine status, health, and management of the eunuchs.

  1. Endocrine function in 97 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; Arlien-Søborg, P; Duno, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine function and its association to number of CTG repeats in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Concentration of various hormones and metabolites in venous blood was used to assess the endocrine function in 97 patients with DM1....... We found that patients with DM1 have an increased risk of abnormal endocrine function, particularly calcium metabolism disorders. However, the endocrine dysfunction appears not to be of clinical significance in all of the cases. Finally, we found correlations between CTG(n) expansion size and plasma...

  2. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  3. Weird Stellar Pair Puzzles Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    high densities," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Pulsars are neutron stars whose strong magnetic fields channel lighthouse-like beams of light and radio waves that whirl around as the star spins. Typical pulsars spin a few times a second, but some, like PSR J1903+0327, are much faster, rotating hundreds of times a second. They are called millisecond pulsars. Astronomers think most millisecond pulsars are sped up by material falling onto them from a companion star. This requires the pulsar to be in a tight orbit around its companion that becomes more and more circular with time. The orbits of some millisecond pulsars are the most perfect circles in the Universe, so the elongated orbit of the new pulsar is a mystery. "What we have found is a millisecond pulsar that is in the wrong kind of orbit around what appears to be the wrong kind of star," Champion said. "Now we have to figure out how this strange system was produced." The scientists are considering three possibilities. The first, that the pulsar simply was born spinning quickly, seems unlikely to them. Another possibility, they say, is that the pulsar was formed in a tight group of stars known as a globular cluster, where it had a companion that spun it up. Later, a close encounter with another star in the cluster stripped it of its companion and flung it out of the cluster. For several reasons, including the fact that they don't see a nearby cluster from which it could have come, they don't like that explanation either. A third scenario says the pulsar may be part of a triple, not a double, star system. In this case, the pulsar's 95-day orbit is around a neutron star or white dwarf, not the Sun-like star seen in the infrared image. The Sun-like star would then be in a more-distant orbit around the pulsar and its close companion. "We've found about 50 pulsars in binary systems. We may now have found our first pulsar in a stellar triple system," Ransom said. The international research

  4. Scientists' virtues matter. More than ever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Delfanti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In his latest book “The scientific life. A moral history of a late modern vocation”, the social historian of science Steven Shapin addresses the public image of contemporary scientists, their virtues and vocations. Who are, and how they represent themselves, those scientists who work on the edge between industry and academy, and who are responsible for the radical uncertainty embedded in the contemporary production of scientific knowledge? If “people matter”, as Shapin states, the genealogy he provides should encourage us to dig more deeply in the main stage of the virtues and ethos of scientists: the mass media.

  5. Well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the difference from poorly differentiated, well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas are the tumours in whom with aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved. Objective. The aim of the study was to point out the importance of such treatment. Methods. Over a 6-year period eight patients (seven female and one male of average age 51 years (ranging from 23 to 71 years were operated on for well differentiated endocrine carcinoma: six of the head and two of the tail of the pancreas. There were two functional and six nonfunctional tumours. Pain in the upper part of the abdomen in seven, mild loss in weight in two, strong heartburn in two, obstructive jaundice in three, diarrhoea in one, sudden massive bleeding from gastric varicosities due to prehepatic portal hypertension caused by pancreatic head tumour in one, and bruise in one patient were registered preoperatively. US and CT in all, angiography in one, octreoscan in two and PET scan in one patient were performed. Whipple’s procedure was performed in six and distal pancreatectomy in two patients, as well as systemic lymphadenectomy in all and excision of liver secondary tumours in two patients. In the patient with massive gastric bleeding a total gastrectomy was performed first, followed by Whipple’s procedure a month later. Results. R0 resection was achieved in all patients. Lymph nodes metastases were found in six patients. Six patients were given chemotherapy. One patient died 3 years after surgery, seven are still alive, on average 2.5 years. A local recurrence after distal pancreatectomy that occurred 5 years after surgery was successfully reresected and the patient is on peptide-receptor radiotherapy. In other six patients there were no local recurence or distant metastases. Conclusion. With aggressive surgery and chemotherapy fair results can be achieved in well differentiated endocrine carcinomas of the pancreas.

  6. Total parathyroidectomy in a large cohort of cases with hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: experience from a single academic center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz de Menezes Montenegro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism present disturbances in a single parathyroid gland and the surgery of choice is adenomectomy. Conversely, hyperparathyroidism associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is an asynchronic, asymmetrical multiglandular disease and it is surgically approached by either subtotal parathyroidectomy or total parathyroidectomy followed by parathyroid auto-implant to the forearm. In skilful hands, the efficacy of both approaches is similar and both should be complemented by prophylactic thymectomy. In a single academic center, 83 cases of hyperparathyroidism/ multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 were operated on from 1987 to 2010 and our first surgical choice was total parathyroidectomy followed by parathyroid auto-implant to the non-dominant forearm and, since 1997, associated transcervical thymectomy to prevent thymic carcinoid. Overall, 40% of patients were given calcium replacement (mean intake 1.6 g/day during the first months after surgery, and this fell to 28% in patients with longer follow-up. These findings indicate that several months may be needed in order to achieve a proper secretion by the parathyroid auto-implant. Hyperparathyroidism recurrence was observed in up to 15% of cases several years after the initial surgery. Thus, long-term follow-up is recommended for such cases. We conclude that, despite a tendency to subtotal parathyroidectomy worldwide, total parathyroidectomy followed by parathyroid auto-implant is a valid surgical option to treat hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Larger comparative systematic studies are needed to define the best surgical approach to hyperparathyroidism/multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

  7. Health disparities in endocrine disorders: biological, clinical, and nonclinical factors--an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Sherita Hill; Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A; Chin, Marshall H; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E; Anton, Blair

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. consensus process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the Advocacy and Public

  8. Health Disparities in Endocrine Disorders: Biological, Clinical, and Nonclinical Factors—An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen; Cauley, Jane A.; Chin, Marshall H.; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L.; Kim, Catherine; Sosa, Julie Ann; Sumner, Anne E.; Anton, Blair

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on biological, clinical, and nonclinical contributors to race/ethnic and sex disparities in endocrine disorders and to identify current gaps in knowledge as a focus for future research needs. Participants in Development of Scientific Statement: The Endocrine Society's Scientific Statement Task Force (SSTF) selected the leader of the statement development group (S.H.G.). She selected an eight-member writing group with expertise in endocrinology and health disparities, which was approved by the Society. All discussions regarding the scientific statement content occurred via teleconference or written correspondence. No funding was provided to any expert or peer reviewer, and all participants volunteered their time to prepare this Scientific Statement. Evidence: The primary sources of data on global disease prevalence are from the World Health Organization. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed identified U.S. population-based studies. Search strategies combining Medical Subject Headings terms and keyword terms and phrases defined two concepts: 1) racial, ethnic, and sex differences including specific populations; and 2) the specific endocrine disorder or condition. The search identified systematic reviews, meta-analyses, large cohort and population-based studies, and original studies focusing on the prevalence and determinants of disparities in endocrine disorders. Consensus Process: The writing group focused on population differences in the highly prevalent endocrine diseases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related conditions (prediabetes and diabetic complications), gestational diabetes, metabolic syndrome with a focus on obesity and dyslipidemia, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, and vitamin D deficiency. Authors reviewed and synthesized evidence in their areas of expertise. The final statement incorporated responses to several levels of review: 1) comments of the SSTF and the

  9. Meet EPA Environmental Scientist Kira Lynch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Scientist Kira Lynch is currently the Superfund and Technology Liaison in EPA’s Region 10, where she uses her expertise in characterizing environmental contamination to help evaluate and clean up hazardous waste sites.

  10. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students were asked to draw a picture of a scientist at work and to provide a written explanation as to what the scientist was doing. A content analysis of the drawings indicated that the level of stereotype differed between all NA subgroups, but analysis of variance revealed that these differences were not significant between groups except for students who practised native cultural tradition at home compared to students who did not practise native cultural tradition at home (p stereotypes.

  11. Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166957.html Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis Large study finds key ... Researchers say they've come closer to pinpointing genes linked with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's ...

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  13. Elements of ethics for physical scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Greer, Sandra C

    2017-01-01

    This book offers the first comprehensive guide to ethics for physical scientists and engineers who conduct research. Written by a distinguished professor of chemistry and chemical engineering, the book focuses on the everyday decisions about right and wrong faced by scientists as they do research, interact with other people, and work within society. The goal is to nurture readers’ ethical intelligence so that they know an ethical issue when they see one, and to give them a way to think about ethical problems. After introductions to the philosophy of ethics and the philosophy of science, the book discusses research integrity, with a unique emphasis on how scientists make mistakes and how they can avoid them. It goes on to cover personal interactions among scientists, including authorship, collaborators, predecessors, reviewers, grantees, mentors, and whistle-blowers. It considers underrepresented groups in science as an ethical issue that matters not only to those groups but also to the development of scien...

  14. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye ...

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series All About Vision About the Eye ...

  16. The persistent stereotype: children's images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens McAdam, Janice

    1990-03-01

    Through their reading children learn to regard scientists as eccentrics. It is shown that this stereotype has persisted for over thirty years and affects many adult attitudes. Some methods of breaking the author-reader cycle are suggested.

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. What do my eyes ... Watch What is color blindness? Click to Watch How do I become a scientist? Click to Watch ...

  18. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Yelavarthy Nayudamma: Scientist, Leader, and Mentor Extraordinary. J Raghava Rao T Ramasami. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 887-899 ...

  19. Women scientists reflections, challenges, and breaking boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Hargittai, Magdolna

    2015-01-01

    Magdolna Hargittai uses over fifteen years of in-depth conversation with female physicists, chemists, biomedical researchers, and other scientists to form cohesive ideas on the state of the modern female scientist. The compilation, based on sixty conversations, examines unique challenges that women with serious scientific aspirations face. In addition to addressing challenges and the unjustifiable underrepresentation of women at the higher levels of academia, Hargittai takes a balanced approach by discussing how some of the most successful of these women have managed to obtain professional success and personal happiness. Women Scientists portrays scientists from different backgrounds, different geographical regions-eighteen countries from four continents-and leaders from a variety of professional backgrounds, including eight Nobel laureate women. The book is divided into three sections: "Husband and Wife Teams," "Women at the Top," and "In High Positions." Hargittai uses her own experience to introduce her fi...

  20. Probing stereotypes through students' drawings of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, Jrène; Charbonneau, Paul

    1997-08-01

    The Draw-A-Scientist Test is an assessment tool devised to explore and measure children's stereotypical views of scientists. We administered this test to a group of 49 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in a teacher certification program. While this was originally intended as a purely pedagogical exercise, we were struck by the degree to which the drawings so produced resembled, in stereotypical content, those usually produced by children. This suggests that stereotypes of science and scientists formed during childhood, presumably via the influence of the media, remain largely unaffected by the subsequent passage through high school and college, despite the fact that numerous real-life figures of science teachers and scientists are presumably encountered throughout those formative years. We argue that this state of affairs has subtle and far reaching consequences, and is worthy of our collective attention.

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ... for the media Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Anna Harper - Media ...

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scientist? Click to Watch Did You Know? An eagle’s eyesight is about five times sharper than a ... you see clearly from five feet away, an eagle can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI ...

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  6. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well ... Why does saltwater sting your eyes? Select a video below to get answers to questions like these ...

  7. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see ... eyelids? Why does saltwater sting your eyes? Select a video below to get answers to questions like ...

  8. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Watch Is perfect vision real? Click to Watch Are these common eye-related myths true or false? ...

  9. A Scientist's Guide to Science Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, J.

    2012-12-01

    Why are so many scientifically uncontroversial topics, from evolution and the age of the earth to climate change and vaccines, so contentious in society? The American public respects science and scientists, yet seems remarkably unaware of - or resistant to accepting - what scientists have learned about the world around us. This resistance holds back science education and undermines public policy discussions. Scientists and science communicators often react to science denial as if it were a question of scientific knowledge, and respond by trying to correct false scientific claims. Many independent lines of evidence show that science denial is not primarily about science. People reject scientific claims which seem to conflict with their personal identity - often because they believe that accepting those claims would threaten some deeply-valued cultural, political, or religious affiliation. Only by identifying, addressing, and defusing the underlying political and cultural concerns can educators, scientists, and science communicators undo the harm done by science denial.

  10. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do ... fish have eyelids? Click to Watch Why don’t all animal eyes look the same? Click to ...

  11. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T.; Biever, Ronald C.; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K.; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D.; Dreier, David; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L. Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D.; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L.; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James P.; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne L.; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R.; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffery C.; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-01-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop® “Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)” was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS—not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  12. Recommended approaches to the scientific evaluation of ecotoxicological hazards and risks of endocrine-active substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, Peter; Ankley, Gerald T; Biever, Ronald C; Bjerregaard, Poul; Borgert, Christopher; Brugger, Kristin; Blankinship, Amy; Chambers, Janice; Coady, Katherine K; Constantine, Lisa; Dang, Zhichao; Denslow, Nancy D; Dreier, David A; Dungey, Steve; Gray, L Earl; Gross, Melanie; Guiney, Patrick D; Hecker, Markus; Holbech, Henrik; Iguchi, Taisen; Kadlec, Sarah; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Katsiadaki, Ioanna; Kawashima, Yukio; Kloas, Werner; Krueger, Henry; Kumar, Anu; Lagadic, Laurent; Leopold, Annegaaike; Levine, Steven L; Maack, Gerd; Marty, Sue; Meador, James; Mihaich, Ellen; Odum, Jenny; Ortego, Lisa; Parrott, Joanne; Pickford, Daniel; Roberts, Mike; Schaefers, Christoph; Schwarz, Tamar; Solomon, Keith; Verslycke, Tim; Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Williams, Mike; Wolf, Jeffrey C; Yamazaki, Kunihiko

    2017-03-01

    A SETAC Pellston Workshop® "Environmental Hazard and Risk Assessment Approaches for Endocrine-Active Substances (EHRA)" was held in February 2016 in Pensacola, Florida, USA. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide advice, based on current scientific understanding, to regulators and policy makers; the aim being to make considered, informed decisions on whether to select an ecotoxicological hazard- or a risk-based approach for regulating a given endocrine-disrupting substance (EDS) under review. The workshop additionally considered recent developments in the identification of EDS. Case studies were undertaken on 6 endocrine-active substances (EAS-not necessarily proven EDS, but substances known to interact directly with the endocrine system) that are representative of a range of perturbations of the endocrine system and considered to be data rich in relevant information at multiple biological levels of organization for 1 or more ecologically relevant taxa. The substances selected were 17α-ethinylestradiol, perchlorate, propiconazole, 17β-trenbolone, tributyltin, and vinclozolin. The 6 case studies were not comprehensive safety evaluations but provided foundations for clarifying key issues and procedures that should be considered when assessing the ecotoxicological hazards and risks of EAS and EDS. The workshop also highlighted areas of scientific uncertainty, and made specific recommendations for research and methods-development to resolve some of the identified issues. The present paper provides broad guidance for scientists in regulatory authorities, industry, and academia on issues likely to arise during the ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of EAS and EDS. The primary conclusion of this paper, and of the SETAC Pellston Workshop on which it is based, is that if data on environmental exposure, effects on sensitive species and life-stages, delayed effects, and effects at low concentrations are robust, initiating environmental risk

  13. Avian endocrine responses to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B A; Eroschenko, V P; Fox, G A; Fry, D M; Gorsline, J

    1984-12-01

    Many environmental contaminants are hazardous to populations of wild birds. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and industrial pollutants are thought to be responsible for population declines of several species of predatory birds through eggshell thinning. Studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have estrogenic potency and may affect the functioning of the gonadal and thyroidal endocrine subsystems. Petroleum crude oil exerts toxicity externally, by oiling of plumage, and internally, by way of ingestion of oil while feeding or preening. Extensive ultrastructural damage to the inner zone of the adrenal, diminished adrenal responsiveness to adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and reduced corticosterone secretion rate suggest that low levels of plasma corticosterone reflect a direct effect of petroleum on the adrenal gland. Suppressive effects of oil on the ovary and decreases in circulating prolactin have been associated with impaired reproductive function. Large-scale field studies of free-living seabirds have confirmed some of the inhibitory effects of oil on reproduction that have been observed in laboratory studies. Organophosphorus insecticides, representing the most widely used class of pesticides in North America, have been shown to impair reproductive function, possibly by altering secretion of luteinizing hormone and progesterone. Relevant areas of future research on the effects of contaminants on avian endocrine function are discussed.

  14. Somatostatin receptors as markers for endocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reubi, J.C.

    1987-06-19

    Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively rare neoplasias that secrete large amounts of peptide hormones such as insulin, glucagon, gastrin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These substances are usually responsible for the distinct clinical features observed in patients with such tumors. Although most are relatively slow growing tumors, they may lead in early stages to dramatic symptoms such as hypoglycemia, gastric ulcerations, or watery diarrhea. Unfortunately they are often difficult to localize precisely at that stage. Somatostatin, a tetradecapeptide that inhibits peptide hormone release in various sites such as the pituitary, the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract, has been shown recently to have beneficial effects when given chronically in the form of a stable non-degradable octapeptide analogue (SMS 201-995) in such gastrointestinal endocrine tumors. This essay demonstrates with autoradiographic techniques the very high density of somatostatin receptors in one case of human gastrinoma. A hematoxylineosin-stained histologic section reveals a well-defined, 2-mm-long tumor surrounded by normal tissue. After incubation of the section with an iodinated somatostatin analogue (/sup 125/I-(Leu, D-Trp, Tyr)-somatostatin-28), the distribution of somatostatin receptors was visualized on tritium-sensitive films after a one-week exposure of the section in x-ray cassettes.

  15. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Moon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.

  16. Endocrine disruption: fact or urban legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Borgert, Christopher J; Dietrich, Daniel; Rozman, Karl K

    2013-12-16

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances that cause adverse health effects via endocrine-mediated mechanisms in an intact organism or its progeny or (sub) populations. Purported EDCs in personal care products include 4-MBC (UV filter) or parabens that showed oestrogenic activity in screening tests, although regulatory toxicity studies showed no adverse effects on reproductive endpoints. Hormonal potency is the key issue of the safety of EDCs. Oestrogen-based drugs, e.g. the contraceptive pill or the synthetic oestrogen DES, possess potencies up to 7 orders of magnitude higher than those of PCP ingredients; yet, in utero exposure to these drugs did not adversely affect fertility or sexual organ development of offspring unless exposed to extreme doses. Additive effects of EDs are unlikely due to the multitude of mechanisms how substances may produce a hormone-like activity; even after uptake of different substances with a similar mode of action, the possibility of additive effects is reduced by different absorption, metabolism and kinetics. This is supported by a number of studies on mixtures of chemical EDCs. Overall, despite of 20 years of research a human health risk from exposure to low concentrations of exogenous chemical substances with weak hormone-like activities remains an unproven and unlikely hypothesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  18. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Endocrine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melpomeni Peppa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize the existing literature data concerning the involvement of skeletal muscle (SM in whole body glucose homeostasis and the contribution of SM insulin resistance (IR to the metabolic derangements observed in several endocrine disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, adrenal disorders and thyroid function abnormalities. IR in PCOS is associated with a unique postbinding defect in insulin receptor signaling in general and in SM in particular, due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Adrenal hormone excess is also associated with disrupted insulin action in peripheral tissues, such as SM. Furthermore, both hyper- and hypothyroidism are thought to be insulin resistant states, due to insulin receptor and postreceptor defects. Further studies are definitely needed in order to unravel the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In summary, the principal mechanisms involved in muscle IR in the endocrine diseases reviewed herein include abnormal phosphorylation of insulin signaling proteins, altered muscle fiber composition, reduced transcapillary insulin delivery, decreased glycogen synthesis, and impaired mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  19. Analyzing prospective teachers' images of scientists using positive, negative and stereotypical images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Esprívalo Harrell, Pamela; Wojnowski, David

    2013-04-01

    Background and purpose : This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the literature on the images, role and work of scientists. Sample, design and method : One hundred and ninety-six drawings of scientists, generated by prospective teachers, were analyzed using the Draw-A-Scientist-Test Checklist (DAST-C), a binary linear regression and the conceptual framework. Results : The results of the binary linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant difference for two DAST-C elements: ethnicity differences with regard to drawing a scientist who was Caucasian and gender differences for indications of danger. Analysis using the conceptual framework helped to categorize the same drawings into positive, stereotypical, negative and composite images of a scientist. Conclusions : The conceptual framework revealed that drawings were focused on the physical appearance of the scientist, and to a lesser extent on the equipment, location and science-related practices that provided the context of a scientist's role and work. Implications for teacher educators include the need to understand that there is a need to provide tools, like the conceptual framework used in this study, to help prospective teachers to confront and engage with their multidimensional perspectives of scientists in light of the current trends on perceiving and valuing scientists. In addition, teacher educators need to use the conceptual framework, which yields qualitative perspectives about drawings, together with the DAST-C, which yields quantitative measure for drawings, to help prospective teachers to gain a holistic outlook on their drawings of scientists.

  20. Paediatric endocrine disorders as seen at the University of Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In most developing countries, data on the prevalence and distribution of paediatric endocrine disorders is lacking. Objective: To describe the pattern of endocrine disorders seen in the Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH), Benin City, Nigeria between 2004 to 2013.

  1. The endocrine effects of mercury in humans and wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shirlee W; Meiller, Jesse C; Mahaffey, Kathryn R

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is well studied and research continues as our knowledge of its health risks increases. One expanding area of research not well emphasized to date is the endocrine effects of Hg. This review summarizes the existing literature on the effects of Hg on the endocrine system and identifies gaps in the knowledge. It focuses on the thyroid, adrenal, and reproductive systems, including the accumulation of Hg in the endocrine system, sex differences that are manifested with Hg exposure, reproductive effects in male and female animals including humans, and Hg effects on the thyroid and adrenal systems. We concluded that there are five main endocrine-related mechanisms of Hg across these systems: (a) accumulation in the endocrine system; (b) specific cytotoxicity in endocrine tissues; (c) changes in hormone concentrations; (d) interactions with sex hormones; and (e) up-regulation or down-regulation of enzymes within the steroidogenesis pathway. Recommendations for key areas of research to better understand how the endocrine effects of Hg affect human and wildlife health were developed, and include increasing the amount of basic biological information available about Hg and wildlife species, exploring the role of Hg in the presence of other stressors and chemicals, understanding sublethal and indirect effects of Hg on adverse outcomes, developing better methods to extrapolate effects across species, and understanding the effects of Hg on multiple organ systems following exposure of an animal. Greater inclusion of endocrine endpoints in epidemiological and field studies on humans and wildlife will also advance the research in this area.

  2. Nuclear Receptors and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreijerink, K.M.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311470238

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited syndrome that is characterized by the occurrence of tumours of the parathyroid glands, gastroenteropancreatic tumours, pitui-tary gland adenomas, as well as adrenal adenomas and neuro-endocrine tumours, often at a young age. MEN1 tumours can

  3. paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O.O. Jarrett1, B.O. Ogunbosi1 and O.O. Ayoola2. 1. Department of Paediatrics, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2. Endocrine Science Research Group, University of Manchester, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital,. Manchester, UK. Correspondence: Dr. Omolola Ayoola. Endocrine Science Research Group,.

  4. Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A | Klisiewicz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN-2A) is an autosomal dominant genetic syndrome consisting of medullary thyroid carcinoma, phaeochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. A germline ...

  5. The heart of the matter: Cardiac manifestations of endocrine disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya John Binu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disorders manifest as a disturbance in the milieu of multiple organ systems. The cardiovascular system may be directly affected or alter its function to maintain the state of homeostasis. In this article, we aim to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical features and management of cardiac manifestations of various endocrine disorders.

  6. Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular diagnosis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. RJ Pegoraro, DJ Hacking, RH Buck, L Rom, PA Lanning, GMB Berger. Abstract. Objective. To identify by means of genetic analyses individuals who are at risk of developing medullary thyroid cancer that is a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia. Subjects.

  7. In vitro screening for endocrine disruptive activity in selected South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various waterborne anthropogenic contaminants disrupt the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, targeting reproductive pathways, among others. Very little is known, however, regarding the occurrence of endocrine disruptive activity in South African freshwater ecosystems, and coastal ecosystems have not been ...

  8. paediatric endocrine disorders at the university college hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infectious diseases, childhood endocrine disorders constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. ... on infectious diseases and malnutrition giving the impression that endocrine disorders are uncommon. Reports on .... of Vitamin D and the role of ultra violent light in prevention.12 The increased risk in dark skinned.

  9. The coagulation system in endocrine disorders: a narrative review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Ageno, W.; Büller, H. R.

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine disorders can influence the haemostatic balance. Abnormal coagulation test results have been observed in patients with abnormal hormone levels. Also unprovoked bleeding or thrombotic events have been associated with endocrine disease. The aim of the present review is to summarise the

  10. INTRODUCTION Endocrine disorders do occur among children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endocrine disorders in children in developing countries are few compared to ... children. We use this case to illustrate the challenges of diagnosis, management and of follow up of this treatable endocrine condition in a developing country and the ... electrocardiography, full blood count, urine culture and urinalysis were all ...

  11. Endocrine disruptors induce perturbations in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria of human pluripotent stem cell derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Rajamani, Uthra; Gross, Andrew R.; Ocampo, Camille; Andres, Allen M.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Sareen, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Persistent exposure to man-made endocrine disrupting chemicals during fetal endocrine development may lead to disruption of metabolic homeostasis contributing to childhood obesity. Limited cellular platforms exist to test endocrine disrupting chemical-induced developmental abnormalities in human endocrine tissues. Here we use an human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based platform to demonstrate adverse impacts of obesogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the developing endocrine system. We ...

  12. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    To contribute to devise successful beta-cell differentiation strategies for the cure of Type 1 diabetes we sought to uncover barriers that restrict endocrine fate acquisition by studying the role of the transcriptional repressor REST in the developing pancreas. Rest expression is prevented...... in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  13. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jin-Qing; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN) and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scie...

  14. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  15. Estimating burden and disease costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R Thomas; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Grandjean, Philippe; Myers, John Peterson; DiGangi, Joseph; Bellanger, Martine; Hauser, Russ; Legler, Juliette; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2015-04-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU). A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency for evaluating laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption. Expert panels used the Delphi method to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels achieved consensus at least for probable (>20%) EDC causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood obesity, adult obesity, adult diabetes, cryptorchidism, male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median cost of €157 billion (or $209 billion, corresponding to 1.23% of EU gross domestic product) annually across 1000 simulations. Notably, using the lowest end of the probability range for each relationship in the Monte Carlo simulations produced a median range of €109 billion that differed modestly from base case probability inputs. EDC exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in

  16. How can scientists bring research to use: the HENVINET experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartonova Alena

    2012-06-01

    ; endocrine disruption; and engineered nanoparticles in the environment. An open searchable database of decision support tools was established and populated. A web based social networking tool was developed to enhance collaboration and communication between scientists and society. Conclusions HENVINET addressed key issues that arise in inter-disciplinary research on health and environment and in communicating research results to policy makers and society. HENVINET went beyond traditional scientific tools and methods to bridge the communication gap between science and policy makers. The project identified the need for a common framework and delivered it. It developed and implemented a variety of novel methods and tools and, using several representative examples, demonstrated the process of producing politically relevant scientific advice based on an open participation of experts. It highlighted the need for, and benefits of, a liaison between health and environment professionals and professionals in the social sciences and liberal arts. By adopting critical complexity thinking, HENVINET extended the traditional approach to environment and health research, and set the standard for current approaches to bridge the gap between science and society.

  17. The Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, John; Boninger, Michael; Helkowski, Wendy; Braddom-Ritzler, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Physician scientists are seen as important in healthcare research. However, the number of physician scientists and their success in obtaining NIH funding have been declining for many years. The shortage of physician scientists in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is particularly severe, and can be attributed to many of the same factors that affect physician scientists in general, as well as to the lack of well developed models for research training. In 1995, the Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist Training Program (RMSTP) was funded by a K12 grant from the National Center of Medical Rehabilitation Research (NCMRR), as one strategy for increasing the number of research-productive physiatrists. The RMSTP's structure was revised in 2001 to improve the level of preparation of incoming trainees, and to provide a stronger central mentorship support network. Here we describe the original and revised structure of the RMSTP and review subjective and objective data on the productivity of the trainees who have completed the program. These data suggest that RMSTP trainees are, in general, successful in obtaining and maintaining academic faculty positions and that the productivity of the cohort trained after the revision, in particular, shows impressive growth after about 3 years of training. PMID:19847126

  18. Building a Community of Data Scientists: An Explorative Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Li, Jianhui; Wang, Runqiang; Yu, Luqing; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Peisen

    2009-01-01

    Based on an explorative analysis of the definitions of a data scientist and a community of data scientists as well, this paper points out that with the development of data science and data scientists...

  19. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for "diabesity."

  20. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketogenic diet (KD is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.”

  1. Ketogenic diet in endocrine disorders: Current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, L; Khandelwal, D; Kalra, S; Gupta, P; Dutta, D; Aggarwal, S

    2017-01-01

    Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multivitamin supplementations are recommended with KD. Recently, ketones are being proposed as super-metabolic fuel; and KD is currently regarded as apt dietary therapy for “diabesity.” PMID:29022562

  2. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and growth of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botton, Jérémie; Kadawathagedara, Manik; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine

    2017-06-01

    According to the "environmental obesogen hypothesis", early-life (including in utero) exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may disturb the mechanisms involved in adipogenesis or energy storage, and thus may increase the susceptibility to overweight and obesity. Animal models have shown that exposure to several of these chemicals could induce adipogenesis and mechanisms have been described. Epidemiological studies are crucial to know whether this effect could also be observed in humans. We aimed at summarizing the literature in epidemiology on the relationship between EDCs exposure and child's growth. Overall, epidemiological studies suggest that pre- and/or early postnatal exposure to some EDCs may increase the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood. In that review, we present some limitations of these studies, mainly in exposure assessment, that currently prevent to conclude about causality. Recent advances in epidemiology should bring further knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla

    The aim of this session is to give a presentation of the report (both ENV and HH) on criteria carried out by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. CEHOS is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls...... and gives examples of available ED data and relevant placement in groups. The overall purpose of the report is to provide scientific background for Danish input to the ongoing EU work within this field....

  4. Endocrine and follicular studies in Meishan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M G; Biggs, C; Faillace, L S

    1993-01-01

    The enhanced early embryonic survival in Chinese Meishan compared with Large-White gilts may be due, in part, to differences in ovarian and endocrine function, particularly during the periovulatory period. The overall patterns of oestradiol, LH and FSH secretion were not different between Meishan and Large-White hybrid controls during this period, although circulating inhibin concentrations were higher in Meishan gilts. Thus, there appeared to be a decreased sensitivity to inhibin feedback on FSH secretion in Meishan gilts. Behavioural oestrus was exhibited earlier relative to the LH surge in Meishan gilts than in Large-White hybrid gilts, but the time interval from the oestradiol peak until the LH surge was similar in both breeds. This finding suggests that Meishan gilts are more sensitive in terms of initiating a behavioural response, but not in terms of positive feedback. Although preovulatory follicular characteristics were as variable in Meishan as in Large-White hybrid gilts, follicles from Meishan gilts were smaller, but contained a higher concentration of oestradiol in the follicular fluid. This was probably due to increased aromatase activity in both granulosa and theca cells of Meishan follicles. The enhanced maturation of the intrafollicular environment in Meishan gilts was reflected in the oocyte population which was at a more advanced stage of development in the period preceding ovulation. In addition to decreasing the time between onset of oestrus and ovulation, advancing the LH surge to coincide with onset of oestrus (via hCG administration) decreased embryo survival at day 30 of gestation. It is concluded that both endocrine and follicular mechanisms have a role in ensuring the prolificacy in the Meishan breed.

  5. Endocrine Regulation of Compensatory Growth in Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene T. Won

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is a period of accelerated growth that occurs following the alleviation of growth-stunting conditions during which an organism can make up for lost growth opportunity and potentially catch-up in size with non-stunted cohorts. Fish show a particularly robust capacity for the response and have been the focus of numerous studies that demonstrate their ability to compensate for periods of fasting once food is made available again. Compensatory growth is characterized by an elevated growth rate resulting from enhanced feed intake, mitogen production and feed conversion efficiency. Because little is known about the underlying mechanisms that drive the response, this review describes the sequential endocrine adaptations that lead to CG; namely during the precedent catabolic phase (fasting that taps endogenous energy reserves, and the following hyperanabolic phase (refeeding when accelerated growth occurs. In order to elicit a CG response, endogenous energy reserves must first be moderately depleted, which alters endocrine profiles that enhance appetite and growth potential. During this catabolic phase, elevated ghrelin and growth hormone (GH production increase appetite and protein-sparing lipolysis, while insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are suppressed, primarily due to hepatic GH resistance. During refeeding, temporal hyperphagia provides an influx of energy and metabolic substrates that are then allocated to somatic growth by resumed IGF signaling. Under the right conditions, refeeding results in hyperanabolism and a steepened growth trajectory relative to constantly fed controls. The response wanes as energy reserves are re-accumulated and homeostasis is restored. We ascribe possible roles for select appetite and growth-regulatory hormones in the context of these catabolic and hyperanabolic phases of the CG response in teleosts, with emphasis on GH, IGFs, cortisol, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, ghrelin and leptin.

  6. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  7. A distant light scientists and public policy

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A collection of essays by a Nobel Prize Laureate on a wide range of critical issues facing the world, and the role of scientists in solving these problems. Kendall has been closely involved with the Union of Concerned Scientists, a group that began as an informal assocation at MIT in 1969 to protest US involvement in Vietnam and is today an organization with an annual budget exceeding $6 million, with 100,000 supporters worldwide. UCD is today a voice of authority in US government science policy, particularly with regard to environment issues, most recently the worldwide initiatives on global warming. Together, these essays represent both the sucessses and failures of science to impact public policy, the challenges facing scientists, and offers practical guidelines for involvement in science policy. The essays are roughly chronological, organized by subject with introductions, beginning with the controversies on nuclear power safety and Three Mile Island,then followed by sections on national security issues, ...

  8. Science communication a practical guide for scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bowater, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Science communication is a rapidly expanding area and meaningful engagement between scientists and the public requires effective communication. Designed to help the novice scientist get started with science communication, this unique guide begins with a short history of science communication before discussing the design and delivery of an effective engagement event. Along with numerous case studies written by highly regarded international contributors, the book discusses how to approach face-to-face science communication and engagement activities with the public while providing tips to avoid potential pitfalls. This book has been written for scientists at all stages of their career, including undergraduates and postgraduates wishing to engage with effective science communication for the first time, or looking to develop their science communication portfolio.

  9. An attractive remedy: Matching scientists with teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, I.D.

    1994-12-31

    In too many of today`s precollege classrooms, little hands-on, inquiry-based science instruction can be found and much of the content-based science curricula is out of date and irrelevant. We purpose an intervention strategy to renew the science teacher who is unflagging in dedication and commitment. It is a strategy also to revitalize the science teacher clearly flagging, disillusioned, and out of touch. The strategy is to provide teachers with the opportunity to become full-share partners in the scientific community through scientific work experience in a laboratory setting. Characterized by intensive immersion in the day-to-day world of the scientist, the experience frees teachers from their classroom persona and lets them be scientists engaged in uncovering knowledge and solving problems. By matching teachers with scientists in laboratories for extended research experiences, we couple science education with ongoing research.

  10. Developing a Scientist: A retrospective look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gail; Taylor, Amy; Forrester, Jennifer H.

    2011-08-01

    Although one of the goals of science education is to educate and nurture the next generation of scientists and engineers, there is limited research that investigates the pathway from childhood to becoming a scientist. This study examined the reflections of 37 scientists and engineers about their in- and out-of-school experiences as well as their memories of significant people who may have influenced their careers. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted and the interview transcripts were analyzed for potential influences on career decisions. Analysis showed several commonalities in participants' reported experiences that influenced career decisions in science and engineering. Informal advising and mentoring by teachers and family members were noted as important. Across participants, tinkering, building models, and exploring science independently in and out of school were viewed as factors that influenced interests in science and engineering. Implications of these results for formal and informal educational programs are discussed.

  11. The Evolution of the Data Scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    When did the data scientist come into being? The National Science Board formally defined the term in 2005. Prior to that, the term was used sporadically, but typically to refer to statisticians or analysts. Nevertheless, the data scientist function has existed for a long time. Those who performed the function were called data managers or librarians or curators. Their role with digital data was critical but ill defined and poorly understood, especially by outsiders. Today, the tem data scientist is gaining currency and the discipline is gaining prominence, but it is a very dynamic field. And while it may be better defined, the term is still poorly understood. This lack of understanding can partly be attributed to the dynamic and evolutionary nature of the field. Domain scientists have developed new expectations for technology and services that enhance their ability to handle massive and complex data and present new challenges to data scientists. In response, data scientists are redefining and adapting their role to these rapidly changing demands of data-driven science and the fourth paradigm. In this paper, I explore the recent evolution of the field of data science as a socio-technical discipline. I discuss what has changed as well as what has remained the same and how some things that seem new may be a recasting of old problems. I take the view that data science is necessarily an evolutionary field that will need to continue to adapt in response to known and unknown challenges in order to ensure a healthy data ecosystem.

  12. Advice to young behavioral and cognitive scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Ronald G

    2008-02-01

    Modeled on Medawar's Advice to a Young Scientist [Medawar, P.B., 1979. Advice to a Young Scientist. Basic Books, New York], this article provides advice to behavioral and cognitive scientists. An important guiding principle is that the study of comparative cognition and behavior are natural sciences tasked with explaining nature. The author advises young scientists to begin with a natural phenomenon and then bring it into the laboratory, rather than beginning in the laboratory and hoping for an application in nature. He suggests collaboration as a way to include research outside the scientist's normal competence. He then discusses several guides to good science. These guides include Tinbergen's [Tinbergen, N., 1963. On aims and methods of ethology. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 20, 410-433. This journal was renamed Ethology in 1986. Also reprinted in Anim. Biol. 55, 297-321, 2005] four "why" questions, Platt's [Platt, J.R., 1964. Strong inference. Science 146, 347-353, (http://weber.ucsd.edu/~jmoore/courses/Platt1964.pdf)] notion of strong inference using multiple alternative hypotheses, and the idea that positive controls help scientists to follow Popper's [Popper, K.R., 1959. The Logic of Scientific Discovery. Basic Books, New York, p. 41] advice about disproving hypotheses. The author also recommends Strunk and White's [Strunk, W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York] rules for sound writing, and he provides his personal advice on how to use the anticipation of peer review to improve research and how to decode editors' and reviewers' comments about submitted articles.

  13. Media and the making of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Moira

    This dissertation explores how scientists and science students respond to fictional, visual media about science. I consider how scientists think about images of science in relation to their own career paths from childhood onwards. I am especially interested in the possibility that entertainment media can inspire young people to learn about science. Such inspiration is badly needed, as schools are failing to provide it. Science education in the United States is in a state of crisis. Studies repeatedly find low levels of science literacy in the U.S. This bleak situation exists during a boom in the popularity of science-oriented television shows and science fiction movies. How might entertainment media play a role in helping young people engage with science? To grapple with these questions, I interviewed a total of fifty scientists and students interested in science careers, representing a variety of scientific fields and demographic backgrounds, and with varying levels of interest in science fiction. Most respondents described becoming attracted to the sciences at a young age, and many were able to identify specific sources for this interest. The fact that interest in the sciences begins early in life, demonstrates a potentially important role for fictional media in the process of inspiration, perhaps especially for children without access to real-life scientists. One key aspect to the appeal of fiction about science is how scientists are portrayed as characters. Scientists from groups traditionally under-represented in the sciences often sought out fictional characters with whom they could identify, and viewers from all backgrounds preferred well-rounded characters to the extreme stereotypes of mad or dorky scientists. Genre is another aspect of appeal. Some respondents identified a specific role for science fiction: conveying a sense of wonder. Visual media introduce viewers to the beauty of science. Special effects, in particular, allow viewers to explore the

  14. Career Management for Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, John K.

    2000-05-01

    This book will be an important resource for both new graduates and mid-career scientists, engineers, and technicians. Through taking stock of existing or desired skills and goals, it provides both general advice and concrete examples to help asses a current job situation or prospect, and to effectively pursue and attain new ones. Many examples of properly adapted resumes and interview techniques, as well as plenty of practical advice about adaptation to new workplace cultural paradigms, such as team-based management, make this book an invaluable reference for the professional scientist in today's volatile job market.

  15. Research Funding Opportunities for Early Career Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Richard

    2009-10-01

    This talk will describe opportunities for early career faculty members in the physical sciences to obtain funding for scientific research and educational projects. I will discuss programs offered by Research Corporation for Science Advancement, a private nonprofit foundation, which include opportunities for scientists at primarily undergraduate institutions and at research universities. I will emphasize strategies for successful grant writing. The target audience is early career academic scientists in Astronomy, Physics, and related fields, as well as graduate students and postdoctoral researchers considering careers in these academic disciplines.

  16. THE REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN SCIENTIST IN AGORA

    OpenAIRE

    Mundi Rahayu

    2012-01-01

    The research aims to explore the representation of woman scientist in film Agora. Agora is a film focusing on the life of a woman scientist and philosopher named Hypatia who lived in Alexandria at the end of 4th A.D.  The research uses semiotics that is applied to explore the signs and the meaning of the film. The signs are in the forms of visual and verbal signs, such as the image, dialogue, setting of place, plot, character, narration, etc. The result of the analysis shows that Hypatia is r...

  17. How to Grow Project Scientists: A Systematic Approach to Developing Project Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The Project Manager is one of the key individuals that can determine the success or failure of a project. NASA is fully committed to the training and development of Project Managers across the agency to ensure that highly capable individuals are equipped with the competencies and experience to successfully lead a project. An equally critical position is that of the Project Scientist. The Project Scientist provides the scientific leadership necessary for the scientific success of a project by insuring that the mission meets or exceeds the scientific requirements. Traditionally, NASA Goddard project scientists were appointed and approved by the Center Science Director based on their knowledge, experience, and other qualifications. However the process to obtain the necessary knowledge, skills and abilities was not documented or done in a systematic way. NASA Goddard's current Science Director, Nicholas White saw the need to create a pipeline for developing new projects scientists, and appointed a team to develop a process for training potential project scientists. The team members were Dr. Harley Thronson, Chair, Dr. Howard Kea, Mr. Mark Goldman, DACUM facilitator and the late Dr. Michael VanSteenberg. The DACUM process, an occupational analysis and evaluation system, was used to produce a picture of the project scientist's duties, tasks, knowledge, and skills. The output resulted in a 3-Day introductory course detailing all the required knowledge, skills and abilities a scientist must develop over time to be qualified for selections as a Project Scientist.

  18. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Italian weather scientists and sports scientists – is there a link?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scientists were sentenced to 6 years' imprisonment for giving. 'inexact, incomplete and contradictory information' about whether small tremors felt in the weeks and months before the ... the same category as these Italian scientists if I get it wrong? This ... profile model', which is published in this edition.2 This article was.

  20. Scientists' coping strategies in an evolving research system: the case of life scientists in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, Norma; Rip, Arie

    2006-01-01

    Scientists in academia have struggled to adjust to a policy climate of uncertain funding and loss of freedom from direction and control. How UK life scientists have negotiated this challenge, and with what consequences for their research and the research system, is the empirical entrance point of

  1. Investigating How the Biographies of Today's Scientists Affect 8th Graders' Scientist Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how a poster study focusing on the biographies of today's scientists affected 8th graders' scientist images. The study utilized a mixed model which combined qualitative and quantitative research techniques. 142 8th graders from a secondary school in Ankara Province Keçiören District participated in the study.…

  2. Endocrine adaptations in the foal over the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowden, A L; Forhead, A J; Ousey, J C

    2012-02-01

    In adapting to life ex utero, the foal encounters a number of physiological challenges. It has to assume the nutritional, respiratory and excretory functions of the placenta and activate full regulatory control over its own internal environment for the first time. To achieve this, there must be structural and functional changes to a wide range of tissues including several endocrine glands. In most species, including the horse, these maturational changes begin in late gestation and continue into the first few days of neonatal life. Consequently, during this perinatal period, there are major changes in the sensitivity and/or set point of key endocrine axes, which alter the circulating hormone concentrations in the foal. In turn, these endocrine changes are responsible for many of the other physiological adaptations essential for neonatal survival. The perinatal alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are particularly important in these processes, although the sympatho-adrenal medullary axis and endocrine pancreas also have key roles in ensuring homeostasis during the multiple novel stimuli experienced at birth. Abnormalities in the perinatal endocrine profile caused by adverse conditions before or after birth may, therefore, lead to maladaptation or aid survival of the newborn foal depending on the specific circumstances. This review examines the perinatal changes in endocrinology in normal and compromised foals and the role of these endocrine changes in the physiological adaptations to extrauterine life with particular emphasis on the HPA axis, adreno-medullary catecholamines and the endocrine pancreas.

  3. The GLOBE International Scientists Network: Connecting scientists, teachers and students from around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlevoix, D. J.; Tessendorf, S. A.; Mackaro, J.

    2011-12-01

    The GLOBE Program invites scientists in all areas of Earth System Science to work with students and teachers around the work on exploring local scientific problems. GLOBE has a rich history of connecting scientists with schools around the world around issues of environmental and relevance. GLOBE is an international science and education program working with students, teachers and scientists in over 110 countries around the world. GLOBE has initiated a focus on climate science during the next two years and we are especially interested in connecting scientists with teachers and students in geographic and disciplinary areas of interest to climate scientists. In addition, GLOBE is revitalizing the technology support for science and communications which will provide an easy mechanism for scientists to connect with GLOBE schools. GLOBE is based on spheres of the Earth system with five investigation areas: Atmosphere, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover / Biology, and Phenology. Classroom learning activities for each area help guide students in the classroom. Scientific protocols for data collection designed by scientists provide guidance for students to collect scientifically valid, high-quality data that can be used by professional scientists. The GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign aims to develop a framework for robust scientist participation in the program whereby scientists and GLOBE schools with mutual science interest can connect and develop collaborations. Scientist participation ranges from mentoring students on science investigations to working collaborative on local climate science research problems. Scientists interested in working with GLOBE are encouraged to participate in whatever level of engagement is appropriate to compliment their research program and professional goals. Scientists will become a part of the GLOBE International Scientist Network, which may provide entrée into other avenues of research and funding. The GLOBE Program office, headquartered

  4. MD-PhD students in a major training program show strong interest in becoming surgeon-scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jaimo; Watt, Christopher D; Greeley, Siri Atma W; Bernstein, Joseph

    2004-08-01

    A wide spectrum of individuals have discussed the importance of promoting research in orthopaedics and of developing clinician-scientists (physicians who also do significant research) in the field. Although orthopaedic research may benefit from recruitment of MD-PhD students as clinician-scientists, it is unclear to what extent MD-PhD students are interested in pursuing research and surgical specialties concurrently. To better understand their professional goals, all MD-PhD students enrolled in our institution's training program were invited to complete an online questionnaire concerning training satisfaction and future career goals. Twenty-four percent of respondents (57.5% response rate of 167 recruits) reported a primary clinical interest in a surgical field (3% interest in orthopaedics); interest was strongest late in training. The majority of surgical MD-PhD students, like nonsurgical students, were planning to make research a significant part of their careers. In addition, students identified the importance of factors such as family issues and faculty role models in determining their clinical interests. The study data indicate that MD-PhD students have strong interests in becoming surgical clinician-scientists. They also suggested that active recruitment (especially early in training) that is responsive to the personal and professional needs of students has the potential to increase the number of clinician-scientists in orthopaedics.

  5. The Oratorical Scientist: A Guide for Speechcraft and Presentation for Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Public speaking organizations are highly valuable for individuals seeking to improve their skills in speech development and delivery. The methodology of such groups usually focuses on repetitive, guided practice. Toastmasters International, for instance, uses a curriculum based on topical manuals that guide their members through some number of prepared speeches with specific goals for each speech. I have similarly developed a public speaking manual for scientists with the intention of guiding scientists through the development and presentation of speeches that will help them hone their abilities as public speakers. I call this guide The Oratorical Scientist. The Oratorical Scientist will be a free, digital publication that is meant to guide scientists through five specific types of speech that the scientist may be called upon to deliver during their career. These five speeches are: The Coffee Talk, The Educational Talk, Research Talks for General Science Audiences, Research Talks for Specific Subdiscipline Audiences, and Taking the Big Stage (talks for public engagement). Each section of the manual focuses on speech development, rehearsal, and presentation for each of these specific types of speech. The curriculum was developed primarily from my personal experiences in public engagement. Individuals who use the manual may deliver their prepared speeches to groups of their peers (e.g. within their research group) or through video sharing websites like Youtube and Vimeo. Speeches that are broadcast online can then be followed and shared through social media networks (e.g. #OratoricalScientist), allowing a larger audience to evaluate the speech and to provide criticism. I will present The Oratorical Scientist, a guide for scientists to become better public speakers. The process of guided repetitive practice of scientific talks will improve the speaking capabilities of scientists, in turn benefitting science communication and public engagement.

  6. Endocrine disrupting chemicals – probability of adverse environmental effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Endocrine disruptors are defined as chemicals substances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and wildlife. Exposure to EDCs in animals models correlate positively with an increased incidence of malformations of genital tract, on neoplasmas, obesity, alternations on male and female reproduction and changes in neuroendocrinology and behavior. Results from animal models, human clinical observations and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant risk to public health.

  7. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  8. Headway in resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yali; Sun, Qiang

    2010-09-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is the major problem for ERα(+) breast cancer patients. Research in endocrine resistance, mainly based on breast cancer cell lines and transplantation animal models, has indicated that phosphorylation of estrogen receptors, high expression of SRC and high activation of ErbB/MAPK pathway are the 3 main mechanisms for occurrence of endocrine resistance. Restoration of ER expression and exploration of inhibitors to various biological targets are the 2 promising ways to solve this problem. Further research is needed to deeply explore relevant mechanisms and resolvents so as to guide clinical practice.

  9. Fostering Understanding between Scientists and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoyi, Zhang

    1988-01-01

    Describes how well-known scientists in China are attempting to win the understanding and trust of the general public as well as gaining prestige and social influence while promoting the cause of science. Measures employed include: the establishment of science institutions; professional organizations; events; the media; and science promotion…

  10. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddick, M. Jordan; Bracey, Georgia; Gay, Pamela L.; Lintott, Chris J.; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S.; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science…

  11. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel: An Engineer Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel: An Engineer Scientist. Ananth Ramaswamy. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September ... Author Affiliations. Ananth Ramaswamy1. Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  12. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists ... sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events ... bios Statistics and Data Resources for the media Pressroom Contacts ...

  13. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Social Media | Search A-Z | en español | Text size S M L About NEI NEI Research Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National ...

  14. Cautiously, Scientists Put Faith in Obama Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that academic researchers are optimistic that President Barack Obama's approach to science heralds a new era of support for their work. When Mr. Obama named his top science and technology advisers only weeks after being elected, many scientists celebrated. After eight years of an administration that many academics believed…

  15. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. dsimberloff@utk.edu Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative

  16. Challenges before Women Scientists, Technologists & Engineers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sastry Indrakanti

    contribution in science and technological fields are still below the expected level. So it is necessary to understand the ... technology to which women scientists and technologists can make more effective contribution iii.To create a ... multi-cultural environment. It not only imparts state of the art training to students to make them ...

  17. New Zealand scientists in firing line

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Kiwi scientists have a great chance to have their work bombarded with protons and to participate in world-class particle physics research, with the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) between CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research) and New Zealand" (1/2 page)

  18. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  19. Information and Communication Network Among Natural Scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study tries to find out the extent of information and communication networks among natural scientists in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Their ways of information sharing, and the extent of their participation in information networking were investigated. Using two (2) research questions, data was collected from 299 pure ...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  1. Rosalind Franklin: The Woman Scientist of DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 3. Rosalind Franklin: The Woman Scientist of DNA. C Uberoi. Article-in-a-Box Volume 9 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 3-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/03/0003-0005 ...

  2. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  3. University scientists test Mars probe equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Scientists at Leicester University have spent four years researching and designing the Flight Model Position Adjustable Workbench (PAW) at the university. It will be attached to the Beagle 2 probe before being sent to the Red Planet in the spring (1/2 page).

  4. BL4S - Be a scientist -

    CERN Multimedia

    James Gillies; Voice: John Ellis

    2017-01-01

    Did you ever wonder what it is like to be a scientist? If you’re up for a challenge, the BL4S competition is your chance to experience it. Any high school students from all over the world can join the adventure. Have a closer look and take part: {link) Deadline for submissions 31 March 2018.

  5. Scientists riff on fabric of the universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Their music may be the scourge of parents, but the thrashing guitars of heavy metal bands like Metallica and Iron Maiden could help explain the mysteries of the universe. The string vibrations from the frantic strumming of rock guitarists form the basis of String Theory, a mathematic theory that seeks to explain what the world is made of, says scientist Mark Lewney.

  6. Knowledge transfer activities of scientists in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna; Egedova, Klaudia; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Roosendaal, Hans E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theory of strategic positioning that explains scientists’ strategic behavior in knowledge transfer from university to industry. The theory is based on the drivers strategic interdependence and organizational autonomy and entails three modes of behavior of scientists:

  7. The Political Scientist as Local Campaign Consultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During my 45 years as an academic, I have followed the admonition sometimes attributed to the legendary Jedi warrior Obi-Wan Kenobe that political scientists should "use [their] power for good and not for evil." In this spirit, I have devoted substantial portions of my career to public service by providing strategic advice and campaign management…

  8. Scientists hope collider makes a big bang

    CERN Multimedia

    Nickerson, Colin

    2007-01-01

    "In a 17-ile circular tunnel curving beneath the Swiss-French border, scientists are poised to recreate the universe's first trillionth of a second. The aim of the audacious undertaking is to solve one of the most perturbing puzzles of physics: How did matter attain mass and form the cosmos? (2 pages)

  9. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  10. Creating Tomorrow's Scientists: Models of Community Mentoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AWIS, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a project supported by the Association for Women in Science (AWIS) that is designed to foster and develop liaisons between scientists and young women. Includes sections on the context of the project, design and methods, and project descriptions. (DDR)

  11. 'Lilavati's Daughters: The Women Scientists of India'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TSC

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... Indira Nath (Blue Peter Research Centre, Lepra Society,. Hyderabad), Prof. Sujatha Ramdorai (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai) etc. This latter event will take place between 12 and 1:30 p.m in the seminar hall at IIT Delhi. 'Lilavati's Daughters: the women scientists of India' is a collection of ...

  12. A Systematic Identification of Scientists on Twitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Q.; Ahn, Y.Y.; Sugimoto, C.R.

    2016-07-01

    There is an increasing use of Twitter and other social media to estimate the broader social impacts of scholarship. However, without systematic understanding of the entities that participate in conversations about science, efforts to translate altmetrics into impact indicators may produce highly misleading results. Here we present a systematic approach to identifying scientists on Twitter. (Author)

  13. Careers in Science: Being a Soil Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce, Alisa

    2015-01-01

    Being a soil scientist is a fascinating and certainly diverse career, which can indeed involve working in a laboratory or diagnosing sick orange trees. However it often involves much, much more. In 2015, as part of the United Nations' "International Year of Soils," Soil Science Australia's (SSA) "Soils in Schools" program…

  14. Russian scientists decry savage job cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ned

    2016-09-01

    More than 100 scientists in Russia have signed an open letter to the country's president, Vladimir Putin, protesting over a lack of funding for research and reforms that they say have left Russian science mired in a chronic state of crisis.

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home > NEI for Kids > Ask a Scientist Video Series ...

  16. Citizen Scientists: Investigating Science in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gail; Childers, Gina; Stevens, Vanessa; Whitley, Blake

    2012-01-01

    Citizen science programs are becoming increasingly popular among teachers, students, and families. The term "citizen scientist" has various definitions. It can refer to those who gather information for a particular science research study or to people who lobby for environmental protection for their communities. "Citizen science" has been called…

  17. From basic science to agricultural scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    agricultural scientist. Renu Khanna-Chopra. 25. As a child I always felt excited about going to school and learning new things. I went to school across several states as my father, an engineer with a government department, was transferred frequently. My parents, especially my mother, always took care to admit us to the best ...

  18. GI Taylor–An Amateur Scientist

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 10. G. I. Taylor – An Amateur Scientist. Jaywant H Arakeri. Article-in-a-Box Volume 9 Issue 10 October 2004 pp 3-5. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/10/0003-0005 ...

  19. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  20. LILAVATI'S DAUGHTERS: THE WOMEN SCIENTISTS OF INDIA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    LILAVATI'S DAUGHTERS: THE WOMEN SCIENTISTS OF INDIA. Edited by: Rohini Godbole and Ram Ramaswamy. Published by: Indian Academy of Sciences. ISBN 978-81-8465-005-1. No. of pages: 386 (paperback). Price: Rs. 300/- US $25/- (inclusive of postage). Details for ordering and procuring the book: Address for ...

  1. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  2. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profile Home Diagnosis & Treatment IC Treatments Surgical Procedures Surgical Procedures For people with interstitial cystitis (IC), the ... latest stories, news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, ...

  3. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  4. Surgical wound care -- closed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000738.htm Surgical wound care - closed To use the sharing features on ... made during surgery. It is also called a "surgical wound." Some incisions are small. Others are very long. ...

  5. Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Implants and Prosthetics Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Hernia Surgical Mesh Implants Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... between patients and their surgeons. What is a Hernia? A hernia occurs when an organ, intestine or ...

  6. Surgical approach to medullary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Catharina Ihre; Delbridg, Leigh; Learoyd, Diana; Robinson, Bruce

    2007-07-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) compromises 3-5% of all thyroid cancers and arises from parafollicular or calcitonin-producing C cells. It may be sporadic (75% of cases), or may occur as a manifestation of either the hereditary syndrome Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2A or MEN 2B) (25% of cases), or rarely as an isolated familial syndrome (FMTC). Complete surgical resection comprising in most cases total thyroidectomy with central lymph node dissection at an early stage of the disease is the only potential cure for MTC. The familial form of the disease, MEN-2A occupies a unique place in surgical history, having been the first disease where surgical removal of an affected organ was undertaken before the development of malignancy, solely on the basis of genetic testing. Total thyroidectomy prior to the development of invasive cancer completely avoids an otherwise lethal malignancy. Timing of prophylactic surgery is based on models that utilise genotype-phenotype correlations, which have now been stratified into three risk groups based on the specific codon involved. MTC should be followed with postoperative serial serum calcitonin levels to survey for persistent or recurrent disease as indicated by detectable levels. The challenge however, if calcitonin levels are increased, is to find the source of its production. The first localisation technique recommended would be ultrasound of the neck, since there is a high frequency of local recurrence and cervical node metastasis, followed by a total body CT scan and bone scintigraphy.

  7. Scientists' Perceptions of Communicating During Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohaney, J. A.; Hudson-Doyle, E.; Brogt, E.; Wilson, T. M.; Kennedy, B.

    2015-12-01

    To further our understanding of how to enhance student science and risk communication skills in natural hazards and earth science courses, we conducted a pilot study to assess the different perceptions of expert scientists and risk communication practitioners versus the perceptions of students. These differences will be used to identify expert views on best practice, and improve the teaching of communication skills at the University level. In this pilot study, a perceptions questionnaire was developed and validated. Within this, respondents (geoscientists, engineers, and emergency managers; n=44) were asked to determine their agreement with the use and effectiveness of specific communication strategies (within the first 72 hours after a devastating earthquake) when communicating to the public. In terms of strategies and information to the public, the respondents were mostly in agreement, but there were several statements which elicited large differences between expert responses: 1) the role and purpose of the scientific communication during crises (to persuade people to care, to provide advice, to empower people to take action); 2) the scientist's delivery (showing the scientists emotions and enthusiasm for scientific concepts they are discussing); and 3) the amount of data that is discussed (being comprehensive versus 'only the important' data). The most disagreed upon dimension was related to whether to disclose any political influence on the communication. Additionally, scientists identified that being an effective communicator was an important part of their job, and agreed that it is important to practice these skills. Respondents generally indicated that while scientists should be accountable for the science advice provided, they should not be held liable.

  8. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... determine the potential for a drug to disrupt the endocrine system. This draft guidance also discusses... compounds that have the potential to interfere with some aspect of the endocrine system of an organism or its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although...

  9. Nobelist TD LEE Scientist Cooperation Network and Scientist Innovation Ability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Qing Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobelist TD Lee scientist cooperation network (TDLSCN and their innovation ability are studied. It is found that the TDLSCN not only has the common topological properties both of scale-free and small-world for a general scientist cooperation networks, but also appears the creation multiple-peak phenomenon for number of published paper with year evolution, which become Nobelist TD Lee’s significant mark distinguished from other scientists. This new phenomenon has not been revealed in the scientist cooperation networks before. To demonstrate and explain this new finding, we propose a theoretical model for a nature scientist and his/her team innovation ability. The theoretical results are consistent with the empirical studies very well. This research demonstrates that the model has a certain universality and can be extended to estimate innovation ability for any nature scientist and his/her team. It is a better method for evaluating scientist innovation ability and his/her team for the academic profession and is of application potential.

  10. Not going it alone: scientists and their work featured online at FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, E. A.; Nielsen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Science outreach demystifies science, and outreach media gives scientists a voice to engage the public. Today scientists are expected to communicate effectively not only with peers but also with a braod public audience, yet training incentiives are sometimes scarce. Media creation training is even less emphasized. Editing video to modern standards takes practice; arrangling light and framing shots isn't intuitive. While great tutorials exist, learning videography, story boarding, editing and sharing techniques will always require a commitment of time and effort. Yet ideally sharing science should be low-hanging fruit. FrontierScientists, a science-sharing website funded by the NSF, seeks to let scientists display their breakthroughs and share their excitement for their work with the public by working closely yet non-exhaustively with a professional media team. A director and videographer join scientists to film first-person accounts in the field or lab. Pictures and footage with field site explanations give media creators raw material. Scientists communicate efficiently and retain editorial control over the project, but a small team of media creators craft the public aimed content. A series of engaging short videos with narrow focuses illuminate the science. Written articles support with explanations. Social media campaigns spread the word, link content, welcome comments and keep abreast of changing web requirements. All FrontierScientists featured projects are aggregated to one mobile-friendly site available online or via an App. There groupings of Arctic-focused science provide a wealth of topics and content to explore. Scientists describe why their science is important, what drew them to it, and why the average American should care. When scientists share their work it's wonderful; a team approach is a schedule-friendly way that lets them serve as science communicators without taking up a handful of extra careers.

  11. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Hartgerink, Chris H J; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2017-01-01

    Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the "storybook image of the scientist" is pervasive: American lay people and scientists from over 60 countries attributed considerably more objectivity, rationality, open-mindedness, intelligence, integrity, and communality to scientists than to other highly-educated people. Moreover, scientists perceived even larger differences than lay people did. Some groups of scientists also differentiated between different categories of scientists: established scientists attributed higher levels of the scientific traits to established scientists than to early-career scientists and Ph.D. students, and higher levels to Ph.D. students than to early-career scientists. Female scientists attributed considerably higher levels of the scientific traits to female scientists than to male scientists. A strong belief in the storybook image and the (human) tendency to attribute higher levels of desirable traits to people in one's own group than to people in other groups may decrease scientists' willingness to adopt recently proposed practices to reduce error, bias and dishonesty in science.

  12. VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Aguilar (Helena); A. Urruticoechea (Ander); P. Halonen (Pasi); K. Kiyotani (Kazuma); T. Mushiroda (Taisei); X. Barril (Xavier); J. Serra-Musach (Jordi); A.B.M.M.K. Islam (Abul); L. Caizzi (Livia); L. Di Croce (Luciano); E. Nevedomskaya (Ekaterina); W. Zwart (Wilbert); J. Bostner (Josefine); E. Karlsson (Elin); G. Pérez Tenorio (Gizeh); T. Fornander (Tommy); D.C. Sgroi (Dennis); R. Garcia-Mata (Rafael); M.P.H.M. Jansen (Maurice); N. García (Nadia); N. Bonifaci (Núria); F. Climent (Fina); E. Soler (Eric); A. Rodríguez-Vida (Alejo); M. Gil (Miguel); J. Brunet (Joan); G. Martrat (Griselda); L. Gómez-Baldó (Laia); A.I. Extremera (Ana); J. Figueras; J. Balart (Josep); R. Clarke (Robert); K.L. Burnstein (Kerry); K.E. Carlson (Kathryn); J.A. Katzenellenbogen (John); M. Vizoso (Miguel); M. Esteller (Manel); A. Villanueva (Alberto); A.B. Rodríguez-Peña (Ana); X.R. Bustelo (Xosé); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); H. Zembutsu (Hitoshi); O. Stål (Olle); R.L. Beijersbergen (Roderick); M.A. Pujana (Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERα-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through

  13. Endocrine therapy use among elderly hormone receptor-pos...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Clinical guidelines recommend that women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer receive endocrine therapy (selective estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase...

  14. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  15. Differential levels of Neurod establish zebrafish endocrine pancreas cell fates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dalgin, Gökhan; Prince, Victoria E

    2015-01-01

    .... Differentiation of appropriate numbers of each hormone-expressing endocrine cell type is essential for the normal development of the pancreas and ultimately for effective maintenance of blood glucose levels...

  16. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day eac...... as endocrine disruptors in vivo, although the profile of action in vivo varies. As ketoconazole is known to implicate numerous endocrine-disrupting effects in humans, the concern for the effects of the other tested azole fungicides in humans is growing.......The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each...

  17. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L

    2012-01-01

    exposures to have potent and irreversible effects. Finally, with regard to the current program designed to detect putative EDC, namely, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, we offer recommendations for strengthening this program through the incorporation of basic endocrine principles to promote......An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variability...... in regulation of these events across the life cycle. The developmental age at which EDC exposures occur is a critical consideration in understanding their effects. Because endocrine systems exhibit tissue-, cell-, and receptor-specific actions during the life cycle, EDC can produce complex, mosaic effects...

  18. Perioperative intensive insulin therapy using artificial endocrine pancreas in patients undergoing pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiromichi; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Yamashita, Koichi; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Perioperative glycemic control is important for reducing postoperative infectious complications. However, clinical trials have shown that efforts to maintain normoglycemia in intensive care unit patients result in deviation of glucose levels from the optimal range, and frequent attacks of hypoglycemia. Tight glycemic control is even more challenging in those undergoing pancreatic resection. Removal of lesions and surrounding normal pancreatic tissue often cause hormone deficiencies that lead to the destruction of glucose homeostasis, which is termed pancreatogenic diabetes. Pancreatogenic diabetes is characterized by the occurrence of hyperglycemia and iatrogenic severe hypoglycemia, which adversely effects patient recovery. Postoperatively, a variety of factors including surgical stress, inflammatory cytokines, sympathomimetic drug therapy, and aggressive nutritional support can also affect glycemic control. This review discusses the endocrine aspects of pancreatic resection and highlights postoperative glycemic control using a closed-loop system or artificial pancreas. In previous experiments, we have demonstrated the reliability of the artificial pancreas in dogs with total pancreatectomy, and its postoperative clinical use has been shown to be effective and safe, without the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes, even in patients after total pancreatectomy. Considering the increasing requirement for tight perioperative glycemic control and the recognized risk of hypoglycemia, we propose the use of an artificial endocrine pancreas that is able to monitor continuously blood glucose concentrations with proven accuracy, and administer automatically substances to return blood glucose concentration to the optimal narrow range. PMID:19725142

  19. Getting to Yes: Supporting Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, S. M.; Lynds, S. E.; Smith, L. K.

    2011-12-01

    Research scientists are busy people, with many demands on their time and few institutional rewards for engagement in education and public outreach (EPO). However, scientist involvement in education has been called for by funding agencies, education researchers and the scientific organizations. In support of this idea, educators consistently rate interaction with scientists as the most meaningful element of an outreach project. What factors help scientists become engaged in EPO, and why do scientists stay engaged? This presentation describes the research-based motivations and barriers for scientists to be engaged in EPO, presents strategies for overcoming barriers, and describes elements of EPO that encourage and support scientist engagement.

  20. Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.

  1. Cabergoline and the risk of valvular lesions in endocrine disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Livadariu, E.; Markov, M.; Daly, Adrian; Burlacu, M. C.; BETEA, Daniela; Pierard, Luc; Beckers, Albert

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: The cardiac valvular risk associated with lower exposure to cabergoline in common endocrine conditions such as hyperprolactinemia is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional, case-control echocardiographic study to assess the valvular status in 102 subjects receiving cabergoline for endocrine disorders and 51 matched control subjects. Cabergoline treatment ranged from 12 to 228 months, with a cumulative dose of 18-1718 mg. Valvular regurgitation was equally prevalent...

  2. Sarcopenic Obesity and Endocrinal Adaptation with Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In normal aging, changes in the body composition occur that result in a shift toward decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. The loss of muscle mass that occurs with aging is termed sarcopenia and is an important cause of frailty, disability, and loss of independence in older adults. Age-related changes in the body composition as well as the increased prevalence of obesity determine a combination of excess weight and reduced muscle mass or strength, recently defined as sarcopenic obesity. Weight gain increases total/abdominal fat, which, in turn, elicits inflammation and fatty infiltration in muscle. Sarcopenic obesity appears to be linked with the upregulation of TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, leptin, and myostatin and the downregulation of adiponectin and IL-15. Multiple combined exercise and mild caloric restriction markedly attenuate the symptoms of sarcopenic obesity. Intriguingly, the inhibition of myostatin induced by gene manipulation or neutralizing antibody ameliorates sarcopenic obesity via increased skeletal muscle mass and improved glucose homeostasis. In this review, we describe the possible influence of endocrinal changes with age on sarcopenic obesity.

  3. Metabolic and endocrine effects of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copinschi, Georges

    2005-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has multiple effects on endocrine and metabolic function. In particular, sleep restriction is accompanied by increased cortisol levels in the afternoon and early evening and a shorter quiescent period compared with extended sleep periods. Those alterations could facilitate central and peripheral disturbances that are associated with glucocorticoid excess, such as memory deficits, and are similar to those observed in aging. Thus, chronic sleep loss could contribute to acceleration of the aging process. Sleep restriction is also associated with an impairment of carbohydrate tolerance, similar to that observed in individuals with clinically significant impaired glucose tolerance. Thus, chronic sleep deprivation may increase the risk for diabetes. Finally, sleep plays an important role in energy balance. Partial sleep deprivation was found to be associated with a decrease in plasma levels of leptin and a concomitant increase in plasma levels of ghrelin; subjective ratings of hunger and appetite also increased (the appetite for protein-rich foods was not significantly affected). Moreover, a remarkable correlation was found between the increase in hunger and the increase in the ghrelin:leptin ratio. Thus, the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite and food intake appears to be influenced by sleep duration, and sleep restriction may favor the development of obesity.

  4. QSAR Methods to Screen Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Porta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on in silico methods addressing toxicological studies about EDCs with a special focus on the application of QSAR models for screening purpose. Since Estrogen-like (ER activity has been extensively studied, the majority of the available models are based on ER-related endpoints. Some of these models are here reviewed and described. As example for their application, we screen an assembled dataset of candidate substitutes for some known EDCs belonging to the chemical classes of phthalates, bisphenols and parabens, selected considering their toxicological relevance and broad application, with the general aim of preliminary assessing their ED potential. The goal of the substitution processes is to advance inherently safer chemicals and products, consistent with the principles of green chemistry. Results suggest that the integration of a family of different models accounting for different endpoints can be a convenient way to describe ED as properly as possible and allow also both to increase the confidence of the predictions and to maximize the probability that most active compounds are correctly found.

  5. The endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, Patrick; Gaide Chevronnay, Héloïse P; Marbaix, Etienne

    2012-07-25

    During the reproductive life, the human endometrium undergoes cycles of substantial remodeling including, at menstruation, a massive but delimited tissue breakdown immediately followed by scarless repair. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge on the endocrine and paracrine control of menstruation in the light of recent observations that undermine obsolete dogmas. Menstruation can be globally considered as a response to falling progesterone concentration. However, tissue breakdown is heterogeneous and tightly controlled in space and time by a complex network of regulators and effectors, including cytokines, chemokines, proteases and various components of an inflammatory response. Moreover, menstruation must be regarded as part of a complex and integrated mechanism of tissue remodeling including features that precede and follow tissue lysis, i.e. decidualization and immediate post-menstrual regeneration. The understanding of the regulation of menstruation is of major basic and clinical interest. Indeed, these mechanisms largely overlap with those controlling other histopathological occurrences of tissue remodeling, such as development and cancer, and inappropriate control of menstrual features is a major potential cause of two frequent endometrial pathologies (i.e. abnormal uterine bleeding and endometriosis). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. All Madelung deformities are not endocrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Madelung deformity is a rare inherited disorder associated with endocrine disorders like Turner′s syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism, but can be seen with short stature homeobox deficiency conditions such as Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD and Langers mesomelic dysplasia. It has also been reported following trauma to the distal radius epiphysis neoplasia mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS and achondroplasia. Madelung deformity is an abnormality of distal radial epiphysis where in progressive ulnar and volar tilt of the articular surface occurring in association with distal subluxation of ulna. A 13-year-old girl was referred to us for evaluation of bilateral deformity of wrist and short stature. There was ulnar deviation and dorsal tilt of bilateral hands without history of pain to the joint trauma and family history of similar illness. On X-ray, wrist showed malformed distal radial epiphysis with dorsal and ulnar shift and with increased length of phalanges suggestive of Madelung deformity. X-ray spine was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed normal uterus and ovary and her follicle stimulating hormone. Luteinizing hormone was normal and so was urine MPS screening. Based on the above points the diagnosis of LWD was made.

  7. Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Kenji; Machida, Takuji; Hirafuji, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays a key role in postural retention as well as locomotion for maintaining the physical activities of human life. Skeletal muscle has a second role as an elaborate energy production and consumption system that influences the whole body's energy metabolism. Skeletal muscle is a specific organ that engenders a physical force, and exercise training has been known to bring about multiple benefits for human health maintenance and/or improvement. The mechanisms underlying the improvement of the human physical condition have been revealed: skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes multiple factors, and these muscle-derived factors, so-called as myokines, exert beneficial effects on peripheral and remote organs. In this short review, we focus on the third aspect of skeletal muscle function - namely, the release of multiple types of myokines, which constitute a broad network for regulating the function of remote organs as well as skeletal muscle itself. We conclusively show that skeletal muscle is one of the endocrine organs and that understanding the mechanisms of production and secretion of myokines may lead to a new pharmacological approach for treatment of clinical disorders.

  8. EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Endocrine Society's first Scientific Statement in 2009 provided a wake-up call to the scientific community about how environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) affect health and disease. Five years later, a substantially larger body of literature has solidified our understanding of plausible mechanisms underlying EDC actions and how exposures in animals and humans—especially during development—may lay the foundations for disease later in life. At this point in history, we have much stronger knowledge about how EDCs alter gene-environment interactions via physiological, cellular, molecular, and epigenetic changes, thereby producing effects in exposed individuals as well as their descendants. Causal links between exposure and manifestation of disease are substantiated by experimental animal models and are consistent with correlative epidemiological data in humans. There are several caveats because differences in how experimental animal work is conducted can lead to difficulties in drawing broad conclusions, and we must continue to be cautious about inferring causality in humans. In this second Scientific Statement, we reviewed the literature on a subset of topics for which the translational evidence is strongest: 1) obesity and diabetes; 2) female reproduction; 3) male reproduction; 4) hormone-sensitive cancers in females; 5) prostate; 6) thyroid; and 7) neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. Our inclusion criteria for studies were those conducted predominantly in the past 5 years deemed to be of high quality based on appropriate negative and positive control groups or populations, adequate sample size and experimental design, and mammalian animal studies with exposure levels in a range that was relevant to humans. We also focused on studies using the developmental origins of health and disease model. No report was excluded based on a positive or negative effect of the EDC exposure. The bulk of the results across the board strengthen the

  9. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  10. Update of Endocrine Dysfunction following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Reifschneider

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries (TBI are common occurrences in childhood, often resulting in long term, life altering consequences. Research into endocrine sequelae following injury has gained attention; however, there are few studies in children. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current literature documenting risk for endocrine dysfunction in children suffering from TBI. Primary injury following TBI often results in disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and antidiuretic hormone production and release, with implications for both acute management and survival. Secondary injuries, occurring hours to weeks after TBI, result in both temporary and permanent alterations in pituitary function. At five years after moderate to severe TBI, nearly 30% of children suffer from hypopituitarism. Growth hormone deficiency and disturbances in puberty are the most common; however, any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis can be affected. In addition, endocrine abnormalities can improve or worsen with time, having a significant impact on children’s quality of life both acutely and chronically. Since primary and secondary injuries from TBI commonly result in transient or permanent hypopituitarism, we conclude that survivors should undergo serial screening for possible endocrine disturbances. High indices of suspicion for life threatening endocrine deficiencies should be maintained during acute care. Additionally, survivors of TBI should undergo endocrine surveillance by 6–12 months after injury, and then yearly, to ensure early detection of deficiencies in hormonal production that can substantially influence growth, puberty and quality of life.

  11. Autoimmune pancreatitis with atypical imaging findings that mimicked an endocrine tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzillet, Cindy; Lepère, Céline; Hajjam, Mostafa El; Palazzo, Laurent; Fabre, Monique; Turki, Hajer; Hammel, Pascal; Rougier, Philippe; Mitry, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis or chronic pancreatitis in middle-aged patients, and is characterised by a marked infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells in pancreatic tissue. Diagnosis of focal forms can be difficult as AIP may mimic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Pediatric cases of AIP are exceptional. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl who had a focal AIP and associated cholangitis, with a very unusual vascularized mass that mimicked a pancreatic endocrine tumor. The diagnosis was obtained by a pancreatic biopsy, thus avoiding surgical resection, and all the clinical, biological and radiological abnormalities resolved after steroid therapy with 6 mo of follow-up. PMID:20556844

  12. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students? Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

    OpenAIRE

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments (?Scientist Spotlights?) that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage...

  13. Bringing Female Scientists into the Elementary Classroom: Confronting the Strength of Elementary Students' Stereotypical Images of Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gayle A.; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra; Kirby, Susan K.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the effectiveness of bringing female scientists into elementary classrooms to promote change in the stereotypical images of scientists. Indicates that despite the efforts of the scientists to encourage students to question their image of a scientist, students held onto stereotypical images. Uses both qualitative and quantitative methods…

  14. Nuclear Targeting Terms for Engineers and Scientists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Ledger, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Department of Defense has a methodology for targeting nuclear weapons, and a jargon that is used to communicate between the analysts, planners, aircrews, and missile crews. The typical engineer or scientist in the Department of Energy may not have been exposed to the nuclear weapons targeting terms and methods. This report provides an introduction to the terms and methodologies used for nuclear targeting. Its purpose is to prepare engineers and scientists to participate in wargames, exercises, and discussions with the Department of Defense. Terms such as Circular Error Probable, probability of hit and damage, damage expectancy, and the physical vulnerability system are discussed. Methods for compounding damage from multiple weapons applied to one target are presented.

  15. Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharlin, H.I.

    1992-09-01

    The Emeritus Scientists, Mathematicians and Engineers (ESME) program matches retired scientists and engineers with wide experience with elementary school children in order to fuel the children's natural curiosity about the world in which they live. The long-range goal is to encourage students to maintain the high level of mathematical and science capability that they exhibit at an early age by introducing them to the fun and excitement of the world of scientific investigation and engineering problem solving. Components of the ESME program are the emeriti, established teacher-emeriti teams that work to produce a unit of 6 class hours of demonstration or hands-on experiments, and the encounter by students with the world of science/engineering through the classroom sessions and a field trip to a nearby plant or laboratory.

  16. Intellectual property law: a primer for scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William M

    2003-03-01

    Intellectual property (IP) is a generic legal term for patents, copyrights, and trademarks, which provide legal rights to protect ideas, the expression of ideas, and the inventors and creators of such ideas. A patent provides legal protection for a new invention, an application of a new idea, discovery, or concept that is useful. Copyright provides legal protection from copying for any creative work, as well as business and scientific publications, computer software, and compilations of information. A trademark provides rights to use symbols, particular words, logos, or other markings that indicate the source of a product or service. A further method of benefiting from an invention is simply to keep it secret, rather than to disclose it a trade secret. IP impinges on almost everything scientists do. As scientists are paid to come up with ideas and aspire to patent and/or publish their work, the protection of ideas and of written works especially should be of interest and concern to all.

  17. Conservation beyond science: scientists as storytellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Veríssimo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As scientists we are often unprepared and unwilling to communicate our passion for what we do to those outside our professional circles. Scientific literature can also be difficult or unattractive to those without a professional interest in research. Storytelling can be a successful approach to enable readers to engage with the challenges faced by scientists. In an effort to convey to the public what it means to be a field biologist, 18 Portuguese biologists came together to write a book titled “BIOgraphies: The lives of those who study life”, in the original Portuguese “BIOgrafias: Vidas de quem estuda a vida”. This book is a collection of 35 field stories that became career landmarks for those who lived them. We discuss the obstacles and opportunities of the publishing process and reflect on the lessons learned for future outreach efforts.

  18. Stress and morale of academic biomedical scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Warren L; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2015-05-01

    Extensive research has shown high rates of burnout among physicians, including those who work in academic health centers. Little is known, however, about stress, burnout, and morale of academic biomedical scientists. The authors interviewed department chairs at one U.S. institution and were told that morale has plummeted in the past five years. Chairs identified three major sources of stress: fear of not maintaining sufficient funding to keep their positions and sustain a career; frustration over the amount of time spent doing paperwork and administrative duties; and distrust due to an increasingly adversarial relationship with the executive leadership.In this Commentary, the authors explore whether declining morale and concerns about funding, bureaucracy, and faculty-administration conflict are part of a larger national pattern. The authors also suggest ways that the federal government, research sponsors, and academic institutions can address these concerns and thereby reduce stress and burnout, increase productivity, and improve overall morale of academic biomedical scientists.

  19. Kristian Birkeland the first space scientist

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth’s magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and daring campaigns in the Arctic wilderness in the light of Maxwell’s newly discovered laws of electricity and magnetism. Birkeland’s ideas were dismissed for decades, only to be vindicated when satellites could fly above the Earth’s atmosphere. Faced with the depleting stocks of Chilean saltpeter and the consequent prospect of mass starvation, Birkeland showed his practical side, inventing the first industrial scale method to extract nitrogen-based fertilizers from the air. Norsk Hydro, one of modern Norway’s largest industries, stands as a living tribute to his genius. Hoping to demo...

  20. Adolescent health. Challenges for behavioral scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, S G

    1989-05-01

    Clearly, the role of behavioral scientists in adolescent health is not limited to service delivery. They also have a role to play via their contributions to basic knowledge of adolescent health and development, their involvement with the design and evaluation of health systems, their efforts to design and evaluate interventions to reduce adolescent morbidity and mortality, and their contributions to adolescent health policy. The once popular view of adolescence as a period of inevitable storm and stress has been replaced by one that emphasizes the potential of this developmental stage for constructive adaptation and maturation. Behavioral scientists have an important role to play in assuring that the potential of this life stage is reached for future generations of youth.

  1. Surgical Lasers In Gynecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhas, Helmut F.; Barnes, Alfonso E.

    1982-12-01

    Multipurpose surgical CO2 lasers marketed in the USA have been developed to be applicable to a variety of surgical procedures in many surgical fields. They are all suited for endoscopic surgical procedures and can be fitted to all standard surgical microscopes. They all can adjust the focal length of the laser beam to the different standard focal lengths of the surgical microscope which for instance in laryngoscopy is 400 mm and in colposcopy 300 mm. One laser instrument can even change the spot size in a given focal distance which is very advantageous for some microsurgical procedures (Merrimack Laboratories 820). All multipurpose surgical CO2 laser systems provide a multi-articulated surgical arm for free-hand surgery. The surgical arms are cumbersome to use but they are adapted to the surgeons needs with ingenuity. The practicality of the multi-articulated surgical arms depends mostly on the distance of the handpiece from the surgical console which now is also overbridged by the laser tube in most surgical laser system. The spot size of the beam is variable in most handpieces by interchangeable lenses which modify the focal distance of the beam and the power density. Another common feature in all systems is a coaxial He-Ne pilot light which provides a red spot which unfortunately becomes invisible in a bleeding surgical field. Most surgical laser systems have a spacial mode of TEM 00 which is essential for incisional surgery. The continuous mode of beam delivery is used for incisional surgery and also for most endoscopic procedures.

  2. Non-natives: 141 scientists object

    OpenAIRE

    Simberloff, D.; Van der Putten, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Supplementary information to: Non-natives: 141 scientists object Full list of co-signatories to a Correspondence published in Nature 475, 36 (2011); doi: 10.1038/475036a. Daniel Simberloff University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Jake Alexander Institute of Integrative Biology, Zurich, Switzerland. Fred Allendorf University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA. James Aronson CEFE/CNRS, Montpellier, France. Pedro M. Antunes Algoma University, Sault Ste. Marie, Onta...

  3. Modern physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, John C

    2010-01-01

    Intended for a first course in modern physics, following an introductory course in physics with calculus, Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers begins with a brief and focused account of the historical events leading to the formulation of modern quantum theory, while later chapters delve into the underlying physics. Streamlined content, chapters on semiconductors, Dirac Equation and Quantum Field Theory, and a robust pedagogy and ancillary package including an accompanying website with computer applets assists students in learning the essential material.

  4. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensively revised - essentially rewritten - new edition of the 1990 edition (described as ""extremely useful"" by MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS and as ""understandable and comprehensive"" by Scitech) guides readers through the dense array of mathematical information in the International Tables Volume A. Thus, most scientists seeking to understand a crystal structure publication can do this from this book without necessarily having to consult the International Tables themselves. This remains the only book aimed at non-crystallographers devoted to teaching them about crystallogr

  5. What Scientists Who Study Emotion Agree About.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the field of emotion has grown enormously-recently, nearly 250 scientists were identified who are studying emotion. In this article, I report a survey of the field, which revealed high agreement about the evidence regarding the nature of emotion, supporting some of both Darwin's and Wundt's 19th century proposals. Topics where disagreements remain were also exposed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Learning with Teachers; A Scientist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, K. P.

    2004-12-01

    Over the past six years, as an Assistant Professor and now as an Associate Professor, I have engaged in educational outreach activities with K-12 teachers and their students. In this presentation I will talk about the successes and failures that I have had as a scientist engaged in K-12 educational outreach, including teaching the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) distance learning course, teaching inquiry-based science to pre-service teachers through the NASA Opportunities for Visionary Academics (NOVA) program, GLOBE, school visits, and research projects with teachers and students. I will reflect on the potential impact this has had on my career, negative and positive. I will present ways that I have been able to engage in educational outreach while remaining a productive scientist, publishing research papers, etc. Obtaining grant funding to support a team of educational experts to assist me perform outreach has been critical to my groups success. However, reporting for small educational grants from state agencies can often be overwhelming. The bottom line is that I find working with teachers and students rewarding and believe that it is a critical part of me being a scientist. Through the process of working with teachers I have learned pedagogy that has helped me be a better teacher in the university classroom.

  7. The scientist's education and a civic conscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kelling J; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    A civic science curriculum is advocated. We discuss practical mechanisms for (and highlight the possible benefits of) addressing the relationship between scientific knowledge and civic responsibility coextensively with rigorous scientific content. As a strategy, we suggest an in-course treatment of well known (and relevant) historical and contemporary controversies among scientists over science policy or the use of sciences. The scientific content of the course is used to understand the controversy and to inform the debate while allowing students to see the role of scientists in shaping public perceptions of science and the value of scientific inquiry, discoveries and technology in society. The examples of the activism of Linus Pauling, Alfred Nobel and Joseph Rotblat as scientists and engaged citizens are cited. We discuss the role of science professors in informing the social conscience of students and consider ways in which a treatment of the function of science in society may find, coherently, a meaningful space in a science curriculum at the college level. Strategies for helping students to recognize early the crucial contributions that science can make in informing public policy and global governance are discussed.

  8. Women Scientists in Taiwan: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Yun Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects upon issues of gender and science in Taiwan. Its starting point is the first academic paper on the subject published in Taiwan in 1996 by Fu and Wang, and then it draws upon the biographical accounts of 20 women scientists. We emphasize the importance of focusing on the specific contexts of the history of science and women in Taiwan. Partly as a result of Taiwan's colonial past and women's limited access to education, women scientists did not emerge in Taiwan until the second half of the 20th century when higher education became available to women. The gender issues with which women scientists in Taiwan have had to cope include the ways in which women have been excluded or included, their marital and career status, the local and global politics of scientific knowledge, and negotiating social networks. These issues have remained largely the same since the Fu and Wang study, but they have certainly gained wider attention and understanding, and greater articulation, both within academia and society.

  9. Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships: Reimagining Scientists in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Terwilliger, Michael; InsightSTEM Teacher-Scientist-Communicator-Learner Partnerships Team

    2016-01-01

    We present results of our work to reimagine Teacher-Scientist partnerships to improve relationships and outcomes. We describe our work in implementing Teacher-Scientist partnerships that are expanded to include a communicator, and the learners themselves, as genuine members of the partnership. Often times in Teacher-Scientist partnerships, the scientist can often become more easily described as a special guest into the classroom, rather than a genuine partner in the learning experience. We design programs that take the expertise of the teacher and the scientist fully into account to develop practical and meaningful partnerships, that are further enhanced by using an expert in communications to develop rich experiences for and with the learners. The communications expert may be from a broad base of backgrounds depending on the needs and desires of the partners -- the communicators include, for example: public speaking gurus; journalists; web and graphic designers; and American Sign Language interpreters. Our partnership programs provide online support and professional development for all parties. Outcomes of the program are evaluated in terms of not only learning outcomes for the students, but also attitude, behavior, and relationship outcomes for the teachers, scientists, communicators and learners alike.

  10. Scientists' Views about Attribution of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bart; Strengers, Bart; Cook, John; van Dorland, Rob; Vringer, Kees; Peters, Jeroen; Visser, Hans; Meyer, Leo

    2015-04-01

    What do scientists think? That is an important question when engaging in science communication, in which an attempt is made to communicate the scientific understanding to a lay audience. To address this question we undertook a large and detailed survey among scientists studying various aspects of climate change , dubbed "perhaps the most thorough survey of climate scientists ever" by well-known climate scientist and science communicator Gavin Schmidt. Among more than 1800 respondents we found widespread agreement that global warming is predominantly caused by human greenhouse gases. This consensus strengthens with increased expertise, as defined by the number of self-reported articles in the peer-reviewed literature. 90% of respondents with more than 10 climate-related peer-reviewed publications (about half of all respondents), agreed that anthropogenic greenhouse gases are the dominant cause of recent global warming, i.e. having contributed more than half of the observed warming. With this survey we specified what the consensus position entails with much greater specificity than previous studies. The relevance of this consensus for science communication will be discussed. Another important result from our survey is that the main attribution statement in IPCC's fourth assessment report (AR4) may lead to an underestimate of the greenhouse gas contribution to warming, because it implicitly includes the lesser known masking effect of cooling aerosols. This shows the importance of the exact wording in high-profile reports such as those from IPCC in how the statement is perceived, even by fellow scientists. The phrasing was improved in the most recent assessment report (AR5). Respondents who characterized the human influence on climate as insignificant, reported having the most frequent media coverage regarding their views on climate change. This shows that contrarian opinions are amplified in the media in relation to their prevalence in the scientific community. This

  11. Ten steps to plan, design, and implement an endocrinology and endocrine surgery module for the Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfakey WEM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Walyeldin EM Elfakey,1,2 Ahmed H Al-Ghamdi,1 1Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia; 2Pediatrics Department, University of Bahri, Khartoum, Sudan Introduction: The Faculty of Medicine, Al-Baha University (FMBU, is a newly established medical school that implements a community-oriented and integrated system-based curriculum which is suitable for both medical students and serving the needs of the local community.  Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the steps that were followed to plan, design, and implement an endocrinology and endocrine surgery module (EESM for the fourth-year medical students, as an example of how system-based modules are designed at FMBU.  Methods: Ten questions based on Harden’s methodolgy were asked in order to design, plan, and implement an endocrinology and endocrine surgery module. The module committee determined the needs of the module and accordingly stated the aims and objectives of the module. The module planners selected the relevant contents, teaching methods, and assessment strategies and organized them. Results: After addressing each of the ten questions, the results indicated the need, aim, objectives, and contents for the endocrinology and endocrine surgery module at FMBU. The implementation strategies were chosen according to the SPICES model. The teaching methods and the assessment strategies were selected and arranged. The module is well communicated at all levels, and the module committee used every effort to create a productive teaching environment. The module is well managed and follows the hierarchy of FMBU. Conclusion: Implementing Harden’s ten steps methodology resulted in an integrated module of endocrinology and endocrine surgery where related disciplines and systems were merged and medical and surgical endocrine topics were included. Keywords: endocrinology, endocrine surgery, module, curriculum

  12. Minireview: Gut Microbiota: The Neglected Endocrine Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gerard; Stilling, Roman M.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The concept that the gut microbiota serves as a virtual endocrine organ arises from a number of important observations. Evidence for a direct role arises from its metabolic capacity to produce and regulate multiple compounds that reach the circulation and act to influence the function of distal organs and systems. For example, metabolism of carbohydrates results in the production of short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate and propionate, which provide an important source of nutrients as well as regulatory control of the host digestive system. This influence over host metabolism is also seen in the ability of the prebiotic inulin to influence production of relevant hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and leptin. Moreover, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, which produces conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to reduce body-weight gain and white adipose tissue without effects on food intake. Manipulating the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract modulates plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Indirectly and through as yet unknown mechanisms, the gut microbiota exerts control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This is clear from studies on animals raised in a germ-free environment, who show exaggerated responses to psychological stress, which normalizes after monocolonization by certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. It is tempting to speculate that therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may be useful in treating stress-related disorders and metabolic diseases. PMID:24892638

  13. Endocrine activity of mycotoxins and mycotoxin mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaegdt, Heidi; Daminet, Britt; Evrard, Annick; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; Pussemier, Luc; Callebaut, Alfons; Vandermeiren, Karine

    2016-10-01

    Reporter gene assays incorporating nuclear receptors (estrogen, androgen, thyroid β and PPARγ2) have been implemented to assess the endocrine activity of 13 mycotoxins and their mixtures. As expected, zearalenone and its metabolites α-zearalenol and β- zearalenol turned out to have the strongest estrogenic potency (EC50 8,7 10-10 ± 0,8; 3,1 10-11 ± 0,5 and 1,3 10-8 ± 0,3 M respectively). The metabolite of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol also had estrogenic activity (EC50 3,8 10-7 ± 1,1 M). Furthermore, most of the mycotoxins (and their mixtures) showed anti-androgenic effects (15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol with potencies within one order of magnitude of that of the reference compound flutamide). In particular, deoxynivalenol and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol acted as antagonists for the PPARy2 receptor. When testing mixtures of mycotoxins on the same cell systems, we showed that most of the mixtures reacted as predicted by the concentration addition (CA) theory. Generally, the CA was within the 95% confidence interval of the observed ones, only minor deviations were detected. Although these reporter gene tests cannot be directly extrapolated in vivo, they can be the basis for further research. Especially the additive effects of ZEN and its metabolites are of importance and could have repercussions in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Frequency of other endocrine disorders in hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjekić-Macut Jelica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is a condition of reduced production, distribution, or absence of action of thyroid hormones. Clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism is not easily established due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Determination of serum TSH is the first-line test for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of other endocrine disorders in patients with subclinical (TSH levels between 5 and 10 mIU/l, or clinical (TSH above 10 mIU/l hypothyrodism. We analyzed 50 patients (35 with clinical hypothyroidism and 15 with subclinical form. In all patients anthropometric data (age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure and heart rate, and clinical signs of hypothyroidism (skin changes, menstrual disorders were determined. Blood was drawn in fasting state for measurement of FT4, sTSH, glucose, lipids, ionized calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, gonadotropins, estradiol in women of reproductive age, and testosterone in men. Skin lesions were rarely present. Oligomenorrhea was more frequent in subclinical hypothyroidism, and menopause in clinical hypothyroidism. Blood pressure was normal in all subjects. Patients with clinical hypothyroidism compared to those with subclinical form had higher TSH values (19.5 ± 5.7 vs. 5.9 ± 0.3 mIU/l, and higher doses of L-thyroxine (81.2 ± 4.6 vs. 21.4 ± 3.5 μg/day. Disturbance of glycemic control was present in 18% of patients. Total cholesterol and LDL were insignificantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than in subclinical form of the disease. FT4, calcium, PTH, cortisol, ACTH, gonadotropins, estradiol and testosterone did not differ between groups. The proatherogenic relation of estradiol with triglycerides was established in women with clinical form of hypothyroidism.

  15. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  16. Who Believes in the Storybook Image of the Scientist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Hartgerink, Chris H. J.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Do lay people and scientists themselves recognize that scientists are human and therefore prone to human fallibilities such as error, bias, and even dishonesty? In a series of three experimental studies and one correlational study (total N = 3,278) we found that the “storybook image of the scientist” is pervasive: American lay people and scientists from over 60 countries attributed considerably more objectivity, rationality, open-mindedness, intelligence, integrity, and communality to scientists than to other highly-educated people. Moreover, scientists perceived even larger differences than lay people did. Some groups of scientists also differentiated between different categories of scientists: established scientists attributed higher levels of the scientific traits to established scientists than to early-career scientists and Ph.D. students, and higher levels to Ph.D. students than to early-career scientists. Female scientists attributed considerably higher levels of the scientific traits to female scientists than to male scientists. A strong belief in the storybook image and the (human) tendency to attribute higher levels of desirable traits to people in one’s own group than to people in other groups may decrease scientists’ willingness to adopt recently proposed practices to reduce error, bias and dishonesty in science. PMID:28001440

  17. Scientists feature their work in Arctic-focused short videos by FrontierScientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; O'Connell, E.

    2013-12-01

    Whether they're guiding an unmanned aerial vehicle into a volcanic plume to sample aerosols, or documenting core drilling at a frozen lake in Siberia formed 3.6 million years ago by a massive meteorite impact, Arctic scientists are using video to enhance and expand their science and science outreach. FrontierScientists (FS), a forum for showcasing scientific work, produces and promotes radically different video blogs featuring Arctic scientists. Three- to seven- minute multimedia vlogs help deconstruct researcher's efforts and disseminate stories, communicating scientific discoveries to our increasingly connected world. The videos cover a wide range of current field work being performed in the Arctic. All videos are freely available to view or download from the FrontierScientists.com website, accessible via any internet browser or via the FrontierScientists app. FS' filming process fosters a close collaboration between the scientist and the media maker. Film creation helps scientists reach out to the public, communicate the relevance of their scientific findings, and craft a discussion. Videos keep audience tuned in; combining field footage, pictures, audio, and graphics with a verbal explanation helps illustrate ideas, allowing one video to reach people with different learning strategies. The scientists' stories are highlighted through social media platforms online. Vlogs grant scientists a voice, letting them illustrate their own work while ensuring accuracy. Each scientific topic on FS has its own project page where easy-to-navigate videos are featured prominently. Video sets focus on different aspects of a researcher's work or follow one of their projects into the field. We help the scientist slip the answers to their five most-asked questions into the casual script in layman's terms in order to free the viewers' minds to focus on new concepts. Videos are accompanied by written blogs intended to systematically demystify related facts so the scientists can focus

  18. Impact of a Scientist-Teacher Collaborative Model on Students, Teachers, and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shein, Paichi Pat; Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2015-09-01

    Collaborations between the K-12 teachers and higher education or professional scientists have become a widespread approach to science education reform. Educational funding and efforts have been invested to establish these cross-institutional collaborations in many countries. Since 2006, Taiwan initiated the High Scope Program, a high school science curriculum reform to promote scientific innovation and inquiry through an integration of advanced science and technology in high school science curricula through partnership between high school teachers and higher education scientists and science educators. This study, as part of this governmental effort, a scientist-teacher collaborative model (STCM) was constructed by 8 scientists and 4 teachers to drive an 18-week high school science curriculum reform on environmental education in a public high school. Partnerships between scientists and teachers offer opportunities to strengthen the elements of effective science teaching identified by Shulman and ultimately affect students' learning. Mixed methods research was used for this study. Qualitative methods of interviews were used to understand the impact on the teachers' and scientists' science teaching. A quasi-experimental design was used to understand the impact on students' scientific competency and scientific interest. The findings in this study suggest that the use of the STCM had a medium effect on students' scientific competency and a large effect on students' scientific individual and situational interests. In the interviews, the teachers indicated how the STCM allowed them to improve their content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), and the scientists indicated an increased knowledge of learners, knowledge of curriculum, and PCK.

  19. The Virtual Scientist: connecting university scientists to the K-12 classroom through videoconferencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCombs, Glenn B; Ufnar, Jennifer A; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2007-03-01

    The Vanderbilt University Center for Science Outreach (CSO) connects university scientists to the K-12 community to enhance and improve science education. The Virtual Scientist program utilizes interactive videoconference (IVC) to facilitate this connection, providing 40-50 sessions per academic year to a national audience. Scientists, defined as research faculty members, clinicians, postdoctoral fellows, graduate and medical students, and professional staff, participate through conventional volunteer recruitment and program announcements as well as outreach partnership efforts with other Vanderbilt centers. These experts present 30- to 45-min long, grade-appropriate content sessions from the CSO IVC studio or their own laboratory. Teachers register for sessions via an on-line application process. After the session, teachers, students, and experts are requested to complete an anonymous on-line evaluation that addresses both technical- and content-associated issues. Results from 2003 to the present indicated a favorable assessment for a promising program. Results showed that 69% of students (n = 335) and 88% of teachers (n = 111) felt that IVC improved access to scientists, whereas 97% of students (n = 382) and teachers (n = 126) and 100% of scientists (n = 23) indicated that they would participate in future videoconferences. Students and teachers considered that the Virtual Scientist program was effective [76% (n = 381) and 89% (n = 127), respectively]. In addition, experts supported IVC as effective in teaching [87% (n = 23)]. Because of the favorable responses from experts, teachers, and students, the CSO will continue to implement IVC as a tool to foster interactions of scientists with K-12 classrooms.

  20. Palliative surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Nader N; Bellavance, Emily; Keay, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Palliative surgical oncology is a relatively new concept, but builds on a long tradition in surgery. As the field of palliative medicine grows and becomes its own specialty, surgeons have been receiving some specialized training in palliative care; devising specific palliative surgical procedures; and reevaluating the ethics of their interactions with patients, especially for the selection of palliative surgical procedures. This is leading to a new form of surgical practice in which the emphasis is on relief of present or anticipated symptoms, even if the interventions do not prolong a patient's life span. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunohistochemical study on gastrointestinal endocrine cells of four reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu-Gen; Wu, Xiao-Bing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the types, regional distributions and distribution densities as well as morphological features of gastrointestinal (GI) endocrine cells in various parts of the gastrointestinal track (GIT) of four reptiles, Gekko japonicus, Eumeces chinensis, Sphenomorphus indicus and Eumeces elegans. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections (5 μm) of seven parts (cardia, fundus, pylorus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, rectum) of GIT dissected from the four reptiles were prepared. GI endocrine cells were revealed by using immunohistochemical techniques of streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) method. Seven types of antisera against 5-hydroxy-tryptamine (5-HT), somatostatin (SS), gastrin (GAS), glucagon (GLU), substance P (SP), insulin and pancreatic polypeptide were identified and then GI endocrine cells were photomicrographed and counted. RESULTS: The GI endocrine system of four reptiles was a complex structure containing many endocrine cell types similar in morphology to those found in higher vertebrates. Five types of GI endocrine cells, namely 5-HT, SS, GAS, SP and GLU immunoreactive (IR) cells were identified in the GIT of G. japonicus, E. chinensis and S. indicus; while in the GIT of E. elegans only the former three types of endocrine cells were observed. No PP- and INS- IR cells were found in all four reptiles. 5-HT-IR cells, which were most commonly found in the pylorus or duodenum, distributed throughout the whole GIT of four reptiles. However, their distribution patterns varied from each other. SS-IR cells, which were mainly found in the stomach especially in the pylorus and/or fundus, were demonstrated in the whole GIT of E. chinensis, only showed restricted distribution in the other three species. GAS-IR cells, with a much restricted distribution, were mainly demonstrated in the pylorus and/or the proximal small intestine of four reptiles. GLU-IR cells exhibited a limited and species-dependent variant distribution in the GIT of four reptiles. SP-IR cells were found

  2. Professional conduct of scientists during volcanic crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    IAVCEI SubcommitteeCrisis Protocols; Newhall, Chris; Aramaki, Shigeo; Barberi, Franco; Blong, Russell; Calvache, Marta; Cheminee, Jean-Louis; Punongbayan, Raymundo; Siebe, Claus; Simkin, Tom; Sparks, Stephen; Tjetjep, Barry; Newhall, Chris

    Stress during volcanic crises is high, and any friction between scientists can distract seriously from both humanitarian and scientific effort. Friction can arise, for example, if team members do not share all of their data, if differences in scientific interpretation erupt into public controversy, or if one scientist begins work on a prime research topic while a colleague with longer-standing investment is still busy with public safety work. Some problems arise within existing scientific teams; others are brought on by visiting scientists. Friction can also arise between volcanologists and public officials. Two general measures may avert or reduce friction: (a) National volcanologic surveys and other scientific groups that advise civil authorities in times of volcanic crisis should prepare, in advance of crises, a written plan that details crisis team policies, procedures, leadership and other roles of team members, and other matters pertinent to crisis conduct. A copy of this plan should be given to all current and prospective team members. (b) Each participant in a crisis team should examine his or her own actions and contribution to the crisis effort. A personal checklist is provided to aid this examination. Questions fall generally in two categories: Are my presence and actions for the public good? Are my words and actions collegial, i.e., courteous, respectful, and fair? Numerous specific solutions to common crisis problems are also offered. Among these suggestions are: (a) choose scientific team leaders primarily for their leadership skills; (b) speak publicly with a single scientific voice, especially when forecasts, warnings, or scientific disagreements are involved; (c) if you are a would-be visitor, inquire from the primary scientific team whether your help would be welcomed, and, in general, proceed only if the reply is genuinely positive; (d) in publications, personnel evaluations, and funding, reward rather than discourage teamwork. Models are

  3. Data sharing by scientists: Practices and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, C.; Allard, S.; Douglass, K.; Aydinoglu, A.U.; Wu, L.; Read, E.; Manoff, M.; Frame, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Scientific research in the 21st century is more data intensive and collaborative than in the past. It is important to study the data practices of researchers - data accessibility, discovery, re-use, preservation and, particularly, data sharing. Data sharing is a valuable part of the scientific method allowing for verification of results and extending research from prior results. Methodology/Principal Findings: A total of 1329 scientists participated in this survey exploring current data sharing practices and perceptions of the barriers and enablers of data sharing. Scientists do not make their data electronically available to others for various reasons, including insufficient time and lack of funding. Most respondents are satisfied with their current processes for the initial and short-term parts of the data or research lifecycle (collecting their research data; searching for, describing or cataloging, analyzing, and short-term storage of their data) but are not satisfied with long-term data preservation. Many organizations do not provide support to their researchers for data management both in the short- and long-term. If certain conditions are met (such as formal citation and sharing reprints) respondents agree they are willing to share their data. There are also significant differences and approaches in data management practices based on primary funding agency, subject discipline, age, work focus, and world region. Conclusions/Significance: Barriers to effective data sharing and preservation are deeply rooted in the practices and culture of the research process as well as the researchers themselves. New mandates for data management plans from NSF and other federal agencies and world-wide attention to the need to share and preserve data could lead to changes. Large scale programs, such as the NSF-sponsored DataNET (including projects like DataONE) will both bring attention and resources to the issue and make it easier for scientists to apply sound

  4. Persistent, Global Identity for Scientists via ORCID

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, August E; Holmquist, Jane; Damon, James; Dietrich, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have an inherent interest in claiming their contributions to the scholarly record, but the fragmented state of identity management across the landscape of astronomy, physics, and other fields makes highlighting the contributions of any single individual a formidable and often frustratingly complex task. The problem is exacerbated by the expanding variety of academic research products and the growing footprints of large collaborations and interdisciplinary teams. In this essay, we outline the benefits of a unique scholarly identifier with persistent value on a global scale and we review astronomy and physics engagement with the Open Researcher and Contributor iD (ORCID) service as a solution.

  5. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  6. Essential Java for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Brian D; Malan, Katherine M

    2003-01-01

    Essential Java serves as an introduction to the programming language, Java, for scientists and engineers, and can also be used by experienced programmers wishing to learn Java as an additional language. The book focuses on how Java, and object-oriented programming, can be used to solve science and engineering problems. Many examples are included from a number of different scientific and engineering areas, as well as from business and everyday life. Pre-written packages of code are provided to help in such areas as input/output, matrix manipulation and scientific graphing. Java source code and

  7. Mathematics for natural scientists II advanced methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, Lev

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the advanced mathematical techniques useful for physics and engineering students, presented in a form accessible to physics students, avoiding precise mathematical jargon and laborious proofs. Instead, all proofs are given in a simplified form that is clear and convincing for a physicist. Examples, where appropriate, are given from physics contexts. Both solved and unsolved problems are provided in each chapter. Mathematics for Natural Scientists II: Advanced Methods is the second of two volumes. It follows the first volume on Fundamentals and Basics.

  8. The flip side: scientists who rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    Many scientists play music. I'm one. I'm the rhythm guitar player, song writer, and singer in The Amygdaloids. We play original music about mind and brain and mental disorders. The songs are inspired by research that I do, as well as general ideas in the brain and cognitive sciences, and the philosophy of mind. For me, playing music is not a distraction to other life obligations. It makes me better at everything else I do. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vector analysis for mathematicians, scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Simons, S

    1970-01-01

    Vector Analysis for Mathematicians, Scientists and Engineers, Second Edition, provides an understanding of the methods of vector algebra and calculus to the extent that the student will readily follow those works which make use of them, and further, will be able to employ them himself in his own branch of science. New concepts and methods introduced are illustrated by examples drawn from fields with which the student is familiar, and a large number of both worked and unworked exercises are provided. The book begins with an introduction to vectors, covering their representation, addition, geome

  10. Web life: The Evil Mad Scientist Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    What is it? Have you ever tried to electrocute a hot dog? Wondered how to make a robot out of a toothbrush, watch battery and phone-pager motor? Seen a cantaloupe melon and thought, "Hmm, I could make this look like the Death Star from the original Star Wars films"? If you have not, but you would like to - preferably as soon as you can find a pager motor - then this is the site for you. The Evil Mad Scientist Project (EMSP) blog is packed full of ideas for unusual, silly and frequently physics-related creations that bring science out of the laboratory and into kitchens, backyards and tool sheds.

  11. Galaxy Zoo: Motivations of Citizen Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Raddick, M Jordan; Gay, Pamela L; Lintott, Chris J; Cardamone, Carie; Murray, Phil; Schawinski, Kevin; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Citizen science, in which volunteers work with professional scientists to conduct research, is expanding due to large online datasets. To plan projects, it is important to understand volunteers' motivations for participating. This paper analyzes results from an online survey of nearly 11,000 volunteers in Galaxy Zoo, an astronomy citizen science project. Results show that volunteers' primary motivation is a desire to contribute to scientific research. We encourage other citizen science projects to study the motivations of their volunteers, to see whether and how these results may be generalized to inform the field of citizen science.

  12. Practical Statistics for Environmental and Biological Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Townend, John

    2012-01-01

    All students and researchers in environmental and biological sciences require statistical methods at some stage of their work. Many have a preconception that statistics are difficult and unpleasant and find that the textbooks available are difficult to understand. Practical Statistics for Environmental and Biological Scientists provides a concise, user-friendly, non-technical introduction to statistics. The book covers planning and designing an experiment, how to analyse and present data, and the limitations and assumptions of each statistical method. The text does not refer to a specific comp

  13. Practical Statistics for Geographers and Earth Scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Walford, Nigel

    2011-01-01

    Practical Statistics for Geographers and Earth Scientists is a text that all students can work through, regardless of their geography or earth science stream degree pathway and their existing mathematical knowledge. The text demystifies the mathematical component of statistics and presents these techniques in an easy-to-understand fashion. Case studies that illustrate the workings of each technique through photographs and diagrams will help students visualize some of the processes involved. Also covered in the book is a clear explanation of how statistical software packages work.

  14. Nanotoxicity: a growing need for study in the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuefei; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiangjun; Lobie, Peter E; Chen, Chunying; Zhu, Tao

    2013-05-27

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are engineered for commercial purposes such as semiconductors, building materials, cosmetics, and drug carriers, while natural nanoparticles (NPs) already exist in the environment. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, they may interact actively with biological systems. Some of these interactions might be detrimental to human health, and therefore studies on the potential 'nanotoxicity' of these materials in different organ systems are warranted. The purpose of developing the concept of nanotoxicity is to recognize and evaluate the hazards and risks of NMs and evaluate safety. This review will summarize and discuss recent reports derived from cell lines or animal models concerning the effects of NMs on, and their application in, the endocrine system of mammalian and other species. It will present an update on current studies of the effects of some typical NMs-such as metal-based NMs, carbon-based NMs, and dendrimers-on endocrine functions, in which some effects are adverse or unwanted and others are favorable or intended. Disruption of endocrine function is associated with adverse health outcomes including reproductive failure, metabolic syndrome, and some types of cancer. Further investigations are therefore required to obtain a thorough understanding of any potential risk of pathological endocrine disruption from products containing NMs. This review aims to provide impetus for further studies on the interactions of NMs with endocrine functions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders in Children With Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei-Moghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Survivors of childhood malignancy are at risk of long-term late effects. One of the most commonly involved systems in this effect is endocrine system. Appropriate timely recognition and treatment of late complications including endocrine complication is essential for the continuing health and improvement in quality of life in cancer survivors. Objectives Therefore, this study has been conducted to investigate the aforementioned complications resulting from the treatment of the common malignancies in children in Iran. Patients and Methods We performed a cross sectional study for evaluation of endocrine complication in cancer survivors who had finished their cancer treatment and come for followed up in oncology clinic of children medical center. Results Demographic data, treatment modality, and endocrine late effect recorded and analyzed. There were 96 survivors with median age of 13.8 ± 5.8 years (range 3 - 31 years. The median follow up time was 2.7 years (range 1 - 10 years. Hyperinsulinemia was the most common late effect. Other complication was dyslipidemia, overweight, obesity, osteopenia, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis respectively. Conclusions Our study has demonstrated a significant prevalence of endocrine complication after childhood cancer therapy and a long term follow-up program for survivors of childhood cancer is therefore needed.

  16. Active immunization against GnRH in ovine (Ovis aries: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in prepubertal ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was to assess the effects of an active immunization against GnRH on male reproductive function as an alternative to surgical sterilization evaluating testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and plasma gonadotropin levels in prepubertal ram lambs. Dorper ram lambs (age= 2 months; control group, n= 5; treatment group, n=15 were immunised by using an anti-GnRH vaccine (two administrations spaced 15d developed by linking a GnRH homologous molecule to tetanus toxoid (clostridial toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as coadjuvant. To determine the effectiveness of the vaccination protocol, testicular morphometry was evaluated (length, width, mean volume and total volume together with histopathological alterations in testicular tissue samples (seminiferous tubule diameters, spermatogonia per testis and sperm presence and endocrine responses (ELISA from blood samples (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol plasma levels. Morphometric parameters (testicular length, width and volume were significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group (p0.05. In conclusion, prepubertal active immunization against GnRH led to marked differences on testes morphometry and activity in ovine species, however, it did not affect endocrine levels nor spermatogenesis in all individuals studied showing a partial vaccination effect in some of them. Thus, taking into account the heterogeneous dysfunctional responses obtained, different vaccination assays and strategies should be tested before active immunization against GnRH is considered as a viable alternative to conventional surgical sterilization.

  17. Endocrine Disruptors in Mediterranean top marine predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossi, M Cristina; Casini, Silvia; Marsili, Letizia

    2006-05-01

    Man-made Endocrine Disruptors (EDs) range across all continents and oceans. Some geographic areas are potentially more threatened than others: one of these is the Mediterranean Sea. Levels of some xenobiotics are much higher here than in other seas and oceans. In this paper we review the final results of a project in which the hypothesis that Mediterranean top predator species (such as large pelagic fish and marine mammals) are potentially at risk due to EDs was investigated. In a four-year survey on the Mediterranean population of swordfish (Xiphias gladius), the potential toxicological effects of organochlorine compounds (OCs) on specimens of swordfish and tuna fish (Thunnus thynnus thynnus), caught in the spawning seasons from 1999 to 2002 in the Straits of Messina, Sicily (Italy), were investigated using vitellogenin (Vtg), Zona radiata proteins (Zrp), and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) activities (EROD, BPMO). Tissues (skin and blubber) were obtained from Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Balaenoptera physalus from the western Ligurian Sea, between Corsica and the French-Italian coast, and Ionic Sea using biopsy darts launched with a crossbow. Benzo(alpha)pyrene monoxigenase (BPMO) activity was mesured in biopsies and cholrinated hydrocarbon levels were detected. We illustrate the need to develop and apply sensitive methodological tools, such as biomarkers (Vitellogenin, Zona Radiata proteins and CYP1A activities) for evaluation of toxicological risk in Xiphias gladius and Thunnus thynnus thynnus), and nondestructive biomarkers (CYP1A activities and fibroblast cell culture in skin biopsy), for the hazard assessment of threatened marine mammals species (Stenella coeruleoalba, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis and Balaenoptera physalus) exposed to EDs. The present research shows that: a) Vtg and Zrp can be used as diagnostic tools for fish stocks hazard assessment in the Mediterranean Sea; b) that CYP1A1 (BPMO) induction in

  18. What does it take to be a successful pediatric surgeon-scientist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Carey; King, Alice; Mitra, Shaheel; Shaaban, Aimen F; Goldstein, Allan M; Morowitz, Michael J; Warner, Brad W; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Keswani, Sundeep G

    2015-06-01

    The factors that contribute to success as a pediatric surgeon-scientist are not well defined. The purpose of this study is to define a group of NIH-funded pediatric surgeons, assess their academic productivity, and elucidate factors that have contributed to their success. Pediatric surgeons were queried in the NIH report database to determine NIH funding awarded. Academic productivity was then assessed. An online survey was then targeted to NIH-funded pediatric surgeons. Since 1988, 83 pediatric surgeon-investigators have received major NIH funding. Currently, there are 37 pediatric surgeons with 43 NIH-sponsored awards. The mean h-index of this group of pediatric surgeons was 18 ± 1.1, mean number of publications (since 2001) was 21 ± 2.1, and both increase commensurate with academic rank. In response to the survey, 81% engaged in research during their surgical residency, and 48% were mentored by a pediatric surgeon-scientist. More than 60% of respondents had significant protected time and financial support. Factors felt to be most significant for academic success included mentorship, perseverance, and protected time. Mentorship, perseverance, institutional commitment to protected research time, and financial support are considered to be important to facilitate the successes of pediatric surgeon-scientists. These results will be useful to aspiring pediatric surgeon-scientists and departments wishing to develop a robust research program. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Meet EPA Scientist Mehdi S. Hazari, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientist Mehdi S. Hazari is a recipient of the 2011 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers. This award was for his work demonstrating how breathing in low levels of air pollutants can increase susceptibility to heart attacks

  20. Scientist impact factor (SIF): a new metric for improving scientists' evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2017-08-01

    The publication of scientific research is the mainstay for knowledge dissemination, but is also an essential criterion of scientists' evaluation for recruiting funds and career progression. Although the most widespread approach for evaluating scientists is currently based on the H-index, the total impact factor (IF) and the overall number of citations, these metrics are plagued by some well-known drawbacks. Therefore, with the aim to improve the process of scientists' evaluation, we developed a new and potentially useful indicator of recent scientific output. The new metric scientist impact factor (SIF) was calculated as all citations of articles published in the two years following the publication year of the articles, divided by the overall number of articles published in that year. The metrics was then tested by analyzing data of the 40 top scientists of the local University. No correlation was found between SIF and H-index (r=0.15; P=0.367) or 2 years H-index (r=-0.01; P=0.933), whereas the H-index and 2 years H-index values were found to be highly correlated (r=0.57; P<0.001). A highly significant correlation was also observed between the articles published in one year and the total number of citations to these articles in the two following years (r=0.62; P<0.001). According to our data, the SIF may be a useful measure to complement current metrics for evaluating scientific output. Its use may be especially helpful for young scientists, wherein the SIF reflects the scientific output over the past two years thus increasing their chances to apply to and obtain competitive funding.

  1. Math for scientists refreshing the essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Maurits, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Accessible and comprehensive, this guide is an indispensable tool for anyone in the sciences – new and established researchers, students and scientists – looking either to refresh their math skills or to prepare for the broad range of math, statistical and data-related challenges they are likely to encounter in their work or studies. In addition to helping scientists improve their knowledge of key mathematical concepts, this unique book will help readers: ·                     Read mathematical symbols ·                     Understand formulas, data or statistical information ·                     Determine medication equivalents ·                     Analyze neuroimaging  Mathematical concepts are presented alongside illustrative and useful real-world scien­tific examples and are further clarified through practical pen-and-paper exercises. Whether you are a student encountering high-level mathematics in your research or...

  2. Reanalyzing Tropical Cyclone Intensities with Citizen Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, C. J.; Hennon, C. C.; Knapp, K.; Stevens, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical cyclones are among the most destructive weather phenomena. Whenever possible, the intensities of these storms have been determined from in situ data or aircraft reconnaissance. More often, however, they are estimated subjectively from satellite data using the Dvorak technique. Heterogeneities are introduced into the historical record with the evolution of operational procedures, personnel, and observing platforms. In some cases, multiple agencies even arrive at different estimates for the same storm. These uncertainties impede our ability to identify the relationship between tropical cyclone intensities and climate change. NOAA's NCDC has produced a 30-year (1979-2008) homogeneous dataset (HURSAT) of tropical cyclone imagery from geostationary satellites. This dataset has the potential to address some of the uncertainties in the recent tropical cyclone record. However, it would take nearly 40 years for a trained expert, working nonstop, to apply the Dvorak technique to all 200,000 images. Harnessing the power of thousands of Citizen Scientists, the same task can be completed in a matter of months. This presentation will explain how the Dvorak technique was adapted for Citizen Scientists, and how their skill will be evaluated relative to the operational analyses by trained experts.

  3. Attitudes and norms affecting scientists' data reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curty, Renata Gonçalves; Crowston, Kevin; Specht, Alison; Grant, Bruce W; Dalton, Elizabeth D

    2017-01-01

    The value of sharing scientific research data is widely appreciated, but factors that hinder or prompt the reuse of data remain poorly understood. Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we test the relationship between the beliefs and attitudes of scientists towards data reuse, and their self-reported data reuse behaviour. To do so, we used existing responses to selected questions from a worldwide survey of scientists developed and administered by the DataONE Usability and Assessment Working Group (thus practicing data reuse ourselves). Results show that the perceived efficacy and efficiency of data reuse are strong predictors of reuse behaviour, and that the perceived importance of data reuse corresponds to greater reuse. Expressed lack of trust in existing data and perceived norms against data reuse were not found to be major impediments for reuse contrary to our expectations. We found that reported use of models and remotely-sensed data was associated with greater reuse. The results suggest that data reuse would be encouraged and normalized by demonstration of its value. We offer some theoretical and practical suggestions that could help to legitimize investment and policies in favor of data sharing.

  4. Kristian Birkeland, The First Space Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, A.; Burke, W. J.

    2005-05-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century Kristian Birkeland (1867-1917), a Norwegian scientist of insatiable curiosity, addressed questions that had vexed European scientists for centuries. Why do the northern lights appear overhead when the Earth's magnetic field is disturbed? How are magnetic storms connected to disturbances on the Sun? To answer these questions Birkeland interpreted his advance laboratory simulations and daring campaigns in the Arctic wilderness in the light of Maxwell's newly discovered laws of electricity and magnetism. Birkeland's ideas were dismissed for decades, only to be vindicated when satellites could fly above the Earth's atmosphere. Faced with the depleting stocks of Chilean saltpeter and the consequent prospect of mass starvation, Birkeland showed his practical side, inventing the first industrial scale method to extract nitrogen-based fertilizers from the air. Norsk Hydro, one of modern Norway's largest industries, stands as a living tribute to his genius. Hoping to demonstrate what we now call the solar wind, Birkeland moved to Egypt in 1913. Isolated from his friends by the Great War, Birkeland yearned to celebrate his 50th birthday in Norway. The only safe passage home, via the Far East, brought him to Tokyo where in the late spring of 1917 he passed away. Link: http://www.springeronline.com/sgw/cda/frontpage/0,11855,5-10100-22-39144987-0,00.html?changeHeader=true

  5. How scientists develop competence in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergren, Marilyn

    Visuals (maps, charts, diagrams and illustrations) are an important tool for communication in most scientific disciplines, which means that scientists benefit from having strong visual communication skills. This dissertation examines the nature of competence in visual communication and the means by which scientists acquire this competence. This examination takes the form of an extensive multi-disciplinary integrative literature review and a series of interviews with graduate-level science students. The results are presented as a conceptual framework that lays out the components of competence in visual communication, including the communicative goals of science visuals, the characteristics of effective visuals, the skills and knowledge needed to create effective visuals and the learning experiences that promote the acquisition of these forms of skill and knowledge. This conceptual framework can be used to inform pedagogy and thus help graduate students achieve a higher level of competency in this area; it can also be used to identify aspects of acquiring competence in visual communication that need further study.

  6. Microgravity sciences application visiting scientist program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Contract NAS8-38785, Microgravity Experimental and Theoretical Research, is a project involving a large number of individual research programs related to: determination of the structure of human serum albumin and other biomedically important proteins; analysis of thermodynamic properties of various proteins and models of protein nucleation; development of experimental techniques for the growth of protein crystals in space; study of the physics of electrical double layers in the mechanics of liquid interfaces; computational analysis of vapor crystal growth processes in microgravity; analysis of the influence of magnetic fields in damping residual flows in directional solidification processes; crystal growth and characterization of II-VI semiconductor alloys; and production of thin films for nonlinear optics. It is not intended that the programs will be necessarily limited to this set at any one time. The visiting scientists accomplishing these programs shall serve on-site at MSFC to take advantage of existing laboratory facilities and the daily opportunities for technical communications with various senior scientists.

  7. Deriving DICOM surgical extensions from surgical workflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgert, O.; Neumuth, T.; Gessat, M.; Jacobs, S.; Lemke, H. U.

    2007-03-01

    The generation, storage, transfer, and representation of image data in radiology are standardized by DICOM. To cover the needs of image guided surgery or computer assisted surgery in general one needs to handle patient information besides image data. A large number of objects must be defined in DICOM to address the needs of surgery. We propose an analysis process based on Surgical Workflows that helps to identify these objects together with use cases and requirements motivating for their specification. As the first result we confirmed the need for the specification of representation and transfer of geometric models. The analysis of Surgical Workflows has shown that geometric models are widely used to represent planned procedure steps, surgical tools, anatomical structures, or prosthesis in the context of surgical planning, image guided surgery, augmented reality, and simulation. By now, the models are stored and transferred in several file formats bare of contextual information. The standardization of data types including contextual information and specifications for handling of geometric models allows a broader usage of such models. This paper explains the specification process leading to Geometry Mesh Service Object Pair classes. This process can be a template for the definition of further DICOM classes.

  8. Risk of osteoporosis in endocrine disorders and celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stazi, Anna Velia; Trinti, Biagino

    2007-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a loss of bone mass; the bones become less dense, fragile and prone to fracturing. It is regulated by endocrine-environmental factors with the genetic component accounting for 70% of an individual's variation in bone mass density (BMD). Pathological conditions such as celiac disease (CD) exacerbate the process of bone loss and the presence of osteoporosis in celiac subjects may be the only sign of undiagnosed CD. The interleukins IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are stimulators of bone resorption; the relatives of celiac patients shown the increased IL-1beta supporting the genetic susceptibility. In women osteoporosis is indirectly associated with early menopause and amenorrhea, while in men it is associated with hypogonadism and GH deficit. The direct effect on the bones of CD is secondary to poor absorption of calcium and vitamin D. These endocrine and non-endocrine factors exert their effects on bones by modulating the RANK/RANK-L/OPG system.

  9. Endocrine Disruptor Induction of Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental exposures such as toxicants, nutrition and stress have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease susceptibility. Endocrine disruptors are one of the largest groups of specific toxicants shown to promote this form of epigenetic inheritance. These environmental compounds that interfere with normal endocrine signaling are one of the largest classes of toxicants we are exposed to on a daily level. The ability of ancestral exposures to promote disease susceptibility significantly increases the potential biohazards of these toxicants. Therefore, what your great-grandmother was exposed to during pregnancy may influence your disease development, even in the absence of any exposure, and you are going to pass this on to your grandchildren. This non-genetic form of inheritance significantly impacts our understanding of biology from the origins of disease to evolutionary biology. The current review will describe the previous studies and endocrine disruptors shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease. PMID:25088466

  10. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  11. Surgical Technology Program Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This surgical technology program guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a surgical technology program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the field to provide services in the…

  12. Surgical medical record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulow, S.

    2008-01-01

    A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15......A medical record is presented on the basis of selected linguistic pearls collected over the years from surgical case records Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/15...

  13. Recognizing surgical patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouarfa, L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, each year over 1700 patients die from preventable surgical errors. Numerous initiatives to improve surgical practice have had some impact, but problems persist. Despite the introduction of checklists and protocols, patient safety in surgery remains a continuing challenge. This is

  14. Inhibitors of Src and Focal Adhesion Kinase Promote Endocrine Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrikanova, Ivka; Yebra, Mayra; Simpkinson, Megan; Xu, Yang; Hayek, Alberto; Montgomery, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Stepwise approaches for the derivation of β-cells from human embryonic stem cells have been described. However, low levels of endocrine specification limit the final yield of insulin-producing β-cells. In this study, we show that the pyrrolo-pyrimidine Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitor PP2 effectively promotes the endocrine specification of human embryonic stem cell derivatives based on its capacity to induce the expression of proendocrine transcription factors (NGN3, NEUROD1, NKX2.2, and PAX4) and to significantly increase the final yield of insulin-positive cells. We further demonstrate that PP2 inhibits the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and selective inhibition of this kinase is also sufficient to induce early endocrine commitment based on increased expression of NGN3, NEUROD1, and NKX2.2. Additional studies using dominant negative constructs and isolated human fetal pancreata suggest that c-Src is at least partially responsible for inhibiting early endocrine specification. Mechanistically, we propose that inhibition of SFK/FAK signaling can promote endocrine specification by limiting activation of the TGFβR/Smad2/3 pathway. Moreover, we show that inhibition of SFK/FAK signaling suppresses cell growth, increases the expression of the β-cell-associated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57kip2, and simultaneously suppresses the expression of Id1 and Id2. This study has important implications for the derivation of β-cells for the cell-based therapy of diabetes and sheds new light on the signaling events that regulate early endocrine specification. PMID:21852242

  15. Pathways for impact: scientists' different perspectives on agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röling, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes the viewpoint of a social scientist and looks at agricultural scientists' pathways for science impact. Awareness of these pathways is increasingly becoming part and parcel of the professionalism of the agricultural scientist, now that the pressure is on to mobilize smallholders and

  16. Identity Matching to Scientists: Differences That Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hanne Moeller; Krogh, Lars Brian; Lykkegaard, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Students' images of science and scientists are generally assumed to influence their related subject choices and aspirations for tertiary education within science and technology. Several research studies have shown that many young people hold rather stereotypical images of scientists, making it hard for them to see themselves as future scientists.…

  17. Investigation of the Secondary School Students' Images of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Abuzer

    2016-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to explore secondary school students' images of scientists. In addition to this comprehensive purpose, it is also investigated that if these students' current images of scientists and those in which they see themselves as a scientist in the near future are consistent or not. The study was designed in line with…

  18. 7 CFR 91.18 - Financial interest of a scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial interest of a scientist. 91.18 Section 91.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... SERVICES AND GENERAL INFORMATION Laboratory Service § 91.18 Financial interest of a scientist. No scientist...

  19. Turkish Elementary and Secondary Students' Views about Science and Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Behiye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine elementary and secondary students' views concerning science and scientists. Data gathered from Draw-a-Scientist Test (DAST) and essays written by students were used to analyze their views. The study involved 359 students in grades 5 through 11. The results indicate that student's perceived scientists as to be…

  20. Persistent developmental toxicity in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    There is growing concern of permanent damage to the endocrine and nervous systems after developmental exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this study the permanent reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of combined exposure to five endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole...